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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 705
Title: Effect of Brahman breeding on performance of calves from weaning to feedlot
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 Material Information
Title: Effect of Brahman breeding on performance of calves from weaning to feedlot
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 705
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Peacock, F. M.
Kirk, W. G.
Koger, M.
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1965
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Bibliographic ID: UF00047758
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction and Review of literature
        Page 3
    Materials and methods
        Page 4
    Results and discussion
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 7
    Literature cited
        Page 8
    Historic note
        Page 9
Full Text













DECEMBER 1965


EFFECT OF BRAHMAN BREEDING
ON PERFORMANCE OF CALVES
FROM WEANING TO FEEDLOT

F. M. PEACOCK, W. G. KIRK, M. KOGER

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE
J. R. BECKENBACH, DIRECTOR


BULLETIN 705


















Introduction -

Review of Literature --.

Materials and Methods ---

Results and Discussion --

Summary and Conclusions

Literature Cited ..-- --------


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RKAL E


CONTENTS


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EFFECT OF BRAHMAN BREEDING ON
PERFORMANCE OF CALVES
FROM WEANING TO FEEDLOT

F. M. Peacock, W. G. Kirk, and M. Koger'


INTRODUCTION
The increased production of feeder cattle in Florida has
created a need for an objective evaluation of the productivity
of the major types of beef cattle produced in the state. The
cattle population of Florida is made up of many breeds with
a great number being Brahman crossbreds of mixed ancestry.
There is little information available on the performance of
Brahman crossbreds from this population during the period
from weaning, which includes wintering and summer grazing,
to feedlot the next fall. In view of the number of cattle con-
taining Brahman blood, it is of particular importance to compare
the performance of cattle of different proportions of this breed.
This study deals primarily with rates of gain made by wean-
ling calves with varying amounts of Brahman blood during the
wintering period and gains made by yearling steers and heifers
on improved pasture during the grazing season. The research
was conducted in the flatwoods area of south Florida which is
typical of much of the Gulf Coast region.


REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The results of crossbreeding experiments beginning with
purebred animals at the Everglades Experiment Station, Belle
Glade, Florida, by Kidder et al. (4)2 indicated first cross calves
were heavier at 12 and 18 months of age than straightbred,
backcross, crisscross or animals produced from inter se matings.
Peacock et al. (6) found winter gains of calves to be highest
from 1/ Brahman animals.
Small variations in gains between Brahman and Shorthorn-
Brahman crossbred calves were described in fattening trials
of weanling calves in Florida by Peacock and Kirk (5), whereas
1Associate Animal Husbandman and Animal Scientist, Range Cattle
Station, Ona; and Animal Geneticist, Animal Science Department, Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, Gainesville.
2 Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


studies in Louisiana by Damon et al. (2) showed a decrease in
gain when Brahman blood exceeded 50 percent. Results from a
preliminary study with calves in Florida by Hargrove et al. (3)
indicated that superior weight gains of 1/2 Shorthorn-1 Brah-
man crossbred calves over Brahman and Shorthorn were due to
increased feed consumption.


MATERIALS AND METHODS
Data used in this study were obtained from experiments
conducted at the Range Cattle Station, Ona, Florida. The data
are presented in three parts: 1) wintering period for both steer
and heifer calves; 2) summer gains of yearling steers; and 3)
summer gains of yearling heifers. Each breed group used in
this study was represented in all experiments. Some selection
was practiced to eliminate abnormal animals from the experi-
mental units. Weight gains of calves from October to March
were obtained from wintering trials over a three-year period
which measured the effect of breeding. Calves were provided
with adequate roughage and supplemental feed to make gains
that would allow fair performance on pasture the following
summer grazing season.
Summer gains of yearling steers were obtained from records
of three experimental grazing trials3 beginning in March or
early April and ending in September.
Summer gains of yearling heifers were obtained from weight
records of replacement animals stocked through the summer
over an eight-year period. These heifers were on pastures which
supplied sufficient feed to maintain a good rate of growth. Selec-
tion had been practiced, as only heifers with the highest poten-
tial for brood cows were kept for replacement. The 577 animals
used in this study represented approximately 45 percent of
those weaned.
Breeding of animals was classified by proportion of Brahman
blood. Breeding other than Brahman was mainly Shorthorn
with a small infusion of Angus, Hereford, and Devon. Data
were classified as follows: 7/8 or more Brahman, 5/8-3/ Brahman,
1/ Brahman, /8-1/ Brahman, and 1/8 to no Brahman.
A separate analysis of the data was conducted for each of
3 State Project 423: Effect of Fertilization and Seeding on the Grazing
Value of Flatwoods Pasture. E. M. Hodges, W. G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock,
and J. E. McCaleb.








Effect of Brahman Breeding


the three sex-season groups. Estimates of the effect of breed
composition on post-weaning gains were determined by the
method of least squares described by Anderson and Bancroft
(1).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The overall average daily gain of 496 steer and heifer calves
for an average of 137 days during the wintering period was
0.63 pound (7). It was shown that the difference between heifer
and steer calves was 0.06 pound daily in favor of steers with
no breed x sex interaction. The effect of proportion of Brahman
blood during this period resulted in the 1/2 Brahman calves hav-
ing the highest daily gain of the breed groups measured. The
12 Brahman calves gained 0.17 pound per day more than the
1/8 to no Brahman calves and 0.08 pound more than calves with
7/8 or more Brahman breeding. The 7/8 or more Brahman calves
gained 0.09 pound daily more than the 1/8 to no Brahman calves.
Results from these data show that 1/ was the optimum level of
Brahman breeding for weight gains. Results of the effect of
proportion of Brahman breeding on winter gains of calves are
given in Table 1.

Table 1.-Effect of breed composition of calves on relative daily winter gains
adjusted for year, sex, and roughage.
Deviation
Breeding No. Calves Mean from Mean
7/8-all Brahman 97 .65 + .02
5/8-3/4 Brahman 199 .64 +'.01
1/2 Brahman 89 .73 + .10
3/8-1/4 Brahman 66 .57 .06
1/8-no Brahman 45 .56 .07

Grazing trials were conducted under experimental conditions
to permit a maximum utilization of pasture and good steer per-
formance. Only steers on continuous grazing were used in the
study. Pasture was the only feed received since no feed sup-
plementation was practiced. Three complete grazing trials
involving the gains of 291 steers were analyzed. Results of the
effect of Brahman breeding on summer gains of yearling steers
are given in Table 2. The average daily gain of yearling steers
for an average of 165 days during three summer grazing seasons
was 1.18 pounds.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Table 2.-Effect of breed composition of steers on relative daily summer gains
of steers adjusted for years, pastures, and fertilization.
Deviation
Breeding No. Steers Mean from Mean
7/8-all Brahman 58 1.18 0.00
5/8-3/4 Brahman 95 1.23 0.05
1/2 Brahman 74 1.31 0.13
3/8-1/4 Brahman 43 1.14 0.04
1/8-no Brahman 21 1.04 0.14


The relative daily gains of steers with the various propor-
tions of Brahman breeding were similar to those obtained for
calves during the wintering period. The 1I Brahman steers
made the highest daily gains, followed by those with over 1/2
Brahman blood. Steers with less than 1/2 Brahman blood made
the lowest gains in this study. Weight gains of steers increased
as the amount of Brahman breeding increased to 1/2, while an
increase over 1/ Brahman resulted in lower gains.
The average daily gain of 577 yearling heifers for the 180-
day summer period was 0.88 pound. Weight gains of heifers
with varying proportions of Brahman were not consistent with
calves or yearling steers except that gains were lowest for heifers
having less than 1/2 Brahman blood. Weight gains of heifers
with 1/ or more Brahman were similar. The fact that perform-
ance of yearling heifers with 1/ and more Brahman blood was
the same, while performance of weanling calves and yearling
steers differed, may be attributed to the effect of sex. There
is also a possibility that selection of the high grade Brahman
heifers was more severe than for the 1/ Brahman, resulting in
equalizing their performance. If so, these results show that
increased summer gains may result from selection. It has been
observed that purebred Brahman heifers have a tendency to
be slow in maturing up to one year but tend to show an increase
in growth and condition from one to two years of age. The
effects of composition of Brahman blood on summer gains of
heifers are given in Table 3. ,
The effect of Brahman breeding on performance of weanling
calves during the winter and yearling steers on summer pasture
showed animals with 12 Brahman breeding to be superior in
weight gains to those with more or less than 12 Brahman breed-
ing. Improved performance of the 1 Brahman animals possibly
could be attributed to a larger appetite associated with hybrid








Effect of Brahman Breeding


vigor (3) which would increase gains under conditions where
feed is not limited. The superiority of animals with more than
1/ Brahman over animals with less Brahman blood may have
been due to better adaptation to prevailing conditions.

Table 3.-Effect of breed composition of yearling heifers on relative daily summer
gains adjusted for years.
Deviation
Breeding No. Calves Mean from Mean
7/8-all Brahman 108 0.97 0.09
5/8-3/4 Brahman 212 0.92 0.04
1/2 Brahman 121 0.94 0.06
3/8-1/4 Brahman 89 0.80 0.08
1/8-no Brahman 47 0.77 0.11



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Records from experiments conducted at the Range Cattle
Station were used to determine the effect of breed composition
of cattle on weight gains from weaning to feedlot. Data were
analyzed for the influence of proportion of Brahman breeding
on weight gains of: 1) 496 weanling steer and heifer calves
during the winter period for an average of 137 days from
October to March during three succeeding years; 2) 291 yearling
steers grazed on improved pasture over a period of three years;
and 3) 577 yearling heifers on improved pasture over an eight-
year period.
Weanling calves and yearling steers with / Brahman blood
had higher weight gains than animals with more or less than
1/2 Brahman. Animals with more than 1/ Brahman breeding
were next in decreasing order, while those with less than 1/
Brahman had the lowest gains. There were small variations
in gains of yearling heifers with 1/ or more Brahman breeding,
while heifers with less than 12 Brahman had the lowest daily
gains. In the three studies animals with less than 1/2 Brahman
breeding had the lowest average daily gains for the breed groups.








LITERATURE CITED

1. Anderson, R. L., and T. A. Bancroft. Statistical theory in research.
1st ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1952.

2. Damon, R. A., Jr., S. E. McCraine, R. M. Crown, and C. B. Singletary.
Gains and grades of beef steers in the Gulf Coast Region. J. Animal Sci.
18:3:1103-113. 1959.

3. Hargrove. D. D., M. Koger, W. G. Kirk, F. M. Peacock, A. C. Warnick,
hnd T. J. Cunha. Appetite, growth rate and feed utilization in Short-
horn, Brahman and crossbred calves. J. Animal Sci. 18:4:1472. 1959.

4. Kidder, R. W., M. Koger, J. H. Meade, Jr., and J. R. Crockett. Systems
of crossbreeding for beef production in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 673. 1964.

5. Peacock, F. M., and W. G. Kirk. Feed lot performance and carcass
grades of Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn steers. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 597. 1958.

6. Peacock, F. M., J. E. McCaleb, E. M. Hodges, and W. G. Kirk. Factors
influencing winter gains of beef calves. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 635.
1961.































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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






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