Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I: How I Started for...
 Chapter II: How Time Returned to...
 Chapter III: How the King Found...
 Chapter IV: How the King Inspected...
 Chapter V: How the Court Saw the...
 Chapter VI: How the King "Interviewed"...
 Chapter VII: How They Spent the...
 Chapter VIII: How Metronome Showed...
 Chapter IX: How Subdivision Cut...
 Chapter X: How the Dotted Notes...
 Chapter XI: How Musical Notation...
 Chapter XII: How the King Opened...
 Chapter XIII: How the King Sat...
 Chapter XIV: How Reform Was Brought...
 Chapter XV: How Reform Visited...
 Chapter XVI: How Reform Talked...
 Chapter XVII: How Reform Met with...
 Chapter XVIII: How I Left...
 Notes for Teachers
 Back Cover

Group Title: A trip to music-land : a fairy tale forming an allegorical and pictorial exposition of the elements of music
Title: A trip to music-land
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00047809/00001
 Material Information
Title: A trip to music-land a fairy tale forming an allegorical and pictorial exposition of the elements of music
Physical Description: x, 111 p., 20 leaves of plates : ill., music ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Shedlock, Emma L
James, J. King ( Illustrator )
Houlston & Sons ( Publisher )
W.G. Blackie and Co ( Printer )
Blackie & Son ( Printer of plates )
Publisher: Houlston and Sons
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: W. G. Blackie and Co.
Publication Date: [1875?]
Subject: Music -- History and criticism -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Music -- Instruction and study -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Allegories -- 1875   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1875
Genre: Allegories   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Glasgow
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: by Emma L. Shedlock ; with twenty full-page illustrations by J. King James.
General Note: Date of publication from preface.
General Note: Plates printed in sepia by Blackie & Son, London, Glasgow, Edinburgh.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00047809
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224901
notis - ALG5173
oclc - 15059446

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Title Page
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    Chapter I: How I Started for Music-Land
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Chapter II: How Time Returned to Music-Land
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Chapter III: How the King Found a Photographer
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Chapter IV: How the King Inspected the Battle Field
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Chapter V: How the Court Saw the Enchanted Plumes
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Chapter VI: How the King "Interviewed" Rest, Prolongation, and Tie
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Chapter VII: How They Spent the Prince's Birthday in Music-Land
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Chapter VIII: How Metronome Showed Himself to the King
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Chapter IX: How Subdivision Cut Up the King's Subjects
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Chapter X: How the Dotted Notes Offended the King
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Chapter XI: How Musical Notation Complained of His Work
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Chapter XII: How the King Opened the Council
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Chapter XIII: How the King Sat Again in Council
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Chapter XIV: How Reform Was Brought Out of Prison
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Chapter XV: How Reform Visited Music-Land
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Chapter XVI: How Reform Talked About Music-Land
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Chapter XVII: How Reform Met with His Bride
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Chapter XVIII: How I Left Music-Land
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Notes for Teachers
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Back Cover
        Cover 3
        Cover 4
Full Text


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IN bringing this little work before the notice of the public,
I do not presume for a moment to offer the least assistance
to Artists and Professionals, to whose criticisms indeed I
submit it with all due deference, earnestly soliciting their
indulgence for its defects. I have designed it entirely
for the use of young beginners in music, and for elemen-
tary teachers, who have often complained to me of the
"drudgery" of the earlier lessons.
To obviate this "drudgery," I have devised a Fairy
Tale, to explain in a novel, and, I hope, entertaining manner,
the different kinds of Notes and their values, the Clefs and
Staves, the use of the Metronome, the different signs of
movement and expression,-in short, all that is generally
considered to belong to the rudiments of Music. 'The
Artist has done much to render my explanations clear and
attractive by his humorous and original illustrations.
This fanciful tale may also afford some amusement to
those who have already learned music, and may possibly


offer them some unexpected instruction, or elucidation of
points hitherto imperfectly apprehended.
In Chapters xvi. and xvii. I have given a sketch of a
new notation proposed by M. Pierre Galin, a French mathe-
matician, who died in Paris in 1822; and of Monsieur Paris'
"Language of Time" (now extensively used, with slight
modifications, in the Tonic Sol-Fa Method), both of which
I have taken from a French system for vocal music, entitled
Mdthode Galin Paris Chevd. This system, taught by Mons.
Chev6, obtained in Paris in the year 1859 the immediate
patronage of the Duc de Morny, Prince Poniatowski,
Rossini, Offenbach, Lef6bure-Wely, and other eminent
musicians, and is used in many public schools both in
France and Switzerland. I am also indebted to this system
for several excellent "tableaux" explanatory of the ordinary
notation, and which I have always found of great value in
teaching beginners.
If by these means I have rendered teaching the Elements
of Music any pleasanter at once to teacher and to pupil, the
sole object of a Trip to Music-Land will have been fully

October 25, 1875.



I. How I started for Music-Land, .. .. i
Illus.- King Harmony's Palace,......................................... 3
,, My first Look at King Harmony and his Family,............ 6
II. How Time returned to Music-Land, .. .. 7
Illus.-Return of Time to Music-Land................................... 8
,, Unpacking the Trunks................................... ......... 10
ITI. How the King found a Photographer, .. 13
Izlus.-Musical Notation at Work....................................... 16
iv. How the King inspected the Battle-field, .. 19

v. How the Court saw the Enchanted Plumes, .... 24
Illus.- Time turns Conjuror............................................... 26
vi. How the King "interviewed" Rest, Prolongation, and Tie, 29
Illus.-Dr. Rest exhibiting his Cannons, .............................. 32
vii. How they spent the Prince's Birthday in Music-Land, 35
Illus.-Landing of Metronome and Subdivision,....................... 36
,, The Grand Levee,....................... .................... 38
viii. How Metronome showed himself to the King, 41
Illus.--Metronome shows himself to the King, ...................... 46
ix. How Subdivision cut up the King's Subjects, 47
Illus.-Subdivision cutting up the King's Soldiers,..................... 50
x. How the Dotted Notes offended the King, 53
Illus.-King Harmony in a Rage....................................... 56


xi. How Musical Notation complained of his Work, 60

xII. How the King opened the Council, .. 66
Illus.-King Harmony opening Parliament,............................. 70

xiIn. How the King sat again in Council, 74

xiv. How Reform was brought out of Prison, 8o
Illus.-How the Soldiers learned to perform "Staccato," ........... 82
,, Prince Progress liberating Reform,............................ 84
xv. How Reform visited Music-Land, 86
Illus.-Review of the Forces of Music-Land,.......................... 87
,, A Sail by Moonlight,................ ........... .............. 88
xvI. How Reform talked about Music-Land, .. 90
Illus.-Reform gives his opinion of the Music-Land Army,.......... 90

xvii. How Reform met with his Bride, .. 97
Illus.-Reform's Wedding Procession.................................... 104

xviII. How I left Music-Land, ... .. 10o4
Illus.-State Ball in King Harmony's Palace,........................... o6


The Drawings in this Volume ae re bhoto-lithographed by Messrs. C. &' W. Griggs, of London.




MUST confess I do not much like to begin at the real
beginning of my story, because I am afraid it will scarcely
dispose you, my young friends, in my favour; but still I
hope you will really pity and excuse me a little when you hear that
my two brothers, Alfred and Willie, who did not learn music, had
the whole of their half-holidays to play croquet on the lawn, while
I was always obliged to practise my scales and five-finger exercises,
for fear-so my teacher said-of my fingers getting stiff. Now
had you seen how my brothers were enjoying themselves one
beautiful afternoon in May, then, as I said, you would perhaps
sympathize with me a little-although of course you have all been
too diligent to do the same-when I confess that for a long time
I did nothing but watch the game, listen to their merry voices in
the distance, and wish myself far enough from the piano.
Suddenly, while I sat thus lazily dreaming, the room turned very
bright indeed, and there stood on the top of the piano, close to our


metronome, one of the prettiest little fairies you ever read of in all
your fairy-tale books, and whose acquaintance I hope you will make
for yourselves one day. She looked at me some few moments with a
smile as bright as a sunbeam, the reflection of which made her silvery
wings sparkle, and then, with voice clear and sweet as the nightingale's,
asked me why I looked so dull on that fine May day? Although this
was my first introduction to a real fairy, I was not a bit frightened,
and soon told her all my troubles, while I even ventured, as I pointed
to my Instruction Book, to ask her if it would not make her feel dull
to be shut up this beautiful day to practise five-finger exercises and
scales? Now just imagine my surprise when the little fairy, merrily
laughing, replied: "Why here are pictures of Music-Land, and the
soldiers marching along to battle in their different regiments, and
you call them 'pieces of music,' 'notes,' and 'bars.' Well, how queer,
to be sure!" You will easily believe that I was much astonished
at these remarks, and thought it advisable to ask the fairy first for
her name and then for an explanation. My name is Imagination,
but I never explain things," said the little fairy; "still if you are
willing to start with me, I will take you for a trip right away to
Music-Land and there you will see all for yourself!" Then Imagin-
ation spread her light wings and flew round and round the room so
swiftly, I began to fear she might disappear and leave me behind,
so the next time she came near enough, I caught hold of her tightly,
and then, if you can believe me, I felt myself spinning round and
round too, until we both took our flight through the window, above
the trees, high up in the air, and away away far beyond the clouds!
How long we travelled thus I cannot say, but at last we began to
hear sounds of the sweetest music in the distance, then they grew
louder, and I saw we were approaching a beautiful country, which
my companion softly whispered was that of Music-Land." Then
we came to the very gates of the capital, the residence of King


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Harmony and Queen Melody, and.before we entered Imagination
said: I have a gift for you, which will prove of great importance
so long as you remain in Music-Land." She then handed me a
beautiful ring set with jewels on which were engraved the words:
Industry and Attention, and said smiling, "If you put this on
your finger it will at once render you perfectly invisible, so that
you can walk about the town and indeed enter the palace of music
itself, and take up your abode there so long as you remain in Music-
Land. Here you will have the chance of witnessing scenes of the
greatest interest and novelty, also the opportunity of making the
acquaintance of a charming Royal Family, although its peculiarities
will startle you no doubt at first. The King thinks of nothing but
his army, forces all his devoted subjects to become soldiers, picks a
quarrel with all his neighbours upon the slightest provocation for
the extreme pleasure of fighting it out, but is well known in all these
regions for the hospitable reception he is sure to give to strangers,
who can suggest any kind of military improvements. But I need
say no more, for this ring is a magic one, and will tell at once if you
look at it the name of all the inhabitants both of the town and the
palace, and explain any matter you may not understand."
Of course I thanked the fairy, and putting the ring there and then
on my finger, entered the gates of the town and made at once for the
Palace of Music. From all parts of the town I could see the palace of
King Harmony and Queen Melody, but what surprised me most was
that I could hear it too, for it was in reality an immense organ, although
there were hundreds of beautiful arched windows between the pipes,
and instead of a keyboard a splendid Gothic portal formed the
entrance. The golden rays of the setting sun now illuminated
it in every part, and the fairies themselves must have been playing
their evening song upon it, for never before had I listened to
such lovely music!

After looking and listening for some time I proceeded to the
palace where the fairy had advised me to take up my abode.
From the descriptions I have read of it, the city must have been
something like Venice, for there were plenty of beautiful canals
bordered with fine trees; but the streets reminded me of London
"tramways, with this difference, that instead of having two parallel iron

rails, they had 4 or 5 close together thus -- -- called staves,
which were for the accommodation of soldiers, instead of cars. I
very soon met a small party of these Music-Land soldiers in
full regimentals, some marching on the different lines of the stave,
others carefully keeping on the spaces between them. These
soldiers had a most extraordinary appearance, being exceedingly
tall, with very long legs, their heads this shape c i 1=1 or
and they went at a snail's pace, while every step they took produced
a sound, such as you hear when your fingers touch the keys of the
piano. According to the rank they held in the army I found they
were called Larges, Longs, and Breves; while as for Christian names,
they had but a limited stock from which to choose in this strange
country, for they must either be A, B, C, D, E, F, or G! If
their names appeared singular, their bodies were certainly still more
so, for they could, without the slightest pain or shedding of blood,
cut themselves or each other in two, when to my utter amazement I
saw not two halves of one body, as you might expect, but two other
complete soldiers half-size, who at once began to walk about with
ease and quite in military style, for they were "born soldiers." Thus
a Large soon divided into two Longs, and in a similar manner a Long
readily produced two Breves. As yet (so my ring said), the king
had never sanctioned the division of a Breve, sagaciously observing
"that the line must be drawn somewhere."
After watching the queer soldiers for a time, I thought it advisable


to enter the palace, and knowing myself to be perfectly invisible, I
boldly passed through the splendid entrance and found myself in a
spacious vestibule opposite the grand staircase, while to my right hand
a long colonnade of beautiful Gothic arches led right away to the private
gardens, just visible in the distance. I could hardly help laughing at
the sight of three solemn looking footmen, whose bodies were trumpets,
when the sweet sound of a harp attracted my attention, and turning
quickly round, I caught a sight of no less a person than Queen Melody
followed by her suite. She was so very lovely I could have gazed at
her for hours, and listened to her also, for I now discovered to my
surprise, that her body was the harp I had just heard, for she was
playing upon herself as she walked along. Her son Prince Progress
might have been playing upon himself too, having a violin body, but I
suppose he was intent upon listening to his Royal Mamma, by whose
side he walked. Then followed two fair Princesses named Patience and
Perseverance, also with harp bodies, and an old Courtier of evidently
high rank, but with anything but prepossessing features. His name
was Routine, and he was no particular favourite at court, on account
of his utter dislike to any improvement and his determination to keep
up every old fashion. Lord Good Sense, the Prince's governor, walked
by his pupil's side, and indeed I always saw them thus together.
Now the sound of a violin in an opposite direction caused me
suddenly to turn round, and I then saw King Harmony, followed by
two walking flutes (another variety of Music-Land footmen), rapidly
descending the grand staircase, his face beaming with joy, and in his
hand a large despatch, the contents of which he soon eagerly com-
municated to the Queen and Prince. This despatch announced the
speedy return of one of his Majesty's loyal servants named Time,
after an absence of many years, during which he had continually
travelled in foreign countries, for the benefit of the Music-Land"
Army, while it also stated that he would not return alone, having


prevailed upon three gentlemen named Rest, Prolongation, and Tie to
accompany him to King Harmony's court, for the purpose of render-
ing most efficient help in the army. The Queen and the two Princesses
testified their joy at the news by striking their harps, the King and
the Prince played their violins to perfection, while a faint sound also of
flutes and trumpets persuaded me that the Royal footmen were not
unaccustomed to taking part in such joyful choruses.
I left them all thus rejoicing, in order to select an apartment for
myself, and soon fixed upon a large room at the top of the palace,
from the windows of which I had a magnificent view of the country.
Here with the sound of harps in the distance I soon fell asleep, for I
felt tired after my long journey to Music-Land.

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N the following morning I took an early peep from my window,
and saw that very active preparations were being made to
welcome Time and his companions to Music-Land. A grand
old park, which surrounded the Organ-Palace, was filled with hundreds
of Larges, Longs, and Breves, who, dressed in gay attire, were now
busy erecting a huge triumphal arch at the very gates of the Palace;
while two dwarfs this shape n o whom I had indeed noticed on
the previous day in the hall by the side of the trumpet footmen, were
actively marshalling whole regiments of soldiers on the staves, which
crossed the park in all directions.
Towards evening, the cheers and music which filled the air
announced the arrival of Time, and, indeed, I saw in the distance
a long procession about to enter tre gates, but having learned
that King Harmony was himself to receive the guests at the
foot of the Grand Staircase, I determined to join his Majesty
there, and make their acquaintance myself. I was in the hall before
the King, and early enough to get a good look at Time, who had just
dismounted and given his horse in charge to one of the flute foot-
men." He was a tall man, with a very stern countenance, and ought,
I thought, to be a model of punctuality, seeing that nature (Music-


Land nature of course) had endowed him with a large clock in the
very centre of his chest, which was audibly ticking when I first came
down, and soon after struck the hour of seven. He was now politely
entreating Dr. Rest to advance, for the little doctor, short and stout,
with anxious look and large spectacles, was cautiously advancing on
tiptoe as if alarmed at the idea of entering a Palace, while Prolonga-
tion, a surgeon seven feet high, provided with a regular Mother
Gamp, strode behind his companion gazing at everybody and every-
thing with the most provoking coolness, as if it would have taken a
vast number of Palaces and Kings to disconcert him in the very least;
and Tie, who brought up the rear, carrying a coil of thick ropes across
his arm, looked so fierce, that he nearly frightened two Breves out
of their senses, as they cordially advanced to welcome him. Then
followed a large waggon full of trunks, corded and labelled so distinctly,
that I could easily read the names of Rome, Cologne, Paris, Belgium,
upon them, and now understood where Time had travelled for

improvements, while another dwarf this shape was perched upon

the top trunk, awaiting, no doubt, a formal introduction to his little
I witnessed the friendly greeting given by his Majesty, King
Harmony, to Time; the introduction of the little doctor, the tall
surgeon, and their fierce companion with the ropes; the careful
transport of the trunks to Time's study in the Palace, and then left
them to enjoy a sumptuous banquet, at which Queen Melody appeared
to greet the new guests. The Palace was that night most brilliantly
illuminated, by the King's orders, while the sounds made by the foot-
steps of thousands of soldiers marching through the park filled the
air with music, and made it a day not easily to be forgotten in Music-
Land. As Time's clock struck the hour of ten, the Queen retired,
the visitors rose, and were conducted by the royal footmen to their


different apartments, and Time alone remained anxiously awaiting his
dismissal, for he was tired enough, but old King Harmony had other
plans for him, being determined to know the result of his journey that
very night.
The old Chamberlain of the Household, Routine, had, according
to royal orders, made the preparations in Time's study; and now
his Majesty proceeded to this apartment, and there, most comfortably
seated in a royal chair, ordered Time forthwith to unpack the
trunks, .display their contents, and give an account of his journey.
Poor Time did his best to conceal a yawn, and did not quite appear
to relish the idea of being kept out of his bed, but he knew King
Harmony's will was law in Music-Land, so with the assistance of
some trumpet and flute footmen, he did as he was bid, and uncorded
the trunks. Then, in spite of all fatigue, he seemed inspired when
he began to tell of the glorious land of Italy, with its azure sky,
beautiful mountains, clear rivers, and orange groves, until King
Harmony most abruptly put an end to his eloquent description by
exclaiming, All very well in their way, Time, but there is no land
like Music-Land for me, so let's drop the mountains and rivers, and
hear what you found there for the benefit of our soldiers." Thus
poor Time had to omit his intended description of Rome, and could
only relate his interview with a monk named Guido d'Arezzo, who,
having made all inquiries respecting Music-Land, had greatly objected
to the usual names of the soldiers, namely, A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
suggesting in their stead those of Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, and Si,
and also advocated their learning to march in a regular order, which
he termed a "scale." "Ah, ah!" said old King Harmony merrily,
" that old monk will please our Queen, she always complains of the
names, so let us hope she will enjoy the Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol; but
continue and tell us what you next heard."
Old Routine heaved a deep sigh from behind his Royal Master,


as Time, who was longing to describe his trip to the Rhine, with its
picturesque scenery (had he dared), replied, I next reached Cologne
in Germany, with a letter to Master Franco, an inhabitant of that town,
from whom I was told I should learn many useful things. I found
Franco, and having explained to him the object of my journey, I learned,
that if we would improve our army, we must prepare for many changes,
and, first of all, decide to sacrifice all our Larges, Longs, and Breves. I
purchased, in consequence, a large number of fresh uniforms for your
Majesty's inspection, and learned from Master Franco the titles we
should give to these new soldiers." Here Time displayed to King
Harmony a variety of new uniforms, which he had just taken from the
trunks, all of different sizes, each packet being half-a-size smaller than
the preceding one. Famous!" said the king, "we will sacrifice our
Larges, Longs, and Breves, every one of them, to-morrow; but what
about these titles, Time: we must know them at once." If your
Majesty would graciously sanction the sacrifice of a Breve to-night,"
said Time, I could more plainly show the size of the new soldiers, and
give them their titles." This was altogether too much for old Routine,
who fell on his knees, and was evidently on the point of making an
eloquent appeal on behalf of the Breves, when his Harmonic Majesty
suddenly treated him to such a box on the ears with his violin bow,
that the old fellow soon got up and returned to his place behind the
Royal Chair. A Breve now entering the study was soon placed on
Time's dissecting table, and with one blow divided into two soldiers
half his size, to whom the title of Semibreve, or half Breve, was given
with the King's hearty approval. Time now divided the first Semi-
breve in a similar manner, giving the title of Minim to the two new
soldiers, one of which was now cut up into two Crotchets, who, in
their turn, gave two Quavers each; then handing a uniform to all
these little men, he directed them to march across the room, and
salute their King. The soldiers readily obeyed, seeming mightily

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proud of their new clothes, and Time, pointing to his own clock chest,
begged his Majesty to observe, that while the Semibreve took a whole
second, the Minim only required I, the Crotchet I, and the Quaver
I of a second for each step, or in other words, that 2 Minims, 4
Crotchets, and 8 Quavers got by in the same time as one Semibreve.
The King, overjoyed at the novelty of these experiments, exclaimed,
"Time, I name you Prime Minister to-night, in acknowledgment
of your services," at which unexpected honour Time fell on his knees,
and kissed the extended hand of Royalty, but his clock loudly striking
eleven at that very moment, prevented my hearing his thanks.
Now Mr. Prime Minister," said the King, "what are we to do
next?" Form regiments," said Time, "which we shall call Bars
here, and place in each 2, 3, or 4 soldiers, or notes, never less than
2, or more than 4." Here, in order to make matters clear, Time
hastily sketched on the wall facing his Majesty a portion of the stave

thus divided into bars for each regiment -

"Good," said the King, "and as I now resolve that (except in
particular cases) I shall only require one kind of regiment out in each
battle, it shall be your duty to decide whether it is to contain 2, 3, or
4 notes, and whether they are to be Semibreves, Minims, Crotchets, or
This matter settled, Time uncorded the last of the trunks, and
displayed some more uniforms, which he said he had received
from John of Paris, to whom he paid his last visit. These uniforms
were for soldiers half the size of the Quaver, having the title of
Semiquaver, and for those half the size of the Semiquaver, called
Lastly, Time begged his Majesty graciously to grant special
audiences to Dr. Rest, Prolongation, and Tie, as from all he had
heard respecting them, they must have valuable suggestions to


make concerning the welfare of the army. King Harmony, over-
joyed at all he had heard, and desirous of showing his intense
satisfaction at the efforts Time had made on behalf of his country,
said, Time, you deserve the highest honour I can award you. The
regiments of Music-Land shall from this day bear your name. Two
soldiers in a regiment (or 2 notes in a bar) shall be called common Time
or two time; 3 notes in a bar three or triple Time; 4 notes in a bar four
or common Time." "This is too great an honour for your old servant,"
exclaimed Time; "let the regiments of Music-Land bear your Majesty's
illustrious name, or that of your Royal Consort." "Since when has
my word ceased to be law in Music-Land?" said his Harmonic
Majesty, with indignation, while he drew his violin bow firmly across
his expanded breast, producing such an ominous sound, it made Time
tremble, and old Routine again began to quake. Time fell on his
knees again, and, I suppose, first apologized for not accepting, and
then did accept the proffered honour, but his clock loudly striking
twelve at this very moment, for the second time prevented me hearing
his speech.
The King, apparently satisfied, now rose, and, dismissing his
sleepy Prime Minister, proceeded to his apartments, followed by old
Routine, who could scarcely be said to have enjoyed his evening.

(See Note for Teachers in Appendix.)

.. i t"



HE next day, in spite of recent fatigues, our friend Time had
to rise early, several deputations being in waiting to congra-
tulate him both on his safe return, and on his new dignity as
Prime Minister of Music-Land. In the meantime, his Majesty the
King, with the young Prince, attended by Good Sense, rode out, and,
devoting several hours to the most energetic work, completely con-
verted the land into a set of new inhabitants, viz. Semibreves, Minims,
Crotchets, and Quavers, who learned that upon application to the Prime
Minister they would obtain their uniforms. In answer to an advertise-
ment for a good Portrait Taker (the King having determined to have a
likeness of all his new soldiers as early as possible) I saw hosts of these
gentlemen soon pouring in from all quarters, and exceedingly anxious
to secure the post. One after another they were all presented in due
form to the King, who seemed never to weary of work; and the
young Prince, I heard, would gladly have remained by his royal
Papa's side, had it been consistent with etiquette in this wonderful
country. His Royal Highness, however, most anxious to become
well acquainted with the new Music-Land soldiers, left the Palace
towards evening with his governor, Good Sense, for the purpose of
taking a walk through the town, and viewing them at his leisure. I


determined to accompany them, and thus became an invisible spectator
of a very remarkable scene.
At the Park Gates an extraordinary-looking individual, inasmuch
as his head was a concertina, was now humbly seeking admission
to the Palace of old Routine, who, taking his usual evening stroll,
had soon discovered this stranger. Prince Progress and Good
Sense happening now to be completely concealed behind one of
the thick allees of splendid old trees, I overheard with them the
following conversation between the stranger and Routine. Stranger:
" I am called Musical Notation, and desire at once to be presented
to King Harmony, in order that I may offer him my services
as Photographer." Routine: It is no easy matter to enter this
Palace, but as my position at Court is a high one, I most willingly
offer to assist you to do so upon one condition. There are sad and
grievous changes taking place here, as you may perhaps know, and
in vain have I warned King Harmony, who is completely under the
influence of a misguided man, now governor to Prince Progress.
Promise to assist me in my endeavour to strangle all these new and
absurd ideas at their very birth, by boldly refusing to photograph any
soldiers but our illustrious Larges, Longs, and Breves, and I will
make a great and rich man of you." At these words the young
Prince, indignant, would have shown himself to Routine, had not
Good Sense restrained him, suggesting that it would be advisable to
await Musical Notation's reply. Musical Notation: Nay, good Sir,
I am a warm admirer of your young Prince and his Governor-may
Heaven ever smile on them!-so let me boldly seek admission to the
Palace myself." Routine: Think of your own interests, my good
man: I am rich, and half my fortune shall be yours if you grant my
request." Musical Notation: Long live Progress and Good Sense!
say I; keep your riches, good Sir, for those who care for them; I am
determined to make my way into the King's presence." Routine, now


livid with rage, thus truly proving how he had in him all the germs
of tyranny and persecution, seized poor Musical Notation roughly,
threw him on the ground, drew his sword, and would soon have
effected a determination to take his life, had not Progress and Good
Sense now most gallantly flown to the rescue. While the young
Prince assisted Musical Notation (who fortunately escaped with a few
bruises) to rise, Good Sense treated old Routine to such a thrashing
as he had not had for many a long day, sending him home with a
black eye, and such stiff limbs, the poor old fellow kept his bed (and
his secret too) for a few days.
Musical Notation having recovered from his fright, was presented
to the King on the following morning, in the audience chamber, his
Majesty having the Queen on his right hand, and being attended by
the Prime Minister and all the officers of the Household. According to
his Majesty's orders, a number of notes, one of each kind in Music-Land,
with the three Clefs, were assembled, in order to have their portraits
taken. Musical Notation commenced by explaining to their Majesties,
that the very singular formation of his head enabled him to make an
excellent camera of it, and then deliberately removing the tip of his
nose, he gazed fixedly at the notes one after another, photographed
them, and presented the slides (which, by the way, he removed from
the back of his head) to the King. I neither felt as astonished nor
enraptured as the Music-Land Court, seeing that Musical Notation
had only photographed the singular heads of the Notes and Clefs,

but feeling that, in this case as in many others, ignorance being bliss,
it might have been folly to become wise," I reconciled myself to the
thought that anything in the way of Photography was no doubt a


novelty here, and therefore charming to these Music-Land Folks.
Upon the King inquiring whether it would be possible to take the
notes in groups, Musical Notation, with alacrity, photographed the
heads of 2 and 3 Quavers, 4 Semiquavers, and 6 Demisemiquavers
together, thus:-

but being of an obstinate turn of mind, declined to represent any of
the other notes in a similar position. This extraordinary achievement
(in the eyes of Music-Land, I mean) brought a round of cheers for
Musical Notation, to which the King, Queen, and Prince, as usual,
added the sound of violins and harp, while all the notes (to express
their satisfaction), stamped musically, except the Semibreves, Minims,
and Crotchets; and no wonder, for they deemed themselves slighted
by this whimsical photographer. Musical Notation thus obtained
the appointment as Court Photographer to their Majesties King
Harmony and Queen Melody, and was escorted to a splendid studio
by the Prime Minister.
In the evening, all being quiet in the Palace, I ventured into
King Harmony's private apartment, where I found him comfortably
seated with Queen Melody and the Prince, and evidently enjoying
a lively trio, which they were performing on themselves, for their
evening amusement. I was about to leave the apartment, when I
heard Time's clock loudly strike eight, then a sound of flutes and
trumpets, whereupon the Prime Minister entered the apartment,
followed by a whole bevy of Royal footmen, carrying large flags and
shields, which they placed upon a table for his Majesty's inspection.
" Here are the battle flags, according to your Majesty's orders," said
Time, bowing low; on each I have had placed either 2, 3, or 4, in
order that you may easily see, even in the distance, whether I have

SP"^. -"C -- r-- .
-r .

,- "-'

..... -- \' ,' I

l' !E SON LON.ON. I,A.6 i& .,!N URU

"" JK :SNLN:N TA<,; W gSrL[t,
,iI ti


decided upon 2, 3, or 4 time." "Well, well," said his Harmonic
Majesty, "but how am I to know what kind of soldiers you have
directed to march in the regiment?" "I trust easily," replied old
Time, if your Majesty would graciously decide to-night upon the
crests to be worn by the different soldiers on these shields which I
now place before you. This crest placed beneath the 2, 3, or 4 already
on the flag will show your Majesty what kind of soldier is engaged in
the regiment." Queen Melody here undertaking to embroider the
crests on the flags, it only remained to decide what they should be,
when the young Prince, whose eyes were fixed on the Prime Minister's
clock chest, exclaimed eagerly, Would not figures look as well as
crests ?" "Admirably," said his Majesty, "if our friend Time
approves." Time, who was too much flattered by the compliment
paid to his chest (and also well aware of the utter uselessness of
differing in opinion with his Majesty) to take another view, humbly
assented, and the matter was soon settled. The Semibreves were to
have I, the Minims 2, the Crotchets 4, the Quavers 8, the Semiquavers
16, and the Demisemiquavers 32, for their crests, which Queen Melody
now drew on the shields. There could now be no difficulty for the
King, ', on a battle flag would signify so 3so0,

4 2 4 c -, 3 t el c), 4 )l d cJ c:); >
I I 1 2' 4

oreC,2J, 3 J,4 .1JJ; ; 8), 4S 8 2 3 4
in the bar. To satisfy a whim of his Majesty, the 4 Crotchets could
be represented by a half circle,* thus, C, and the two Minims, or
2, by a half circle divided by a perpendicular line, thus, 0, the
latter termed Alla Breve."
"* In former times Triple Time was called Perfect Time, and was signified by a circle O,
the symbol of perfection, and Common Time or Imperfect was signified jy a half-circle.
The circle is now obsolete. A measure containing two semibreves is often styled, "The
Great Alla Breve Measure."


Queen Melody now retired, attended to her apartment by the
Prime Minister, carrying the designs she had just so ably made. His
clock did not this time prevent my hearing an eloquent speech of
thanks, after which Queen Melody (by way of answer, no doubt)
touched her harp lightly, and sent forth such exquisite sounds, I
could well have listened all night, but like all sweet melodies, they
came to an end too soon, the door was closed, and all again was still
in Music-Land.

The line drawn through the half-circle 0, in concluding statement on previous page,
indicates a quicker degree of movement; and in Alla Breve time each bar contains one
accent only.

(See Note for Teachers in Appendix.)



HE weather was so fine the next morning in Music-Land, that
horses were at the gates early, in order that King Harmony
might proceed with several of the gentlemen to inspect a
large battle field some miles from the Palace. I determined to accom-
pany the party, and awaited them at the entrance on an invisible horse,
the last gift of the fairy, Imagination. King Harmony soon descended
the grand staircase, accompanied by Prince Progress, Time, Routine,
Good Sense, and Musical Notation, whose services would to-day be
required, as Queen Melody wished to have photographs of the battle
field. The photographer seemed slightly flurried at the sight of his
old enemy, but soon recovered when Prince Progress and Good Sense
addressed him with the greatest cordiality, the latter, indeed, giving
a most significant wink in the direction of Routine, as much as to say,
" Don't let that old chap alarm you: we can soon settle him."
It would take too long to relate all the merry conversation which
passed between the gentlemen as they swiftly galloped over the
charming country of Music-Land; but one thing, I think, may be of
interest. The young Prince, who was riding a little in advance by the
King's side, said suddenly, My birthday is at hand, may I choose my
own present this year: I have a very special wish ?" "I must know


what it is, my son, before I promise," said the old King; "your ideas
are mostly good, I grant, but at times too bold, and not to be carried
out without serious difficulties." I want a regiment of my own,
composed of 5 Crotchets, my favourite soldiers," said Progress eagerly.
" I have set my mind on 5." Quite impossible!" said His Majesty,
" I wonder how you ever thought of such a thing, when you know
that Time, our Prime Minister, on whom we have conferred the
honour of forming and naming the regiments, has expressly declared
that he can only do with 2, 3, or 4 in the bar." The little Prince said
nothing, but seemed much disappointed; when Time hearing his name,
galloped up to the side of King Harmony, who, with a jovial laugh
(for he was in raregood humour that morning) related what had just
passed between himself and the little Prince, who now looked wistfully
enough at Time. Time, after a few moments' consideration, replied,
that, with His Majesty's sanction, he saw the possibility of granting
Prince Progress's request, on condition that this special regiment
of (or the Prince's own) should be very rarely used,* and that subject
to the decision of the King's Privy Council, of whom I now heard
that Rhythm (Time's father) was the leading Member, and well known
in Music-Land for the originality of his ideas. The King, satisfied,
now granted his son's request, and promised that the Court Ladies
should work another banner for the regiment of 4. Routine was
beginning to object as usual, when the King administered him
such a severe box on the ears with his violin bow (which, by-the-bye,
I saw he used for a riding whip), that he kept any further remarks
he might have wished to make to himself, but looked as black as a
thunder cloud for the rest of the day. I know that such treatment

"* This measure of 5 is too rarely used to admit of classification with the others, and I
have for this reason introduced it in a special manner. An excellent illustration of it is to be
found in one of the airs of Boieldieu's "Dame Blanche," viz. Deja la nuit plus sombre."


will appear very cruel to you children; but the fact is, Routine is not
only such a tough old fellow (whether you meet him in Music-Land
or elsewhere), that he would not feel at all under mild treatment, but
is a regular bully himself, whenever he can get folks into his power.
We soon reached our destination, and found the three dwarfs, who
were aware of the King's intended visit, at their post, marshalling
soldiers on a stave, which covered the battle-field. This stave, com-
posed of 1 lines, was called the Great Stave of Eleven, and upon
the middle line of it we found the C Clef, thus-

now employed in giving to all the soldiers of the same name lines or
spaces to themselves, reserving the line which passed between his
arms for those bearing his own name of C, while the F Clef, (t, and the

G Clef, were looking on, not having as yet received any special

work. After a long and careful inspection of the Great Stave, the
King gave orders to divide it into sections of 5 lines each, to be used
separately, thus making it more convenient for the Commanding
Officer to distinguish the names of the soldiers engaged in the fight,
and also affording a good opportunity for employing the other Clefs.
The King now bestowed upon two Clefs the respective titles of Treble
and Bass, ordering the former to stand at the top, and the latter at
the bottom of the stave, while the C Clef remained on the centre
line, as you see them here-



Musical Notation then photographed the Stave divided into sections,

r ft ^ ----------- --B- p-- -f;--- -i--- J---

the F Clef taking charge of the bottom sections of 5 lines, while 4 in
the middle fell to the lot of the C Clef, who received in consequence
4 titles, and 2 sections at the top to the Treble Clef." The King
then decided that he would also use the top and bottom of the Stave
together (united by a bracket), leaving room to insert at will the
centre line for the C Clef, thus-

The Engineers soon divided it into bars for the different regiments.
Two Guards, the one called G (the name of the Clef), the other F,
stood respectively at the top and at the bottom of the Stave, and
were charged to hold ladders called Ledger Lines, that the soldiers,
in case of need, might put themselves out of danger, thus-

Ledger Lines.

Ledger Lines.

As all the soldiers in Music-Land were required to stand in alpha-

"* The G Clef used also to be employed on the first line (especially in French music), and
hence was called the "French Violin Clef." On the first line the C Clef is called Soprano Clef,
on the second line Mezzo-Soprano, on the third line Alto or Viola, on the fourth line Tenor.


betical order on the lines of the Stave, it followed that a soldier of the
name of A must be on the first step of the ladder going up, and one
called E on the first step going down. I observed that soldiers
got in between as well as on the steps of the ladder, thus,
so while A, C, E, G, B appeared on the steps, there was room
for B, D, F, A, &c., between. The little Prince, who had dis-
mounted, ran up and down the ladders with great alacrity, calling
out the names of the soldiers who would have to stand both on and
between the steps, and seemed to enjoy the exercise so much, I felt
some regret at not being able to join him.
The King, at length, judging by his Prime Minister's clock
that it was high time to return to the Palace, and having all the
photographs ready for the Queen, graciously took leave of the
Dwarfs and Engineers, who, running after us for some distance,
filled the air with music, as did also the hoofs of the horses passing
continually over the Staves, which crossed Music-Land in all direc-
tions. The King and Prince often played as we rode along, so
that I enjoyed my ride as I never had enjoyed one before; first,
because at home I had no horse, and then, because I should have
been frightened to mount one if I had. But when Imagination
gives a horse, it is easy enough to ride, for it never plunges or shies,
the only fear is, that it might carry you off too far, if you did not use
the curb. I always found it advisable to watch Good Sense, and
imitate his management of the steed he rode, and thus I always went
neither too slowly from undue caution, nor too fast either, for fear of
not being able to give a true account of all I saw in Music-Land.
We reached the Palace safely at sunset, and Queen Melody came out
to welcome the party at the foot of the grand staircase, after which
we all returned to our several apartments.

(See Note for Teachers in Appendix.)



EXT evening a sweeter and clearer peal of bells than I had
heard before rang through King Harmony's Palace, and
attracted me to the Queen's apartment, from whence these
lovely sounds came. When I was able to see things at all clearly, being
at first completely dazzled by the blaze of hundreds of fairy lamps and
beauties of every description, I saw Queen Melody (whose charms
such surroundings as these did but enhance) in a large conservatory
at the end of the apartment, with Prince Progress by her'side, and
surrounded by her ladies. This conservatory was filled with the
choicest and rarest flowers, for they sparkled like hundreds of coloured
stars, and reflected in the mirrors on the opposite wall, made one
feel, indeed, in Fairy Land. The Court Ladies, too, were very
wonderful, for, on approaching them, I found they were in reality
a large peal of Bells (and Belles, too), and their tongues, as they
now merrily chattered and laughed with their Royal Mistress, had
rung out that exquisite Carillon, which, sounding through the Palace,
brought me now into their midst. Preparations were evidently being
made for a Grand Entertainment, for these Belles" were care-
fully putting aside the shields and banners at which they had just been
working, and some Royal Flutes were erecting a dais at one end of


the room, while Trumpets were placing a large table immediately
opposite to it.
At length a curtain was lifted on one side of the apartment, and
his Majesty, followed by Rest, Tie, Prolongation, Musical Notation,
Good Sense, and Routine, entered and seated himself on one of
the Chairs of State, while the Queen, now coming forward, took
the other, and called her son Progress to her side. The officers of
the household had but time to follow the Queen's invitation, and place
themselves among the Belles," when the Prime Minister, in full
evening dress, entered the boudoir, and bowing low to their Majesties,
took his place at the table opposite to the dais. Flutes and Trumpets
followed Time, bearing three boxes, which they placed on the table
before him, while six demure-looking Semibreves stationed themselves
on his right hand.
There was a general titter of excitement and curiosity throughout
the whole assembly, when his Majesty, addressing Time, said, Now
then for the conjuring, Mr. Prime Minister, we are ready, and
waiting." Time .immediately opened the box before him, and
threw on the table a variety of little plumes this shape, #, 3, or x,
informing the King that the first, called Sharps, possessed the
wonderful power of making any soldier wearing them taller; while
the second, named Double Sharps, doubled the extra height
obtained by the sharps. Nothing could exceed the King's surprise
at the account of these plumes, and he forthwith ordered Time to
experiment on the assembled Semibreves, to the first of whom
a sharp was given. All eyes were fixed on the little man, as
he fastened it into his helmet, and great was the amazement of
the Court, when, just as Time had predicted, he instantly grew
taller, a fact rendered all the more apparent by his standing next
to a Semibreve without this wonderful plume. His companion
also, upon receiving a double sharp x, immediately towered up


above him, and now both began to look down upon their neigh-
bours, to the great amusement of the young Prince, who laughed
out heartily.
"Well, Mr. Prime Minister," said his Majesty, after several experi-
ments with the sharps and double sharps, "your plumes are first-rate,
and will do good service, I doubt not, in our army; but would it not be
well if we could lower the men; for instance, when the enemy's
balls flying too near might strike them?" The Court Ladies, having
husbands, brothers, and cousins in the army, glanced eagerly at the
Prime Minister, for they would naturally have rejoiced to hear of any
expedient for keeping off the balls. Time quietly lifted off the lid of
the second box, and, amidst universal cheers, displayed a number
of fresh plumes this shape' b, b, called Flats and Double Flats, which
he declared had the power of lowering the notes in same proportion
as the sharps had heightened them. This was perfectly true, for no
sooner did one of the remaining Semibreves sport the flat given
him, than he was instantly lowered, while another with the double
flat was doubly lowered, as Time had promised.
Nor was this all; the Prime Minister had other marvels in store,
for he now grouped several notes of the same name in two bars,

and informed the King that he had only to give the first note
in each case a sharp or a flat, in order to produce the effect of
heightening or lowering all the others. Incredible as this appeared
at first to the Court, it proved true in repeated cases; and Time
now told the King that the plumes were in this case to be called
accidental, and that their power did not extend beyond the limits
of the bar.

ii fq
I '-' .-

f '. pi
P ,

t "4y PIE




But the last feat was the most wonderful of all, in my mind, for
the picture of any sharp or flat, or several of them (called Signature),
placed at the commencement of a stave, caused all the notes on the
same line, or of the same name, to become higher or lower, without
the necessity of their wearing the plumes at all. Thus here:-

a sharp painted on the F line caused all the notes called F to become
higher, while a flat on the B line, here:-
XX X X x X

made all those called B lower.
This wonderful performance, however, only partially satisfied his
Harmonic Majesty, who declared that although it would be often
of use, yet there were exceptions to all cases, and it was possible
he might suddenly require a soldier to resume his natural size.
I fully expected that Time would now be puzzled, but he only smiled,
and, opening the third box, took out of it a number of strange-looking
charms this shape t, which he called Naturals. Here," said he,
turning to the King, "your Majesty will discover the magician's
greatest triumph. Give to each of your soldiers this small charm, and
you shall see that at any time for its wearer (and even for companions
of the same name within the limits of a bar), it will instantly coun-
teract the power of Accidental or Signature." Here all the notes,
which had either been heightened by 8 or x, or lowered by b, or bh,
received a natural t, and instantaneously resumed their original size.*
Have you ever been to see Houdin in Paris, the Wizard of the North,
Maskelyne and Cook, or Dr. Lynn? If so, I know you were never
The signs t and b replace a single sharp or flat after a double one.


more surprised or delighted than the household of King Harmony
at the sight of these sharps, flats, and naturals. The Music-Land
Folks testified their satisfaction in the usual manner; and, before
retiring, his Majesty. declared that his Royal Crown must for the
future be set with additional jewels in the shape of Sharps and
Flats, that the Queen would have her next court dress trimmed with
the same, while the Court Ladies should have the right to wear
coronets, and the gentlemen orders of Naturals, on all state occasions.
I retired with their Majesties, and was soon dreaming of all the
marvels I daily saw in Music-Land.



IS Majesty at length determined to grant an audience to Rest,
Prolongation, and Tie, who were naturally anxious to secure
"a good position at Court, by showing the King what they
were able to propose for the benefit of his army. All three received
orders to assemble early in the King's private apartment, and prepare
anything they might have to present, while Musical Notation was to
be in attendance, in case of need. I saw old Dr. Rest, as usual,
enter on tiptoe, while he spoke so softly, I could scarcely catch what
he said; but Prolongation, who stalked into the room, beginning
forthwith to peer about in all the corners, made noise enough for two,
and Tie always spoke as if he were addressing some rebels. A
footman following the three gentlemen, brought in a box, out of which
the doctor took seven miniature cannons, placed on stands of the same
size as each of the Music-Land soldiers, and set them in a row to the
right of the throne. After this, he seated himself with such an
expression of imperturbable calm, I involuntarily became possessed
with a longing to pinch him, knock him, tickle him, or do anything,
in fact, that might rouse him just a little. If, however, anything
could have produced such a result, it might have been (so I thought,
but supposed he was used to it) a conversation between Prolongation

and Tie, who, having just put the peculiar table you see in the picture
opposite to the throne, were occupied in placing several notes upon
it. Tie asked Prolongation, who was helping some crotchets on to
each other's shoulders (quite in Japanese juggler fashion), to lend him
something suitable for the very benevolent purpose of inflicting a
blow on the soldiers' feet, which should utterly deprive them of all
sound, and received from that gentleman's case such a formidable-
looking instrument, I felt quite relieved to see it put back again.
Prolongation then looked at some ropes belonging to his companion,
until his Harmonic Majesty, with the young Prince and Time,
entered the room, and, having comfortably seated himself, asked old
Dr. Rest what improvements he had to suggest for Music-Land.
Old Rest, with emotionless voice, placid smile, and style most diffusive,
informed his Majesty, at greater length than I should care to relate,
how, not having been able to agree with the Allopathists, who,
according to his opinion (although he explained in parenthesis, so to
speak, that this opinion was corroborated by excellent authorities he
could name), killed their patients by over-dosing, nor with the Homceo-
pathists, who, by under-dosing, produced a like result (so folks said),
he had written highly-instructive pamphlets on the subject of rest
being the best medicine, which had irritated the Faculty (no doubt
jealous), and caused reviewers rudely to attack both him and his
style, which, although he said it himself, was, so to speak-
Here the King, to whom this long talk was Double Dutch, and
who was intensely bored, said abruptly, with the sincerity, no doubt,
of the good man's reviewers and critics, Very sensible folks those
reviewers, my good man, if it took you as long to explain yourself
in the pamphlets as it has to-day, and we shall do the same, unless
you come to the point pretty quickly, and say what you think of our
The old doctor took his rebuff quite calmly, and replied, The idea


I would have urged in the above-mentioned pamphlets "-here the
King frowned again, and struck his violin so hastily, Rest took the
hint, and suddenly became concise-" is what your Majesty requires
here, viz., rest, for your soldiers are all overworked." Here the
King frowned again, observing that he thought doctors should be
able to cure; but old Rest declared that in a country where there was
incessant fighting, and each man forced to be a soldier, he could but
insist upon the absolute necessity of allowing intervals of rest. He
admitted that the Music-Land constitution was remarkably strong;
but still declared he had seen many a soldier unfit for work marching
to his regiment at the summons of Time.
Now the King was evidently in a difficulty, so turning to Time,
whose face wore an exceedingly troubled and perplexed expression,
he said, Well, Mr. Prime Minister, what shall we say ? Would it
materially affect the order of your regiments (that is, alter time) if at
times this good man saw fit to recall a soldier, and enforce rest?"
"Sire," exclaimed Time, in infinite alarm, "a regiment rendered thus
incomplete, would ruin my reputation. Is it not better the soldiers
be sacrificed, than have unfilled ranks ? I will speak my mind to-day,
Sire-" Now his Majesty being what Americans call in a "fix,"
was disposed to vent all his annoyance on others, so exclaimed, No
you won't, Time. Confine yourself to your own sphere, and keep
your mind to yourself;" and then turning to the little doctor, said,
" Come, Doctor, it is for you to solve this difficulty which you have
made, or you may leave Music-Land to-night."
The old Doctor, never for a moment losing his self-possession,
craved permission to kneel before Royalty, and then taking a small
key, proceeded to wind up each of the above-mentioned cannons
(until now unnoticed by the King), which were so ingeniously
made, that they at once began to move along at exactly the same
rate as the different notes-Semibreve, Minim, Crotchet, Quaver,


and Semiquaver-although, while so doing, they produced no sound
whatever. Old Dr. Rest took advantage of the silence produced
by curiosity and astonishment to explain that each soldier compelled
to rest should be bound to provide a cannon of his own size-of
which a manufactory could be at once established in Music-Land-
and this would exactlyfi/ his rank, and represent him in all, except
producing sound.
The young Prince could not take his eyes off the marvellous
self-firing and self-moving cannons; and the King, now charmed at
this grand addition to his forces, forgot all previous displeasure,
and, addressing the crest-fallen Prime Minister, said, Time, you
are the hope of Music-Land. How can I sufficiently reward you
for having induced this ingenious man to visit our Court ?" Your
Majesty's approval is ever my highest reward," said the man of
the clock chest on bended knee, and most remarkably relieved did
the old fellow look at the favourable turn things had taken. As to
you, Doctor," said the King, I invite you to become an officer of
my household; and further declare that in Music-Land, at least, these
cannons you have so cleverly invented, shall bear your name, and
render your glory immortal. Each note provided with a cannon
of his own size and value shall call it his rest, viz., Semibreve rest,
Minim rest, &c." Musical Notation, here commanded by the King
to photograph the cannons, only represented (by means of his amazing
head) a small flag at the top of each, which you see in the picture,
thus- - I 4; but as everybody, including Rest himself,
was satisfied with this performance, why, of course, it could not be
The King now turned to Prolongation, who, with provoking
coolness of demeanour, most concisely stated his case; for, pointing
to the notes mounted on each other as before described, he said,
" Invention of my own, your Majesty. Best style of keeping the


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wounded out of danger till I can attend to them. A fellow takes up
one, two, or three others on his shoulders, stamps with extra force, to
prolong the sound, and thus doing duty for the wounded, counts first
for himself, and then for his companions." The King laughed
immensely at the invention, which he called worthy of Prolongation,
and at once ordered Musical Notation to photograph these Japanese
Jugglers, but this time his Majesty soon disapproved of the perform-
ance, for when a Crotchet put another on his shoulders, and did duty
for him in prolonging sound, Musical Notation handed Time the
photograph of a Minim; when he took three in similar fashion, the
photographer produced a Semibreve, which, to his Majesty, seemed
most inaccurate, although Time looked as much as to say, I see
through it." Musical Notation, who never could be made to, alter
anything, explained that two Crotchets being equal to a Minim, and
four to a Semibreve, the notes, as close together as Prolongation
would have them, must certainly present this very appearance
to his Majesty, should he be at some distance from the field; and
he therefore considered a separate photograph of each note useless,
so the King was forced to approve, and ordered these wounded men
to be called "prolonged," or "held out" notes. Then Time showed
how, on reference to the battle flag (or Time Signature), it would
be easy to discover when prolongation of sound was taking place.
Having placed some bars on the stave with 4, or C signature,
indicating four Crotchets to be found in every bar, thus:-

he made it clear that a Semibreve here must represent one played and
three "prolonged" or "held out" Crotchets; and each Minim, in like
manner, two Crotchets, the one played and the other prolonged.
The King, after several similar experiments, understood the matter


perfectly, and, appointing Prolongation surgeon to the army, called
Tie forward in his turn.
Tie advanced with a gloomy face and a large coil of ropes on his
arm, and offered to go to each battle for the purpose of securing the
prisoners. This was to be done, he said, by tying them fast to the
arm of some soldier bearing the same name, thus :-

Time objected (when asked his opinion by the King) to this arrange-
ment, because prisoners thus filling a rank would be, no doubt,
mistaken for soldiers of the King's army; but Tie put an end to his
scruples by assuring him that a severe blow administered to their feet
deprived them of all sound, thus branding them as prisoners, or tied
notes, as they would be called in Music-Land. Musical Notation,
I may as well add, tied their heads together in the photograph instead
of their arms; but so used was I now becoming to his style, that it
scarcely surprised me. The King named Tie Governor of the
State Prison," dismissed the new officers of the household, and then
retired, evidently pleased with his morning's work.



S the new officers were very energetic, a great deal was
accomplished in Music-Land during the next few days.
Governor Tie made the State Prison gloomy enough, and
coils of ropes suspended on the walls and over the door must
have convinced the prisoners with a vengeance that they would
be tied fast. Besides attending to his numerous patients, Dr. Rest
continually visited the new Cannon Manufactory and saw his designs
properly carried out, while the Court Ladies worked hard at banners
and shields.
Then came the young Prince's birthday-one of the most
eventful days in Music-Land, and celebrated throughout the country
as a universal holiday. Early in the morning I saw the young
Prince leave the Palace grounds on horseback, and, attended by
his governor Good Sense and Musical Notation, ride in the
direction of the Harbour, not only (so I heard) to inspect the magni-
ficent decorations and triumphal arches in his honour, but also to
witness the arrival of a foreign ship, which had been duly signalled.
Hundreds of soldiers cheered and saluted the young Prince as he
drove along the quay, for the Barracks were opposite the landing-
place, as you may see on the picture. We came in now for a scene

of great bustle and confusion, for the ship had already anchored,
some Minims were engaged in dragging up a number of horses in a
rather brutal way, while two very singular looking men superin-
tended the landing of several regiments of soldiers, who now stood
on deck. Musical Notation, according to custom, used his camera
head for the benefit of the Prince, and photographed the soldiers'
heads thus: !. J. J and I learned from my magic ring that they
were called dotted notes, viz., the first a dotted Semibreve, the second
a dotted Minim, the third a dotted Crotchet, the fourth a dotted
Quaver, and that in the cabin below were both dotted Semi- and
Demi-semi-quavers. I soon had an opportunity of seeing them
dissect themselves (in Music-Land fashion), and easily concluded that
the o. being worth 3a the J. s a ,i the 3. a 3 J, and
the 3 7 this mysterious dot by the side of their heads must
make them half as valuable again as the plain notes.
The Prince seemed very much amused at the two extraordinary
individuals on board, and no wonder, for one was a tall man in
military costume, with a large wooden box (bearing a singular
inscription), where other folks have a chest; the second, a funny
little dwarf with a drum body, who kept on brandishing two
swords (one in each hand), the hilts of which served for drumsticks
in case of need! Both the big man and the little man seemed
endowed with excellent spirits, and were just now enjoying a joke,
the full meaning of which I did not take in till later. The dwarf
having entreated the man with the wooden chest (who was a first-
class passenger!) to lend a helping hand in landing the soldiers,
got for reply: "Turn your swords to some use instead of bran-
dishing them in the air! Pick up a soldier on the tip of each,
and send them up in that style on to the quay, to prove that
'Necessity is the mother of invention;'" and retorted amidst shouts of

---%i-: IlL-


1 I

11- 1-/




laughter: "Take care I don't expose you, sooner than you wish!"
Here the stranger roared too, but lent the help required, so soldiers
and horses were soon on shore.
The Prince, evidently both amused and interested, now despatched
Good Sense to learn the names of these strange people, and their object
in visiting.his royal Papa's domains! The dwarf, when questioned,
replied, "My name is Subdivision. Some folks call me Binary, others
Ternary Subdivision, because I have a trick of cutting things up into
two or three. I fancied this could be turned to good account in Music-
Land, so I am on my way to explain matters to your King, and also to
introduce these dotted notes, who could form cavalry regiments in his
army." "And I," said the second, with a sly wink at Subdivision,
" am called Metronome, and come from Austria to show the King
something which I think may considerably surprise him! I'm off to the
Palace now, so if, as I conclude, you form a part of the Household,
we shall meet again. Au revoir!" "A little patience, if you please,"
said Good Sense. "This being the birthday of our young Prince,
whom you now have the honour of seeing on the quay, our King grants
no audiences whatever to strangers, but devotes himself, with the
whole court, entirely to pleasure. Levee, review, banquet, and ball
succeed each other, at which the most distinguished members of our
army appear to pay their respects to Royalty; so, if you will trust
yourselves to my care, you shall be well entertained in the Palace
until the morrow, when our Prime Minister will present you in due
form to the King." The two strangers accepted the invitation, and
arriving at the Palace shortly after the Prince and his attendants,
were conducted to apartments always in readiness for visitors.
The levee came off next in the throne room, and a very grand
affair it was, I can tell you. The King and Queen, with the Royal
Family, sat on the throne, surrounded by all the officers of the
household, and before them the regiments which had most distin-


guished themselves in the last campaign, were to pass in succession
and receive new banners from the hand of the Prince. First
of all his Majesty presented a shield to his son, with a very proper
speech indeed, about keeping true its motto, "Onward!" and then his
Royal Mamma, making no speech at all, but smiling very sweetly,
handed him a banner engraved with 4, which he forthwith presented
to a regiment of 5 Crotchets standing by the Throne. This
ceremony over, up came a number of Semibreves, Minims, Crotch-
ets, Quavers, and Semiquavers, to receive their new shields, then
came the distribution of the banners by the Prince to the different
regiments of soldiers, whose musical marching was so very charming,
I thought it a pity it could not be introduced to relieve the monotony
of levees in other countries.
Time looked radiant at the sight of his well-ordered regiments,
and as to old Dr. Rest, I could not account for a trace of something
like excitement on his usually calm face, until I beheld to my great
amusement a number of his cannons (rests), which he had of course
previously wound up, running along by the side of the soldiers, to
whom they belonged, without producing the slightest sound. Musical
Notation alone looked out of sorts, but this was the result of a quarrel
with the Prime Minister, who very naturally (so I thought) was
anxious to have a good photograph of the battle flags, while Musical
Notation obstinately declined to represent anything further than the
figures upon them. Now you might as well have endeavoured to
lift up St. Paul's Cathedral as to move the Court Photographer to
alter a decision; so Time, after trying in vain, was obliged to give in
to his obstinate colleague.
The young Prince having distributed the banners with 2 ', and 4
to the first soldier in the different regiments of Semibreves, those
with W' Q' 4' 4' or C in a similar manner to the Minims

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2 3 4
and Crotchets, was in the act of handing 8, and 2 flags to the
Quavers in their turn, when a startling scene took place! The
two strangers, Metronome and Subdivision, moved no doubt by
curiosity to witness a Music-Land Levee, had left their apartments,
and easily contrived to discover the throne room. Here, comfort-
ably stationed in the corridor behind a curtain, which hung over one
of the entrances, they were mightily enjoying the scene (as they
supposed quite unobserved), when, in their anxiety to get a better
view, they opened it rather too widely, and were detected in an
instant by old Routine, who, seeming to feel by instinct when
anything novel might occur, now looked at them with a furious glance!
There was no time to lose, he could readily plead fear for the King's
life, so seizing a loaded revolver he fired-and what do you suppose
happened ? Nothing in the world but a shout of laughter from
Metronome (the jolliest fellow in the world!) as the ball, touching
the plated inscription on his chest, rebounded in a moment, and
knocking down a poor old Large, who was standing near and gazing
on everything with melancholy expression, cut him up there and
then into a number of ready-made Semibreves, Minims, Crotchets, and
Dr. Rest and Prolongation (who hoped to extract the ball)
rushed to the rescue, which proceeding seemed to tickle Metronome
greatly, for he shook again with laughter at the sight of them;
while Subdivision, with mock gravity, stated that Nature having
made them both ball-proof in the vital regions, they could but
regret having proved such poor game for the noble huntsman!
Then followed a formal introduction to Royalty, and in a most unex-
pected manner our two originals thus became the "lions" of the
day, and figured both at levee, banquet, and ball, while Routine,
disgraced before the Court, was banished to his own apartment.
Well would it have been for all had he never left it again!


By the King's special orders there appeared at the evening
entertainment a most singular, but clever looking carpenter named
Mechanism, the inventor of a wonderful game, which his Majesty
had recently purchased for the Prince, and was anxious to have
explained and exhibited before the assembled Court. To my intense
amazement this game turned out to be nothing less than a Piano,
which was now carried in by the flute and trumpet footmen, and placed
in the middle of the room. The guests all gathered round, while
Mechanism opened it, and displayed a row of black and white keys,
which he assured them would move up and down at will, and further
informed the Prince, that the game consisted in supposing fingers to
be soldiers-Semibreves, Minims, Crotchets, or Quavers. He then
bent his own, and slightly touching the different keys with them, there
was heard a sound similar to that produced by the feet of the Music-
Land soldiers! It would be impossible for me to attempt to depict
the sensation caused by this performance, or the ecstasy of the Prince
when he learned that the piano was his own; or the excitement of
the Court when his Majesty condescended to use his royal fingers
(and most awkwardly he did it!); or the joy of the officers when
permitted to have a try at what you and I, alas have often termed
those horrid finger exercises." Yes, until Time's clock announced
the hour of midnight on the Prince's birthday, the Court of Music-
Land spent the whole evening thus practising, and would willingly
have remained longer at the fascinating game, had not Royalty
interfered, and sent everybody off to bed!
Well, I suppose after all, there must be a great deal in a name, as
the poet says, and that if at home my teachers had called those
objectionable exercises a "Soldier Game," I might have enjoyed them
too, and not wanted a holiday on Saturday afternoon!

(See Note for Teachers in Appendix.)



N the following morning Mechanism, the carpenter, waited
early on the King, who desired a fuller explanation of the
manner in which the wonderful Piano game was to be used.
His Majesty was again enraptured at the marvellous manner in which
the inventor so regulated the action of his fingers as they touched
the ivory keys, that they not only marched at the measured pace
of Semibreves and Minims, but ran along in perfect imitation of
Crotchets, Quavers, Semi- and Demi-Semiquavers, and that so regu-
larly it seemed to the hearers as if real regiments of 2, 3, and 4 time
must be passing by! Mechanism then placed upon the Piano a
photograph of the Great Stave of Eleven, thus :

observing, that the Prince might wish to play at having a battle-field,
in which case the twenty-one keys in the centre of the Piano must be
used, the Bass Clef standing on the 4th, the C Clef on the 6th, the
Treble Clef on the 8th line, while one white key was to be reserved
at the lop for the Guard G, and the same at the bottom for the


Guard F. All the keys above and below these two would admit of
his playing at the Ledger Lines, in case the Prince should wish it.
The young Prince's eyes beamed with delight as he eagerly followed
Mechanism's instructions, and then in a modest tone, as if he feared it
might be asking for too much, he said, Mechanism, if it were possible,
I should like sometimes to play at giving sharps, double-skarps, flats,
double-flats, and also cannons to my pretended soldiers." "Nay, nay,"
interrupted the old King, frowning, "you are always wanting more than
you have, Progress; nothing further can be done, I say," and then was
about to dismiss the Prince, when Mechanism, who had been at Court
long enough to know that his Majesty soon got over a little tiff of
this kind if matters took a favourable turn, observed quietly, May
it please your Majesty, I have already taken into consideration the
Prince's request, and although I am not altogether satisfied with the
manner in which I have carried out the scheme, still I have done my
best, and must trust to your Majesty's indulgence for the rest."
The cloud disappeared in an instant from the face of Royalty, as
the clever carpenter had expected, so he continued: Your Majesty
will observe a number of black keys above the white ones, these, as far
as they go, serve for sharps and flats, and I only regret that there is
not a larger number of them. Those keys, which have black ones to
the right and left of them, use the former for sharps, the latter for
flats, but when, as in the case of E and B, there is no black key to
the right, and in that of F and C, none to the left, F has to be called
E sharp, and C, B sharp, while E and B serve in like manner for F flat
and C flat. In case of double sharps and double fats, the white keys
above and below the sharps and flats have to be used, while for rests
I lift up the hand for the length of the note it represents, and
thus imitate the smoke rising, while I make no sound." For a few
moments his Harmonic Majesty treated the little company to a
lively air on his violin chest, and then exclaimed : Mechanism, you


shall be a carpenter no longer, but a member of our Household, and
a Lord of our Privy Council."
And thus the poor carpenter rose to unheard-of dignities, which
will convince you children, I hope, of the importance both of thinking
and working, and then who knows what yozt may become ? The new
Lord Mechanism being in reality a great man by his invention, before
becoming great by his title-this was but a tribute which Royalty
gladly awarded to merit-took his honour with extreme modesty,
and almost reluctantly, fearing that he should prove but a rough
Courtier; but the King's word was law, and so if he chose to have
a carpenter among the Court Ladies and Gentlemen, why, you know
it was his own look-out; and, perhaps, like Shakspeare, he thought:

"From lowest place when virtuous things proceed,
The place is dignified by the doer's deed."

The King now went into an adjoining apartment, having com-
manded Time to introduce Metronome; and bid Rest, Prolongation,
and Tie be in attendance. Metronome entered in the most free and
easy style possible, with a bow extremely like a familiar nod, and
evidently in no way concerned at having to appear before Royalty,
while he gave a significant smile in the direction of old Dr. Rest
and his tall companion, as who would say: I should know you two
again anywhere." King Harmony being as we know in good spirits,
chose to be blind to this total want of manners in Metronome, and
graciously inquired what he had thought of the levee on the preceding
day? Never was so amused in all my life," said Metronome, laughing
again at the very remembrance of it, "as at the sight of those old
Semibreves and Minims crawling along like snails, then the Crotchets
and Quavers with their gentle trot, while the Semi- and Demi-
semiquavers really appeared to me in imminent danger of losing
their breath if they persevered too long at their usual pace. Well,


said I to myself, I should think twice before engaging in an army
where I must inevitably freeze to death in winter, or possibly
melt in summer."
Time looked aghast at this audacious talk, and trembled for
the consequences, when the King, drawing his bow in a perfect
rage across his chest, fiercely exclaimed, On our honour as a
King (unless you instantly offer a suggestion which may appear
of use to us), we shall not think twice about asking you to
take yourself and your highly original remarks where they may be
better appreciated." Metronome, nothing daunted by his Majesty's
anger-indeed, he really seemed quite amused by it, to judge by the
twinkle in his eye-replied in the coolest tone imaginable: Had your
Majesty asked for a suggestion sooner, I should have intimated that
I could teach each of your men to march at any rate you pleased, thus
allowing the Semibreves a run now and then for the benefit of
circulation, and the others a rest for the ultimate advantage of the
respiratory organs." Utterly impossible!" said his Majesty; which
most conclusive remark the attendants reverently echoed, for they
knew by instinct (well-trained courtiers as they were) the advantage
of being on the side of Royalty. "We have with difficulty acquired
the present regularity," continued his Majesty, "and had we before
each battle to teach the soldiers a fresh step, the result would not be
worth the pains." I do no teaching, not I," said Metronome, again
laughing, I stand on the battle-field and give my men the rate at
which they are to go. Semibreves, Minims, Crotchets, and Quavers
soon learn to march to my one, two, and three!" And pray how
do you make yourself heard on the field," said his Majesty, evidently
amazed at the stranger's words, and now curious enough to hear
more. There you come to the point, Sire," said Metronome,
removing a mysterious looking key from his waistcoat pocket, and I
must entreat your Majesty just to take a peep at my inside, the


peculiar formation of which alone enables me to be heard by an
For the first time I now beheld old Dr. Rest fairly excited
at the idea of such practical anatomy; while Prolongation, with a
surgeon's characteristic forethought, begged to place any suitable
instrument at Metronome's service; and it was well, I think, that
her Majesty the Queen and the Court Ladies were not present, or
there would certainly have been fainting at the very idea of a man
practising vivisection upon himself. I carry my own instruments,"
said Metronome, now applying the key to a hole in his side, which,
of course, his Majesty had not previously noticed, on account of its
being quite inconsistent with etiquette to stand sideways before
Royalty; and then unfastening a hook (till now concealed by his
cloak), he removed the whole front of his chest, and begged the old
doctor to hold it.
The King here lost all power of speech, Time's clock stopped
for the first time from sheer excitement, Prolongation so forgot
himself that he nearly stabbed the doctor with the useless instru-
ment, while Rest, in his agitation, almost let the chest fall, and
only Metronome had presence of mind enough to say, "Will your
Majesty have two, three, or four time?" Then at a touch of his
finger, a pendulum inside began to rock steadily backwards and
forwards, with sound indeed loud enough to be heard by the Music-
Land army, while an invisible bell ringing clearly to every first note,
distinctly marked two, three, and four time.
When the company had sufficiently recovered from their first
surprise, they were able to observe a list of figures on Metro-
nome's chest, and to listen, while he continued, I have but to place
the nut of the pendulum at any of these figures, and I give any
rate I choose to the soldiers, and can make from 40 to 208 men
pass in a minute, whether they be Semibreves, Minims, Crotchets,


Quavers, or Semiquavers. Now place my pendulum at 60, and I give
60 beats to the minute, the old rate of your Semibreves measured
off as correctly as ever they were by Time's clock." However did
you get made up thus?" was all his Harmonic Majesty, in great
excitement, could think of to say. Made up, indeed!" replied
Metronome, with indignant tone, I was born so, nor do I con-
sider this fact at all stranger than having a-" Here Metronome
was about to say "a violin body," but not caring again to excite his
Majesty's ire by any such reflection, he continued with charming
vagueness-"a-a-a--anything else! I think this inside of mine
can be turned to good account; so if your Majesty will give me
work and good pay, why here I am at your service!" You
shall be General in my army," said his Majesty in a transport of
joy, your work is clearly mapped out for you! After Time has
decided upon the number and kind of notes in the bar, you (subject
to my decision) give the rate as you have yourself described. While
old Dr. Rest carefully assisted the new General to put himself
together again, he quietly asked him whether he would also beat for
the cannons ? Certainly," said Metronome, and for the prisoners
and wounded too;" at which attention Prolongation and Tie looked
highly flattered!
The King retired, after requesting Metronome to make a second
exhibition of his inside for the benefit of the Queen and the Prince,
while I gladly accepted a cast of his chest, presented to me by the
fairy Imagination, in order to be able to show my young friends what
so astonished King Harmony's Court that evening! I did not join
the party, but when a continued sound as of a bell fell upon my ear,
I was in no danger of mistaking it for the voice of one of Queen
Melody's charming Court Ladies!

(See Note for Teachers in Appendix.)

*I I
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1.y-,"r~ .. .- ,. .es..' / -





ARLY the next day a loud beating of drums aroused me, and
looking out of my window I saw the whole Courtyard of the
Palace crowded with the dotted notes, whose acquaintance,
you will remember, I made on the morning of the Prince's birthday.
They were now on their horses, forming regiments of cavalry (called
here Compound Time), under the inspection of Time and the new
general Metronome; while the King watched the proceedings from
the window of his own apartment, not having been sufficiently
pleased with the conduct of these notes to grace the Review with his
It seemed the new comers were too much given to brag about
their size (it is wonderful what things people do find to brag about),
and were continually making the most invidious comparisons between
themselves and the King's loyal subjects. The dotted Semibreves ,.
for instance, always gave folks to understand that they were worth
3 Minims, while the Semibreves could but show 2; the dotted
Minims and dotted Crotchets, in a similar manner, congratulated
themselves on being respectively worth 3 Crotchets and 3 Quavers;
while the dotted Quavers lost no opportunity of stating emphatically,
that if like the Quavers, they could but furnish 2 Semiquavers instead


of 3, they should think themselves small indeed. In return for their
conceit they went by the nickname of the Threes," and were very
cordially detested in the town. When I heard the sole cause of their
boasting I was somewhat reminded of John Bull," and the Yankees
abroad, the Prussians at home, and of the old lady, who, landing at
Calais, exclaimed with indignation, What impudence to call me a
foreigner! they are foreigners, I am English." I think the King
would have refused to employ them at all, had not Time and Metro-
nome now strongly urged upon him the immense advantage of having
regiments of cavalry in his army, whereupon he gave orders to have
them all formed into regiments of 2, 3, and 4 time, thus:-

-Q -Iz--Jz-: z4- z =z- 4^

This done, they passed before the King's window, saluting Royalty
in military style, and then rode through the large Park Gates,
followed by General Metronome, ringing away at his invisible
Soon after the King appeared at the Grand Entrance to take
his daily Promenade through the grounds with Time, when suddenly
bethinking himself of the queer little dwarf with the two swords (Sub-
division), commanded his attendance, in order to learn what he
should be able to suggest for the benefit of the army. Subdivision,
appearing, saluted the King, and off they all three started (I, of
course, behind them), and wandering along the beautiful winding


paths of the Park, over rustic bridges and through shady nooks,
we at last reached the flower-covered banks of a lake (which I had
often seen in the grounds from my window), in whose crystal waters
the surrounding hills of Music-Land and the grand old trees were
reflected as in a polished mirror! At some distance from this lake,
and quite out of sight of the Palace, we reached a large orchard, filled
with apple and pear trees, under which I now perceived many of the
King's good subjects enjoying themselves, some dosing, others quietly
meditating, while the rest, seated on the rustic benches, were beguiling
the time with pleasant chat!
Upon the King commanding the dwarf to speak, he said, very
abruptly: "Sire, it has always seemed to me that your regiments
are far too small!" Here Time, startled even to the forgetfulness
of Music-Land etiquette, which never allowed of a man speaking,
until he was told to, in the presence of Royalty, exclaimed in horror,
"What an insane idea! Sire, the state of our finances would not
permit a change in this respect, and Metronome's bell cannot-."
At this point Time stopped, for Royalty's violin bow came into
such close proximity with his clock, he must have trembled for
the works; while his Majesty cried, Open your mouth again, and
you are no longer Prime Minister of Music-Land. How dare you
presume to interrupt?" It might have been an extra loud tick of
Time's clock; but it seemed to me that an indignant stamp followed
the King's speech, when the dwarf, trembling for his companion,
gallantly endeavoured to conceal it by a little air on his drum, and
thus came in for a royal snubbing himself, as the King, mistaking
it for undue exaltation, said, Not all that flourish, not all that
flourish, I beg. The tone of your instrument is most unpleasant, and
can always be dispensed with; so continue your remarks, and pray
make them short and clear."
Subdivision, very philosophically concluding that kings must be


allowed to say more than other folks, continued as directed, In
many countries I could name, the sovereigns allow their soldiers to
send substitutes (or equivalents) to war in their place; if, therefore,
it seemed right to your Majesty to do so here, the very extraordinary
formation of your subjects would admit of a totally novel and original
system of substitution. Each soldier in a regiment might (in case of
need) cut himself into two or three substitutes, who must be drilled to
march by in the very same time as the note that produced them, and
then there would not only be for the same expense larger regiments,
but your Semiquavers and Demisemiquavers (until now unoccupied)
would prove efficient soldiers, without altering time, or requiring more
feats from Metronome's bell."
As on a former occasion, the cloud disappeared from the face
of the King, who joyfully exclaimed, I wonder we never thought
of such a thing before." Then expecting, as usual, that when
he chose to forget a quarrel, his attendants must do the same,
he added, "And what say you, Prime Minister? speak." "Admir-
able!" cried Time, with enthusiasm, for he also was quite used to
the King's little explosions of temper, "and with your Majesty's
sanction I will give orders forthwith that the soldiers of the infantry
(simple time) and cavalry (compound time) regiments may always
enjoy the privilege of sending, when they wish, the first 2 the second
3 substitutes." Here 3 Crotchets, in eager conversation, strolled past
arm in arm, whereupon Subdivision drew out one of his swords, and
cutting them all through the middle, put an abrupt end to their inter-
esting talk, when 6 little Quavers coming into existence, stood up and
saluted the King. "Your Majesty will now more clearly comprehend
my system of substitution," said the Dwarf, for this taking place in a
bar of : time would, without extra expense, make 6 men instead of 3
in the bar, and, if they learned to march in the same time, Metronome's
3 beats would suffice, 2 going to each beat." Here Subdivision play-



BLM- O,, ,D G O :,' I-
*? -L'^ ': ""^- 'L '

/--* ,. ---, --w-,,*' ,3 ^

-',,,. '-.:i -
v -I :s: .-41

BLACKIE~~~ ~ ~ ~ kr SO.LK'I.6AOWk n:-BH


fully chopped an old Semibreve (just then meditating under a tree, book
in hand), in two, and, of course, a couple of Minims appeared in his
stead. I see, I see," said the King, in high glee, this might happen
in a bar of -,, or and the Minims would be the substitutes or
equivalents." Exactly so," said Subdivision, approaching the newly-
created Minims, when again using his sword 4 Crotchets made their
entrance into Music-Land, and were soon sacrificed in their turn, to
become 8 Quavers. Ha! ha! I catch your idea again," said King
Harmony, you would allow the substitutes in their turn to provide
substitutes, and thus further increase the original size of the regiments."
" Your Majesty's insight is truly remarkable," said Subdivision,
greatly priding himself on having invented this compliment, and has,
no doubt, enabled you already to perceive that the dotted notes, in a
similar case, would always provide 3 substitutes."
The King's delight knew no bounds; and we did not leave the
orchard before all the notes there had been placed in regiments, and
cut up into equivalents for his further edification. On the homeward
path Time requested, that to prevent any confusion, each note's due
number of equivalents should be carefully reckoned before passing
on to a second, third, or fourth note in the bar. Thus, in the following

the first Crotchet not being forthcoming, we know that it must have
cut itself into 2 Quavers, of which we see one (or its rest, or a tied
note), so conclude that the following Crotchet contains the other, and
must therefore not be reckoned so much a Crotchet as 2 Quavers, the
one articulated, and the other prolonged, the latter being the first
of the 2 equivalents of a second Crotchet. The same thing occurs
between the second and third Crotchets in the bar. Both the King
and Subdivision highly approved of Time's suggestion, as Musical


Notation's bad pictures of prolonged notes might here lead his
Majesty to suppose the second Crotchet had appeared before the
first had given its due number of equivalents.
On a large terrace facing the Palace, we met the Prince, with
Good Sense and Metronome, to whom the King related all that
had taken place, and finished by asking him whether he could not
contrive to beat for the substitutes. Impossible!" said Metronome,
"my powers of ringing are limited, as you know, to 2, 3, and 4;
but I have a French friend called Reform, who has a capital
arrangement for drilling substitutes, besides other clever ideas about
the management of an army, so your Majesty will perhaps think fit
to call him to Music-Land." "Write at once and assure him of a
hearty welcome to our Court," said the King, and then turning round
suddenly, bade the Prince and Good Sense uncover to the new
general Subdivision. This unexpected honour so took the Dwarf by
surprise, that he fairly stumbled, lost his equilibrium, got hopelessly
entangled in his two swords, and, so to speak, beat a sudden retreat
by falling backwards down the flight of steps at the end of the
Terrace. The noise of the drum rolling down the marble steps,
and that of the two swords as they fell with a loud crash, brought
many faces to the windows of the Palace, and great was the
consternation at the sight of the new general on his head, his heels
in the air, yes, upside down before Royalty. The King had the
delicacy to retire at once with the Prince, Good Sense set the fallen
hero on his little legs again, Metronome, bursting with laughter, as
usual, picked up the swords, remarking facetiously, that it did take
a little to upset some folks;" while I could not help thinking that it
would have been a very appropriate occasion for Subdivision to say,
like Don Caesar,-
"0 let me like a soldier fall,
Upon an open plain."
(See Note for Teachers in Appendix.)



LD Dr. Rest saw the King on the following morning, and
obtained permission to have a large stock of Rests in
readiness on the battle-field, in case any of the substitutes
on coming into existence should be unfit for military work. This
matter satisfactorily settled, Prolongation was sent for, as he. had
intimated to the Prime Minister that he had a most important
matter to lay before the King.
Prolongation, carrying his instrument box under his arm, and
with his customary coolness of demeanour, entered the Audience
Chamber, and having been commanded to state his case, replied:
"With these wonderful doings of General Subdivision and our
officers, now continually chopping themselves into two or three
equivalents, a new (and before unknown) case often occurs. Enemy
keeps a sharp look-out for these remarkable 'transformation scenes,'
avails himself of the opportunity to aim at first of these equivalents,
and down he goes!" "Would that we could shoot the wretches down
too," said his Majesty angrily, and forgetting that all is fair in war;
"but how would you remedy this evil and yet prevent inaccuracy in
the bars?" Easily," said Prolongation, in his concise style. Each
soldier, in case of need, must pick up the wounded man and show a

flag on which a cannon ball (or dot as you say in Music-Land) shall
be painted, signifying his right to prolong his step for half its
value, and thus do duty for the first of his comrade's equivalents.
Another dot would be necessary of half the value of first, if second
equivalent, alarmed at companion's sad fate, also divided himself
into two, and the same accident befel his first equivalent, thus
requiring a further prolongation of the living soldier's step for a
quarter of its value. In other words, a dot after a note prolongs it
for half, a second dot for a quarter of its value. Thus, in this case:

the time signature clearly showing that dotted notes as units are not
to be expected, the dot in the two first bars clearly signifies that the
sound of thefirst Crotchet is to be prolonged for the worth of another
Quaver (or first half of the second Crotchet in the bar), while that
in the third and fourth bars shows that each Quaver is prolonged
for the worth of a Semiquaver. Again here-

the dot after the first Crotchet represents the first half of the second
Crotchet in the bar or a prolonged Quaver, while the second dot
represents the first half of the second Quaver or a prolonged Semi-
quaver. A third dot is sometimes used and is then worth half the
second dot, and prolongs a note for an eighth of its value." The
King gladly approved of Prolongation's ingenious scheme of dots,
and thus the audience came to an end.
Later on in the day the fairy advised me to ride over to the
Large Barracks on the Quay, where a grand banquet was to be given
by the dotted notes that evening, and where I might hear some


amusing speeches! For the first time I absented myself from the
Palace and took my place (of course quite invisible) at the banquet.
There were hundreds of dotted notes of every kind at this entertain-
ment, and very merry indeed they were, as with excellent appetite
they all did full justice to the sumptuous feast! This concluded,
they all joined so very heartily in drinking the health of the King
and the Royal Household, that I began to like my new friends, and
fancied injustice must have been done them in the reports brought
to the King.
I soon discovered my mistake, for a dotted c. now rising, made
the following speech to his companions, amidst great applause:
" Gentlemen, I beg to call your attention to the fact, that although
there can be no doubt as to our immense superiority in respect of
size (here was the old story!) over the inhabitants of this country,
who can but effect a poor subdivision of 2, while we so readily
produce 3 substitutes. (At this point several of the dotted
notes, I suppose in support of the orator's assertion, sacrificed them-
selves on the spot and divided into 3'.) I say, in spite of such
evident superiority, we have suffered great insult from the Sovereign
of this country, inasmuch as we have received neither crests, shields,
or battle-flags You will all feel the necessity of using measures for
having this state of things remedied, and agree with me that a public
apology is due to us!"
Here, amidst renewed cheers, a dotted Minim rose, and heartily
seconding the above resolution, made a speech to the effect that there
never had been, and never could be soldiers to compare with them-
selves, while a dotted Crotchet, who followed, suggested that they
should now write a letter to the King and despatch it to the Palace,
in order, as he expressed himself, "that the King might perceive
they well knew what was due to them."
I trembled for them when I thought of all I had seen of the


sweetness of his Majesty's temper, but they, nothing daunted, and
in proud consciousness of their innate worth, as they observed, wrote
the letter and boldly stated their views. They not only insisted
upon being forthwith provided with shields, but also sent designs
for their crests, which, they condescended to inform Royalty it would
give them pleasure to accept. These designs were no less than
their own portraits placed beneath the 2, 3, or 4 of the battle-flag,
2 3 4
2 3 4
J. J. J.

2 3 4
2 3 4

for they considered it quite beneath their dignity, as dotted notes, to
have simple figures like the others !
I left them here, much disgusted with their arrogance; and riding
quickly home, reached the Palace shortly after the bearer of the
missive, and just in time to witness a stormy scene! The King's
indignation knew no bounds, and we could hear his voice all over
the Palace, when, having indignantly torn up the letter, he fairly
screamed with rage. Time, see that every one of them is exter-
minated before dawn! Beat them well, exile them, kill them, any-
thing you like, but never let us set eyes on a dotted note again, or on
our honour as a King, we'll- we'll- ." Here his Majesty,
unable to find an adequate expression for his terrible plans of
vengeance, nearly ruined his bow by banging it on the table, no
doubt as illustration of the fate which awaited the dotted notes.
His attendants, all pale with alarm except Metronome (who,
doing his best to conceal a smile, looked as much as to say,

,K ',------- -- ---

/ I-, t ; ....

S_---- \
'-C-' I ; -- -

.. .. :--.
JA %: It




Good gracious, what a row about nothing!), now valiantly offered
their services. Subdivision, fairly on his legs again, and bold as a
lion, placed his ternary sword, which he brandished as usual, at the
service of Royalty, offering to slaughter the rebels. Governor Tie
was ready to tie them fast with his ropes. Dr. Rest thought for once
he might dose them, while Prolongation protested that to vivisect the
whole community was the one desire of his heart. All was in vain,
the King stormed and roared the more, until, at last, smash went one
of the strings of his violin body with a terrific noise, upon which the
door opened, and Queen Melody, followed by her little dog, who
barked furiously, increasing the noise, and by two Court Ladies (who
seemed, by-the-by, wonderfully unconcerned, but they were used
to his Majesty's style), entered, looking so pale and terrified, that
the King ought to have felt ashamed (if he did not) of his unseemly
The Queen laid one hand upon the King's arm, while with the
other she played her harp so mournfully, that at length the King
grew quiet, and explained to her the cause of his rage. The Queen
then pleaded as eloquently for the forgiveness of the dotted notes as
ever did Queen Philippa of old for the citizens of Calais, and not in
vain either, for the King, relenting by degrees (especially when Time
and Metronome argued the advantage of cavalry regiments), was
at last pacified and withdrew with his Consort, after commanding
Time to assemble the dotted notes in the Audience Chamber on the
following morning.
I was present when they arrived with jaunty air and merry faces,
in the full belief that their request was to be granted, but the Audience
Chamber was empty, not a shield, banner, or flag was to be seen;
and at length the King, with the fiercest of looks, entered the Hall,
accompanied by Time and Subdivision; now wielding his ternary
sword. After a speech, which must pretty well have taken the


conceit out of them, the King ordered the dotted notes to form into
regiments of 2, 3, and 4, and then concluded by saying, "You must have
some Battle Flags for the sake of our servant Time, but on them
your disgraced and dishonoured names shall never appear, and no
crests or shields whatever will you have in our army. General Sub-
division, I now command you to let them remember with due effect
that they are worth 3."
Here Subdivision approached the regiments of dotted Semibreves,
and chopping the first into 6, the second into 9, and the third into 12
Minims, he handed to the first of them in each regiment a flag bearing
on it Z'' --. Their disgrace consisted in having the crest of their
equivalents on each flag, for this was to be the case even when the
dotted notes themselves appeared in the bar. Thus:-

The regiment of dotted Minims divided into their adequate number
of equivalents, viz., 6, 9, and 12 Crotchets, received in turn 6 -9

on their flags, the dotted Crotchets 6, 1, and lastly, the
dotted Quavers 96 12
dotted Quavers i -' i and thus in Music-Land 6, 9, 12
stood always for 2, 3, 4 dotted notes. Musical Notation, at the King's
command, now photographed the different regiments, bearing these
flags thus:-

6 9 12

S4 9 12

~. -. .--s-. -


6 9 12
8 8 ______8

6 9 12

and handed them to Time, who stood near the Throne. It was a
frightful blow; but as we all know that "pride goes before a fall," I
hoped that gaining in humility what they lost in dignity, the next
time favours were to be shown these dotted notes might come in for
their full share.

.- .. -: .. .
._ : .... .... ". _-



HERE was a great deal of excitement for the next few days
in Music Land, for the Semibreves, Minims, Crotchets,
and Quavers, feeling most indignant with the dotted notes
(whose conduct had been made public by the King's orders), were
resolved to show, by a sacrifice, that if their size were small, their
"loyalty was great. A number of them soon waited upon Time, and
having made him acquainted with their plan, entreated him to obtain
the king's approval of it before the opening of the Privy Council, at
which the matter must be laid before the Lords. Time found to his
great surprise that each soldier (in the event of having recourse to
binary subdivision) was ready, at his own expense, to provide a third
substitute, and so become, in reality, of the same value as the dotted
notes. Thus the Semibreves, only worth 2 Minims, offered to send
3, undertaking that they should pass in the same time; the Minims
and Crotchets were ready to provide, the first 3 Crotchets, the second
3 Quavers, while even the Quavers agreed that 3 Semiquavers should
take their place on the battle-field in case of need. The substitutes
themselves (for they were now consulted) offered to do the same,
and so a Crotchet having cut himself into 2 Quavers, each one of
them undertook (if required) to provide 3 Semiquavers, thus giving


6 substitutes instead of 4; or if the same Crotchet sent 3 Quavers,
each was ready in his turn to send 3 Semiquavers, forming a total of
9 substitutes instead of 6 for the Crotchet.
Time dismissed them with thanks, and did not fail to acquaint the
King with the matter at the evening banquet, to which he, with
Metronome, had received an invitation. I never saw King Harmony
look in better temper than on this occasion, nor had I ever heard him
play such lively airs on himself as he did when listening to Time, to
whom he said at length, I have read that the Sovereigns of other
countries confer medals, orders, and decorations on those soldiers who
distinguish themselves by special courage or loyalty. We will do the
same, and to-night invent some 'order,' or sign of merit, for these
our devoted soldiers to wear on the field, for they shall know that if a
King of Music-Land can punish arrogance and treason, he will never
fail to recognize and reward merit."
The result of some reflection was that when the plain notes sent 3
substitutes, they should have the title of triplets" bestowed on them,
and the right to wear an elegant order this shape -, embroidered by

the Queen's own hand, with 3. Thus a triplet of Minims p would

be worth a Semibreve, while a triplet of Crotchets r a triplet of

Quavers f P and a triplet of Semiquavers t & would respectively
equal a Minim, a Crotchet, and a Quaver. If the two equivalents of
a note in their turn each sent a triplet, the title would be that of
" Double Triplet," and the order this shape 3 3 thus:-

and when each note of a triplet further sent a triplet thus:-


3 3 3

the title of Triple Triplet would be awarded with the following order

9, or 3 3 3. A special title was granted, viz., that of Sextolet,* with

the right to wear the following order thus 6, when each part of a
triplet was divided into two parts or equivalents, its natural worth,t

This settled, his Majesty very suddenly exclaimed, A bright idea
has passed through my mind, gentlemen" (whereupon I noticed that
these excellent courtiers did not lose the opportunity of remarking
that his Majesty's ideas were always brilliant), "let us offer a variety
of orders to our soldiers, and induce them to send far more than their
due number of equivalents, and thus increase our regiments without
expense to ourselves. As General Metronome's beating is so infallible,
we can easily manage this by insisting that, whatever be the number
of substitutes thus provided by a note, they must all, if necessary,
march by to one beat."
These orders were prepared thus 5 7 11 13 15 17 19- 20 22 25
click,J and the only question now was what to call them, so his Majesty's
brilliancy of idea must suddenly have failed him, for he was forced to

"* Sometimes the Double Triplet is called a false Sextolet. The true Sextolet can only be
found by dividing each part of a triplet into two parts; the false Sextolet is only a double or
a united triplet, and should always be written separately to avoid confusion.
t Here it is necessary to conceive of the first Crotchet having been previously divided
into a triplet of Quavers, and that the Sextolet arises from each Quaver thus giving two
The division of a note into 5 equal parts (instead of 4) is termed Quintuplet, into 7
(instead of 4) Septuplet, into 9 (instead of 6 or 8) Nonolet, into o1 (instead of 8) Decuplet.
Any note either in a Triplet, Double Triplet, Sextolet, &c. &c., can be prolonged or bound.


appeal to Metronome for help. "Well," said Metronome, laughing,
" this being quite out of our friend Subdivision's line, whose sword
is either binary or ternary, might we not venture upon a little
joke, and call it 'Irregular Subdivision?'" Here his Harmonic
Majesty, laughing as loudly as Metronome, and with a sly look at his
companions, replied, "Very good, very good, indeed, General; but
(between ourselves, of course, gentlemen) it will remind us that our
General's proceedings have not always been regular." At this allusion
to poor Subdivision's recent tumble, the courtiers joined in the laugh,
and did not get over it until Dr. Rest, looking unusually solemn,
begged permission to speak to his Majesty.
It appeared that Musical Notation was suffering from a terrible
pain in his head (the result of using this organ too much since Sub-
division had introduced the equivalents), and declared he must give
up his post if his work were not lightened. It is just like that self-
willed fellow to talk thus," said the King; "give him a good dose of
physic, Dr. Rest, and cure him both of his pain and his obstinacy."
"Your Majesty is already aware that my treatment of these cases is
rest," said the little doctor quietly, "and I have a plan for relieving
the photographer, if your Majesty will condescend to approve of it."
" Proceed," said his Majesty, "and be as quick as possible, doctor,
for our Prime Minister's chest marks the hour of midnight, and we
also would gladly avail ourselves of your favourite prescription." Dr.
Rest having reminded the King that bars were sometimes composed
of a number of substitutes bearing the same name, thus:-

1 _--------^--dI I__ __-i--

8 . ..


or of several similar groups, thus:-

suggested that in the first case only one note should be photographed,
and that one represent the whole value of the groups, thus:-

2 fZ _

In the first three cases the lines above the stave, or through the
stem of the note, would indicate into what sort of notes it had really
been subdivided; while in the latter ones the marks would show
respectively that a group of Quavers, Semiquavers, and Demisemi-
quavers would have to be repeated, thus:-

He further requested that the word Bis on a flag should signify the
repetition of a passage, and that an oblique line, with a dot on each
side of it, thus /., should indicate that similar bars were to be
repeated as often as this sign was used. Thus:



These arrangements were all to be termed "Abbreviations in Musical
Notation." His Majesty did not appear at all pleased with this
arrangement, called Musical Notation a lazy fellow, and said that he
should decidedly prefer an accurate representation of the battles; but
old Dr. Rest insisted upon the critical state of his patient's head, so
his Majesty made the best of a bad job, sanctioned the abbreviations,
and dismissed the doctor. Before retiring, Time was commanded to
express his Majesty's public approval of the manner in which the
Infantry regiments had behaved, and to issue invitations to them to
attend the State Ball which concluded the Music-Land season.
Poor Time did not get at all to bed that night, it being his duty to
prepare the Speech with which his Majesty would open the Music-
Land Council or Parliament in person on the following day. Time
very naturally considered himself kept out of bed for a useless job, for
although his Majesty would insist upon having an announcement
made to the effect that he placed all matters before the Lords for their
sanction, it was well known that this was a mere fafon de parler, and
that they only enjoyed the liberty of not differing from his Majesty
on any one point.
The Lords were now 8 in number, including Rhythm the President,
and were called Accent, Syncopation, Emphasis, Movement, Expres-
sion (two Italian brothers), Appoggiatura (Superintendent of the
Allies), and lastly, the late Carpenter, now Lord Mechanism. All
this I learned from my magic ring that night, and I longed for the
morrow that I might witness this important ceremony of opening the



ARLY the next morning I went into the Council Chamber,
and saw the seven Lords just about to take their usual
places opposite to the Throne, while Lord Mechanism
modestly walked to the further end of the apartment, and seated
himself at his Grand Piano. Rhythm, the President, had a large
trumpet on his head, no doubt as a sign of his rank, but it seemed
very heavy and uncomfortable; and as Shakspeare once remarked,
"Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown," I could not help
wondering what he would have said to one bearing the weight of
such a large instrument as this trumpet, or whether Rhythm like
Henry IV. ever said, "Full well I know how troublesome it sat
upon my head." He occupied the centre seat before the Throne,
with Appoggiatura, Expression, and Movement on his right hand,
Accent, Syncopation, and Emphasis on his left.
Accent and Syncopation were, without exception, two of the
most singular little beings I had ever seen. Both of their heads
were triangles, although Syncopation's (to his intense satisfaction!)
was upside down, for as he had always been on the worst possible
terms with Accent, he naturally rejoiced in the fact of nature having
distinguished them in so marked a manner. Had there only been


some believers in phrenology in Music-Land, what a rare study
these triangle heads in opposite directions might have afforded. I
was aware that Syncopation was of a very quarrelsome turn of mind,
and always led as much opposition as the King sanctioned in the
Council, but I was scarcely prepared to find him now scowling at
Accent in an alarming manner, and holding up his little fist at -the
enemy in the most threatening of attitudes. Emphasis, who had no
particular opinions of his own, and was always glad, for the sake of
peace, to adopt those of his colleagues, now sat between the two foes,
and tried hard to prevent a quarrel by declaring himself ready to
stand up for them both, an offer which hardly seemed to satisfy
Syncopation. I was still looking at him, when the door opened and
in came all the officers of the Household, and seated themselves in
some exceedingly comfortable stalls behind the Lords, whom they
now saluted in turn. A grand flourish of Trumpets and Flutes soon
announced the approach of his Harmonic Majesty, who, with Queen
Melody, the Princesses, and young Prince Progress, and attended by
Good Sense and Routine, entered the Throne Room, upon which-all
the Lords and Officers rose as one man, and loudly cheered. The
King ordered them to be seated, and then, after the Prince had
walked to his place by Lord Mechanism's side at the Piano, Routine
handed his Royal Master the Speech, which he read as follows:-

It gratifies us much to meet you again in this
ancient Hall, where we have ever been wont to discuss all matters
pertaining to the welfare of our country, and that, Gentlemen, on a
very important day in the annals of Music-Land, for we have now
publicly to introduce to you several new officers, and call for your
sanction to their different appointments in this our Land and in our
Royal Household. These gentlemen at present before you (this must


have been a figurative expression, for all these good men were
immediately behind the Lords!) are Metronome and Subdivision,
Generals, by our command, of the Music-Land army; Rest and
Prolongation, Physician and Surgeon both in our army and our
Palace; Tie, Governor of the State Prison; and lastly, Musical
Notation, our talented Photographer (obstinate would surely have
been a fitter expression I thought).
We have named Time our Prime Minister, in consequence of his
continued efforts for our welfare, and have further allowed the different
regiments to be called after his name. His present work is to decide
how many notes (and also what kind of note) are to be found in each
bar, and for this purpose we have sanctioned his resolution to use
crests and battle flags. The extraordinary formation of Metronome's
chest, enabling his voice to be heard on the battle field, has induced
us to engage his services for the purpose of giving the correct rate
or tempo to our soldiers; while Subdivision directs the binary and
ternary division of our soldiers, thus greatly improving the appear-
ance of our regiments, until now too small. The ingenious cannons
invented by our doctor, and called rests after him by our special
desire, will shortly be placed before you, in order that you may
observe how accurately they represent our notes in all but producing
sound. To Prolongation we owe the idea of one note doing duty for
others by prolonging his step, and this being of great relief to the
wounded, we have accepted his services as Surgeon in the army.
We have further resolved to employ the dotted notes in cavalry
regiments (to be called Compound Time), and can but regret that
their unparalleled arrogance has obliged us to disgrace them, by
refusing to allow them to be represented by crests on the battle flags.
We felt it only consistent with justice to award special titles, viz.
those of Triplet, Double Triplet, Sextolet, and Triple Triplet, to those
soldiers who, only able to give two substitutes as their natural worth,


have agreed to provide a third at their own expense, and we have
further offered decorations to all who thus desire to prove their
loyalty by sending a larger number still of these equivalents.
Lastly, Gentlemen, we have been obliged, although reluctantly,
to reduce the amount of work done by Musical Notation, and grant
permission to introduce the Abbreviations" suggested by our
physician. These important matters we submit to you, my Lords,
both for your approval and ultimate sanction, and further request that
you now discuss in our presence such matters as you desire to bring
before our notice, and may the harmony which has ever reigned in
our Councils attend us to-day!

Instead of cheers, the audience rose, and while Queen Melody
with the Princesses left the Throne Room, each member of the
assembly having an instrument for his body now played it, thus
producing a remarkable mixture of sound, including trumpet, flute,
triangles, drum, concertina, banjo, and piano, in the midst of which I
heard Metronome's bell ringing and Time's clock striking to testify
their approbation. When at length all was still, Rhythm rose, and
having as usual gone through the form of thanking the King for his
presence in the Council and his able speech, stated that Accent was
the first of the Lords who would speak this day.
In spite of a terrible frown from Syncopation, Accent rose, and
with as good-natured an expression as possible, stated that as his
Majesty had always displayed such interest in seeing the regiments
march along, he felt that it would be of additional importance could
they also be distinctly heard. The King nodding significantly,
Accent stated further that this could be easily managed if the Lords
would agree to pass a resolution to the effect that the first soldier
in each regiment (whether of 2 time, 3 time, or 4 time) should step
with extra force called accent, and that in 4 time the feet of the third


soldier should also be more distinctly heard than those of the second
and fourth. When Subdivision brought several groups of equivalents
into the bar, the first in each group should also be more distinctly
heard than his companions, and thus his Majesty counting the groups
would distinctly recognize the time!
Rhythm rose with great dignity to second the resolution; for
having long felt, he said, the necessity of grouping bars in order to
form musical ideas or phrases, they also would become necessarily
more distinct by the regular and periodical recurrence of these
accents. He begged, therefore, for the benefit of musical phrasing or
rhythm, to put Accent's law to the vote, which was soon carried by
a majority of six Lords, only Expression and Syncopation voting
against it as a regular thing.
Syncopation, often nicknamed False Accent" or Displaced
Accent," now rose, and declaiming in a vehement style against his
opponent's "fixed ideas" and "stereotyped plans," entreated the
Lords to consider the monotonous effect of the law just carried, and
moved as an amendment of the same, that (subject of course to his
Majesty's control!) not only that any soldier in the bar might at times
be permitted to give the extra stamp to mark the accent, but that
even the accent itself might be obliterated altogether, should his
Majesty desire it, by a prisoner (tied note) being obliged to march
first. Expression seconded the motion on account of the varied effect
produced by it; but the debate which followed was long and stormy,
for Rhythm, Metronome, and Time all voted against it, the latter
stating that Accent's rule could be readily carried out, but that
if any note was to be accented, all order would disappear, and the
King possibly become hopelessly puzzled.
I am afraid Syncopation must have lost the day, had not
Emphasis now risen and stated that although he had great satis-
faction in approving of the rules laid down by Accent-to whom he


i" A

Ii. S L D ( &

4!iI \\

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ii! _




was ready to offer additional help at any time-still he would under-
take to assist Syncopation whenever he could, by placing a little mark
this shape < > called Emphasis mark" or sf on the helmet of
any soldier required to stamp contrary to rule, thus:

> > > > Herz.

He further said that he knew from his friend Prolongation how
much easier it would be if, at times, the notes bearing others on
their shoulders (or prolongation sounds) might give the additional
stamp, thus:

sfp sf sf Beethoven.

---. i I a -I I I I 1 1

and asked that all such groups, in which the accent was displaced,
should be termed syncopated.* The King, here applauding so
vigorously with his violin bow, the Lords felt which way the wind
was blowing, and always bent upon pleasing Royalty, voted for the
amendment, termed by their unanimous consent "accented notes
occurring in the unaccented part of a bar," although I thought
Rhythm, Accent, and Time scarcely looked pleased.
This business satisfactorily settled, Rhythm again rose and intro-
duced the Italian Movement, who stated that in case of the forced
absence of Metronome, he had this General's permission to use or

There are also kinds of syncopation in which the time appears so altered it seems as if
a new kind were introduced. Many interesting specimens of syncopated passages occur in
Schumann's works.


affix certain Italian words of his own invention on Time's flags, which
should clearly denote the rate or tempo at which the notes were to
march. His Majesty King Harmony objected to the use of Italian
words, but a translation of them prepared by Good Sense was now
handed to him and read as follows:

GRAVE Very slow and solemn, in the slowest time.
LARGO Slow and lengthened, nearly as slow as Grave.
LARGHETTO Rather slow, a degree quicker than Largo.
ADAGIO Slowly, deliberately, but not dragging; full of soul and
ANDANTE Advancing, going onwards.
ANDANTINO Rather slower than Andante.
MODERATO In moderate time.
ALLEGRO Cheerful, merry, vivacious, but not hurried.
VIVACE Lively, brisk, sprightly, quicker than Allegro.
PRESTO Quickly, swiftly, with rapidity.
PRESTISSIMO Very quick, as rapidly as possible.

The Lords having all voted for the use of Movement's words,
the Italian again rose and begged his Majesty to understand, that
not having been endowed by nature with a chest like Metronome's,
which knew of no fatigue, he could not undertake to beat on the
field without at times slackening the movement; but he offered, on
the other hand, if it should ever be deemed of importance, to increase
the speed according to the King's desire. The King at once sanc-
tioned this arrangement, without asking the Lords, who only ventured
to stipulate, that in the first case Movement should use the terms

on the battle-flag; and in the second,
and lastly, A TEMPO upon resuming the original rate.


Rhythm rose once more to inquire what rate must be adopted in
sudden retreats or panics, whereupon his Harmonic Majesty laugh-
ing, said, Too difficult a case to decide, my Lord. Running away
is so utterly against all our rules, that we cannot make one concerning
it." Here Metronome, as usual oblivious of Etiquette, roared out,
" Let it be 'Ad Libitum' or 'A Piacere' to please our Italian friends,"
at which joke the Lords, seeing a smile in the King's face, all cheered
vociferously. Done!" said his Harmonic Majesty, "and let that be
your motto for the rest of the day, my Lords, for we have worked
hard and would fain adjourn the Council until the morrow."
Here Royalty retired, followed by Routine, Good Sense, and all
the Flutes and Trumpets, whereupon the Lords and officers instantly
jumped up like a set of merry school-boys, cleared their seats at a
bound, and certainly proceeded in a most "Ad Libitum manner to
their different apartments.




N the following morning the King again appeared in the
Council, and attentively followed all the weighty discussions
of the Lords. Business commenced by a lengthy speech
from Appoggiatura, superintendent of the Allies (called here grace
notes, appoggiatura or acciatura) of his Harmonic Majesty. We
learned that many of the neighboring Princes, anxious to send help
to the army of Music-Land, had, unfortunately, of late done so in a
manner which seriously interfered with the arrangements of Time.
It appeared that often when (according to the Prime Minister's rules)
each soldier marched in his proper rank, these Allies appeared
suddenly in the most uncalled-for manner to offer assistance, and were
then immediately photographed by Musical Notation (who, at the
distance from which he stood to the-field, could not recognize them
as strangers), and thus many a regiment appeared to contain too
many men.

tjo Apogaua Rueitedn ofteAle aldhr r
noeapgitr racaua fhsHroi aet.W


Some of the Lords at once suggested that these Allies should be
politely sent about their business; but here the King, using a right he
granted himself to speak in Council, vehemently opposed such a pro-
ceeding, observing truly, that people (as a rule) were not any too
ready to offer disinterested help, and must not be discouraged when
for once they did so. "We will never allow our Allies to reproach
us with receiving help ungraciously," continued his Majesty, "but
we will rather sacrifice the worth of our own subjects, with your
sanction, my Lords, and thus make room in our regiments for the
Allies. This proposal was forthwith accepted (the King's plans
always were, so subservient to Royalty were these good courtiers),
and a long discussion followed as to the best means of carrying it out.
It was at length settled, that on the arrival of an Ally (Grace Note)
the soldier to whose side he came must immediately cut himself into
two substitutes, the first of which should quit the regiment, leaving
his uniform for the stranger, who would fill his rank and assume his
appearance; thus, in the former cases the Semibreve would divide
itself into 2 Minims, the Minim into 2 Crotchets, the Crotchet into
2 Quavers, and lastly, the Quaver into 2 Semiquavers. One of these
substitutes would, in each case, quit the regiment, leaving the Grace
Note to appear, thus:

1 OR-- i I ,. -
1->- .- > > >
S> > > > >> > >_- T

With spirit.

as an ordinary substitute. It was further decided that the dotted
notes* should sacrifice two-thirds of their value to the Allies, thus:

"* A Long Appoggiatura placed before a plain note borrows half its value; before a dotted
note two-thirds of its value.


Musical Notation was then requested to represent the Allies
correctly, when, to my astonishment, he obstinately refused to do any-
thing but adhere to his former plan of photographing them upon
arrival. Not all the Kings or Lords in Music-Land could have
moved that obstinate Photographer (who was a striking contrast to
the rest of the Courtiers, but then he knew that a head like his was
not to be found every day, so no wonder he ventured to presume),
so he came in for his usual scolding, but got, as usual, his way too.
Appoggiatura then stated that, in cases of real danger, when the
Allies rushed promptly to the rescue, there would not, of course, be
sufficient time to make the above-mentioned arrangement, so he then
undertook to see that they wore a Quaver's uniform, with a special
stripe, and were united by a small cord or slur to their neighbours,
with whom they must get along at almost the same rate. Thus:-

T Beethoven.

Musical Notation here condescended to observe that he had no
objection to photograph the stripe, in order that they might be
recognized, a proposition which was readily accepted by the Lords,
who also determined that the Allies in this case should bear the
name'of Acciatura, or Short Appoggiatura. The King here asked

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