• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Water quality considerations in...
 Materials needed to use this...
 Important factors that affect pesticide...
 Indices used to select pestici...
 Criteria for matching soil ratings...
 Procedure for selecting pesticides...
 Using the worksheet
 Table 1
 Pesticide selection worksheet
 Acknowledgement






Title: Wheat
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00047737/00001
 Material Information
Title: Wheat
Series Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service Circular 1015. Water Quality Inititative Series.
Translated Title: Managing pesticides for crop production and water quality protection ( English )
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Hornsby, A. G.
Buttler, Tasha M.
Colvin, Daniel Lamar
Sprenkel, R. E.
Dunn, R. A.
Kucharek, Tom A.
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Florida Cooperative Extension Service -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1991
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00047737
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Water quality considerations in wheat production
        Page 2
    Materials needed to use this procedure
        Page 2
    Important factors that affect pesticide selection
        Page 2
    Indices used to select pesticides
        Page 3
    Criteria for matching soil ratings with pesticide indices
        Page 4
    Procedure for selecting pesticides to reduce adverse water quality impacts
        Page 4
    Using the worksheet
        Page 5
    Table 1
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Pesticide selection worksheet
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Acknowledgement
        Page 10
        Page 11
Full Text



SSoil Science Department Circular 1015
Water Quality Initiative Series May 1991



WHEAT






MANAGING PESTICIDES FOR CROP PRODUCTION

AND WATER QUALITY PROTECTION

A Supplement to the IFAS Pest Control Guides




A. G. HORNSBY
and
T. M. BUT'TLER
Soil Science Department

D. L. COLVIN
Agronomy Department

R. E. SPRENKEL
NFREC, Quincy, FL

R. A. DUNN
Entomology and Nematology Department "

T. A. KUCHAREK
Plant Pathology Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences-'" .
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611\ ''




Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension








WATER QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS IN Circular 959 entitled "Soil Ratings for Selecting
WHEAT PRODUCTION Pesticides for Water Quality Goals," which is also
available from your county Cooperative Extension
Concern about the harmful effects of pesticides on Office.
surface water and groundwater quality should
motivate wheat producers to select pesticides with Note: If your county has not yet been mapped by
the least potential to cause water quality problems. the Soil Conservation Service, you will need to
Many wheat producers live in rural areas near contact the local SCS office for a site evaluation and
where they and other producers grow wheat, determination of soil types and ratings for leaching
therefore, their personal water supply is susceptible and runoff of pesticides.
to contamination. Unfortunately, information that
allows producers to select pesticides less likely to
affect water quality has not previously been readily IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT
available. PESTICIDE SELECTION

Our purpose is to provide information that can help How pesticides behave in the soil is determined by
producers select pesticides that will have a many factors including properties of the pesticides
minimum adverse impact on water quality. The and of the soil at the application site. Some of the
procedure considers the soil properties of the factors that should be considered when selecting
application site, the mobility of pesticides in these pesticides with minimal potential for water quality
soils, and the toxicity of the pesticides in water to impacts are:
humans and aquatic species. A proper selection will
decrease chances of adversely affecting surface Pesticide properties 1) The organic carbon
water and groundwater quality. Certain adsorption coefficient, Ko describes the relative
combinations of soil and pesticide properties (along affinity or attraction of the pesticide to soil
with weather conditions) can pose a significant materials and therefore its mobility in the soil. 2)
potential hazard to water quality. Our goal is to The biological degradation half-life, T, is a
identify and avoid these circumstances. Information measure of persistence of the pesticide in soil. 3)
contained in this report can help wheat producers The lifetime health advisory level or equivalent,
make better decisions about the pesticides that they HALEQ, is a measure of health risk to humans of
use. This document in no way endorses any pesticide contaminated drinking water. 4) Aquatic
particular pest control product. All products must toxicity, LCso is a measure of the ability of the
be used in accordance with the label, pesticide to cause 50% mortality in aquatic test
species.

MATERIALS NEEDED TO USE THIS Soil properties 1) Hydraulic permeability is a
PROCEDURE measure of the soils ability to allow water to
percolate through it. 2) Organic matter is
To effectively use this procedure you will need the important for providing binding sites for pesticides,
following source materials: thus reducing their mobility and increasing their
opportunity to be degraded by soil microorganisms.
1. A copy of the current IFAS Pest Control Guides 3) Slope affects the potential for water to run off
or other appropriate information sources that the land surface.
identify pesticides that control specific pests.
Management practices 1) Pesticide application
2. A copy of your county soil survey report to frequencies and rates determine the total amount
identify the soil types found in your fields, applied. Lower frequencies and rates reduce the
potential for contamination. 2) Application
3. A copy of the Soil Science Fact Sheet entitled methods affect the amount of pesticide subject to
"[Name of your county]:Soil Ratings for Selecting transport by water. For example, if applied directly
Pesticides" for your county, available from your to the soil, there is a greater probability that more
county Cooperative Extension Office. The basis of of the product will be available for leaching or
these ratings are given in the IFAS Extension runoff than if applied to the foliage. If the product

2








WATER QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS IN Circular 959 entitled "Soil Ratings for Selecting
WHEAT PRODUCTION Pesticides for Water Quality Goals," which is also
available from your county Cooperative Extension
Concern about the harmful effects of pesticides on Office.
surface water and groundwater quality should
motivate wheat producers to select pesticides with Note: If your county has not yet been mapped by
the least potential to cause water quality problems. the Soil Conservation Service, you will need to
Many wheat producers live in rural areas near contact the local SCS office for a site evaluation and
where they and other producers grow wheat, determination of soil types and ratings for leaching
therefore, their personal water supply is susceptible and runoff of pesticides.
to contamination. Unfortunately, information that
allows producers to select pesticides less likely to
affect water quality has not previously been readily IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT
available. PESTICIDE SELECTION

Our purpose is to provide information that can help How pesticides behave in the soil is determined by
producers select pesticides that will have a many factors including properties of the pesticides
minimum adverse impact on water quality. The and of the soil at the application site. Some of the
procedure considers the soil properties of the factors that should be considered when selecting
application site, the mobility of pesticides in these pesticides with minimal potential for water quality
soils, and the toxicity of the pesticides in water to impacts are:
humans and aquatic species. A proper selection will
decrease chances of adversely affecting surface Pesticide properties 1) The organic carbon
water and groundwater quality. Certain adsorption coefficient, Ko describes the relative
combinations of soil and pesticide properties (along affinity or attraction of the pesticide to soil
with weather conditions) can pose a significant materials and therefore its mobility in the soil. 2)
potential hazard to water quality. Our goal is to The biological degradation half-life, T, is a
identify and avoid these circumstances. Information measure of persistence of the pesticide in soil. 3)
contained in this report can help wheat producers The lifetime health advisory level or equivalent,
make better decisions about the pesticides that they HALEQ, is a measure of health risk to humans of
use. This document in no way endorses any pesticide contaminated drinking water. 4) Aquatic
particular pest control product. All products must toxicity, LCso is a measure of the ability of the
be used in accordance with the label, pesticide to cause 50% mortality in aquatic test
species.

MATERIALS NEEDED TO USE THIS Soil properties 1) Hydraulic permeability is a
PROCEDURE measure of the soils ability to allow water to
percolate through it. 2) Organic matter is
To effectively use this procedure you will need the important for providing binding sites for pesticides,
following source materials: thus reducing their mobility and increasing their
opportunity to be degraded by soil microorganisms.
1. A copy of the current IFAS Pest Control Guides 3) Slope affects the potential for water to run off
or other appropriate information sources that the land surface.
identify pesticides that control specific pests.
Management practices 1) Pesticide application
2. A copy of your county soil survey report to frequencies and rates determine the total amount
identify the soil types found in your fields, applied. Lower frequencies and rates reduce the
potential for contamination. 2) Application
3. A copy of the Soil Science Fact Sheet entitled methods affect the amount of pesticide subject to
"[Name of your county]:Soil Ratings for Selecting transport by water. For example, if applied directly
Pesticides" for your county, available from your to the soil, there is a greater probability that more
county Cooperative Extension Office. The basis of of the product will be available for leaching or
these ratings are given in the IFAS Extension runoff than if applied to the foliage. If the product

2








WATER QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS IN Circular 959 entitled "Soil Ratings for Selecting
WHEAT PRODUCTION Pesticides for Water Quality Goals," which is also
available from your county Cooperative Extension
Concern about the harmful effects of pesticides on Office.
surface water and groundwater quality should
motivate wheat producers to select pesticides with Note: If your county has not yet been mapped by
the least potential to cause water quality problems. the Soil Conservation Service, you will need to
Many wheat producers live in rural areas near contact the local SCS office for a site evaluation and
where they and other producers grow wheat, determination of soil types and ratings for leaching
therefore, their personal water supply is susceptible and runoff of pesticides.
to contamination. Unfortunately, information that
allows producers to select pesticides less likely to
affect water quality has not previously been readily IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT
available. PESTICIDE SELECTION

Our purpose is to provide information that can help How pesticides behave in the soil is determined by
producers select pesticides that will have a many factors including properties of the pesticides
minimum adverse impact on water quality. The and of the soil at the application site. Some of the
procedure considers the soil properties of the factors that should be considered when selecting
application site, the mobility of pesticides in these pesticides with minimal potential for water quality
soils, and the toxicity of the pesticides in water to impacts are:
humans and aquatic species. A proper selection will
decrease chances of adversely affecting surface Pesticide properties 1) The organic carbon
water and groundwater quality. Certain adsorption coefficient, Ko describes the relative
combinations of soil and pesticide properties (along affinity or attraction of the pesticide to soil
with weather conditions) can pose a significant materials and therefore its mobility in the soil. 2)
potential hazard to water quality. Our goal is to The biological degradation half-life, T, is a
identify and avoid these circumstances. Information measure of persistence of the pesticide in soil. 3)
contained in this report can help wheat producers The lifetime health advisory level or equivalent,
make better decisions about the pesticides that they HALEQ, is a measure of health risk to humans of
use. This document in no way endorses any pesticide contaminated drinking water. 4) Aquatic
particular pest control product. All products must toxicity, LCso is a measure of the ability of the
be used in accordance with the label, pesticide to cause 50% mortality in aquatic test
species.

MATERIALS NEEDED TO USE THIS Soil properties 1) Hydraulic permeability is a
PROCEDURE measure of the soils ability to allow water to
percolate through it. 2) Organic matter is
To effectively use this procedure you will need the important for providing binding sites for pesticides,
following source materials: thus reducing their mobility and increasing their
opportunity to be degraded by soil microorganisms.
1. A copy of the current IFAS Pest Control Guides 3) Slope affects the potential for water to run off
or other appropriate information sources that the land surface.
identify pesticides that control specific pests.
Management practices 1) Pesticide application
2. A copy of your county soil survey report to frequencies and rates determine the total amount
identify the soil types found in your fields, applied. Lower frequencies and rates reduce the
potential for contamination. 2) Application
3. A copy of the Soil Science Fact Sheet entitled methods affect the amount of pesticide subject to
"[Name of your county]:Soil Ratings for Selecting transport by water. For example, if applied directly
Pesticides" for your county, available from your to the soil, there is a greater probability that more
county Cooperative Extension Office. The basis of of the product will be available for leaching or
these ratings are given in the IFAS Extension runoff than if applied to the foliage. If the product

2








is incorporated into the soil, leaching may be the relative they can still be used. The smaller the
most important loss pathway. Pesticides applied to RRPI value of a pesticide the greater is its potential
the foliage may be lost to the atmosphere, to be lost in runoff.
decomposed by sunlight, or absorbed by the foliage,
thereby reducing the amount available for wash-off Table 1 also contains information on the toxicity of
and transport to water bodies. Irrigation practices pesticides to humans and aquatic species. This
can also determine the loss pathways of pesticides, information can be used as a secondary
Pesticides often move with water, so the less excess consideration in the pesticide selection procedure.
water that is applied the less potential there is for
a pesticide to move past the crop root zone or to
run off in surface water. Rainfall or overhead The Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Equivalent
irrigation can wash off significant quantities of (HALEQ) provides a measure of pesticide toxicity
pesticides from foliage immediately after to humans. The lifetime health advisory level as
application, defined by the USEPA is the concentration of a
chemical in drinking water that is not expected to
cause any adverse health effects over a lifetime of
INDICES USED TO SELECT PESTICIDES exposure (70 years), with a margin of safety. The
values in Table 1 are the USEPA lifetime health
Table 1 contains two important indices, the advisory level, HAL, or an equivalent value,
pesticide leaching potential (RLPI) and the HALEQ (denoted by a superscripted asterisk),
pesticide runoff potential (RRPI). Both indices are calculated using the same formula used by the
relative. For a given soil, these indices rank the USEPA (HALEQ = RfD x 7000), where RfD is
pesticides by their potential to move from the the reference dose determined by the USEPA. For
application site by the indicated pathway (leaching non-carcinogenic pesticides the calculated HALEQ
or runoff). The indices are based on the organic should not differ by more than a factor of 10 from
carbon sorption coefficient and degradation half-life the values forthcoming from the USEPA. The
values of each pesticide. Values for these HAL or HALEQ has units of micrograms per liter
parameters have been taken from scientific (tg/l, or ppb). The smaller the value the greater is
literature, technical manuals, and company product the toxicity to humans.
literature.
The Aquatic Toxicity provides a measure of
The Relative Leaching Potential Index (RLPI) pesticide toxicity to aquatic species. The values
defines the relative attenuation (reduction in mass given in Table 1 are the lethal concentrations at
as it moves through the soil) of each pesticide in which 50% of the test species die (LCso ). Unless
soil, and therefore its potential to leach to otherwise noted by a lower case letter following the
groundwater. Pesticides that are very mobile, for value, the test species was rainbow trout. The
example, those that have K, values less than 100 in smaller the value the greater is the toxicity to
sandy soils, or 50 or less in fine-textured soils aquatic species.
should be used with caution. There is some
uncertainty in the data used to calculate this index. Data for K RLPI, RRPI, HALEQ, and aquatic
However, since the values are relative they can still toxicity are given for the active ingredient (common
be used. It is important to realize that the smaller name) of a product. When using a product that is
the RLPI value of a pesticide the greater is its a mixture of two or more active ingredients use the
potential to leach. RLPI, RRPI, HALEQ, and Aquatic Toxicity value
for the most restrictive active ingredient in the
mixture.
The Relative Runoff Potential Index (RRPI)
defines the relative immobility and availability of Important Note: The information presented in
each pesticide in soil, and therefore its potential to Table 1 DOES NOT supersede or replace the
remain near the soil surface and be subject to loss information on the pesticide container label or
in the aqueous phase or sediment phase of runoff. product literature.
There is some uncertainty in the data used to
calculate this index. However, since the values are


3









CRITERIA FOR MATCHING SOIL RATINGS WITH PESTICIDE INDICES

Pesticides with less potential to adversely affect water quality can be selected by matching the soil ratings and
pesticides using the following criteria:

PESTICIDE SELECTION CRITERIA

IF SOIL RATINGS THEN
ARE: SELECT PESTICIDE WITH:
LEACH RUNOFF

HIGH LOW Larger RLPI value, AND Larger HALEQ value.

MEDIUM LOW Larger RLPI value, AND Larger HALEQ value.

LOW LOW Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

HIGH MEDIUM Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

MEDIUM MEDIUM Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

LOW MEDIUM Larger RRPI value, AND Larger Aquatic Toxicity
value.

HIGH HIGH Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

MEDIUM HIGH Larger RRPI and AND Larger Aquatic Toxicity
RLPI values, and HALEQ values.

LOW HIGH Larger RRPI value, AND Larger Aquatic Toxicity
value.


This will indicate the relative potential for pesticides
PROCEDURE FOR SELECTING PESTICIDES to leach or run off from a particular site and
TO REDUCE ADVERSE WATER QUALITY consider the toxicity of the pesticides to humans or
IMPACTS aquatic life if the pesticides leach into groundwater
or if runoff enters surface impoundments or
A "Pesticide Selection Worksheet" is provided as a streams. The last two columns are for recording the
convenient way to organize the information needed wheat producer's choices and reasons for selecting
to select pesticides to avoid water pollution by particular products.
pesticides in a particular production or management
unit. Instructions for using the worksheet are Our intent is to provide a decision support tool for
outlined below. The function of the worksheet is to the wheat producer. The producer is responsible
match the soil leach and runoff ratings at the for making the final choice. The completed
application site with the pesticide RLPI (leaching) worksheet can serve as a permanent record of the
and RRPI (runoff) indices and toxicity values given selection process used and decision made by the
in Table 1. producer.


4









CRITERIA FOR MATCHING SOIL RATINGS WITH PESTICIDE INDICES

Pesticides with less potential to adversely affect water quality can be selected by matching the soil ratings and
pesticides using the following criteria:

PESTICIDE SELECTION CRITERIA

IF SOIL RATINGS THEN
ARE: SELECT PESTICIDE WITH:
LEACH RUNOFF

HIGH LOW Larger RLPI value, AND Larger HALEQ value.

MEDIUM LOW Larger RLPI value, AND Larger HALEQ value.

LOW LOW Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

HIGH MEDIUM Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

MEDIUM MEDIUM Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

LOW MEDIUM Larger RRPI value, AND Larger Aquatic Toxicity
value.

HIGH HIGH Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

MEDIUM HIGH Larger RRPI and AND Larger Aquatic Toxicity
RLPI values, and HALEQ values.

LOW HIGH Larger RRPI value, AND Larger Aquatic Toxicity
value.


This will indicate the relative potential for pesticides
PROCEDURE FOR SELECTING PESTICIDES to leach or run off from a particular site and
TO REDUCE ADVERSE WATER QUALITY consider the toxicity of the pesticides to humans or
IMPACTS aquatic life if the pesticides leach into groundwater
or if runoff enters surface impoundments or
A "Pesticide Selection Worksheet" is provided as a streams. The last two columns are for recording the
convenient way to organize the information needed wheat producer's choices and reasons for selecting
to select pesticides to avoid water pollution by particular products.
pesticides in a particular production or management
unit. Instructions for using the worksheet are Our intent is to provide a decision support tool for
outlined below. The function of the worksheet is to the wheat producer. The producer is responsible
match the soil leach and runoff ratings at the for making the final choice. The completed
application site with the pesticide RLPI (leaching) worksheet can serve as a permanent record of the
and RRPI (runoff) indices and toxicity values given selection process used and decision made by the
in Table 1. producer.


4








USING THE WORKSHEET Notes:
1. If the pesticide product selected is a formulated
mixture or a tank mix, each active ingredient must
1. TARGET PEST: Correct identification of the be considered. The most restrictive pesticide in the
pests that need to be controlled is essential! Check mixture will determine the choice. Trade names in
with knowledgeable experts and utilize competent Table 1 followed by (M) are formulated mixtures.
diagnostic laboratories so that a proper diagnosis
can be made. Misdiagnosis results in the wasteful 2. Sometimes there may not be a clear choice from
use of unnecessary pesticides and needless increases among the alternative chemicals available to control
in production costs. List confirmed pests in column a particular pest. In these cases, first order
1 of the Pesticide Selection Worksheet. screening using the RLPI or RRPI only can suffice.

3. Depth to groundwater and local geohydrology
2. RECOMMENDED PESTICIDES: Use the may influence your final selection. Shallow
current IFAS Pest Control Guides, or other groundwater is more vulnerable to contamination.
appropriate information sources to identify the Deep water tables with intervening impermeable
pesticides that control the pests of concern. List geologic layers are much less vulnerable.
these pesticides in column 2 of the Pesticide
Selection Worksheet. 4. Distance to surface water bodies may also
influence your final selection. Surface waters
adjacent to or near the pesticide application site are
3. PESTICIDE PROPERTIES: For each pesticide more vulnerable to contamination than those further
listed in column 2 on the Pesticide Selection away. If surface runoff from the application site
Worksheet, copy the numeric value for KI, RLPI, usually infiltrates into the soil off site before
RRPI, HALEQ, and Aquatic Toxicity from Table 1 reaching a surface water body, then the HALEQ
into columns 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of the Pesticide should be considered as the secondary screening
Selection Worksheet. index.


4. SOIL PROPERTIES: Consult the County Soil
Survey Report soil map sheets to locate your
production fields and to identify the soils that occur
in these fields. Use the Soil Science Fact Sheet
entitled "[Your County]:Soil Ratings for Selecting
Pesticides" (available from your county Cooperative
Extension Office) to determine the leaching and
surface runoff rating of the soils in your fields. As
you determine the soil leach rating and the soil
runoff rating for each soil in each field, list the soil
name, soil leach rating, and soil runoff rating in
columns 8, 9, and 10, respectively, of the Pesticide
Selection Worksheet.


5. SELECTION OF PESTICIDES: Using infor-
mation that you have compiled on the Pesticide
Selection Worksheet, select appropriate pesticides
using the selection criteria on page 4 to match soil
and pesticide properties. The selection made can
be recorded in column 11 and notes relating to the
selection can be recorded in column 12.




5











TABLE 1. Wheat Decision Matrix for Selecting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. 05/01/91

Sorption Relative Losses Toxicity
Application Type2 Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC7
Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar K, (ml/g) RLPI4 RRPI5 (ppb) (ppm)

Herbicide

2,4-D esters 2,4-D esters x 100 E 100 100 70 2
2,4-D amine 2,4-D amine x 100 E 100 100 70 2
AAtrex atrazine x x 100 17 17 3 4.5
Avenge difenzoquat-methyl x 54,500 >2,000 1 600 694
Banvel dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Bladex cyanazine x 190 136 136 10 9
Brominal bromoxynit x 10,000 E 1 14 100 0.1
Bronate (M) MCPA x 20 f(pH) 14 14 11 1.5b
Bronate (M) bromoxynil x 10,000 E 1 14 100 0.1
Buctril bromoxynit x 10,000 E 1 14 100 0.1
Gramozone paraquat x 1,000,000 >2,000 1 30 15
Hoelon diclofop-methyl x 16,000 >2,000 2 10 0.35
Karmex diuron x 480 53 23 10 4.9
Marmer diuron x 480 53 23 10 4.9
Rhonox MCPA x 20 f(pH) 14 14 11 1.5b
Roundup glyphosate x 24,000 E >2,000 1 700 8.3
Sencor metribuzin x 60 15 15 200 76
Treflan trifluralin x 8,000 1,330 2 2 0.041


Insecticide/Miticide

Cygon dimethoate x 20 29 29 1 6.2
Cythion malathion x x 1,800 >2,000 556 200 0.2
Di-Syston disulfoton INC x 600 E 200 56 0.3 1.85
Dipel Bacillus thuringiensis x nd nd nd nd 95b
Furadan 4F carbofuran INC x 22 4 4 40 0.38
Guthion azinphos-methyl x 1,000 1,000 100 9 0.0043
Lannate methomyl x 72 24 24 200 3.4
Metacide methyl-parathion x 5,100 E >2,000 39 2 3.7
Niran parathion INC x 5,000 E >2,000 14 2 1.43
Nudrin methomyl x 72 24 24 200 3.4
Sevin carbaryl x 300 300 300 700 114
Thimet phorate INC 1,000 E 167 17 4 0.013

HAL or HALEQ : Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent.

Continued---

6








TABLE 1. Wheat Pesticide Parameter Matrix Continued---


Sorption Relative Losses Toxicity
Application Type2 Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff HAL or HALEQ6 Aquatic LC7
Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar K, (ml/g) RLPI4 RRP15 (ppb) (ppm)

Insecticide/Miticide

Thiophos parathion INC x 5,000 E >2,000 14 2 1.43
Thuricide Bacillus thuringiensis x nd nd nd nd 95b

Fungicide

Apron metalaxyl x 50 7 7 400 >100
Bayleton triadimefon x x 300 115 115 200 14
Benlate benomyl x 1,900 79 2 400 0.17
Dithane M-45 mancozeb x x 2,000 286 7 20 lb
Fernason thiram x x 670 447 100 40 0.13
Microthiol Special sulfur x nd nd nd nd low toxicity
Orthocide captain x 200 800 800 900 0.0732
Thiram thiram x 670 447 100 40 0.13
Tilt propiconazole x 1,000 E 91 9 100 1.3b
Topsin thiophanate-methyl x 1,830 E 1,830 55 600 11d
Vitavax carboxin x 260 867 867 700 2


Fumigants for Control of Soil Fungi

Busan 1020 metam sodium INC, INJ 10 E 14 14 nd 0.36b
Telone II 1,3-dichloropropene INJ 32 32 32 0.2 5.5
Vapam metam sodium INC,INJ 10 E 14 14 nd 0.36b
Vorlex(M) 1,3-dichloropropene INJ 32 32 32 0.2 5.5
Vorlex(M) M.I.T. INJ 6 9 9 nd 0.37

'Trade Name: (M) indicates that the product is a mixture of two or more active ingredients.
2Application Type: INC: incorporated INJ: injected x: applied to soil surface or foliage
3Sorption Coefficient: E: estimated G: educated guess
4Relative Leaching Potential Index (RLPI): Smaller number indicates greater leaching hazard.
5Relative Runoff Potential Index (RRPI): Smaller number indicates greater runoff hazard.
SHAL or HALEQ: Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent.
*: Lifetime Health Advisory Equivalent
7Aquatic Toxicity LCso: value is for rainbow trout 48 or 96 hr exposure time, unless otherwise specified
b=bluegill d=goldfish
nd: no data available.


7







PESTICIDE SELECTION WORKSHEET


Landowner/Operator Name: County: Date:

Crop: Farm ID: Field ID Sheet of


IFAS Relative Losses Toxicity Soil Soil
Target Pest Recommended Ko Leaching Runoff Lifetime Aquatic Soil Leaching Runoff Selected Comments
Pesticides Value RLPI RRPI HALEQ* Toxicity Type Rating Rating Pesticide
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)









































If the Koc value is 100 or less or if the RLPI value is 10 or less and the soil Leach rating is high, then the pesticide has a high potential for leaching and should
be used with extreme caution. Alternative pesticides and reduced rates should be considered if possible. Apply pesticide during periods with Low potential for rainfall
if possible.

8





PESTICIDE SELECTION WORKSHEET


Landowner/Operator Name: County: Date:

Crop: Farm ID: Field ID Sheet of


IFAS Relative Losses Toxicit Soil Soil
Target Pest Recommended Ko Leaching Runoff Lifetime Aquatic Soil Leaching Runoff Selected Comments
Pesticides Value RLPI RRPI HALEQ* Toxicity Type Rating Rating Pesticide
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)








































If the Ko value is 100 or less or if the RLPI value is 10 or less and the soil leach rating is high, then the pesticide has a high potential for leaching and should
be used with extreme caution. Alternative pesticides and reduced rates should be considered if possible. Apply pesticide during periods with Low potential for rainfall
if possible.

9








Acknowledgements:

The development of this document was supported by the USDA/ES Water Quality Initiative Project
#89EWQI-1-9134 and the IFAS Center for Natural Resources, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
Printing supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service under special project
#90EWQI-1-9214.




















































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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD ANDAGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, JohnT.Woeste,
Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June
30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers
is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664,University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida326 1. Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 10/91.




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