The story of a noble life, or, Zurich and its reformer, Ulric Zwingli

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Title:
The story of a noble life, or, Zurich and its reformer, Ulric Zwingli
Uncontrolled:
Zurich and its reformer, Ulric Zwingli
Physical Description:
312 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Hardy, Janet Gordon
Nimmo, William Philip, 1831-1883 ( Publisher )
F. A. F ( Illustrator )
Dalziel, George, 1815-1902 ( Engraver )
Dalziel, Edward, 1817-1905 ( Engraver )
Publisher:
William P. Nimmo
Place of Publication:
London (14 King William Street Strand)
Manufacturer:
Murray and Gibb
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Reformation -- Biography -- Juvenile literature -- Switzerland   ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1877   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1877
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Biographies   ( rbgenr )
individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Mrs. Hardy (Janet Gordon).
General Note:
Illustrations drawn by F.A.F., engraved by Dalziel Brothers.
General Note:
Imprint also notes publisher's location in Edinburgh.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001544425
oclc - 22399505
notis - AHF7933
System ID:
UF00047802:00001


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STORY OF



A NOBLE LIFE.






































MURRAY AND GIBB, EDINBURGfH,
PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE!




















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"IN X








A Burst of Patriotic Feeling.--S"tory of a NobZe Life, p. 3.



(Fro;z/is~~zec.)







THE



STORY OF A NOBLE LIFE;

CR,


Zurict anb its 5Ufornmer,



ULRIC ZWINGLE.





BY
MRS. HARDY (JANET GORDON),
Au thor of
'* acuelinee,' The Spanish Inquisition,' Chamoions of the Reformation,'
Etc. etc.







WILLIAM P. NIMMO:
LONDON, 14 KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND;
AND EDINBURGH.



I877.























CONTENTS.



----*--




CHAPTER I.

THE HERDSMAN'S HOME,



CHAPTER II.



FROM DARKNESS TO LIGHT,



CHAIN

MEDITATION AND ITS FRUITS,



*



?TER III.



0



CHAPTER IV.



A NEW FIELD



OF LABOUR,



CHAPTER V.



SEEDTIME,



*



CHAPTER



*



VI.



THE VALLEY OF THE SHADOW OF DEATH,



*



PAGE



I



*



15



a



4



24



*



33



45



54



*







vi CC





Cr

STRUGGLE AND STRIFE, .



IAPTER



0



CHAPTER



A BISHOP'S INTERDICT,





ZWINGLE'S MARRIAGE,



0



*



CHAPTER IX.



*



0



CHAPTER X.



A MESSAGE FROM TIHE



*



WILDHAUS,



CHAPTER XI.



SHALL ZURICH



BE LOST OR



WON ?



0 120



CHAPTER XII.

POLITICS GET MIXED UP WITH RELIGION,



CHAPTER XIII.



CONTEST WITH LUTHER,.



*



CHAPTER XIV.

THE LANDGRAVE ATTEMPTS MEDIATION,



CHAPTER XV.



PROGRESS AT BERNE,



S



)NTENTS.



VII.



*



PAGE
68



VIII.



*



77



8



*



91



0



99



e



*



*



0



133



143



163



178



*



a



a
















UNREST,



*



0



PAGE
191



0



CHAPTER XVII.

PRIDE GOETH BEFORE A FALL,



CHAPTER XVIII.

COMING EVENTS CAST THEIR SHADOW BEFORE,



CHAPTER XIX.

THE CONFEDERACY IN DANGER,.



CHAPTER XX.



THE MESSAGE OF THE LOAVES, .



0



*



204



217



*



225



249



*



CHAPTER XXI.



A NIGHT OF FEAR,



*



JAPTER XXII.

RUSHES RED ON MY SIGHT,'



258



CONTENTS.



vii



DISSENSION AND



CHAPTER XVI.



' A FIELD OF THE DEAD



272







I It
_____l O________A gg or
""N -4
'^Igfufl~^ry^^^ i l laooao^qo^a~



THE

AND ITS



N



STORY OF ZURICH

REFORMER ULRIC ZWINGLE.




CHAPTER I.

THE HERDSMAN'S HOME.



a secluded valley in the bosom of the



Alps,



2010



feet above the Lake of



Zurich, beside the



sources



of



a small



river called the Thur, is a solitary mountain hamlet,

which is named, not unfitly, Wildhaus, or the Wild

House.



A little church, roofed with slabs of flat



grey



lichen-covered



stone,



is surrounded by



one or two



straggling houses, the largest of which, a picturesque



moss-grown cottage, roofed with shingles,



is evi-



dently of



great



antiquity.
A



The panes in the small



Sct-
r
id
c

,113--c--------





2 THE S TOR Y OF Z URICI.

windows are of thick opaque greenish glass, the door
is closely studded with iron nails, huge blocks of
stone are placed on the roof to prevent the wind
from carrying it away ; everything is rustic, wild,
unpolished, in keeping with the stern grandeur of
the towering crags which rise massive and grey
from the sombre green of the pine woods around.
Here, four centuries ago, under this humble roof,
on New Year's day 1484, Ulric Zwingle was born.
His father, although bailiff of the village, and
brother of the Dean of Wesen, was only a shep-
herd, and young Ulric spent his early boyhood in
assisting his father and brothers to tend their nume-
rous flocks and herds.
When the first warm winds of May began to
clothe the mountain-sides with the fresh green
sward, seen only'in these Alpine valleys, the bailiff
and his sons left their secluded home to seek wilder
and more savage solitudes, slowly and steadily
ascending, till in the end of July their rude chalets
were reared on the higher ranges of the Alps.
Here, after a brief sojourn in the pure mountain
air, they began again leisurely to descend, reaching







THE



HE RD SMA N' S



HOME.



their cottages in the



weather
party



Wildhaus while



was still warm and



bright;



of herdsmen re-entering their



with music,



and dancing,



the autumn
each little



nativ



and joyous



e hamlet
shepherd



songs.



Then came the



long



winter



evenings,



when



flocks were penned



hum of the



in the folds,



spinning-wheel was heard



and the cheerful



beside



each



mountain hearth, and the elderly men of the village



gathered



round



the bailiff's



fireside,



and 'freedom's



battle'



was re-fought and re-won a hundred



times



in the garrulous reminiscences of old



age;



and the



romantic story of



Swiss



independence was told



re-told



and the Switzer's



dom struck its
eager heart.



roots deep



indomitable



love of free-



the while into one



young



Seated



at his mother's



knee,



Uliic



would



glance



with kindling



eyes from one rugged face to another;



and if a word were uttered



which



seemed to him to



reflect upon his country, he would



it with the simple,



rise and defend



childlike earnestness that takes



every careless word for granted.
In the simplicity of this peaceful



Alpine



home



3



the



and



PCI---- -- -- ---- --



nr





THEI



S TOR Y



OF Z UR IC H.



the boy remained until he was ten years old; and
then his quickness, his intelligence, his evident supe-



priority



to his brothers, made such an impression



upon his



father,



that,



taking the



child



in his hand,



he set out with him across the mountains,



in the



direction of the



Lake of



Wallenstadt, to the village



where his brother the Dean lived.



SI have



brought



you this boy,



brother,'



he said.



'It seems to me that



God did not make him



to sing



idle



songs,



and follow



the kine



to the



pastures.
The Dean having examined him, was of the same
opinion, and the young mountaineer was confided to



the care of the schoolmaster



of the village.



humble



pedagogue soon found



himself



outstripped



by his pupil, and it was then



decided



to send Ulric



to Bile.



The University of Bale was



then one of the most



famous in the world, and attached to the University



was the school



of St. Theodore.



To this school



young Zwingle was sent; and here he was introduced,



while still in childhood, into



of controversy.



the strife



The disputes which



and tumult
divided the



4



only



This






THE



HERDSMAN'S



HOME.



doctors
and on



in the University descended
this narrow arena Zwingle



to the school;



won his



first



victories, preludes of those which were in after years



to shake to its



base in his native land



the deeply-



rooted power of the Romish Church.



From Bale,



Ulric was sent by his father and uncle



to Berne;



but there



his stay was not long.



musical voice, his



evident ability, and the reports of



his proficiency at Bale, attracted the
superiors of the Dominican Convent



'Here,'



they said to



each other,



Swas



notice of the
in the town.
a youth who



would be a credit to their order, whom it was neces-
sary, therefore, to win at any expense or trouble.'



The most tempting offers were made



to him by



the Abbot C
even to take
own terms.



and his subordinates;



up his



he



was pressed



residence at the convent on his



Like Luther, who was his



senior



by a few weeks,



he was in great



danger



of being



immured



in the living



grave of



the cloister; but,



unlike Luther, he escaped.



Obedient to



his father's



command, he



went



left Berne and its monastic baits



and



to Vienna for the purpose of studying philo-



sophy.



5



His



only



_ _____ _I _ L_____llslL1OIJCPEIsYIPI





6 THE STORE Y OF ZURICH.

In 1502 he returned to the Wildhaus, but only
to make a short sojourn there. The little Alpine
valley had lost none of its simple charms: the Thur
was as limpid and clear as ever, the odorous breath
of the pine forests fragrant as of old, the meadows
by the river-side as green, the songs of his brethren
as joyous, their hearts as warm. But he was changed:
it was not that he loved them less, but he had
mingled with, and taken part in, a larger world;
and he longed, amid the tinkling of the distant cattle
bells, amid the mountain solitude's unbroken repose,
for more engrossing interests and a fuller life. When
he was about eighteen, he returned to Bale, where,
as many poor students have done since, he main-
tained himself by teaching, while at the same time
he pursued his own studies with such success, that in
a short time he took the degree of Master of Arts.
Among other branches of learning, he applied
himself at this time with much earnestness to the
study of scholastic theology,-a profitless branch of
learning to many, but not altogether useless to one
who was called upon in after life to prove himself
a master of all the passes of theological fence.






THE



HER D SMIA N'S



HOME.



He was still



toiling



through



the



mazy



labyrinth



of its sophistries,



when



Thomas



Wittembach,



son of a burgomaster of



Bienne,



arrived



in Bile,



and turned the current of his thoughts and aspira-
tions into another channel.
This man, who was a proficient in all the learning



of the age, was



deeply read also in a volume then



almost



unknown.



Like



his youth studied and



Timothy,



understood



he had from
the Scriptures,



which make wise unto everlasting life.



Around him



speedily there spread a little circle of ever-widen-



illumination.



Among



that youthful ingenuous



band,



Zwingle was one of



teacher sent of



God seemed to



the foremost.



This



him a man inspired.



Breathlessly, with



his heart upon



his lips,



he hung



upon h
heaven,



is words, and



what



received



was then a strange



as if direct
re, unknown



from
truth,



' The blood of



Christ, and the blood of Christ alone,



can cleanse the human soul from its burden of guilt.'



This sacred seed



of truth



which



he then



received



remained in his heart;



but for a time it was dormant,



and had little power to influence or modify his life.



In 1506



he became a priest,



and was in life



7



the



ing
6r



and



D-I -"I ill -----LII-. II-I^--------





8 THE STORY OF ZURICH.

conversation very much like the better class of
Roman Catholic priests around him. He was in
early manhood a graceful man, gifted with rare con-
versational powers, and with an irrepressible joyous-
ness of temperament, which escaped at times from
the graver studies which engrossed his higher nature,
to find relief not only in innocent relaxation, but in
dissipation which the loose morality of the age did
not then condemn even in the priests of God.
Glaris was his first parish; it was an extensive
one, and he applied himself zealously to the duties
of his cure. Although, as has been hinted above,
not free from reproach, he so conducted himself
there as to escape those graver scandals, which de-
filed the lives of most of the ecclesiastics around
him.
While thus assiduously engaged in his parochial
labours, Zwingle did not neglect his studies, and his
increasing fame for learning soon attracted the atten-
tion' of a man who was in many respects one of the
most remarkable of the age. Matthew Schinner,
the son of a peasant of the Falais, was born with
great abilities, to which h'e added a still greater






THE



lHERDSMA VN'S HOME.



ambition, and all the arts of an accomplished



trigant; and these combined,



to a cardinal's rank.
Switzerland, a simi
had no rich plains of
of Golconda or Peru,
its ship-laden waves;
peculiarly her own.



raised him



frugal,



and



unbounded fertile
no ocean bring
yet was she ricl
The martial she



in due time



poor country,
.ity, no mines
ing wealth on
i in a treasure
pherds of the



Glaris,



the warlike



craftsmen



of Zurich



and Laus-



anne, the



rugged burghers



of Berne,



the herdsmen



of Mount Sentis, were her wealth;



their proficiency



in the arts of war her treasure, exhaustless, because



ever renewed.



Serving as mercenaries all over the



world



the Swiss had decided



the fortunes



of



many



an uncertain battle-field



, where victory, trembling in



the wavering balance,



had inclined



which their valour was cast.



intrigue



He who



could influence the Swiss



to the side



on



Sby artifice or
Confederation,



was a power in Europe, and a meet ally for



and this power



Matthew



Schinner,



who



was then



Bishop



of Sion,



had by



long



and patient



acquired.



He first,



for a certain consideration, of



course,



9



in-



kings ;



art



- ----^I---^ -- ---_- _-_I --- -^L----------- -- -- --





THE STORY



OF ZURICH.



proposed to ally himself with Louis XII. of France,
but Louis thought his price too high. 'He shall
live to see,' said the baffled prelate,' that I am worth
the price of many men.' And without more ado, lie
turned to Pope Julius II.
This warlike Pontiff, to whom stout hearts and
ready swords were never unwelcome, received his
proposals with joy; and the Bishop in 1510 suc-
ceeded in forming an alliance between Julius and
the whole Swiss cantons, for which service he re-
ceived a cardinal's hat.
It was just after his accession to this dignity, that,
casting his eyes carefully around, to observe and
attach to his interest any man of unusual ability,
the rising fame of the young pastor of Glaris at-
tracted his notice. No man knew better how to
bestow favours gracefully and well, than he who
had passed through all the grades which divide a
peasant's hut from a palace. In a short time
Zwingle learned, by a kind letter from the Cardinal,
that the Pope, gratified by the report of his attain-
ments, had granted him an annual pension of fifty
florins, to encourage him in his studies.



IO






THE



HERD S.MA N'S



HOME.



Naturally,



he



was very



much



pleased



with this



No boon could



have



He had been so poor, that



been more acceptable



to



he had been quite



unable



to buy



the books



he could



have



wished;



and this pension, so generously bestowed, he spent in
procuring classical and theological works from Bale.



The Cardinal's



fifty



florins meanwhile



brought



him in, as he



had calculated, good



interest.



With-



out considering



the subject much, acting



the grateful impulses of his



only



on



own noble, generous



heart,



Zwingle



of Schinner



allied himself closely with the



and



of the Pope,



and looked



party
on in



silence,



while



eight



thousand



Swiss,



the flower



his native valleys, were embodied



under



the Papal



standards.



It was not



a fortunate



expedition:



the French



met artifice and guile with cunning and craft.



Papal



bribes had unsheathed the sword of the Swiss against



them ;



but French



gold,



they



found



had



power



paralyze it in the stalwart arms that held it.



autumn
but not



In the



the mountaineers returned to their homes,



as they had gone



forth.



When they came



back, it was as if Pandora's box had been opened,



gift.
him.



II



of



to



and



1 __III IC II _ I _ _ _





12



7HE STORY OF ZURICH.



its foul tenants let loose among them. Licentiousness
in every form, rapine, utter lawlessness, and licence,
hovered like birds of prey around their inglorious
homeward march. The simple life of their valleys
appeared to them, after their military experiences,
tame and unendurable; honest labour was distaste-
ful; their little farms, their flocks, and herds, were
neglected; even the most sacred ties were trampled
under foot. It seemed as if, through the very means
that had made it mighty, the Confederation was
slowly drifting to ruin.
It was then that Zwingle, as if by a sudden re-
velation, saw the abyss into which his country was



being



hurried



by



Schinner



and his friends, and the



true nature of the alliance into which he had allowed
the Cardinal to entice him. This foreign service,
which seemed in some aspects so desirable, was
in reality a cankerworm eating into the very heart
of the commonwealth; scandalous disorders, beg-
gary, ruin, followed in its train. The foreign gold,
bought with blood, had on it the curse of Cain:
it turned brother against brother, father against son,
citizen against magistrate, and threatened in no long






THE



HERD SMAN'S



HOME.



time to dissolve every bond



which



held society to-



gether.



All these evils



clearly at



last ;



the young



and indignantly



priest



of Glaris



rushing



saw



to the aid



of his
from



imperilled country, strove to strip
those who were, from interested m



the mask



motives,



luding it to its ruin.
In 151o he published a poem on the subject, which



he called



ing



The Labyrinti;



might be



too obscure,



and fearing that its mean-
he immediately followed



it up with another, in which,



while still using the veil



of allegory,



he aimed



his shafts



of ridicule



so fear-



lessly



and well, that



its purport.
To do this



required



no one could



in that age



misunderstand



no little courage.



The valleys of



Glaris were among the most warlike



in Switzerland; each



hamlet had its



hero, or rather



its family of heroes-men who had fought beside the



Po and the



fields



Rhone, whose feet



of Burgundy and Suabie



had trod the battle-
a. who had followed



the banners of the Emperor, or the Lilies of France,



or the sacred ensign



of the Pope, or been enrolled



in the



Free



Lances



of Francis



Sforza.



To these



13



I _






7HE



STORE Y



OF ZURICH.



soldiers of fortune war was a profession,



the camp



a chosen home; and they were to the last degree
impatient, if so much as a whisper was breathed,
calculated to damp the martial ardour around them.



Zwingle



was but a stripling,



so to



speak,



when



the field against



these



Goliaths,



and his bow



shot at a venture failed at first to find the vulnerable
spot in their armour of proof.



f



14



took



he



_ __















CHAPTER



II.



FROM DARKNESS TO LIGI-T.



1512, in;
cantons a
Zwingle's



stigated
gain ro,



warlike



by



se in aid of the



parishioners



being,



usual,
mune



the



most



of Glaris,



the campaign,



against



like Luther,



prompt to



almost
and its



his will to join



was destined



to



arm.



a man,



young



priest



the march.



to



see Italy,



corn-



for



was forced
Zwingle,
although a



very



different



perienced



by



train



of providence



the Saxon



monk



from



those



conducted



thither.



In



many



company
dangers,



with his flock,



and witnessed



he passed



many



deeds



through
of des-



operate



for



valour.



a moment,



Victory,
returned



which



to their



had deserted



standards;



them



every-



where they



triumphed, everywhere the
15



French were



N



the Cardinal,



the



Pope;



as



The whole



volunteered



ex-
him





THE



STORY



OF Z URICCH.



defeated.



From the towns and villages which they



Passed,



the people hastened



to greet



them.



Wine,



and refreshments



of all



kinds were provided



for them,



and the Italians hailed



them



as God's



chosen people sent to save them.



The Pope,



the



suggestion,



stowed



perhaps, of



upon them the title



Cardinal



Schinner,



of Defenders



be-



of the



Liberty of the Church.'
But, amid all this tumult



triumph,



Zwingle



was not idle.



and intoxication



Unconsciously



himself,



and amid scenes which



seemed



in the last



degree unfavourable, he was being



trained



for his



future
land.



post



of Apostle



and Reformer



of his native



1513, on



his return from this campaign,



began to study Greek with such



that he declared



power to make him



he



intense enthusiasm,



that no one but God could



desist



from



his beloved



have
task.



It was no love of fame



that prompted him



in his



eager resolution to master this, to him hitherto un-
known tongue; it was a love of divine learning.



This



desire



the turning-points



for sacred knowledge was 'one



of



in his career; unconsciously it



fruit,



at



of
to



In






FROM



DARKNE SS



TO LIGHT.



brought him nearer to God,



for it made him familiar



with the Bible, especially the New Testament.
I did not expect, Master Ulric,' said an old school-



fellow



who heard



him maintaining



authority of Scripture,-' I



Ulric, that



did not expec



you would have gone into this



the unerring



.t, Master
new error



of Luther's.'
'I have not



adopted



any



of Luther's



opinions,



was the answer, 'for I understood



the Greek



guage



before



I had



so much



as heard



of Martin



Luther's name.



From



this time a certain



his preaching;



it was



change



as if the



was apparent in



Pentecostal tongues



of flame had touched



with a hallowing,



re-vivifying



power his eloquent lips.



Henceforth it was less the



man who spake,



in him.



than the Spirit



Yet there was no violent



of God speaking



change.



In



all respects dissimilar from Luther, he was most



unlike



him in those



experiences



which



attached



to God and truth.



With



him there was no



anguish,



no despair, no wildly conflicting tempest of



the heart and soul, no agonizing contest of doubts



and fears.



Slowly



led by the still small voice of
B



17



lan-



him



I ^----- I -- -- I





I8 THE S TORY OF ZURI CI-H.

Scripture, assuring himself step by step, the young
Swiss priest passed from darkness to light, not at
a single bound, but by slow progressive steps.
Many items helped to hasten the dawn of truth
that had begun to glimmer upon his understanding
and heart; one of the most notable of these was a
poem written by Erasmus. The witty philosopher,
who disdained for himself the title of Reformer,
had a great knack of leading other men into those
paths which he himself abhorred. Alone in his
chamber, Zwingle repeated to himself the burning
words which had emanated from that cold and cal-
culating brain, and catching a spark from them, felt
his whole soul on fire. He could not stop where
the politic and sarcastic Erasmus drew the boundary
line of safety. The child of the mountain chalet
had more courage than the timid man of letters.
Christ is the fountain of all blessing,' wrote the
sage; and there he paused.
'Then must we cleave to Him through life and
death,' said the man of action, applying his words to
his own life. Meanwhile a great pleasure awaited
him. The philosophic Erasmus kept, in Bale,






FR OM27 DARKNESS



TO LIGHT.



a court like the court of



a king;



and in 1514



Zwingle



was introduced



to the man whose writings



had so vividly impressed his imagination.
Being himself a person of greater note



modesty would allow



than his



him to suppose, he found



the king
gracious,



of letters so exceedingly



that the charm



pleted the conquest



as poor,'



was Eschines,



pleasant



and



of his intercourse corn-



his genius had



said the enthusiastic



the disciple



begun.



'I



young Swiss,



of Socrates;



and,



am
'as
like



him, having nothing else to offer, I give you myself.'



When



he returned to his solitary home, this



of hero worship was still strong



upon him.



could not sleep,' he said, writing to Erasmus,



out first holding some intercourse with



you.



fit
'I



' with-
There



is nothing



I



am so proud



of



as having



seen you,



and having been allowed to



call you friend.'



In 1515 a fresh alarm of war banished for a time



alike



the studies



ful hours.



invade



and friends



Francis I.



Italy, and



of his



of France was



the Pope,



more peace-



preparing



in alarm, called



to



upon



the Swiss cantons
Again, as before,



to come once more to his



aid.



Zwingle was compelled to march



19



C_ I_ __ I _





20 THE STORY OF ZUR ICH.

with his parishioners, but not, as before, to victory.
The confederated cantons, in this second campaign,
were divided among themselves. French gold
had been sowed liberally among them, and had
produced a plentiful crop of discord and disunion.
In vain, with an energy and wisdom rare in one
so young, Zwingle sought to heal these gaping
wounds; the evil lay too deep for cure. A portion
of the Swiss troops deserted their standards, and
even those who remained were disunited, and half-
hearted, and hesitating. Five days before the fatal
battle of Marignano, by which Francis I. made him-
self master of the Milanese, he addressed them in
the square of Monza, counselling concord and sub-
mission; but his advice was disregarded, and that
of Cardinal Schinner preferred. The march was
resumed, and five days later, as has been said above,
the disastrous battle of Marignano was fought, end-
ing in the total defeat of the Papal troops. Of these
troops, the Swiss suffered most severely; but Zwingle,
although he exposed himself to the greatest dangers,
and even seized a sword in defence of his country-
men, escaped unhurt. From this campaign, as






"FROM DARKNESS



TO LIGHT.



the first, he



brought back with



him to Glaris



abundant matter for reflection and serious thought.



It was an



age in which corruption



had gnawed like



a cankerworm to
More than once,



the



steps



the very



Murder'



of the altar;



core of



Italian



s red hand had
the prelates, as



society.
stained



a body,



were licentious



and profane;



Vice looked with



blushing leer from under



the confessor's



cowl and



the nun's veil;



the lower



clergy were



ignorant and



avaricious;



styled



while the head of the Church, impiously



God's vicegerent, was a profligate, ambitious,



utterly



faithless man.



It was not then wonderful



that Zwingle,



ardent,



noble,



and



sincere,



should



return from Italy



with



a deep



conviction



that the



Church must be reformed.
That he might clearly discern in what this needful



reformation



should



consist, he



had recourse to the



Bible, carefully comparing scripture with scripture;
and then, when he had gained any light himself, ex-



plaining



it to his flock with



distinctness and energy,



-refraining,



however,



from



making



any



violent



attack upon the Church to which he belonged.



' It is at present,' he said,



Switch



us the seedtime



from



21



un-



_I _ _



*





THE



STORY OF



Z URICH.



of truth;



what



I



have



to do. is to scatter it



can find it, with an unsparing hand.



ciously bless



If God



as I
gra-



my efforts, the people will in due time



be able to discern



the difference



between



evil.'



The first faint



before



had begun



dawn of



light which



to glimmer in



four



Zwingle's



years
heart,



as he bent



his head over his Greek



thus now begun



Testament, had



to shine out upon those



around



him. It was the beginning



of the



Swiss



Reforma-



tion, which thenceforth went on steadily, but slowly,
making no frantic bounds, but progressing calmly
step by step.



Meanwhile
was sinking
intrigues and



Zwingle,



deeper



almost



"in spite



and deeper into



fierce political enmities



of himself,



the



which



party
raged



around



probable,



him.



It seemed at that moment



that, corrupted by



the incessant



not im-
turmoil



of political



agitation



which



threatened



to absorb



him, he



might



yet



become such an one as Cardinal



Schinner, and



dissipate in



petty



intrigues, or



waste



in ambitious projects, the talents which
bestowed for a far different purpose.



God had



22



good
C-



and



_ _I __






FROM DARKNESS



TO LIGHT.



It was



Glaris



a crisis
he was



in his



history.



Amid



the factions



giving himself up more and more



to the absorbing



in His



cares



of political



providence so ordered that a



should be opened for him.



preacher and priest



In 1516,



in the Abbey



life,



when



God



door of escape
the situation of



of Einsidlen,



in



the canton of Schweitz, was offered to him.



He was very uncomfortable



in his present parish;



the intrigues



of the French



left him no



had neither time for study nor meditation.



In this



quiet retreat he would have leisure and repose;



so without hesitation



the great



grief



were so much



he accepted



of his parishioners



attached



of the offer,



at Glaris,



to



who



to him, that they could not



resolve to sever the connection between them.



They



continued



to him the name of Pastor



with half of the



stipend,



of Glaris,



and the power of returning



to their valleys whenever he chose;
title he retained for many years.



"K^



and this empty



of



23



rest ;



he



and














CHAPTER



MEDITATION



AND ITS FRUITS.



OD often, it



a tim
those



e front
whom



may be observed,
n the tumult of
He is training f



takes



for



the world,
or special



usefulness or special honour in His Church.



It is



necessary



that they



should



be taught



Him
past,
the te:



ii



1 solitude



and that they should



and be disciplined for
n months which Luther



of the Wartburg, he



to draw



from



studied



it materials



the future.
passed in tl



unlearn



the



During



he fortress



the Bible, not so



for polemic



much



controversy,



as to find in it regeneration



and sanctification



for his
Ulric



own soul;
Zwingle.



and it



was much



In the quiet



the same



narrow



world



with
I of



Einsidlen



he had leisure,



time for meditation,



books,



and,



what



Luther



had not in the



Wart-



burg,



congenial



friends.



A little



24



III.



of



knot



of



men






AMEDITA 71ON AND



ITS



FR UNITS.



like-minded with himself gradually gathered around



the new preacher



of the Abbey.



Together



studied the Scriptures, together they read the Fathers;



together lamenting



of the times,



they



over the manifold



agreed



corruptions



that the Papacy



must



fall. In May 1517, Zwingle began to transcribe with



his own hand



large portions



of the Word



of God,



copying out in this
He also committed



manner the Epistles



to



memory



of St. Paul.



first the whole



of



the Epistles,



then the remaining



portions



of the



Testament,



then



parts



of the



Old.



Growing



in knowledge, he



began



also



to grow in



faith;



in proportion



as he



became



more



devout, a



higher



estimate



priest



of his position



of God gained



upon



and responsibility



him. He began



to realize



what



cure of souls;



an awful



and while



thing



it



was to have



thus awakening



a



to what



was required of himself, his eyes were opened as they



never



been



before



to the corrupt and



supersti-



tious practices which had overrun the Church.
The Abbey of Einsidlen, in the canton of Schweitz,



which



was founded



century, on the



ruins



towards



of



the end



a cell where



of the tenth
a holy hermit



25



they



New



and



as a
fully



had





THE



STORY OF ZURICH.



had been



murdered,



had been favoured



a Bull of



VIII. declared,



with



a miraculous appearance



of the



Virgin.



The mother



appeared ir
consecrated



of our Lord, so



1 her divine
the chapel,



ran the legend,



beauty to
hovering



the bishop



had
who



for a moment,



gracious



and benign, over the altar.



time an unceasing crowd



of pilgrims had



From that
flocked to



the Abbey;



an image of the



Virgin Mary, carefully



preserved, had, it



was affirmed



the



power



of work-



miracles.



On certain feast-days,



notably those



of the consecration



of angels, and



of the



Virgin,



great multitudes of men



and women not only from



Switzerland,



but from all



parts



of



Christendom,



might be seen clambering



up the rugged



mountain



paths that led



to the Abbey, that



they might



pros-



trate themselves on the



floor



of the chapel,



obtain the remission of sins, blasphemously promised
to them by the dignitaries of the Church.



The sight



of these



devout ignorant dupes



of the



hierarchy



affected Zwingle inconceivably.



how vain was



their



faith.



their



superstition,



He knew



how ill-founded



On the one side was truth,



on the



26



Leo



ing



and



_ __ ______






M EDITA TION



AND



ITS



FR UNITS.



other interest;



for it was from



the offerings of these



deluded



multitudes



that his salary



was paid.



the shrine of



Our Lady of



Einsidlen were forsaken,



he might
did not for



he exclaimed,



perchance
a moment



be left 1
hesitate.



'and mark well my



to starve;
Listen



words.



but he
to me,'
God is



own homes,



as really,



as truly,



as I-He is here in the



Chapel of



Our Lady of Ein-



sidlen.
works.



offerings,



saints,
There



is



There
Your



your



cannot



is



no power to save



wearisome



prayers



secure



to



no efficacy in



pilgrimages,



in unprofitable



your



to the Virgin



you



the favour



the priest's



costly



and the
of God.



cowl or shaven



crown, no virtue in gorgeous



ecclesiastical garments,



adorned



with costly



lace and embroidered



gold.



God looks



the heart



only upon



is estranged



the heart;



from Him, these



and where
mummeries



signify



addressed



less than nothing.'



himself to



the



Then, passing



more



earnest



on,



among



hearers:
He was
sacrifice



' Christ,' he



offered



cried,



on the



and victim



cross



'Christ



alone



can save;



once for all, the only



for the sins of men of



all



men who should believe upon Him.



27



If



with



you



in



your



with



he
his



_ __ __ ___





28 THLE STORY OF ZURICH.

At the close of the sermon, intense astonishment,
almost- panic, seized the audience. Some, with the
eloquent words yet ringing in their ears, withdrew
in horror: others, like the Israelites on Mount
Carmel, halted long between two opinions; their
understandings were convinced, but the faith of
their fathers was dear to their hearts: others with
a child-like confidence came at once to Jesus;
'Christ alone saves us, and He saves everywhere,'
was the burden of their song of praise.
Day by day, week by week, the number of
pilgrims was diminished; while to those who came,
Zwingle boldly declared the truth. On Easter
Sunday he chose for the subject of his discourse,
the story of the man taken with palsy, with special
reference to the verse, 'The Son of man hath
power on earth to forgive sins.'
This passage he treated with such fearless, and
yet insinuating eloquence, that he convinced and
at the same time delighted his audience,-a result
he seldom failed to attain.
More moderate than Luther, the character of
his mind led him to avoid precipitation, and






M EDITA TION A ND



ITS



FR UNITS.



carefully



to refrain from giving



offence;



to which



circumstance is perhaps to be ascribed the friendly



terms on which he long remained with all,
with the ecclesiastical dignitaries around him.



Politically,



he preferred



the



cause



of the Pope



to that of the French king ;



by



his influence



and the



to keep the cantons



legates, hoping



steady



to



the Papal



eagerly



alliance,



strove



by



paid him



the proffer



assiduous



court,



of pensions



and
and



honours to bind



him



to their cause;



but he was not



"a man to be bought.



'By God's help,'



he exclaimed to Pucci, the Papal



legate,



'I intend



to preach



the gospel,



and that



must needs in time shake Rome.'
It will not be necessary,' was
'the head of the Church is as



the legate's reply;
deeply convinced



as you are



of the necessity of a



thorough



reform ;



everything needful will be done.'



These



promises, of course, came to



then Zwingle



declared



his intention



nothing, and
of resigning



the Pope's pension.



Again



Pucci



came



to him with honeyed



words,



pressing him to retain



it,



at least for a time.



29



even



This



_ _ __






THEL



STO RY



OF ZURICH.



he agreed



to do;



and that he might



not appear



openly inimical



retained



to the



head



it for three years, on



of the Church,



he



the distinct under-



standing,



however, that he was not on that account



to suppress one syllable of the truth.
To these terms Pucci agreed; and



still hopeful



that he might



bribe



to silence



the bold lips which



he feared, he got the Pope to appoint the eloquent



preacher one



of his acolytes.



round on that ladder



It



of ambition whi



was the first
ich had made



poor
Ulric



Matthew
Zwingle



Schinner a



might



cardinal and



without



a prince.



presumption



have



hoped to attain in no long time



to honours equally



splendid ;
was proof



but God had touched



against



all seductions.



his heart,



While



and he



Pucci



was still busy



very



different



be called



with his solicitations



agent of the



'the Tetzel



and bribes,



a



Pope's, one who might



of Switzerland,'-Sampson,



a Carmelite monk,-appeared upon



his bales
to remit
pardons;



of Papal
all sins,'



'only



bring



indulgences.



the scene with
'I have power



said the shameless vendor of



me your



money,



and I will



dispose



of Christ's merits to any one who will buy



30



_I _ _






iMEDITA 7TON



AND



ITS FR UITS.



them:



for all things,



earth



and heaven



itself,



subject unto me.



These



blasphemous words



reached



Zwingle



his retreat, and



filled



him with the deepest



At once opposing himself to



for his text the words of



me, all ye who



labour



and



Sampson,



our Lord,



are heavy



horror.



he took



' Come



laden,



unto
and



I will give you rest.'



' What a commentary,' he said



'on the words



Jesus, are those



which



we have



just



heard



this emissary



of the



Pope!



With



audacious folly



and madness, this monk tells us: "Buy



letters of



indulgence-apply



to Rome-give



money



to the



monks-sacrifice to the priests; and when you have



done all



these things,



I will absolve you



from your



sins."



What a miserable



delusion!



Christ



is the



one offering,



Christ



is the one sacrifice



offered



for sin, Christ is the one way to eternal life.'



Discomfited



victed



by



of being



laid down



these



a cheat



his arms, and



bold words, and



and impostor,



sought
b



refuge



self-con-
Sampson
in flight,



leaving the Reformer-for so he may now be called-
master of the field, and more resolutely determined



31



are



in



of



from



up



_ _C_ _I __I __I






THE



STORY



OF Z URICIH.



than before



to resist



the blandishments



of the



legate.



A conviction



upon him,



not unfounded



had begun



that it was useless in the



to



Church's



nrow
need



to invoke the assistance of her princes; they neither



could nor would



lend any efficient aid.



Faithfully



to declare



God's



word



seemed



to him the only way



in which



he could re-awaken the



life of Christendom;



applied



himself with



the study of the



for which God



dormant spiritual



and in order to do
his whole heart and



Scriptures,-thus fulfilling



had sent him



to the lonely



this,



he



soul to
the end
monas-



tery among the mountains,



32



_ I_ __ I____















CHAPTER



Iv.



A NEW FIELD OF LABOUR.



sidlen he



E now come to another turning-point



the eventful
Switzerland.
had become,



history



of the Apostle



In the retirement



like



Timothy,



in
of



of Ein-



approved



of



God, a workman that



needed



not to be ashamed,



-rightly



dividing the word



of truth.



And



now a



wider



field, a more extended arena, was prepared



for him :



the post of preacher to



the Cathedral



Zurich



became vacant, and many eyes were turned



at once in his direction.
His handsome person,



his suavity of



manner, the



charm
genius,
serious,



of his conversation,



commended
had heard



him to



him



the splendour of



some.



Others,



at Einsidlen,



his



more



and been



touched



by



his eloquent



exposure of error and de-



fence



of truth.



Nor were there wanting those who
C



at






THE



STORY



OF ZURICH.



admired
political



to support



the part



he had taken in



life of the cantons, and



him for the vigorous



who



the troubled



were



inclined



opposition he



had



given to the system of foreign service.



The period preceding his



election was



one of in-



tense



excitement



in Zurich.



He himself



disinclined to make the change; but in answer to



one of the canons, who asked



him 'if he would not



come



and preach



the word



of God among



them,'



he replied,



'I will not come unless I am invited.'



prevent,



if possible,



this invitation, was



object



of the extreme Roman Catholic party:



trembled at the thought of his coming among them,
and put forward several other candidates-in especial,
one Lorenzo Fable, a Suabian.



A report was artfully



man had



been



spread



abroad



elected, and the news was



that this
conveyed



to Zwingle in his monastery.



He was disappointed,



and with something



of hurt human



feeling



claimed,
is worth;



'Now I se
they have



Ce how little popular



preferred



applause



this foreigner to me,



countryman.



a short



time he learned,



through



Cardinal



34



was



not



To



the



they



their



ex-



In



_ __ ___






A NE W FIELD



OF LABOUR.



Schinner, that the



election had not yet taken place,



and that his enemies, not being
from his talents or acquirements,



manner of evil of him,



able
were



to detract



saying



all



and even attacking his moral



character.



From



these charges



his friend



Oswald



Myconius



sufficiently cleared



him, and on the InIth of



Decem-



ber the election took place.



To the great



joy of



most



of the inhabitants,



Zwingle was elected by



a majority of seventeen



votes; and henceforth



principal



city



in



his history,



Switzerland,



and that of the



are intimately



con-



nected with each other.
At Einsidlen, the news that



he had



been chosen



was received



the little band
joy, they were



with very



mingled



of the evangelical



filled



feelings.
rejoiced



While



i:



at the same time with



n his
grief



for their own
for the future.



loss, and



With



with gloomy forebodings



Zwingle



gone, might



not the



old superstition



attack



and regain



its ancient



ress, and throngs



of pilgrims once more desecrate



with superstitious rites their quiet solitudes ?



Meanwhile



they paid all



due honour and



respect



35



fort-



_





36 TIHE S TOR Y OF Z URICH.

to the preacher who was leaving them. The
Council of Schweitz addressed to him a farewell
letter, in which they styled him 'their reverend,
learned, and very gracious master and worthy
friend.'
On the 27th December I518, Zwingle, thus
honourably dismissed, arrived in Zurich. His in-
troduction to his new home took place at a season
so inclement, that but little of its gay and laugh-
ing beauty of meadow, and orchard, and wooded
hills, and vine-clad slopes was visible. Buried
beneath an icy shroud of frost and snow, it looked
as bleak and cold as the solitudes around Ein-
sidlen; nature had no smile for him, but he did
not therefore lack a welcome.
As soon as it was known that he had arrived,
the chapter met, and he was at once invited to
take his place among his colleagues. It was a
full meeting; almost all the canons were assembled,
and an unusual spirit of excitement and inquiry
pervaded the assembly. It was as i every one felt
that this was no common appointment, but one
which might carry vast and momentous conse-






A NE W FIELD



OF LABOUR.



quences in



the



young



its train.
priest.



Every



11 present



eye was fixe



had



been



d upon
warned



of his innovating tendencies,
at a previous meeting that



most
hiim,



and it had been agreed



his duties should



minutely and circumstantially pointed



and the boundary



junction,



line defined



' Hitherto shalt thou



go,



be



out to



with the in-



and no further.'



It was like trying to bind the ocean with



a rope



of sand;



but not fully



realizing



the difficulties



the undertaking before



them,



the chapter manfully



essayed the task.



'First, as to revenue, you will use your utmost
diligence so to collect it,' he was enjoined, 'that
not the smallest item may be overlooked or lost.'
You will exhort the faithful, both from the pulpit
and confessional, carefully to pay all dues and tithes,



not failing



to impress upon them, with all needful



solemnity, that it is only by such offerings that they



can acceptably testify



their love to the



Church.



You will be careful so to use your opportunities also
as to increase the income which arises from the sick,



from masses,



and,



in short, from all ecclesiastical



ordinances whatever.'



37



of



_ LI I____ _I_ ___ ____I I I __II






THE



STORY



OF ZURICCH.



'As for the rest,' they
the administration of the
watching over the flock,



went



on, for preaching,



sacraments, and



these,



no doubt,



sedulous
are also



among the duties of the priest;



sary that
personal



but it is not neces-



you should tie yourself down to a slavish



performance



of them.



You may employ



a vicar to perform
to preach for you.'



them



in



your



stead,



especially



Then



they proceeded to the visitation of the sick:



'In the ca
use your



of persons of rank,



discretion.



you will



It will in general



of course



be



your



to administer the sacraments personally to



them;



but to the humbler classes,



such personal



ministration is not only undesirable,



but is distinctly



forbidden by us.'
This, then, was the



end, the goal



of his ambition,



the prize



for which



he must strain every



energy



power.



He had



come to



Zurich,



it seemed,



that he might



sit like Matthew



at the receipt of



custom, and make a golden harvest for the chapter
out of the most sacred mysteries of the Christian



faith.



His indignation almost overpowered



him as



he listened;



but prudence,



that wisdom



of the ser-



38



duty



and



_ ______






A NE W FIELD



OF LABOUR.



pent which was as much a part



of his nature as his



energy,



or eloquence, or intellectual vigour,



came



to his aid.



He made no comment on the extra-



ordinary charge just



the chapter
their choice,



delivered to him;



for the honour



he proceeded



they



but thanking



had done him



to unfold



in



to his aston-



ished colleagues what



his views



of his



office



were.



'The history



of our



blessed



Saviour,'



he said,



been too long made a dead letter to the people.



is my purpose to make it



plain,



by lecturing upon



the whole of the Gospel according



to St. Matthew,



drawing



my matter from the fountains



of Scripture



alone,



sounding



all its



depths,



comparing text with



text, and putting up earnest and unceasing



that I
mind



prayers



may be permitted to discover what is



of the Holy



Spirit.



I



the



desire to consecrate



my ministry, and



my poor gifts, not to man, but to



God, that I may instruct
committed to my care,



in the true faith



the souls



to their eternal salvation,



and the praise and glory of our God and Saviour.'



Thus spoke the bold



Reformer; and when he had



concluded



his speech, a



deep silence succeeded



his daring words.



It was as if a bomb had suddenly



39



'has



It



to



I __ ___ I___ I __ I_ _ _ _ _ _






THE



STORY



OF ZURICH.



exploded



in the quiet



chapter house,



or as if the



earth



had



unexpectedly



yawned



before



showing



undreamt



them



a glimpse of



of abysses.



fearful and



Some few of



the



hitherto
canons,



indeed, approved



of what they had



heard, but



in the minority,



greater



and prudently



part were both angry and



kept



silence;



astonished.



'To preach in this way is



claimed;



'and



an innovation,'



they



ex-



if we permit one innovation, no one



can tell to what extremes we may be driven.'



The Canon



Hoffman



particularly



distinguished



himself by his opposition.



'I am quite sure,' he said,



this new method



of



preaching



will



do the



people more harm than good.'
'It is not a new method,' objected



Zwingle,



the old one. It was in common use with the Fathers.
Allow me to recall to your memory St. Chrysostom's
homilies upon Matthew, and those of St. Augustine



John.



I



will promise,



besides,



cautious in what I



say, and give no one any reason-



able cause of complaint against me.'



With



this compromise



the majority



declared



themselves content; but



Hoffman, more dissatisfied



40



their



eyes,



were



the



they



'that



' it is



upon



to



be



very



_ C C __ __ __ __ _____ __






A NE W FIELD



OF LABOUR.



than ever,
chapter,



finding he could do nothing more in
addressed himself to the Principal,



desired him to command Zwingle to adhere to the



established



custom, and not disturb



their faith with new ideas



the people



and novel



forms



procedure.



The



Principal



preacher, and



immediately sent



for the



had a long and interesting



tion with him, which ended



not in



new



conversa-



his winning over



Zwingle, but in his



being



partially won over himself



to the Reformer's opinions.



In spite of all Canon Hoffman's



efforts,



found impossible to defeat



the purposes of



God, or



to close the lips which He had opened.



Until this period



Zwingle



had, by the request



the Council of Glaris, retained that living;



ing



resolved



but hav-



in future to devote himself wholly to



Zurich, he now wrote to resign it.



On his



thirty-fifth



birthday, the



first of January



1519, he ascended for the first time the pulpit



of the



cathedral.



His audience was very



large,



for the



whole



city was desirous of seeing a man who



already acquired celebrity as the expounder



had
of a



the
and



in
of



it



was



of



__ __ __ __ ___






THE



S TOR Y OF Z URICH.



new faith.



He began



by distinctly stating what he



had set before himself as the principal object



ministry.



of his



'It is to Christ,' he exclaimed, 'that I wish



to guide you; to Christ, who is the only true fountain



and spring of salvation.'



what



And



at the conclusion of



may be considered as the programme



preamble of his work at
on the morrow, which wv



Zurich, he announced



and
that



the first Sunday of the



he would



begin a course



of lectures explain-



ing the Gospel of St. Matthew.



On the morrow the



great



church was



filled, and



the preacher, ascending the



pulpit, opened what had



been so long a closed book to the laity, and reading



the first chapter of the
surprise and delight of



Gospel, expounded



it to the



his numerous auditory, who



hung with breathless interest upon his words.



he had finished, and



When



the congregation were dispers-



ing to their homes, every one was talking about him.



'What
graphic



eloquent



power,



language!'



what



vigour,



said
what



one;
fire! '



'what



SWhat



wonderful words!' said
the like of this before.'



another;



Swe



never



heard



In this manner he explained



the whole Gospel



42



year,



a



of



_ I _II ___ __ __






A NEW



FIELD



OF LA BOUR.



Matthew, chapter
to the sublimest



by chapter, sometimes



heights



of eloquence,



ascending
sometimes



setting forth the



familiar words, adapting



mysteries of salvation in plain and



himself to all classes, cast-



ing his net



boldly forth with a full



and free



sweep,



that it might



entangle in



its meshes not only



wise and learned, but also the ignorant and simple.



'Jesus



claimed ;



is the
Come



only



Saviour,'



to Him, put



he continually



your trust in



ex-



Him.



His mercies are infinite;



them that come unto Him,



He will in no wise cast out.'



Then passing from



the faith



of the heart



to the



practice



of the



life,



he



uttered,



as he had done



Glaris, a fearless



protest



against



the mercenary



military service which was



the bane



of his



country,



pointing



out the many evils



which



followed



in its



train,-luxury, intemperance, lawlessness, extrava-



gance, and the acceptance



princes.
Pope, the



He exposed
Emperor, an(



of pensions



the intrigues
d the French



from



by



king,



foreign
6



which



in



the
turn



sought to fight their battles at the expense of



Swiss



blood and



honour.



No



man had ever been heard



before to speak with so much authority and



power.



43



the



in



_ II_ I __ __






THE



STORY OF



Z URICH.



The frank,



fearless,



independent



position



which he



assumed, fixed every eye upon him;



a reformer, intent above all



he had become



things upon restoring



the Scriptures to



their proper



place, and



reviving,



amid, the manifold



evils of a corrupt



age, the truth



and purity of apostolic times.



44



I II __ _ __ __ ___ _- yp















CHAPTER

SEEDTIME.



I- E reception



was at



of gospel



first very flattering



"truth at Zurich
g: the graces of



the preacher's manner,



the charm



of his



eloquence, won irresistibly upon all hearts.
and mighty cry of admiration went up



A great
from the



ever-increasing multitudes



flocked



to the



cathedral. A
lower classes,



great



proportion of these were of the



but not exclusively so.



Poets,



torians, state councillors, men of



the highest



came to listen; and, delighted with what they heard,



became not unfrequently



the personal



friends



Zwingle.



'Glory be to God,' said Henry Kanschlin,



the state treasurer, 'we have at last



found a Moses



to lead us out of the land of Egypt.'
At first all was apparent unanimity, no one daring



to raise a dissentient voice against him;
45



but soon



V.



city,



and



his-



rank,



of






THE



STORY



OF ZURICH.



murmurs



were heard:



though at first



all were not convinced,



most had been charmed.



al-



The parti-



sans of the old



regime



plucked



up courage,



many well-meaning but timid men, dismayed at the



prospect



of such a revolution in public



opinion as a



reformation entailed, fell away from



Zwingle.



the ancient



Hebrew



leader



to whom



he had been



compared, he was assailed by the reproaches of those



whom he



sought to



save:



the fury



of the monks



broke out anew; the



lamentations of his colleagues,



the canons, resounded on all sides.



Still he did



flinch:



when



he was assailed



with ridicule, he met



it patiently;



when



he was silent;



he was attacked with



when



sympathizing



friends



threats,
sought



to comfort



him, he



would answer,



'There is



words;



I



do not despond.



we would



eyes
way.'



win souls for



and ears to many things



This speech



Christ, we must shut



that meet us on



of the man.



was characteristic



is full of the



kindly wisdom which, above all other



things,



distinguished



The celebrated



his common every-day



preacher was



life.



still the simple child



46



and



Like



not



need



for



your



kind



no



If



our
our



It



___ __






SEED TIME.



of the



Sentis Mountains;



with power to attract the



great, he scorned to hold himself aloof from the poor.



Everywhere in



Zurich



he was



to be



familiar conversation with the citizens



seen holding
in the public



streets and walks,



guild



halls.



or discoursing to



He accosted



the burghers



in



the noble and the



beggar with the same easy grace, and was



a guest in the palace and the cottage.



hearted, and cheerful, he was



by turns



Frank, open-



full of compassion



for



the poor, and



of kindly care for all.



ever known to ruffle his calm



Nothing



temper, or depress



cheerful spirit, or daunt his stedfast



heart.



A



petual sunshine shone in his clear eyes; and



e



was
his
per-
:ven



those



who hated



him acknowledged,



in spite



themselves,



the attraction of



monks, enraged at his



he would



his



popularity,



manner.



The



said of him, that



invite people to dinner, walk with



them,



talk to them about God;



devil



into their hearts, would



and having



finish



thus put



by putting



own writings into their hands and pockets.



He was still, as in his



music;



and this



afforded



student
another



days,



handle



fond of



to his



clerical assailants.



'The



world is gone



mad,'



47



their



of



the
his



they



I--- -






THE



S TOR Y



OF Z URVICH.



said,



'to rush thus wildly after an evangelical lute-



player and piper.'



This
friends
subject.



charge
gravely



seemed



so serious,



remonstrated



that one of his



with him



upon



the



'It is true,



said the Reformer frankly,



'I do



know



how to play



upon the



lute and the violin;



and at worst, they serve



me to quiet little



children



when



they



cry.



There



is



my lute,' he



continued,



in his manly



straightforward



manner ;



condemn



me as too frivolous



if I



admit



that I



sometimes



touched



it for the amusement



the innocent light-hearted little ones of my flock ?'



With



all this social



influence,



and the



open-



hearted



kindliness



which



was continually



widening



its sphere,
employed



he



was indefatigable



himself



in reading



in study.



or writing,



sunrise



until



ten in the morning;



occasionally also



in those
Hebrew,



morning
which w



hours



he devoted



as a favourite



study



himself



to



with him.



After



his early



dinner,



he



was accustomed



of his flock



who wished



for his advice,



strangers



who desired



an audience



of him.



4.8
4-0



have



'will



you



of



He



from



any



to



see



or



At



_L1_5_ _






SEED TIME.



that hour also his



friends came, and he would walk



out with
in their



them,



and sometimes make visits either



company or alone.



In the



afternoon



resumed his work, and continued at it until supper,



after which meal



he took a short walk; and



when



he returned



home, set himself to



writing



letters,-



a task which generally occupied



him until after



midnight.



This division



of his time he adhered



to so scrupulously, that he



could



with difficulty



induced



to depart,



even in the slightest



particular,



from the rule he had laid down for himself.



One peculiarity



he had, which



made a



study



chair a useless luxury to him:



he always read



wrote standing.



Meanwhile,



the enemy whom he



had conquered



at Einsidlen was



Sampson,



again drawing



with his pack



near ;



of 'paper



the monk



pardons,'



was



slowly approaching Zurich.



He had



had, upon the



whole,
heavily



a successful



laden



with



tour,



and his wallets



coin of more value than



were
that



spiritual currency, out
age made such capital.



of which



the Popes



of that



With



the tussle



at Einsidlen
D



still fresh



in his



49



he



be



and



__ ___ __






THE



STORE Y



OF ZURICH.



memory,



he did



not anticipate



that Zwingle would



give him a hearty or honourable welcome.



he said



'that he



will speak



against me;



'I know,'
but leave



me alone, I will soon stop his mouth.'
In the first half of this expectation



he



was not



disappointed.
preparing for



Zwingle



his coming,



had been



by



for some time



preaching



earnestly



against indulgences; and as soon as the vendor



pardons



appeared



in the neighbourhood,



he at



once took the



field against



him.



' No man,'



declared from the pulpit,



'has power to forgive sins;



grace



belongs to Christ alone,



very man in one.



who is very God



You may go and buy



in-



dulgences,



but you will not therefore



be absolved



They



who sell the remission of sins



money are, like Simon the



magician



of old, friends



of Balaam, and ambassadors of Satan.'



Denunciations such as these, at



true,
exten



disgusted
t with th



the citizens



e shameful



once



of Zurich



traffic,



fearless



to such



that the Council



of State
he must



already



resolved



not think



to intimate to the monk,



of entering



the city.



He



in the suburbs, at an inn where he



that
was
had



50



of



this
and



he



from



sin.



for



and



an



__ __ 1_1






SEED TIME.



stopped



to refresh himself,



and



was just



about



mount



his mule to make a triumphal



entry



town.



His attendants were arranged in a sort



of procession, with



banners



and flags



of different



kinds;



before him went a waggon laden with



coin;



and behind, came



he and his paper wares, with



much



pomp



and ceremony as if



he were a bene-



factor of mankind instead of an impostor and cheat.



This procession was on the very



eve of setting



when



the



messengers



from



the State



Council



appeared.



Their



coming



was at first



very agreeable to



monk;



for,



from the wine-cup which



they



carried



in their



hands,



he concluded



that they meant



do him honour.
that customary



But although
civility as an



they



proffered



h



accredited agent



lim
of



the Pope,



he soon found



that the act of



courtesy



by no means exhausted their commission, but that
they were also empowered to prevent him from



entering Zurich.



Into Zurich



he,



on his



part,



was determined



and



a falsehood was a very small affair



to



man who. daily told hundreds in the course of



a



his



5I



the



to



into



as



out,



the



to



go,



to



__ __ _i_____l ___I__ ___ Ili _I










THE



STORY



OF ZURICH.



calling.
the Dietj



'I have
Sin the



something



name



to communicate



of His Holiness,'



he



once said.
It was a



mere



pretence, but



it made



it



necessary



to admit him, and



hear what



he had to say.



This,



when



it was at



last



wrung



from



him,



was found



to consist only of



praise



of the Papal Bulls



which



empowered him to tra
was at once dismissed



ffic in indulgences; and



he



with very scant ceremony.



He left Zurich



uttering
opposed



carry



irritated



maledictions



him;



threats



into effect,



in the highest



and threats



which



the Pope,



against



degree,
all who



he had no power to
from various reasons,



not having



nearly so



much



freedom



of action



Switzerland as he had



in Germany.



Hitherto



rupted



Zwingle's



course



career had



of success;



been one uninter-



he had known



little



adversity



pain.



or disappointment,



of weakness



He was, like the strong man, armed



or of
at all



points; I
fast will;



no difficulty



was too great for



no discouragement could



damp



his sted-



for



more



than a moment



work or of



his joyous



fatigue



spirit; no amount of



seemed to tell upon his



iron



52



to
at



in



of



III _ _ __ I_ _ __I ______ ly____l I__






SEED TIME.



frame.



Now in 1519 a new experience befell him:



he became
perhaps; bi



ill-not violently-not



ut so ill that he



and immediately



the whol



very seriously,



could no longer work,
e face of the world



seemed changed to him.



It was as



if the



very life



of his



life had



been taken



from him.



have rest and change,'



said the



physician;



and rest



and change he was constrained to take.



In a romantic valley amid the



rounded



by



rocks



and torrents



mountains, sur-
and encircling



forests,



were mineral



wells,



known



as the



Baths



of Pfeffers.



To those the overwearied



repaired,



fresh
usual,



to drink



draughts
he found



in with the



of vigour and



and made



pure
life ;



friends.



mountain
and here,
The charm



his manners,



his simple and



unstudied



affability,



so won upon the invalids assembled at the baths,
that he found numerous opportunities of advocat-



ing the
winning,



cause to which



among



he had



other converts



devoted.
to the



his life;
doctrines



of the Reformation



the celebrated



poet



Philip



Ingentinus.



53



'You



must



pine



man



air
as
of



_














CHAPTER VI.

THE VALLEY OF THE SHADOW OF DEATH.

^iT-- HILE Zwingle was still at Pfeffers, sur-
rounded by mountains and cascades, and
the balmy freshness of an Alpine sum-
mer, in August 1519, terrible news was brought
to him. On St. Lawrence's day, the plague, the
black death, the great death, as it is variously
called, had broken out in Zurich.
As usual, in the records of this terrible disease,
the mortality was very great; and the dismay, the
terror, the selfishness it generated, were so extreme,
that it seemed to have power to annihilate the
strongest and most instinctive affections of human
nature. Callous vice and hard-hearted indifference
stalked rampant, side by side with misery. For-
getful of their mutual vows, the wife abandoned
her stricken husband, the husband forsook his
54









X



N



"A.~



7



Au 7



t



A,



It>
'4-



Zwiigle reading the bible at a sick-bed.-Story ofa Noble Life, p. 55.



\* }

ku



~\ \



A



z



~ 'V



4i
: I






VALLEY



OF SHADOW



OF DEA TH.



dying



wife ;



filial and



fraternal



to exist; the mother recognized



spot
deaf



on the bosom
to its feeble,



beseeching



affection
the fatal



wail.



ceased
plague-
aghast,



Every



one



thought only of securing his own safety.



Hundreds



left the city,



Zwingle.
at once



dying and the
characteristic



but no one returned



dead,



energy to combat



this city



the unspeakable



him,



he



of the



horrors



of the



dreadful disease,



tending with kindly



devotion at once the bodies and souls of his stricken
parishioners.



Many a sufferer, deserted in



that awful



hour by



kindred and



friends,



felt his pillow smoothed by



Zwingle's compassionate hand, and heard his



gentle



voice utter those heavenly



to teach the
how to die.



living how



truths,



to live, and



powerful alike
show the dying



His whole time was spent beside the



around him overlooked all considerations of



beds of the



per-



sonal ease; he took no precautions to preserve his



55



of her child, and fled



As soon as the tidings reached



to it except



set out, and re-entering



set himself immediately with



sick.



His anxious desire to alleviate the misery



_ ____





THE



STORY OF ZURICH.



own health.



In vain his friends



urged



him to be



more careful: it was too late,



the plague-spot was



even then



upon



him; he was already



sick unto



death.



Struggling



escaped,



even amid



ward



upon



with



the mind



a malady



from



which



of the great preacher,



so few
vigorous



nature's weakness and pain, turned



itself,



and



the devout communings



his soul found



vent in



a hymn, mournful,



and yet



resigned.



Gradually he



became worse, his



strength was laid



low in the dust, his powers of body and mind began



to grow weak;



he



was brought face to face with



death.



The consternation in



Zurich was extreme,



when it



an angel
about to



became



known



that he,



who had



been



of mercy to the plague-stricken city,



pass away from



it.



Even



amid



like
was



the awful



selfishness engendered



by



despair, men



for



a mo-



ment
him;
daily



ceased



to think



about



themselves



and there was even found a faithful



met in one of the



recovery.
the little



churches to pray



The news of his danger spread at



hamlet



of Wildhaus,



to talk of



few, who



for his
last to



and alarmed



his



56



in-
of



___






VALLEY



OF SHADO W



OF DEA TH.



brethren there.



wrote his
fondly at



'I implore



you



for



news



younger brother Andrew, to whom



;tached, and whom he



of him,'



he was



had sent away from



the infected city.
Still he became



weaker ;



his death



seemed



question not of hours, but of



minutes; and his old



opponent



Hoffman,



a devout



and sincere



Roman



Catholic, believing him dying, could not bear that he



should expire still



professing the errors in which



had lived.



of the



Without delay he went



to the



chapter, Zwingle's superior and



his.



Principal
'Think,



I beseech you,'



he said to him



'of the



peril of this



gifted



soul.



renowned



Think



what



he has said of the



doctors of antiquity, of St.



most



Bonaventura,



of Thomas Aquinas, of Albertus Magnus, and a host



of others.



Has he not affirmed that the doctrines of



these



holy men are little better



than dreams, which



have beguiled



them, when drowsily meditating, with



their



hoods drawn over



corners of their cloisters ?



their eyes, in the



And now



shady



they say he



is



dying,



dying with



such assertions uncontradicted!



Alas for his poor soul!'



'Be at peace, my



brother,'



said the



more en-



57



a



he



__





58 THE STOR Y OF ZURICH.

lightened Principal; 'this is not an hour in which to
fight the battles of Albertus Magnus or St. Bona-
ventura. Let us leave our brother to die in peace.'
His counsel prevailed; Zwingle, stretched on his
bed of pain, was left undisturbed. It was reported
soon that he was dead. The scourge of God,' wrote
one of his friends, 'has won its noblest victim. Our
Ulric is reft from us.' In the universal terror and
dismay of the moment, even his enemies forgot to
rejoice, and joined, or affected to join, in the general
grief. Meanwhile, in the solemn stillness of the
hushed sick -chamber, the fluttering soul had re-
turned from the portals of the grave. It was not
there, not in that quiet room, looking out on that
smiling lake, on those vine-clad slopes, on the fami-
liar snowy peaks of the distant Albis, that the strong
man was to die. It is remarkable that the hymn
which he wrote upon his recovery, while full of
gratitude and thanksgiving, is haunted by a pre-
sentiment of darker days yet in store for him. 'The
hour now delayed must soon again come for me,' he
says; 'perhaps, oh my God! involved in deeper
gloom.' It was as if the awful shadows of Cappel's






VALLEY



OF SHADOW



OF DEA TI.



blood-soaked



heights were around



him even in that



of renewed



life and



strength,



pointing



skeleton:
Peter:



fingers



'Verily



I



to his
say unto



Master's
thee, TI



warning
hey that 1



to St.
take the



sword shall perish by the sword.'



His recovery, when



protracted and



slow.



he did
It was



begin



to amend, was



the beginning



of No-



member



before



first words



anxious h
his letter



he



heartss



he was
wrote



able to hold a



were



at Wildhaus.



awakened



the



pen, and



to the little



There the
t intense



mos



circle



receipt
feelings



the



of
of
of



especially



in the



breast



of his



young



brother



Andrew, the Benjamin of



all his brethren



dear



the family, who was above
o Zwingle. In 1520 this



young man died of the plague, and his elder brother



bemoaned



his loss with passionate



cries and tears,



an excess



of grief which



seemed to



his detrac-



tors-and they were



many-weak, and unworthy of



his position.



Not only in



circle



his



of his friends,



awakened
Faber, the



the most



"Vicar



of the



own family,



the tidings



lively



but amid



of his



sensations



the wide
recovery



of pleasure.



Bishop of Constance,



wrote



hour



59



with



and



r--------



Joy,





THE



S TOR Y



OF ZURICH.



to him, when he



heard



the news:



'Oh, my beloved



Ulric!



what joy is mine,



to learn that you have been



rescued from the jaws of
you were in jeopardy, all
had cause to tremble.



the cruel pestilence.



While



good men everywhere have



Accept



this sharp



sent by God, to stir
after eternal life.'



you up to more earnest striving



This, indeed,



was the effect



danger and deliverance had



which
upon



this imminent
the Reformer.



Hitherto his faith had



been rather the cold belief



the intellect, than the living



motive



power of



now he seemed



to cross,



for the first time,



the mystic threshold



of salvation.



From the



grave



which had
the warm,
preaching,



yawned so close to him, he



ardent,
touched



loving



by



faith



brought back



of the heart.



the fire of heaven,



His



became



more earnest, more winning,



more



nobly



eloquent.



was as if God,



as in the days



of the ancient



prophets, had



deigned visibly to sanctify to Himself



the gifts which



sired to



He had given.



be again at his



Impatiently he de-



post; almost before he was



convalescent,



he had



begun



to work.



Strong



bodily constitution, and unaccustomed to



illness, he



6o



trial



as



life;



of



the



It



in



_






VALLEY



OF SHADOW



OF DEA TH.



was. like Samson



shorn



of his



locks;



he wist



that his strength was gone; and there is a mournful
pathos in his complaints to his friend Myconius, who



had removed to Lucerne.
he wrote on the 30th of
walk about certainly, and



'They tell me I am well,'



November



1519,



eat, and drink, and



but I am a wreck of my former self.
of my old spirit and energy left; my



enfeebled,



I have



memory



that sometimes in preaching



I



'and



I



sleep;
. none
r is so



lose the



thread of my discourse.



The languor that oppresses



me is
man.'



so great, that I



am little



better



than



a dead



Shortly



afterwards,



the visit of



an old friend,



Bunzli, who had been one of his preceptors at Bale,



roused
and a



him from
visit which



his lethargy, and did him



he made



good;



in his company to Bale



was productive of marked benefit to his health,



as usual, increased



the number



of his friends.



friend
to him



made
long



during



that visit,



afterwards:



" Oh,



John



Glother,



wrote



my dear Zwingle,



can never forget thee, or the



thee during



thy



stay



in Bale.



kindness



Thou



displayed by
hast won my



affection



by that



elegance of



manners,



that inde-



61



not



and,



A



_I_ ___ _ _I_ I __





THE



STORY



OF ZURICH.



scribable fascination



L, by which thou



dost subdue all



hearts.'



After a short



reinvigorated



stay in



and refreshed;



he returned
and it was



to Zurich
now that



the struggle between



the



Roman



Catholic and



Reformed



faiths



began



in real earnest



in Switzer-



land.



As Zwingle differed in



some



points



and as erroneous opinions concerning



doctrines are very



from Luther,
some of his



prevalent, it seems desirable



to



show here, from the compendium which he published



of his own



doctrines, what



his teaching



really was.



Man,



he declared,



was doubtless



before



the fall



created



with a free will;



so that,



if he had been



willing, he might have fulfilled the whole law of God.



His nature was pure; and as was the fountain,



was the spring



flowing



rent, however, after the



serpent



passed



through



from
fall;



it.



so



It was very diffe-



then the trail



and defiled



Eden.



of the
Death,



physical and spiritual, was introduced into Paradise;



and Adam,



having sinned,



bequeathed



to all his



descendants the fatal legacy of



hopeless condition



guilt.



of mankind, Christ,



In this sinful,



very man



62



the



_ __ ___ ___



Bale,






VALLEY



OF SHADOW



OF DEATH.



and very God, was born into this



helpless world



renew the lost life of the human soul, and



to



for men an everlasting deliverance. 'He who died
for the human race was eternal God;' His passion,
therefore, is an eternal sacrifice, and has a perpetual



purchase



efficacy.



It satisfies



the divine



justice



for ever,



behalf



of all those who rely upon it with a firm



unshaken



faith.



Again,



it



was with his will that



man sinned;



and it was necessary for



the re-estab-



lishment



of the eternal



order



of things,



and the



salvation of man, that the



human will should in



person



of Christ



give



place to



the divine.



Jesus



died, that



all who should



believe upon Him



true and hearty faith,



might



through



His death



reconciled



to God.



Hence



it follows that



human



works as a means of salvation are worthless.



Salvation



proceeds



alone



from



the merits and



death of Christ;



the idea of merit in our own works



is therefore no
are the fruits,



could have



better than vanity
not the cause, of



and folly.
salvation.



They



If



been saved by penances, or vigils, or



we
the



mortifications



of the



anchorite,



then Christ's



death



would have been unnecessary.



'I am the Way,' He



63



in



and



the



with



a



be



- ------ ---- --- I ---L- -l---LII- -^- ---I---I ----I- --- -----





THE



STORY



OF ZURICH.



said; and all who have ever come to God, have come
to Him by the death of Jesus alone.



The Christian,



being



delivered from



the law, de-



pends entirely on Christ;



therefore



love to the Re-



deemer should



be, is, to



the redeemed, a love more



powerful than the commandments of the moral law.



Christ is his



reason,



his counsel,



his righteousness,



his sanctification,



his whole salvation;



Christ



and moves



in him;



Christ



alone leads



him on his



earthly way, and



he needs



no other



guide



heaven-



ward.



Sweet incense of the soul!



Love to the



deemer is that which alone can make the worthless



sacrifices of earth acceptable to God.



Works done



out of



Christ are worthless;



since every good



work



is done by Him, in



Him,



and through Him, there is



nothing that we can lay claim to ourselves.



Wher-



ever there is



faith in God, there



God abides;



wheresoever



He makes



His abode,



He awakens a



zeal for
works.



His service which constrains men to good
The life of a Christian man ought to be, is,



but one continued good work, begun and carried on
by the Holy Spirit of God.



The doctrines of Zwingle were



thus substantially



64



lives



Re-



and



_ ._.___ _1_1_^_1 __



- -- --- I __






VALLEY OF



SHADOW



OF DEA TH



those of Luther; but the



German and



Swiss



former were at this time utter strangers-they had



never even addressed a line to each other.



Each had



found his faith in the



teachings



of the Lord



Jesus



Christ recorded in the Gospels.



'And that we agree



so closely,'
uniformity



Zwingle once said,



'is



of the testimony of the



who has awakened



in this man's



a proof
Spirit c



heart



the



of the
>f God,



same



emotions as in mine.'



As was



to be expected,



the preaching



at once so powerful and so faithful,



created



a pro-



found



impression in



Zurich.



The cathedral, al-



though a spacious building, was too small to contain



the crowds who



flocked



to hear him.



It was as if



the miracle in the valley of vision was repeated :



bones



of the ecclesiastical



polity



again



flesh and shape, and,



instinct with new life, sent up a



song of thanksgiving and praise to heaven.



'It is a noble courage,' wrote one of



his friends



BAle, 'yea,



truly a divine and



with which thou hast armed thyself;



noble courage,
as far as I have



strength, I will follow thee.'



'I have listened



to thy
E



teaching,'



was the testi-



65



Re-



of a



man



dry



the



took



from






THE



S TOR Y



OF Z URICH.



mony of another; God grant that Zurich, the



of our Swiss confederacy, may through



all those



blessings which



follow in



thee receive
the train of



righteousness and peace.'
This was the witness borne to him by his friends;



but a man so distinguished had,



of course, many



enemies.



Some of these



found fault with the



eminent
country.



part which
Those in



he took



terested



in the politics



in the



of his



foreign service-



and they were



many were



particularly



bitter



against



him;



and in various ways they



contrived



to give him so much trouble,



that he was sometimes



almost



on the point



him seemed



Hydra



to have



of classic story.



of despair. TI
as many heads



As soon



ie evil around
as the fabled



as



he had



cut



off one, another started



breathing



up,



fierce



and menacing,



out threatening and slaughter.



moment, some hard-won



victory cheered



If, for a
him, close



upon its heels followed an unlooked-for defeat, which



again dashed all his hopes to the ground.
distressed, almost wearied out, a natural



Harassed,
sympathy



often directed his thoughts towards Luther, who was



fighting, in circumstances even more difficult,



the



66



head



pro-



~--a



I






VALLEY



OF SHADOW



OF DEATH.



hard battle



Kaiser,



of the faith.



he could say



Banned



by



of his brother



Pope



and



Reformer,



'Although things be so with him, still I do



not fear



for Luther;



he will



conquer,



in spite



of all the



thunderbolts of the Romish Jupiter.'
The same stedfast courage came to h
his fits of depression were very short.



Lis own aid;



'Life



warfare,' he would say, 'why should I dread it ?



win glory, one must not spare labour, or



is



a



To



be afraid



of hard knocks.
enemy, and force



We must use the world



this haughty



as our



Goliath, exulting



in



his strength,



to bite the dust.'



The church



God's



sanctified



and redeemed



church, was purchased



at first with blood, and by



blood it must



labours



be restored,



manifold, by



by



blood



the sacrifice



and tears,



of all which



by
the



natural heart holds dear.



_ __






..-.......- - --.. --- = ,

, a, l'-C-APTER VIT





CHAPTER VII.



STRUGGLE



AND STRIFE.



ARASSED by the fierce incessant struggle
in which his life was passed, Zwingle had



again need



of rest;



and to find it he



went to Baden, from whence he returned, refreshed
in health and spirits, to win the most decided success
which had yet attended his labours.
Many of the magistrates of Zurich had been con-



verted to the reformed faith.



These men found, like



all true Christians, comfort and instruction in the



Bible.



The Book of God was dear to them, and it



grieved them that the priests and monks in their
sermons altogether ignored it, and, instead of re-
ferring to it for the matter of their discourses, spun



out legends more or less absurd about



apocry-



phal saints, or hermits whose claim to sanctity too
often rested on a love of filth, and contempt for the
68






STR UGGLE



AND



S TRI FE.



common comforts and



stop, if



decencies of life.



'



possible, to the glorification of such



:o put a
pitiable



saints, the



Council issued an ordinance, enjoining all



preachers to deliver nothing



in the pulpit



but what



they had found among the treasures of the Old and
New Testament.



It was an epoch in



the Swiss



Reformation



marked the moment when



the sacred



truths



which



had been long



of the



agitating



masses, began



and convulsing



to be the impulse ai



the souls
nd spring



which moved to action the great heart of the nation.



This tide of



truth had



gradually



been



rising un-



observed; and now in a moment, unexpectedly,



suddenly dashed



over the barrier, and carried before



it tumultuously the prejudices of centuries.



In the Papal ranks all was at first



confusion



dismay.
monks;



'To preach the word of



'how can wve do that,



God!' quoth the



when most of



us have



never read it ?'



It seemed



Zwingle.
were not



to them an easier plan to get



It was an



unfamiliar



age in



either



which



priestly



with the poisoner's



rid of
hands



cup



or the assassin's



dagger; and



the monks of



Zurich



69



and



it



and



_YI I ___I_ I___






THE



STORY



OF Z URICH.



were not better



than their



fellows.



Plots



laid for the life of the



popular



preacher,



seen horrors



rescued from



thickened



the jaws



around
of the



him.



plague,



Had he been



only



that he



might
b



fall thus ignobly, a



prey



to the bravo's



knife or the crafty poisoner's



cup



of death ?



time it seemed



SO.



Often,



after



nightfall,



a knock



would



opened,



be heard



some



at the door;



trusty



burgher



a face full of mystery



and when



would



and terror.



it



appear,
'Have



strong



bolts



on your



doors ?'



he would



ask in



terrified
armed ?'



whisper.



These



SOr are
questions



you



being



sure you



answered,



are well



there



would
night;'
sneak
Staheli



come



an emphatic



and then the



off,



'Be



on your



Nicodemus-like



and the preacher



and Luti,



guard to-



friend



would



and his assistants,



who lived with him,



would



main



up half the



night in



momentary



expectation



of an attack.



In this precarious



position



they



remained



some til
armed a
snatches,



ne,



like soldiers



t night,
until th(



and only



)n guard
daring



magistrates,



continually



to sleep



coming



by



to their



70



were



and



Un-



For



a



was
with
you



a



re-



for



_ ______






STRUGGLE AND



S TRIFE.



assistance,
the house.



placed



a guard



in the



street



opposite



The state



of



danger and



uncertainty,



however,



in which he passed his



life, instead of damping, only



raised



to



a fresh



pitch



zealous soul of Zwingle.



of ardour



and



courage



Week by week, and



the
day



by day, he



On Friday,



became more unwearied



the



peasants



from



in his labours.



all the country



districts around



brought



butter,



cheese,



fruit,



vege-



tables, poultry, and



whatever their



farms



produced,



to the



market



at Zurich.



These poor people



very ignorant;



from



their own



priests



they



could



learn little which it was useful



Zwingle



to know.



help them ?' was the question



now put to him.



worked



' Would



whict



The answer was 'Yes.'



as he was already, he would



find



h was
Over-
some



time for them



also; and



accordingly,



began



to expound



on Friday



the book



of Psalms



especially for the
He also devoted



benefit



of his



much attention



peasant



to



the



friends.
young,



over whom



enabled
youths,



the winning



him to



whom he



exercise



cordiality



great



of his



influence.



had trained with the



manners
Several



most



assi-



71



were



in



1520,



he



_ ____ __





72 THE STORY OF ZURICH.

duous and earnest care, leaving Zurich in many
capacities, as students, as merchants, as school-
masters, as noblemen travelling for pleasure, became
so many centres of light in the towns through which
they passed. In Bale, in Lucerne, in Berne, the
gospel was thus preached. Zurich no longer stood,
as at first, alone; all was going on well, when, in
1521, the Pope and the French king again went
to war, and discord, contention, and strife were
kindled, as before, in the Swiss cantons.
The majority of the Confederacy adhered to the
French king; Zurich alone stood aloof, joining
neither party, inactive while all the others were
arming at the call of their French ally.
At this crisis, Matthew Schinner, the Cardinal of
Sion, arrived in the city. It was such a juncture as
he loved: adroit, supple, proud of his dexterity and
eloquence, he loved to work the unseen strings of
intrigue, and influence men silently in an indirect,
underhand way. His object now was to recruit for
the army of his master, the Pope; and that he might
obtain a numerous levy of soldiers, he was not indis-
posed to try his old flattering arts upon his former






STRUGGLE



AND



STRIFE.



friend Zwingle.



vain.



But all his wiles were expended in



Zwingle would make no compromise, would



come to no understanding



with him.



In the most



earnest and indignant terms, he



denounced him and



his mission.



'Do not listen



to these



intrigues,'



cried.
asunder



' Do you not see that they are about to rend



the Confederation,-that they are about



to



arm brother against brother,



Swiss



against



Swiss ?



I see those Italian battle-plains, which have so often



run red with the blood



of our countrymen;



them
stance



arrayed
of war.



again



I



in all the pomp



mark



the standards



and circum-



of the



Pope



and the Emperor;



I mark



beside theirs the



banner



of Zurich.



bands



against



Alas,



what



of Zurichers



their



do I



rushing



brethren of the



see further ?
with levelled



other



cantons;



I



see



pikes
blood



flows like
hearths of
that the P(
of France.



water



in the fratricid



our fatherlar
ope may glut
We give



id are made
his hatred a



chase



1 strife. The
desolate, only
against the king



to the wolves that



ravage our flocks ;



but we set no guard



upon those



who prowl



around



us to devour



our brethren.



is not without



good reason that



the robes and hats



73



he



I



see



It



_ _____II __I



*





YHE



STORY



OF ZURICH.



of these cardinals



are dyed red.



If you but twitch



garments, ducats



grasp



them



are dripping



and crowns will fall out;



tightly,



and



you



with blood -the



but



will find that



blood



of



your



brothers, of your fathers, of your sons.'



This eloquent



the levy:



pression ;
hundred



protest



it produced,



but in spite



of the



did not prevail



no doubt,



of it,



men of Zuri



to prevent



a certain



two thousand seven
ch marched to the



aid of the Pope,



under



the command



of George



Berguer.



The Papal



political t
Zwingle i
courses, in



contingent



unrest
began
which



the precepts



having



and turmoil



a series



of



he showed



and teaching



left the city,



calmed
very in



down;
structive



the difference



of the



gospel,



the
and
dis-



between
and the



corrupt human teaching around him.



Lent



having



come



on, he applied



himself



rously



Catholic



and successfully



obligation



to



show



of refraining



that the Roman



from



flesh



at that



season had no warrant in Scripture.



forbidden



it ;



God had never



and those who accounted it a grievous



crime



to eat flesh in Lent,



did not scruple



74



their
only
they



vigo-



to



__ __ __ __



im-






STR UGGLE



AND



STRIFE.



sell their



brethren



to



be butchered by



foreigners.



While



using



these



bold words,



he still, however,



observed the



rules of the



Church:



he continued to



say mass, and himself abstained from eating flesh on



the appointed days. 'I ha
there is no sin in eating



ave no doubt,' he said,



flesh every day;



' that



but until



the question is settled by some competent authority,
it is better perhaps to abstain from whatever may



offence.'



These



words were at once taken



advantage



of by



his enemies.



'If he wants an



authoritative



have
took



deliverance on the



it,' they exclaimed;



themselves
A



Constance.



with



subject,



and they



all speed



To him they



he shall.



forthwith



to the Bishop



be-



of



represented the urgent



circumstances of



the



case.



'This



man,



who has



established



they



said;



himself
'he is



If



in Zurich,



is not the pastor,'



the destroyer of the Lord's



flock.



His influence is well nigh



paramount,



and it is



constantly
blow is no



increasing;



t struck



now,



if



a prompt and decisive



it will be for ever too late



to attempt it.'
To this advice



the Bishop



was not disinclined



to listen; it agreed with his secret inclinations, and



75



give



_ C _ __ __






THE



STORY OF



ZURICH.



flattered



that



arrogance



and love of power which



ever been



so characteristic



of the higher



member.
fancied



very easy;



order



it would



s of the Roman C
also that the work



he had



to silence



require



for



atholic
require



no doubt,



only



hierarchy.
:d of him



He
was



to frown,



ever this ambitious



no great



effort



to stamp



in



priest;
out the



feeble



flame which



his officious



zeal had



begun



kindle in Zurich.



A



76



have



to



__ ____ _I____ _ I __ __ I_ __ __



I






"--~~~-' ---------
--- -. 4'-..-
-j~l cvi 'I '2"
^J\ ~ ~ ~ 'J ^__ '__ ^_ _.^ jjixuu~
t' pr77- ~ ~-p- 77T *
li cly - III -'-'-
-a<-
Iloll



CHAPTER VIII.



A BISHOP'S



INTERDICT.



EMPEST
the he;
7th of



now began



to growl



of the Reformer.



April 1522,



three



person



around
On the
s in the



dress of ecclesiastics entered the town of Zurich.



These,



it



was soon found, formed



an embassy



the Bishop.



The first two who composed



it-Melchior



Battli,



the Bishop's



coadjutor,



Doctor



Brendi-were



austere,



arrogant,



self-assum-



priests;



the third, John



Farmer,



a pious



gentle
notary



assembly
following



man, w
was at



7as preacher



to the cathedral.



once sent round to



of the clergy



day,



did not know



at an early



in the chapter-hou
of it until late in



convoke



hour



A
an



on the



Zwingle alone



the evening, when



a friend
officers



came



had



in breathless



arrived



haste



to tell him that



from the Bishop, and that



77



from



ing



and



and






THE



STORY



OF ZURICH.



without
struck.



doubt



some



great



blow



was about to



It was an anxious night, but



the Reformer was



not dismayed.



In the morning



the assembly



held;



and as soon as it was opened, Melchior Battli,



the Bishop's



coadjutor,



stood



up, and



delivered



speech,



which was at once ignorant, arrogant,



exceedingly violent.



What



he lacked in reasoning,



he made



up in abuse;



but throughout



he did not



once mention



Zwingle



by name: it was the



doctrines against



which



he inveighed,



with such



effect,



that many



of the



younger



converts



heard him faltered and turned pale.



Zwingle



alone



did not wince.



As



soon as his



opponent
livered a



had ceased speaking, he rose



n address, so noble,



and de-



so eloquent, so



full



of spirit stirring



truths, that



even Battli



made



no attempt



to



answer,



but abruptly



closed



meeting.



He had lost his cause in



clergy;



the assembly of



the



but in the smaller of the two great councils



of the city there were many



the new doctrines: if he could



violent



only get



opponents



the



of



matter



78



be



was



a



and



new



who



the



_I _






A BISHOP'S



INTERDICT.



settled there,



he could



so contrive,



he thought,



it should go against Zwingle.



was a critical



moment.



Without



an hour's



delay,



he carried



his complaints



before



the magis-



trates,
council



and desired them
SIf he should s



to assemble the



succeed



smaller



the



future was easy:



the Reformation and the Reformer



would



perish



together,



unheard,



and without



possibility of an appeal.
Had God abandoned



reformed asked



of



The coadjutoi



His infant



one another.
r was already



church ?



the



It almost seemed
triumphant, when



some



councillors,



who



were



friendly



to the



cause



of truth, appealed to the



jurisdiction of the



Council



of Two Hundred.



was in vain that the coadjutor



and his col-



leagues



resisted



this appeal.



It



was impossible



republican
a hand ac
Germany;
the great
endeavour



Zurich



to carry



s in priest-ridden



there v
Council.



to exclude



matters



Rom



from



"with



do



so high



was to



the assembly.



In this they were



successful.



The Council signed



79



It



that



in that, then



the



so.



It



in



vas no resource



e or aristocratic
but to assemble



All that they could



Zwingle



_ __






THE



STORY



OF ZURICH.



an order forbidding



and although
rescinded, he



him to enter



he struggled



hard



could not succeed,



the Council Hall;
to get this order



but was forced



to



submit.
at every
unturned



' Thereupon,'
human door



I



he tells



us, 'having knocked



in vain, and



left not a stone



desisted, and with heavy sighs laid



matter before my God,



beseeching Him to save



imperilled gospel.'



In due time this prayer was answered.



In the



month of April the



great Council



of Two



Hundred



assembled,
initiative.



and Zwingle's



'We



must



friends



have our



at once took the



pastors



here,'



said, 'to answer for themselves.'



The members
violently to this;



of the smaller



but the



others



Council



were



firm,



objected



and it



was finally determined



that the pastors should not



only be present, but
if they thought fit.



should



have the right



of reply



At this



emissaries



stage



of the



were ushered



proceedings,



in,



and were



the Bishop's
immediately,



to their consternation and



surprise, followed by the



three curates



of Zurich-Zwingle,



Engelhard,



Boeschli



who was an old



and feeble man.



When



80



the
His



they



and






A BISHOP'S INTERDICT.



the whole



party were seated, the



champion



of the



Papacy rose, and fixing his eyes upon the assembled
senators, began a speech full of violence and ground-



less accusations.



'These newly invented



doctrines



which some men amongst us teach,'



he said,



equally



abominable



and seditious; they



threaten



the Christian religion and the civil constitution alike



with ruin. Oh, senators of Zurich,



continue in the



Church!



Out of the Church no one can be



saved.



The ceremonies of the



Church alone can bring un-



learned



Christians



to the knowledge



of salvation;



and the pastors of the



flock



have



nothing



to do



but to explain



the meaning of these ceremonies to



the people.'
As soon as



this speech was finished,



he



with his colleagues,



prepared



to leave



the Council



Hall; but
to remain,



Zwingle,



rising,



earnestly



and give him an opportunity of refuting



the charges which he had brought against him.
This the coadjutor resolutely refused to do.



was not there,'



he said,



man.'



'I pray



you,' said the burgomaster
F



Roust,



'listen



'are



at once,



besought him



'to dispute



'He
any



with



_ __ __






THE



S TORY



OF Z URICH.



to what the curate has to say in reply to wIat
have just said against him.'



Again he



reiterated



his refusal



and was. .about to



leave



the hall,



when a murmur of disapprobation



around him made him hesitate.



Upon



this the burgomaster renewed



his remon-



strances ;



and discontented, enraged, bent on escap-



could,



he was



yet forced to return



to his



seat, and listen in turn to Zwingle's speech.



One after another the
stations against him, and



Reformer took up the accu-
proved them to be ground-



' Of what



use,'



he said,



'are those forms and



ceremonies which



we have



just



heard



so highly



commended ?



They serve but to disfigure the linea-



ments



of Christ,



and mislead



His followers.



vain observances never brought, can never



the unlearned



multitude to the knowledge



Such
bring,
of the



Saviour.



There



is another



and



a better way-our



Lord



Himself



pointed



it out to us:



it is through



the gospel, and



the gospel alone, that we can come



Jesus with a saving faith.



With



regard



to absti-



nence from food, if any man thinks fasting conducive



to his spiritual health, let him



fast.



If he



thinks



82



you



ing



if he



less.



to



____ __ __ __ __ __ _






A BISHOP'S



INTERDICT.



the forty



the



year



days
if lhe



of Lent insufficient,



will. All I



contend



let him



for is,



fast all



that



no



one shall be compelled to



"The



foundation of the



Church



is Christ;



and in



every



nation, he who believes



with all



his heart



on the Lord Jesus Christ, is accepted of God.



'Here, truly,
can be saved.



is the Church



out of which



As for ceremonies, let



no one



those



who



live by them make it their business to explain them.



To explain the gospel, and to obey
of the duty of a minister of Christ.'



it,



is the



A hot flush



of rage passed



face as he listened, but



over the coadjutor's



he remained silent;



there



was nothing in the



faces



around



him to induce



to hope



for such



a deliverance in favour



of the ob-



servance of Lent as he desired.



Nor in effect was it



passed.



Later



in the day it was



resolved



to leave



the matter as it stood, till the Pope and the Cardinals
could be consulted upon the point in dispute.



This was in appearance a drawn



battle ;



but in



reality
a man
gained.



the victory was with
to neglect to follow



Zwingle,
up any



who was
advantage



Meanwhile his old enemy, Canon Hoffman,



83



fast.'



sum



him



not
he



i
"R~"-------------------- -- --- --- ----------1-----xl.l .. ----_.I-I



r., ,, .
A -' ,.
-Aim.!jut-.





THE



STOR Y



OF ZURICH.



alarmed



at the spread



the field against him. He a
homily to the chapter, full



of his opinions,



again



took



addressed a long written
of accusations against



Zwingle, which the Reformer demolished with much



the same ease with



winds



a handful



which



a child



of thistle-down.



scatters
He did



to the
more :



he turned the general laugh



his opponent;



of the



chapter against



and Hoffman, sensitive and



reserved,



slunk



out of the



arena.



Henceforth



the Church



might stand or fall for him!



On the 16th of April, Zwingle published a treatise
On the Free Use of Meats.



Luther was at this time in the



Wartburg,



seriously withdrawn for a season from his proud posi-
tion as the Apostle of the Reformation in Germany;



and many a



wistful glance was directed by



German



believers towards



Was this bold



man,



whose



Zurich



and its pastor.



unconquerable



firmness



was steadily



carrying



before it all obstacles, chosen



and anointed of God to lead the van of His Church's



battles-a captain and



head



in the place of him



whom



they



had lost ?



They were at times almost



content to think so.



84



mys-



the






A BISHOP'S



INTERDICT.



The deputies



back to



of the Bishop, meanwhile,



had



gone



Constance to carry to their master the news



of their defeat; and those dishonourable agents, which



the Papacy in its need has
ploy, again came into play.



pared for the



seldom



hesitated to em-



A potent poison was pre-



Reformer, and friendly letters warned



him of the fact. 'Partake



of no



food but



own house,'



he was



told.



' Eat no



bread



but what



your own cook has



was stopped



by



baked.'



a chaplain,



Staheli,



his assistant,



who earnestly



adjured



him to leave Zwingle's



house



with all speed.



catastrophe,' he said, 'is at hand;
there, you will be involved in it.'



In spite



and if you remain



of all these machinations against his life,



Zwingle went out and came in unharmed. It was
as with the ancient Hebrew prophet at Dothan: an
unseen body-guard from the Lord encompassed him;



and his enemies, despairing



by assassination,



of attaining



their



end



again took up the more legitimate



weapons which they had dropped in disgust.



Tidings



reached



Zwingle



from



every



side that the war was



about to be renewed.



'God is my



helper,'



he said



with that stedfast



85



in



your



'A





86



THE STORY OF ZURICH.



faith which many afflictions failed to quench-' God
is my helper; and with Him on my side, I fear them
as little as the crag fears the waves which surge and
swell around its base.'
On the 2d of May the Bishop of Constance
issued a mandate, complaining that certain persons
in his diocese were reviving doctrines which had
been long ago condemned, and were irreverently
discussing the most exalted mysteries of the faith,



even with unlearned persons.
although much was insinuated
was not mentioned by name.



In this document,
against him, Zwingle
Towards the end of



May, however, the Bishop addressed a letter to
the canons of Zurich, among whom, as he was well
aware, the Reformer had many enemies. 'Sons of
the Church,' wrote the prelate,' I adjure you to
stifle those pernicious doctrines which are being
preached among you. Do not suffer them to be
discussed either in private or in public. Let those
perish who will perish, but let no one entice you
to leave the Church.'
This missive was read in full chapter, and very
naturally every eye turned upon Zwingle. 'I see,'






A BISHOP'S INTERDICT.



87



he said, 'that you consider that this letter has special



reference to me ;



be pleased



to deliver



it to me,



then, and by God's help I will answer it.'



To the treatise which he



wrote in reply



he gave



the name of Archeteles,
once the beginning and



a Greek word signifying at
the end,-thereby declaring



his hope that his first reply would also be his last.



In this answer he



defended



himself firmly, but in



respectful terms,



protesting that



his only



offence



that he had endeavoured to open



men's eyes



to the peril of their souls, and had laboured to bring



them to a knowledge



of the



only



true God, and of



His Son Jesus



Christ.



'As for your pompous



burdensome ceremonies,'



already sealed;



all



your



he added,
efforts will



'their doom



not avert



their



fate. Be yours, then, the part to speed
table transition from darkness to light.'



the inevi-



Such a reply did



morning



not please the Bishop.



his council of war to his aid



Sum-



he laid it be-



fore them, and it was unanimously



resolved,



as milder measures had failed, severer ones must be



resorted
struck ;



to at once.



A vigorous



blow



must



be



but how ?-that was the puzzling question.



was,



and



is



that






THE



STORY



OF ZURICH.



every



turn the



free institutions



of Switzerland



met and



impeded



the would-be



persecutors.



Cast-



around



their eyes in much



perplexity, they



thought



themselves at last



of the Diet,



the great



General Council of the whole Swiss nation.



Deputies



from



the Bishop accordingly



appeared



before



this assembly,



and presented a complaint



from



him,



tain priests
discourses



to the effect th;
Sin his diocese



pernicious



at he had forbidden cer-
to introduce into their



and innovating doctrines



in



religion, and



that not the



slightest



attention



been paid to his prohibition.
The Diet, as he very well knew,



dined to redress



were



not disin-



his grievances if they could.



tide in this general council of



The



the nation set as yet



against the reformed



religion;



before, the assembly had



issue(



and but a short time
d a decree requiring



all priests to desist from preaching, as their sermons
tended only to stir up useless discussions.



This success filled



with joy,
painful p(



and placed



position.



superstition:



the Roman
the Council



The Diet had sided



how were they to



act?



Catholic party



of Zurich



in



a



with the old
It seemed



88



At



ing
Z>



had



--






A BISHOP'S



INTERDICT.



to them an



impossible thing



to



oppose



it,



and on



the 7th



of June



they also psssed a resolution for-



bidding any one to preach against the monks.



This



created such dissatisfaction, that in order, if possible,



to compose matters, the council appointed



a com-



mittee to inquire into



the affair.



Before



mittee the



preachers



and their



monkish adversaries



were summoned, and a



very keen debate



ensued.



'I claim,' said



Zwingle,



'the right of



preaching the



gospel



freely.



I am bishop and pastor of Zurich,



and it is to me the cure of souls



If I



preach



has been



any doctrine contrary



to



confided.
the holy



gospel,



I



desire



to be rebuked,



not only



chapter, but by any private citizen.
'And we,' contended the monks,



'demand on our



part liberty to preach the doctrines of St. Thomas.'



The committee,



after carefully



considering



subject,



decided



in favour



of Zwingle,



and de-



termined



that the holy gospel



alone should



preached, leaving the doctrines of St. Thomas to such
as should choose to search for them in his books.



This decision gave



of the canons,



the greatest offence to many



particularly to the Italian members



89



this



corn-



by



the



the



be



_ __