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Group Title: Etiology of fowl parasites, leukemia and allied conditions in animals
Title: The etiology of fowl paralysis, leukemia and allied conditions in animals
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Title: The etiology of fowl paralysis, leukemia and allied conditions in animals
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Emmel, M. W.
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Station,
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Bibliographic ID: UF00047765
Volume ID: VID00004
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Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The intestinal flora of chickens affected with enteritis associated with intestinal parasitism
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The pathologic manifestations of the causal micro-organisms in the fowl
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







March, 1936


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
WILMON NEWELL, Director






THE ETIOLOGY OF FOWL PARALYSIS,

LEUKEMIA AND ALLIED

CONDITIONS IN ANIMALS


III. The Intestinal Flora of Chickens Affected with
Enteritis Associated with Intestinal Parasitism

IV. The Pathologic Manifestations of the
Causal Micro-Organisms in the Fowl


By M. W. EMMEL






TECHNICAL BULLETIN






Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 293










*, 3 t EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of
3 1 the University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, M.S., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall. Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S.A., Associate*
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
W. W. Henley, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.*
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husbandman
R. M. Crown, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Laboratory Assistant
Jeanette Shaw, M.S., Laboratory Technician
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist**
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist**
C. F. Ahmann, Ph.D., Physiologist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist**
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist**
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist and
Associate Head of Department
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Specialist, Fumigation
Research
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant***
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Assistant Botanist
Stacy O. Hawkins, M.A., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
SPECTROGRAPHIC LABORATORY
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
L. H. Rogers, M.A., Spectroscopic Analyst


BOARD OF CONTROL
Geo. H. Baldwin, Chairman, Jacksonville
A. H. Wagg, West Palm Beach
Oliver J. Semmes, Pensacola
Harry C. Duncan, Tavares
Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
W. A. Kuntz, A.M., Assoc. Plant Pathologist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
A. Daane, Ph.D., Agronomist in Charge
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., SugarcanePhysiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. W. Kidder, BS., Assistant Animal
Husbandman
Ross E. Robertson, B.S., Assistant Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer*
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge*

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
J. W. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
G. B. Fairchild, M.S., Asst. Entomologist***
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Sanford
E. R. Purvis, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist,
Celery Investigations
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Ph.D., Meteorologist*
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist*
W. O. Johnson, B.A., Asst. Meteorologist*
R. T. Sherouse, Asst. Meteorologist*
M. L. Blanc, Asst. Meteorologist*
In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
** Head of Department.
*** On leave.












CONTENTS

Page
III. The intestinal flora of chickens affected with enteritis associated
with intestinal parasitism......................... ..... ................ 5
Review of literature on normal intestinal flora of the chicken........ 6
The percentage occurrence of micro-organisms in the intestinal
contents of selected birds affected with enteritis associated with
coccidiosis ............................... ........................ .......... ......................... 7
The percentage occurrence of micro-organisms in the intestinal
contents of selected birds affected with enteritis associated with
helm inthes ................ .................. ........ ... ......................... 9
The isolation of micro-organisms of the paratyphoid and typhoid
groups from selected birds affected with enteritis associated with
intestinal parasitism -............... .................. .---- ..... ............... -11
D discussion ................................... ... ................................................... 13
Importance to hum an health................... ................. ........ .......... 14
Sum m ary............. ..... .............................. .............. .......... 15
Literature cited .......... ...... ............... ... ...... ...... 16

IV. The pathologic manifestations of the causal micro-organisms in
the fow l................................... ..................... ..... .. 18
Pathologic manifestations........................ ........ ........... 18
Infection................... ..... ......................................... ..... ... 18
Hem ocytoblastosis ............ .... .. ... ......... .... .... ....... 19
Septicem ia............................................ .. ............... ..... 19
"Light"......................... ......................... .................. 19
A nem ia................ ................ ............................. .................... 19
F ow l paralysis.......................... ....................... ..... .. ........... 21
Leukem ia.............. ........... .. ....... ............ ...... .. 21
Lymphomatosis ..... ......... .. ...... ........... .. ................ 21
Lymphocytom a ......... .... ....... ............ ..... ... 21
T um ors........................ ....................................... .. .................. 22
Discussion ................... .... ..... .. ....... .... ......... 22
Literature cited.. ...... -----...--....--.......--. ....... 22









THE ETIOLOGY OF FOWL PARALYSIS,
LEUKEMIA AND ALLIED
CONDITIONS IN ANIMALS
By M. W. EMMEL

III. The Intestinal Flora of Chickens Affected with
Enteritis Associated with Intestinal Parasitismi
The bacterial flora of the intestinal tract of chickens in disease
is a subject which has received comparatively little study. It
has been known for many years that the intestinal tract of
man and animals is the habitat for millions of micro-organisms.
The type of food consumed, environment, and certain physico-
chemical factors existing in the intestinal tract are probably
the principal factors influencing the nature of this flora.
In the case of man it has been established that certain bacteria
in the intestinal tract are beneficial while others are harmful
in that such bacteria, their products or both, may produce
disease. Chief among this latter group of micro-organisms are
the paratyphoid and typhoid groups of bacteria which are classi-
fied as intestinal bacteria. The avenue of infection for these
micro-organisms is the intestinal tract where environmental con-
ditions often make it possible for them or their products to pro-
duce disease.
A previous paper (4)2 has given a review of the literature
pertaining to infection by micro-organisms of the paratyphoid
and typhoid groups in chickens. With the exception of Sal-
monella pullorum, as concerned with pullorum disease in baby
chicks, no systematic investigations have been conducted to
study the intestinal flora that may exist in the chicken as asso-
ciated with disease.
It was with this thought in mind that a systematic study was
made of the intestinal flora of chickens affected with enteritis
associated with intestinal parasitism. The findings hereinafter
recorded were responsible for a continued study of this subject
which has resulted in the advancement of a bacterial theory of
the etiology of fowl paralysis, leukemia, and allied conditions
described in a previous paper (4).
1A portion of the data contained herein represents investigations con-
ducted in the Department of Bacteriology, Michigan State College, and in
the Department of Pathology, Alabama Polytechnic Institute.
2Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" on page 16.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON NORMAL INTESTINAL
FLORA OF THE CHICKEN
Before discussing any unusual intestinal flora of the chicken,
a review of the literature concerning the normal flora should
be of interest.
Kern (6) studied the intestinal flora of 24 birds and found
21 species of bacteria. A common characteristic of the bacteria
isolated was their ability to liquefy gelatin; a relatively large
number bore spores. Escherichia coli was the predominating
micro-organism.
Although Schottelius (10-12) did not identify micro-organisms
of the intestinal flora of the baby chick, he concluded from his
classical experiments, in which baby chicks were hatched, fed,
and grown under strictly sterile conditions (1) that the micro-
flora of the digestive tract assists in the resolution of food con-
sumed; (2) that substances which stimulate peristalsis are pro-
duced; and (3) that the normal flora destroys and prevents
proliferation of pathogenic organisms which gain access to the
intestinal canal.
King (7) noted the flora of the intestinal mucosa to be con-
stant to a certain extent. E. coli was the predominating micro-
organism and was always found in the ceca and colon, frequently
found in the lower portion of the small intestine and rarely
found in the duodenum.
Gage (5) recorded E. coli as the predominating micro-organ-
ism in the intestinal flora of 45 healthy fowls and that the flora
varied with conditions of environment and different stages of
life.
Rahner (9) found that E. coli was a constant inhabitant of
the intestinal tract of the chicken and that it tended to crowd
out other micro-organisms and to increase in number as the
cloaca was approached.
Menes and Rochlin (8) observed that the intestinal flora of
hens contained but few species of bacteria and were identical
in all parts of the intestines.
The author (2-3) undertook a systematic study of the feces
of 20 hens and observed E. coli and E. communior to be con-
stant inhabitants and that together they constituted an average
of 60' percent of the total number of micro-organisms present.
There was much variance in the remaining species of micro-
organisms found.







The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis


PERCENTAGE OCCURRENCE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS IN
THE INTESTINAL CONTENT OF SELECTED BIRDS
AFFECTED WITH ENTERITIS ASSOCIATED
WITH COCCIDIOSIS
Object.-The purpose of this experiment was to determine the
percentage occurrence of various micro-organisms present in
the intestinal contents of birds affected with enteritis associated
with coccidiosis at the level of the most intense inflammation.
Procedure.-Samples of intestinal contents were collected from
the small intestines of birds affected with enteritis associated
with coccidiosis. Only such birds as showed well developed and
severe cases of enteritis were used. Not more than one bird
from any one flock was used from among the total number sent
to the laboratory for post-mortem examination. The samples
were collected from the location showing the most severe en-
teritis and placed in a sterile test tube containing 5 c.c. of sterile
physiological salt solution. The sample was thoroughly emul-
sified.
Dilutions of 1-100, 1-500, 1-1,000, 1-10,000, and 1-100,000 were
plated in duplicate on nutrient agar (pH 6.8). The plates were
then incubated for 48 hours at 370 C. In some instances all of
the colonies were picked from the plates while in others all the
colonies were picked from representative areas and placed on
nutrient agar slants. After 24 hours' incubation the cultures
were related on nutrient agar and incubated at 370 C for 24
hours. Nutrient agar slants were then made and served as
stock cultures from which transfers for identification were made.
No attempt was made to isolate obligate anerobic micro-
organisms.
Acid and gas fermentation studies were first made on dextrose,
lactose, sucrose, mannite and maltose broth. Identifications were
based on additional fermentation studies on the rarer sugars,
special and differential cultural media, morphology, staining
characteristics and agglutinin absorption studies according to
recognized bacteriological methods as found necessary to insure
proper identification.
Results.-The results are recorded in Table 1.
Six species of the genus Salmonella, S. aertrycke, S. schott-
miulleri, S. enteritidis, S. suipestifer, S. typhimurium, and S.
pullorum, as well as one species of Eberthella, E. typhi, were
isolated from the intestinal contents of 13 out of 18 birds affected















TABLE 1.-PERCENTAGE OCCURRENCE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS IN THE INTESTINAL CONTENTS OF 18 BIRDS 6 TO 16 WEEKS OF AGE
AFFECTED WITH ENTERITIS ASSOCIATED WITH COCCIDIOSIS.*
(Boldface figures indicate percentages of paratyphoid and typhoid organisms.)


Bird Number........................ ..............


Escherichia coli........................................

Escherichia communior ..............................

Bacillus.............................. .......................

Salmonella aertrycke..............................

Flavobacterium ........ .................... .................

Pseudomonas......................... ..............

Staphylococcus....................... ...........

Salmonella schottmulleri.............................

Proteus....................... ......... ...............

Alcaligines........................... ......

Achromobacter.................................... ...

Eberthella typhi.................................

Streptococcus......................... ..............

Salmonella enteritidis................... ....

Salmonella suipestifer. ................................

Salmonella typhimurum............................


1 2 3


13.6 26.4 6.8

4.5 20.8 ..........

30.1 40.0 18.9

33.2 ......... 53.9

18.6 ......... ..........

. ...... 12.8 ..........

...... .. ....... ..... 20.4



. I..... .......... I----








.I..

......


Salmonella pullorum................................. ..


100 100 100


I


8 9


4 5 6


...... 21.4 .........

.......... 8.7 11.9

1.3 22.9 7.6

........ 8.7



... 6.9 ....

20.0 25.1

61.4 ......... ........

23.1 ......... .........

14.2 ...................

.......... 11.4 16.5

...... ... .. 38.9












100 100 100


10 11 12 1 14 15 16 17 18


7


.......... 12.7

8.2 5.8

23.6 29.2





.... ....... .

26.6 ..........






.......... 21.9





41.6 30.4






100 100
100 100


* Level represented ih location of mount intense inflammation. Cuccil type or coccidiosni excepted.


11.4



26.5

8.7

16.5



10.5



4.1


15.7

21.4 .

29.1



.. .. 0
5-












11.7

..........

13.7

..........
8.4






....








100
to

13.7~~-- "*
GQ


...... i,


10.4
10.4 .....--....--....

22.1 ......... 31.6

5.7 13.1 10.4

47.5 -.-

. ..... 8.6 ....

14.2 .......... 17.1

......... ...... 40.9

.... ..... ..........I .........


15.7

4..........5 ..........
.......... . ..........'


15.1 ........



43.1 ..... .... ......






100 100 100


.......... .......... .........



31.5 ........ .........

......... .......... 21.2


100 100 100


z '


38.7

..... ... .. ..

......... 22.3



100 100.
100 100


-- '-'---------







The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis


with enteritis associated with coccidiosis. Only in one instance
were two species found in the same bird; the intestinal con-
tents of bird No. 15 yielded cultures of S. pullorum and S.
aertrycke. S. aertrycke was found in the intestinal contents of
five birds, S. enteritidis in three birds, and S. typhimurium in
two birds, while each of the remaining micro-organisms was
found in the intestinal contents of only one bird. Paratyphoid
or typhoid organisms were not isolated from the intestinal con-
tents of five birds.
The percentage occurrence of these micro-organisms ranged
from 8.7 to 61.4 percent of the total bacterial flora, the average
percentage occurrence being 36.77 percent.
Escherichia coli was not isolated from the intestinal contents
of six birds; Escherichia communior was not isolated from the
intestinal contents of four birds; three birds failed to yield
cultures of either micro-organism.

PERCENTAGE OCCURRENCE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS IN
THE INTESTINAL CONTENTS OF SELECTED BIRDS
AFFECTED WITH ENTERITIS ASSOCIATED
WITH HELMINTHES
Procedure.--The procedure was similar to that used in the
preceding experiment. The birds, however, were affected with
enteritis associated with roundworm and tapeworm infestation.
Results.-In 11 out of 18 birds affected with enteritis asso-
ciated with roundworms, tapeworms, or both, the data on which
are tabulated in Table 2, four species of the genus Salmonella,
one species of Shigella and two species of Eberthella were
isolated. S. aertrycke was found in the intestinal contents of
four birds, S. enteritidis and S. paratyphi each in one bird.
Shigella paradysenteriae, Eberthella typhi and E. enterica each
were found in the intestinal contents of one bird. Seven birds
failed to yield cultures of the paratyphoid or typhoid groups of
micro-organisms.
The percentage occurrence of these micro-organisms ranged
from 25.8 to 58.6 percent of the total bacterial flora, the average
being 34.73 percent.
Escherichia coli was not isolated from the intestinal contents
of five birds, while Escherichia communior was not isolated from
the intestinal contents of one bird.











TABLE 2.-PERCENTAGE OCCURRENCE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS IN THE INTESTINAL CONTENTS OF 18 BIRDS 12 TO 24 WEEKS OF AGE
AFFECTED WITH ENTERITIS ASSOCIATED WITH ROUNDWORMS, TAPEWORMS OR BOTH.*
(Boldface figures indicate percentages of paratyphoid and typhoid organisms.)

Bird Number............................... ........ .... .. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18


Escherichia coli.......................................
Escherichia communior.......................
B acillus............................................ ........
Streptococcus.........................................
Shigella paradysenteriae..... ...............
Staphylococcus ...... .... ..................
Pseudomonas..... ....................
Salmonella aertrycke.....................
Eberthella enterica...... .................
Proteus....................................... .................
Chromobactium........... .................
Eberthella typhi...................................
Flavobacterium........................ ..............
Achromobacter.. .......................
Salmonella typhimurium...................
Salmonella paratyphi...............................
Salmonella enteritidis............................


100 100 1 00 100
1


.......... 13.7
....... 2 .8


|.......... ......... 39.2


1100 00 100 100 100 100 00 1 0 10 1 100 100 100 100 1 0000


* Level represented is location of most intense inflammation.


........ ..... ... ....
........ .......... ..........







The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis


ISOLATION OF MICRO-ORGANISMS OF THE PARATY-
PHOID AND TYPHOID GROUPS FROM SELECTED
BIRDS AFFECTED WITH ENTERITIS ASSOCI-
ATED WITH INTESTINAL PARASITISM
Object.-Since the previous experiments indicated that micro-
organisms of the paratyphoid or typhoid groups were often
found in the intestinal contents of birds affected with enteritis
associated with intestinal parasitism, it was deemed advisable
to make a routine examination of the intestinal contents from
a large number of similarly affected birds.
Procedure.-The procedure followed was similar to that used
in the experiments already described. Samples were taken from
not more than two birds from the total number of birds pre-
sented from a single flock. Loop dilutions in nutrient agar (pH
6.8) were used in plating the samples. No attempts were made
to isolate micro-organisms other than those of the paratyphoid
or typhoid groups. Suspicious colonies were picked from the
plates and the same methods of identification were used.
The data have been obtained over a period of five years.
Results.-Eight species of the genus Salmonella, one species
of Eberthella, and one species of Shigella were isolated from
137 of 230 samples of intestinal contents examined. Ninety-
three samples proved negative. The birds used in this experi-
ment were affected with enteritis associated with Eimeria, As-
caridia, Capillaria, Davainea proglottina, Hymenolepis carioca,
Raillietina cesticillus, Amoebotaenia sphenoides, and three un-
identified tapeworms. Twenty-six birds harbored mixed infesta-
tion of Eimeria, Ascaridia, and Taenia. The type of parasite
present and the paratyphoid or typhoid organism isolated are
recorded in Table 3.
Salmonella aertrycke was the predominating micro-organism
isolated, occurring in 77 of the 137 positive cases. This micro-
organism was associated with Salmonella pullorum in the only
case of mixed infection recorded.
Twenty-two of the 231 birds used in this experiment were
affected with fowl paralysis; paratyphoid organisms were
isolated from seven such cases.












TABLE 3.-ISOLATION OF PARATYPHOID AND TYPHOID MICRO-ORGANISMS FROM THE INTESTINAL CONTENTS OF BIRDS 6 TO 16
WEEKS OF AGE AFFECTED WITH NATURALLY OCCURRING CASES OF ENTERITIS ASSOCIATED WITH INTESTINAL PARASITES.

Paratyphoid and Typhoid Micro-organisms Isolated


Parasite Present




E im eria .............. .....................................
Ascaridia-........... ........--- --------..
Capillaria..................... .................
Davainea proglottina................ .............
Hymenolepsis earioca........................... .....
Raillietina cesticillus........................................
Amoebotaenia sphenoides..................-....................
Unidentified tapeworms................... ....... .....
Mixed infestation
(Eimneria, Ascaridia and Taenia).........................

Total........................................ .................... ..............

Number above cases showing symptoms
of fowl paralysis..... .......... ..............................


ag 0 W.
oll I
11l li


22 5


i I I i


fl .5 II .I 5 14 I ia B li i
4r c Pc,
-~ -~ o~ ..~-


3 11
3 1 ............
7 4 4


70.8

59.9


Mixed nfection-. pullorum and aertryke.
* Mixed Infection--S. pullorum and S. aertryeke.


I- --- -


8 4_


....... ....







The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis


DISCUSSION
Since the work of numerous investigators has shown that
micro-organisms of the colon group predominate in the intestinal
flora of the normal fowl, a survey of the results obtained in
these experiments indicates that in cases of enteritis associated
with intestinal parasitism the normal intestinal bacterial flora
which consists chiefly of E. coli and E. communior is seriously
disrupted. A few birds failed to yield cultures of one or the
other of these micro-organisms.
More surprising, however, is the repeated isolation of micro-
organisms of the genera Salmonella, Shigella, and Eberthella,
more commonly known as constituting the paratyphoid and ty-
phoid groups of bacteria. Intestinal parasitism must either
create physico-chemical conditions detrimental to a colon flora
or conditions more favorable for the establishment of micro-
organisms of the paratyphoid or typhoid groups. The high
percentage of these latter micro-organisms found in the in-
testinal flora under these conditions indicates that the para-
typhoid or typhoid organisms found under such conditions must
become established and multiply in the intestinal contents. The
period over which these micro-organisms become established,
however, cannot be lengthy as one experiences considerable dif-
ficulty in isolating such micro-organisms from the intestinal
contents of "acute" cases of paralysis even in young birds, in
which case the incubation period of the disease is comparatively
short. In older birds affected with paralysis the author has
never been able to isolate paratyphoid or typhoid organisms
from the intestinal contents. This is true in either case, even
though intestinal parasitism and enteritis still persist in many
instances. Likewise micro-organisms of these groups have never
been isolated from the intestinal contents of birds affected with
leukemia.
Considerable stress should be placed upon the point that
routine bacteriological examination of the feces of paralyzed
chickens for members of the paratyphoid and typhoid groups of
bacteria yields a low percentage of positive results. This need
not necessarily be contradictory to the bacterial theory of the
cause of this group of diseases in this study, as the causal micro-
organisms merely initiate hemocytoblastosis and then, in most
instances, disappear after a comparatively short period from
the intestinal tract. The impetus which is given hemocyto-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


blastosis by these causal micro-organisms determines in a large
measure the resulting pathologic manifestation.
It is to be remembered that the process of infection is de-
pendent upon a number of factors and even in the same flock
these factors may be working in different relationships to each
other. Hemocytoblastosis and the mechanism of the causal
micro-organisms will be discussed in a later paper. A knowl-
edge of these processes will give a better understanding of the
complete problem. One finds difficulty in explaining why the
causal micro-organisms do not remain established for a longer
period in the intestinal tract of the chicken when intestinal
parasites and enteritis still persist, the factors which are ap-
parently responsible for their establishment. Tissue immunity
or environment are possible factors involved in their elimina-
tion from the intestinal tract of the chicken.

IMPORTANCE TO HUMAN HEALTH
With the exception of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the
three species of the genus Brucella, micro-organisms capable of
inducing disease in the chicken have not been associated with
human health. The paratyphoid and typhoid groups of micro-
organisms have been regarded as capable of inducing disease
in the human for many years, principally food poisoning and
inflammations of the intestinal tract. One micro-organism found
in the intestinal contents of four birds in this study, Eberthella
typhi, is the recognized cause of typhoid fever in the human.
Fowl paralysis, leukemia and allied conditions in the fowl
have been reported as a major disease problem of many coun-
tries of the world. It is the intention of the author to show
that micro-organisms of the paratyphoid and typhoid groups are
the primary cause of this group of diseases in the chicken.
While it is true that the isolation of these micro-organisms
herein reported were from "selected" cases and did not consti-
tute the total number of cases presented for laboratory examina-
tion, the cases reported represent birds from widely scattered
flocks in three states. It would seem then that flocks of chickens
are a vast potential reservoir for the spread of these micro-
organisms.
Beckham (1), municipal inspector for Tuscaloosa, Alabama,
has reported several instances of food poisoning in which chick-
ens were looked upon with considerable suspicion. The author







The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis


has been asked on several occasions whether micro-organisms
capable of causing food poisoning could be associated with
chickens.
Numerous cases of food poisoning have been reported in the
literature in which chickens or their products have been looked
upon with suspicion. White (13) in discussing S. aertrycke
infection in man calls attention, however, to the "relatively small
amount of exact information which exists with regard to the
probable primary sources of infection."
A previous paper has shown that birds develop fowl paralysis
or leukemia when submitted to repeated intravenous injections
of S. aertrycke. The data contained herein lead to the conclusion
that micro-organisms of the paratyphoid and typhoid groups
can establish themselves in the intestinal tract of birds affected
with enteritis associated with intestinal parasitism. Even
though experiments to be reported show that this period of
establishment may vary up to 14 to 18 days, millions of these
micro-organisms are eliminated over this period. Observations
on naturally occurring outbreaks of fowl paralysis would indi-
cate that there is a progressive infection throughout the flock
during the period of infection. Micro-organisms of the para-
typhoid or typhoid groups would then be likely to be present
in the feces of the flock for a period of four to five weeks.
Subsequent data will show that many birds exposed to the
causal micro-organism per orum following intestinal parasitism
recover, and that a few of these birds become "carriers" of the
causal micro-organism. It has been known for many years that
there are human "carriers" of paratyphoid and typhoid organ-
isms, but studies to be reported later are the first indication
that such is the case in chickens. It is the belief of the author
that the infection is perpetuated on many farms from year to
year through "carriers".
This study then opens a broad field for the epidemiologist
who is interested in the relation of micro-organisms of the
paratyphoid and typhoid groups to human health.

SUMMARY
Salmonella aertrycke was found in the intestinal contents of
five birds affected with enteritis associated with coccidiosis,
S. enteritidis in three birds, S. typhimurium in two birds, while
S. schottmiilleri, S. suipestifer, S. pullorum, Eberthella typhi
were found in the intestinal contents of but one bird each. Five







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


birds did not yield cultures of paratyphoid or typhoid organisms.
The percentage occurrence of these micro-organisms ranged
from 8.7 to 61.4 percent of the total bacterial flora.
In 18 birds affected with enteritis associated with round-
worms, tapeworms or both, S. aertrycke was isolated from the
intestinal contents of four birds, S. typhimurium from two birds,
while S. enteritidis, S. paratyphi, Shigella paradysenteriae,
Eberthella typhi and E. enterica were isolated from the intes-
tinal contents of but one bird each. The percentage occurrence
of these micro-organisms ranged from 25.8 to 58.6 percent of
the total bacterial flora.
In a routine examination of selected cases eight species of
Salmonella, one species of Eberthella, and Shigella, seven un-
identified cultures of Salmonella and four unidentified species
of Eberthella were isolated from 137 of 230 samples of intestinal
contents of birds affected with enteritis associated with Eimeria,
Ascaridia, Capillaria and Taenia. S. aertrycke was the pre-
dominating organism isolated. E. typhi was isolated from two
birds.
The conclusion is reached that intestinal parasitism seriously
interferes with the normal flora, allowing micro-organisms of
the paratyphoid and typhoid groups to become established in
the intestinal tract.
Chickens offer a vast potential source of micro-organisms of
the paratyphoid and typhoid groups, which opens a broad field
for the epidemiologist interested in the relation of these micro-
organisms to human health.

LITERATURE CITED

1. BECKHAM, L. E. Personal communication.
2. EMMEL, M. W. A study of the bacterial flora of the feces and intestinal
contents of the fowl. Thesis, degree of M. S. Mich. State College
1930.
3. ---- Study of the intestinal flora of normal hen. Jour. Inf.
Dis. 46:293. 1930.
4. The etiology of fowl paralysis, leukemia and allied con-
ditions in animals, I. and II. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 284.
1935.
5. GAGE, G. E. A study showing bacteria and animal organisms de-
termined in the feces and intestinal mucosa of healthy chickens.
Md. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 153. 1911.








The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis 17

6. KERN, P. H. Beitrag zur Kenntniss der in Darme und Magen der
Viigel vorkommenden. Arbeiten ans dem Bact. Inst. der Tech.
Hock. zu Karkruhe. 1:378. 1897.
7. KING, W. E. The bacterial flora of the intestinal mucosa and con-
junctiva of the normal chick. Amer. Med. 10:400. 1905.
8. MENES, E., and E. ROCHLIN. Darmmikroflora des Hausgefliigels. Zbl.
f. Bakter. und Parasitenkunde. 0. 113:321. 1929.
9. RAHNER, R. Bakteriologische Mitteilungen fiber die Darmbakterien
der Hihner. Zbl. f. Bakter und Parasitenkunde. 30:239. 1901.
10. SCHOTTELIUS, M. Die Bedeutung der Darmbakterien fir die Ernihrung.
Arch. f. Hyg. 34:210. 1899.
11. Die Bedeutung der Darmbakterien fiur die Ernifhrung.
II. Arch. f. Hyg. 42:48. 1902.
12. Die Bedeutung der Darmbakterien fiir die Ernfhrung.
III. Arch. f. Hyg. 67:177. 1908.
13. WHITE, P. BRUCE. A system of bacteriology. 4. Chapter II. The
Salmonella group. 128. His Majesty's Stationary Office. London.
1929.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


IV. The Pathologic Manifestations of the
Causal Micro-Organisms in the Fowl
The many investigators who have worked on fowl paralysis,
leukemia and allied conditions in the fowl have often used dif-
ferent terms to signify the presence of similar pathologic mani-
festations. The application of different nomenclature in most
instances has no doubt arisen from the slightly different view-
point held by the various investigators concerned. Thus Pap-
penheimer (6, 7)1 termed true fowl paralysis Neurolymphoma-
tosis gallinarum and observed visceral forms of lymphomatosis
but preferred to regard such forms as incidental to the neural
forms. Johnson (4), however, uses the more general term
lymphomatosis and distinguishes between the neural and visceral
forms of the disease. Other investigators have used different
nomenclature applied to the same pathologic manifestation. Thus
in contrast to lymphomatosis, Gibbs (3) uses the term lympho-
cytomatosis. The use of all the varying terms applied to the
pathology of this group of diseases has resulted at times in more
or less confusion. While it is realized that as long as controversy
remains concerning a group of pathologic conditions various
terms will be used, it is the opinion of the author that an effort
should be made to develop more unity of expression concerning
specific conditions.
Due to the profusion of terms used in the past in connection
with fowl paralysis, leukemia and allied conditions in the fowl,
it seems necessary that the author give the nomenclature to be
used throughout these studies. This appears to be in order as
these experiments are based on a new theory that all of the
pathologic manifestations associated with this group of diseases
in the fowl are either directly or indirectly caused by micro-
organisms of the paratyphoid or typhoid groups of bacteria.

PATHOLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS
Chart 1 indicates the pathologic manifestations which result
from infection by micro-organisms of the paratyphoid and
typhoid groups following enteritis associated with intestinal
parasitism.
Infection.-To eliminate confusion it should be recalled to
the reader's attention that the causal micro-organisms in this
study have been regarded as the primary etiologic agent and
SCitations for Section IV will be found on page 22.







The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis


intestinal parasitism has been considered as a necessary predis-
posing factor in respect to this group of diseases (except in the
case of septicemia in very young chicks). The author is not
unmindful of the fact that such types of infection are often
termed "secondary infections" and when this interpretation is
followed the infecting micro-organism is usually referred to as
a secondary etiologic agent. It is preferred, however, in this
study to term the causal micro-organism the primary etiologic
agent. The infection is non-specific in that a number of micro-
organisms of the paratyphoid and typhoid groups may induce
one or a number of the pathologic manifestations.
Hemocytoblastosis.-This term first applied by Johnson (5)
will be used to denote the presence of immature blood cells in
the peripheral circulation. A previous paper (1) has shown
that birds develop this condition shortly after infection and may
recover without the development of any other pathologic con-
dition. During hemocytoblastosis degenerative changes are
often noted in the hematopoietic tissue of the bone marrow.
A subsequent paper will show that hemocytoblastosis alone may
develop from infection by the causal micro-organisms, that it
may assume economic importance, and that degenerative types
of blood cells are often found in the peripheral circulation. Hemo-
cytoblastosis may be accurately diagnosed by an examination
of the stained blood smear taken from an infected bird. Hemo-
cytoblastosis is the basic process which often leads to the de-
velopment of most of the following manifestations.
Septicemia.-This term will be used to signify those cases
from which the causal micro-organism can be isolated from the
blood and tissues at death.
"Light".-This term will be used in preference to emaciation
to differentiate from emaciation which at times accompanies
fowl paralysis, leukemia, lymphomatosis or lymphocytoma.
"Light" results from an intense infection, the incubation period
is short, and the progress of the process is quite rapid.
Anemia.-This condition is also relatively rapid in its progress.
"Light" and anemia are often associated, but may occur in-
dependent of each other. Anemia is brought about by a marked
decrease in the number of erythrocytes. There are no other
pathologic conditions present except those found in hemocyto-
blastosis. In cases of hemocytoblastosis, there may be a small
reduction in the number of erythrocytes present in the peripheral







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

CHART 1. THE PATHOLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS RESULTING
FROM INFECTION BY MICRO-ORGANISMS OF THE
PARATYPHOID OR TYPHOID GROUPS FOLLOWING
ENTERITIS IN THE FOWL.


INFECTION*

(Paratyphoid or typhoid micro-organisms)





Hemocytoblastosis i Recovery


Septicemia

"Light"

Anemia

Fowl paralysis (Neurolymphomatosis gallinarum)
{ 5. erythroblastic
Erythroleucosis 6. lymphatic
6. lymphatic


Leukemia


7. Myeloid leucosis


8. Lymphomatosis
S9. leukemic
Lymphocytoma leukemia
10. aleukemic

11. Tumors

Specific causal micro-organisms are apparently able to induce certain
pathologic manifestations more readily than others.







The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis


circulation but there is no marked progressive anemia such as
is present in cases classified in this group.
It is likely that anemia as herein classified represents a type
of lymphatic erythroleucosis whose progress is so rapid that
other lesions do not have time to develop. Additional evidence
for this conclusion is indicated by some cases grossly diagnosed
as anemia which manifest microscopic lesions of lymphatic
erythroleucosis.
Fowl paralysis (Neurolymphomatosis gallinarum Pappen-
heimer).-All of those cases in which nervous tissue becomes
infiltrated with the pathologic cell--a lymphoid-like cell-result-
ing in neurolymphomatosis, the pathology of which was orig-
inally so ably described by Pappenheimer, will be classified in
this group. The symptoms usually shown are paralysis of those
parts of the body supplied by the affected nerve; in some in-
stances nervous symptoms only are shown, such as partial loss
of equilibrium or a perpetual weaving of the head.
Leukemia.-As indicated in a previous paper (1) the general
term leukemia will be used instead of leucosis unless the latter
term be used with a prefix to denote a specific pathologic condi-
tion. Erythroleucosis, both erythroblastic and lymphatic, has
been well described by Furth (2) and will be used to denote
similar cases. Myeloid leucosis will be the term applied to those
cases in which myelocytes predominate in the peripheral cir-
culation and in which there are the characteristic myeloid in-
filtrations of the hepatic tissue and occasionally other tissues
of the body.
Lymphomatosis.-Those cases in which there are diffuse in-
filtrations of tissue other than nervous tissue with the pathologic
cell-a lymphoid-like cell-fall in this group. The infiltration
of an organ may cause enlargement but there are no macroscopic
tumorous masses of these cells such as are found in lymphocy-
toma. This process is differentiated from fowl paralysis or
neurolymphomatosis solely on the basis of the tissue which
becomes infiltrated. There are no paralytic symptoms such
as are found in neurolymphomatosis. Cases of blindness or
"pearly eye" which are classified as fowl paralysis in a previous
paper will hereafter be classified in this group.
Lymphocytoma.-This term applies to those cases in which
the pathologic cell-a lymphoid-like cell-accumulates in the
tissues to form macroscopic tumorous masses. There are two
types of this condition: (1) leukemic in which there is a marked







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


hemocytoblastosis evident in the peripheral circulation; and
(2) aleukemic in which hemocytoblastosis is but slightly in
evidence. To date aleukemic lymphocytoma in these investiga-
tions has seemed to be a little more distinctive and stands out
slightly removed from the previously described pathological
conditions.
Tumors.-Tumors other than lymphocytoma have been occa-
sionally encountered but they have as yet remained unclassified.
These tumors seem to be definitely associated with the causal
micro-organism.
DISCUSSION
All of the above pathologic manifestations may occur in-
dependently of each other. As.most of them are caused by the
same inciting agent, it is only logical that in many ca.es several
of the above pathologic manifestations may occur in the same
bird. Thus "light" and anemia, neurolymphomatosis and lym-
phomatosis, neurolymphomatosis and the various types of
leukemia may occur in the same bird. However, diagnosis based
upon the above classification is not difficult.
In some cases of erythroleucosis and lymphomatosis, a correct
diagnosis can be made only upon histopathological study of
the affected tissues. Thus as observed by Furth (2) some
cases classified as anemia macroscopically are classified as
erythroleucosis upon histopathological examination of the liver
and spleen. Some birds which do not present symptoms of fowl
paralysis show microscopic infiltrations of nerve tissue. Such
cases, however, are not numerous. Likewise certain cases of
lymphomatosis may be overlooked macroscopically.
Diagnoses of experimental birds in these studies are based
upon macroscopic pathology.

LITERATURE CITED
1. EMMEL, M. W. The etiology of fowl paralysis, leukemia and allied
conditions in animals, I and II. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 284.
1935.
2. FURTH, J. Erythroleucosis and the anemias of the fowl. Arch.
Path. 12:1. 1931.
3. GIBBS, C. S. Preliminary studies on neurolymphomatosis and some
more or less related conditions. Mass. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 308. 1934.
4. JOHNSON, E. P. A study of lymphomatosis of fowls (fowl paralysis).
Vir. Agr. Exp. Station Tech. Bul. 44. 1932.








The Etiology of Fowl Paralysis 23

5. The etiology and histogenesis of leucosis and lympho-
matosis of fowls. Vir. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 56. 1934.
6. PAPPENHEIMER, A. M., DUNN, L. C., and CONE, V. A study of fowl
paralysis. Storrs. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 143. 1926.
7. Studies on fowl paralysis (Neurolymphomatosis gal-
linarum) I. Clinical features and pathology. Jour. Exp. Med.
49:62. 1929.




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