• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Board of control and station...
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Introduction and early experimental...
 Object
 General plan of the experiment
 Diagram I. Showing general plan...
 Diagram II. Showing the materials...
 Detailed plan of fertilizer...
 Changes made in 1905
 Notes kept on the progress of the...
 Diagram III. Showing size of crop...
 A study of the crop of 1903
 Table III. Showing increase of...
 Crop of 1904
 Crop of 1905 and the freeze of...
 Remarks
 Table IV. Analyses of pineapples...
 Recommendations and conclusion...
 Acknowledgement














Group Title: Pineapple culture
Title: Pineapple culture III. Fertilizer experiments.
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00047767/00003
 Material Information
Title: Pineapple culture III. Fertilizer experiments.
Series Title: Pineapple culture
Translated Title: Bulletin - UF Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. 83 ( English )
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Miller, H. K.
Blair, A. W.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1906
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00047767
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 407
    Board of control and station staff
        Page 408
    Table of Contents
        Page 409
    List of Illustrations
        Page 410
    Introduction and early experimental work
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
    Object
        Page 414
    General plan of the experiment
        Page 415
    Diagram I. Showing general plan of the experiment
        Diagram 1
    Diagram II. Showing the materials used, actual plant food applied to each plot, percentage composition, pounds per acre of fertilizers used on the various plots
        Diagram 2
    Detailed plan of fertilizer application
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
    Changes made in 1905
        Page 419
    Notes kept on the progress of the experiment
        Page 420
        Plate XX
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Plate XXI
        Page 423
        Page 424
    Diagram III. Showing size of crop for the years 1903, 1904 and 1905
        Diagram 3
    A study of the crop of 1903
        Page 425
    Table III. Showing increase of 24s and decrease of 42s as fertilizer is increased, crop of 1903
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Plate XXII
        Plate XXIII
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Plate XXIV
        Plate XXV
    Crop of 1904
        Page 431
    Crop of 1905 and the freeze of 1905
        Page 432
        Plate XXVI
    Remarks
        Page 433
    Table IV. Analyses of pineapples from experiment plot
        Page 434
    Recommendations and conclusions
        Page 435
        Page 436
    Acknowledgement
        Page 437
Full Text







L

















BOARD OF CONTROL.

N. P. BRYAN, Chairman .............. Jacksonville, Fla.
P. K. YONGE .................. .... Pensacola, Fla.
*N. ADAMS ................. .. White Springs, Fla.
A. L. BROWN ......... .. ...... ...... Eustis, Fla.
T. B. KING ....................... Arcadia, Fla.


STATION STAFF.

P. H. RoLrs, M. S. .................. ...... Director
fC. M. CONNER, B. S......... Vice-Director and Agriculturist
EDWARD R. FLINT, B. S., Ph. D. M. D. .......... Chemist
E. H. SELLARDS, M. A., Ph. D............. Entomologist
CHAS F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S .... Consulting Veterinarian
A. W. BLAIR, A. M.............. .. .. Assistant Chemist
B. H. BRIDGES, B. S .. ............ Assistant Chemist
A. H. CHAPMAN, B. S....... Assistant in Field Experiments
H. S. FAWCETT, B. S ... Assistant Botanist and Horticulturist
L. HASEMAN, B. S............... Assistant Entomologist
W. P. Jr'r:;.'_. .. .......... Auditor and Bookkeeper
L. C. ALGEE ....................... Stenographer
JOHN F. MITCHELL ............ Foreman Station Farm
F. M. STEARNS ....... .Gardener, Horticultural Department
*Resigned.
tSuperintendent of Farmers' Institutes.




















'CONTENTS.


Introduction ............................................... 411'
Early Experimental Work ....................................... 411
Object ....................... ....................... .. 414
Diagram I .......... .....................................
General Plan of the Experiment ............... .................. 415.
Table I-Analysis of Soil and Sub-soils from Experiment Plot ....... 415.
Diagram II ................................... ..... ..........
Detailed Plan of Fertilizer Application ............................ 416-
Table II-Analysis of the Pineapple-Plant and Fruit ............... 416.
Changes Made in 1905 ............................................ ..419.
Notes Kept on the Progress of the Experiment ...................... 420,
Diagram III ........................................... ..
A Study of the Crop of 1903 ................................... 425.
Table III-Showing Increase of 24s and Decrease of 42s as Fertilizer
is Increased-Crop of 1903 ............ ........................ 426
Crop of 1904 ....................... ................... ... 431
Crop of 1905 ............................. ....................... 432
The Freeze of 1905 .............................. .............. 432
Remarks ......................................... .............. 433
Table IV-Analyses of Pineapples From Experiment Plot ........... 434
Recommendations and Conclusions ................................. 435
Acknowledgments ............................ .................. 43Z


























ILLUSTRATIONS.


Prontispiece-Under the Shed.
Plot No. 8............................................. Plate XX
Plot No. 12................ .......................Plate XX
Plot No. 20..................... ...... ............Plate XXI
Plot No. 28 ... ........... ........................... Plate XXI
Plot No. 36. ..................... ....................Plate XXII
Plot No. 44 .................. ...........................Plate XXII
Plot No. 53............................................Plate XXIII
Plot No. 64........... .................. ................ Plate XXIII
Plot No. 65 ................ .. ...... .................. Plate XXIV
Plot No. 69 ............................... ............Plate XXIV
Plot No. 73 .................. ........................... Plate XXV
Plot No. 77 ... ......................... ..............Plate XXV
Plot No. 83.................. .................... ....... Plate XXVI
Plot No. 89....... ............... ...................... Plate XXVI











PINEAPPLE CULTURE III

Fertilizer Experiments.


H. K. MILLER and A. W. BLAIR.


INTRODUCTION.
It would perhaps be difficult to say just when commercial
fertilizers were first used for pineapples, but it is safe to say that
they were not very extensively used before about 1890 or 1891;
and in this connection it is interesting to note that the pineapple
industry in Florida has had its growth largely since that time.
There is little doubt that Capt. Richards, one of the pioneers
of the pineapple industry on the East Coast, used commercial
fertilizers as early as some time in the '80's, though we have no
record of any comparative tests so early as this.
Dr. L. C. Washburn, reporting from the Fort Myers sub-
station in a bulletin' issued July 1st, 1891, says: "I would set the
rows three feet apart, north and south, opened out with two fur-
rows. I would put well rotted muck, marl, stable manure or sea
graps freely in the trenches, and spade it up and mix well with
the soil, pulled in from each side." And further along in the same
report he says: "If planted with suckers, hoe in the fertilizers
between the rows in six months, but if planted with slips, hoe in'
fertilizers between the rows in one year, so the feeder roots can
reach it." However he does not tell us what kind of fertilizer he
-would use.
EARLY EXPERIMENTAL WORK.
In 1892 Dr. Washburn began some comparative fertilizer
tests at the Ft. Myers sub-station, report of which is made in
bulletin No. 27 Fla. Expt. Station. These were not very suc-
cessful, however, and appear to have been discontinued after the
summer of 1894. In discussing the subject of fertilizers Dr.
Washburn says: "The pineapple is a voracious feeder. It re-
quires heavy fertilizing; nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash
1 Bulletin No. 14, Florida Experiment Station, July 1st, 1891.










Bulletin No. 83


*are all required in generous amounts. Perhaps the following
manures are the best sources from which to obtain these require-
mnents: poultry manure, stable manure, guano, blood and bone,
bone meal, cottonseed meal, acid phosphate, sulphate of potash
and well rotted muck. If compost is used, it should be well rotted
and ready for assimilation. Compost undergoing fermentation
will destroy the feeder roots."
On some of his experiment plots Dr. Washburn used a com-
post made as follows:
Dark cottonseed meal............................................... 1,000 lbs.
K ainit.................................................................... 500 "
Acid phosphate................... ...... ... ................. 500 "
Blood and Bone....................................................... 500 "
Cow M anure ...........................................................2,000 "
On one of the plots receiving this compost at the rate of six
tons per acre, more than half tilh plants were affected with "long
leaf," which he attributes to fermentation of the compost. How-
ever, in the light of more recent experiments one would probably
attribute some of the bad effects, at least, to the kainit and acid
phosphate. Another plot which received this compost, at the rate
of two tons per acre, taken from the top of fhe pile, and in ad-
dition, a top dressing of hen manure, is reported as a complete
success. Still another, which received five tons per acre and was
mulched with salt marsh grass, proved a failure. A plot fertilized
with cottonseed meal one and one-half tons per acre, and kainit
five hundred pounds per acre, is a so reported as a failure. It is
perhaps due Dr. Washburn to state that he expressed his disap-
proval of the above-mentioned compost for pineapples, and adds
that it was not of his choosing.
Further comparative tests were not made until the winter of
1897-8, when a rather extensive experiment was begun by Prof.
P. H. Rolfs, then Biologist and Horticulturist to this Station, on
the lands of Ballentine and Moore, at Jensen on the Indian
River. The results of this experiment were published in bulletin
No. 502 of the Station. The bulletin gives the general plan,
details and results of the work, and conclusions which were
drawn from the results. Different forms of phosphoric acid,
nitrogen and potash were used alone and in combination. A study
was made of the effect of fertilizers upon leaf area and upon
2 Pineapple Fertilizers, P. H. Rolfs, Florida Station, Bulletin No. 50.










Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


freeze resistance of the plants. A table of fruit picked from some
of the plots in June 1899 is given. On the basis of the experiment
the author suggests a plan for fertilizing pineapples in Florida
and draws a number of conclusions, among which may be men-
tioned the following:
"The fertilizers used to furnish ammonia stand in the fol-
lowing order, beginning with the best: (1) blood and bone, (2)
nitrate of soda, (3) cottonseed meal, (4) su'phate of ammonia."
"Potash salts stand in the following order: (1) potassium-
magnesium carbonate, (2) low grade sulphate of potash, (3) high
grade sulphate of potash, (4) muriate of potash, (5) kainit."
"Bone meal is very much better than acid phosphate."
"A fertilizer analyzing 4 per cent. ammonia, 6 per cent.
potash and 1 per cent. phosphoric acid is nearer correct than the
normal one taken as an arbitrary basis on which to begin work."
"There is a certain amount of ammonia, of potash and of
phosphoric acid, which, if applied to the soil, proves of greatest
benefit to the plants; any variation, either a decrease or an in-
crease of any one or more of these fertilizers, will be disadvanta-
geous."
"The amount of ammonia, of potash and of phosphoric acid
which may be applied to the soil to produce the best results varies
with the different sources from which it is obtained."
"There is a certain amount of ammonia, of potash and of
phosphoric acid which produces the greatest freeze resistance in
pineapple plants; any increase or decrease of any one or more
of the ingredients produces a less freeze resistant plant."
"Freeze resistance varies with sources from which the am-
monia and potash are obtained."
The experiment was discontinued after about 18 months.
Fertilizer experiments conducted in Queensland3 in 1899
indicated that pineapples were much benefitted by the application
of a mixture of soluble nitrogenous and phosphatic materials,
but contrary to the results obtained by the Fla. Station, up to that
time, potash seemed to have little if any effect.
In Jamaica4 experiments were carried on in six different
3 Queensland Agricultural Journal, 4 (1899), No. 6 pp. 472-473.
4 Annual Report Department Public Gardens and Plantations and Board
Agriculture (Jamaica), 1903, pp. 16-19.










Bulletin No. 83


localities, using from one to thirteen different fertilizer formulas
in each case. In only one case was the addition of fertilizers to
the soil found beneficial. In this case larger fruits of finer qualilv
were obtained. An analysis of this soil indicated a low standard
of fertility. The soil in the other cases appeared to be sufficiently
fertile. In one of the experiments in which a test was made c1
the effect of fertilizers on "monstrous plants" the results indicate
that neither slag, superphosphate, mixed phosphate or sulphal:
of potash had any effect in checking the formation of such fruits.
The fertilizers used in the experiments were sulphate of
ammonia almost exclusively for nitrogen, superphosphate and
steamed bone for phosphoric acid and sulphate of potash for
potash.
H. H. Cousins states that soil containing thirty times the
amount of plant food present in the Florida sands has been used
for pineapples, in some instances, with the result that the plants
made phenomenal growth of foliage, but scarcely any fruit.
Nine-tenths of the plants were monstrosities. The fruits consis-
ted of reduplicated crowns, and in some cases a mass of axillary
leaf shoots.
Notwithstanding the small amount of experimental work
that has been done on the fertilizing of pineapples, much progress
has been made along this line during recent years, and very
satisfactory results are being obtained by many of the growers.
However, there still remains much to be learned, and it was wit',
the hope of adding something to the knowledge already existing
on this subject, that the Experiment Station, in co-operation with
Hardee Bros., of Jensen, began, in 1901, an extensive fertilizer
experiment, the results of which, up to the present time, will be
reported in this bulletin as intelligently as possible.
OBJECT.
The object of this experiment is to find out from what source
or sources it is best to obtain fertilizing materials for pineapples,
the proper quantity to use for the best results as regards quantity,
quality, and shipping properties; best method of applying; ratio
of phosphoric acid, nitrogen and potash; the effect of shading,
and to determine any other conditions which will prove of ad-
vantage to the industry.
5 Journal Jamaica Agricultural Society 5 (1901), No. 10, pp. 403-405.










Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


GENERAL PLAN OF THE EXPERIMENT.
In the spring of 1901, Hardee Bros. set aside for the use of
the Station, under conditions presently to be named, about one
acre of virgin spruce pine land. This was cleared, put into
thorough condition and finally laid off into 96 plots (see Diagram
I), with alleyways between the plots as indicated. During August
this was set with slips of the Red Spanish variety, this being the
variety that is grown almost exclusively on the East Coast. The
rows are twenty inches apart and the plants twenty inches in
the row, with the size of the plots so arranged as to make just
100 plants in each plot; making 9,600 plants in the entire experi-
ment. The size of the entire plot excluding alleyways, which
are more numerous than would be found in an ordinary field,
is about two-thirds of an acre and the size of each individual
plot is 1-150- of an acre. Therefore, in calculating from one plot
to rate per acre it is only necessary to multiply by 150. The entire
plot was protected later by a shed of the usual type producing one-
third shade. The shed extends out a little beyond the plot on all
sides and under this part of the shed is a border of pines separated
from the experiment plot by the usual alleyways and fertilized
as the owners of the land fertilize their general crop.
Samples of the soil and sub-poil were collected and analyzed
in order that the fertilizer requirements might be better under-
stood. The results will be found in Table I.

TABLE I.
Analysis of soil 6 and sub-soils from Experiment Plot.
SOIL SUB-SOIL DEEP
SUBSTANCE SUB SOIL
PER CENT PER CENT PER CENT

Insoluble matter SiO2 .................................. 99.3700 99.5670 99.2660
Soluble Silica Si02 ....................... ......... 00.0132 00.0162 00.0412
Lime CaO.................................................. 00.0087 00.0000 00.0062
Magnesia MgO ........................................ 00.0058 00.0049 00.0131
Potash K20 ............................................. 00.0061 00.0048 00.0110
Iron and Alumina Fe203, Al2O ................ 00.1700 00.1775 00.3693
Phosphoric Acid P205................................. 00.0087 00.0062 00.0194
Sulphur Trioxide SO 3 ................................. 00.0000 00.0000 00.0000
Volatile Matter............. .......................... 00.4200 00.2480 00.3160
H um us....................................................... 00.1500 00.1200 00.1300
Nitrogen .............................................. 00.0100 00.0055 00.0050

6 For a discussion of pineapple soils, see Pineapple Culture I.-Soils. H.
K. Miller and H. Harold Hume, Bulletin No. 68, Florida Experiment Station.








DIAGRAM No. I

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DIAGRAM NoT 2

Showing theMaterials Used, Actual Plant Food Applied to Each Plot, Percentage Composition, Pounds Per Acre of Fertilizers Used on- the Various Plots.





qAD. 45. s -5s 2 s5' Y'o42 A-U. k

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Bulletin No. 83


The agreement entered into between the Station and Hardee
Bros. was that the Station should plan and conduct the experi-
ment, put up the shed, furnish the fertilizers mixed and bagged
ready for the various plots, and have such fruit as might be re-
quired for analytical purposes. Hardee Bros. were to furnish
the land, set out and cultivate the plants, apply the fertilizers
under the direction of a representative of the Station, gather
and keep count of the crop, and have such part of the crop as
was not required by the Station for analytical purposes. It was
mutually agreed that the experiment should run for at least five
years.
DETAILED PLAN OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION.
Before deciding upon the ratio in which phosphoric acid,
nitrogen and potash should be used in the fertilizers, analyses of
the fruit and plant were made to determine the ratio in which
these are present. While it is true that too much dependence can-
not be placed in this method of determining the food requirements
of plants and fruit, still it aids in estimating the amount of plant
food removed by the crop, and knowing this, it is less difficult
to determine the requirements. The results of these analyses
will be found in Table II.

TABLE II.
Analysis of the Pincapple-Plant and Fruit.

P205 N KO20
Station No. P205 N K20
station o. PER CENT PER CENT PER CENT

Analyses of Fruit (Fresh).
1285............... ........... .................... .0753 .0640 .2565
1325 ................. ... .. ......... .0591 .0931 .2930
1330................................................. .0446 .0910 .2630
Analyses of Plant (Air Dried).
1286 .................................................. .8545 .5330 1.3000
1326................................................... .7975 .8300 1.3900

With the above analyses, and the practice of the more suc-
cessful growers as a basis, it was determined that the ratio of the
fertilizer constituents be as follows:
Phosphoric Acid...................................... ........... .......... ... 80
N nitrogen ......................................................................1.00
Potash.............................. ..... ... .............. .....2.00









Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


T hat is, these amounts in pounds were considered to be the
normal annual requirements of 100 plants, as determined by
analysis and experience. By reference to Diagram II it will be
seen that plot No. 2 of Section A., for example, is given this nor-
mal or standard amount, while plot one has one-fourth less than
the standard, plot three, one-fourth more than the standard, and
plot four, one-half more than the standard or twice as much as
plot one, the object of this being to determine the quantity of plant
food that will give the best results, assuming that the ratio taken
is the correct one. By a careful study of the diagram it will be
seen that this plan has been followed with combinations of all the
fertilizers that were considered most worthy of trial. (Ammo-
nium sulphate, for example, was ruled out on the ground of
former experience:) Bone meal, dried blood and high grade sul-
phate of potash were taken as the standard, or rather ideal mate-
rials. It should be noted that in reading from left to right on
the diagram-with certain exceptions-the plots have identical
amounts of the fertilizing elements, or plant food, the difference
being in the sources from which they are derived. A few of the sec-
tions were introduced for special purposes and do not conform to
this rule. For example, section F. is intended to show whether the
addition of lime to the standard ingredients, bone, blood and high
grade sulphate of potash, will prove beneficial; section C. being
the same with the exception of the lime. In the same way section
K. is designed to show whether the addition of lime to acid phos-
phate, blood, and sulphate of potash, will prove beneficial; section
A. being the !same with the exception of the lime. Section L.
was designed to find out what is likely to prove the best ratio
for phosphoric acid, nitrogen and potash. On sections R. and S.
bone was used as the only source of nitrogen, thus very materially
increasing the amount of phosphoric acid added. In section V.
the normal amount is kept constant, while the number of ap-
plications is varied, the intention being to determine the number
of applications that will give the best results: Section W. is de-
signed to determine if it is worth while to vary the ratio during
the different stages of growth. For example, on plot 89 the ratio
for the first and second applications was phosphoric acid 3 per
cent., nitrogen 6 per cent. and potash 12 per cent.; for the third
and fourth applications the ratio was phosphoric acid 4 per cent..









Bulletin No. 83


nitrogen 4 per cent. and potash 12 per cent. and so on throughout
the section. Section X. is the same as section C. with the ex-
ception that each plot in section X. received ten pounds ad-
ditional bone meal at the beginning. The fertilizers were analyzed
at the Station, carefully weighed out and mixed, and the proper
amount for each plot put into a separate bag before being shipped
to Jensen.
It should be explained that in the case of fertilizers contain-
ing more than one of the three essential ingredients, as cottonseed
meal, castor pomace and bone meal, all of the ingredients were
included in calculating the amount to be added. For example,
where cottonseed meal was used as the source of nitrogen, the
amount of phosphoric acid in the required amount of cottonseed
meal was calculated, and this amount was taken into consideration
when calculating the amount of bone or other substance supplying
phosphoric acid. In the same way, when bone meal was used
with some other substance supplying nitrogen, as for example,
nitrate of soda, the nitrogen of the bone meal was taken into
consideration when calculating the amount of nitrogen to be
obtained from the nitrate of soda. Sections R. and S., however,
are exceptions to this, inasmuch as they received the required
amount of nitrogen in the form of bone meal, and thus necessarily
received more than the required amount of phosphoric acid.
Digram II. indicates the quantities of fertilizers applied to the
various plots, the amount there given being the amount for one
year, and except where otherwise indicated this was given in four
applications, the first year, as follows:
First Application............... ........ .....October 18th, 1901
Second Application.............................March, 1902
Third Application .......... ......... .............. July, 1902
Fourth Application............................ November, 1902
In addition to this the plants were given a handful of cotton-
seed meal in the bud about three week after setting out. The
fifth application was made in April, 1903, and the sixth after
the summer crop of 1903 had been removed. After this time,
only two applications a year were made-except perhaps in the
case of a few special plots-one in February or March as the
conditions seemed to require, and the other soon after the gath-
ering of the summer crop. After the crop of 1903 had been










Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


removed the plants appeared to be suffering for nitrogen and they
were given an application of cottonseed meal, all plots being
treated alike. Some other variations occurred which should be
mentioned. On account of circumstances which could not be
-controlled, the regular summer application for 1904 was not
made, and in order that the plants might not suffer, Hardee Bros.
-put on about 1300 pounds bone, blood, and high grade sulphate,
:analyzing 7 per cent. phosphoric acid, 6Y2 per cent. nitrogen and
7Y2 per cent. potash. Two hundred pounds of land plaster was
-also added. This application was made on the 25th of August,
1904.
CHANGES MADE IN 1905.
Beginning with the March application for 1905, some
.changes were made owing to the fact that in the case of certain
plots all had been demonstrated that could be demonstrated and
it was unnecessary to continue them under those conditions.
Among these may be mentioned sections A. and B. where the
plots received acid phosphate without lime; section N. on which
.acid phosphate and nitrate of soda were both used; section Q.
on. which nitrate of soda was used as the only source of nitrogen,
.and sections R. and S. on which bone wals used as the only source
of nitrogen. On sections A. and B. the acid phosphate was
replaced by bone and slag respectively, with the idea of finding
out if either of these materials would tend to counteract the
injurious effects produced by the acid phosphate. It may be
:stated here that these injurious effects have been marked almost
from the beginning. On these plots there has been a decided
tendency to "spike" or "long leaf," and the plants have never
had that healthy, vigorous appearance which has characterized
many of the plots. On the other hand, section K. which received
the same fertilizers and in the same amounts as section A., and
lime at the rate of 750 pounds per acre in addition, has all the
while been one of the most promising sections, and in general
appearance and productiveness, ranks well up to the section that
has been considered the best. Sections N. and Q. had been so
badly injured and given such unsatisfactory results, the first as a
result of using acid phosphate and nitrate of soda, and the second
as a result of using nitrate of soda, that beginning with the spring









Bulletin No. 83


application for 1905 they were entirely dropped from the experi-
ment. Here, too, the injurious effects were noted early in the
experiment, and the plants have gone from bad to worse. A fact
that has been especially noticeable in these two sections is, that
as the fertilizers were increased, the injurious effects upon the
plants seemed to be increased. There was a tendency to "spike"
and the plants seemed lacking in vigor and healthy appearance.
The early records of section Q., however, indicate that it
started off well, showing the usefulness of nitrate of soda for
getting plants started to growing, but the later records show a
gradual falling off as noted above. Nitrate of soda, too, seems
to produce a fruit of green color which does not ship well, becom-
ing soft and decaying rapidly, and there is also a tendency for the
fruit to "plug" or break off too far up in the base of the pine,
thus causing early decay. In the case of sections R. and S.
where bone was used as the only source of nitrogen, it became
evident that this combination would not be practicable as a
pineapple fertilizer, since nirtogen obtained in this way is too
expensive. The results obtained from section R. where muriatce
was used would also indicate that this combination is not adapted
to pineapples, even though it should not prove too expensive.
These two sections might have been discarded altogether, but
for the fact that it was desired to see what would be the effect
of furnishing nitrogen in the form of cottonseed meal for a time,
without adding any further phosphoric acid. It was thought
that this would give an opportunity to see how long the effects
of the excess of phosphoric acid which had been added, could
be observed. The applications of lime have not been made to
sections F. and K. this year, the plots appearing not to need
further lime at present.
NOTES KEPT ON THE PROGRESS OF THE EXPERIMENT.
Notes were taken on the growth, general progress and
appearance of the plants at several different times during
the past four years, and while it will not be advisable to
incorporate all of these notes in a bulletin, still it is possible
to give a brief general summary of the records. These records,
taken in connection with the results from the crops, will form
the basis of conclusions to be drawn and recommendations
to be made.










PLATE XX.


Plot No. 8-Acid Phosphate, Dried Blood, Muriate.


Plot No. 12-Bone Meal, Dried Blood, High Grade Sulphate.









Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


Sections A. and B. were treated alike except that A. received
high grade sulphate and B. muriate. As already noted, both
received acid phosphate, and as shown by the notes, there has
been a tendency to "spike" and the plants have lacked that
healthy appearance which a normal plant should have. This
condition has been attributed to the acid phosphate, and when
we compare these sections with others treated in the same way
except as regards source of phosphoric acid, and also with section
K. which received acid phosphate but in addition 750 pounds of
lime to the acre, and when we further consider the general ex-
perience of many of the growers, we are forced to accept this
as the explanation of the poor showing which these sections have
made. Of the two sections A. has given better results than B.
which emphasizes the superiority of the sulphate over the muriate.
Sections C. and D. were treated alike except in source of pot-
ash, C. receiving high grade sulphate and D: muriate. They have
both made good progress and have been reported from time to
time as "good" sections, the term "fair," however, having been
applied to some of the plots of D. occasionally. In general ap-
pearance and for the most part in crop returns, C. has given the
best results; again indicating the superiority of the sulphate
over the muriate.
Sections E., F. and G. received bone and dried blood, and
low grade sulphate, high grade sulphate and kainit respectively
as the source of potash. Section E. has made good progress
and has been reported as "good" and even sometimes as "exce!-
lent," and if we compare the number of fruits taken from this
section with the number taken from other sections we also find
that the results are good. Section F. received the same as sec-
tion C. and in addition 750 pounds of lime per acre. It has
made good progress and has been reported as "good," and
sometimes as "very good," but if we judge by the fruit produced
C. has given better results than F., which would indicate that
lime is not required with these ingredients. The injurious effects
of the kainit on section G. have been very apparent all the while.
This is even more clearly emphasized by a study of the tables
giving the results of the crops. It seems reasonable to attribute
the injurious effects to the chlorides in the kainit, inasmuch as









Bulletin No. 83


muriate also does not seem to be a suitable form in which to
apply potash.
Sections H., I. and J. received slag and dried blood, and
muriate, high grade sulphate, and kainit respectively as the source
of potash. They are all good sections and the plants have, during
the greater part of the experiment, had a strong, healthy
appearance, with little or no tendency to "spike." Section I..
however, is and has been better than the other two, and has been
reported from time to time as the best section in the entire plot.
A careful study of the tables in Diagram III. will emphasize this
fact. The number of pines obtained from this section has not
always been the largest, but when total numbers, number of the
larger sizes, and general progress are all taken into consideration,
we are safe in saying that this has been the best section. It
should be observed that this section received the standard for-
mula, with the phosphoric acid supplied from slag (odorless slag
phosphate, or Thomas slag) instead of bone. Other sections in
the experiment received slag, but no others received both dried
blood and high grade sulphate in addition. The section receiving
muriate did better than the one receiving kainit but not so well
as the one receiving high grade sulphate.
Section. K. as mentioned under the head of special sections,
was designed to determine whether lime would have a tendency
to correct the injurious effects of acid phosphate. So far, the re-
sults decidedly indicate an affirmative answer. The plants have
maintained a splendid condition and have given good results as
compared with other sections, from the very beginning. At times
it has been difficult to detect much difference between this section
and section I., which has been regarded as the best. It is not
an easy matter to say why the acid phosphate has an injurious
effect upon pineapples, nor to say in what way the lime prevents
or corrects this. The most satisfactory explanation we can offer
is that ordinary acid phosphate contains sulphates of iron and
aluminum, and it is really the presence of these astringent salts
which causes the injury. This view seems the more correct when
it is known that acid phosphate derived from bone black has no
injurious effect on pineapple plants. The application of lime with
the acid phosphate converts these injurious sulphates into harm.










PLATE XXI.


Plot No. 20-Bone Meal, Dried Blood, Low Grade Sulphate.


4!6
T~wn I


Plot No. 28-Bone Meal, Dried Blood, Kainit,









Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


less insoluble oxides. It is perhaps well to caution against the
use of dissolved bone black, in as much as in many cases, high
grade acid phosphate, colored with charcoal, is on the market
in imitation of the dissolved bone black. It is well for one not
experienced in the chemistry of fertilizers to use no form of acid
phosphate whatever for pineapples, but rely upon bone meal or
slag. This explanation of the cause of the injurious effects of
acid phosphate on pineapple plants is not given as a fact which,
has been fully demonstrated, but as what seems to be the most
plausible explanation with the evidence that is before us.
Section L. was designed to find out what is likely to prove
the best ratio for phosphoric acid, nitrogen, and potash, the four
plots receiving the same kind of fertilizer, but in different ratios.
The notes taken on this section from year to year show that it
has been a good section and that the plots have been fairly uni-
form in size, though the third plot, No. 47, is recorded as being.
just a little better than the others, and it is of interest to note that
the ratio of phosphoric acid, nitrogen and potash on this plot
approaches very nearly the ratio adopted for the experiment,
and further, as will be shown later, the amount per acre-3750
pounds-is the same as the amount that has given the best results
in general.
Section M. is recorded as a good uniform section, and has,
given results that compare very favorably with the best.
Section N. as already noted has been discontinued on ac-
count of the injurious effects of the acid phosphate and nitrate
of soda. It started off well but soon manifested a tendency to
"spike," which tendency has been more or less apparent during
the entire time.
Section 0. has given good results, and the plants have been
fairly uniform,- with a healthy, vigorous appearance. A com-
parison between the results from this section and section M.
which differs from it only in the source of phosphoric acid, M.
receiving bone and 0. slag, will show that 0. has given prac-
tically the same results.
Section P. has given good results, though the injurious.
effects of the nitrate of soda have been noted to some extent.
The fact that a part of the nitrogen was derived from the bone









Bulletin Ao. 83


meal tends to make these injurious effects less than where nitrate
of soda is used as the only source of nitrogen.
Section Q. has also been discontinued for the reason just
suggested, that is, .that nitrate of soda when used in sufficient
,quantity to furnish all the nitrogen proves injurious both to the
plants and to the shipping qualities of the fruit. This section
started off well, indicating that the formula may be Isuitable fo-
.getting young plants started to growing. For notes on sections
1R. and S. see notes on page 420.
Section T. has been recorded as a good section, with healthy,
vigorous plants. The results as shown by the crops compar;
favorably with some of the sections that have been classed among
the best.
Section U. has been a very uniform section throughout,
with healthy plants, though the results, when judged by the
crops as given in the tables, do not indicate that dissolved
bone black could replace bone meal or slag as a source of phos-
phoric acid.
The notes which have been taken on V. and W. from time to
time state that these sections are quite uniform throughout, there
being scarcely a perceptible difference between the various plots
of the two sections. However, an examination of the tables of
results will show that the crops obtained from these sections do
not exceed the crops from sections treated with the same fertil-
izers, but which received only the two applications per year with-
-out variations. This would seem to indicate that increasing the
-number of applications per year beyond two, or three, at the most.
and that varying the ratio of the fertilizing ingredients with the
,different applications, as was done on section' W.7 are not
necessary after the first year.
Section X. received the same treatment-as section C., except
that each plot received ten pounds extra bone meal at the be-
ginning. The section has been a good one and the plants have
been fairly uniform and in a healthy condition all the time. How-
ever, the extra bone does not ;seem to have given it any ad-
vantage over those fertilized in the same way but without the
extra bone.
7 Beginning with 1905 the number of applications for this section was
reduced to two.




DIAGRAM NO. 3
Showing Size of Crop for the Years 1903, 1904 Jand 1905.
9 1 o1 o 1903.

Led'vo- .A 8V edbowov. ^. Aedvow. 4^. AeUdow./_^. ^) -^Xo~w. fcdgwow. d. iedg~o-i^.<-. Sei> myov. ^ S^&.vo~n. Aed o-wv. &,edvow. X A>&.eo-v.cL .
iot is A so sb oo iso 1S4,10 1S az 4% SA",s24d7jot as *K SO &b 42 iS b Z\, 18 '2^ SO I^L sKo \o SSU 56 2 4 S O k l i 6 24 60 Db A1 5 18 2 0 So ab a* 50 so 6 1a SdlWt 16 Z4 to Ib 4k 'aa 16 14 So Zb 1,I ,Rd Btb ? 1& 24 o ab 4.o-9l o AS to 35 Sb il U o
1 o & jl7 1 64, 5 o A t5 t5 as 6 9 n s n s s A 0 o oo ab z ye A OR t ja 7 7b A A, 52 b1 _t 50 ^ Q o_5_ 4 q ZaA o g.' o 5 s 2 y ) as 95 -1 9 4> as o As Sy O 7S 41 0 y 19 5b 94 45 o 1 Z3 9Z 2' <2s 1,029 '
CZ o 6 1 )8 0 A^ oAo A 1 20 .60 2 55110 0 A, as q es 11 8 IS0 A b26 a. qi 2 0 6 36 A, bb26 A 2 A Lt.0160 0 C54 b /1 J5 Z4 2 %1 21 .A A 5 9 1s o0"0 si 96o0o51?- 1+2 0 51 o21.22 1o s 96 o &5 4to ,oo6
Z5 0 sb So 5 0 as 'I it 16 16, 660 H 00 o s1 6q.45 o zzo 4,5.o 86 19 0 41,tpb o\bo l~ I" ab2 oo Z) Z 8 Syl .0 5so8lb &Zo a 0 a 99350 b o Z s Ro 1i 97 39 1 8 l8 Ro.0177 4,) 1 pq 4Z) L" 0be4 qo 61,5
,6a t b ol zI I(b8 1 1o rt0soe v 16 0 7 Rokl 7ss2' s490 oq&1, b 1 "N 17as zo 80 6a$ 9y b 6N 1 9 6 :5 1 bb g a 6 ]1221 -, 6 5asa s s g a s oa 71.s
S'ocal. _____t al 2tbgco 5bk Wo~cA D55 goka abb 6o1 0>5 ^0^ s c l ___eo__ o0 goU____ 5 SoUc 3bL 1.09&.
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^^&_^^5Y^^^ ^J^_^6^41^^ _^^J^ow^^^ ^^ 0 &1V S- t ^^8 t 0, 1, 8 0V zv^I 5 0 IV/ W&1Q -710-
\c61*lo3 1 4 %'obG'UR\CA )t, 6, -,' 0 'b i Jlol (0 1~ 8 a Lo a ,,%ab L a Ie 82 s eEM htJ a oa s ~ tt, 4 O 4.kA S ak k S o11 13 bZ6WX 30Q 5 % Soo4, Z O 14 Zby o 66 1 0 4A ea a~?Alb2 es a9GA4 4 3 baceo 82 0s ana
9q 0 Ia Ibb il f38 6 5"6 2 17 Z^ 6 -( 9-FS b'7 0 7 4 as 18 94 19 6 0 5 1 0 1 7 1 8bb14 49V 7 91 69 0 0 94 015O 61 77 0'6 b7 o 97 81 0 A411 6 10 blAb o 10 6 4, .04 b 0 At i 9 4T & -i 9 O7 ib 61%9
be 0oi 14 21) 1 C6 b 4 ZA ( 2 b to 0a'7-) )S 0 s a g 2 5 31 oILI7 9-5. 2 9t --4 '7 L,85 o0o0 As I Z b27 7/4 Q0 40 1'2 ElS 79.78 0 IC)46 s 58 ba yas 60s 9 919 9 tA1 ba 4o ss tL

^ l& Y' 5 b 'acb 5' 5 g Q 1^ s8 60 0 5Q|5 i 2-o 9964 Q5 sy 0 a6 95 & 0 5C) 'aa 4 0 91 T2-0t8 o 07 9b 76 ( 60 0 4 9& 4o 0 161 0 9s 8 0 S A 5 9 91 0 _& 0O &bbo lo 9& .15&


^cehow, .A ^>cc.\vo' ^b Seelioni Qb. S1 eekiew. A Sedvo wv. 8 | 8e-ho-vt,. G^. S~ec\vow Q, Sedwo-W. No & S&ow. <^. )ead(/o'w 7. Aicaow.Vv. %ediewn S,.
6` 0 9o so iZ) 9. -19_b so anb7 7 1- 9 1 s o 9s t 's o b ?t i' :'. '- ^ at a iqt s b 5 9 to b 2 o a 1a y o U 2s a b i c b( ? s2 a a s 41 b to b o \o 45 so s a c > o
TbZb e1 a 1a1 tl 7s s\ oa oi s16 9 C 8, 0 Sb 015 9.,22 18 161 0 o 1 16 1Lk69 0 8a 48Z) 40Zas 6 01 o sesoIQ .59 .1bnt o a 4 o s11o as a



(^ 6 14i. & t \& o gAI-^-^^ o &b 7 o |t is4 10 9 o ^ _a ___is 9 o t o t 4__fo_9_ ^ _L9 -_ l^ ^ -0^ -0-_ut a la L ^ ^ ^ A -- ^ S0^^^ 2 go b 5s o o s a 6 o As a t5 t11o 27 47 7 0-1-5 ._1 o &ba
4 Z4) 01 Zo___b 8 _b 8 so 'b 0 ^o s5 0 0 9 94-o t7 1 0 4L -5 0s o 50 ^53olot 91Io 110 o0 0 i 8 5 5 4 &0 4Z Oo 5g 0.A_ 44b4 o 3_ga_5o As ab t o o
bo.al __ \ oU _____ foLA 90 go \Ob a04 OaX o6do ysgoU C1 Soat b !o0o^ ab 0 l9 656 0t- A90 -, n096
diEoA 0 VA e A oC. o S. SQal.o\ kc. Sedvow hedcw.R. Advovv & vow. %eAL/ow'.(^, % Aow.b. Se0.k0v',w. o. .3ed'vo w.W. % ov .
a^^i. soZ s s0 z,:, 4all a0s0Zb 4cl! a o ab j I !)ja b wa sa j\/ s ^o 66 .^ _J ^ g o b 4 aw6 24b g a a bg U z5\ ^ ao ab 9- -o6 \b o ab L, ?old?' 1, a0o b 9 GS'i o5 .
4Q S__a bo _q be t5A6 to 0 _o bZ \% is a 2 00 6SO 4LA^A 4 o -0465 b s o_ _5ka 3 2 as o __b u b to 0 12 Z"7 Zo 0Z \bo V6 8\ b l 3 -k AVN_ \ o AA 8 8 Z \t __ 4 o 36 A _o &^ &_
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Btay u 9 oaa s at ete to abev toZ) 2G2 62bL) Zo I i4-sl 79\ 1 -70 IT 6bl % 5 bb0- oZ m e t Z 67 5 1 11mo e
;b \ b 0 t b b d Y La 10 6 71 ac t *. kis7t o 270 ZL" 0 \8 14\b -L Lx 71 1c s0 & 1 8o 'ab \5 7 0Z,, 16 Z0 %14 6 0 01\)I,% t O3 54 0 'io bb S -5 \ Z)'t mg t 4o toe


14, 9_ 6 v1 8 ta Z)bo 1% C) ()oto\ A bo P' i on o !N7 az \bto 3 o 1 6 27o7 4t0 )3 0L .1 51 % b\ o a t8la ob b@o-z 0 Za I s 0 16 AZ, 0 lb 5 i t o 17E
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%0 6s bbo M L t o 4& it16 bloo \\ b\5t tb.il- 2 R )16 1 o o [bs o o1101so as o b \ o b t L 3 25 10 bLo, 0 69 40 '15 2Z 44 4 '2 C) 4.as o so44
4. _aco__a__^o # Ao 596o\ bgo o 17 _a feA \ 7 o _A710 C S_ ,o O 7a+ oZ \t \ o 3k6 J 7 1 tb o ao &0 Al \ is oo _a, 1 4 0 ta k \t 7 A ab >Alo o e ^ o it 4 o 8 o t
ez\ l v ) t__ ?; .' ___0_\/v&ab.\al ?7 goa old ______ \d oo_ To__ goU _______ U^ \ 50 i__ 10\.





ecoww. ^\. Seditew .^. ~ eho ^Aov. (Seekee.YV. ~ edgwo'w. S.' _
SUo U1 a0 0o s 5bt ^ o\ ea !5 S as q^ g00\g : b a6 -''*^ so ,A b L %0 Bt. o t, L a, 0 3\A 314 s gw kZ g o Z6 4b ^g__ 1v 76,o bc s bo o \ o l oo l A -__ I9cz i Z bk Ib 0 2b 656 0 \b 6q10 0 6 4 31) 77 10 1\Ct) 17 0 1 6 St 6 1 b _0bb IGA0%1 5 a 8 9A i L k ^ +0^.







Sto lio ao sb o '. es t s bb ('! 5 bU 4^ >> so ob ^% 3'6iA? T^^ ^U U^_&~^ _o^ %i _^ .^__g ^^^ 0^^_gA ^ ao tr o st o b!s gjojo o oR i b i qU? <3787 t \ b qi S\ l &o ab ty le bo st *ab &b \q sk~ '^ag




sw l 5 aw 11web (\ ei\ S6 b, 0 Z o^ 0w1A1 4 0v\0V 1 8 bK^^ -Jiyb. _56 .









Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


A STUDY OF THE CROP OF 1903.
The first crop was gathered in June and July of 1903 and was
about 88 per cent. of the total possible crop. Diagram III. gives
the total number, and number of different sizes of pines taken
from each plot'; the total number in the sections; and the total
number in the plots occupying relatively the same position in the
sections counting from left to right across the entire plot, for the
years 1903, 1904, and 1905. A careful study of the crop for
1903 will yield some very interesting results. In at least half
the sections there is a ,slight increase in the total number of pines
from the first to the third plot of the sections. On the other hand
there is but little difference between the number obtained from
the third and fourth plots of the sections, indicating it would
seem, that the limit of amount of plant food has been reached
with the quantity applied to the third plot in each section, this
amount as already stated being the same for all plots occupying
the same relative position in the sections, reading from left to
right. As further proof of this, the plants of the third plot in
the sections have almost uniformly appeared as large, strong and
healthy as those of the fourth plot, and in some instances they
have been superior. By again referring to Diagram II. it will
be seen that the third plot in all the sections, except those intro-
duced for special purposes, received each year the equivalent of
3750 pounds per acre of a fertilizer analyzing 4 per cent. availa-
ble phosphoric acid, 5 per cent. nitrogen and 10 per cent. potash,
but in most cases representing a different source for at least one
of the constituents. From the same diagram it will be seen that
the fourth plot of the sections received 4500 pounds per acre
of the same fertilizer. Judging, therefore, by the general appear-
ance, and also from the results obtained from the plots.
we are ready to conclude that 3750 pounds per acre, of a
fertilizer analyzing as above, about approaches the limit for
profitable results. And as we have already shown by section
L., plot 47, that a mixture of bone, blood and high grade
sulphate, with a percentage very closely approaching the 4, 5, 10
percentage which was adopted as the standard, and 3750 pounds
to the acre, gave slightly better results than any of the other per-
centages tried, it seems safe to conclude that on the third plot










of the sections we have the quantity and percentage of a fertilizer that will, in general, give the best results with pineapples on the
East Coast of Florida, the proper materials, of course, being selected.
TABLE III.
Showing increase of 24's and decrease of 12's as fertilizer is increased-Crop of 1903.

Se-tlon A Section B Section C Section D Section E Section F Section G Section H Section I Section J Section K Section L Total Total

24's 42's 24's 42's 21's 12's 24's 12's 21's 12's 24's 12's 0 24's 12's 0 i 24's 12's 0 24's 42's 0 24's 42' 24's 42's 24's 42's
----- --- --- -- -- i ----- --
1 6 18 5 1 25 9 4 17 130 43 117 2 42 21 4 30 5 24 2 5 23 33 9 10 37 1 19 41 7 2 45 1 2 45 255
2 6 8 6 1 2 10 7 914 2 11 18 11 2 2 6 2 2 6 8 130 9 4 34 22 038 5 0 42 22 0 46 8 1 105 47
3 53 0 7 21 6 11 11 6 15 10 0 19 4 0 23 5 17 I7 3 10 31 15 0 35 50 0 39 8 0 43 39 0 47 38 0 277 39
-------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------- s/ ------------------
4 38 0 8 28 0 12 30 0 16 7 7 10 31 0 24 18 0 128 6 9 3 16 1 36 36 040 17 0 44 2 48 21 0 277 17


Section M Section N Section 0 Section P Section Q Section R Section S Section T Section U Section V Section W Section X Total Total

24's 42's 24's 42 's 2's 21's 2's 42's 24's 42's 3 .s 's 42's 24's 2's 2's 2 's 42's 2 24's 42's 24's 42's

49 22 8 53 27 12 57 7 18 61 8 16 65 14 7 69 0 5 73 1 77 26 10 81 11 0 85 *89 *93 8 21 124 131
50 11 11 54 31 0 58 27 5 6217 7 6628 4 1 27 7 13 78 19 6 8 26 0 94 5 8 165 81
125 55 32 5 5 4 3 2 67 44 71 318 7918 6 8340 7 8 91 95 1 7 262 75
52115 2 5635 2 60 30 0 1641 37 0 | 'I 787 4 7 4 80 129 0 084 43 70 j *88 92 9 10 269 25
Special plots.









Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


Table III, which shows the increase in 24's and decrease in
42's, as the fertilizer is increased, still further emphasizes this
fact. For example, by reference to the table it will be seen that
the total number of 24's in the third plots of the upper sections
is 277, while the total number in the fourth plots, which received
one-fifth more fertilizer than the third, is exactly the same-277.
In the lower half, the total 24'(s in the third plots of the sections is
262, while in the fourth it is 269-only 7 more. A further study
of this table will reveal the rapid increase of 24's from the first
to the third plots of nearly all the sections, but as already pointed
out this increase does not extend to the 4th plots in very many
cases, while in some instances there is actually a "decrease. On
the other hand there is a decrease in 42's which is very decided
from the first to the second plots of the sections but more gradual
from the second to the fourth.
Assuming that the total number of pines on the third hori.
zontal line of plots would have been the same as the total number
on the first line, had the fertilizer not been increased on the
third, we have a basis for calculating the increase in crop value
due apparently to the quantity of fertilizer which was added to
the third line of plots above that which was added to the first.
By referring to the first column headed total in Table III, and
taking the sum of the total number of 24's from the third line
of plots, both upper and lower sections, it will be found to be 530,
-while the total from the first line of plots, both upper and
lower sections, is 169, giving an increase on the 228 plots ap-
parently due to increase in fertilizer, of 370 pines or about
15% crates. Since these plots are 1-150 of an acre the increase
is at the rate of 105 3-5 crates per acre, which, at $1.659 per
crate would amount to $174.24. Again, referring to dhe
same table it will be seen that the'42's have decreased from a
total of 386 in the first line of plots to 114 in the third line, making
a loss of 272 pines or 6j1 crates for the 22 plots, which is at the
rate of 44 1-3 crates per acre, which at $1.10 would be worth
$48.77. Subtracting this from $174.24 we have $125.47 gain,
8 Sections V. and W. being intended for special purposes have been omitted
from this count.
9 An experienced grower estimates that taking a series of years 18's would
bring $1.80, 24's and 30's $1.65, 36's $1.30, and 42's $1.10 per crate.












due apparently to increasing the number of 24's by increasing
the fertilizer about 3-4 of a ton per acre. To get the net gain
,ve have but to deduct from this the cost of the extra fertilizer.
Calculating the cost of the extra fertilizer added to the third
line of plots, above what was added to the first, on the basis
of the .cost of the raw materials at the factory, we find it to be
$3.88 for the 22 plots, which is at the rate of $26.45 per acre.
Deducting this from $125.47 leavesus a gain of $99.02. From
this must still be deducted the cost of mixing and the freight
rate from Jacksonville to the pineapple district, and this would
be, according to statement furnished by a manufacturer, $3.79
per ton; and since the extra fertilizer required, amounts to about
3-4 of a ton, this charge would be $2.85. Deducting this from
$99.02 would leave us a net profit per acre on the 24's of $96.17.10
In the same way it may be shown that the increase in -value
of the 30's above the decrease of 36's is about $11.80 and this
is net gain, the fertilizers having already been accounted for.
This makes the total net gain $107.97. The gain in 18's was so
slight that they were not taken into consideration in this case.
But this does not represent the entire possible gain, since in an
experiment some fertilizers are used in order that their unfitness
for the particular crop may be demonstrated, and the results
from such plots are necessarily lower than they would be under
ordinary circumstances. This can be demonstrated by calculat-
ing the increase in value on one of the, best plots. On examina-
tion we find that plot 19 of section E.has yielded a greater increase
with increase of fertilizer than any other plot, as follows:
42 24's equivalent to 262 1/2 crates per acre @ $1.65..........$433.12
17 30'sequivalent to 85 crates per acre @ 1.65.......... 140.25
Total gain on
24's and 30's....347 1/2 crates. Value....$573.37
The decrease in 36's and 42's is as follows:
8 36's equivalent to 33 1/3 crates per acre @ $1.30..........$ 43.33
S 42 42's equivalent to 150 crates per acre @ 1.10.......... 165.00
Total loss on
36's and 42's....183 1/3 crates. Value....$208.33
Subtracting this from $573.37 gives us a gain per acre of
$365.04. To get the net gain we must still deduct from this
10 In making these calculations we have made them for the average year
and not for the first crop, which would require a little more extra fertilizer
than the 3/4 ton provided for.


En. l-,1 No. 83









PLATE XXII.


Plot No. 36-Slag Phosphate, Dried Blocd, High Grade Sulphate.


Plot No. 44-Acid Phosphate, Dried Blood, High Grade Sulphate, Lime.







PLATE XXIII.


Plot No. 53-Acid Phosphate, Nitrate of Soda, High Grade Sulphate.

t_... i lli
.I


Plot No. 64-Bone Meal. Nitrate of Soda, High Grade Sulphate.









Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


the cost of the extra fertilizer per acre, including the cost of
mixing and the freight from Jacksonville, which for the inm
trials used on this plot (see Diagram II., plot 19) would be
$25.88 (a little less than the average extra expense on the 22
plots), and this leaves $339.16, clear gain per acre, obtained by
increasing the fertilizer from 2250 to 3750 pounds. In this con-
nection it will be of interest to learn which section"1 and which
plot12 have given the largest gross returns. On calculating
the yield per section to yield per acre we find that section I.
which received slag phosphate, blood and high grade su:phate.
gave the largest returns, as follows:
117 24's equivalent to 182.8 crates per acre @ $1.65.........$301.62
176 30'sequivalent to 220.0 crates per acre @ 1.65......... 363.00
83 36'sequivalent to 86.46 crates per acre @ 1.30......... 112.40.
10 42's equivalent to 9.00 crates per acre @ 1.10......... 9.90,
Total...... 498.26 crates $786.92
That is, section I. has yielded at the rate of nearly 500,
crates per acre which, at the price assumed, would amount to
$786.92. But the four plots of this section, as already explained,.
received their fertilizer in gradually increasing amounts, begin-
ning with the first, and consequently this amount does not repre-
sent the yield per acre from the best plot. On examination it is
found that plot 35, the third in section I., has given larger total
returns than any other plot in the entire experiment as follows-
50 21's equivalent to 312 1/2 crates per acre @$1.65..........$515.625
35 30's equivalent to 175 crates per acre @ 1.65.......... 288.750
12 36'sequivalent to 50 crates per acre @ 1.30.......... 65.000
Total...... 537 1/2 crates $869.375
Plot 36, the 4th of the same section, gives the following
results:
3 18'sequivalent to 25 crates per acre @ $1.80...........$ 45.00
36 24's equivalent to 225 crates per acre @ 1.65........... 371.25
39 30's equivalent to 195 crates per acre @ 1.65.......... 321.75
22 36'sequivalent to 91.66 crates per acre @ 1.30........... 119.16
Total...... 536.66 crates $857.16
This bears out the statement already made that the limit
11 To convert number per section to crates per acre, multiply by 1/4 of 150'
or 37.5 and divide by the size.
12 To convert number per plot to crates per acre, multiply by 150 and divide-
by the size.













Bulletin No. 83


of profitable fertilizing has been reached with the amount applied
to the third plot of the sections.
Plot 47, section L., also furnishes some interesting facts.
It will be remembered that this section was introduced for the
purpose of ascertaining what is likely to prove the best ratio
for phosphoric acid, nitrogen and potash. Already we have seen
that the third plot of this section received these constituents in a
ratio which more closely approaches the 4, 5, 10 ratio adopted for
the experiment, than any of the other plots of this section, and
also that it received the fertilizer at the rate of 3750 pounds per
acre, which is the amount that has in most capes given the best
results. And now in the crop from this plot we have still further
evidence on this point. We find on examination that it has
yielded larger returns than any other plot of the section and
that it is not very far behind plots 35 and 36 of section I. The
results are as follows:
38 24's equivalent to 237 1/2 crates per acre @ $1.65........$391.875
49 SO's equivalent to 245 crates per acre @ 1.65........ 404.250
9 36's equivalent to 37 1/2 crates per acre @ 1.30........ 48.750
Total...... 520 crates $844.87
To return agaiti to the yield per section, we find that several
others approach very closely the yield of section I., as follows:
Section T at the rate of 487.76 crates per acre.........Value $771.03
Section P at the rate of 483 62 crates per acre......... Value 769.72
Section E at the rate of 488.55 crates per acre.........Value 766.25
Section M at the rate of 484.84 crates per acre.........Value 763.94
Section 0 at the rate of 488.59 crates per acre.........Value 763.30
Section Q* at the rate of 474.28 crates per acre.........Value 756.40
Section U at the rate of 475.00 crates per acre ........Value 750.00
Section V at the rate of 472.00 crates per acre.........Value 740.33 -
Computing the value of two of the poorest sections we find
them to be as follows:
Section B at the rate of 283.95 crates.....................Value $428.44
Section R at the rate of 324.44 crates.....................Value 483.05
Computing the value of the poorest plot-plot 69 Section R.
-we find it to be as follows:
24 30'sequivalent to 120 crates per acre @ $1.65...........$198.00
5 42's equivalent to 17.86 crates per acre @ 1.10........... 19.94
Total...... 137.86 crates $217.64
Since the gathering of the first crop this section has deteriorated very
greatly.









PLATE XXIV.


Plot No. 65-Slag Phosphate, Nitrate of Soda, High Grade Sulphate.


Plot No. 69-Bone Meal, Muriate.


'I~I=R~ "r~c.~u
`:" ~r`a .'4 xl 1








PLATP XXV.


Plot No. 73-Bone Meal, High Grade Sulphate.


Plot No. 77-Bone Meal,'Castor Pomace, High Grade Sulphate.









Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


Comparing the best and poorest sections and the best and
poorest plots we have.the following results:
Best section--I-498.26 crates per acre................Value 786.92
Poorest -B-283.95 crates per acre................Value 428.44
Difference.....214.31 crates per acre..................Value $358.48
Best plot-plot 35......537.50 crates per acre.........Value $869.375
Poorest -plot 69......137.86 crates per acre.........Value 217.640
Difference......399.64 crates per acre.........Value $651.735
We believe, therefore, that the experiment fully demonstrates
that there is good profit to those growing pineapples under shade
on the East Coast, in applying as high as the equivalent of 3750
pounds per acre of a fertilizer analyzing 4 per cent. phosphoric
acid, 5 per cent. nitrogen, and 10 per cent. potash, but that
beyond this amount there is but little if any profit. Just how
far this will apply to pineapples grown in the open we cannot
say, though it seems to be generally conceded that less fertilizer
is required under sheds than in the open, and this being the case,
it is quite possible that the amount to be used in the open might
profitably be increased beyond the amount here specified for
sheds.
CROP OF 1904.
No such decisive conclusions can be drawn from the crops
of 1904 and 1905, but this is undoubtedly due to causes other
than fertilizers. The shortness of the crop for 1904 may pos-
sibly be attributed to the fact that the plants were somewhat
exhausted from having yielded so full a crop in 1903. Certainly
the fact that in many cases the plots receiving the least fertilizer
gave the largest yield, would indicate that it was not want of
fertilizer that caused the short crop. It would hardly seem
fair to undertake to draw many conclusions from a crop which
is less than one-third of a total possibility. Unfortunately, we
failed to get a record of the fall and winter crop for either 1903
or 1904. Could this crop have been added to the summer crop
for 1904, it is quite possible that the showing would have been
different, as we would naturally expect so small a summer crop
to be followed by a heavy fall and winter crop. The fall and
winter crop for 1903 was small on account of the heavy summer
crop, and therefore would not have materially affected the total.









Bulletin No. 83


CROP OF 1905.
The freeze of February, 1905, explains the shortage of the
crop for this year, and again it would seem unfair to draw many
conclusions, for undoubtedly the fertilizers 'had little to do with
the falling off. At the same time a careful count will show that
the number of 24's has been considerably increased on many of
the plots as the fertilizer was increased, while the 42's were de-
creased hut slightly. In the upper half of the plot (see Diagram
III.,- crop of 1905), it will be noticed that the total number of
pines has increased from the first to the third line of plots, while
in the fourth the total is less than in the third line, again em-
phasizing the fact that the limit of profitable fertilizing has been
reached with the third line. In the lower half of the experiment
plot, there is a gradual decrease in the total from the first to the
fourth line, but this may possibly be accounted for from the
fact that several of these plots received fertilizers that proved
injurious, and as the amount was increased the injurious effects
were more pronounced.
A study of the table will bring out some other interesting
facts. Sections A. and B. both of which received acid phos-
phate up to this year, each yielded less than 100 pines, while
section K. which received the same treatment and lime in addition
yielded 162 pines, an increase of over 60 per cent; this section
produced the highest number of 24's. Section U. which was
fertilized with disolved bone black, dried blood and high grade
sulphate gave the highest yield for this year, 168, while sections
H. and I. with 152 and 153 respectively, and which received
their phosphoric acid in the form of slag, closely follow section
K. Section O. which also received slag is next, with 147. Sec-
tions G. and J. both of which received kainit yielded less than ten
2 I's while section S. yielded only one.
THE FREEZE OF 1905.
After the freeze of February, 1905, the experiment plot was
carefully examined, first by Mr. W. R. Hardee and later by one
of us (Blair) to see whether plots fertilized differently had been
differently affected, but no marked difference could be detected.
True, some of the plots looked worse than others, but they were
the plots that had already been injured by the treatment they









PLATE XXVI.


Plot No. 83 -Dissolved Bone Black, Dried Blood, High Grade SulFhate.

0.-


i_ s =_i


Plot No. 89-Bone Meal, Dried Blood, High Grade Sulphate. Ratio Varied with the
Different Applications.


1IM -1









Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


l-la received. Practically no difference, so far as the effect
of the freeze was concerned, could be detected in the condition of
those plots which had responded well to the treatment they were
receiving.
Although the crop for this year was very much reduced,
this statement is well borne out by the results. A further exam-
ination of the table reporting the crop for 1905 shows very
clearly that the most of those plots which have already been re-
ported as injured by the treatment they were receiving, for
example sections A., B., G., J., R. and S., gave the lowest total
number of fruits, or a very small number of the larger sizes, or
both. Neither were we able to detect any difference, in the effect
upon those plots which received phosphoric acid, nitrogen and
potash in varying ratios.
REMARKS.
It was assumed that an average of 1-3 and 1-4 of the total
phosphoric acid in bone meal is available.
According to the method used for determining the available
phosphoric acid in slag, approximately 1-3 of the total is available.
Slag tends to produce a rank growth of plants and it is
possible that if a part of the slag should be replaced with bone
meal better results would be obtained than with either alone.
While land plaster was not used in this experiment, ex-
cept for one application, it is used by a number of the
growers with good results. The claim is made that it tends
to aid in fixing the nitrogen of organic fertilizers, such as
dried. blood and cottonseed meal. It is considered especially
helpful in this respect if these organic fertilizers are ap-
p:ied during a dry spell. This claim is borne out by the work
of a German investigator.13 He finds that land plaster not
only assists in the rotting of manure, but that it also fixes or
holds much ammonia that would otherwise escape. The condi-
tions under which this investigator worked are, of course, not
the conditions which exist in the pineapple belt, but it is not at
all unlikely that the same chemical reactions take place. Those
growers who have used land plaster put on about 200 pounds
per acre.
13 S. A. Sewerin, Gips als ammoniakbindende Substanz bei der Verrottung
des Stallmistes. Centralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Par. u. Infek., XI. Bd., Nos.
12/13 und 14/15.










434 Bulletin No. 83

An effort was made, by analysis, to find out whether the
fruit would show an increase in the elements of plant food as
the fertilizers were increased, but the method of taking the
samples tended to vitiate the results. It was not possible to
make a composite sample of all the fruit from each plot, and to
take two or three fruits from a plot, as was done, probably does
not give average results. The results obtained do not warrant
us in drawing any conclusions in regard to the relation which
exists between the plant food in the soil and in the fruit. Indeed,
it is quite possible that increasing the amount of plant food in the
soil may not affect the quantity to be found in the fruit, but
only that in the plant. The results are of interest as showing
the amount of plant food removed by the fruit and will be found
in Table IV. Given the weight of a crate of pineapples, and
the number of crates per acre, it is a simple matter to calculate
the plant food removed by a crop of pineapples.

TABLE IV.
Analyses of Pineapples from Experiment Plot showing Phos-
phoric Acid, Nitrogen and Potash in the Original Fruit.

STATION P205 N K20 STATION P205 N K20
No. per cent. per cent. per cent. No. per cent. per cent. per cent.
1494 .0368 .0767 .2432 1524 .0417 .0605 .2330
1495 .0418 .0688 .2201 1526 .0339 .0580 .1980
1496 .0391 .0676 .1838 1527 .0404 .0621 .2470
1497 .0374 .0883 .2281 1531 .0395 .0633 .2179
1498 .0375 .0641 .2092 2532 .0455 .0760 .1822
1499 .0358 .0647 .2085 1534 .0522 .0704 .2198
1500 .0402 .0630 .2315 1537 .0508 .0648 .2283
1501 .0344 .0657 .2283 1538 .0497 .0650 .2347
1502 .0409 .0674 .2458 1539 .0386 .0638 .2474
1503 .0462 .0688 .2136 1540 .0429' .0691 .2111
1504 .0471 .0835 .2049 1541 .0563 .0742 .2581
1505 .0410 .0694 .2095 1542 .0392 .0667 .2177
1506 .0420 .0781 .2182 1543 .0432 .0662 .2513
1507 .0484 .0859 .2138 1544 .0477 .0650 .2716
1508 .0369 .0727 .1883 1545 .0482 .0796 .2585
1509 .0369 .0795 .2010 1551 .0430 .0692 .2312
1510 .0381 .0710 2187 1552 .0450 .0697 .1955
1512 .0434 .0666 .2148 1553 .0429 .0680 .2876
1518' .0433 .0757 .2545 1554 .0443 .0789 .2320
1519 .0421 .0929 .2475 1555 .0451 .0698 .2553
1520 .0390 .0669 .2197 1556 .0416 .0703 .1868
1521 .0426 .0736 .2361 1557 .0398 .0658 .2090
1522 .0390 .0765 .2288 1558 .0429 .0664 .2244
1523 .0401 .0706 .2384 1559 .0451 .0724 .2259

Average .0423 .0707 .2256









Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


Some work has also been done looking towards ascertaining
whether increasing the fertilizers has any effect upon the sugar
and acid content of the pineapple, but this work is not yet
complete.
For the beginner in pineapple growing there will be many
details which must be learned by experience or from the practical
grower. The experimenter is, of necessity, obliged to content
himself largely with working out general principles, since differ-
ent localities and different individuals require that different
methods be employed in executing many of the minor details
in almost all agricultural pursuits.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS.
In making recommendations, we cannot undertake to lay
down hard-and-fast rules except perhaps in very few cases, since
the personal equation must necessarily count for much in the
growing of pineapples. Some will get good results with one
method and one kind of fertilizer, while another may pursue
entirely different methods and use different fertilizers and still
get good results. However, some points seem to be pretty well
established, viz:
As a source of phosphoric acid, fine ground steamed
bone has given very general satisfaction, while both bone
meal and slag phosphate have given good results in our ex-
perimental work. If acid phosphate is used, lime should be
added every year or two, at the rate of about 750 pounds
to the acre. Dissolved bone black may be used if it is
known to be genuine. However, as previously stated, it
may be well to avoid these two sources of phosphorus.
As sources of nitrogen, dried blood, cottonseed meal
and castor pomace may be used. Nitrate of soda may
be used for the first six months and possibly, to a lim-
ited extent, for the first year, but after the first year it
will probably be safer to eliminate it entirely. Con-
siderable caution is required in its use.
Of the potash salts used, high and low grade sulphate
have given the best results, the latter seeming slightly the
better. Muriate has given fair results, though the sulphate
undoubtedly gives better results. Kainit should not be









Bulletin No. 83


used. High grade tobacco stems, though not used in this
'experiment, have been used by a number of growers with
good results.
The plot giving the greatest increase in value for the
summer crop of 1903, due to increase of fertilizer, was No.
19, Section E., fertilized with bone meal, dried blood, and
low grade sulphate of potash, the net increase being at the
rate of $339.16 per acre.
The plot giving the largest total returns, for the sum-
mer crop of 1903, was plot No. 35, Sec. I., fertilized with
slag, dried blood and high grade sulphate of potash. This
plot yielded at the rate of 537 1-2 crates per acre; valued
at $869.37 1-2.
The poorest plot for the same year, No. 69, fertilized
with bone meal and muriate of potash, yielded at the rate
of 1374-5 crates per acre; valued at $217.64. The dif-
ference in favor of the best plot is, therefore, 399 3-5 crates;
valued at $651.73 1-2.
For most of the East Coast soils we would recommend
3500 to 4000 pounds to the acre annually of a fertilizer anal-
yzing 4 per cent. available phosphoric acid, 5 per cent.
nitrogen and 10 per cent. potash, to be applied at the rate of
four applications a year for the first 18 months, and after
this two applications a year; one in February or March as
the conditions may require, and one soon after the removal
of the summer crop. However, some very successful
growers recommend three applications a year, as follows:
about 1400 pounds of a standard fertilizer in February
and again after the removal of the summer crop, and 1000
to 1200 pounds high grade tobacco stems in the fall or
early winter. A regular application of a growing fer-
tilizer at the beginning of winter has been found objection-
able, in that the plants, if started to growing rapidly, are
much more susceptible to injury by the cold weather which
may come in January or February. This was clearly dem-
onstrated by the freeze of 1905. Those who fertilized
heavily in the late fall suffered more than those who did
not fertilize at this time or who used only ground tobacco









Pineapple Culture III-Fertilizer Experiments


stems. .The tobacco does not cause much growth, but
makes the plants hardy and thus better able to stand the
cold.
Within three weeks, or as soon as possible after setting
out, the plants should have a light application of cotton-
seed meal in the bud, about a tablespoonful to the plant.
The first regular application should be put on broadcast
about six weeks later, and be thoroughly worked in with
the scuffle hoe. For this application, some growers have
used castor pomace or cottonseed meal, and high grade
tobacco stems, with good results.
The experiment has clearly demonstrated that by in-
creasing the fertilizer from a little more than a ton, to
nearly two tons per acre, we increase the number of
larger sizes of pineapples to a very profitable extent, and
that for shedded pines there is no profit in going much be-
yond this amount.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
Acknowledgments are due Hardee Bros. for faithful co-
operation in the work, and to Mr. W. R. Hardee especially, for
keeping accurate records of the crops, for valuable suggestions
and for the many hospitalities which he has so freely extended
to the writers, and other representatives of the Station, when it
has been necessary to visit the experiment; to Mr. J. R. Parrott,
Vice President and General Manager of the Florida East Coast
Railroad, and Maj. W. L. Glessner, Industrial Agent of the
Georgia, Southern and Florida R. R., for transportation; to
Prof. H. Harold Hume, formerly Horticulturist and Botanist
of the University and Experiment Station; and Mr. H. G.
Dorsey, formerly Professor of Physics in the University, for
photographs, and to Dr. E. R. Flint for helpful suggestions in
the arrangement of diagrams.




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