• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Corrections
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 General structure and biology of...
 Equipment and methods
 Practical diagnostic tables for...
 Family, genius, and species...
 Glossary of unusual and technical...
 Index to scientific mite names
 Index to common mite names
 Back Cover






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - 640A
Title: Mite associated with citrus in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00047877/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mite associated with citrus in Florida
Series Title: Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin 640A
Physical Description: 92 p. : col. ill. ;
Language: English
Creator: Muma, Martin H ( Martin Hammond ), 1916-
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Mites -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Acari -- Florida
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Martin H. Muma.
General Note: Includes index.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00047877
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002213588
oclc - 02692346
notis - ALF3678

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Corrections
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Title Page
        Page i
    Preface
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
    General structure and biology of mites
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Equipment and methods
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Practical diagnostic tables for citrus mite identification
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Family, genius, and species descriptions
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
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        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Glossary of unusual and technical terms
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Index to scientific mite names
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Index to common mite names
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 640A


MITES ASSOCIATED WITH


CITRUS IN


FLORIDA


Martin H. Muma























Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
J. W. Sites, Dean for Research
University of Florida, Gainesville


April 1975

























CORRECTIONS


Page 62, line 9 of Table 6 under "Special Characters":
for reticulare read reticulate.

Page 81, paragraph 4, lines 1 and 2:
for The tropical two-spotted mite read This mite.







HUME LIBRARY
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Gainesville






WI 4,


















MITES ASSOCIATED WITH

CITRUS IN FLORIDA


by
Martin H. Muma

Professor Emeritus Entomologist Emeritus
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Research and Education Center
Lake Alfred, Florida


AGUCUV.LTU&&- LBRAW


This public document was promulgated at an annual
cost of $6,360.00 or $.791/2 per copy to inform inter-
ested persons about the different kinds of mites as-
sociated with citrus in Florida.











PREFACE


It is obviously important that grove owners, grove managers,
production managers, insecticide and fertilizer salesmen, and
many other citrus workers be able either to recognize or identify
injurious mite species so that control programs can be initiated.
At the same time, a working knowledge of the more common
and important predatory mites and scavenger mites can alleviate
needless worry and perhaps influence the type of control
measure to be selected. Unfortunately, descriptions and illustra-
tions of mites found on or associated with citrus are in most cases
either unobtainable or of a highly technical nature. Furthermore,
many mites are microscopic or nearly microscopic in size, and
distinguishing characters given in scientific descriptions are
visible only through a high-powered, compound, phase micro-
scope. As a result there is a great need for a non-technical publi-
cation that permits the identification of mites under grove condi-
tions by persons not specifically trained in acarology, the study
of mites. This bulletin attempts to fill this need.
In the 1961 original publication of this bulletin, 58 mites
associated with citrus were, first, identified as plant feeders,
scavengers or fungus feeders, or predators; second, were placed
in 24 families on the bases of size, outline, profile, leg size, color,
and miscellaneous special characteristics; and third, were either
listed or described and discussed. Since over 230 species of mites
are now known to be associated with Florida citrus, this revi-
sion is presented differently. The feeding habits of the species
are determined and the family relationships are indicated in
especially devised tables. In the text each family is characterized
and known population, food, and behavioral habits are discussed
on the basis of 10X hand lens observations under grove condi-
tions. Then the known citrus-associated genera and species are
listed and technically diagnosed prior to the non-technical
descriptions and discussions of the most frequently encountered
forms. The technical addition permits specialist identification
of problem specimens.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Subject Page

Preface ............................................. ii
Introduction .......................................... 1
General Structure and Biology of Mites ................... 1
Equipment and Methods ............................... 3
Practical Diagnostic Tables for Citrus Mite
Identification ....................................... 5
Family, Genus, and Species Descriptions ................ 15
Glossary of Unusual and Technical Terms ................ 86
Index to Scientific Mite Names ...........................88
Index to Common Mite Names ............................. 91









LIST OF TABLES
Page

Table 1. Determination of the food habits of mites ....... 4
Table 2. Plant feeding mites ........................... 6
Table 3. Fungus-feeding and scavenger mites ............ 7
Table 4. Predatory mites ................................ 8
Table 5. Character standards ........................... 12
Table 6. Generic and specific characters of
Amblyseiinae associated with Florida
citrus ..................................... 56
Table 7. Generic and specific characters of
Phytoseiinae associated with Florida
citrus ..................................... 64
Table 8. Technical tabular key to the genera and
species of Tarsonemidae associated with
Florida citrus trees ....................... 74




TABLE OF PLATES


Page

Plate I Character standards ........................... 13
Plate II Fungus-feeding, scavenger and predatory mites ... 33
Plate III Fungus-feeding and scavenger mites ............ 34
Plate IV Plant-feeding mites ........................... 35
Plate V- Plant-feeding mites .......................... 36
Plate VI Predatory mites. ........................... 37
Plate VII- Predatory mites ............................. 38
Plate VIII Predatory mites ............................ 39
Plate IX- Predatory mites .............................. 40
Plate X Plant-feeding, scavenger and predatory mites ..... 41
Plate XI- Predatory mites .............................. 42
Plate XII Predatory mites ............................. 43
Plate XIII Predatory mites ............................ 44








MITES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS IN FLORIDA
Martin H. Muma

INTRODUCTION

Mites play an important part in the production of marketable
Florida citrus. About 12 species1 are known to feed on the
wood, leaves, and fruit and to cause direct injury by increasing
leaf and fruit drop, decreasing fruit size, reducing tree vigor,
and causing blemishes that reduce external fruit quality. The
citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), is recog-
nized as a limiting factor in the production of bright fruit for the
fresh fruit market. It can also greatly reduce fruit size and juice
content of grapefruit and oranges used in producing frozen
concentrate.
There are many beneficial predatory mites that affect yield
and quality by contributing to the natural control of injurious
species of mites and insects. Other mites are scavengers and
fungus feeders that clean the fungi and dead plant and animal
materials from the limbs, leaves, and fruit. They also biologically
reduce fallen leaves and other litter beneath the trees to basic
elements. Scavengers and fungus feeding mites also act as
alternate or survival foods for predatory species. Many mite
species are found exclusively on the citrus trees; many seem to
be restricted to the cover crop plants, leaf mold, and litter be-
neath the trees, and some inhabit both the trees and cover crop
or litter. There are at least 49 families of mites represented by
more than 230 different species in Florida citrus groves.

GENERAL STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGY OF MITES

Although this bulletin is primarily non-technical, except as
noted above, it is essential that the reader and user develop a
general concept of mite structure and biology.
In general the structure of mites is quite simple. The body is a
pouch or sack from which the feeding mechanism and legs
project. In many cases the feeding structures are enveloped by
the sack-like body and are thrust out only when being used. Al-
though mites can take only liquids into their digestive systems,
some have scissors-like or grinding mechanisms for cutting up or
crushing food materials to extract the fluids. Sometimes such
mouthparts are visible with a 10X hand lens, but the usual blade-
'Please refer to glossary for definitions of unusual or technical terms.








MITES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS IN FLORIDA
Martin H. Muma

INTRODUCTION

Mites play an important part in the production of marketable
Florida citrus. About 12 species1 are known to feed on the
wood, leaves, and fruit and to cause direct injury by increasing
leaf and fruit drop, decreasing fruit size, reducing tree vigor,
and causing blemishes that reduce external fruit quality. The
citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), is recog-
nized as a limiting factor in the production of bright fruit for the
fresh fruit market. It can also greatly reduce fruit size and juice
content of grapefruit and oranges used in producing frozen
concentrate.
There are many beneficial predatory mites that affect yield
and quality by contributing to the natural control of injurious
species of mites and insects. Other mites are scavengers and
fungus feeders that clean the fungi and dead plant and animal
materials from the limbs, leaves, and fruit. They also biologically
reduce fallen leaves and other litter beneath the trees to basic
elements. Scavengers and fungus feeding mites also act as
alternate or survival foods for predatory species. Many mite
species are found exclusively on the citrus trees; many seem to
be restricted to the cover crop plants, leaf mold, and litter be-
neath the trees, and some inhabit both the trees and cover crop
or litter. There are at least 49 families of mites represented by
more than 230 different species in Florida citrus groves.

GENERAL STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGY OF MITES

Although this bulletin is primarily non-technical, except as
noted above, it is essential that the reader and user develop a
general concept of mite structure and biology.
In general the structure of mites is quite simple. The body is a
pouch or sack from which the feeding mechanism and legs
project. In many cases the feeding structures are enveloped by
the sack-like body and are thrust out only when being used. Al-
though mites can take only liquids into their digestive systems,
some have scissors-like or grinding mechanisms for cutting up or
crushing food materials to extract the fluids. Sometimes such
mouthparts are visible with a 10X hand lens, but the usual blade-
'Please refer to glossary for definitions of unusual or technical terms.








like or needle-like structures may be invisible. Several groups of
mites seem to have distinct heads, but this appearance is caused
by greatly swollen mouthparts or mouthparts that are not with-
drawn into the body. The mouthparts of most mites include a
pair of palpi or feelers that project at the front end, which when
large may give the appearance of a fifth pair of short legs.
Most mites possess four pairs of legs, but the well-known rust
mites or eriophyids have only two pairs and certain rare families
have only three pairs or one pair. The legs may project from
the front of the body, from the sides, or from the back. On some
mites, the first two pairs of legs project forward and are widely
separated from the last two pairs, which project backward. Cer-
tain groups of mites do not use the first or last pair of legs while
walking. Others have legs so tiny in comparison to body size that
they are useless for locomotion.
The sack-like body, when seen through a hand lens,
normally does not appear to be divided. In some cases, however,
the body may be divided into a front and a back portion by a
distinct to indistinct crease. Although the bodies of most mites
are soft and membraneous, a few groups have their bodies rein-
forced with thickened plates or sclerites that are visible with a
hand lens on some species. Most mites lack visible eyes, but a few
groups have one or two pairs near the front and beside the
mouthparts. When present, eyes are frequently red in color but
are sometimes white or black.
In general, the life cycle of most mites includes four dis-
tinctly recognizable stages: eggs, six-legged larvae, eight-legged
nymphs, and adults. This cycle varies, however, from family to
family. Some mites give birth to living young, others give birth
to sexually mature adults, and still others have complex cycles
including as many as three nymphal forms.
Eggs are laid in clusters in protected places, singly in pro-
tected places, or singly on exposed fruit or leaf surfaces where
they are protected by isolation. They vary in shape from round to
long-oval. Larvae hatch from the eggs. They usually possess only
six legs, lacking the fourth or hind pair. After a short feeding or
resting period (some larvae do not feed), the larvae change to
eight-legged nymphs. This process is known as molting and
involves a splitting of the skin or molt, out of which the next
stage crawls. Molting permits an increase in size. The abandoned
skins or molts are usually white and are sometimes mistaken for
dead mites. Nymphs feed for a while, then change to adults by
the same process, molting. Males and females mate, females lay
eggs, and the life cycle is complete.








Many modifications of this cycle are known to exist, how-
ever, and the life cycles of many mite species associated with
citrus are unknown at present. The time required to complete a
cycle also varies, some groups developing from eggs to adults
in just a few days, other requiring weeks. The length of the life
cycle frequently influences the importance of a mite as an injuri-
ous species or a potential predator.


EQUIPMENT AND METHODS

The following equipment and outlines of methods are
intended exclusively for the non-technical field identification of
mites associated with Florida citrus groves. Mites associated with
citrus in other areas or on other crops have not been evaluated,
and the equipment, methods, and criteria used here cannot be
construed to be always applicable.
Although some mites are easily visible with the naked eye,
a hand lens, magnifying glass, or linen counter that enlarges 10
times (10X) is an absolute necessity for identifying mites as they
are described here. Lenses of lesser strength, 3X or 6X, are inade-
quate for many characters and even when adequate may cause
inaccurate evaluations. Lenses of greater strength, 15X, 20X,
and 30X, will show characters not discussed here, possibly
causing inaccurate evaluations.
A common straight pin may be used to disturb scale armors,
sooty mold, and whitefly cast skins where mites hide; to force
mites to move; and to serve as a size reference. The head of such
a pin measures about 1/13 of an inch in diameter and the shaft
about 1/34 of an inch. Another instrument such as a teasing
needle, sewing needle, knife blade, pencil, or toothpick can be
substituted for a pin, but a substitute size reference would also be
necessary.
Mites should be studied with green fruit or leaves as back-
ground, since most mites show up distinctly lighter or darker
than green. A few species are translucent but not indistinctly so.
If a background color other than green is used, it should be
remembered that optical color compensation and reflections may
alter the observed color. Mites to be identified should be studied
in bright, preferably direct, sunlight.
Identification of a single specimen is often quite difficult and
should not be attempted unless one is practiced at observation
and in the use of the diagnostic tables given below. If only one
specimen can be found, the species is probably not abundant
enough to cause damage if it is a plant feeder, to affect natural















TABLE 1.-DETERMINATION OF THE FOOD HABITS OF MITES
Classification by food habits

Items to observe A. Plant feeders B. Scavengers or fungus C. Predators
feeders
Eggs Scattered (not in clumps or clusters) Clustered or clumped in open or in Scattered or in small qrouDs of two


in open or protected areas


Feeding mites scattered, or if in
groups, protected by silk webbing.
Feeding difficult to observe, as
mouthparts are hidden.



Mites scattered over leaf or fruit
surface or protected by silk webbing.

Mites run aimlessly before settling to
feed again.


protected areas.


Feeding mites in groups or in pro-
tected areas. Feeding and feeding
injury easily observed.


Mites grouped or clustered around
eggs or in protected areas.

Mites run clumsily and/or aimlessly
until protection is found or group
relocated.


or three in open or in protected
areas.

Feeding mites scattered or in small
groups of two or three. Feeding
easily observed, but many species
feed at night. Mouthparts not usu-
ally hidden, but are hard to see on
small species.

Mites scattered, usually in protected
places.

Mites run rapidly until protection or
food is found. A few species are
clumsy.


Mites:


feeding


resting


disturbed








control if it is a predator, or to be important otherwise if it is a
scavenger or fungus feeder.
Mites to be identified should be studied under several differ-
ent conditions. First, they should be viewed from above to deter-
mine body outlines, comparative leg lengths, and certain special
characters (see Tables 2, 3, 4, and 5). Next, bend or roll the leaf
or fruit so the mites can be studied from side view to determine
profile and visibility of body hairs. If the mites are at rest, they
should be disturbed to determine running speed, gait, and habits.
Finally, search for eggs, young, and resting, feeding, or mating
individuals.
When general appearances, general characteristics, special
characters, and habits all have been studied, evaluated, and
determined, the following practical diagnostic tables should
make family determination possible. After the family has been
identified, further identification may be made by comparing the
mites with the text of the family, genera, and species descrip-
tions and with the illustrations of common species. It should be
remembered, however, that the mites in question may not be one
of the common forms described and illustrated in this bulletin.
In this case, technical assistance may be necessary to place them
as one of the listed, technically diagnosed species. On the other
hand, the species may be one previously unrecorded from Florida
citrus. Additional species will most certainly be added to the list
as our knowledge of citrus mites increases.

PRACTICAL DIAGNOSTIC TABLES FOR
CITRUS MITE IDENTIFICATION

For correct identification of the many species of mites found
associated with Florida citrus trees, the feeding habits must first
be determined. Are they plant feeders, scavengers, or predators?
Table 1 may be used to make this determination. Observe the
eggs, feeding mites, resting mites, and disturbed mites; then
carefully read the selections in columns A, B, and C. An
individual selection should be made from each observation and
the mites then placed in the series with which they most closely
agree.
After the feeding habit has been determined, the identifier
should refer to the table dealing with that group of mites: Table
2 for plant feeders, Table 3 for fungus feeders or scavengers, or
Table 4 for predators. The unknown mites must then be evalu-
ated for the characters tabulated: size, outline, profile, leg size,
body covering, color and special characters. Standards for each











-PLANT-FEEDING MITES.


1. Size1 2. Outline1 3. Profile' 4. LegSize' 5. Body 6. Color 7. Special characters 8. Family
covering


Tiny Wedge-shaped Cylindrical- Very short Soft Yellow-tan


tapered to point
at back end
Small Pear-shaped Flat


Swollen



Slightly swollen
to plump


Small Broad-oval to
long-oval


o Small to Spindle-shaped
moderate to broad-oval


Small to Pear-shaped Swollen to
moderate to broad-oval plump


Plump


Moderate Soft


Red, or red
with green,
yellow or
black mark-
ings


Short Leathery Variable:
white,
yellow, or
green


Short to
moderate




Moderate
to long


Moderate Soft


Variable:
white,
brown, red-
dish-brown,
or black

Yellowish
to green-
ish with
darker flecks
of color

Variable:
pale yellow,
green,tones
of red, or
brown


Two pairs legs, males not distin-
guishable. Body hairs not visible
with hand lens.
Four pairs of legs. Males and fe-
males same size. Body hairs not
visible with hand lens. All legs used
in walking.

Four pairs legs. Males /2 size of
females. Body hairs scarcely visible
with hand lens. Hind legs not used
in walking.
Four pairs of legs not especially
different. Males and females same
size. Body hairs scarcely or distinctly
visible with hand lens. Hind legs
used in walking but front legs
sometimes used as feelers.
Four pairs of legs with leg 1 long or
leg 4 thick. Males and females simi-
lar rapid moving mites. Body hairs
visible at back end with hand lens.
Hind legs used in walking, front
legs as feelers.
Four pairs legs. Males more slender
and longer-legged than females.
Body hairs on most species easily
seen with hand lens. All legs used in
walking. Mites do not move very
rapidly.


'Please refer to Table 5 for character definitions.


Moderate Oval


Eriophyidae
(Figures 54,
85, and 86)
Tenuipalpidae
(Figure 57)



Tarsonemidae
(Figures 54
and 55)

Tydeidae
(Not figured)




Eupodidae
(Figure 87)




Tetranychidae
(Figures 44
to 53)


Plaase refer to Table 5 for character definitions,


TABLE 2.








TABLE 3.-FUNGUS-FEEDING AND SCAVENGER MITES.

1. Size1 2. Outline' 3. Profile' 4. Leg size' 5. Body 6. Color 7. Special characters 8. Family
covering

Small Oval Slightly swollen Short Hard or Variable: Males /2 size of females. Body hairs Tarsonemidae


Small Long-oval
to oval



Small to Spindle-
moderate shaped to
broad-oval



Moderate Teardrop
tolarge toround





Moderate Teardrop
to large to round


to plump

Greatly swollen
to plump



Slightly
swollen to
plump



Somewhat
swollen to
swollen




Greatly swollen
to plump


Short




Short to
moderate


leathery white to
black
Soft Pink




Soft Variable:
white,
yellow,
green, pink,
or black


Short to Leathery
moderate or hard
shelled


Short to
moderate


scarcely or not visible with hand
lens. Hind legs not used in walking.
Males and females same size. Body
hairs invisible with hand lens. All
legs at front end and used for walk-
ing.
Males and females same size. Body
hairs scarcely or not visible with
hand lens. Hind legs used for walk-
ing, front legs sometimes used as
feelers.


Tan, brown, Males and females same size or
or black males slightly smaller. Body hairs
not or scarcely visible with hand
lens. All legs used in deliberate,
sometimes clumsy, walking.


White to
yellow with
or without
red, brown
or black


Males slightly to distinctly smaller
than females. Body hairs moderate
to long and usually visible with
hand lens. All legs used in clumsy
walking.


(Figures 38
to 43)
Nanorchestidae
(Figure 90)



Tydeidae
(Figures 34
and 74)



Oribatei,
Eremaeidae
and related
families
(Figures 36
and 37)
Acarei
Acaridae and
related
families
(Figures 32,33,
and 81)


'Please refer to Table 5 for character definitions.


-.3












TABLE 4.-PREDATORY MITES.


1. Size1 2. Outline1 3. Profile' 4. Leg size1 5. Body 6. Color 7. Special characters 8. Family
covering
Small Long-egg Flattened Short Soft Bright shiny Found under Florida red scale Hemisarcoptidae


shaped


Small Long-oval
rounded in
front, and often
squared behind


Small Spindle-shaped
or round



Small Spindle-shaped
to oval


Flattened to
somewhat
flattened



Flattened,
slightly
swollen or
balloon-like

Slightly
swollen to
plump


Small Egg-shaped Swollen to
to oval greatly
swollen


Small Long-oval
to oval


Greatly
swollen to
plump


yellow armors. Move slowly and clumsily
when disturbed. Body hairs not vis-
ible with hand lens.


Move rapidly when disturbed or
searching for prey. Body hairs
scarcely visible with hand lens. Front
legs sometimes used as feelers.


Moderate Soft to Colorless to
leathery light tan to
light brown
to rose-red


Short to Soft to Milky-white Found singly or in clusters under
moderate leathery to light tan clumps of scale. Move deliberately
unless swollen when they cannot
move. Hind legs for walking.


Short to
moderate


Moderate
to long


Short Soft


Soft Variable:
white,
brown,
reddish
brown, or
black
Leathery Red


Pink or
yellow


Males and females same size. Body
hairs scarcely visible with hand lens.
Hind legs used for walking. Front
legs may be used as feelers.


Four pairs of similar legs with bead-
like segments. Males and females
similar. Front legs may be used as
feelers.
Males and females same size. Body
hairs invisible with hand lens. All
legs at front and used for walking.


(Figure 64)


Ascidae
Digamasellidae
and
Rhodacaridae
(Figures 60, 84,
and 97)
Pyemotidae
(Figure 65)
and
Scutacaridae
(Figure 98)
Tydeidae
(Not figured)


Cryptognathidae
(Figure 83)


Nanorchestidae
(Figure 90)


'Please refer to Table 5 for character definitions.








TABLE 4.- PREDATORY MITES (Continued).
1. Size' 2. Outline' 3. Profile' 4. Leg size' 5. Body 6. Color 7. Special characters 8. Family
covermg
Small Oval, pear- Swollen or Short to Soft Pink, bright Move deliberately
y or rapidly when Eupalopsellidae


shaped, or
spindle-shaped


moderate


Small Oval to Greatly swollen Short to
broad-oval to plump moderate


Small to Spindle-shaped
moderate to oval



W Small to Long-oval
moderate to slender


Small to Oval to
moderate pear-shaped

Small to Pear-shaped
moderate to broad-oval


Plump




Plump



Greatly swollen
to plump

Swollen to
plump


red, dark
red, amber,
or black


disturbed with legs held like spokes
of a wheel. Body hairs long and
easily seen with 10X hand lens.
Some rare species have tiny hairs.


Whitish Four pairs of similar legs. Body hairs
invisible. All legs used in walking.


Moderate Soft Yellowish to
reddish with
a broad pale
stripe, or
frosty-white


Moderate
to long


Short to
moderate


Feeding mechanism swollen and
appearing like a distinct head. These
mites ambush their food.


(Figure 69) and
Stigmaeidae
(Figures 67
and 68)
Pachygnathidae
(Figure 91)
Cheyletidae
(Figures 61
and 82)


White, Four pairs of similar robust legs. Rhagidiidae
yellow to Males and females similar, light- (Figure 95)
rose-colored sensitive, fast moving mites. Body
hairs invisible or nearly so.


Soft Red


Moderately Soft
long to long


Yellow to
green with
darker
flecks


Four pairs of similar slender legs.
Males and females similar. All legs
used in walking.


Rhaphignathidae
(Figure 96)


Four pairs of legs with leg 1 long or Eupodidae
leg 4 thick. Males and females simi- (Figure 87)
lar. Rapid moving mites. Body hairs
visible at back end with hand lens.
Hind legs used for walking, front
legs as feelers.


'Please refer to Table 5 for character definitions.


swollen with
pits and
wrinkles


1Please refer to Table 5 for character definitions.











TABLE 4.-PREDATORY MITES (Continued).

1. Size' 2. Outline1 3. Profile' 4. Leg size1 5. Body 6. Color 7. Special characters 8. Family
covering


Small to Oval to
moderate round

Small to Spindle-shaped
large

Small to Oval to
moderate broad-oval


Flattened Very short Hard-
to swollen to moderate shelled


Swollen to Moderate
plump to long


Somewhat
swollen


Moderate Egg-shaped Slightly to
or long-oval somewhat
swollen
Moderate Round, egg- Swollen or
shaped or somewhat
long-oval flattened





Moderate Egg-shaped Somewhat
to long-oval swollen


Moderate Egg-shaped
to large or oval


Long


Moderate Soft


Brown to Four pairs of similar hidden legs.
red-brown Mouthparts hidden. Found on bark,
in litter, or attached to insects.


Red, yellow,
green, or
brown


Uropodina
(Figure 99)


A long snout or nose. Palpus with Cunaxidae
spines for grasping. (Figures 62
and 63)


Red or Legs very long and slender or stilt-
brown like. Body hairs not distinct. Some
leg hairs distinctly visible.
Pale white Indistinguishable from phytoseiids.
to yellow Body hairs short and numerous but
not distinct.


Moderate Soft to Variable:
to long hard- off-white to
shelled dark
mahogany
red, often
with dark
internal
shadows
Moderate Leathery Yellow to
light tan


Somewhat Moderately Leathery Light to
flattened long to hard dark brown


Found resting in protected places
or feeding on mites or mite eggs.






Indistinguishable from phytoseiids.
Body hairs short and numerous but
often indistinct. These species
inhabit litter.
Legs thick and robust. Body hairs
invisible on most species. Ventral
plates distinct. All legs used in
walking.


Neophyllobiidae
(Figure 66)

Blattisocidae
(Figures 35
and 71)
Phytoseiidae
(Figures 72, 73,
and 75 to 80)





Pachylaelapidae
(Figure 92)


Laelapidae
(Figures 88
and 89)


1Please refer to Table 5 for character definitions.










1. Size'

Moderate
to large


Moderate
to large

Large


2. Outline' 3. Profile'

Oval Somewhat
swollen


Spindle-shaped Swollen to
plump

Nearly Somewhat
circular swollen


Large Egg-shaped
or oval


Large Egg-shaped
to oval


Somewhat
flattened


Somewhat
flattened to
swollen


Large Oval Somewhat
flattened

1Please refer to Table 5 for character defi


nations.


1


TABLE 4.- PREDATORY MITES (Continued).

4. Leg size1 5. Body 6. Color 7. Special characters 8. Family
covering

Moderately Soft to Light tan Leg 1 and sometimes leg 4 very long Podocinidae
long to leathery to brown and slender. Leg 1 used as feelers. (Figure 94)
very long Litter inhabitants.

Moderate Soft Red, green, With a short snout or nose. Palpi Bdellidae
or brown end in long slender hairs. (Figure 59)

Long Soft Red Body hairs distinct under hand lens. Anystidae
Move rapidly in circles, figure 8's (Figure 58)
or cork-screw pattern when
disturbed.

Moderately Leathery Light to Fronti legs longer and more slender Macrochelidi
long to dark brown than others and used as feelers. (Figure 70)
long

Moderate Leathery Light to Four pairs of similar legs. Males Parasitidae
to long dark brown and females similar rapid moving (Figure 93)
mites. Nymphs with two distinct
dorsal plates. All legs used in walk-
ing. Ground surface inhabitants.

Moderate Leathery Brown to Four pairs of similar legs, all used Vegaiidae
to hard dark brown for walking. Indistinguishable from (Figure 100)
large laelapids. Litter inhabitants.


ae














TABLE 5.-CHARACTER STANDARDS.


Size-Column 1 in Tables 2, 3, and 4-size of entire mite.
Tiny-Invisible to naked eye, scarcely visible with hand lens (1/200-inch or
less).
Small-Scarcely visible to naked eye, visible without details with hand lens
(1/80 to 1/150-inch).
Moderate-Visible without details to naked eye, visible with details with hand
lens (1/50 to 1/75-inch).
Large-Details scarcely visible to naked eye, details obvious with hand lens
(1/30 to 1/45-inch).

Outline-Column 2-shape of body from top view.
Wedge-shaped-Tapered to a point. Figure 1.
Spindle-shaped-Tapered at both ends. Figure 2.
Teardrop-shaped-Rounded at one end, pointed at other. Figure 3.
Pear-shaped-Shaped like a pear. Figure 4.
Egg-shaped-Shaped like an egg. Figure 5.
Long-oval-Oval but twice as long as wide. Figure 6.
Oval-Obviously longer than wide. Figure 7.
Broad-oval-Nearly as wide as long. Figure 8.
Round-Circular. Figure 9.
Slender-Much longer than wide. Figure 10.

Profile-Column 3-shape of body from side view.
Cylindrical-Tapered. Figure 11.
Flat-Figure 12.
Flattened -Figure 13.
Somewhat flattened- Figure 14.
Slightly swollen -Figure 15.
Somewhat swollen-Figure 16.
Swollen-Figure 17.
Greatly swollen -Figure 18.
Plump-Figure 19.
Swollen with pits and wrinkles-Figure 20.
Balloon-like -Figure 21.

Leg size-Column 4-length of legs compared to body.
Very short-Legs scarcely extending beyond edge of body. Figure 22.
Short-Legs extending distinctly beyond edge of body. Figure 23.
Moderate-Legs as long as width of body. Figure 24.
Long- Legs as long or longer than length of body. Figure 25.

Special characters-Column 7.
Hind legs not used in walking-Figures 26 and 27.
Long snout and palpi (feelers) spined for grasping -Figure 28.
Short snout and palpi end in long hairs-Figure 29.
Feeding mechanism swollen like a head-Figure 30.
Front legs slender, used as feelers-Figure 31.









1Q

03
2


09


05

4


11


17


14


22 23


28


29


20
;\ .




24\


30


PLATE I -CHARACTER STANDARDS


U10


27


26








of these characters are described or delineated in Table 5 and
illustrated in Plate I. Identification is made by selecting the size
most nearly fitting the mites in question from the first column,
then selecting the proper body outline from column 2 within that
size range, next selecting for body profile from column 3 within
the range of size and outline, and so on across the table to column
8, which names the family to which the mites belong.
Such an identification is simple if the number of choices is
small. For instance, the citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora
(Ashmead), is identified readily in Table 2 for plant feeding
mites. It is tiny, wedge-shaped, cylindrical-tapered, very short
legged, soft, yellow to tan, and has two pairs of legs. These char-
acteristics place it in the family Eriophyidae. On the other hand,
identification of the predatory bull mite or long-nosed mite, Cun-
axa taurus (Kramer), presents a more difficult problem. It is a
large mite and so would fit eight different lines in column 1 of
Table 4; although its spindle-shape reduces the choice to two in
column 2, no further distinction can be made for its plump body,
moderate to long legs, soft body, and red, green, yellow, or
brown color until column 7, wherein its long nose and grasping
palpi place it in the proper family, Cunaxidae.
In using these diagnostic tables, the student or worker
should realize that errors in the construction and use of such
artificial, tabular means of identification are common. Although
the tables have been carefully prepared, a problem species
possibly would not be typical of the general characters cited.
However, failure to complete an identification on the first
attempt does not necessarily mean that the table is in error, that
mites are atypical, or that the species is new to Florida citrus. It
is much more likely that an error in choice was made. In such a
case, reexamination of the mites and additional trials should
permit completion of identification.
Once family identification has been completed, the mites
can be further placed and verified by reference to the family
description and discussion in another section of this bulletin and
by a comparison with generic descriptions, specific descrip-
tions, and illustrations within that family. Final identification in
all but five families will involve less than a dozen species, and
less than five in 19 families. Final identification is further sim-
plified by the fact that most families contain only one to three
common species, which are described, illustrated, and discussed
here.
A note of caution concerning the illustrations of common
species. All of the body and leg hairs shown on a given drawing
will not be visible with a 10X hand lens; they have been included








for specialist use. The reader should refer to the descriptive
paragraphs to determine which hairs should be visible with low
magnification.
If the mites in question cannot be properly identified after
repeated effort, it is still possible, with some technical
assistance, to place the species by utilizing the short technical
diagnoses included with most family and generic discussions.

FAMILY, GENUS, AND SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS
In the following descriptions and discussions, technical
terms have been avoided where possible. A few such terms could
not be avoided without the use of complete sentences or phrases
which would confuse the reader. Unavoidable technical terms
are defined in a short glossary at the back of this bulletin. This
glossary and the index of common and scientific mite names are
for the reader's convenience.

ACAREI (HAM, CHEESE, FRUIT, AND FUNGUS MITES)
(Figures 32, 33, and 81)
These mites form a superfamily or cohort and do not belong
to any single technically defined family. At least four families -
Acaridae, Anoetidae, Ensliniellidae, and Glycyphagidae -have
been collected on or under citrus trees, and it is probable that
others will be found. Most of the mites of this group that are
associated with citrus are scavengers or fungus-feeders; only a
few specimens of parasitic or semi-parasitic forms have been
collected. They have, as adults, a teardrop-shaped to nearly
round outline, a greatly swollen to plump profile, a soft body
covering, and moderate to long hairs on the body, and short to
moderate legs. Most species have large chewing, grinding
mouthparts which are darkened and visible with a 10X hand lens.
Many young or nymphal stages are similar to the adults except
for size. Frequently, however, under over-crowded conditions
or when food supplies are low, some nymphs are small, oval to
round, flattened, short-legged forms known technically as
hypopi. Hypopi cling to the legs and bodies of larger arachnids
and insects and are thus distributed in other areas. They are not
parasitic and do not harm these transporting hosts unless they
are very abundant.
Altogether 14 species of this group of mites have been found
on or under citrus trees in Florida. They are found on living
leaves, fruit, and bark, on rotting fruit both on the tree and
ground, and in the litter under the tree canopy. At times, they










become extremely abundant. There is no doubt that they serve as
alternate food for beneficial insects and mites. Further, they
clean dead insects and mites, fungi, and other trash from the
trees and assist in the biological reduction of these materials
beneath the trees. Three of the most commonly encountered
species are discussed and illustrated.
The 4 families, 8 genera, and 12 species are technically
diagnosed below for specialist use.


FAMILY ACARIDAE Body divided into propodosoma and hysterosoma. Derm
smooth, shiny, or rough. Tarsi with caruncle and single unstalked claw. Condylophores
present. Vertical and cervical setae both present. Genitalia between Coxae III and IV.

Genus Caloglyphus Berlese Ve minute; Sce much longer than Sci which are
often vestigial. Tarsus 1 with slender ba. Large, broad-oval to round mites.

Caloglyphus spp. Use generic characters. Two unnamed species of this
genus have been collected from citrus litter.

Genus Calvolia Oudemans Idiosomal setae smooth; Ve absent. Sce more than
3 times longer than Sci. Moderate, oval to broad-oval mites found on rotting fruit and
in the litter.

Calvolia baker Hughes Hysterosoma smooth; some d series setae longer
than some lateral hysterosomal setae; latero-abdominal glands large. This species
has been collected from fruit.

Calvolia romanovae Zach. Hysterosoma indistinctly creased; d series setae
shorter than lateral hysterosomal setae; latero-abdominal glands small. This species
has been collected from both fruit and litter.
Calvolia transversostriata (Oud.)- Hysterosoma finely alutaceous; d series
setae tiny and widely separated; latero-abdominal glands large. This species has been
collected from fruit.
Genus Thyreophagus Rond. Few dorsal setae. Ve minute or absent. Sce distinct,
Sci minute or missing. Moderate elongate mites.
Thyreophagus sp. Use generic characters. This species is found on fruit and
leaves under living and dead armored scale armors.
Genus Tropacarus Cunliffe Body setae Sce, he, Ip, d4, and sae are very long and
whip-like. Tarsal setae greatly reduced in number.
Tropacarus mumai Cunliffe Use generic characters. This is a common leaf
and fruit species.

Genus Tyrophagus Oudemans Body setae long and slender. Ve very indistinct.
Sce shorter than Sci. Leg 1 without conical setae. Moderate to large oval to
broad-oval mites.
Tyrophagus longior (Gervais)- la shorter or only slightly longer than di;
d2 at most twice as long as di; omega long and tapered; adeagus long and S-shaped.
This is a fruit and litter species.
Tyrophagus palmarum Oud.- la shorter or only slightly longer than di;
d2 more than twice as long as di and longer than body width; omega rod-shaped;
adeagus weakly S-shaped. This is a bark and litter species.









Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank)- la shorter or only slightly longer than
di; d2 more than twice as long as di; omega claviform; adeagus short and S-shaped.
This is a litter species.

Tyrophagus sp. la shorter or only slightly longer than di; d2 more than
twice as long as d, but shorter than body width; omega rod-shaped; adeagus nearly
straight. Found on decayed fruit.
FAMILY ANOETIDAE Body sometimes divided into propodosoma and hystero-
soma. Derm smooth or punctate. Tarsi with unstalked claws and no caruncles. Palpi
tarsi flat and projected laterally. Ring or shoe-shaped organs in coxal region.
Genus Histiostoma Use family characters. Only hypopi found to date on
Florida citrus.
FAMILY ENSLINIELLIDAE Body undivided but with propodosomal shield. Derm
shiny. Tarsi with stalked claws and caruncles. Vertical setae present, cervical setae
absent. Genitalia of male between coxae IV. Parasitic mites.

Genus Vidia Use family characters. Only hypopi found to date on Florida citrus.
FAMILY GLYCYPHAGIDAE Body undivided. Derm granulate. Tarsi pointed
distallywith caruncles and single claws. Condylophores absent. Vertical setae present,
dorsal setae pilose, feathered, or fan-shaped.
Genus Glycyphagus Use family characters.

Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer)- Use family characters. This species is
found occasionally on citrus leaves.

Two-spotted Fungus Mite (Acaridae, Tropacarus mumai
Cunliffe).- The two-spotted fungus mite is relatively large
and is visible with the naked eye. It is pale yellow to pale
orange with a red-brown to black spot on each side near the
back end (Figure 32). Frequently one or two additional dark
areas occur in the middle near the back end. Mature females
are about 1/452 inch long, are plump in profile, and have a few
long slender hairs on the body and legs that are visible with a
10X hand lens.
This mite is usually found in clusters, including eggs,
young, and adults, along the midrib of the leaf or beside
clumps of trash. When disturbed, the mites move clumsily
about until a hiding place is found or the cluster is relocated.
This mite is common during the spring and summer and is
found throughout the citrus-growing areas.

White Fungus Mite (Glycyphagidae, Glycyphagus domes-
ticus (Deg.)). The white fungus mite is large and easily
visible with the naked eye because of the many long slender
spines on the body and legs (Figure 33). Adult females are
2As a size reference the head of a common straight pin measures about 1/13 of
an inch in diameter and the shaft about 1/34 of an inch.









about 1/45 inch long, white, and plump in profile.
This mite is often seen singly, staggering clumsily over the
surface of a leaf, but may also be found in clusters in protected
places.
Although not as common as the two-spotted fungus mite,
this mite is frequently seen in the spring and summer in all of
the citrus-growing areas.

Slender Fungus Mite (Acaridae, Thyreophagus sp.). -
This mite is moderate in size, about 1/75 inch in length, but is
easily seen with a 10X hand lens. Females have a long tear-
drop-shaped outline, are greatly swollen in profile, and are
dirty white to grey with one, two, or three darker spots in the
middle near the back end (Figure 81). The body hairs of this
species are few in number, moderate in length, and visible
only at the back end of the body. This mite is normally found
in small groups under the armors of dead scale or under trash.
The species is frequently seen in the late summer and
early fall, but is not common. Specimens have been collected
from most citrus-growing areas.

FAMILY ANYSTIDAE (WHIRLIGIG MITES)
(Figure 58)
Whirligig mites are large mites with nearly round bodies
that are slightly pointed at the front end and somewhat swol-
len in profile. The body is red with short hairs that are distinct-
ly visible with a 10X hand lens. The legs are long and extend
radially from the body. The most striking characteristic of the
family is the extremely rapid manner of running in a circular,
figure 8, or corkscrew pattern when disturbed. Red eyes,
located on each side just behind the first pair of legs, are
visible with a 10X hand lens.
Only one species of the genus Anystis Heyden seems to be
associated with Florida citrus trees. However, two or three
species of related genera are known from the litter of sand
pine, Pinus clausa, so the following diagnosis is included here
for technical use.

Genus Anystis Heyden Short, broad; two pairs of eyes; palpal tibia with three
claw-like spines. Propodosomal plate quadrate with three pairs of setae.
Anystis agilis Banks Use generic characters.

Whirligig Mites (Anystis agilis Banks). The characteristics
of this mite (Figure 58) are the same as those given above for the









family. It is the largest mite found on citrus.
The mite is predatory, and usually only one or two specimens
are seen at one time. Adults measure about 1/32 inch in length.
This mite spins a loose cocoon of white silk to protect itself
during the molting period. Although its predatory habit is well
known, its primary host or hosts on citrus have not been deter-
mined. Specimens have been observed feeding on purple scale
crawlers and citrus red mites.
The species is uncommon on citrus, but is widely distributed
and more abundant in unsprayed groves.


FAMILY ASCIDAE (ASCID MITES)
(Figure 60)
Ascids are small, elongate, flattened predatory mites that are
found on the fruit, leaves, and bark of Florida citrus trees and in
the litter beneath the trees. They are egg-shaped in front and
squared behind; the body is leathery, light tan to light brown in
color, and somewhat darker toward the back end. Legs are
moderate in length. The body is divided into front and back
parts when viewed from above with a 10X hand lens, but this
division is indistinct on some specimens. Body hairs are scarcely
or not visible with a lens.
Although 7 genera and more than 50 species of ascids have
been described from various areas of the world, only 8 species
representing 3 similar genera have been found associated with
Florida citrus. Several species of Asca Heyden have been
reported feeding on certain insects and mites, but the food habits
of species on Florida citrus have not been determined.
The genera Asca Heyden, Gamasellodes Athias-Henriot, and
Protogamasellus Karg and the eight citrus-associated species
are diagnosed here for specialist use, and the most common
species is discussed below and illustrated.


Genus Asca Heyden- Dorsal scuta completely divided but without transverse
lines. Posterior dorsal scutum with a pair of prominent posterio-lateral tubercles.
Leg 1 with pretarsus and claws. Females with 43 to 45 pairs of dorsal setae.
Asca citri Hurlbutt All setae on dorsal scuta paired; anterior dorsal
scutum with 18 pairs of setae; sternal scutum concave posteriorly; 14 reaching
nearly to base of Is. Found primarily on the leaves.
Asca duosetosa (Fox)-All setae on dorsal scuta paired; anterior dorsal scutum
with 17 pairs of setae; sternal scutum concave posteriorly; 14 about 1/2 distance to 15;
tubercles with two well-developed setae; I1 slender. Found on fruit, leaves, bark, and
in litter.
Asca muma Hurlbutt-AII setae on dorsal scuta paired; anterior dorsal scutum
with 17 pairs of setae; sternal scutum concave posteriorly; 14about 2/3 distance to 15;









13 as long or longer than distance to 14; 4-14 distance subequal with 14-Z ; tectum
smooth. Found on bark and in litter.

Asca mumata DeLeon-All setae on dorsal scuta paired; anterior dorsal
scutum with 17 pairs of setae; sternal scutum concave posteriorly; 14 about 2 3
distance to 15; 13 as long or longer than distance to 14; 14 14 distance much greater than
I.-Z?: tectum serrate. Found on bark and in litter.
Asca tarsialis DeLeon-All setae on dorsal scuta paired; anterior dorsal scutum
with 17 pairs of setae; sternal scutum nearly straight posteriorly; 14 about 2/3
distance to 15; l3shorter than distance to 14; most scutal setae pectinate; S5 nearly
linear. Found on leaves.
Genus Gamasellodes Athias-Henriot-Dorsal scuta completely divided but
without distinct transverse lines. Posterior scutum without posterio-lateral tubercles.
Females with 42 to 44 pairs of dorsal setae. All Florida species inhabit litter.
Gamasellodes sp. nr. rectiventrisLindquist-Ventrianal scutum nearly round and
large with two pairs of preanal setae; sternum smooth and complete anteriorly.
Genus Protogamasellus Karg-Dorsal scuta divided but frequently overlapping
and with at least two distinct transverse lines. Posterior scutum without posterio-
lateral tubercles. Females with 42 to 44 pairs of dorsal setae. All Florida species
inhabit litter.

Protogamasellus primitivus Karg-Anterior dorsal scutum with three small slits;
posterior dorsal scutum with a pair near posterio-lateral margin; ventrianal scutum
large with three pairs of preanal setae and a pair of notches in the anterior margin.

tprotogamasellus sp nr. massula (Athias-Henriot)-Dorsal scuta without slits;
anterior 1/5 of sternal scutum granulate; ventrianal scutum small with two pairs of
preanal setae.


Two-spined Mite (Asca duosetosa (Fox)). -Although this
species is found on the fruit, leaves, and bark of citrus trees, it is
most common in the litter beneath the trees. Mature females are
about 1/80 inch long (Figure 60). It cannot be distinguished from
associated species except by the technical data cited above.
Since this species is most common in citrus litter, nothing is
known about its habits or food. The common leaf species A. citri
and A. tarsialis are frequently associated with armored and soft
scale infestations.
The two-spined mite has a state-wide distribution, and al-
though it has been collected in all seasons it is most common in
the winter and spring.

FAMILY BDELLIDAE (SNOUT MITES)
(Figure 58)

Snout mites are moderate to large in size, with moderate
legs, a soft body covering, and spindle-shaped, swollen to
plump bodies. They are normally red but may be greenish or
brownish after feeding. Mites of this family are easily confused
with those of the family Cunaxidae when examined with a 10X









hand lens. They differ from most cunaxids by having the palpi
end in long slender hairs. Bonzia bdelliformis Atyeo also has
palpi that end in long slender hairs, but it does not hold the palpi
bent at a sharp angle as do the bdellids. Only one or two pairs of
body hairs are visible on snout mites.
Snout mites are well known predators of small arthropods
and arthropod eggs. Five species representing three genera are
known to be associated with Florida citrus trees. However, only
two species of one genus are found on the fruit and leaves. The
known citrus-associated genera and species are diagnosed here
for specialist use, and the common leaf-inhabiting species is
discussed below and illustrated.


Genus Bdel/a Latreille-Chelicerae slender, tiny apically; tibia II without tricho-
both; venter of hypostome with six or seven pairs of strong setae; chelicerae with two
setae.
Bdelladistincta (Baker and Blalock)-Distance between anterior sensilla greater
than between posterior sensilla; tarsus IV with trichoboth; transverse striae between
eyes. Found on citrus fruit and leaves.
Bde/la longicornis(Linne)-Distance between anterior sensilla less than between
posterior sensilla; palpus basifemur with 13 or more setae, tibiotarsus with seven.
Found in citrus and other litter.
Bdella mexicana (Baker and Blalock)-Distance between anterior sensilla
greater than between posterior sensilla; tarsus IV without trichoboth; longitudinal
striae between eyes. Found on citrus leaves.
Genus Bdellodes Oudemans-Chelicerae slender, tiny apically; tibia II with
trichoboth; venter of hypostome with six or seven pairs of strong setae; chelicerae
with one seta.
Bdellodes longirostris (Hermann)-Use generic characters. Found in citrus and
other litter.
Genus Cyta von Heyden-Chelicerae massive, broad apically; venter of hypo-
stome with two pairs of strong setae; unpaired median eye between anterior
sensillae.
Cyta latirostris (Hermann)-Use generic characters. Found in citrus and other
litter.

Citrus Snout Mite (Bdella distinct (Baker and Blalock)).-
This mite is about 1/58 inch long, has spindle-shaped body in
outline, holds its palpi "elbowed," and is bright red (Figure 59).
Males and females are similar in size and shape. B. mexicana
and this species are indistinguishable with a 10X hand lens.
This mite walks slowly and deliberately when searching for
food but darts rapidly backwards for a short distance when dis-
turbed. The broadly ovate spiny eggs are laid in protected
places, but egg incubation and young developmental data are not
available. The species has been observed feeding on purple









scale eggs and crawlers and apparently on citrus rust mites.
The species is widely distributed in unsprayed groves but
is not common. In the past 20 years only two moderate popula-
tions have been observed.

FAMILY BLATTISOCIDAE (BLATTISOCID MITES)
(Figures 35 and 71)
Mites of this family are moderate sized, egg-shaped in out-
line, and are slightly swollen to somewhat swollen in profile.
Legs are moderately long, and the body covering is soft. Males
are slightly to distinctly smaller than females. The mouthparts
are of the chewing type and can be retracted into the body.
Many species of this family are indistinguishable from some
Phytoseiidae (see page 53) under grove conditions. Several
genera are found on or under Florida citrus. The feeding habits
of the family apparently are variable; some species are semi-
predacious, feeding both on small insects and mites and on
fungi; others are predacious; and still others are semi-parasitic.
The species associated with citrus are semi-predacious to
predacious, but their food habits and life stages have not been
carefully studied.
Altogether 4 genera and 15 species have been found to be
associated with Florida citrus. These genera and species are
briefly diagnosed here for specialist use, and the most common
species in each common genus is discussed below and illustrated.


Genus Blattisocius Keegan-Paraanal setae shorter than postanal and located
cephalad to posterior anal margin; median lobe of pulvillae broad and round; cheli-
cerae with pilus dentilis but no mucro; corniculi slender and approximal; fixed chela
with few or no teeth; female humeral setae on interscutal membrane.
Battisocius keegani (Fox)-Peritreme extends forward to coxae III; short fixed
chela with minute teeth; dorsal scutal setae subequal in length to distance to succeed-
ing setae. Citrus leaf and laboratory culture species.
Blattisocius tarsalis (Berlese)-Peritreme extends forward to coxae II; short
fixed chela edentate; dorsal scutal setae subequal in length to distance to succeeding
setae. Rotten fruit and laboratory culture species.
Blattisocius dentriticus (Berlese)-Peritreme extends forward to paravertical
setae; dorsal scutal setae longer than distance to succeeding setae; basitarsus IV with
elongate macroseta. Litter and bark species.
Genus Cheiroseius Berlese-Paraanal setae longer than postanal and located
laterad or caudad to posterior anal margin; median lobe of pulvillae slender and acute;
first and third sternal setae subequal; tibia II with 10 setae.
Cheiroseius floridianus (DeLeon)-Dorsal scutal setae much shorter' than
distance to succeeding setae; ADS with 14 pairs of setae; r i missing. This is a litter
species.










Cheiroseiusjamaicensis (Evans and Hyatt)-Dorsal scutal setae nearly as long
as distance to succeeding setae; ADS with 21 pairs of setae; dorsal scutum strongly
reticulate. Found in citrus litter.
Genus Lasioseius Berlese-Paraanal setae shorter than postanal and located
cephalad to posterior anal margin; median lobe of pulvillae broad and round; cheli-
cerae with pilus dentilis but no mucro; corniculi stout and well separated; fixed chela
usually multidentate; female humeral setae on dorsal scutum.
Lasioseius athiashenriotae DeLeon-Most dorsal scutal setae capitate and
serrate; paravertical setae absent; genual and tibial setae on legs 2, 3, and 4 serrate
but no macrosetae on basitarsus IV. Leaf and fruit species.
Lasioseius n. sp. dentatuss group)-Most dorsal scutal setae scapulate; leg
4 basitarsus and telotarsus with macrosetae; spermatheca short and fundibuliform.
Two records from citrus leaf and fruit.
Lasioseius krantzi Chant-Most dorsal scutal setae lanceolate, some on PDS
serrate; leg 4 basitarsus and telotarsus each with one stout macroseta; spermatheca
obscure. One record from litter.
Lasioseius dentatus Fox (=scapulatus Kennett)-Most dorsal scutal setae
scapulate; leg 4 basitarsus and telotarsus with macrosetae; spermatheca elongate
and vase-shaped. Leaf and litter species.
Genus Proctolaelaps Berlese-Paraanal setae equal to postanal and located
cephalad to posterior anal margin; median lobe of pulvillae broad and round; cheli-
cerae with membraneous lobe and mucro; adults with most marginal setae on dorsal
scutum which is entire.
Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram-Epistome finely denticulate; dorsal body setae
moderately short; dorsal scutum smooth in a triangular area in Ji-J2-Mi region,
genital scutum weakly sculptured; spermatheca long and thread-like. Rotten fruit,
laboratory culture species.
Proctolaelaps longipilis (Chant)-Epistome triramous; body setae long and
slender; tibia IV with long macrosetae; spermatheca long and thread-like. Leaf-litter
species.
Proctolaelaps nemathrix Krantz-Epistome finely denticulate; dorsal body setae
moderately long and finely attenuated; postanal and caudal setae long and stout. One
collection from fruit.
Proctolaelaps n. sp. (nr. orientalis (Chant))-Epistome triramous; ventrianal
scutum with one pair of preanal setae; leg 4 basitarsus and telotarsus each with a long
macroseta. One record from litter.
Proctolaelaps pygmaeus (Muller)-Epistome serrate; dorsal body setae
moderately long; dorsal scutum with strong transverse sculpturing; leg 4 without
distinct macrosetae; spermatheca obscure. Litter and leaf species.
Proctolaelaps regalis DeLeon-Epistome finely denticulate; dorsal scutum
smooth in a narrow strip between j-J setae from 3-6; dorsal body setae moderately
short; genital shield heavily sculptured; spermatheca long and thread-like. Fruit, leaf,
bark, and litter species.

Genus Blattisocius Keegan (Large Blattisocids)-Mites of
this genus are long-oval in outline and slightly swollen in
profile. Body hairs, although numerous, are not easily dis-
tinguishable with a 10X hand lens. Leg hairs are also not
visible. The body covering is soft and the color is off-white with
dark areas visible inside of the body near the back end.








Keegan's Mite (Blattisocius Keegani Fox). -This mite is
indistinguishable from the next cited species, the culture blatti-
socid, except for its larger size. Mature females measure 1/52
inch in length.
This species has been collected from laboratory cultures
infested with acarids on which it was feeding. A series was also
taken from a dead bagworm pupa on a citrus tree where this
predator was also feeding on acarids. Occasional specimens
have been collected from citrus leaves in all areas except the
west coast.
Genus Proctolaelaps Berlese (Culture Blattisocids) -Mites
of this genus have oval to long-oval bodies that are slightly
swollen and somewhat flattened in profile. The body hairs,
although numerous, are not distinguishable with a 10X hand
lens. Body coloration is off-white to pale yellow, and the
covering is soft.
Culture Blattisocid (Proctolaelaps pygmaeus (Miller). -
This mite is easily confused with the yellow mite (page 54). It
may be distinguished by the fact that hairs at the back end of the
body are not visible with a 10X hand lens, and leg hairs are not
distinguishable (Figure 35). Mature mites are about 1/59 inch
long with males slightly smaller than females.
Although this species is believed to feed on citrus mites and
insects, it has not been observed feeding on them on citrus trees.
However, the species has been collected several times on mite
cultures in the laboratory.
This mite is not common on citrus but has been collected
throughout the state from citrus leaves and litter.
Genus Lasioseius Berlese (Frosted Blattisocids) -Mites of
this genus may be identified by a broad-oval to squared body
outline, a slightly swollen profile and the presence of many
short to long hairs that are frequently visible by light reflections
with a 10X hand lens. The legs are moderate in length.
Only one common species has been found on citrus.
Frosted Mite (Lasioseius athiashenriotae DeLeon). The
frosted mite is readily identified by its light brown to lavender
coloration and a frosty appearance caused by light reflections
from the many short, broad hairs that cover the upper surface of
the body. Other characteristics are the same as those given above
for the genus. Mature females measure 1/56 inch in length (Fig-
ure 71).
To date, this mite has been collected only from leaves, twigs,
and fruit heavily infested with armored scale insects. However,









the mite is apparently nocturnal, as it hides under empty scale
armors even under laboratory conditions; and it is probable that
there is no relationship between the hiding place and preferred
food. Nothing is known concerning the eggs and young.
The frosted mite is a predator and is common in certain
groves. It is found in all citrus areas, but seems to be more
common on the east coast during the winter.


FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE
(CHEYLETID OR BIG-HEADED MITES)
(Figures 61 and 82)
Cheyletid mites found on citrus are small, broadly spindle-
shaped to oval in outline and plump in profile. The body cover-
ing is soft, and the legs are moderate in length. These mites vary
from light yellow to light red marked with a broad pale to white
stripe covering 2/3 to most of the length of the body. The most
distinctive characteristic is the swollen feeding mechanism which
causes the mites to appear to have a head.
Ten genera and 11 species of this family have been collected
from citrus. Only two species are common; they are predators
and are discussed and illustrated below.
The following are synoptic diagnoses of all genera and
species that are associated with citrus.

Genus Andrecheyla Volgin-All tarsi with pedicels, empodia and claws; one
hysterosomal scutum partially covering metapodosoma; palpal tarsus with two comb-
like setae; palpal claw multidentate; marginal propodosomal setae short and lance-
like; hysterosomal scutum with only one pair of marginal setae; eyes present.
Andrecheyla scutellata (DeLeon)-Use generic characters. Only species in
genus. Recorded from citrus leaves.
Genus Nodele Muma-All tarsi with pedicels, empodia, and claws; dorsal
scuta weakly developed and indistinct; palpal tarsus with three comb-like setae; all
dorsal setae long, rod-like, and plumose or serrate; eyes present.
Nodele calamondin Muma-Use generic characters. N. philippinensis (Baker)
only other known species. Known only from calamondin leaf.
Genus Cheletogenes Oudemans-Tarsus I lacking pedicel, empodium and claws;
palpal claw with about eight teeth; tarsus I with only two conspicuous terminal setae;
eyes present.
Cheletogenes ornatus C. & F.-Use generic characters. Only known species
in genus. One collection from fruit.
Genus Cheletomimus Oudemans All tarsi with pedicels, empodia and claws;
two hysterosomal scuta partially covering metapodosoma; dorsal setae lanceolate or
narrow and fan-like; eyes present.
Cheletomimus berlesei (Oudemans)- Propodosomal scutum with three pairs
of dorso-central setae; gnathosomal base and dorsal scuta coarsely rugose. Recorded
from citrus leaves.










Cheletomimus duosetosa Muma Propodosomal scutum with one pair of
dorso-central setae; gnathosomal base and dorsal scuta finely rugose. This is a leaf
and litter species.
Genus Eutogenes Baker Tarsus I lacking pedicel, empodium and claws; palpal
claw without teeth; propodosomal scutum with six pairs of dorso-lateral setae; eyes
present.
Eutogenes foxi Baker -Distinguished by coarsely rugose propodosomal
scutum; oblanceolate dorsal setae on palpal femora, broad fan-like dorsal scutal
setae, and four elongate subequal terminal setae on tarsus I. A litter species.

Genus Grallacheles DeLeon All tarsi with pedicels, empodia and claws; one
hysterosomal scutum covering metapodosoma; palpal tarsus with two comb-like setae;
palpal claw multidentate; marginal propodosomal setae flabellate in front of eyes,
strap-like behind eyes.

Grallacheles bakeri DeLeon Use generic characters. Only species in genus.
This species was collected once from citrus bark.

Genus Hemicheyletia Volgin All tarsi with pedicels, empodia and claws; one
hysterosomal scutum covering metapodosoma; palpal tarsus with two comb-like
setae; palpal claw multidentate; marginal propodosomal setae plumose and fan-like;
eyes present; dorsal scuta punctate or punctate and striate.

Hemicheyletia bakeri (Ehara)-Propodosomal scutum punctate between
fan-like dorso-central setae; hysterosomal scutum lacking dorso-central setae. This is
a leaf and litter species.
Hemicheyletia wellsi (Baker)- Propodosomal scutum striate between arbo-
reate dorso-central setae; hysterosomal scutum with two pairs of arboreate
dorso-central setae. This is a leaf, litter, bark and fruit species.
Genus Ker Muma All tarsi with pedicels, empodia, and claws, one hysterosomal
scutum covering metapodosoma; palpal tarsus with two comb-like setae; palpal claw
endentate; dorsal scutal setae plumose and fan-like; eyes present; dorsal scuta
coarsely reticulate.

Ker palmatus Muma Use generic characters. The only other known species
is found in Egypt. A litter species.

Genus Mexecheles DeLeon All tarsi with pedicels, empodia, and claws; one
hysterosomal scutum covering metapodosoma; palpal tarsus with two comb-like
setae; palpal claw multidentate; marginal propodosomal setae strap-like or elongate
lance-like; hysterosomal scutum with several pairs of setae; eyes present.
Mexecheles hawaiiensis (Baker)- Distinguished by strap-like marginal
propodosomal setae; three pairs of dorso-central arboreate setae on hysterosomal
scutum and distinctly reticulate gnathosomal base. Collected once from citrus leaf.

Genus Oudemansicheyla Volgin All tarsi with pedicels, empodia, and claws;
two hysterosomal scuta partially covering metapodosoma; dorsal setae rounded or
clamshell-like; eyes present.

Oudemansicheyla denmarki (Yunker)- Use generic characters. Only species
in genus; it is a fruit and leaf form.
Genus Prosocheyla Volgin-Tarsus I lacking pedicel, empodium and claws;
palpal claw with three or four teeth; tarsus I with four distinct to conspicuous terminal
setae; eyes present.
Prosocheyla buckneri (Baker) (=citrifoliata (Muma))-Distinguished by the
slender plumose dorsal setae on the palpal femora and two pairs of dorsal branched
setae on hysterosomal scutum. This is a leaf form.








Big-headed Mite (Hemicheyletia wellsi (Baker)).-The
characteristics of this mite are the same as those given for the
family above. Males and females are similar and about 1/88 inch
long (Figure 61).
The species ambushes its prey, resting beside or under
clumps of scale or trash. When prey approaches, the mite turns to
face it and spreads its feeding mechanism into a grasping posi-
tion. The eggs of this mite are round and yellow, and are laid in
protected areas, such as under empty scale armors.
Although feeding has been observed many times, this mite
has seldom been seen feeding on anything except mites of the
family Phytoseiidae. As phytoseiids are predatory on plant-
feeding mites, this mite and its relatives may be injurious to
natural control.

The closely related species, Hemicheyletia bakeri (Ehara),
is indistinguishable from the big-headed mite under field condi-
tions. This species feeds and reproduces readily on citrus red
mites, six-spotted mites and Texas citrus mites, and will also eat
and develop on yellow scale crawlers, acarids and phytoseiids.
Females reproduce without fertilization, live for about two
months and eat between 400 and 500 prey mites during their life-
time.
The species is relatively common and is found in sprayed and
unsprayed groves throughout the state during winter and spring.

Frosty Big-headed Mite (Oudemansicheyla denmarki (Yun-
ker)).-The characteristics of this mite are the same as those
given above for the family except the species is nearly round in
outline and the clamshell-like body hairs reflect light, giving the
mite a frosted appearance. Males and females are similar and
about 1/95 inch long (Figure 82).
This species is similar in habits to the big-headed mite but
the eggs and biology are not known. It is not nearly so common
on citrus as the big-headed mites. Specimens have been collected
from citrus fruit, leaves and litter in the southern and central
areas during all seasons.

FAMILY CRYPTOGNATHIDAE (CRYPTOGNATHIDS)
(Figure 83)

Cryptognathids are small mites that range from 1/75 to 1/100
of an inch in length, with small to moderate sized legs; a leathery
body covering, egg-shaped to oval bodies in outline, and swollen
to greatly swollen bodies in profile. All known species are red in









color. They are readily distinguished from related families by
their similar bead-like segmented legs, body form and color.
Males are similar to females in size and form. Body hairs are
invisible with a 10X hand lens.
Only two species of the monotypic genus, Cryptognathus
Kramer, have been found associated with citrus in Florida.
Since both species live in the litter beneath the trees, nothing
is known about their biology. The following diagnoses will
identify them. One species is illustrated for comparative use
(Figure 84).


Genus Cryptognathus Kramer Idiosoma entirely covered with a cuirass-like,
ornamented exoskeleton composed of a dorsal scutum and a ventral scutum. Extended
gnathosoma protected by a rigid, sclerotized hood. Gnathosoma retractible, chelicerae
chelate; peritremata on chelicerae; two pairs of eyes; leg coxae adjacent; leg segments
bead-like.
Cryptognathus favus Summers and Chaudri Sternocoxal portion of ventral
scutum porous and non-striate; genu II with peg-like sensillum; interscutal granules
elongate. One collection from litter on east coast.
Cryptognathus sp. near orchraceous Summers and Chaudri--Sternocoxal
portion of ventral scutum with extensive non-porous striated areas; genu II with
peg-like sensillum; interscutal granules round or nearly so. One collection from litter
in Polk County.


FAMILY CUNAXIDAE (CUNAXID OR LONG-NOSED MITES)
(Figures 62 and 63)
Long-nosed mites are small to large in size, spindle-shaped
in outline and swollen to plump in profile. The body covering is
soft, and the legs are moderate to long. Body color is normally
red, but recently-fed mites may be yellowish, greenish or
brownish. Mites of this family may be confused with Bdellidae,
but differ in having the palpi provided with spines and spurs for
grasping and in holding the palpi straight or slightly curved.
These mites are predatory. Thirteen species representing the
genera Bonzia Oudemans, Cunaxa v. Heyden, and Cunaxoides
Baker and Hoffman are known to occur on citrus in Florida. The
discussions below and illustrations are of the two most common
species that exemplify the extremes in size for the mites of this
family.
The following brief diagnoses of citrus-associated genera
and species are for specialists' use.

Genus Bonzia Oudemans Eyes present or absent; palpi 5 segmented, about as
long as chelicerae, and with a branched seta on the femora.










Bonzia bdelliformis Atyeo-Eyes absent; terminal palpal setae similar to those
on bdellids; rostrum without geniculate setae. Collected at Fort Pierce, Minneola, and
Sebring from citrus litter.
Genus Cunaxa v. Heyden Eyes absent; palpi 5 segmented, much longer than
chelicerae, and lacking a branched seta on the femora.
Cunaxa boneti B. & H. Dorsal scutum entire, covering only propodosoma;
palpal tarsus without mesal process; mesal spine-like setae present only on palpal
tibia and tarsus. Collected from citrus twigs and litter.
Cunaxa capreolus Berlese-Two dorsal scuta, covering propodosoma and
part of hysterosoma; palpal femur with flange-like mesal process; mesal spine-
like setae present only on palpal tibia and tarsus.
Cunaxa inermis (Tragardh)-Two dorsal scuta, covering propodosoma and
part of hysterosomo; palpal femur and tarsus with elongate club-shaped pro-
cesses; no distinct mesal spine-like setae on palpus.
Cunaxa mexicana Baker and Hoffman Dorsal scutum entire and covering
most of propodosoma and hysterosoma; palpal tarsus with elongate knife-like process
and mesal spine-like setae. This is a litter species.
Cunaxa setirostris (Hermann)- Dorsal scutum entire and covering most of
propodosoma; palpus without mesal processes but with mesal spine-like setae on
femur, tibia and tarsus. Collected once from citrus leaf.
Cunaxa simplex Ewing Dorsal scutum entire and covering most of propodo-
soma and hysterosoma; palpal tarsus slender and with a tiny tuberculate mesal
process; palpus lacking mesal spine-like setae. This is a litter species.
Cunaxa taurus Kramer-Dorsal scutum divided, propodosomal scutum cover-
ing most of region, hytersomal scutum tiny and accompanied by a pair of lateral
platelets; palpus with a slender, elongate mesal process between tibia and tarsus;
palpal tibia and tarsus with short stout mesal spine-like setae. This is a leaf and
litter species.
Cunaxa womersleyi Baker and Hoffman-Dorsal scutum divided, hystero-
somal scutum partially covering the region; palpal femur with short spur-like mesal
process; palpal tibia and tarsus with spine-like mesal setae. A litter species.
Genus Cunaxoides Baker and Hoffman Eyes absent; palpi 3 segmented and
with modified setae.
Cunaxoides andrei Baker and Hoffman Dorsal scutum distinct and finely
punctate; palpal tarsus with a minute triangular basal process and a small rounded
process. A common litter species.
Cunaxoides pectinatus Ewing Dorsal scutum distinct and tuberculate; palpal
tarsus with large rounded flange-like process. Taken from citrus litter at Malabar,
Florida.
Cunaxoides pectinellus Muma Dorsal scutum distinct and punctate; palpal
tarsus with large quadrate flange-like process. Collected from citrus litter at
Malabar, Florida.
Cunaxoides whartoni Baker and Hoffman-Dorsal scutum distinct with con-
sistent more or less interrupted striations; palpal tarsus with large triangular process.
Collected from citrus bark at Cleveland, Florida.


Bull Mite (Cunaxa taurus Kramer).-The bull mite is one of
the larger mites found on citrus. It is an active predator and, as a
result, food-colored, yellow, brown, or green specimens are








found much more frequently than unfed, red specimens. Adult
females measure about 1/42 inch in length (Figure 63), with the
males slightly smaller.
Mites searching for food walk deliberately but fairly rapidly.
When disturbed, this mite darts backwards some distance
before walking forward again. The eggs of this species are red,
quite spiny, and are usually laid singly on the leaf surface next to
clumps of scale.
Although the bull mite is the most common species of the
family on citrus, nothing is known about its feeding habits.
Occasionally populations of this mite will increase sharply in
unsprayed citrus groves. The species is distributed throughout
the citrus-growing areas of the state. It appears to be most
common during the cooler months.

Andre's Long-nosed Mite (Cunaxoides andrei Baker and
Hoffman).-This mite is much smaller than the bull mite, with
females measuring about 1/80 inch long (Figure 62). Specimens
can be seen with the naked eye and determined with a hand lens
because of the bright red color. In addition to size, this species
may be separated from the bull mite by the fact that the palpi are
short and the spines on the palpi cannot be seen with a hand
lens.
Nothing is known about the eggs, young or food habits
of this mite. It is uncommon on leaves but very common in
the litter beneath the trees.




FAMILY DIGAMASELLIDAE (DIGAMASELLIDS)
(Figure 84)
These mites are indistinguishable from the ascids and the
rhodacarids with low power magnification such as a 10X hand
lens. They are smaller than certain species of these closely
related families but larger than others. Furthermore, they lack
the posterio-lateral tubercles of Asca and are not found on citrus
fruit, leaves, or wood. Please refer to the description of the
Ascidae for distinguishing characters.
Digamasellids inhabit leaf mold and ground surface litter;
they have been found several times in the litter beneath citrus
trees. Only three unnamed species representing the genus
Digamasellus Berlese have been collected from citrus litter.
One species is illustrated for comparative use (Figure 84).










Genus Digamasellus Berlese-Adults and deutonymphs with a light refractive
structure or organ in the dorsal hexagonal area of the dorsal scutum. Body only
three times as long as wide; dorsal scutum divided; sternal scutum of female with
four pairs of setae; leg 2 thickened with strong, opposable spine-like setae on
ventral surface.
The three associated with citrus may be distinguished by differences in size,
station and size, form, and location of the dorsal refractive organ. They are not
named and so are not listed here.


FAMILY ERIOPHYIDAE (RUST, BUD, AND GALL MITES)
(Figures 54, 85, and 86)
Gall, bud, and rust mites are tiny, soft, worm-like mites that
are plant-feeding in habit. In addition to the worm-like or wedge-
life body outline and profile, eriophyids have two pairs of very
short legs located at the head end of the body and tiny, hidden,
needle-like mouthparts for piercing the plant tissue. No hairs
are visible under low power magnification.
Only three species of this family are known to feed on citrus
in Florida. Although all species are potentially dangerous to
citrus production, only one is widespread or abundant enough to
be of concern. This species, the citrus rust mite, is described
and discussed below.
The following technical diagnoses distinguish the three
species which represent three genera.


Aceria sheldoni (Ewing)- Hysterosoma smoothly rounded; female genital
covering with lightly curved longitudinal lines; featherclaw 5-rayed; hysterosomal
microtubercles rounded. A pale yellow gall or leaf and bud-aborting species,
particularly on lemons and limes. This is the citrus bud mite.
Aculops pelekassi (Keiffer)- Hysterosoma smoothly rounded (Figure 85);
female genital covering with longitudinal curved lines; featherclaw 4-rayed;
hysterosomal microtubercles lacking. A pink to straw-colored vagrant species found
on leaves, fruit, and twigs, particularly on seeding or nursery citrus. This is the pink
citrus rust mite.

Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) Hysterosoma with a broad longitudinal
trough covering most of dorsum (Figure 86); female genital covering granulate
anteriorly and lined posteriorly; featherclaw simple; hysterosomal microtubercles
minute or absent. A pale yellow vagrant species on leaves, fruit, and twigs of most
citrus.


Citrus Rust Mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora Ashmead). This
mite appears tiny even through a 10X hand lens (Figure 54).
Normally it is pale to bright yellow and looks like a wedge or
tapered cylinder in either outline or profile view. Mature female
mites are about 1/200 inch long, and the round eggs are com-








paratively large, one-fourth the size of the female. Male mites
are not distinguishable. Mites move slowly and deliberately,
dragging the body like a worm.
Rust mites infest leaves, green twigs and fruit on all parts of
the tree, but are generally more abundant on fruit toward the
outside of the tree. Heaviest infestations are normally found
during late summer and early winter. Several types of injury are
attributed to rust mites: under-developed fruits; a coarse, rough,
brown fruit russeting; a smooth, shiny, brown fruit russeting;
a sharkskin-like, silvery fruit russeting; under-developed leaves;
and a brown to black leaf scorching.
The rust mite is statewide in distribution and is considered
the most injurious mite found on citrus. A more detailed account
of this mite and the injury it causes may be found in University
of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 591.
The citrus rust mite is controlled by spraying or dusting with
recommended miticides.3

FAMILY EUPALOPSELLIDAE (EUPALOPSELLIDS)
(Figure 69)
These small mites are oval in outline and swollen in profile.
The legs are short to moderate in length. Body coloration varies
from pink through orange to red. Some species have the body
hairs long and thick, easily visible with a 10X hand lens, others
have tiny hairs, invisible except under very high magnifications.
Eupalopsellids are very closely related to stigmaeids, with which
they were included until recently. Some species, in fact, are
indistinguishable from stigmaeids under field conditions.
Although the family includes four genera, only two have
been taken in association with Florida citrus trees. One species is
fairly common on citrus leaves and fruit. It is described and
discussed below as the spiny red mite. The other species is rare
but is distinguished from the common form in the following
technical diagnoses.

Exothorhis caudata Summers Idiosoma without dorsal scuta; dorsal setae
arising from tubercles are long, stout, and coarsely denticulate.
Saniosulus nudus Summers Idiosoma with unstriated, scuta-like propodo-
somal areas, mesad of eyes and with caudal hysterosomal scutum; dorsal setae not
arising from tubercles are tiny and setiform.

3 For specific miticide recommendations to control any of the plant-feeding mites
discussed in this bulletin, please refer to the current Better Fruit Program,
published by the Florida Department of Citrus, Lakeland, Florida, and available
through the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.


























\/ \ 33















34







I







35

36

PLATE II-FUNGUS-FEEDING, PREDATORY, AND SCAVENGER MITES
Figure 32. Two-spotted fungus mite. 33. White fungus mite. 34. Chalk-striped
mite. 35. Culture blattisocid. 36. Bat-winged mite.











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42


PLATE III-FUNGUS-FEEDING AND SCAVENGER MITES
Figure 37. Common beetle mite. 38. White-tailed mite. 39. Trash mite. 40. Black
tarsonemid. 41. Saddle-back mite, female, 42. eggs, 43. male.


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is


PLATE IV-PLANT-FEEDING MITES
Figure 44. Citrus red mite, female, 45. eggs, 46. male. 47. Texas citrus mite,
female, 48. eggs, 49. male. 50. Tumid mite, female.


U1










52


056


PLATE V- PLANT-FEEDING MITES
Figure 51. Six-spotted mite, female, 52. eggs, 53. male. 54. Citrus rust mites
under 10X hand lends. 55. Broad mite, female, 56. eggs. 57. Red flat mite.










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60
I b










PLATE VI PREDATORY MITES
Figure 58. Whirligig mite. 59. Citrus snout mite.
61.Big-headed mite. 62. Andre's long-nosed mite.


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6 6






61



60. Two-spined mite.


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68
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PLATE VII-PREDATORY MITES
Figure 63. Bull mite. 64. Scale mite. 65. Balloon mite. 66. Stilt-legged mite.
67. Strawberry mite, female, 68. eggs. 69. Spiny red mite.






































































PLATE VIII-PREDATORY MITES
Figure 70. Citrus macrochelid. 71. Frosted mite. 72. Long-legged mite.
73. Crowned mite. 74. Clear mite.









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\ 75


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76


% 77 1
PLATE IX- PREDATORY MILES
Figure 75. Shiny button mite. 76. Velvet button mite. 77. Long-haired mite.
78. Yellow mite. 79. Sub-tropical mite. 80. Tan mite.


i
















r;81 y j.:


83











S* '8























87 88


PLATE X-PLANT-FEEDING, FUNGUS-FEEDING, AND PREDATORY MITES
Figure 81. Slender fungus mite. 82. Frosty big-headed mite. 83. Cryptognathid.
84. Digamasellid. 85. Pink rust mite. 86. Citrus rust mite. 87. Eupodid.
88. Laelapid (Androlaelaps sp.).









































90


PLATE XI-PREDATORY MITES
Figure 89. Laelapid (Ololaelaps sp.). 90. Nanorchestid.
92. Pachylaelapid. 93. Parasitid (nymph).


91. Pachygnathid




































































PLATE XII- PREDATORY MITES
Figure 94. Podocinid. 95. Rhagidiid.































































9 98





PLATE XIII- PREDATORY AND PARASITIC MITES
Figure 96. Rhaphignathid. 97. Rhodacarid. 98. Scutacarid.
100. Vegaiid.


99 Uropodid.








Spiny Red Mite (Exothorhis caudata Summers).-This mite
can be identified by the family characteristics given above.
Mature mites are about 1/127 inch long (Figure 69). The body
hairs are long and can easily be seen with a hand lens. They are
easily confused with young citrus red mites, but may be
identified by the apparent lack of tubercles at the bases of the
body hairs and a deliberate movement when disturbed.
Several specimens of this species have been taken, mainly
from a grove west of Fort Pierce, Florida, but usually only one
specimen at a time is seen. Nothing is known of its eggs, young,
or habits.

FAMILY EUPODIDAE (EUPODIDS)
(Figure 87)
These small to moderate sized mites are broad oval to pear-
shaped in outline and swollen to plump in profile with a soft
body covering. The legs are moderately long to long; the first
or last pair of legs are frequently swollen and longer than the
others; the first pair of legs are vibrated rapidly as feelers, the
others are used for walking. Body hairs may be visible at the back
end with a 10X hand lens. Eupodids are usually yellowish or
greenish in color, often with flecks of darker color (Figure 87).
Males and females are similar rapidly moving mites.
Some eupodids are known to be plant-feeders. A few are
economically important. Most of the species associated with
Florida citrus are found in the leaf mold or litter beneath the
trees. These species could be feeding on algae and fungi that
grow on such rotting organic materials. The species of Eupodes
occasionally found on citrus leaves could also be feeding on the
algae, fungi or liver-worts that grow on the leaf surfaces. Alto-
gether, two genera and four species have been recorded in
association with citrus, but none of the species have been
properly named. The genera are briefly diagnosed here for
specialist use.

Genus Eupodes Koch-Leg 4 femora greatly enlarged; leg 1 longer than other
legs frequently as long as body. Three species have been found in association with
Florida citrus, one in the litter beneath the trees, one in the litter and on the leaves,
and one about 1/50 inch long, exclusively on the leaves. They are easily distinguished
by the size and form of the dorso-central hysterosomal setae and the comparative
length of leg 1. None of the species is common.
Genus Protereunetes Berlese-Leg 4 femora not or only slightly enlarged; leg 1
subequal with or only slightly longer than leg 4. Only one species has been collected
from citrus leaf mold and litter.








FAMILY HEMISARCOPTIDAE
(HEMISARCOPTID OR SCALE MITES)
(Figure 64)
These small mites are long and somewhat egg-shaped, but
with nearly parallel sides in outline and flattened in profile. The
front pair of legs are short but the hind pair are very short,
extending just beyond the sides of the body. They are bright
yellow and are nearly always found under armored scales
feeding on the scale and its eggs. The body covering is soft. Body
hairs are not visible with a 10X hand lens. When disturbed, these
mites move very clumsily.
Scale Mite (Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer).-This is the only
known species in the family. It is identified by the above char-
acters. Males and females are similar and are about 1/98 inch
long (Figure 64).
Eggs and young are found with the adults under red scale
armors. Both are yellow, the same color as red scale crawlers.
Although this mite is reported to attack several species of
scale, it is found most frequently attacking Florida red scale and
citrus snow scale on citrus in this state. The mites feed primarily
upon the eggs of the scale and are most common during fall
and winter in heavy scale infestations.


FAMILY LAELAPIDAE (LAELAPIDS)
(Figures 88 and 89)

Laelapids are moderate to large in size, about 1/50 to 1/30
inch in length, egg-shaped to oval in outline, usually somewhat
flattened in profile, and have a leathery to hard body covering.
The moderately long legs are invisible under 10X magnification
on most species but the ventral plates are distinct. Most species
are light brown, dark brown, or brownish-red.
This is a large family of mites; many genera and species are
parasitic on birds, small mammals, and even reptiles. A number
of genera and species are free-living, predatory, or at most semi-
parasitic in a wide variety of habitats. At least 6 genera and 16
species have been collected from the leaf mold and litter
beneath citrus trees. Since none of the species have been taken
from the fruit, leaves, or bark of Florida citrus trees, they are
probably not involved in the economy of citrus. The six most
common genera are briefly diagnosed here for technical use,
and two common species are illustrated for comparative pur-
poses (Figures 88 and 89).










Genus Androlaelaps Berlese-Female genito-ventral scutum well separated
from anal scutum and bearing one pair of setae; sternal scutum with three pairs
of setae; apotele two-tined; pre-endopodal scuta indistinct; leg 2 femora with well
developed spur; genu IV with 10 setae. Common in citrus leaf mold.

Genus Cosmolaelaps Berlese-Female genito-ventral scutum slightly ex-
panded posteriorly, rounded, bearing one pair of setae, and well separated from anal
scutum, sternal scutum with three pairs of setae; apotele two-tined; leg 2 femora
without spur; genu IV with nine setae; dorsal setae spatulate, cuneiform, scimitar-
like, or knobbed at base. Common in citrus leaf mold.

Genus Hypoaspis G. Canestrini-Female genito-ventral scutum unexpanded
with one pair of setae and well separated from anal scutum; sternal scutum with
three pairs of setae; apotele two-tined; leg 2 femora without spur; genu IV with
nine setae; dorsal setae setiform or long and whip-like. Common in citrus leaf mold.

Genus Ololaelaps Berlese-Female genito-ventral scutum fused with anal scutum
and bearing four to six pairs of preanal setae; metasternal setae on sternal scutum;
apotele three-tined with posterior tine small; pre-endopodal scuta present; deuto-
sternum with six rows of denticules. Common in citrus leaf mold.

Genus Pseudoparasitus Oudemans-Female genito-ventral scutum enlarged
and truncate posteriorly, bearing four or more pairs of setae, and extending
to anal scutum; three pairs of sternal setae; apotele three-tined; pre-endopodal
scuta distinct; genu IV with nine setae. Occasionally found in citrus leaf mold.

Genus Laelaspis Berlese-Female genito-ventral scutum widely expanded behind
coxae IV, bearing two to three pairs of marginal setae, and extending to anal scutum;
three pairs of sternal setae; metapodal scuta linear; apotele two-tined; leg 2 femora
without spur; genu IV with nine setae; dorsal setae setiform or scimitar-like, knobbed
near base or spined. Common in citrus leaf mold.


FAMILY MACROCHELIDAE (MACROCHELIDS)
(Figure 70)
Macrochelids are large, oval or egg-shaped mites with
moderately long to long legs that are light to dark brown in color.
The body covering is leathery. They are somewhat flattened in
profile. These mites are characterized by front legs longer and
more slender than the others. The front legs lack claws and are
used as feelers.
Only two species have been found on citrus, but eight
species have been taken from the litter beneath the trees. The
genera and species involved are briefly diagnosed here. One
of the species found on the trees is illustrated and discussed
below.


Genus Areolaspis Tragardh Vertical setae on anterior projection of dorsal
shield; dorsal shield with a row of deep, oval pits along lateral margins. Dorsal
shield setae shorter than intersetal distance. Leg 2 with sclerotized ridges. Peritremal
and exopodal shields fused.
An unnamed species of this genus is found in citrus litter.










Genus Glyptholaspis Filipponi and Pegazzano Dorsal shield strongly crenulate-
reticulate, and dentate laterally and posteriorly, but without anterior protuberance.
Sternal shield with raised polygonal design. Dorsal seta of cheliceral fixed finger
denticulate. Otherwise as in Macrocheles.

Glyptholaspis americana (Berlese) Dorsal shield with coarse and fine lateral
serrations; posterior-dorsal setae long and weakly plumose. Ventrianal scutum about
as long as wide. This is a litter species.

Glyptholaspis fimicola (Berlese)- Dorsal shield with only coarse lateral
serrations; posterior-dorsal setae short and strongly plumose. Ventrianal scutum much
wider than long. This is a litter species.

Genus Holotaspella Berlese Vertical setae on anterior projection of dorsal
shield; dorsal shield with well-defined lateral depressions. Dorsal shield setae as long
or longer than intersetal distance. Leg 2 of female with stout spurs. Peritremal and
exopodal shields not fused. Closely related to Areolaspis.

Holotaspella bifoliata (Trag.) This species can be distinguished by the generic
characters given above since it is the only species known from citrus bark and litter.

Genus Macrocheles Latreille Dorsal shield smooth or serrate laterally and
without distinct anterior protuberance. Peritremal and exopodal shields not fused.
Chelicerae with ventral setal brush. Leg 2 and often leg 4 of male spurred.

Macrochelesinsignitis(Berlese) -Small species(660). Dorsal shield imbricate
with punctate lines and smooth imbrications; dorsal setae small and setaceous; sterum
lunate, ventrianal shield with distinctly punctate lines; ventrianal shield distinctly
longer than wide. This is a litter species.

Macrocheles merdarius (Berlese)-Small species (650,). Dorsal shield
imbricate with punctate lines and finely punctate imbrications; dorsal setae short
and stout with anterior pair setiform like others. Sternal and ventrianal shields lined
with punctate lines. Ventrianal shield much longer than wide. This species has been
taken from citrus leaves and litter. (Figure 70).

Macrocheles robustulus (Berlese) Small species (550,). Dorsal shield faintiv
to distinctly imbricate with punctate lines and finely punctate imbrications; dorsal
setae tiny with anterior pair larger and plumose apically. Sternal shield densely
punctate; ventrianal shield lined with strong punctate lines. Ventrianal shield much
longer than wide. This is a litter species.

Macrocheles sp. near muscaedomesticae (Scopoli)- Large species (850U).
Dorsal shield distinctly imbricate with strong punctation and finely punctate imbrica-
tion; dorsal setae short and stout with anterior pair larger and serrate apically.Sternum
lunate; ventrianal shield lined with strongly punctate lines. Ventrianal shield not or
only slightly longer than wide. This is a litter species.




Citrus Macrochelid (Macrocheles merdarius (Berlese).-
This species measures about 1/45 inch long (Figure 70). Other-
wise, the characters given above for the family will serve to
identify this species.
This mite has been found twice on an orange leaf. Other
specimens have been collected in litter under citrus trees, but
apparently it rarely climbs above ground level.









FAMILY NANORCHESTIDAE (NANORCHESTIDS)
(Figure 90)

These mites are small in size, about 1/50 inch long, with
short legs, soft body covering, long-oval to oval bodies in outline,
and greatly swollen to plump in profile. They are commonly
yellow to pink in color and retain the color when preserved.
Males and females are similar in size and appearance. The legs
are grouped well forward on the body and are fitted for walking.
Body hairs are not visible with a 10X hand lens.
Nothing is known about the food habits of these mites, which
inhabit the litter and leaf mold beneath the citrus trees. It has
been speculated that they feed on protozoa and bacteria in this
niche. Only two genera and three species have been collected
from citrus litter. These are briefly diagnosed below. The most
common form is illustrated in Figure 90 for comparisons.


Genus Nanorchestes Topsent and Trouessart Body oval. Eyes, one pair and
lateral. Body setae tree-like. Propodosoma and hysterosoma indistinctly separated.
Legs with serpentine lines. Chelicerae with dorsal forked setae.
Nanorchestes capensis Theron and Ryke Forked cheliceral setae with anterior
arm twice the length of posterior arm. Posterior sensillae densely ciliate.
Nanorchestes usualis Theron and Ryke Forked cheliceral setae with subequal
anterior and posterior arms. Posterior sensillae sparsely ciliate.

GenusSpeleorchestes Tragardh Body elongate. Eyes, one pair and dorsal. Body
setae fan-like. Gnathosoma, propodosoma, and hysterosoma distinctly separated. Legs
lacking serpentine lines. Chelicerae without dorsal forked setae.
Speleorchestes meyerae Theron and Ryke Use generic description.


FAMILY NEOPHYLLOBIIDAE (STILT-LEGGED MITES)
(Figure 66)
These small to moderate-sized, soft-skinned mites have
bodies that are oval through broad-oval to round in outline
and somewhat swollen in profile. The legs are long and
slender, and are frequently provided with long, slender setae
that are visible with a 10X hand lens. Body coloration is variable,
but is predominately red or brown or marked with red or brown.
Body hairs are short and invisible on some species, and long and
readily visible on others.
Only three species of the family have been found associated
with citrus in Florida. All are diagnosed within the type genus
here, and the common species is discussed below and illus-
trated.










Genus Neophyllobius Berlese-Idiosoma discoidal; legs stilt-like; palpi 5
segmented with slender tibial claw or claw-like seta; leg genua frequently with an
elongate whip-like macroseta.
Neophyllobius equalis DeLeon All genual macrosetae elongate and whip-like;
ge I and ge II shorter than tibiae; ge III and ge IV as long as or longer than tibiae.
One collection from leaf.
Neophyllobiusmexicanus McGregor All genual macrosetae elongate but only
ge IV whip-like and about as long as tibiae. Leaf and twig species.
Neophyllobius sp. nr. texanus McGregor Only ge IV strikingly elongate and
is distinctly shorter than tibiae. One collection from leaf.


Stilt-legged Mite (Neophyllobius mexicanus McG.).- This
mite is about 1/75 inch long and has long, slender legs, each
provided with a long hair that is visible with a 10X hand lens.
Body coloration may be amber marked with brown or green
marked with red, brown, or black (Figure 66).
Although several young and adult mites have been col-
lected, nothing is known of the food habits of the species.
All specimens have been collected in the northern and
central citrus areas.

ORIBATEI (BEETLE, BAT-WINGED AND TURTLE MITES)
(Figures 36 and 37)
These mites are represented by a large number of families.
Eleven families are known to be associated with citrus. They are
more commonly found on the limbs and trunks and in the
litter under the trees, but several species are found on the leaves
and fruits of unsprayed citrus.
Adult mites have a leathery or hard, shell-like body cover-
ing. They are moderate to large in size, teardrop to round in
outline, and somewhat swollen to swollen in profile. They have
short to moderate-sized legs. Most species are light to dark
brown, but some are yellow and at least one has a purplish tint.
Body hairs are not or scarcely visible with a 10X hand lens.
Immature mites, larvae or nymphs, lack the hard body covering,
frequently have visible body hairs, and appear much like the
Acarei.
The two species of beetle mites discussed below, and illus-
trated are examples of the species occasionally found on twigs,
leaves, and fruit. These mites are scavengers, or fungus and
algae feeders and are not of any known direct importance in
the culture of citrus. They are, however, very numerous in the










litter beneath the trees and unquestionably serve as food for
predators as well as in recycling organic matter.
At least 12 families and 14 genera of these mites have been
collected in association with citrus in Florida. Most species occur
in the litter and leaf mold beneath the trees, but at times,
especially during periods of high humidity, species of eight
families may be found on the bark, leaves, and fruit. Brief
diagnoses of the 11 citrus-associated families are given here.


CAMISIIDAE-Prosoma and opisthosoma not hinged; genital and anal open-
ings large, touching each other and covering most of opisthosoma; genital and
anal openings in a narrow, common frame; hysterosoma flat or weakly arched
ventrally; hysterosoma dorsally flat, marginate, or with sunken dorsal surface.
Found in the litter beneath citrus trees.

CARABODIDAE Prosoma and opisthosoma not hinged; genital and anal openings
small and separated by a section of the ventral plate; without pteromorphs or
wings; chelicerae chelate; legs normal, shorter than body, and at or near lateral
margins; margin of dorsal shield not bent ventrally; with pseudostigmata and
pseudostigmatic organs; dorsum of hysterosoma usually with strong sculpturing
or punctations; legs 1 and 2 femora usually with slender petiole and swollen distally.
Found in the litter beneath the citrus trees. Collected once from citrus bark.

EREMAEIDAE-Prosoma and opisthosoma not hinged; genital and anal openings
small and separated by a section of ventral plate; without pteromorphs or wings;
chelicerae chelate; legs normal, shorter than body with pseudostigmata and pseudo-
stigmatic organs; dorsum of hysterosoma smooth or weakly punctate; legs 1 and 2
femora never with slender petiole and swollen distally. Specimens have been coi-
lected from leaves, bark, and litter of citrus trees.

GALUMNIDAE-Prosoma and opisthosoma not hinged; genital and anal openings
small and separated by a section of the ventral plate; pteromorphs or wings
movably hinged; pteromorphs with anterior and posterior projections; lamellae
not covering much of dorsum; genital plate with six pairs of setae. Specimens have
been collected from citrus leaves and from the litter beneath citrus trees.

HAPLOZETIDAE-Prosoma and opisthosoma not hinged; genital and anal openings
small and separated by a section of the ventral plate; pteromorphs or wings movably
hinged; pteromorphs without anterior and posterior projections; genital plate with
four or five pairs of setae. Found on the bark of citrus trees.

MALACONOTHRIDAE-Prosoma and opisthosoma not hinged; genital and anal
openings large, touching each other and covering most of opisthosoma; genital and
anal openings in a narrow, common frame; hysterosoma flat ventrally and weakly
arched dorsally; without pseudostigmata and pseudostigmatic organs. Collected
once from the litter beneath citrus.

NEOLIODIDAE-Prosoma and opisthosoma not hinged; genital and anal openings
large, touching each other and covering most of opisthosoma; genital and anal
openings in a broad, common ventral plate filling hysterosomal width; hysterosoma
dorsally flat or weakly arched, without tube-like or other lateral projections;
genital plate divided by transverse suture. Adults bear exuviae of immatures.
Collected once from an orange leaf.

ORIBATELLIDAE-Prosoma and opisthosoma not hinged; genital and anal open-
ings small and separated by a section of the ventral plate; pteromorphs or wings









not movably hinged; pteromorphs attached only to hysterosoma and not covering
much of propodosoma; pteromorphs large and curved ventrally; lamellae covering
propodosoma. Found on citrus leaves.

ORIBATULIDAE-Prosoma and opisthosoma not hinged; genital and anal openings
small and separated by a section of the ventral plate; pteromorphs or wings not
movably hinged; pteromorphs attached only to hysterosoma and not covering much
of propodosoma; pteromorphs small; lamellae not covering propodosoma. Common
on citrus leaves, fruit and bark, and in the litter beneath the trees.

ORIPODIDAE-Prosoma and opisthosoma not hinged; genital and anal open-
ings small and separated by a section of the ventral plate; pteromorphs or wings
not movably hinged; pteromorphs attached to both propodosoma and hysterosoma
and covering pseudostigmata and much of propodosoma; with two pairs of genital
setae. Collected twice from orange leaves.
PHTHIRACARIDAE-Prosoma and opisthosoma hinged to fold and unfold armadillo-
like; hysterosoma not segmented; genital and anal openings touching each other;
not situated in a large ventral plate. Found in the litter beneath the citrus trees.


FAMILY PACHYGNATHIDAE (PACHYGNATHIDS)
(Figure 91)
Pachygnathids are small mites that measure from 1/80 to
1/60 of an inch in length, with short to moderate-sized legs, a
soft body covering, oval to broad-oval bodies in outline, and
greatly swollen to plump bodies in profile. Most species are
whitish in color. Males and females are similar in size and ap-
pearance. Body hairs are tiny and invisible with a 10X hand lens.
These mites are presumed to be predatory, but little is
known about them. They usually inhabit leaf mold and litter
beneath the trees, but collections have been made from the bark
of citrus. Two genera are known to be associated with citrus
in Florida, but specific identifications have not been made. The
genera are briefly diagnosed below. The bark-collected species
is illustrated in Figure 91 for comparisons.

Pachygnathus sp. Chelicerae robust and distinctly chelate; propodosomal
sensoria all elongate and plumose; derm alutaceous.
Bimichaelia sp. Chelicerae slender and scissor-like; posterior pair of propo-
dosomal sensoria globular or leaf-like; derm reticulate.


FAMILY PACHYLAELAPIDAE (PACHYLAELAPIDS)
(Figure 92)
Pachylaelapids are moderate in size, about 1/60 inch long,
with moderate legs, a leathery body covering, egg-shaped to
long-oval in outline, and somewhat swollen in profile. Most
species are yellow to light tan in color. Body hairs are short and









numerous but are indistinct to invisible with a 10X hand lens.
These mites are easily confused with or are indistinguish-
able from some species of Blattisocidae and Phytoseiidae. They
are, however, found only in the litter beneath the citrus trees,
so do not often pose an identification problem. Although the
family is represented by several genera, only one species has
been found in association with citrus in Florida. It is briefly
diagnosed below and illustrated in Figure 92.

Zygoseius furciger Berlese Dorsal scutum imbricate and punctate; dorsal
scuta setae setiform and shorter than intersetal distance. Sternal and ventrianal scuta
imbricate and punctate; sternal scutum convex posteriorly on female; ventrianal
scutum with five or six pairs of preanal setae. Female genital scutum truncate
and smooth. Spermathecum developed on only one side of body, vesicular and
terminating in a bean-like structure. Spermotodactyl longer and thicker than
cheliceral fingers and apparently L-shaped. Legs 3 more robust than 1, 2, and 4
and with a ventral connate process on genua in males.

FAMILY PARASITIDAE (PARASITIDS)
(Figure 93)
Parasitids are large in size, some species attaining a length
of nearly 1/16 of an inch. The legs are moderate to long; the
body covering is leathery; the body is egg-shaped to oval and
somewhat flattened to swollen. The body is light to dark brown,
and immatures (nymphs) have two distinct dorsal plates. The
numerous body hairs may be distinct but frequently are indis-
tinct with a 10X hand lens.
Males and females are similar in appearance, they are
rapidly moving mites that use all of the legs in walking. When
disturbed these mites move very rapidly and seem to vibrate as
well as walk with the front legs. Most populations of these mites
live in the leaf mold and litter beneath the citrus trees, where
they are unseen. On occasion, however, large numbers have
been seen running over the surface of the ground or on the
lower side of fertilizer sacks lying on the ground. Nymphs are
more frequently seen than adults.
This family is represented by several genera, but only the
genus Parasitus Latrielle has been found in Florida citrus groves.
Five species are distinguishable, but none have been adequately
placed in described species or named. Figure 93 is of a typical
nymph of the genus.

FAMILY PHYTOSEIIDAE (PHYTOSEIIDS)
(Figures 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, and 80)
These moderate-sized mites are quite variable in outline,








profile, leg length, and body covering. The soft to hard-shelled
bodies may be round, egg-shaped, or long-oval in outline and
vary from somewhat flattened to swollen in profile. Most species
have the legs moderate in length, but at least one has long legs.
All species run rapidly and agilely when disturbed. Although
quite variable, the mites in this family have such similarity of
general appearance and habit that they are easily identified.
Males are slightly to distinctly smaller than females. The mouth-
parts are of the chewing type and can be drawn into the body.
At least 19 genera and 38 species of this family occur on or
are associated with citrus in Florida. The mites of this family are
mainly predatory in habit and thus are beneficial.
Since so many genera and species of the family are associ-
ated with citrus, Tables 6 and 7 have been constructed for
acarology specialist use in distinguishing the different forms.

Yellow Mite (Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)).- This
mite is the most widespread and common representative of the
genus on citrus. It may be identified by a teardrop-shaped out-
line, a slightly swollen to somewhat swollen profile, and
moderately long legs (Figure 78). Females measure about 1/64
inch in length. The last two pairs of legs have one or two long
slender hairs that are visible with a 10X hand lens. Body hairs
are usually not visible, but one pair at the back end may be
barely distinguishable with a lens. The body color varies from
white to cream with black, red, brown, or green food materials
sometimes visible through the body wall. The young mites are
translucent. Eggs are oval and transparent. Eggs and young
are found scattered over the leaf surface.
The species is active at night, hiding under or beside clumps
of scale, fungus or trash on the underside of shaded leaves
during the day. At night yellow mites migrate to all parts of the
trees. It has been demonstrated to feed on scale eggs and
crawlers, whiteflies, acarids, citrus red mites, six-spotted mites,
Texas citrus mites, and chalk-striped mites. It can also survive
on fungus, honey, and pollen. The yellow mite is easily confused
with several other species, but since it is so abundant, the
problem of identity lacks importance.
Yellow mites are more. common in the southern and central
citrus areas and reach peaks of population in winter and spring.

Shiny Button Mite (Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks)).--
This mite is readily identified by its shiny, dark, mahogany-red
color and by four long, slender body hairs, two of which
project at the back end of the body and are easily seen with a








10X hand lens (Figure 75). Adult females measure 1/50 inch
in length. The body of this mite is almost round and swollen
to a nearly hemispheric profile. Young mites of this species have
soft pink bodies with two long hairs at the back end of the body
that serve for identification.
This mite is a general predator of acarids, whiteflies, spider
mites, rust mites, tarsonemids, and scale crawlers and eggs.
It can also survive on honey and sooty mold. The species is
active at night; specimens seen during the day are usually resting
in protected places on the undersides of leaves. Eggs are nearly
round and translucent white, often with an internal spot of red.
Young mites are similarly colored. Eggs and young are
often found in protected places.
The species is relatively common, particularly on grape-
fruit trees, and is distributed throughout the citrus-growing
areas, but is most common in the north and west. It seems to
be most abundant in the spring.

Long-haired Mite (Amblyseius aerialis (Muma)). -This
species may be distinguished by its white to pale yellow, soft
body and long slender body hairs (Figure 77). The body is
somewhat swollen in profile and tear-drop-shaped in outline.
Adult females are about 1/58 inch long. The legs are moderately
long.
These mites have been observed feeding on six-spotted
mites and Texas citrus mites. They are common in groves with
heavy infestations of flat mites. The eggs of the species are oval
and translucent white, but the young have not been carefully
studied. Long-haired mites are common in some groves and
and rare in others. This species is more frequently collected in
winter.

Velvet Button Mites (Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma).-The
velvet button mite is identified by its velvety, rose-red color and
by four long hairs that project at the back end of the body
(Figure 76). The body of this mite is hemispherical and measures
1/65 inch in length. Young mites have only two hairs projecting
at the back end of the body.
This mite usually is seen beside and in clusters of two-
spotted fungus-feeding mites of the family Acaridae on which
they apparently feed. Eggs, young mites, and adults often are
found at the same time. Eggs are broad-oval to round and
usually have an internal pink or red spot. Young mites have
soft bodies that are tinted with pink or red. The species seems
to feed during the day.












TABLE 6. GENERIC AND SPECIFIC CHARACTERS OF AMBLYSEIINAE ASSOCIATED WITH FLORIDA CITRUS


Genus and species Dorsal Ventral Leg Sternal
setal setal macrosetal length
formula formula formula to
D. M, L, S St, PAS, VL I, 11, I1I, IV width


Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma 2,2,8,2 3,3,3 0,0,0, 2 L
Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) 3,1,8,2 3,1,3 0,0,0,2 L
Proprioseiopsis citri (Muma) 3, 3,8, 2 3, 3, 3 0,0,0,3 L cannaensis (Muma) 3,3,8,2 3,3, 3 0,0,0,3 L< W
rotundus(Muma) 3,3,8,2 3,3,3 0,0,0, 3 L detritus (Muma) 3,3,8,2 3,3,3 0,1,1,3 L Sclausae (Muma) 3,3,8,2 3,3,3 0,1,1,3 L asetus (Chant) 3,3,8,2 3,3,3 0,1,1,3 L lepidus (Chant) 3,3,8,2 3,3,3 0, 1,1,3 L macrosetae(Muma) 3,3,8,2 3,3,3 3,1,2,3 L dorsatus (Muma) 3,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,2,3 L=W
solens (DeLeon) 3,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,2,3 L=W

Ambylseiella setosa Muma 4,3,7,2 3,1,4 1,1,1,3 L= W

Chelaseius floridanus (Muma) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,1,3 L
Ambylseius aerialis (Muma) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,2,3 L deleoniMuma & Denmark 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,3,3 L>W
largoensis (Muma) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,3,3 L>W

Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,1,3 L
Fundiseius cesi (Muma) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 0,0,0,3 L








Noeledius iphiformis (Muma) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 0,0,0,3 L
Typhodromips simplicissimus (DeLeon) 4,3,8,2 3, 3,3 1, 1,1,3 L deleoni(Muma) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,1,3 L>W
dillus (DeLeon) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,2,3 L dentilis (DeLeon) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,1,3 L
Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) 4,3, 8,2 3,3,3 1,1,1,3 L>W
limonicus(Garman & McGregor) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 1,1,2, 3 L>W

Euseius hibisci (Chant) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 0,1,1,3 L>W

Neoseiulus gracilis (Muma) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 O 0,0, 1 L> W
marinellus (Muma) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 0, 0, 0 L>W
planatus (Muma) 4,3,8,2 3,3,3 0,0,0, 1 L>W

S Paraamblyseius lunatus Muma 4,3,8,2 3,4,1 00,0,0 L

D=dorsal setae, M=median setae, L=lateral setae, S=sub-lateral setae Continued
St=sternal setae, PAS=preanal setae, VL=ventro-lateral setae
< =is less than, >=is greater than













TABLE 6.-GENERIC AND SPECIFIC CHARACTERS OF AMBLYSEIINAE ASSOCIATED WITH FLORIDA CITRUS (Continued)

Genus and species Sternal Ventrianal Ventrianal Ant. ext. Peritremal
scutal scutal width to peritreme stigmatal
post. form genital scutal
margin condition


Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma
Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks)
Proprioseiopsis citri (Muma)
cannaensis (Muma)
rotundus (Muma)
detritus (Muma)
clausae (Muma)
asetus (Chant)
lepidus (Chant)
macrosetae (Muma)
dorsatus (Muma)
solens (DeLeon)
Amblyseiella setosa Muma
Chelaseius floridanus (Muma)
Amblyseius aerialis (Muma)
deleoni Muma & Denmark
largoensis (Muma)
Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks)
Fundiseius cesi (Muma)
Noeledius iphiformis (Muma)


Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave


Pentagonal
Quadrate
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Quadrate
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Vase-Shaped
Vase-Shaped
Shield
Shield
Pentagonal


Wider
Narrower
Wider
Equal
Equal
Wider
Equal
Wider
Wider
Wider
Equal
Equal
Narrower
Wider
Equal
Equal
Equal
Wider
Wider
Narrower


to V
Beyond L1
to V
Between V
Between V
to V
Between V
Between V
Between V
Between V
to V
to V
to V
Between V
Between V
Between V
Between V
to L1
Between V
Between V


Complex
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Separate
Fused
Fused
Fused
Fused
Fused
Separate
Separate
Separate










Typhodromips simplicissimus (DeLeon)
deleoni (Muma)
dillus (DeLeon)
dentilis (DeLeon)
Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)
limonicus (Garman & McGregor)
Euseius hibisci (Chant)
Neoseiulus gracilis (Muma)
marinellus (Muma)
p/anatus(Muma)
Paraamblyseius lunatus (Muma)


Concave
Concave
Concave
Concave
Lobate
Lobate
Lobate
Concave
Concave
Concave
Undulate


D = dorsal setae, M = median setae, L = lateral setae, S = sub-lateral setae
St = sternal setae, PAS = preanal setae VL = ventro-lateral setae
< = is less than, >= is greater than


Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Vase-Shaped
Vase-Shaped
Vase-Shaped
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Pentagonal
Massive


Wider
Wider
Wider
Wider
Narrower
Narrower
Narrower
Wider
Wider
Wider
Much Wider


Between V
Between V
Between V
Between V
to V
to V
to L1
to V
to V
to V
to V


Separate
Separate
Fused
Fused
Fused
Fused
Fused
Fused
Fused
Fused
Complex


Continued












TABLE 6.-GENERIC AND SPECIFIC CHARACTERS OF AMBLYSEIINAE ASSOCIATED WITH FLORIDA CITRUS (Continued)

Genus and species Cheliceral size Comp. Spermathecal form
and dentition leg size and definition
formula
Size MF-FF Cervix Atrium


Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma
Phytoseiulus macropi/is (Banks)
Proprioseiopsis citri (Muma)
cannaensis (Muma)
rotundus (Muma)
detritus (Muma)
clausae (Muma)
asetus (Chant)
lepidus (Chant)
macrosetae (Muma)
dorsatus (Muma)
solens (DeLeon)
Amblyseiella setosa Muma
Chelaseius floridanus (Muma)
Amblyseius aerialis (Muma)
deleoni Muma & Denmark
largoensis (Muma)
Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks)
Fundiseius cesi (Muma)
Noeledius iphiformis (Muma)


Small
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Massive
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate


3-6
3-8
0-6
0-4
0-4
0-6
0-10
0-6
?
0-8
1-14
2-6
1-2
0-3
1,4-8,10
1,3-7,9
1,2-10
3-9,10
0,1-6
0-3


4,1,2,3
4,1,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,2,3
4,1,2,3
4,1,2,3
4,1,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,2,3
4,1,2,3
1,4,3,2
1,4,2,3


Corniform
Vesicular
Fundibuliform
Saccular
Saccular
Saccular
Poculiform
Poculiform
Poculiform
Fundibuliform
Fundibuliform
Fundibuliform
Fundibuliform
Saccular
Tubular
Fundibuliform
Tabular
Fundibuliform
Fundibuliform
Saccular


Nodular
Indistinct
Nodular
Nodular
Nodular
Elongate
Nodular
Nodular
Nodular
Indistinct
Elongate
Elongate
Nodular
Indistinct
Nodular
Nodular
Nodular
Indistinct
Nodular
Nodular








Typhodromips simplicissimus (DeLeon)
deleoni (Muma)
dillus (DeLeon)
dentilis (DeLeon)
Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)
limonicus (Garman & McGregor)
Euseius hibisci (Chant)
Neoseiulus gracilis (Muma)
marinellus (Muma)
planatus (Muma)
Paraamblyseius lunatus Muma


Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Small
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Small


D = dorsal setae, M = median setae, L = lateral setae, S = sub-lateral setae
St = sternal setae, PAS = preanal setae VL = ventro-lateral setae
< = is less than, > = is greater than


2,3-12,15
1-12
2-8,10
3-8,9
3-8,10
3,4-8,9
1-3
1-4
1-3,4
1-4
1.3-5,6


1,4,3,2
1.4,3,2
1,4,3,2
1,4,3,2
4,1,2,3
4,1,2,3
1,4,2,3
1,4,3,2
1,4,3,2
1,4,3,2
4,1,2,3


Fundibuliform
Fundibuliform
Fundibuliform
Tubular
Tubular
Tubular
Tubular
Poculiform
Tubular
Tubular
Poculiform


Distinct
Distinct
Nodular
Nodular
Distinct
Indistinct
Distinct
Distinct
Nodular
Nodular
Elongate


Elongate


Continued













TABLE 6.-GENERIC AND SPECIFIC CHARACTERS OF AMBLYSEIINAE ASSOCIATED WITH FLORIDA CITRUS (Continued).


Genus and species


Special characters


Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma
Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks)
Proprioseiopsis citri (Muma)
cannaensis (Muma)
rotundus (Muma)
detritus (Muma)
clausae (Muma)
asetus (Chant)
lepidus (Chant)
macrosetae (Muma)
dorsatus (Muma)
solens (DeLeon)
Amblyseiella setosa Muma
Chelaseius floridanus (Muma)
Amblyseius aerialis (Muma)
deleoni Muma & Denmark

largoensis (Muma)
Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks)

Fundiseius cesi (Muma)
Noeledius iphiformis (Muma)


Mite hemispherical, basitarsus IV with hamate seta.
Mite hemispherical, D3 elongate, Leg IV much longer than others.
L8 whip-like, ventrianal scutum creased.
Mite hemispherical, cervix length twice width.
Mite hemispherical, cervix length 4 time width.
L8 short, ventrianal pores not stable in position.
M3 > L8, M3, L7 pores large; PAP widely separated.
M3 < L8; L7 pores large; PAP adjacent.
M3 < L,; dorsal scutum reticulare.
M3 > L8; leg 1 much longer than others with erect setae on tarsus.
M3 < L8; PAP adjacent; erect seta on tarsus 1.
M3 < L8; PAP distant; erect seta on tarsus 1.
Most lateral setae elongate; all scuta smooth.
pilus dentilis basal; erect seta on tarsus 1, L8 whip-like.
pilus dentilis mesal; erect seta on tarsus 1; L8 whip-like; cervix short tube.
pilis dentilis mesal, erect seta on tarsus 1, L8 elongate and whip-like; cervix elongate
fundibuliform.
pilis dentilis mesal, erect seta on tarsus 1, La elongate and whip-like; cervix long tube.
pilus dentilis mesal; no erect seta on tarsus 1; LB elongate but blunt; mite hemispherical
and heavily sclerotized.
Dorsal scutum distinctly imbricate; L2 tiny, L4 short.
S2 on dorsal scutum; inner metapodal scutum larger than outer.








Typhodromips simplicissimus (DeLeon)
deleoni(Muma)
dillus (DeLeon)
dentilis (DeLeon)
Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma)
limonicus (Garman & McGregor)
Euseius hibisci (Chant)
Neoseiulus gracilis (Muma)
marinellus (Muma)
planatus (Muma)
Paraamblyseius lunatus M uma


Scutum smooth; L2 and L3 subequal; spermatodactyl toe bent; PPS and PAP aligned.
Scutum smooth; L2 and L subequal; spermatodactyl toe straight; PPS and PAP aligned.
Scutum imbricate; L2< L3; PAP mesad of PPS; male ventri. with 4 pair setae.
Scutum imbricate; L2 < L3; PAP mesad of PPS; male ventri. with 3 pair setae.
Scutum rugose; M3 plumose; L2 < Ls.
Scutum smooth; M3 setiform; L2 = L3.
Scutum weakly creased and imbricate, M3 setiform; L2
Cervix not constricted before atrium.
Cervix constricted before atrium.
Dorsal and ventral scuta with lunate thin areas. Metapodals massive.


D = dorsal setae, M = median setae, L = lateral setae, S = sub-lateral setae
St = sternal setae, PAS = preanal setae VL = ventro-lateral setae
< is less than, = is greater than












TABLE 7.-GENERIC AND SPECIFIC CHARACTERS OF PHYTOSEIINAE ASSOCIATED WITH FLORIDA CITRUS.

Genus and species Dorsal Ventral Leg Sternal
setal setal macrosetal length
formula formula formula to
D,M,L,S St,PAS,VL I, II, III, IV width

Paraseiulella coma (DeLeon) 4,2,8,2 2,4,2 0,0,0,1 L> W
elliptica (DeLeon) 4,2,8,2 2,4,2 0,0,0,1 L> W
Clavidromus transvaalensis (Nesbitt) 4,2,10,2 2,3,3 0,0,03 L > W
Typhlodromina subtropical Muma & Denmark 4,2,8,2 2,4,2 0,0,0,1 L< W
Galendromus floridanus (Muma) 4,2,9,1 2,4,2 0,0,0,0 L> W
annectens (DeLeon) 4,2,9,1 2,4,2 0,0,0,0 L> W
Orientiseius rickeri (Chant) 4,3,10,2 3,4,3 0,0,0,3 Equal



Genus and species Sternal Ventrianal Ventrianal Ant. ext.
scutal scutal width to peritreme
post. form genital
margin
Paraseiulella corna (DeLeon) Straight Pentagonal Equal to V
elliptica (DeLeon) Straight Pentagonal Wider to V
Clavidromus transvaalensis (Nesbitt) Produced Pentagonal Narrower Behind Li
Typhlodromina subtropical Muma & Denmark Undulate Pentagonal Equal to V
Galendromus floridanus (Muma) Concave Shield Equal Beyond L1
annectens (DeLeon) Concave Shield Equal Beyond La
Orientiseius rickeri (Chant) Concave Elongate Equal Beyond L1

D = dorsal setae, M = median sotae, L latorai l stulc S sub-lateral setae
St sternal setae, PAS preanal setac VL vcntro lateral setae
<= is less than, > is greater than







TABLE 7.-GENERIC AND SPECIFIC CHARACTERS OF PHYTOSEIINAE ASSOCIATED WITH FLORIDA CITRUS (Continued).

Genus and species Cheliceral Comp. Spermathecal form
size and leg size and definition
dentition formula
Size MF-FF Cervix Atrium
Paraseiulella coma (DeLeon) Moderate 1-1 4,1,2,3 Fundibuliform Distinct
elliptica (DeLeon) Moderate 1-1 4,1,2,3 Fundibuliform Distinct
Clavidromus transvaalensis (Nesbitt) Small 1-4 4,1,3,2 Fundibuliform Nodular
Typhlodromina subtropica'Muma & Denmark Small 1-2 4,1,2,3 Saccular Indistinct
Galendromus floridanus (Muma) Small 1-2 4,1,2,3 Tubular Distinct
annectens (DeLeon) Small 1-2 4,1,2,3 Tubular Distinct
Orientiseius rickeri (Chant) Moderate 1,2-3,5 4,1,2,3 Fundibuliform Nodular


Genus and species
Paraseiulella coma (DeLeon)

elliptica (DeLeon)

Clavidromus transvaalensis (Nesbitt)

Typhlodromina subtropica Muma & Denmark


Galendromus floridanus (Muma)
annectens (DeLeon)
Orientiseius rickeri (Chant)


Special characters
Dorsal setae thick and flat, not plumose. Secondary
stigmatal pore V-shaped, M2, L9 long.
Dorsal setae thickened and plumose. Secondary stig-
matal pore U-shaped, M2, L9 short.
Dorsal setae knobbed; macrosetae knobbed. Second-
ary stigmatal pore large and triangular.
Dorsal setae setiform but plumose; secondary stig-
matal pore large and triangular.

M1 shorter than D2; dorsal scutum distinctly imbricate.
Mi as long as D2; dorsal scutum indistinctly imbricate.
L2 and L4 small and setiform; secondary stigmatal pore
large and triangular.








This mite has been found throughout the southern half
of the citrus area in the spring.

Crowned Mite (Amblyseiella setosa Muma).- The crowned
mite is easily identified by the crown of moderately long hairs
that arise from the margin of the body (Figure 73). These
hairs may be distinguished with a 10X hand lens, but are not
as distinct as those on Amblyseius. Adult females are about
1/71 inch long.
The eggs and young are typical for the family, but nothing
is known of food habits of the species.
To date it has been collected only in three groves on the
west coast and two in the central citrus area.

Long-legged Mite (Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks)). This
mite is uncommon on citrus but is easily identified by its long
legs, long slender body hairs, and light-brown to reddish-brown
body color which is marked with a milky spot at the back end
(Figure 72). Adults measure about 1/60 inch in length.
The species is a well-known spider-mite predator. The
egg is oval in shape and milky white to amber in color. Young
mites are not as distinctly colored as adults.
Except for one specimen collected at Winter Haven, all
specimens of this species have been found feeding on tropical
two-spotted mites in the Indian River citrus area. It seems to
prefer herbs and other low-growing plants to citrus.

Tan Mite (Galendromus floridanus (Muma)).- The tan
mite is identified by an off-white to light-tan coloration, long-
oval outline, and soft but shiny body covering. The hairs in the
middle of the body overlap each other and are distinguishable
with a 10X hand lens (Figure 80). Leg hairs are not visible. Males
are slightly smaller than females, which measure about 1/64
inch long.
The eggs are oval and transparent, turning to pinkish-tan
before hatching. The young are translucent. Young mites and
eggs are sometimes found in clusters under six-spotted mite
webbing.
Although this species has been demonstrated to feed on
six-spotted mites, citrus red mites, and Texas citrus mites, it
apparently has a preference for six-spotted mites. Large
numbers of tan mites may be found in infestations of six-
spotted mites during March, April, and May. Cold weather
apparently has an adverse effect on this mite, as heavy
infestations of six-spotted mites that develop in January and









February during outbreaks do not contain tan mites. The tan
mite is a limiting biological control factor on six-spotted mites
following warm winters.
It is statewide in distribution. It appears to be more
common in the coastal and central citrus areas during winter
and spring.
Sub-tropical Mite (Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and
Denmark).-The sub-tropical mite is easily identified by its
light to medium-brown coloration, broad-oval, somewhat
squared outline, and shiny, shell-like body covering (Figure 79).
Adults measure about 1/67 inch long. The spines in the middle
of the body do not overlap each other and are not distinguish-
able or scarcely so with a 10X hand lens. Males of this species
are not known. Leg hairs are not visible.
This mite has been observed feeding on six-spotted mites
and citrus red mites, but its food habits are not definitely known.
It is seldom common, but seems to be statewide in distri-
bution.


FAMILY PODOCINIDAE (PODOCINIDS)
(Figure 94)
Podocinids are moderate to large in size, oval in outline,
somewhat swollen in profile, light tan to brown, and have a
soft to leathery body covering. The legs are moderately long
to long with leg 1 and sometimes leg 4 very long and slender;
leg 1 apparently is used as a feeler.
This small family of mites is predatory but rarely is found
outside of ground surface litter. One species, about 1/50 inch
in length, was described from the litter under citrus trees. It is
briefly diagnosed here for specialist use and illustrated in
Figure 94.

Podocinum pugnorum DeLeon Dorsal scutum densely covered with minute
spicules except for a median series of small, clear areas anteriorly; dorsal scutum
also with 16 pairs of setae of.which the four posterior-most are long, stout, and
serrate. Leg 1 about twice the length of legs 2, 3, and 4.


FAMILY PYEMOTIDAE
(PYEMOTIDS OR GRAIN AND ITCH MITES)
(Figure 65)
Pyemotids are small, slightly swollen, and oval to
spindle-shaped in the unfed condition, but females become









large and balloon-like after they have been fertilized and have
fed for a short time. The legs are short to moderate in length and
are all used for walking. The body covering is soft and pale,
brown to white in unfed specimens but with dark inner reflec-
tions in swollen specimens. Body hairs are invisible with a 10X
hand lens.
Some mites of this family are predatory or semi-parasitic;
others apparently feed on plants. It is assumed that the two
species found in citrus litter and the one found on citrus leaves
are predatory, primarily because they are seldom abundant.
The three genera associated with citrus are briefly
diagnosed here, and the form found on the leaves is discussed
below.


Caraboacarus Cross Leg 1 tarsi lacking claws; legs 2 and 3 tarsi with 2 claws;
leg 4 tarsi lacking claws; leg 1 tibiae and tarsi fused but subequal with patellae;
propodosoma with 3 pairs of setae, leg 1 tibio-tarsi tapered distally.
Pseudopygmephorus Cross Leg 1 tarsi with 1 claw; legs 2-4 tarsi with two
claws; leg 1 tibiae and tarsi fused and longer than patellae; propodosoma with three
pairs of setae; leg 1 tibio-tarsi lobed distally.
Siteroptes Amerling Leg 1 tarsi with one claw; legs 2-4 tarsi with two claws;
leg 1 tarsi free from and subequal with tibiae; propodosoma with two pairs of setae;
palpi free distally.


Balloon Mite (Siteroptes sp.).- The identifying characters
for this mite are the same as those given above for the family.
Balloon-like females measure about 1/80 inch in length (Figure
65).
This mite has been taken several times during the summer
months in one grove in the Fort Pierce citrus area. All speci-
mens have been found under empty scale armors. Newly
emerged unfed mites walk clumsily but rapidly and appear
much like tarsonemids. They do not, however, drag or trail
the hind legs in the same manner as tarsonemids.

FAMILY RHAGIDIIDAE (RHAGIDIIDS)
(Figure 95)

Rhagidiids are moderate to large mites, up to 1/40 inch
in length, with long oval to slender, plump, soft bodies. They
have four pairs of similar, robust, moderate to long legs. Males
and females are similar in appearance, with the body hair
invisible or nearly so through a 10X hand lens.









These mites are presumed to be predatory because of their
large biting-type mouthparts. They live in the soil, ground
surface debris, and moss, and run very rapidly when disturbed.
Three species of the genus Coccorhagidia Thor have been
collected from the litter beneath Florida citrus trees. They are
occasionally abundant. The following diagnosis of the genus
should serve to identify them. Figure 95 is for pictorial
comparison.

Coccorhagidia Thor-These mites are usually smaller than those of the genus
Rhagidia Thorell, with club-shaped pseudostigmatic organs and eight to nine setae
on the palpal tarsus. Two species have been described in the genus; a third form is
distinguishable among the Florida specimens.


FAMILY RHAPHIGNATHIDAE (RHAPHIGNATHIDS)
(Figure 96)
These small to moderate-sized mites, up to about 1/70 inch
in length, have oval to pear-shaped, greatly swollen to plump,
soft bodies. They have four pairs of similar short to moderate
legs, all of which are used in walking. Males and females are
similar red mites on which the body hairs are not visible
through a 10X hand lens.
Rhaphignathids are presumed to be predatory mites since
they are similar in structure to proven predators. The family
has been collected twice from the litter beneath citrus trees,
but only one undetermined species can be distinguished. Since
the family has recently been restricted to the type genus, the
following diagnosis applies to both. The species collected from
citrus is illustrated in Figure 96.


Rhaphignathus Duges-Mites with three or four podosomal scuta, one
hysterosomal scutum, one pair of eyes on lateral podosomal scuta, chelicerae fused
basally into conical stylophore, peritremes arising at base of stylophore, and
adjacent leg coxae.


FAMILY RHODACARIDAE (RHODACARIDS)
(Figure 97)
Rhodacarids are very similar to ascids in general appear-
ance and in certain genera are grossly inseparable. Mites of this
family are long oval to slender and have somewhat flattened
soft to leathery bodies. They are colorless, golden, or rose-red
with four pairs of similar moderate slender legs. Males are









slightly smaller than females. Body hairs and the body division
are invisible through a 10X hand lens.
Although the family has not been adequately studied,
several genera and a number of species have been described.
All are found in ground surface litter and are presumed to be
predatory. Two genera and three undetermined species have
been collected from the leaf litter beneath Florida citrus trees.
The genera are briefly diagnosed here. Figure 97 is for compari-
son with ascids and digamasellids.


Rhodacarus Oudemans-Leg 1 without claws; body with a constriction behind
leg 4; chelicerae large; posterior dorsal and ventrianal scuta nearly as wide as body.
Rhodacarellus Willmann-Leg 1 with claws; body with a constriction behind
leg 4; chelicerae large; posterior dorsal and ventrianal scuta only half as wide as
body.

FAMILY SCUTACARIDAE ISCUTACARIDS)
(Figure 98)
Scutacarids are closely related to and difficult to distinguish
from the pyemotids and tarsonemids. They are small, about
1/150 inch in length, broad-oval to round, flattened mites with
short legs and a leathery body covering. They are usually
off-white to light brown with the mouthparts and legs not or
scarcely visible from above. No body details can be distinguished
with a 10X hand lens, but many species have distinctive long leg
and body hairs that project backwards and can be seen through
a lens.
Specimens are frequently collected in soil, soil surface litter,
and moss. They also infest certain insects such as bees and ants.
Since they seem to be parasitic and occur in the leaf litter
beneath Florida citrus trees, these mites may have potential
importance. Only one genus and species has been found in
citrus litter; it is diagnosed here and illustrated in Figure 98.

Imparipes longisetosus Willmann-Leg 1 tarsi with one strangely hooked claw;
legs 2 and 3 with two normally curved claws; leg 4 with no claws but with four
long, strong, plumose setae which are furcate; hysterosomal setae long and
plumose; leg 1 tarsi with two subapical dorsal setae arising from cylindrical
tubercles; propodosomal flange striate.


FAMILY STIGMAEIDAE (STIGMAEIDS)
(Figures 67 and 68)
These small mites have oval to pear-shaped, swollen bodies.
Some species have the body swollen but with pits and wrinkles.









The legs are moderate and robust. Body coloration is variable,
but most specimens are bright red, amber, or black with or
without a pattern of light or dark spots. The body hairs are
long and can be seen with a 10X hand lens.
Nine species of this family, representing five genera, are
found on citrus in Florida. Only the species described below
and illustrated is common on the leaves. The genera and other
species are briefly diagnosed here for specialist use.



Genus Agistemus Summers Body oval; propodosomal scutum with six setae;
hysterosoma with a single scutum or one or more pairs of scuta; la on median scutum.

Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez Setae le shorter than e; dorsal setae long,
stout, distinctly barbed, and set on tubercles. Common leaf species.

Agistemus terminalis (Quayle) Setae le and e subequal; dorsal setae short,
slender, minutely barbed, and not set on tubercles. Uncommon leaf species.

Genus Eryngiopus Summers Body spindle-shaped; hysterosomal setae not on
platelets; palpal tarsus with only two terminal setae, one of which is hair-like.

Eryngiopus sp. #1 Dorsal setae tiny and indistinctly plumose; leg 1, palpus,
and chelicerae birefringent. Collected once on fruit.

Eryngiopus sp. #2 Dorsal setae small but distinctly plumose; specimens do
not exhibit birefringence except between chelicerae. Collected several times on leaves.

Genus Ledermuelleria Oudemans Body oval; propodosomal scutum with eight
setae; hysterosomal scutum extensive and with 12 setae.

Ledermuelleria segnis (Koch) Dorsal scuta strongly sclerotized and distinctly
reticulate; dorsal setae long curved and plumose.

Ledermuelleria plumifer (Halbert)--Dorsal scuta weakly sclerotized and
weakly reticulate; dorsal setae short and brush-like.

Genus Stigmaeus Koch Body oval; propodosomal scutum with six setae;
hysterosoma with one or two unpaired scuta; 13 pairs of dorsal scuta; central plate
elongate and bearing setae a, b, and c; intercalary scutum single, rarely paired;
genual setal number 4-4-1-1.

Genus Zetzellia Oudemans-Body oval; propodosomal scutum with six setae;
hysterosoma with one or two unpaired scuta; 12 pairs of dorsal setae; one or two pairs
of paragenital setae.

Zetzellia languida Gonzalez-Dorsal scuta smooth; dorsal setae tiny and
plumose; leaf species.

Zetzellia sp.-Dorsal scuta reticulate; dorsal setae thickened and elongate;
litter species.



Strawberry Mite (Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez). -This
species measures about 1/82 inch, and its legs are moderate in








length. It is best identified by its amber to bright red coloration
and strawberry-like appearance (Figure 67). Old mature mites
are sometimes nearly black. The body hairs are barely visible
with a 10X hand lens. When disturbed, these mites move rapidly
and smoothly with the legs radiating much like the spokes of
a wheel.
Strawberry mites are found under a variety of conditions,
but are most common on leaves infested with purple scale,
whiteflies, or six-spotted mites. In all cases, when not actively
feeding, the mites rest beside clumps of scale or cast skins of
whitefly larvae or under the webbing of six-spotted mites.
The eggs are round, pale amber in color, and are usually laid
off the leaf surface on strands of silk (Figure 68). Young mites
are lemon yellow to amber in color. This predatory species has
been observed feeding on six-spotted mites, saddle-back mites,
chalk-striped mites, and red scale crawlers, but its optimal food
seems to be the citrus rust mite.
Strawberry mites are most numerous in the winter and
spring throughout the state.


FAMILY TARSONEMIDAE (TARSONEMID MITES)
(Figures 38 to 43 and 55 to 56)

Tarsonemid mites are small, oval-shaped mites that are
less than 1/100 inch long. Although the body covering is usually
pale in color, it is relatively hard and shiny. Males are usually
distinctly smaller than females, with the body somewhat more
pointed toward the front and/or back end. These mites have
four pairs of legs, two located at the front and two near the back
end of the body. The family is characterized by the fact that the
hind legs are not used in walking by either sex (Plate I,
Figures 26 and 27). The mouthparts are enclosed in a tiny but
distinct head region. Body and leg setae are not visible with a
10X hand lens.
Twenty-one species of tarsonemids are known to occur on
citrus in Florida. Most of the species are fungus-feeders grouped
in seven genera. One species, the broad mite, Polyphagotarsone-
mus latus Banks, is a well-known plant-feeder.
For the convenience of taxonomists, acarologists and other
specialists, the eight genera and 21 species are technically
diagnosed in the tabular key presented in Table 8. Common
species are described and discussed below.

Broad Mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks)).-The
broad mite and its eggs are readily visible with a 10X hand lens.








Female mites are about 1/141 inch in length, oval in outline,
swollen in profile and light yellow, amber or green with a
variable indistinct light medial stripe that frequently forks near
the back end of the body (Figure 55). Males are similar in color
to females, but lack the stripe. The ovate, flattened eggs are
translucent, with scattered white tufts on the upper surface
(Figure 56). Mites move jerkily but rapidly for their size when
disturbed; normally they move deliberately.
Broad mites infest leaves and fruit on all parts of the tree,
but heavy infestations are confined to young, tender leaves on
growing tips and fruits 1 inch or less in diameter. Injured leaves
are curled and twisted, sometimes to the extent that growth of
the tip is aborted. Injured fruit or areas of fruit develop a white
to light tan sharkskin-like scurf.
Infestations apparently are confined to spring and summer,
except under greenhouse conditions. The species has been found
only in the southern half of the citrus belt and is most common
during the spring.
This mite can be easily controlled by spraying.4
Saddle-back Mite (Fungitarsonemus peregrinosus Attiah).-
Saddle-back mites are readily visible with a 10X hand lens.
Females are about 1/115 inch in length, broad-oval in outline,
plump in profile, and translucent, with a distinct spot or saddle
of yellow, brown, red, green, or black in the middle of the body
(Figure 41). Males are similar in color to females except that the
spot is small or faint (Figure 42). The eggs are nearly round and
pearly-white (Figure 43). They are usually scattered over the
leaf surface. Mites move jerkily and quite rapidly for their size
when disturbed. Males carry nearly mature females on their
backs in a piggy-back manner.
No damage to citrus has been associated with infestations
of this mite, and its feeding habits are in question.
It is most common in spring and fall and is found throughout
the state.
Trash Mite (Fungitarsonemus pulvirosus Attiah). Females
of this mite carry packets of trash on their backs (Figure 39).
They are about the same size and coloration as the saddle-back
mite but appear large because of the packet. Males are similar
in coloration to females but carry little or no trash unless they
are carrying nearly mature trash-carrying females. The eggs of
the species are not known. Movement is the same as that
reported for the broad and saddle-back mites.
4See note 3, page 32.










TABLE 8.-TECHNICAL TABULAR KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES
TARSONEMIDAE ASSOCIATED WITH FLORIDA CITRUS TREES.

Genera and species Generic characters

Female Palpi
leg 1 both
pulv. pad sexes

Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) Absent Moderate
Floridotarsonemus scaber Attiah Present Short
Tarsonemus citri Attiah Present Short


ingens Attiah
undulatus Attiah
Metatarsonemus longitibialis Attiah
simplicissimus Attiah
Lupotarsonemus floridanus Attiah
inornatus Attiah
minutus Attiah
mumae Attiah
paraunguis Attiah
spicatus Attiah
spinosus Attiah
Fungitarsonemus peregrinosus Attiah
pulvirosus Attiah
Daidalotarsonemus seitus Attiah
somalatus Attiah
venustus Attiah
Rhyncotarsonemus citri Attiah
floridanus Attiah


Present

Present







Present

Present


Present


Short

Short







Moderate

Moderate


Long


Genera and species

Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks)

Floridotarsonemus scaber Attiah


Tarsonemus citri Attiah

ingensAttiah

undulatus Attiah


Metatarsonemus longitibialis Attiah

simplicissimus Attiah


Specific characters


Male leg 4 tibio-tarsus curved mesally.

Male leg 4 femur with dorso-apical
flange and basal hollow mesally.

Male femur 4 angulate at base and with
base only slightly wider than apex.
Male femur 4 not angulate at base and
with inner margin smooth.
Male femur 4 angulate at base but with
base much wider than apex.

Male femur 4 apical tibial seta 4 times
longer than dorsal femoral seta.
Male leg 4 apical tibial seta only 2
times longer than dorsal femoral seta.










TABLE 8.-TECHNICAL TABULAR KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES
TARSONEMIDAE ASSOCIATED WITH FLORIDA CITRUS TREES- (Continued).

Generic characters

Female Ant. margin Male Male
dorsal male post. leg 4 leg 4 Male leg 4 ratio
scutum leg apodemes ta claw ti-ta of ti-ta to femur

Smooth Convex Button Fused 1.5 to 1
Smooth Straight Blade Separate 2 to 1
Smooth Straight Claw Separate 3 to 1


Smooth U-shaped Claw Separate 2 to 1

Smooth Crenate Claw Fused 3 to 1







Smooth Variable Claw Separate 2 to 1

Ornamented V-shaped Claw Separate 2 to 1


Smooth Crenate Claw Fused 3 to 1





Genera and species Specific characters

Lupotarsonemus floridanus Attiah Male femur 4 not angulate at base, and
without either dorsal process or inner
tubercle.
inornatusAttiah Male femur 4 angulate at base, and
with dorsal seta longer than spical
ventral seta.
minutus Attiah Male femur 4 angulate at base, but
with dorsal and apical ventral setae
subequal.
mumae Attiah Male femur 4 not angulate at base, and
with spine-like dorsal process, and
leg 4 shorter than leg 3.
paraunguis Attiah Male femur 4 not angulate at base, and
without dorsal process but with inner
tubercle.


(Continued),










TABLE 8.-TECHNICAL TABULAR KEY TO THE GENERA AND
SPECIES TARSONEMIDAE ASSOCIATED WITH
FLORIDA CITRUS TREES (Continued).


Genera and species


Lupotarsonemus
spicatus Attiah


spinosus Attiah



Fungitarsonemus peregrinosus Attiah


pulvirosus Attiah



Daidalotarsonemus seitus Attiah

somalatus Attiah

venustus Attiah


Rhyncotarsonemus citri Attiah

floridanus Attiah


Specific characters


Male femur 4 not angulate at base, and
with a cone-like dorsal process, and
dorsal setae longer than others.
Male femur 4 not angulate at base, and
with a spine-like dorsal process, but
leg 4 equal to leg 3.

Females naked, male anterior propodo-
somal setae less than one-half length
of propodosomal setae 3.
Females carry trash, male anterior
propodosomal setae more than one-
half length of propodosomal setae 3.

Female body ovate with dorsal scutal
ornamentation cobblestone-like.
Female body pyriform with dorsal scutal
ornamentation reticulate.
Female body ovate with dorsal orna-
mentation irregular.

Male elongate tibio-tarsal setae twice
the length of distal femoral seta.
Male elongate tibio-tarsal setae only
slightly longer than distal femoral
seta.


The feeding habits of the trash mite have not been recorded.
The species is more common in the northern half of the
citrus belt.

White-tailed Mite (Lupotarsonemus minutus Attiah).- The
white-tailed mite is about 1/141 inch in length, but is readily
visible with a 10X hand lens. Females are oval in outline, slightly
swollen in profile, and light amber to nearly black with a pale
yellow to white spot at the back end of the body (Figure 38).
Males are colored similarly except that the spot is larger,
sometimes covering nearly half of the body. The eggs are broad-
oval to round in shape and pearly white. They are usually
clustered among strands of fungus or under trash or scale
armors. Mites move jerkily but rapidly when disturbed.









White-tailed mites are fungus-feeders and are usually
clustered around, over, and under fungus, trash, or clumps of
dead scale. Infestations increase with increases of dead scale
or fungus growth.
The species is most common in the winter and is found
throughout the state.
Black Tarsonemid (Daidalotarsonemus venustus Attiah). -
Only females of this mite have been found on citrus to date, but
both sexes are known to be black. Females are about 1/100 inch
in length, oval in outline, slightly swollen in profile and covered
with a raised network that gives the mites a rough appearance
(Figure 40). Males do not have the network. The eggs have not
been found. Mites move jerkily and clumsily when disturbed.
The black tarsonemid is a fungus-feeder and is seldom seen
in numbers. Usually only one, two, or three mites are found at
one time.


FAMILY TENUIPALPIDAE
(FALSE SPIDER MITES OR FLAT MITES)
(Figure 57)
False spider mites are small, flat, and pear-shaped, with
moderate legs and a reddish color that may be marked with
yellow, green, or black. Males are usually more distinctly pear-
shaped than females. These mites have four pairs of legs, two
pairs located at the head end of the body and two pairs slightly
behind the middle. The short needle-like mouthparts are hidden
within the body except during feeding. Body and leg hairs are
not visible with a 10X hand lens.
Three species of false spider mites are known to feed on
citrus in Florida. They are Brevipalpus californicus (Banks),
Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), and Brevipalpus obovatus
Donnadieu; the latter is rare on citrus. The three species are
briefly diagnosed here for specialists, and the common species
are described and discussed below for non-technical workers.

B. californicus (Banks)-Hysterosoma with five (male) or six (female)
dorsolateral setae; palpus with two distal setae and a sensory peg; tarsus II with
two distal sensory rods; and regular medio-lateral retriculations.
B.obovatus Donnadieu-Hysterosoma with four (male) or five (female)
dorsolateral setae; palpus with one distal seta and a sensory peg; tarsus II with one
distal sensory rod;,and regular medio-dorsal reticulations.
B. phoenicis (Geijskes)-Hysterosoma with four (male) or five (female)
dorsolateral setae; palpus with one distal setae and a sensory peg; tarsus II with
two sensory rods and irregular medio-dorsal reticulations.








Red Flat Mite (Brevipalpus californicus (Banks).--This
small false spider mite, which is readily visible through a 10X
hand lens, is flat, pear-shaped, and bright red in color (Figure 57).
Males and females are similar in appearance, with males being
slightly smaller and more distinctly pear-shaped. Mature speci-
mens measure about 1/95 inch in length. Mites move slowly and
deliberately, but not clumsily.
Red flat mites infest leaves, fruit, twigs, and limbs. Heaviest
infestations occur during summer. Leprosis, or Florida scaly
bark, has been attributed to the feeding activities of this mite.
This species has been collected most commonly in the
Turnbull Hammock area on the east coast, but apparently occurs
throughout the state.
The species is easily controlled by dormant or post-bloom
sulfur sprays,5 and many recently-developed miticides which
may account for its uncommon occurrence on citrus.
Red and Black Flat Mite (Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes)).
- This false spider mite is slightly smaller than the red flat mite
and is distinctively marked with red, yellow, black, and
occasionally green. Otherwise, the characters that identify the
red flat mite apply to this species. Eggs of this mite are oval and
red in color; they are easily seen with a hand lens. Larval mites
are bright red but lack the dark markings of mature mites.
This species infests the leaves, fruit, twigs, and limbs.
Largest populations occur during the summer. Several types of
injury have been attributed to this mite, but none are prevalent
in commercial citrus groves.
This species has a statewide distribution, and is the most
common citrus species.
The red and black flat mite is readily controlled by
spraying.6


FAMILY TETRANYCHIDAE (SPIDER MITES)
(Figures 44 to 53)
Spider mites are moderate to large-sized mites with plump,
oval bodies, moderately long legs, and soft body covering. Body
hairs are easily seen with a 10X hand lens on all but one of the
species that are known to occur on citrus. Body and leg coloration
are different for each species.
These mites are plant-feeding and may cause serious injury
to citrus. Three species are well known; they are the citrus red

5See note 3, page 32. 6See note 3, page 32.








mite, the six-spotted mite, and the Texas citrus mite. The
tropical two-spotted mite, Tetranychus tumidus Banks, is
occasionally found on citrus along the east coast in the early
spring, and the two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Kock, has
been found on citrus in the central area.
This is a very large family of plant-feeding mites repre-
sented by about 20 genera and more than 200 known species.
The five species listed above, and described and discussed below
are, however, the only species known to attack citrus in Florida.
Several other species have been found in citrus groves but
apparently cannot survive on the trees. Bryobia praetiosa (Koch)
and Petrobia harti (Ewing) have been collected from the ground
surface litter under citrus trees with a Tullgren apparatus. These
species were obviously feeding on some cover crop plant.
Tetranychus ludeni Zacher has been collected from spanish
needles, Bidens sp., beneath citrus trees, and Tetranychus
telarius (Linneaus) from day flower, Commelina sp., in moist
groves.

Citrus Red Mite (Panonychus citri (McGregor)). -The
citrus red mite is variously referred to as purple mite, red spider,
spider, and spider mite. It is readily identified by its dusty-red to
maroon coloration and long pink hairs that project out of
wart-like elevations on the body of the mite. Males are smaller
and more slender and have slightly longer legs than the females
(Figure 46). Females measure about 1/56 inch in length (Figure
44). The round eggs vary from light to dark red in color and have
a mast or stalk on the upper surface, from which guy lines of silk
extend down to the leaf, forming a tent-like structure (Figure 45).
This silk is frequently not visible with a 10X hand lens. Young
mites appear much like the adults except for size.
Citrus red mites infest the leaves, fruits, and the green twigs
toward the outside of citrus trees. The eggs are more commonly
found on the upper surface of the leaves, but active mites may
be found on either leaf surface. Three types of injury are
common. One is a tiny scratch-like mark on the upper surface of
the leaf. These marks are often abundant enough to give the
leaf a scratched pale or greyish appearance. A second type of
injury is a leaf drop in which the petiole is left attached to the
green twig. A third is a dying and browning of the leaves on
terminal tips giving the appearance of fire injury.
Infestations of citrus red mites are usually heaviest in fall
and spring, but individual groves may have heavy infestations
at any season. It is common throughout the state and considered









one of the major pests on citrus.
Citrus red mites may be controlled by spraying.7

Texas Citrus Mite (Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor)). -
This mite was apparently either introduced, or became adapted
to, Florida citrus sometime in 1950 or 1951. It may be identified
by a tan to green body coloration marked on the back with
several pairs of dark green to black spots as shown in Figures
47 and 49. The body of the female Texas citrus mite is broad-
oval in outline and somewhat flattened in profile; males have a
more slender and somewhat triangular-shaped body. The legs
are light brown and moderately long, with those of the male
longer and more slender than those of the female. The body
hairs of this species measure about 1/60 inch long. Eggs are
flattened and disc-like with a yellow, green, or pink coloration
(Figure 48). Young mites are like the adults except for size.
Newly-hatched mites are six-legged and lemon-yellow in color.
Infestations of and injury to citrus by this mite are nearly
identical to those of the citrus red mite. As yet, however, twigs
have not been found to be infested, and defoliation and firing
injury by this species is not common.
Heaviest infestations of this mite have been found to occur
in spring and fall. It is presently distributed in all but the
southern citrus area. The species may be controlled, when
necessary, by spraying.8

Six-spotted Mite (Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley)).-
The six-spotted mite is easily distinguished by its pale yellow
color and one to three pairs of dark spots on the upper surface
of the body (Figures 51 and 53), and by its habit of congregating
in pockets on the undersides of the leaves. Occasionally the dark
body spots are indistinct or missing when the mites are observed
through a 10X hand lens. Females are oval in outline and plump
in profile, with very fine pale body hairs that are easily seen with
a 10X hand lens (Figure 53). Females are about 1/57 inch long.
The light yellow eggs are round with a short stalk or mast on the
upper surface but have no guy lines (Figure 52). Young mites
appear much like the adults except that they are smaller and the
marks may be indistinct.
Six-spotted mites infest and injure the leaves and fruits of
citrus. Injury to the leaves takes the form of sunken pockets or
pits on the lower surface that usually turn light yellow or
chlorotic. In cases of heavy infestations the leaves are curled

7See note 3, page 32. 8See note 3, page 32.








and twisted and bright yellow. This mite spins extensive webs of
silk over the infested areas. Severe defoliation usually follows
heavy infestations of this mite. Fruits infested around the
button, or point of attachment, usually turn yellow and drop.
Infestations of this mite occur in late winter and spring,
with severe infestations following cold Decembers. It is state-
wide in distribution.
The species may be controlled by spraying.9

Tumid Spider Mite (Tetranychus tumidus Banks). -The
tropical two-spotted mite may be separated from the other
species of spider mites that occur on citrus by a light green to
yellow coloration marked on the back by a pair of large U-shaped
sooty spots (Figure 50). Females are oval in outline, plump in
profile, and have moderately long, pale legs. Males are smaller,
more slender, and have somewhat longer legs. The clear to pale
yellow eggs lack a mast. Young mites have the same coloration
and markings as adults. Females measure about 1/58 inch in
length.
Tumid spider mites are not common on citrus in Florida;
the species seems to prefer low-growing plants. Only light
infestations occurring on fresh spring-flush leaves have been
recorded. The injury and webbing is similar to that of the six-
spotted mite.
Control measures are not necessary and have not been
determined.

Two-spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). The
two-spotted mite may be separated from the tumid spider mite
by the adult females which are bright red with pale legs. Males
and immatures of the two species are indistinguishable. Other-
wise, the discussion of the tropical two-spotted mite above also
applies to this species.
This species was collected from citrus several times following
the 1963 freeze.
Control measures are not necessary and have not been
determined.


FAMILY TYDEIDAE (TYDEID MITES)
(Figures 34 and 74)
These small to moderate size mites are usually spindle-
shaped in outline and slightly swollen to plump in profile. They
9See note 3, page 32.









have short to moderate legs and a soft body covering. Color is
variable within a species. Body hairs are not visible or scarcely
visible with a 10X hand lens. Males and females are of the same
shape and size.
Mites of this family are variable in food habits. Those in one
genus will be predators, whereas those in another genus will be
scavengers and still another plant-feeders.
At least four genera and nine species have been collected
from citrus. The two species discussed below represent the most
common genera and species. All of the genera and species are
briefly diagnosed here to assist specialist identification.



Genus Lorryia Oudemans- Anal opening ventral; hysterosomal setae L2 lateral
in position; dorsal striae partly or completely reticulate.

Lorryia floridensis Baker Trochanter 1 with seta; trochanter 2 with seta;
dorsal body setae, including Ds, short and strongly serrate; body reticulation uniform.
This species has been identified only once from Florida citrus leaves.

Lorryia marcandrei Baker Trochanter 1 with seta; trochanter 2 with seta;
dorsal body setae long, strong, serrate, and spine-like. This is a brown to purplish-
brown, swollen species found on citrus leaves.

Lorryia sp. near bedfordensis Baker Trochanter 1 with seta; trochanter 2
without seta; palpal tibia with two setae; dorsal body setae rod-like; Ds present;
dorsal striae reticulate between and in front of sensory setae, undivided and not
forming rosettes. This small Tydeus-like species is found in citrus litter.

Genus Parapronematus Baker Anal opening terminal; hysterosomal setae L2
dorsal in position; tarsus 1 lacking empodium and claws; femur 4 undivided;
femora 3 and 4 each with a prominent forked seta.

Parapronematus acaciae Baker Propodosomal setae P2 are lacking and Pi
lie behind and between the sensory setae; femur 4 forked setae twice as long as
segment width. This is the common clear mite on Florida citrus.

Genus Triphytdeus Thor Anal opening terminal; hysterosomal setae L2 dorsal
in position; tarsus 1 with empodium and claws; femur 4 divided. An undetermined
long, slender rapidly moving species of this genus is found on Florida citrus leaves.

Genus Tydeus Koch -Anal opening ventral; hysterosomal setae L2 lateral in
position; dorsal striae transverse between second pair of hysterosomal dorsocentral
setae and longitudinal behind propodosomal sensory setae.

Tydeus gloveri(Ashmead)- With six pairs of genital setae; without empodial
claw; ventral hysterosomal striae in V-like pattern anterior to V3; dorsal setae,
including sensory setae, short and lanceolate, serrate. This is the common pale to dark
species on the fruit, leaves, and twigs of Florida citrus trees.

Tydeus mumai Baker- With six pairs of genital setae; with empodial claw;
dorsal hysterosomal striae transverse anteriorly; ventral hysterosomal striae in V-like
pattern; dorsal hysterosomal setae spatulate. This is a dark species on leaf and bark of
Florida citrus trees.








Tydeus shawi Baker-With six pairs of genital setae; with empodial claw;
dorsal hysterosomal striae swirled anteriorly; striae transverse between D1 and D2
posterior hysterosomal setae longer than others. This species is found on the bark of
Florida citrus trees.
Tydeus tuttlei Baker With five pairs of genital setae; body setae short and
serrate. This species has been collected from citrus litter.
Several additional but unnamed species of Tydeus have been distinguished
among unidentified material, but they have been omitted here pending formal
description.


Chalk-striped Mite (Tydeus gloveri (Ashmead)). The
chalk-striped mite varies in color from white to pale pink, pale
yellow, pale green, and black. The body is broadly spindle-
shaped in outline and plump in profile. The legs are moderate
in length. A narrow and sometimes indistinct chalky stripe
running down the back for the length of the body is the most
distinguishing characteristic. All legs are utilized by the mites
in walking. Female mites measure about 1/82 inch in length
(Figure 34).
Mites of this species are usually found in clusters around
the tiny, round, translucent eggs. These clusters may be found
in protected areas along the leaf ribs, in whitefly pupal cases,
under sooty mold, and under clumps of dead scale or empty
scale armors. When disturbed, these mites run smoothly and
rapidly until shelter is found. Young mites have the same shape
and color as adults.
Chalk-striped mites are frequently abundant during winter
and spring. Dead organic matter, honeydew, and fungus
apparently serve as food for the species. The species has a
statewide distribution.

Clear Mite (Parapronematus acaciae Baker).-The clear
mite, as its name implies, is translucent to transparent with a
faint tinge of yellow, amber, or green. Irregular dark green to
black markings may be seen through the body wall on many
specimens. This mite is broadly spindle-shaped in outline, is
slightly swollen to somewhat swollen in profile, and has
moderately long legs (Figure 74). The first two pairs of legs are
not used in walking, but are vibrated rapidly in front of the
body as feelers. Long hairs at the end of the first pair of legs
are frequently visible with a 10X hand lens. This species
measures about 1/98 inch in length.
Clear mites are fungus-feeding in habit. The tiny transparent
eggs are oval in shape. The mites, young and adult, rest in
protected places beside or under clumps of scale or trash and









along the midrib of the leaf. When resting they are very difficult
to see even with a 10X hand lens. Mites searching for food run
very rapidly, vibrating the front legs. When touched or otherwise
disturbed, the mites back up with startling rapidity and then
resume a normal searching run.
Populations of the clear mite can increase at any time of the
year, but are most frequently seen in June and July, or January
and February. The species is found throughout the state.

UROPODINA (UROPODID MITES)
(Figure 99)
These mites form a superfamily or cohort and do not belong
to any single technically defined family. At least two families,
Uropodidae and Urodinychidae; have been collected from or
under Florida citrus trees. It is probable that others will be
found. Although the food habits of most species are unknown,
they are presumed to be of little or no economic importance.
Some are found in ant nests, some attach themselves to insects,
and some are found in mosses and leaf mold. Several species
infest earthworm cultures and are believed to be of some
economic importance.
Most species are small to moderate sized, oval to round,
flattened to swollen mites with a hard shell-like body covering.
Leg length varies from very short to moderate. All citrus-
associated species are brown to dark reddish-brown. The
mouthparts are small and of the chewing type, but usually are
retracted into the body where they cannot be observed. Although
the legs are fitted for walking, they also are usually drawn back
into grooves on the underside of the body and are almost
indistinguishable with a 10X hand lens.
Four species, representing two families and genera, have
been collected from citrus bark and litter with a Tullgren
apparatus. Since they are not common and are of no known
importance, they are briefly diagnosed here for specialist
information and use. Figure 99 is for comparative purposes.

FAMILY URODINYCHIDAE-Tritosternum covered by the coxae of leg 1, leg
grooves well developed; marginal scutum continuous posteriorly with inner
margin scalloped.
Genus Leiodinychus-The family characters will serve to distinguish the
genus. Three undetermined species have been found on the bark and in the
litter of citrus.
FAMILY UROPODIDAE-Tritosternum covered by the coxae of leg 1; leg grooves
well developed; marginal scutum with inner margin smooth.









Genus Oplitis-One species of this genus and family have been collected sev-
eral times from citrus litter.


FAMILY VEGAIIDAE (VEGAIID MITES)
(Figure 100)
Vegaiids are large, oval, somewhat flattened mites with
moderately long legs and a leathery to hard body covering.
Most species are brown to dark brown and are indistinguishable
from large laelapids under 10X magnification. All four pairs of
legs are similar and are used for walking. These mites inhabit
leaf mold and other ground surface litter in moist situations.
A single nymph of this distinctive family has been collected
from citrus litter near Arcadia, Florida. The following technical
diagnosis of the family is for specialist use. Figure 100 is for
visual comparisons.

FAMILY VEGAIIDAE-Palpal apotele with three tines and a hyaline lobe; epis-
tome with a pair of dentate lateral processes and a single elongate median
spine-like process that may or may not be forked and dentate distally; hypostome
with distal, mustache-like fringe; dorsal scutum partly or completely divided.









GLOSSARY OF UNUSUAL AND TECHNICAL TERMS

Acarology-The study of mites, particularly mite identifi-
cation.
Behavior-The response of an animal, in this case mite, to
internal (glandular) or external (environmental)
stimulus.
Chlorotic-Yellowed or lacking in green color.
Cocoon-A hollow, envelope-like, protective covering.
Cohort-A group, in this case a group of families.
Crawler-Newly hatched, active stage of a scale insect.
Diagnose-To cite distinguishing characters.
Family-A broad general classification group of things, in
this case mites, from a common source with similar
features. (Example-Tetranychidae, or Spider Mites.)
Genus-A restricted classification group of closely related
forms with common distinguishing characters. (Ex-
ample-Tetranychus, or Web Spinning Spider Mites.)
Host-An insect or mite on which a predatory mite feeds.
Larva-The six-legged stage of a mite that hatches from the
egg. Plural-larvae.
Leaf Mold-The accumulation or layer of dry or moist rot-
ting leaves beneath one or more trees.
Molt-To cast a skin and expand to a larger size, also the
cast skin.
Natural Control-The more or less cyclic increase and de-
crease in populations of plant and animal that occurs
naturally or without man's assistance.
Nymph-The eight-legged stage of a mite that is sexually
immature. Plural-nymphs.
Ovate-See oval on Plate I.
Palpus-A feeler attached to the mouthparts. Plural-palpi.
Parasite-An organism that lives most of its life at the ex-
pense of another organism.
Petiole-A narrow stem-like structure. Usual reference-leaf
petiole.









Phase Microscope-An instrument with a series of lenses
and equipment that permits 400x to 1,200x magnifi-
cation and uses light moving in one plane or di-
rection.
Predator-A mite that feeds on other mites or insects.
Pupal Case-The empty skin, usually of an insect from which
adult emerges.
Scavenger-A mite that feeds on dead plant or animal matter.
Sclerite-A thickened or hardened plate-like area, espe-
cially on the body of an animal, in this case a mite.
Species-The basic named unit of classification. (Example-
Tetranychus urticae, the two-spotted spider mite.)
Superfamily-A classification group of closely related fam-
ilies (see family).
Teasing Needle-A straight, bent or curved needle mounted
in wood, metal or glass handle and used for ma-
nipulating microscopic materials or specimens.
Tubercle-A bump or wart-like projection.










INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC MITE NAMES


Subject Page
A
Acarei ........ ............. 7,15,50
Acaridae .........7,15,16,17,18,55
Aceria sheldoni (Ewing) .......... 31
Aculops pelekassi Keiffer ......... 31
Agistemus .......................71
Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez ... 71
Agistemus terminalis Quayle ..... 71
Amblyseiella setosa
Muma ............ 56,58,60,62,66
Amblyseiinae
...........56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63
Amblyseius ..................... 66
Amblyseius aerialis
(Muma)............ 55,56,58,60,62
Amblyseius deleoni
Muma & Denmark .... 56,58,60,62
Amblyseius largoensis
(Muma) ............... 56,58,60,62
Andrecheyla ............. ..... 25
Andrecheyla scutellata (DeLeon).. 25
Androlaelaps .....................47
Anoetidae ................... 15,17
Anystidae .....................11,18
Anystis .......................... 18
Anystis agilis Banks .............18
Areolaspis .................... 47,48
Asca .................. ...19,30
Ascidae ..................... 8,19,30
Asca citri Hurlbutt ............ 19,20
Asca duosetosa (Fox) .......... 19
Asca muma Hurlbutt ............ 19
Asca mumata DeLeon ............ 20
Asca tarsialis DeLeon ............ 20

B
Bdella ...........................21
Bdella distinct (B & B) ........ 21
Bdella longicornis (L.) ............ 21
Bdella mexicana (B & B) ........ 21
Bdellidae .................. 11,20,28
Bdellodes ......................... 21
Bdellodes longirostris
(Hermann) ............. .....21
Bimichaelia sp. ................ 52
Blattisocidae ............... 10,22
Blattisocius .................22,23
Blattisocius dentriticus
(Berlese) ...................... 22
Blattisocius keegani (Fox) .... 22,23
Blattisocius tarsalis (Berlese) ..... 22
Bonzia .........................28
Bonzia bdelliformis
Atyeo .......................21,29
Brevipalpus californicus
Banks ... ..................77,78
Brevipalpus obvatus
Donnadieu ..................... 77


Subject Page
Brevipalpus phoenecis
Geijskes .................... 77,78
Bryobia praetiosa (Koch) ......... 79
C
Caloglyphus .................... 16
Calogyphus spp. ............... 16
Calvolia ..........................16
Calvolia bakeri Hughes .......... 16
Calvolia romanovae Zach ........ 16
Calvolia transversostriata (Oud.) 16
Camisiidae ............. ......51
Caraboacarus ...................68
Carabodidae ....................51
Cheiroseius .................. ... 22
Cheiroseius floridianus
(DeLeon) .......................22
Cheiroseius jamaicensis (E. & H.). .23
Chelaseius floridanus
(Muma) ............... 56,58,60,62
Cheletogenes ....................25
Cheletogenes ornatus C.& F. ..... 25
Cheletomimus .................. 25
Cheletominus berlesei
(Oudemans) ...................25
Cheletomimus duosetosa Muma .. 26
Cheyletidae .................... 9,25
Clavidromus transvaalensis
(Nesbitt) ............... ... 64,65
Coccorhagidia ........... ...... 69
Cosmolaelaps .................... 47
Cryptognathidae ...............8,27
Cryptognathus ................ 28
Cryptognathus favus Summers
& Chaudri ...................28
Cryptognathus n. sp. near
ochraceous Summers &
Chaudri....... .............. 28
Cunaxa .............. ..... 28,29
Cunaxa boneti B. & H. ........... 29
Cunaxa capreolus Berlese ........ 29
Cunaxa inermis (Trigardh) ......29
Cunaxa mexicana B. & H. .......29
Cunaxa setirostris (Hermann) .... 29
Cunaxa simplex Ewing...........29
Cunaxa taurus Kramer ........14,29
Cunaxa womersleyi B. & H. ......29
Cunaxidae ............ 10,14,20,28
Cunaxiodes ................... 28,29
Cunaxiodes andrei B. & H. ...... 29
Cunaxoides pectinatus Ewing .... 29
Cunaxiodes pectinellus Muma .... 29
Cunaxoides whartoni B. & H. ....29
Cyta ............................ 21
Cyta latirostris (Hermann) .......21
D
Daidalotarsonemus seitus
Attiah .................... .74,76


oQ










Subject Page
Daidalotarsonemus somalatus
A ttiah .......................74,76
Daidalotarsonemus venustus
Attiah .................. 74,76,77
Digamasellidae ............... 8,30
Digamasellus ............... 30,31

E
Ensliniellidae ................. 15,17
Eotetranychus sexmaculatus
(Riley) ........................80
Erem aeidae ................... 7,51
Eriophyidae ................ 6,14,31
Eryngiopus ......................71
Eryngiopus sp. #1 ................ 71
Eryngiopus sp. #2 ................71
Eupalopsellidae ................ 9,32
Eupodes ........................45
Eupodidae .................6,9,45
Euseius hibisci (Chant) .. 57,59,61,63
Eutetranychus banksi
(McGregor) ..................... 80
Eutogenes ........................ 26
Eutogenes foxi Baker ...........26
Exothorhis caudata Summers 32,45

F
Floridotarsonemus scaber
Attiah ....................... 74,75
Fundiseius cesi (Muma).. 56,58,60,62
Fungitarsonemus peregrinosus
Attiah ..................73,74,76
Fungitarsonemus pulvirosus
Attiah ................... 73,74,76

G
Galendromus annectens
(DeLeon) ................... 64,65
Galendromus floridanus
(Muma) ............... 64,65,66
Galumnidae ..................... 51
Gamasellodes ................. 19,20
Gamasellodes sp. near
rectiventris Lindquist ..........20
Glycyphagidae .............. 15,17
Glycyphagus ..................... 17
Glycyphagus domesticus
(DeGeer) ... .................. 17
Glyptholaspis .................. 48
Glyptholaspis americana
(Berlese) ................ .....48
Glyptholaspis fimicola (Berlese) .. 48
Grallacheles .....................26
Grallacheles bakeri DeLeon ...... 26


H
Haplozetidae ................... 51
Hemicheyletia ...................26


Subject Page
Hemicheyletia baker
(Ehara) .....................26,27
Hemicheyletia wellsi
(Baker) ................... 26,27
Hemiscarcoptes malus Shimer .... 46
Hemisarcoptidae .............. 8,46
Histiostoma ...................... 17
Holotaspella .....................48
Holotaspella bifoliata
(Trag.) ..........................48
Hypoaspis ..................... 47

I
Imparipes longisetosus
W illm ann ......................70
Iphiseiodes quadripilis
(Banks)...........54,56,58,60,62

K
Ker ..........................26
Kerpalmatus (Muma) ............ 26

L
Laelapidae ................. 10,46
Laelaspis ....................... 47
Lasioseius .................. 23,24
Lasioseius athiashenriotae
(DeLeon) ................... 23,24
Lasioseius dentatus Fox
(=scapulatus Kennett) ..........23
Lasioseius krantzi Chant ......... 23
Lasioseius n. sp.
dentatuss group) ..............23
Ledermuelleria ................. 71
Ledermuelleria plumifer
(Halbert) ...................... 71
Ledermuelleria segnis (Koch) ..... 71
Leiodinychus ................... 84
Lorryia ......................... 82
Lorryia floridensis Baker ......... 82
Lorryia marcandrei Baker ........ 82
Lorryia sp. near
bedfordensis Baker ............ 82
Lupotarsonemus floridanus
Attiah .................. .74,75
Lupotarsonemus inornatus
Attiah .....................74,75
Lupotarsonemus minutus
Attiah ................ 74,75,76
Luptotarsonemus mumae
Attiah .......................74,75
Lupotarsonemus paraunguis
Attiah ......................74,75
Lupotarsonemus spicatus
Attiah .......................74,76
Lupotarsonemus spinosus
Attiah .......................74,76










Subject


Macrocheles ................. .48
Macrocheles insignitus Berlese .... 48
Macrocheles merdarius (Berlese) .. 48
Macrocheles robustulus
(Berlese) ..................... 48
Macrocheles sp. near
muscadomesticae (Scopoli) ..... 48
Macrochelidae .............. 11,47
Malaconothridae ................51
Metatarsonemus longitibialis
Attiah ....................... 74, 75
Metatarsonemus simplicissimus
Attiah .................... ...74,75
Mexecheles ................... 26
Mexecheles hawaiiensis (Baker) .. 26

N
Nanorchestes ................... 49
Nanorchestes capensis
Theron & Ryke ...............49
Nanorchestes usualis
Theron & Ryke ................ 49
Nanorchestidae .............. 7,8,49
Neoleiodidae ................... 51
Neophyllobiidae ............... 10, 49
Neophyllobius ......... .......... 50
Neophyllobius equalis DeLeon .... 50
Neophyllobius mexicanus McG. .. 50
Neophyllobius sp. near
texanus McG. ............... 50
Neoseiulus gracilis
(Muma) ..............57,59,61,63
Neoseiulus marinellus
(Muma) .............. .57,59,61,63
Neoseiulus planatus
(Muma) ..............57,59,61,63
Nodele ........................ 25
Nodele calamondin Muma ........ 25
Nodele philippinensis
(Baker) .........................25
Noeledius iphiformis
(Muma) .............. 57, 58,60,62

0
Ololaelaps ..................... 47
Oplitis ....................... 85
Oribatei ........................ 7,50
Oribatellidae ....................51
Oribatulidae .....................52
Orientiseius rickeri (Chant) .... 64,65
Oripodidae ................... 52
Oudmansicheyla ................26
Oudmansicheyla denmarki
Yunker .................... 26,27

P
Pachygnathidae ................ 9,52
Pachygnathus sp. ................ 52


Subject Page
Pachylaelapidae ..............10,52
Panonychus citri (McGregor) ..... 79
Paraamblyseius lunatus
(Muma) .............. 57, 59, 61, 63
Parapronematus ................82
Parapronematus acacia Baker 82,83
Paraseiulella coma (DeLeon) .. 64,65
Paraseiulella elliptica
(DeLeon) ................... 64,65
Parasitidae ................. 11,53
Parasitus ............. ........ 53
Petrobia harti (Ewing) ............79
Phthiracaridae ................ 52
Phyllocoptruta oleivora
Ashm ead .................. 1,14
Phytoscutus sexpilis
(Muma)........... 55,56,58,60,62
Phytoseiidae .......... 10,22,27,53
Phytoseiinae ................. 64,65
Phytoseiulus macropilis
(Banks)........... 56,58,60,62,66
Podocinidae .................. 11,67
Podocinum pugnorum DeLeon .... 67
Polyphagotarsonemus latus
(Banks) ............... 72, 74,75
Proctolaelaps ................. 23,24
Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram.) .... 23
Proctolaelaps longipilis (Chant) .. 23
Proctolaelaps nemathrix Krantz ..23
Proctolaelaps n. sp. (near
orientalis (Chant) ..............23
Proctolaelaps pygmaeus
(M iiller) ................... 23,24
Proctolaelaps regalis DeLeon ..... 23
Proprioseiopsis asetus
(Chant) .............. 56, 58,60,62
Proprioseiopsis cannaensis
(Muma) .............56,58,60,62
Proprioseiopsis citri
(Muma) .............56,58,60,62
Proprioseiopsis detritus
(Muma) .............56,58,60,62
Proprioseiopsis dorsatus
(Muma) ...............56,58,60,62
Proprioseiopsis lepidus
(Chant) ..............56,58,60,62
Proprioseiopsis macrosetae
(Muma) ...............56,58,60,62
Proprioseiopsis rotundus
(Muma) .............56,58,60,62
Proprioseiopsis solens
(DeLeon) ............56,58,60,62
Prosocheyla ............. ..... ...26
Prosocheyla buckneri (Baker)..... 26
Protereunetes ................... 33
Protogamasellus .............. 19,20
Protogamasellus primitivus Karg 20
Protogamasellus sp. near
massula (Athias-Henriot) ....... 20










Subject Page
Pseudoparasitus .................. 47
Pseudopygmephorus .............68
Pyemotidae ....................8,67

R
Rhagidia ................... 69
Rhagidiidae .................... 9,68
Rhaphignathidae .............. 9, 69
Rhaphignathus .................. 69
Rhodacarellus ....................70
Rhodacaridae .................. 8,69
Rhodacarus ......................70
Rhynchotarsonemus citri
Attiah ....................... 74,76
Rhynchotarsonemus floridanus
Attiah ..................... 74,76

S
Saniosulus nudus Summers ...... 32
Scutacaridae ................ 8,70
Siteroptes ...................... 68
Speleorchestes ................... 49
Speleorchestes meyerae
Theron & Ryke .................49
Stigm aeidae ................. ...9,70
Stigmaeus ........................ 71

T
Tarsonemidae................6,7,72
Tarsonemus citri Attiah .......74,75
Tarsonemus ingens Attiah .....74,75
Tarsonemus undulatus Attiah .74,75
Tenuipalpidae ............... 6,77
Tetranychidae ................ 6,78
Tetranychus ludeni Zacher ........ 79
Tetranychus telarius (Linneaus) .. 79
Tetranychus tumidus (Banks).. 79,81
Tetranychus urticae Koch ..... 79,81
Thyreophagus .................. 16
Thyreophagus sp. ............ 16,18
Triophtydeus .................... 82
Tropacarus ....................... 16


Subject


Subject Page
Tropacarus mumai Cunliffe ... 16, 17
Tydeidae ................ 6,7,8,81
Tydeus .......................... 82
Tydeus gloveri (Ashmead) ..... 82,83
Tydeus mumai Baker............ 82
Tydeus shawi Baker............. 83
Tydeus tuttlei Baker............. 83
Typhlodramalus limonicus
(G. & McG.) ...........57,59,61,63
Typhlodromalus peregrinus
(Muma) ........................54
Typhlodromina subtropical
Muma & Denmark ....... 64,65,67
Typhlodromips deleoni
(Muma) .............. 57,59,61,63
Typhlodromips dentilis
(DeLeon) .............57,59,61,63
Typhlodromips dillus
(DeLeon) .............. 57,59,61,63
Typhlodromips simplicissimus
(DeLeon) ..............57,59,61,63
Tyrophagus ..................... 16
Tyrophagus longior (Gervais)..... 16
Tyrophagus palmarum Oud. ...... 16
Tyrophagus putrescentiae
(Schrant) .......................17
Tyrophagus sp. ............... 17

U
Urodinychidae .................. 84
Uropodidae .................... 84
Uropodina .................... 10,84

V
Vegaiidae .................... 11,85
Vidia ... ...................... 17

Z
Zetzellia .............. .... ......71
Zetzellia languida Gonzalez ...... 71
Zetzellia sp. ..................... 71
Zygoseius furciger Berlese ........53


Page


acarids................. 24,27,54,55
Andre's long-nosed mite .......... 30
ascid mites (ascids) ........ 19,30,69
B
balloon mites ................... .68
bat-winged mites .................50
beetle m ites ......................50
big-headed mites ............. 25,27
black tarsonemid ................ 73
blattisocid m ites ................. 22


broad mite ................... 72,73
bud mites ..................... 31
bull mite .................... 14,29
C
chalk-striped mite .......... 54,72,83
cheese m ites ..................... 15
cheyletid mites ................... 25
citrus bud mite ................... 31
citrus macrochelid .............. 48
citrus red
mite ......... 27,45,54,66,67,78,79


INDEX TO COMMON MITE NAMES
Page Subject










Subject Page
citrus rust mite ....... 1,14,22,31,72
citrus snout mite .................21
clear mite ...................... 83
crowned mite ..................... 66
cryptognathids ................. 27
culture blattisocid ................ 24
culture blattisocids ............... 24
cunaxids ................... 21,28
D
digam asellids .................... 30

E
eupalopsellids .................... 32
eupodids ........... ........... 45

F
false spider mites .............. .. 77
flat m ites ............. . 55,77
frosted blattisocids ............... 24
frosted mite .................. 24
frosty big-headed mite ............ 27
fruit m ites ....................... 15
fungus m ites ..................... 15
G
gall m ites ........... ........... 31
grain m ites ...................... 67

H
ham m ites ..................... 15
hemisarcoptid mites .............. 46

I
itch m ites ................... .. 67
K
Keegan's mite .................... 24

L
laelapids .........................46
large blattisocids ............. .. 23
long-haired mite ................ 55
long-legged mite .................. 66
long-nosed mites .............. 14,28
M
m acrochelids ..................... 47
N
nanorchestids .................... 49
P
pachygnathids ................... 52
pachylaelapids ................... 52
parasitids .............. ....... 53
phytoseiids ................. 27,53
pink citrus rust mite............ 31


Subject Page
podocinids ......................67
purple m ite ............ ..........79
pyemotids ....................67,70
R
red and black flat mite ...........78
red flat m ite .................. .. 78
red spider ........................ 79
rhagidiids ......... ........... 68
rhaphignathids .................. 69
rhodacarids ...................30,69
rust mites ................... .31,55

S
saddle-back mite .............72,73
scale m ites ..................... 46
scutacarids ....................... 70
shiny button mite ................ 54
six-spotted
mite ......... 27,54,66,67,72,79,80
slender fungus mite .............. 18
snout m ites .................. .... 20
spider mites .............. 55,78,79
spiny red mite ...............32,45
stigmaeids ................... 32,70
stilt-legged mites .............49,50
strawberry mite ..............71,72
sub-tropical mite .................. 67
T
tan mite .........................66
tarsonemids ............ 55,68,70,72
Texas citrus mite .... 27,54,66,79,80
trash m ite ................... 73,76
tropical two-spotted mite .......66,79
tumid spider mite ............... 81
turtle mites ..................... .50
two-spined mite ................. 20
two-spotted fungus mite ....... 17,55
two-spotted mite ................ 79
two-spotted spider mite ........... 81
tydeid mites ..................... 81
U
uropodid mites ................ 84
V
vegaiid mites ..................... 85
velvet button mite ............... 55

W
whirligig mites ................... 18
white fungus mite ................ 17
white-tailed mite ............... 76

Y
yellow mite ................... 24,54




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