• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Relative importance of markets...
 Routes of shipment
 Methods of preservation used
 Costs of marketing
 Auction prices, by method of preservation...
 Summary






Group Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station bulletin no. 317
Title: Florida citrus prices, II
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00047876/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida citrus prices, II
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 31 p. : charts ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Spurlock, A. H
Brooker, Marvin A ( Marvin Adel ), 1903-1997
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1937
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Prices -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Marketing   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by A.H. Spurlock and Marvin A. Brooker.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00047876
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924543
oclc - 18213276
notis - AEN5170

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Relative importance of markets studied
        Page 5
    Routes of shipment
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Methods of preservation used
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Costs of marketing
        Page 14
        Freight, selling, and other costs, excluding preservation
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Preservation costs
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Total costs, origin to market
            Page 21
    Auction prices, by method of preservation used
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Summary
        Page 30
        Page 31
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






November, 1937


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA











FLORIDA CITRUS PRICES, I



By




A. H. SPURLOCK AND MARVIN A. BROKER


Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 317








EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of
the University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate*
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
L. M. Thurston, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
.. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husbandman
R: I. Crown, B.S.A.; Asst. An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant

ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist**
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Onida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist**
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist**
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist and
Acting Head of Department
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot. M.S.A., Specialist, Fumigation
Research
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Vorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Assistant Botanist

SPECTROGRAPHIC LABORATORY
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
L. H. Rogers. M.A.. Spectroscopic Analyst


BOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. Terry, Chairman, Miami
Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
H. P. Adair, Jacksonville
Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
W. A. Kuntz, A.M., Assoc. Plant Pathologist
Michael Peech. Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
John A. Granger, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. Animal Husbasidman
Ross E. Robertson, B.S., Assistant Chemist
W. T. Foresee, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer*
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge*

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks. Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Associate Entomologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
Sam O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist*
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist, Celery Inv.
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist* '
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist*

In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
** Head of Department.










FLORIDA CITRUS PRICES, II

By A. H. SPURLOCK AND MARVIN A. BROKER'

CONTENTS
PAGE
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF MARKETS STUDIED ...................... .... .. ................ 5
ROUTES OF SHIPMENT .......................................... ................ .............. ....... 5
METHODS OF PRESERVATION USED ....................................... ...... ...... ............... 9
COSTS OF M ARKETING ............ .............................................................. ............. ....... 14
Freight, Selling, and Other Costs, Excluding Preservation ....................... 14
Preservation Costs ................. ......................... ........................... .. ..... ........... 16
Total Costs, Origin to Market ........................................ ............ 21
AUCTION PRICES, BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED ....................... ... ........... 21
SU M M ARY ................................................................................... ....... ............ ......... 30

This bulletin covers the second phase of a study of: Florida
citrus prices, the first phase of which appeared in Bulletin 315
of this | station. The purpose of this bulletin is to show the
average, costs of marketing Florida citrus fruit at auction
according to method of preservation2 used in shipment to
market,; and to show comparative auction prices received for
fruit shipped under the various methods of preservation.
As in' Bulletin 315, shipments of citrus fruit from 31 Florida
packinghouses sold at auction in New York, Chicago, Detroit,
Cincinnati and Pittsburgh are included in the data. No ship-
ments of bulk fruit or shipments of packed fruit by express or
by motor truck alone have been used.
The individual shipment manifest of each lot of citrus from
which data were taken showed the point of origin, destination,
route of shipment, method of preservation used, date shipped
and date sold, number of boxes and price per box for each vari-
ety, grade and size of; fruit. The number of boxes in each
variety,! grade, and size was multiplied by the price per box of
the particular lot, and the value tabulated to the nearest even

Acknowledgments: The writers wish to express their thanks to all
who have. assisted in the preparation of this work. Special credit is due
Dr. C. V. Noble under whose direction the study was made, and to Dr.
H. G. Hamilton who assisted in outlining the work and offered helpful
criticism. Appreciation is also due Mr. Zach Savage for his aid.
The Farm Credit Administration of Columbia cooperated in the com-
pletion by furnishing the use of Hollerith electric sorting and tabulating
equipment, and operators, at Columbia, South Carolina.
Records from which data were taken were kindly made available by
the Florida Citrus Exchange, Tampa, and the Florida Division of the
American Fruit Growers, Inc.,: Orlando.
iChief Statistician, Farm Credit Administration, Columbia, South
Carolina.
2Preservation as used in this text refers to pre-cooling and refrigera-
tion by various means and to standard ventilation.













TABLE 1.-VOLUME OF AUCTION SALES OF FLORIDA CITRUS FRUIT FROM 31 PACKINGHOUSES TO FIVE MARKETS.

1930-31 1 1931-32 1932-33 1 Total
Market Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
of boxes of total of boxes of total of boxes of total of boxes of total


New York ..................
Chicago ....................
Detroit ...................
Cinzinnati .................
Pittsburgh ..................
Total ........................|


941,106 60.9 834,610
312,423 20.2 170,465
131,724 8.5 76,347
94,823 6.2 57,715
64,392 4.2 26,889
1,544,468 I 100.0 1,166,026


71.6 830,629
14.6 164,637
6.5 91,571
5.0 69,187
2.3 32,250
I 100.0 1,188,274


69.9
13.9
7.7
5.8
2.7
100.0


2,606,345
647,525
299,642
221,725
123,531
3,898,768


66.8
16.6
7.7
5.7
3.2
100.0


TABLE 2.-VOLUME OF NEW YORK AUCTION SALES OF FLORIDA CITRUS FRUIT FROM 31 PACKINGHOUSES, BY ROUTE OF
SHIPMENT.

1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 I Total
Route of shipment Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
I of boxes of total of boxes of total of boxes of total I of boxes of total

Rail ... .................... 931,997 99.0 681,893 81.7 353,605 42.6 1,967,495 75.5
Rail and water .......... 7,954 .9 7,260 .9 117,414 14.1 132,628 5.1
Motor truck and water 1,155 .1 145,457 17.4 359,610 43.3 506,222 19.4
Total ........................ 941,106 I 100.0 834,610 100.0 830,629 | 100.0 | 2,606,345 100.0







Florida Citrus Prices, II


dollar. All sizes in the same grade and variety were later added
together to obtain larger groups for comparison.
Unless otherwise stated, all containers were converted to
the equivalent number of standard boxes of one and three-
fifths bushels. This is the customary package for oranges
and grapefruit, although tangerines and Temples are usually
shipped in half-boxes or in bushel baskets.


N!ber
of boxes
(000 opani


4a 40




Florida packinghouses to five
markets (average of three sea-
sons, 1930-31, 1931-32, and 1932-
33).


Because of the small amount
of fruit moving at the begin-
ning, and at the end of the
season, September and October
have been combined; also July
and August.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE
OF MARKETS STUDIED
The relative importance of
the five markets to the 31 pack-
inghouses from the standpoint
of volume of auction sales in
each is shown in Table 1, and
Fig. 1. New York received
during the three seasons ap-
proximately twice as much
fruit as the four other markets
combined.

ROUTES OF SHIPMENT
Shipments were made to Chi-
cago, Detroit, Cincinnati and
Pittsburgh by rail only, but
New York received fruit by
other routes also, as shown in
Table 2. In 1930-31 rail ship-
ments made up 99 percent of
the total shipments to New


York from the 31 packinghouses; in 1932-33 less than half the
auction sales in New York were shipped by rail alone (Fig. 2).
The most common practice in rail and water shipment was
to send the fruit to Jacksonville by rail, thence to New York
by water. In motor truck and water shipments the fruit was







Florida Citrus Prices, II


dollar. All sizes in the same grade and variety were later added
together to obtain larger groups for comparison.
Unless otherwise stated, all containers were converted to
the equivalent number of standard boxes of one and three-
fifths bushels. This is the customary package for oranges
and grapefruit, although tangerines and Temples are usually
shipped in half-boxes or in bushel baskets.


N!ber
of boxes
(000 opani


4a 40




Florida packinghouses to five
markets (average of three sea-
sons, 1930-31, 1931-32, and 1932-
33).


Because of the small amount
of fruit moving at the begin-
ning, and at the end of the
season, September and October
have been combined; also July
and August.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE
OF MARKETS STUDIED
The relative importance of
the five markets to the 31 pack-
inghouses from the standpoint
of volume of auction sales in
each is shown in Table 1, and
Fig. 1. New York received
during the three seasons ap-
proximately twice as much
fruit as the four other markets
combined.

ROUTES OF SHIPMENT
Shipments were made to Chi-
cago, Detroit, Cincinnati and
Pittsburgh by rail only, but
New York received fruit by
other routes also, as shown in
Table 2. In 1930-31 rail ship-
ments made up 99 percent of
the total shipments to New


York from the 31 packinghouses; in 1932-33 less than half the
auction sales in New York were shipped by rail alone (Fig. 2).
The most common practice in rail and water shipment was
to send the fruit to Jacksonville by rail, thence to New York
by water. In motor truck and water shipments the fruit was






Number
of boxes
(000 omitted)

Motor truck and water


Rail and water
800R

Rail


200






1930-31 1931-32 1932-33
Fig. 2.-New York auction sales of citrus fruit from 31 Florida
packinghouses, by route of shipment.
SNumber
of boxze
(000 oitted)_
SMotor truck and water
1 Rail and water

10
Rail






800



4o.







Fig. 3.-Seasonal distribution of New York auction sales of citrus fruit
from 31 Florida packinghouses, by route of shipment.
[6]












TABLE 3.-SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF NEw YORK AUCTION SALES OF FLORIDA CITRUS FRUIT FROM 31 PACKINGHOUSES,
BY ROUTE OF SHIPMENT.


1930-31
Motor
Month sold Rail truck
Rail and and
water water


Sept.-Oct ......
November .....-
December ......
January ......
February ......
March ..........
April ..............
May ........
June ................
July-Aug. ......
Total ........
Percent each
route ..........


(boxes)

41,981
101,212
103,726
127,216
113,345
122,154
103,871
131,996
80,501
5,995
931,997

99.0


(boxes) (boxes)


6,144
1,087

7,954

0.9


1,155


1,155


Total Rail


(boxes)

41,981
101,904
103,757
127,216
113,345
122,154
103,871
139,295
81,588
5,995
941,106


0.1 1 100.0


(boxes)

14,247
57,527
104,702
109,279
114,503
98,697
74,566
68,484
38,625
1,263
681,893

81.7


1931

Rail
and
water
(boxes)

1,832
1,343
1,910
2,175




7,260
0.9


-32
Motor
truck
and Total
water I
(boxes) (boxes)

14,247
8,632 67,991
21,930 127,975
21,578 132,767
26,603 143,281
27,405 126,102
14,602 89,168
19,815 88,299
4,449 43,074
443 1,706
145,457 834,6101

17.4 100.0


1932-33


Motor
truck
and
water
(boxes)

400
12,722
25,527
31,061
49,180
61,458
56,162
52,605
41,081
29,414
359,610


Rail
and
water
(boxes)


4,952
8,057
14,014
31,431
26,104
25,276
7,580

117,414

14.1


boxes)

8,173
49,641
95,486
54,141
31,998
45,168
33,756
25,749
7,955
1,538
353,605

42.6


Total

(boxes)

8,573
62,363
125,965
93,259
95,192
138,057
116,022
103,630
56,616
30,952
830,629


43.3 j 100.0


--~-------















TABLE 4.-AUCTION SALES IN FIVE MARKETS OF FLORIDA CITRUS FRUIT FROM 31 PACKINGHOUSES, BY ROUTE, AND BY
METHOD OF PRE ERVATION USED.
hail sh pments
Method of preservation lNew York I Chicao I Detroit I Cincinnati_
1930-3111931-3211932-331 Total 11930-3111931-3211932-331 Total 11930-3111931-3211932-331 Total 11930-3111931-3211932-331 Total .
(boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxzs) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (box2s) (boxes) (boxes)

Initial ice ......................... 124,719 11429 56,895 29934 22,46 22,946 20,848 66,143 8,098 9,677 18,578 36,33 12,976 9,698 13,20 35,694
P:e cooled and initially
iced ................ 338,475 234,223 144,457 717,157 106,162 56,830 78,86 21,768 43,914 15,864 23,911 83,689 26,482 16,261 17,968 6,711
Pre-cooled ani standard
refri eration ..... 11.931 ............ ............ 11,901 72 .......... ....... 720 ......... .. .. .. ... .......
Standard re:rieeration .. 117,118 130,734 46,273 264,125 45,873 20,816 24,473 91,162 28,170 16,296 16,884 61,350 16,007 9,709 13,947 39663
Sten ard ventila ion ...... 276,206 228,792 104.336 639,334 129,596, 69,099 43,510 239,235 49,370 34,510 32,198 116,078 37,828 21,663 24,252 83,743 9
T-tl ............................I 931,9971 681,8931 353.60511,967,4951 312,4231 170,4651 164,6371 647,525| 131,724 76,347 91,5711 299,6421 94,8211 57,7151 69,187 221,725



Bail shipments Rail and water shipments -..otor tru-k and water shipments
Method of preservation Pittsburgh | New York New York
1930-3111931-321 1932-33 Totail 1930-3111931-3211932-331 Total 11930-3111931-3211932-331 Total
'boxes) (boxes) (bobox) (boxes) (box (box-s) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes)
Pre-cooled ................. 2,544 444 ............ 2,988 5,110 ......... 16,518 21,628 ............ 303 59,358 59,661
Initially iced .................... 8,081 5,275 4,095 17,451 1,394 ............ ............ 1394... ..... ....... ........ ..........
Pre-cooled and initially
iced ... .. ..... 27,550 3,992 9,219 40,761 .......... 752 757 1,509 ............ .................. .. ..........
Pre-coo'ed and standard *
refri eration ......... .......... 372 ......... 372 .......... .. .. .. o. .
Standard refrigeration .. 6,484 3,997 7,093 17,574 ............ ...... ............ ............ ............ ........... ..........
Stsn ard ventila ion ...... 19,733 12,809 11,843 44,38 1,450 6,508 103,139 108,097 1,155145,154303,25 446,561
Total ............................I 64,3921 26.8891 32,2501 123,5311 7954 7.2631 117,414[ 132,628 1,1551 145,4571 359,6101 506,222







Florida Citrus Prices, II


frequently sent to Jacksonville or Tampa by motor truck and
from these ports to New York by water. Other loading points
for motor truck and water shipments were also used, particu-
larly at Sanford and DeLand, on the St. Johns River. No motor
truck shipments from the point of origin to the auction market
were included.
A seasonal distribution of auction sales in New York by
route of shipment is shown in Table 3, and Fig. 3. The lower
prices received for F.orida citrus in 1932-33 than in the pre-
ceding two seasons may have been responsible for the tremen-
dous increase in the use of the cheaper water routes to New
York that season.

METHODS OF PRESERVATION USED
The most common methods of preservation used in rail ship-
ments to the five markets were pre-cooling and initial icing
combined, and standard ventilation, i. e. no refrigeration (Table
4). These two methods together averaged 68.6 percent of the
total volume shipped by rail during the three seasons (Fig. 4).
Two other methods of importance were standard refrigeration,
and initial icing. Pre-cooling alone seems to have been little
used, and was used less after the 1930-31 season (Table 4).
The three-season monthly total auction sales in each market
by route of shipment and by method of pre-ervation used is
shown in Table 5. A monthly percentage distribution of rail
shipments to the five markets by means of preservation used
is shown in Table 6.
Standard ventilation was used mainly in the cooler months,
November through April, while in the hotter months there was
an increased use of standard refrigeration, and of pre-cooling
and initial icing. This latter method was fairly important the
year round, based on the percentage of the total shipments each
month by that method.










Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Pre-cooled
Initially iced
Pre-cooled and initially iced
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration
Standard refrigeration
Standard ventilation

Pre-cooled
Initially iced
Pre-cooled and initially iced
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration
Standard refrigeration
Standard ventilation

Pre-cooled
Initially iced
Pre-cooled and initially iced
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration
Standard refrigeration
Standard ventilation

Pre-cooled
Initially iced
Pre-cooled and initially iced
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration
Standard refrigeration
Standard ventilation

Pre-cooled
Initially iced
Pre-cooled and initially iced
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration
Standard refrigeration
Standard ventilation

Pre-cooled
Initially iced
Pre-cooled and initially iced
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration
Standard refrigeration
Standard ventilation


New fork







Chic Wo
I





Detr it







Cinci mati







Pitt burg







Average Fi e Markets








) 10 20 30 40
Percent of Total Rail Shipments


Fig. 4.-Volume of auction sales in five markets of Florida citrus fruit
from 31 packinghouses by method of preservation used, rail shipments only
(average of three seasons, 1930-31, 1931-32, and 1932-33).










TABLE 5.-SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF AUCTION SALES OF FLORIDA CITRUS FRUIT FROM 31 PACKINGHOUSES TO FIVE MARKETS,
BY ROUTE OF SHIPMENT AND BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED.
(Total of three seasons, 1930-31, 1931-32, and 1932-33)
Rail shipments
New York Chicago
Pre- Pre-
Month sold Pre- cooled Pre- cooled
Pre- Initially cooled and Standard Standard Pre- Initially cooled and Standard Standard
cooled iced and standard refrig- ventila- Total cooled iced and standard refrig- ventila- Total
initially refrig- eration tion initially refrig- eration tion
iced eration iced eration
(boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes)
September-October .................. 7,583 23,756 ............ 30,866 2,196 64,401 ............ 2,618 9,020 ............ 16,366 360 28,364
November ...................... 2,520 33,947 65,986 ............ 51,150 54,777 208,380 2,572 8,438 23,509 ............ 15,483 15,735 65,737
December ......................... 7,460 48,805 125,401 ............ 27,653 94,595 303,914 ............ 7,589 30,376 ............ 8,871 86,043 82,879
January ........................... 12,031 44.246 91,341 ............ 29,262 113,756 290,636 2,172 8,220 28,980 ............ 7,547 45,474 92,393
February .......................... 12,033 26,929 87,098 ............ 29,860 103,926 259,846 ............ 5,478 27,704 ............ 6,373 42,293 81,848
March ............................. 19,049 34,473 79,128 ............ 13,202 120,167 266,019 1,176 3,499 19,519 ..... .... 2,345 49,571 76,110
April .................................. 11,882 30,810 67,795 ............ 13,876 87,830 212,193 2,250 9,426 28,901 ............ 5,255 39,415 85,247
May .................................. 3,379 54,810 98,422 ........... 39,355 30,263 226,229 360 17,848 51,951 ............ 17,165 10,314 97,638
June ................................ 720 11,496 77,126 10,781 25,518 1,440 127,081 ............ 3,024 21,060 720 9,414 ............ 34,218
July-August .................... ............ 2,805 1,104 1,120 3,383 384 8,796 ........... ............ 748 ............ 2,343 ............ 3,091
Total .......................... 69,074 295,904 717,157 11,901 264,125 609,334 1,967,495 8,530 66,140 241,768 720 91,162 239,205 647,525
Percent of total ................ 3.5 15.0 36.5 .6 13.4 31.0 100.0 1.3 10.2 37.3 .1 14.1 37.0 100.0

Detroit Cincinnati

September-October .......... ............ 2,244 2,952 ............ 8,823 ............ 14,019 ............ 1,812 1,549 ............ 3,320 1,452 8,133
November ................. 360 6,482 9,615 ........... 8,664 7,013 32,134 720 2,211 3,330 ............ 8,446 8,483 23,190
December ......................... ......... 3,468 10,580 ............ 3,703 19,727 37,478 ............ 5,353 8,977 ............ 3,643 10,866 28,839
January ...................................... 4,194 8,781 ............ 6,657 22,134 41,766 ............ 6,044 8,597 ............ 4,448 14,807 33,896
February .......................... ............ 3,424 9,054 ........... 5,116 17,671 35,265 ........... 5,432 7,438 ........... 4,578 12,854 30,302
March .................................. 372 1,836 6,988 ............ 2,604 24,939 36,739 384 1,574 3,487 ............. .... 16,924 22,369
April .................................... 720 4,410 6,774 ............ 5,198 16,381 33,483 450 3,668 7,217 ............ 2,249 12,762 26,346
May ................... ............. 720 7,970 16,498 ............ 10,464 8,213 43,865 360 8,472 10,932 ............ 8,532 5,595 33,891
June ................................. ............ 2,325 11,702 ............ 9,336 ............ 23,363 ............ 1,128 9,184 ............ 4,447 ........... 14,759
July-August ................... ...- ..... ........... 745 ............ 785 1,530............ 1 0 ................. .
Total ................................ 2,172 36,353 83,689 ........... 61,350 116,078 299,642 1,914 ,694 60,711 .......... 9,66 83,743 221,72
Percent of total ........... .7 12.1 27.9 ............ 20.5 8.8 100.0 .8 16.1 27.4 ....... 17.9 7.8 100.0








TABLE 5.-SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF AUCTION SALES OF FLORIDA CITRUS FRUIT FROM 31 PACKINGHOUSES TO FIVE MARKETS,
BY ROUTE OF SHIPMENT AND BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED (Concluded).
(Total of three seasons, 1930-31, 1931-32, and 1932-33)


Month sold




September-October .........
November ..........................
December ........................
January ............................
February ..........................
March ..........................
April ...................................
May ............. ..............
June ...................................
July-Au7ust ...............
Total ..............................

Percent of total ................


Rail shipments


Pro.


Pre-
cooled


(boxes)

720
732

360
1,176
............



2,988

2.4


Pre-
Initially cooled
iced and
initially
iced
(boxes) (boxes)
1,116 2,350
720 2.544
2,244 4,828
732 4,461
1,092 2,964
1,116 2,300
1,947 2,233
7,002 11,971
1,122 7,110
360 ............
17,451 40,761

14.1 33.0


Pittsburh


Pre-
cooled
and
standard
refrig-
eration
(boxes)



372





372
.3


Standard
refrig-
eration

(boxes)
3,258
5.066
1,851
763
1,452
756
3,708
720

17,574
14.2


Standard
ventila-
tion

(boxes)
361
4,333
5,141
6,972
7,635
8,422
7,485
2,597
1,440

44,385
36.0


Total


(boxes)

7,084
13,383
14,796
13,330
12,051
14,466
12,421
25,278
10,392
360
123,531

100.0


Rail an i water shipments


Pre-
Pre- Initially cooled
cooled iced and
initially
iced
(boxes) (boxes) (boxes)

............ ... 752


830 ............ 757
7,990 ............ ............
10,565 1,394 ............
2,243 ............ ............

21,628 1,394 1,509
16.3 1.1 1.1


New York


Pre-
cooled
and Standard Standard
standard refrig- ventila-
refrig- eration tion
ration
(boxes) (boxes) (boxes)

1,772
.... ............ 6,326
............ ............ 967
............ ............ 16,189
.. ... ............ 29,844
............ ............ 18,114
S............ .......... 19,461
............ ............ 6,424

............ ............ 108,097
............ ............ 81.5


Motor truck and water shipments
New York
Pre-
Pre- cooled
Month sold Pre- Initially cooled and Standard Standard
cooled iced and standard refrig- ventila- Total
initially refriT- eration tion
iced eration
(boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes) (boxes)

September-October ...... ............ ....-..... ............ ............ .......... 400 400
November ....................... ............. .... .... ........... 21.354 21,354
December ......................... 671 ............ ...... ............ ............ 46,786 47,457
January ......................... 4,730 .... ... ........... ....... 47,909 52,639
February ............................ 6 38 ........... ........................ .... .... 69,045 75,783
March ............. ....... 4,555 ............ .......... ............ ............ 84,308 88.863
April .... ....,................ 5,9 5 ............ ........................ ............ 64,789 70,764
May ............ .. .......... 10,266 ............ ............ ............ ............ 63309 73,575
June ............................... 12,250 ........... ........... ......... ....... 33280 45,530
July-Au ust .. .......... 14,476 ............ .. ............ ............ 15,381 29.857
Total ................... 59,661 ............ 446.561 506,222
Percent of total ...... 11.8 ..... ....... ....... ..... 88.2 100.0


Total


(boxes)

2,524
6.326
9.967
16,189
31,431
26,104
31.420
8,667

132,628
100.0


Rail shipments.














TABLE 6.-SEASONAL PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF AUCTION SALES OF FLORIDA CITRUS FRUIT FROM 31 PACKINGHOUSES
TO FIVE MARKETS, BY RAIL SHIPMENT, AND BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION.
(Total of three seasons, 1930-31, 1931-32, and 1932-33)


Month sold


I
Pre-cooled Initially iced


Number Per- Number
of boxes cent of boxes


Sept.-Oct.......
November .. 6,892
December .. 8,192
January ...... 14,203
February .... 12,393
March .......... 22,157
April ............ 15,302
May ........ 4,819
June ............ 720
July-Aug .. .........
Total ........I 84,678


2.0
1.7
3.0
3.0
5.4
4.1
1.1
.3

2.6


15,373
51,798
67,459
63,436
42,355
42,498
50,261
96,102
19,095
3,165
451,542


Per-
cent


Pre-co
and
initially


Number
of boxes


12.6 39,627
15.1 104,984
14.4 180,162
13.5 142,160
10.1 134,258
10.2 111,422
13.6 112,920
22.5 189,774
9.1 126,182
23.0 2,597
13.9 11,144,086


oled Pre-cooled Standard Standard
and standard refrigeration ventilation Total
iced refrigeration___ __
SPer- Numberi Per- Number Per- Number Per- Number
Icent ofboxest cent I of boxes I cent of boxes cent of boxes

32.5 .......... .... 62,633 51.3 4,368 3.6 122,001
30.6 ........ .... 88,809 25.9 90,341 26.4 342,824
38.5 .......... .... 45,721 9.8 166,372 35.6 467,906
30.1 372 .1 48,677 10.3 203,143 43.0 471,991
32.0 ....... .... 45,927 10.9 184,379 44.0 419,312
26.8 ... 19,603 4.7 220,023 52.9 415,703
30.6 ........ .... 27,334 7.4 163,873 44.3 369,690
44.5 ........ ... 79,224 18.6 56,982 13.3 426,901
60.1 11,501 5.5 49,435 23.6 2,880 1.4 209,813
18.8 1.120 8.1 6,511 47.3 384 2.8 13,777
| 35.1 12,993 .4 I 473,874 1 14.5 11,092,745 33.5 13,259,918 1


Per-
cent

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0





,






14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

COSTS OF MARKETING
FREIGHT, SELLING AND OTHER COSTS, EXCLUDING
PRESERVATION
The season average costs of marketing Florida citrus fruit
in each of the five markets, by route of shipment are given in
Table 7. No cost for preservation is included here, as only
those costs which do not vary with the method of preserva-
tion used are shown.
It should be kept in mind that all average costs in this study
were based upon the number of boxes sold, which may have been
less in case of breakage than the number shipped. Charges for
freight and pre-cooling were based upon the number of boxes
shipped.
The number of boxes sold includes oranges, grapefruit, tan-
gerines, Temples, and a few other kinds, all converted to the
equivalent number of standard full boxes.
Freight includes the regular transportation charge made by
the railroad, motor truck, or steamship company, plus a few
other minor charges when they occurred, such as emergency
charge, switching charge, back haul, and dock labor.
The auction selling cost includes the amount paid the auction
receiver plus the charge by the auction company for selling
the fruit. Since these auction charges were based on a per-
centage of the sales price, there may have been some variation
in the auction selling cost due to the effect of the method of
preservation used on the keeping quality or condition of the
fruit at the time of sale, but most of the variation was due to
changing proportions of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines and
the different' grades of each, the auction price of which was
different for each class of fruit. For this reason the auction
selling cost has been shown as constant for all methods of
preservation.
Other costs include a large number of incidental and unusual
expenses which were not very important except in a few cases.
Among these costs are government inspection, reconsigning, de-
murrage, cataloging, storage, drayage, repairing damaged boxes,
and heater service in extreme weather. Storage, when used,
was by far the largest of these charges, and was incurred only
in rail shipments, mainly in 1930-31.
Cincinnati, because of its relative proximity, had the lowest
total cost per box for all-rail shipments, excluding preservation,
and Detroit had the highest of the five markets (Fig. 5).






14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

COSTS OF MARKETING
FREIGHT, SELLING AND OTHER COSTS, EXCLUDING
PRESERVATION
The season average costs of marketing Florida citrus fruit
in each of the five markets, by route of shipment are given in
Table 7. No cost for preservation is included here, as only
those costs which do not vary with the method of preserva-
tion used are shown.
It should be kept in mind that all average costs in this study
were based upon the number of boxes sold, which may have been
less in case of breakage than the number shipped. Charges for
freight and pre-cooling were based upon the number of boxes
shipped.
The number of boxes sold includes oranges, grapefruit, tan-
gerines, Temples, and a few other kinds, all converted to the
equivalent number of standard full boxes.
Freight includes the regular transportation charge made by
the railroad, motor truck, or steamship company, plus a few
other minor charges when they occurred, such as emergency
charge, switching charge, back haul, and dock labor.
The auction selling cost includes the amount paid the auction
receiver plus the charge by the auction company for selling
the fruit. Since these auction charges were based on a per-
centage of the sales price, there may have been some variation
in the auction selling cost due to the effect of the method of
preservation used on the keeping quality or condition of the
fruit at the time of sale, but most of the variation was due to
changing proportions of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines and
the different' grades of each, the auction price of which was
different for each class of fruit. For this reason the auction
selling cost has been shown as constant for all methods of
preservation.
Other costs include a large number of incidental and unusual
expenses which were not very important except in a few cases.
Among these costs are government inspection, reconsigning, de-
murrage, cataloging, storage, drayage, repairing damaged boxes,
and heater service in extreme weather. Storage, when used,
was by far the largest of these charges, and was incurred only
in rail shipments, mainly in 1930-31.
Cincinnati, because of its relative proximity, had the lowest
total cost per box for all-rail shipments, excluding preservation,
and Detroit had the highest of the five markets (Fig. 5).







Florida Citrus Prices, II


TABLE 7.-SEASON AVERAGE COSTS PER Box OF MARKETING FLORIDA CITRUS
FRUIT FROM 31 PACKINGHOUSES AT AUCTION IN FIVE MARKETS (PRESER-
VATION COSTS EXCLUDED).
I 3-season
1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 weighted
[ average
Rail shipments


New York:
Number of boxes ............. 931,9
Freight ............................ $ .
Selling .......................... .0
Other costs* ......................I .
Total ................................ $ 1.0
Chicago:
Number of boxes ............. 312,4
Freight ........................... $ 1.
Selling .............................. .0
Other costs* ...................... .0
Total ........................... $ 1.0
Detroit:-
Number of boxes ......... 131,7
Freight .................... $ 1.C
Selling ............. .... .
Other costs* .................... .
Total ................................ $ 1.c
Cincinnati: I
SNumber of boxes ............ 94,E
Freight ........ .......... $ 0.E
Selling .............................. .C
Other costs* ................... .
Total ...................... ....I $ 0.
Pittsburgh: 1
Number of boxes .......... 64,3
Freight .................. .... $ 0.9
Selling .................. .......... .0
Other costs* ................... .0
Total .............................. $ 1.0


9


Rail and water shipments


New York: I
Number of boxes ........... 7,954 7,260 117,414 132,628
Freight ......................... $ 0.780 $ 0.805 $ 0.699 $ 0.710.
Selling .. ......................... .045 .044 .036 .037
Other costs* ...................... .034 ** ** .002
Total ..........................I... $ 0.859 $ 0.849 $ 0.735- I $ 0.749


Motor truck and water shipments
New York: ] I
Number of boxes ............. 1,155_ 145,457 359,610 506,222
Freight ........................... $0.695 $ 0.680 $ 0.661 $ 0.667.
Selling .............................. .035 .047 .038 .041
Other costs* ...................... .007 ..007 .003 .004
Total ................................ $ 0.737 $ 0.734 $ 0.702 $ 0.712 .


*Other costs include storage, drayage, demurrage, reconsigning and
government inspection.
**Less than one-tenth of one cent.


----


197 681,893 353,605 1,967,495
153 $ 0.891 $ 0.959 $ 0.933.
60 .061 .054 .060
212 .007 .003 .008
125 $ 0.959 $ 1.016 $ 1.001

23 170,465 164,637 647,525
102 $ 1.003 $ 1.010 $ 1.005
)60 .061 .050 .058
109 .005 .003 .006
171 $ 1.069 $ 1.063 $ 1.069

'24 76,347 91,571 299,642
106 $ 1.021 $ 1.020 $ 1.014
160 .059 .051 .057
1ll .003 .004 .007
177 $ 1.083 $ 1.075 $ 1.078

;23 57,715 69,187 221,725
170 $ 0.866 $ 0.867 $ 0.868:
163 .062 .055 .060
112 .002 .003 .007
145 $ 0.930 $ 0.925 $ 0.935

92 26,889 32,250 123,531
75 $ 0.965 $ 0.989 $ 0.976
42 .041 .033 .039
118 .005 .003 .011
)35 $ 1.011 $ 1.025 $ 1.026







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Rail and water rates and motor truck and water rates to
New York were considerably lower than all-rail rates. The
rate via water from Jacksonville to New York was 46 cents per
standard full box and from Tampa to New York was 55 cents
per box. A different rate was effective for other containers.
The motor truck charge for hauling from packinghouse to
port varied, depending upon the distance and the season, from
about 15 to 30 cents per box to Jacksonville, and from about
6 to 12 cents per box to Tampa.


Route Market
Rail: New York
Chicago
Detroit
Cincinnati
Pittsburg
Rail and water: New York
Motor truck and water: New York


0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Cost, Cents per Box
Fig. 5.-Average cost of freight, selling, ard other costs (excluding
preservation) for Florida citrus fruit from 31 packinghouses, sold at
auction in five markets, by route of shipment (three seasons, 1930-31,
1931-32, and 1932-33).

PRESERVATION COSTS
The season average cost per box for pre-cooling and for re-
frigeration, according to the method of preservation used in
transit, is shown in Table 8.
The most common charge for pre-cooling was 10 cents per
box, though there was a variation of from 5 to 10 cents per
box in the rate, depending upon the packinghouse, and the
type of equipment used.
The cost for initial icing included the cost of the ice used
and the charge made by the carrier for furnishing refrigerator
cars. This latter charge was 20 percent of the cost of standard
refrigeration to the market in question, except to New York
in 1931-32 and 1932-33, when it was higher (Table 9). The
most common charge per car for ice was $24.00. Some of the
cars included under "Initially iced" in this study had extra
ice added before reaching the market, and the charge for this
was included in arriving at the average costs shown in Table 8.
The average charge for pre-cooling and initial icing combined
was slightly less than the figure obtained by adding the aver-







TABLE 8.-SEASON AVERAGE COST PEI BOX FOR PRESERVATION USED IN MARKETING FLORIDA CITRUS FRUIT FROM 31 PACKING-
HOUSES AT AUCTION IN FIVE MARKETS.


Method of preservation



New York:
Pre-coo ed ................................................
Init ally iced ....................................
Pre-cooled and initially iced ...................
Pre-ccoled and standard refrigeration ....
Standard refrigeration .............................
Standard ventilation .................................
Chicago:
Pre-coo'ed ................................................
Init'ally iced ...............................................
Pre-cooled and initially iced ....................
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration ....
Standard refrigeration ................................
Standard ventila ion ..................................
Detroit:
Pre-coo'ed ................................................
Init'ally iced ................................................
Pre-cooled and initially iced ...................
Pre-ccoled and standard refrigeration ....
Standard refrigeration ..........................
Standard ventilation ....................................
Cin.innati:
Pre-coo ed .....................................................
Init'ally iced ..................................................
Pre-cooled and initially iced ....................
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration ....
Standard refrigeration ................................
Standard ventia ion ..................................


1930-31


1931-32 1


1932-33 1 Total cr average


Number Cost Number Cost Number Cost Number Cost
of boxes per of boxes per of boxes per of boxes per
sold box sold box sold box sold box
Rail sh.pmen's


63.578
124,719
338,475
11,901
117,118
278,206

7,726
22,346
106,162
720
45,873
129,596

2,172
8,098
43,914

28,170
49,370

1,530
12,976
26,482

16,007
37,828


$0.097
.103
.189
.269
.170

$0.081
.110
.186
.328
.226

$0.100
.109
.196

.237

$0.078
.103
.186

.214


3,852
114,290
234,225

100,734
228,792

804
22,946
56,800

20,816
69,099

9,677
15,864

16,296
34,510
384
9,698
16,261

9,709
21,663


$0.100
.099
.170

.162

I$O.lOO
$0.100
.112
.174
.222

......
$0.113
.183

.234

$0.099
.103
.175

.188


1,644 $0.087
56,895 .103
144,457 .173

46,273 .163
104,336 ......

20,843 $0.108
78,803 .171
24,473 .215
40,510 ......


18,578
23,911

16,884
32,198

13,02)
17,968

13,947
24,252


$0.105
.185

.228


.102
.134

.196


69,074 $0.097
235.904 .101 '
717,157 .179 5
11,901 .269 .
234,125 .166
603,334 ......

8,530 $0.083
66,140 .110
241,768 .178
720 .328
91,162 .221 .
239,205 ......

2,172 $0.100
36,353 .108
83,689 .190

61,350 .233
116,078 ......

1,914 1$0.083
35,694 .104
60,711 .183

39,663 .201
83.743 ......










TABLE 8.-SEASON AVERAGE COST PER BOX FOR PRESERVATION USED IN MARKETING FLORIDA CITRUS FRUIT FROM 31 PACKING-
HOUSES AT AUCTION IN FIVE MARKETS (Concluded).


Method of preservation



Pittsburgh:
Pre-cooled ....... ............................
Initially iced ..........................................
Pre-cooled and initially iced .............
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration ....
Standard refrigeration ...........................
Standard ventilation ... ..................


New York:
Pre-cooled .............. ..................................
Initially iced ..........................................
Pre-cooled and initially iced ......................
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration ....
Standard refrigeration ..............................
Standard ventilation ..................................


New York:
Pre-cooled ........................... ....
Initially iced ............................
Pre-cooled and initially iced ...................
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration ....
Standard refrigeration .........................
Standard ventilation ... ..................


1930-31
Number Cost
of boxes per
sold box


2,544
8,081
27,550
6,484
19,733



5,110
1,394


1,450


$0.089
.119
.190

.241




$0.100
.092


1931-
Number
of boxes
sold
Rail

444
5,275
3,992
372
3,997
12,809


-32


I 1932-33 1 Total or average


Cost Number Cost Number Cost
per of boxes per of boxes per 1
box sold box sold box o
shipments (concluded)

$0.099 ............ ...... 2,988 $0.090
.116 4,095 $0.106 17,451 .115 %
.185 9,219 .198 40,761 .191 2.
.304 ........ ...... 372 .304
.233 7,093 .219 17,574 .230
11,843 ... 44,385 ......


Rail and water shipments

. 16,518 $0

52 $0.158 757
8 ...... ............
08 ...... 100,139


.076

.164


Motor truck and water shipments


303



145,154


1,155 ...
1,155 ..


$0.099

I ......
I ......
i ......


59,358



300,252


$0.101


21,628
1,394
1,509

108,097



59,661



446,561


$0.082
.092
.161






$0.101


i .'..'...
I1~ o


I .. .


7


6,5







Florida Citrus Prices, II


age pre-cooling cost per box to the average initial icing cost.
Cars which were both pre-cooled and initially iced had fewer
charges for extra ice in transit.
The average cost per box for standard refrigeration was
higher than for pre-cooling and initial icing combined except
to New York, to which point it was cheaper. This cost varied
with the market (Table 9) and with the number of boxes per
car, since the charge was a fixed amount per carload.
The :highest cost per box was incurred for fruit that was
pre-cooled and shipped standard refrigeration (Fig. 6). This
method was little used, only one carload being shipped in other
than the 1930-31 season.

Method of Preservation
Pre-cooled
Initially iced
Pre-cooled and initially iced
Pre-cooled and standard refrigeration
Standard refrigeration
Standard ventilation
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Preservation Cost, Cents per Box
Fig. 6.-Average cost of preservation of Florida citrus fruit (rail
shipments only) from 31 packinghouses to five markets, by method of
preservation used, 1930-31, 1931-32, and 1932-33.

Fruit which was shipped standard ventilation bore no direct
preservation costs.

TABLE 9.-COST PER CARLOAD FOR STANDARD REFRIGERATION AND FOR
REFRIGERATOR CARS ONLY, FROM ALL PARTS OF THE FLORIDA CITRUS
BELT TO FIVE MARKETS, 1930-31, 1931-32, AND 1932-33.
1 Standard IRefrigerator
Market I refrigeration car only

New York ..................................... ......... $60.00 $14.00*
Chicago ................. ................. 76.50 15.30
Detroit ............................................ 81.00 16.20
Cincinnati ..................................................... 70.00 14.00
Pittsburgh .......................................................... 76.50 15.30
*$12.00 in 1930-31.

No costs have been included in Table 8 for brogdex treatment,
borax, wax or other similar processes or substances which may
have been used to increase the keeping quality or improve the
appearance of the fruit.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 10.-THREE-SEASON AVERAGE COSTS PER BOX OF MARKETING FLORIDA
CITRUS FRUIT FROM 31 PACKINGHOUSES AT AUCTION IN FIVE MARKETS,
BY ROUTE AND BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION, 1930-31 TO 1932-33.


I g


P .M
4 0 02.
0.1 tO r
~d u~ E: O~ 1.4
P4 C3 P, l 2 U U)


Rail shipments

New York:
Freight, selling, and
other costs* ........ $1.001 $1.001 $1.001 $1.001 $1.001 $1.001
Preservation cost** .. 097 .101 .179 .269 .166 ........
Total ................| $1.098 | $1.102 | $1.180 $1.270 $1.167 $1.001

Chicago:
Freight, selling, and
other costs ............ $1.069 $1.069 $1.069 $1.069 $1.069 $1.069
Preservation cost ...... .083 .110 .178 .328 .221 ........
Total ................| $1.1.52 $1.179 $1.247 $1.397 $1.290 $1.069

Detroit:
Freight, selling, and
other costs .............. $1.078 $1.078 $1.078 ........ $1.078 $1.078
Preservation cost ...... 100 .108 .190 .233
Total ..............I $1.178 | $1.186 | $1.268 ........ $1.311 $1.078

Cincinnati:
Freight, selling, and
other costs ............. $0.935 $0.935 $0.935 $0.935 $0.935
Preservation cost ...... .083 .104 .183 .201 .....
Total ................ $1.018 I $1.039 $1.118 ........ $1.136 $0.935

Pittsburgh:
Freight, selling, and
other costs .......... $1.026 $1.1.026 $.026 $1.026 $1.026 $1.026
Preservation cost ...... .090 .115 .191 .304 .230 ........
Total ................I $1.116 $1.1411 $1.217 1 $1.330 $1.256 I $1.026
Rail and water shipments

New York:
Freight, selling, and
other costs ............ $0.749 $0.749 0.749 ........ ........ $0.749 $0
Preservation cost ...... .082 .092 .161 ........ ...... ..
Total ................ $0.831 I $0.841 $0.910 ....... I ........ $0.749
Motor truck and water shipments

New York:
Freight, selling, and
other costs ............. $0.712 ........ ....... $0.712
Preservation cost ...... .101 ........ ........ .
Total ............. I $0.813 | ........ ........ ..... I ........ $0.712
*See Table 7.
**From Table 8.






Florida Citrus Prices, II


TOTAL COSTS, ORIGIN TO MARKET
In Table 10 the preservation costs have been added to the
costs of freight, auction sealing, and other costs to obtain the
total cost per box, by method of preservation used, from the
packinghouse to the market. The average costs per box for
freight, auction selling, and costs other than preservation are
based on the total number of boxes sold in each market which
were shipped by all methods of preservation, whereas the pres-
ervation cost is the average for the fruit sold in each market
which was treated in a given manner.

AUCTION PRICES, BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED
To show, if possible, the methods of preservation which might
be most economically used by Florida citrus shippers, the auction
sales of the 31 packinghouses in each of the five markets were
sorted by variety and grade of fruit and by method of preser-
vation used, and compared monthly on the basis of the auction
price received. This summary appears in Tables 11 and 12.
For the sake of brevity, only grade 1 oranges and grapefruit
which were shipped by rail and sold in New York or Chicago
are shown, although other varieties, grades, markets and routes
were studied.
The auction prices are weighted averages. All sizes were in-
cluded without sorting, as it was believed that about normal
size distribution would be represented in each method of pres-
ervation.
Price comparisons are made monthly. This seemed to be
the shortest period that could be used, because of the volume
of fruit included, since a shorter period would give an inade-
quate sample for comparisons. However, a month is considered
to be a rather long time for a price comparison, since fluctua-
tions of the auction price within a month might offset, or
emphasize, the advantage or disadvantage in price resulting
from the method of preservation used, unless each method
represented had an even distribution of shipments throughout
the month.
Perhaps the greatest weakness lies in not knowing the condi-
tion of the fruit or state of preservation when it reached the
auction for sale. It was found that fruit shipped standard
ventilation (i. e., no refrigeration) frequently brought a higher
price than that on which were used some methods of direct
preservation and sometimes brought the highest average price






Florida Citrus Prices, II


TOTAL COSTS, ORIGIN TO MARKET
In Table 10 the preservation costs have been added to the
costs of freight, auction sealing, and other costs to obtain the
total cost per box, by method of preservation used, from the
packinghouse to the market. The average costs per box for
freight, auction selling, and costs other than preservation are
based on the total number of boxes sold in each market which
were shipped by all methods of preservation, whereas the pres-
ervation cost is the average for the fruit sold in each market
which was treated in a given manner.

AUCTION PRICES, BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED
To show, if possible, the methods of preservation which might
be most economically used by Florida citrus shippers, the auction
sales of the 31 packinghouses in each of the five markets were
sorted by variety and grade of fruit and by method of preser-
vation used, and compared monthly on the basis of the auction
price received. This summary appears in Tables 11 and 12.
For the sake of brevity, only grade 1 oranges and grapefruit
which were shipped by rail and sold in New York or Chicago
are shown, although other varieties, grades, markets and routes
were studied.
The auction prices are weighted averages. All sizes were in-
cluded without sorting, as it was believed that about normal
size distribution would be represented in each method of pres-
ervation.
Price comparisons are made monthly. This seemed to be
the shortest period that could be used, because of the volume
of fruit included, since a shorter period would give an inade-
quate sample for comparisons. However, a month is considered
to be a rather long time for a price comparison, since fluctua-
tions of the auction price within a month might offset, or
emphasize, the advantage or disadvantage in price resulting
from the method of preservation used, unless each method
represented had an even distribution of shipments throughout
the month.
Perhaps the greatest weakness lies in not knowing the condi-
tion of the fruit or state of preservation when it reached the
auction for sale. It was found that fruit shipped standard
ventilation (i. e., no refrigeration) frequently brought a higher
price than that on which were used some methods of direct
preservation and sometimes brought the highest average price









TABLE 11.-FLORIDA ORANGES: MONTHLY AVERAGE AUCTION PRICES PER BOX OF GRADE 1 IN NEW YORK AND CHICAGO,
BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED.
(Rail Shipments Only)
New York
Pineapple
Month sol .Pre-cooled Pre-cooled
Month sold Pre-cooled Initially iced and and standard Standard Standard
initially iced refrigeration refrigeration ventilation
Boxes Price Boxes I Price Boxes IPrice | Boxes I Price Boxes Price | Boxes | Price
1930-31
September-October ............... ...... ........ ...... ........ ...... 257 $4.16 ........
November........... 360 $3.53 179 $3.16 1,559 $4.04 ...... 3,667 3.95 692 $3.52
December ............... 529 3.82 688 3.38 9,675 3.35 ...... 2,607 3.69 1,071 4.05
January ............. 3,904 3.31 2,903 3.41 5,049 3.18 ........ .... 479 3.35 10,649 3.30
February ............ 3,315 3.72 2,547 3.58 3,119 3.34 ... 969 4.20 7,686 3.37
March ................. 2,623 4.00 4,787 4.11 4,567 4.09 ..... ...... 1,470 3.90
April .......................... ........ 142 4.04 891 3.90 ........ ... 20 3.90
M ay .......................... ........ ...... 10 3.40 ........ ...... ....... ...... ........ ...... ........
1931-32
November ............ 167 $3.53 858 $3.96 139 $3.22 ........ ...... 235 $3.82 503 $3.44
December .............. ........ ...... 4,893 3.46 3,540 3.63 ...... 2,013 3.76 1,745 3.68
January .................. ........ .... 4,406 3.49 5,072 3.29 ..... .... 5,074 3.53 4,935 3.50
February .................. 3,141 3.81 8,104 3.75 5,696 3.68 3,322 3.63
March........................ 2,584 4.10 1,383 3.86 ... 1,564 3.76 648 4.03
A pril .......................... ..... ...... ........ ...... 29 3.69 ........ ...... ........ ...... 46 4.02
1932-33
November ........... ....... ...... 89 $3.73 1,541 $3.54 ....... .... 40 $4.38 819 $4.28
December ................ ....... ...... 4,260 2.94 9,205 3.32 ........ ...... 2,155 3.38 3,718 2.93
January .................... ..... ... 2,930 3.25 5,660 3.46 ........ ...... 2,320 3.68 4,721 3.06
February .................. .. ..... 3,019 3.04 3,977 2.86 ........ 1,146 3.35 2,156 2.61
March ........................ ...... ...... 1,397 2.93 6,265 3.12 ...... ..... 1,442 2.89 52 2.62
A pril ......................... ........ ...... ........ ...... 2,820 2.78 ..... ..... ........ ...... ...... ......
M ay ........................ ........ ...... ........ 44 2.00 ................ .... ........







TABLE 11.-FLORIDA ORANGES: MONTHLY AVERAGE AUCTION PRICES PER BOX OF GRADE 1 IN NEW YORK AND CHICAGO,
BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED (Continued).
(Rail Shipments Only)


Month sold Pre-cooled Initially iced

Boxes IPrice Boxes I Price I


New York
Valencia
Pre-cooled Pre-cooled
and and standard Standard Standard
initially iced refrigeration refrigeration ventilation
Boxes I Price Boxes Price l Boxes Price Boxes IPrice


1930-31


0


February ............... 47 $3.32 336 $5.01 ........ ...... ........ ...... 26 $3.38 430 $3.06
March ....................... 8,244 3.75 1,035 3.35 1,979 $3.88 ...... .. 360 4.10 13,117 3.77
April ................... 3,110 3.86 4,920 4.13 3,424 4.06 ... 4,463 3.98 15,988 3.92
May ................... 360 4.30 9,271 3.85 24,958 3.87 ........ 5,237 4.07 10,939 4.16
June ........................ ........ ...... 5,233 4.27 13,919 4.43 4,226 $4.36 4,903 4.42 1,861 4.00
July-August ............ ....... ...... 727 4.30 ................ 255 4.83 735 3.97
1931-32

February .................. ........ ...... 114 $3.07 ........ ...... ........ 215 $3.73
March ........................ ...... 4,439 $4.02 3,918 3.84 ........ 1,732 $4.02 18,999 4.12
April ................... 888 $3.75 4,024 3.87 11,463 3.92 1,091 4.02 14,580 3.97
May .......................... ........ ...... 9,992 3.67 17,503 3.84 ........ 4,089 4.18 4,643 3.72
June ....................... ....... .... ........ ... 18,584 3.71 .. .. 961 4.42 ........
1932-33


February .................
March ........................
April ........ ...........
May ........................
June ................... .


$2.48


39
2,565
2,780


$2.56
2.88
2.48


344
3,535
7,273
903


$3.19
2.85
2.62
3.06


119
1,945
1,162
867
139


$2.72
2.99
2.71
3.14
3.00


1,418
338
324


$3.00
2.88
2.08


'' '~ '' '' ''









TALLE 11.-FLORIDA O-ANGES: MONTHLY AVERAGE AUCTION PRICES PER BOX OF GRADE 1 IN NEW YORK AND CHICAGO,
BY' iiEfH-D OF P.FESZ.VATION LSED (Contiuedj.
(ital S.iilments Only)
__Chi ago
Pineapple
M h sd Pre-cooled | Pre-cooled
Mont so Pre-cooled Initially iced and an, standard Standard Standard
I init-a! y iced Irefrigeration refrigeration ventilation
Bo::es Price | Boxes I Price | Boxes Price Boxes | Price I Boxes Price | Boxes Price
1930-31

November ............... 360 $3.78 .... ...... 2,212 $3.67 ........ ...... ....... ...... 750 $2.76
De-ember ............. ..... ... ...... 109 $2.83 1,877 3.20 ........ ...... 460 $2.63 802 3.40
Ja:-uary .................... 1,080 2.96 386 3.16 1,229 3.23 ........ 185 2.73 1,317 2.96
February .................. ........ ...... ....... ...... 1,353 3.24 ........ ....... ...... 3,605 3.21
March ........................ ....... .. 178 3.89 757 3.85 ...... ...... ........ 1,471 3.99
A pril .......................... ........ ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ........ ...... ...... ..... 74 3.66

1931-32

November ................ ........ ...... ....... ..... 67 $3.04 ........ ...... ........ :.... 336 $3.90
D ccember ................ ........ 171 $2.71 920 3.07 ........ ...... 22 $3.32 1.860 3.20
January .................... ....... 75 3.24 636 3.43 ....... ... 1,769 342 317 2.83
February ................ ........ 435 3.46 806 3.32 ........ ...... 1,165 3.31 ........ ......

1932-33

December ................ ........ ...... 814 $3.05 1,077 $2.92 ........ ... 1,620 $3.08 247 $3.12
January .................... ...... ... 151 3.23 288 1.80 ....... 564 3.04 ........
February .................. ...... .. 259 3.22 234 2 73 ........ ...... 53 2.70 261 2.45
M a'ch ....................... .... 581 2.65 156 2.83 ........ ...... 775 2.54 ........
April ............ ........ ...... ........ 487 2.62 ........ .. 336 283 ........







TABLE 11.-FLORIDA OANGES: MONTHLY AVERAGE AUCTION PRICES PER BOX OF GRADE 1 IN NEW YORK AND CHICAGO,
BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED (Concluded).
(Rail Shipments Only)


1930-31

March ....................... .. 210 $3.63 397 $3.66 ........ ........ .... 4,323 $3.88
April .......................... ........ ...... 680 4.04 453 4.06 ........ ...... ... .... 3,559 3.82
April 680 4.04 453 4.06 3,559 3.82
May ........... ....... ... ...... 1,343 3.69 6,647 3.71 4,239 $4.04 1,764 3.79
June .......................... .... .. 360 3.76 2,263 3.97 ........ ...... 2,914 4.14

1931-32

March ........................ ....... ..... ........ .... 1,212 $3.52 1,238 $3.73
April .......................... ....... ...... 1,079 $4.01 1,643 3.84 ...... .. .... .. 1,921 3.81
May .......................... ...... .. .... 874 3.81 3,085 3.64 ........ ..740 $3.60 530 3.85
June ......................... ........ ...... ...... 444 3.30 .... ....

1932-33

M arch .......... ........... ...... ...... .... .. ........ 121 $2.79 57 $3.42
April .......................... ........ 98 $2.95 274 $2.64 ... .. 590 2.88 237 258
May ........................ ........ ...... 1,733 2.59 391 2.37 ........ 131 2.94 240 2.49
June ........ .............. ....... ...... 94 3.12 700 3.05 ...... .. 189 2.93 ........
July-August ............ .... .. ........ ...... 37 3.38 ....... ....... -








TABLE 12.-FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT: MONTHLY AVERAGE AUCTION PRICES PER BOX OF GRADE 1 IN NEW YORK AND IN
CHICAGO, BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED.
S. .... .. (Rail Shipmentis Only) ..... ...


December ................
January ....................
February ..................
M arch ........ ..........
April .... ...............
M ay .....................
June ..........................
July-August ............


249
1,468
1,526


$2.78
3.01
2.71


5,383
9,119
677
174


$3.96
3.44
2.24
.48


1930-31
129 $3.50
93 4.24
10 3.20
"328 3:35
4,738 2.89
6,400 2.20
372 .71


1931-32
September-October ........ ...... ....... 23 $4.09 ........ .
November ...................... .
em ber ................ ...... ...... ........ ...... ........ .... ........ ".... ------ ...... ...... ......
December ........................ ..... ...... 1,641 $3.21
January .................... .. ...... 81 $3.25 51 2.96 ........... ..... 543 3.39
February .................. ........ ...... 247 2.67 159 2.50 ..... ...... 325 $2.80 8,020 2.66
March ........................ ...... 232 2.33 382 3.07 ....... 524 3.15 9,158 3.14
April .... .......1,443 4.08 2,835 3.26 ... ....: 206 3.45 6,980" 3.52'
May ................ .. 2,006 3.93 4,894 3.74 .... 3,468 4.46 1,657 3.40
June ............................ ... ...... 3,088 4.46 ........ 1,314 4.78 ......

1932-33
November ................ 428 $4.75 929 $4.07 .. 104 $4.31
December .............. ... ...... 220 3.96 335 3.59 .... .... 2,709 3.95
Jaitnary .:...... 112. 4.39 185 3.81 1,253 3.89
February .................. ........ ...... ..... 187 4.30 .101 $4.10 2,207 3.90
March ........................ ........ ...... 72 3.44 468 3.33 86 3.29 5,141 3.38
April ....... .......: ....... 1 $2.00 ..1,009 2.66 1,545 3.09 ........ .... ..... .. 4,872 3.74
May ................... 41 2.85 1,043 3.32 507 2.50 113 4.63 431 2.53
June ...................... ...... ........ .... 345 2.00 ........ ...... ........


1,293
508


388
941
4,718
6,404
6,681
508
372


875
5,914
4,750
360


$4.22
3.62
3.15
1 1.89


$5.13
4.40
3.15
3.65
3.69
2.81

.50




TABLE 12.-FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT: MONTHLY AVERAGE AUCTION PRICES PER BOX OF GRADE 1 IN NEW YORK AND IN
CHICAGO, BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED (Continued).
(Rail Shipments Only)
New York
Other varieties
ot s.ol Pre-cooled Pre-cooled
Month sold Pre-cooled Initially iced and and standard Standard Standard
initially iced refrigeration refrigeration ventilation
Boxes Pricel Boxes I Price Boxes [Pricel Boxes I Pricel Boxes | Price, Boxes | Price


September-October
November ................
December ................
January ....................
February ..................
March ..................
April .....................
M ay ..........................
June ................
July-August ............

September-October
November .........
December ...............
January ...............
February ..................
March ..................
April .....................
M ay .........................
June .........................
July-August ..........

September-October
November ............
December ................
January .................
February ...........
March .....................
April .....................
May .................
June ....... ........... ..
July-August ............


3,696 $2.86
1,232 2.93

3,436 2.58
2,655 2.56
641 1.92


$2.86


2,513
3,354
120
300
344
1,153
3,822
724
198


$3.58
3.36
2.54
2.92
2.81
3.10
2.20
1.91
.66


4,428 $3.03
8,197 3.50
1,661 3.03
846 2.29
307 2.05
553 2.79
264 3.61
52 3.04
94 4.97
304 5.61


........ .... 1,245
........ 2,075
........ .... 408
..... .258
315
561
..... ...... 561
........ 16
.. .. .


$3.63
3.86
2.55
3.14
2.86
2.78
1.62
.....-
] ......


575
13


11,829
11,026
1,039
...... 142

173
4,815
$2.93 1,803
2.69 ........


$4.38
3.81
3.48

3.63

3.07
2.61
2.93


$3.83
2.98
3.09
2.58
2.24
3.00

3.80


1,464 $3.36
7,341 3.36
12,534 3.35
26,102 3.09
22,389 2.92
18,524 2.87
8,366 3.03
887 2.51
718 2.19


732 $2.54
9,266 2.82
18,135 2.66
14,378 2.61
12,351 2.50
7,711 2.69
1,293 3.04


---~~----~--


8,652 $3.90
5,821 3.21
3,611 3.01
1,503 2.68
253 2.61
1,072 2.76
6,769 2.88
6,301 2.38
4,749 1.28
S ........ ......
1931
1,477 $2.96
2,029 2.81
918 2.37
784 2.49
481 2.19
2,767 2.64
2,016 2.93
91 3.49
312 4.16

1932

3,283 $3.24
1,465 2.90
968 2.87
504 2.99
1,692 2.56
995 2.62


_- ..... 121 2.361 ......I
0-33
... ...... 4,077 $4.07 ........
...... ........ ...... 4,199 $3.60
......3,116 3.78 12,989 2.85
.53 3.28 4,784 3.05
........ .... ........ ...... 3,817 3.19
64 2.84 2,653 2.58
... ...... ........ ... 1,067 2.55
S 138 3.77 1 3....
...... ........ ...... 305 1.50


-32
4,830
...... 1,014
S 420
.889
S 685
76
...... ...... 76

........ ...... 93


1930-31


-_11---


1


444






TABLE 12.-FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT: MONTHLY AVERAGE AUCTION PRICES PER BOX OF GRADE 1 IN NEW YORK AND IN
CHICAGO, BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED (Continued).
(Rail Shipments Only)
Chi-ago
Marsh Seedless
Month sold Pre-cooled Initially iced and and standard Standard Standard

S I e I initially iced refrigeration refrigeration ventilation
Boxes Price icel B Price| Boxes IPrice Boxes Price) Boxes (Price| Boxes IPrice
1930-31 __
N ovem ber ................ ....... .... ........ ..... 26 $3.77 ........ ...... .............. ......
Decem ber ................ ....... ...... ....... .. .. ... ........ 22 $2.23 .......
January .................... ....... .... ......245 3.18 ........ ...... ........ ...... 1,593 $3.48
February ........ .... ........ ...... .. .. 126 3.11 ........ .... ....... 1,075 2.98
March ........................ 360 $2.73 ....... ........ ... .....1,175 2.99 "
April .............................. 25 $3.04 795 2.93 ...... 744 3.61 3,289 2.65
May .......................... 84 2.56 1,673 2.52 2,258 2.89 ........ .. 1,740 3.03 167 1.10
June ................................ 356 2.50 2,884 2.36 ........ ...... 1,522 2.62 ........
July-August .......... .... ..... .... ... ....... ...... ....... 224 1.48 --
1931-32
November ................ ........ I ...... ........ ...... 106 $3.39 ........ ...... .... ...... 48 $3.35
December ................ ........ ..... ....... ...... 3 3.00 ........ ... ........ 125 2.65
January .................... ................ 129 2.66 ....... ........ 466 2.51 .
February ........ ..............156 2.30 ........ .732 $2.34 1,186 2.35
March ..................... 82 $2.28 75 $2.27 ...... .... ... 1,062 2.55
April .......................... ..... .. 337 3.39 1,764 3.09 ...... ...... 261 3.75 3,203 2.95
M ay ........................ .............2,670 4.17 ........ ...... 477 4.11 845 3.98
June .......................... ..... ...108 3.86 ........ ............. ...... ........ I
1932-33
Septem ber-October ) ........ ...... ....... ...... | 16 $3.50 ........ I ...... ........ ...... ........ ......


November ................
December ............
January ..................
February ................
March ......................
April ........................
May ........................
June .........................
July-August ...........


390 $3.12
464 3.28
85 2.12


183
579
1,260


2.03
1.87
2.31


........ ......
S ........ ...



163 $8
........ ......


689
1,808
894
1,120


$3.19
3.26
2.28
2.59


--





TABLE 12.-FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT: MONTHLY AVERAGE AUCTION PRICES PER BOX OF GRADE 1 IN NEW YORK AND IN
CHICAGO, BY METHOD OF PRESERVATION USED (Concluded).
(Rail Shipments Only)
Chicago
Other varieties
Pre-cooled Pre-cooled
Month sold Pre-cooled Initially iced and and standard Standard Standard
initially iced refrigeration refrigeration ventilation
Boxes IPricel Boxes IPrice) Boxes IPricel Boxes |Price Boxes Price Boxes IPrice


September-October
November .... .....
December ................
January ....................
February ...........
March .... ..............
April .... ...............
M ay ..........................
June ......... ...........

September-October
November ................
December ................
January ..................
February ................
March .......................
April .........................
May ........................
June ........................


September-October
November ................
December ................
January ...................
February ................
March ......................
April ........................
May .......................
June .........................
July-August ............


$2.74
3.45
3.00

2.48
2.83
2.25


4,098
4,584
2,557
2,620
360
779
544
1,078
240


1930-31
$3.80 ...
3.20
2.81
2.73
2.56
2.79 ......
2.37 ......
2.61 ......
2.20


.1


2,180
2,049
832


207
1,007


$3.68
3.01
2.84


3.04
2.57


508
435
5,063
10,898
6,539
7,968
1,735
224


$2.48
2.86
2.97
2.88
2.80
2.58
2.63
1.00


1931-32


2,006
1,157
236
330


181
586


445
175
113
36
36


$3.40
2.54
3.12
2.67
2.81


1,131
927
232

11
45
206


$3.04
2.68
2.64
2.25
2.17

2.93
2.65

1935
$3.77
3.26
3.57


2.18
2.58
1.93


-33


3,465
372
46

...86


1,277
441
43



80
23
256


$3.50
2.59
2.61

2.34


$3.75
3.01
3.00



3.25
2.39
2.54


4,464
3,486
5,105
2,001
2,508
55


1,247
931
2,014
1,990
928
43


$2.85
2.47
2.29
2.14
2.10
3.24


$3.13
3.13
2.66
2.50
2.15
1.44


----


f


{


1931-32


.


'





I -------- I ------ I I


'


,


,


, -----
,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of any method for the month. Whether this fruit was better
than average at the time of shipment and the shipper, believing
S it would carry through satisfactorily without ice, omitted re-
frigeration for that reason, is not known.
It should be pointed out again that there was a seasonal
relationship in the method of preservation used (Table 6).
Standard ventilation was used extensively in the cooler months,
and standard refrigeration was more generally used in the
hotter months. Pre-cooling and initial icing combined were
also used a great deal in the hot months, but this was a rather
important method throughout the season.
There was no relationship between the method of preserva-
tion used and the auction price received for the fruit when
compared monthly. This assertion does not necessarily mean
that no pre-cooling or refrigeration should ever be used. The
condition of the fruit at the time of placing it on the auction
is unquestionably important, and if the fruit or weather con-
ditions are such at the time of shipment as to make refrigera-
tion necessary for fruit preservation it will undoubtedly be
economical to use it. However, the cost for standard refrigera-
tion or pre-cooling and initial icing combined is considerable,
and the selling price will have to be raised more than this
amount to make such preservation advantageous.
If the costs of preservation be deducted from the auction
prices to give net price figures directly comparable with auction
prices of fruit shipped by standard ventilation, the advantage
of any method of refrigeration over standard ventilation was
less pronounced.
SUMMARY
Shipments of packed citrus fruit from 31 Florida packing-
houses to five auction markets by rail, rail and water, and
motor truck and water for the three seasons, 1930-31, 1931-32,
and 1932-33, are included in this study.
New York was the most important of the five auctions in-
cluded, receiving approximately twice as much fruit during
the three seasons as the four other markets combined-viz.,
Chicago, Detroit, Cincinnati, and Pittsburgh (Table 1 and
Fig. 1).
Chicago, Detroit, Cincinnati, and Pittsburgh received fruit
from the 31 packinghouses by rail only. In 1930-31,: 99 per-
: ent of the shipments to New York went all-rail; but in 1932-33






Florida Citrus Prices, II


water routes accounted for 57.4 percent of the New York
receipts from the 31 packinghouses (Table 2 and Fig. 2).
The most common methods of preservation used in rail ship-
ments to the five markets were pre-cooling and initial icing
combined, and standard ventilation (or no refrigeration). These
two methods together accounted for 68.6 percent of the rail
shipments by all methods during the three seasons (Table 4
and Fig. 4).
Standard ventilation was used mainly in the cooler months,
November through April, while in the hotter months there
was an increased use of standard refrigeration, and of pre-
cooling and initial icing combined. The last named method
was fairly important the year round, based on the percentage
of the total shipments each month by that method.
The three-season weighted average cost per box for freight,
selling and other costs, excluding preservation, for fruit shipped
by rail to New York was $1.00; to Chicago, $1.07; to Detroit,
$1.08; to Cincinnati, $0.94; and to Pittsburgh, $1.03. Rail
and water shipments to New York averaged 75 cents per box,
and motor truck and water shipments to New York averaged
71 cents per box (Table 7 and Fig. 5).
Average preservation costs to the five markets for the three
seasons were as follows: For pre-cooling, 9.5 cents per box;
initial icing, 10.3 cents; pre-cooling and initial icing combined,
18.1 cents; pre-cooling and standard refrigeration, 27.3 cents;
and for standard refrigeration, 19.1 cents per box. Fruit
shipped standard ventilation bore no direct charges for pres-
ervation (Fig. 6 and Table 8).
There was no relationship between the method of preserva-
tion used in marketing citrus fruit from the 31 Florida packing-
houses and the auction price received when compared monthly
(Tables 11 and 12). The condition of the fruit when it arrived
for sale on the auction was not known; thus it was impossible
to determine the relative efficiency of the various methods of
refrigeration in preserving the fruit.




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