• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Water quality considerations in...
 Materials needed to use this...
 Important factors that affect pesticide...
 Indices used to select pestici...
 Criteria for matching soil ratings...
 Procedure for selecting pesticides...
 Using the worksheet
 Table 1: Criteria for matching...
 Pesticide selection worksheet
 Acknowledgement






Title: Turf - golf courses
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00047729/00001
 Material Information
Title: Turf - golf courses
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Buttler, T. M.
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1991
 Notes
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00047729
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Water quality considerations in turf management of golf courses
        Page 2
    Materials needed to use this procedure
        Page 2
    Important factors that affect pesticide selection
        Page 2
    Indices used to select pesticides
        Page 3
    Criteria for matching soil ratings with pesticide indices
        Page 4
    Procedure for selecting pesticides to reduce adverse water quality impacts
        Page 4
    Using the worksheet
        Page 5
    Table 1: Criteria for matching soil ratings with pesticide indices
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Pesticide selection worksheet
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Acknowledgement
        Page 16
Full Text


lo//
Soil Science Department Circular 1011
Water Quality Initiative Series May 1991





TURF GOLF COURSES




MANAGING PESTICIDES FOR CROP PRODUCTION

AND WATER QUALITY PROTECTION

A Supplement to the IFAS Pest Control Guides



T.M. BUTLER
A.G. HORNSBY
and
P. W. M. AUGUSTIJN-BECKERS
Soil Science Department


L. B. McCARTY
Environmental Horticulture Department

D. E. SHORT
and
R. A. DUNN
Entomology and Nematology Department


G. W. SIMONE
Plant Pathology Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension








WATER QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS IN Circular 959 entitled "Soil Ratings for Selecting
TURF MANAGEMENT ON GOLF COURSES Pesticides for Water Quality Goals," which is also
available from your county Cooperative Extension
Concern about the harmful effects of pesticides on Office.
surface water and groundwater quality should
motivate golf course operators to select pesticides Note: If your county has not yet been mapped by
with the least potential to cause water quality the Soil Conservation Service, you will need to
problems. Most golf courses are intensively contact the local SCS office for a site evaluation and
managed for quality fairways and greens using determination of soil types and ratings for leaching
pesticides, nutrients and irrigation. Inadequate and runoff of pesticides.
management can lead to water contamination.
Unfortunately, information that allows operators to
select pesticides less likely to affect water quality IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT
has not previously been readily available. PESTICIDE SELECTION

Our purpose is to provide information that can help How pesticides behave in the soil is determined by
golf course operators select pesticides that will have many factors including properties of the pesticides
a minimum adverse impact on water quality. The and of the soil at the application site. Some of the
procedure considers the soil properties of the factors that should be considered when selecting
application site, the mobility of pesticides in these pesticides with minimal potential for water quality
soils, and the toxicity of the pesticides in water to impacts are:
humans and aquatic species. A proper selection will
decrease chances of adversely affecting surface Pesticide properties 1) The organic carbon
water and groundwater quality. Certain adsorption coefficient, K, describes the relative
combinations of soil and pesticide properties (along affinity or attraction of the pesticide to soil
with weather conditions) can pose a significant materials and therefore its mobility in the soil. 2)
potential hazard to water quality. Our goal is to The biological degradation half-life, T, is a
identify and avoid these circumstances. Information measure of persistence of the pesticide in soil. 3)
contained in this report can help golf course The lifetime health advisory level or equivalent,
operators make better decisions about the pesticides HALEQ, is a measure of health risk to humans of
that they use. This document in no way endorses pesticide contaminated drinking water. 4) Aquatic
any particular pest control product. All products toxicity, LC0 is a measure of the ability of the
must be used in accordance with the label, pesticide to cause 50% mortality in aquatic test
species.

MATERIALS NEEDED TO USE THIS Soil properties 1) Hydraulic permeability is a
PROCEDURE measure of the soils ability to allow water to
percolate through it. 2) Organic matter is
To effectively use this procedure you will need the important for providing binding sites for pesticides,
following source materials: thus reducing their mobility and increasing their
opportunity to be degraded by soil microorganisms.
1. A copy of the current IFAS Pest Control Guides 3) Slope affects the potential for water to run off
or other appropriate information sources that the land surface.
identify pesticides that control specific pests.
Management practices 1) Pesticide application
2. A copy of your county soil survey report to frequencies and rates determine the total amount
identify the soil types found in the golf course, applied. Lower frequencies and rates reduce the
potential for contamination. 2) Application
3. A copy of the Soil Science Fact Sheet entitled methods affect the amount of pesticide subject to
"[Name of your county]:Soil Ratings for Selecting transport by water. For example, if applied directly
Pesticides" for your county, available from your to the soil, there is a greater probability that more
county Cooperative Extension Office. The basis of of the product will be available for leaching or
these ratings are given in the IFAS Extension runoff than if applied to the foliage. If the product

2








WATER QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS IN Circular 959 entitled "Soil Ratings for Selecting
TURF MANAGEMENT ON GOLF COURSES Pesticides for Water Quality Goals," which is also
available from your county Cooperative Extension
Concern about the harmful effects of pesticides on Office.
surface water and groundwater quality should
motivate golf course operators to select pesticides Note: If your county has not yet been mapped by
with the least potential to cause water quality the Soil Conservation Service, you will need to
problems. Most golf courses are intensively contact the local SCS office for a site evaluation and
managed for quality fairways and greens using determination of soil types and ratings for leaching
pesticides, nutrients and irrigation. Inadequate and runoff of pesticides.
management can lead to water contamination.
Unfortunately, information that allows operators to
select pesticides less likely to affect water quality IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT
has not previously been readily available. PESTICIDE SELECTION

Our purpose is to provide information that can help How pesticides behave in the soil is determined by
golf course operators select pesticides that will have many factors including properties of the pesticides
a minimum adverse impact on water quality. The and of the soil at the application site. Some of the
procedure considers the soil properties of the factors that should be considered when selecting
application site, the mobility of pesticides in these pesticides with minimal potential for water quality
soils, and the toxicity of the pesticides in water to impacts are:
humans and aquatic species. A proper selection will
decrease chances of adversely affecting surface Pesticide properties 1) The organic carbon
water and groundwater quality. Certain adsorption coefficient, K, describes the relative
combinations of soil and pesticide properties (along affinity or attraction of the pesticide to soil
with weather conditions) can pose a significant materials and therefore its mobility in the soil. 2)
potential hazard to water quality. Our goal is to The biological degradation half-life, T, is a
identify and avoid these circumstances. Information measure of persistence of the pesticide in soil. 3)
contained in this report can help golf course The lifetime health advisory level or equivalent,
operators make better decisions about the pesticides HALEQ, is a measure of health risk to humans of
that they use. This document in no way endorses pesticide contaminated drinking water. 4) Aquatic
any particular pest control product. All products toxicity, LC0 is a measure of the ability of the
must be used in accordance with the label, pesticide to cause 50% mortality in aquatic test
species.

MATERIALS NEEDED TO USE THIS Soil properties 1) Hydraulic permeability is a
PROCEDURE measure of the soils ability to allow water to
percolate through it. 2) Organic matter is
To effectively use this procedure you will need the important for providing binding sites for pesticides,
following source materials: thus reducing their mobility and increasing their
opportunity to be degraded by soil microorganisms.
1. A copy of the current IFAS Pest Control Guides 3) Slope affects the potential for water to run off
or other appropriate information sources that the land surface.
identify pesticides that control specific pests.
Management practices 1) Pesticide application
2. A copy of your county soil survey report to frequencies and rates determine the total amount
identify the soil types found in the golf course, applied. Lower frequencies and rates reduce the
potential for contamination. 2) Application
3. A copy of the Soil Science Fact Sheet entitled methods affect the amount of pesticide subject to
"[Name of your county]:Soil Ratings for Selecting transport by water. For example, if applied directly
Pesticides" for your county, available from your to the soil, there is a greater probability that more
county Cooperative Extension Office. The basis of of the product will be available for leaching or
these ratings are given in the IFAS Extension runoff than if applied to the foliage. If the product

2








WATER QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS IN Circular 959 entitled "Soil Ratings for Selecting
TURF MANAGEMENT ON GOLF COURSES Pesticides for Water Quality Goals," which is also
available from your county Cooperative Extension
Concern about the harmful effects of pesticides on Office.
surface water and groundwater quality should
motivate golf course operators to select pesticides Note: If your county has not yet been mapped by
with the least potential to cause water quality the Soil Conservation Service, you will need to
problems. Most golf courses are intensively contact the local SCS office for a site evaluation and
managed for quality fairways and greens using determination of soil types and ratings for leaching
pesticides, nutrients and irrigation. Inadequate and runoff of pesticides.
management can lead to water contamination.
Unfortunately, information that allows operators to
select pesticides less likely to affect water quality IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT AFFECT
has not previously been readily available. PESTICIDE SELECTION

Our purpose is to provide information that can help How pesticides behave in the soil is determined by
golf course operators select pesticides that will have many factors including properties of the pesticides
a minimum adverse impact on water quality. The and of the soil at the application site. Some of the
procedure considers the soil properties of the factors that should be considered when selecting
application site, the mobility of pesticides in these pesticides with minimal potential for water quality
soils, and the toxicity of the pesticides in water to impacts are:
humans and aquatic species. A proper selection will
decrease chances of adversely affecting surface Pesticide properties 1) The organic carbon
water and groundwater quality. Certain adsorption coefficient, K, describes the relative
combinations of soil and pesticide properties (along affinity or attraction of the pesticide to soil
with weather conditions) can pose a significant materials and therefore its mobility in the soil. 2)
potential hazard to water quality. Our goal is to The biological degradation half-life, T, is a
identify and avoid these circumstances. Information measure of persistence of the pesticide in soil. 3)
contained in this report can help golf course The lifetime health advisory level or equivalent,
operators make better decisions about the pesticides HALEQ, is a measure of health risk to humans of
that they use. This document in no way endorses pesticide contaminated drinking water. 4) Aquatic
any particular pest control product. All products toxicity, LC0 is a measure of the ability of the
must be used in accordance with the label, pesticide to cause 50% mortality in aquatic test
species.

MATERIALS NEEDED TO USE THIS Soil properties 1) Hydraulic permeability is a
PROCEDURE measure of the soils ability to allow water to
percolate through it. 2) Organic matter is
To effectively use this procedure you will need the important for providing binding sites for pesticides,
following source materials: thus reducing their mobility and increasing their
opportunity to be degraded by soil microorganisms.
1. A copy of the current IFAS Pest Control Guides 3) Slope affects the potential for water to run off
or other appropriate information sources that the land surface.
identify pesticides that control specific pests.
Management practices 1) Pesticide application
2. A copy of your county soil survey report to frequencies and rates determine the total amount
identify the soil types found in the golf course, applied. Lower frequencies and rates reduce the
potential for contamination. 2) Application
3. A copy of the Soil Science Fact Sheet entitled methods affect the amount of pesticide subject to
"[Name of your county]:Soil Ratings for Selecting transport by water. For example, if applied directly
Pesticides" for your county, available from your to the soil, there is a greater probability that more
county Cooperative Extension Office. The basis of of the product will be available for leaching or
these ratings are given in the IFAS Extension runoff than if applied to the foliage. If the product

2








is incorporated into the soil, leaching may be the to calculate this index. However, since the values
most important loss pathway. Pesticides applied to are relative they can still be used. The smaller the
the foliage may be lost to the atmosphere, RRPI value of a pesticide the greater is its potential
decomposed by sunlight, or absorbed by the foliage, to be lost in runoff.
thereby reducing the amount available for wash-off
and transport to water bodies. Irrigation practices Table 1 also contains information on the toxicity of
can also determine the loss pathways of pesticides. pesticides to humans and aquatic species. This
Pesticides often move with water, so the less excess information can be used as a secondary
water that is applied the less potential there is for consideration in the pesticide selection procedure.
a pesticide to move past the turf root zone or to run
off in surface water. Rainfall or overhead irrigation
can wash off significant quantities of pesticides from The Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Equivalent
foliage immediately after application. (HALEQ) provides a measure of pesticide toxicity
to humans. The lifetime health advisory level as
-defined by the USEPA is the concentration of:a
INDICES USED TO SELECT PESTICIDES chemical in drinking water that is not expected to
cause any adverse health effects over a lifetime of
Table 1 contains two important indices, the exposure (70 years), with a margin of safety. The
pesticide leaching potential (RLPI) and the values in Table 1 are the USEPA lifetime health
pesticide runoff potential (RRPI). Both indices are advisory level, HAL, or an equivalent value,
relative. For a given soil, these indices rank the HALEQ (denoted by a superscripted asterisk),
pesticides by their potential to move from the calculated using the same formula used by the
application site by the indicated pathway (leaching USEPA (HALEQ = RfD x 7000), where RfD is
or runoff). The indices are based on the organic the reference dose determined by the USEPA. For
carbon sorption coefficient and degradation half-life non-carcinogenic pesticides the calculated HALEQ
values of each pesticide. Values for these should not differ by more than a factor of 10 from
parameters have been taken from scientific the values forthcoming from the USEPA. The
literature, technical manuals, and company product HAL or HALEQ has units of micrograms per liter
literature. (ig/l, or ppb). The smaller the value the greater is
the toxicity to humans.
The Relative Leaching Potential Index (RLPI)
defines the relative attenuation (reduction in mass The Aquatic Toxicity provides a measure of
as it moves through the soil) of each pesticide in pesticide toxicity to aquatic species. The values
soil, and therefore its potential to leach to given in Table 1 are the lethal concentrations at
groundwater. Pesticides that are very mobile, for which 50% of the test species die (LCo ). Unless
example, those that have K, values less than 100 in otherwise noted by a lower case letter following the
sandy soils, or 50 or less in fine-textured soils value, the test species was rainbow trout. The
should be used with caution. There is some smaller the value the greater is the toxicity to
uncertainty in the data used to calculate this index, aquatic species.
However, since the values are relative they can still
be used. It is important to realize that the smaller Data for Ko, RLPI, RRPI, HALEQ, and aquatic
the RLPI value of a pesticide the greater is its toxicity are given for the active ingredient (common
potential to leach. name) of a product. When using a product that is
a mixture of two or more active ingredients use the
RLPI, RRPI, HALEQ, and Aquatic Toxicity value
The Relative Runoff Potential Index (RRPI) for the most restrictive active ingredient in the
defines the relative immobility and availability of mixture.
each pesticide in soil, and therefore its potential to
remain near the soil surface and be subject to loss Important Note: The information presented in
in the aqueous phase or sediment phase of runoff. Table 1 DOES NOT supersede or replace the
There is some uncertainty in the data used information on the pesticide container label or
product literature.


3








CRITERIA FOR MATCHING SOIL RATINGS WITH PESTICIDE INDICES

Pesticides with less potential to adversely affect water quality can be selected by matching the soil ratings and
pesticides using the following criteria:


PESTICIDE SELECTION CRITERIA

IF SOIL RATINGS THEN
ARE: SELECT PESTICIDE WITH:
LEACH RUNOFF

HIGH LOW Larger RLPI value, AND Larger HALEQ value.

MEDIUM LOW Larger RLPI value, AND Larger HALEQ value.

LOW LOW Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEO and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

HIGH MEDIUM Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

MEDIUM MEDIUM Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

LOW MEDIUM Larger RRPI value, AND Larger Aquatic Toxicity
value.

HIGH HIGH Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

MEDIUM HIGH Larger RRPI and AND Larger Aquatic and
RLPI values, HALEQ Toxicity values.

LOW HIGH Larger RRPI value, AND Larger Aquatic Toxicity
value.


This will indicate the relative potential for pesticides
PROCEDURE FOR SELECTING PESTICIDES to leach or run off from a particular site and
TO REDUCE ADVERSE WATER QUALITY consider the toxicity of the pesticides to humans or
IMPACTS aquatic life if the pesticides leach into groundwater
or if runoff enters surface impoundments or
A "Pesticide Selection Worksheet" is provided as a streams. The last two columns are for recording the
convenient way to organize the information needed golf course operator's choices and reasons for
to select pesticides to avoid water pollution by selecting particular products.
pesticides used on golf courses. Instructions for
using the worksheet are outlined below. The Our intent is to provide a decision support tool for
function of the worksheet is to match the soil leach the operator. The operator is responsible for
and runoff ratings at the application site with the making the final choice. The completed worksheet
pesticide RLPI (leaching) and RRPI (runoff) can serve as a permanent record of the selection
indices and toxicity values given in Table 1. process used and decision made by the operator.


4








CRITERIA FOR MATCHING SOIL RATINGS WITH PESTICIDE INDICES

Pesticides with less potential to adversely affect water quality can be selected by matching the soil ratings and
pesticides using the following criteria:


PESTICIDE SELECTION CRITERIA

IF SOIL RATINGS THEN
ARE: SELECT PESTICIDE WITH:
LEACH RUNOFF

HIGH LOW Larger RLPI value, AND Larger HALEQ value.

MEDIUM LOW Larger RLPI value, AND Larger HALEQ value.

LOW LOW Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEO and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

HIGH MEDIUM Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

MEDIUM MEDIUM Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

LOW MEDIUM Larger RRPI value, AND Larger Aquatic Toxicity
value.

HIGH HIGH Larger RLPI and AND Larger HALEQ and
RRPI values, Aquatic Toxicity values.

MEDIUM HIGH Larger RRPI and AND Larger Aquatic and
RLPI values, HALEQ Toxicity values.

LOW HIGH Larger RRPI value, AND Larger Aquatic Toxicity
value.


This will indicate the relative potential for pesticides
PROCEDURE FOR SELECTING PESTICIDES to leach or run off from a particular site and
TO REDUCE ADVERSE WATER QUALITY consider the toxicity of the pesticides to humans or
IMPACTS aquatic life if the pesticides leach into groundwater
or if runoff enters surface impoundments or
A "Pesticide Selection Worksheet" is provided as a streams. The last two columns are for recording the
convenient way to organize the information needed golf course operator's choices and reasons for
to select pesticides to avoid water pollution by selecting particular products.
pesticides used on golf courses. Instructions for
using the worksheet are outlined below. The Our intent is to provide a decision support tool for
function of the worksheet is to match the soil leach the operator. The operator is responsible for
and runoff ratings at the application site with the making the final choice. The completed worksheet
pesticide RLPI (leaching) and RRPI (runoff) can serve as a permanent record of the selection
indices and toxicity values given in Table 1. process used and decision made by the operator.


4








USING THE WORKSHEET Notes:
1. If the pesticide product selected is a formulated
mixture or a tank mix, each active ingredient must
1. TARGET PEST: Correct identification of the be considered. The most restrictive pesticide in the
pests that need to be controlled is essential! Check mixture will determine the choice. Trade names in
with knowledgeable experts and utilize competent Table 1 followed by (M) are formulated mixtures.
diagnostic laboratories so that a proper diagnosis
can be made. Misdiagnosis results in the wasteful 2. Sometimes there may not be a clear choice from
use of unnecessary pesticides and needless increases among the alternative chemicals available to control
in production costs. List confirmed pests in column a particular pest. In these cases, first order
1 of the Pesticide Selection Worksheet. screening using the RLPI or RRPI only can suffice.

3. Depth to groundwater and local geohydrology
2. RECOMMENDED PESTICIDES: Use the may influence your final selection. Shallow
current IFAS Pest Control Guides, or other groundwater is more vulnerable to contamination.
appropriate information sources to identify the Deep water tables with intervening impermeable
pesticides that control the pests of concern. List geologic layers are much less vulnerable.
these pesticides in column 2 of the Pesticide
Selection Worksheet. 4. Distance to surface water bodies may also
influence your final selection. Surface waters
adjacent to or near the pesticide application site are
3. PESTICIDE PROPERTIES: For each pesticide more vulnerable to contamination than those further
listed in column 2 on the Pesticide Selection away. If surface runoff from the application site
Worksheet, copy the numeric value for K, RLPI, usually infiltrates into the soil off site before
RRPI, HALEQ, and Aquatic Toxicity from Table 1 reaching a surface water body, then the HALEQ
into columns 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of the Pesticide should be considered as the secondary screening
Selection Worksheet. index.


4. SOIL PROPERTIES: Consult the County Soil
Survey Report soil map sheets to locate the golf
course and to identify the soils that occur on the
golf course. Use the Soil Science Fact Sheet
entitled "[Your County]:Soil Ratings for Selecting
Pesticides" (available from your county Cooperative
Extension Office) to determine the leaching and
surface runoff rating of the soils in the golf course.
As you determine the soil leach rating and the soil
runoff rating for each soil in the golf course list
the soil name, soil leach rating, and soil runoff
rating in columns 8, 9, and 10, respectively, of the
Pesticide Selection Worksheet.


5. SELECTION OF PESTICIDES: Using infor-
mation that you have compiled on the Pesticide
Selection Worksheet, select appropriate pesticides
using the selection criteria on page 4 to match soil
and pesticide properties. The selection made can
be recorded in column 11 and notes relating to the
selection can be recorded in column 12.




5









Table 1. Turf-Golf Courses-Pesticide Parameter Matrix for Selecting Pesticides to Minimize Water Quality Problems. 06/05/91


Sorption Relative Losses Toxicity
Application Timing2 Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff HAL or HALEQU Aquatic LC,/
Trade Name' Common Name Pre Post K, (ml/g) RLPI4 RP (ppb) (ppm)

Herbicide


2 Plus 2(M) 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
2 Plus 2(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
AAtrex atrazine x x 100 17 17 3 4.5
Ace Lawn Weed Killer(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Ace Lawn Weed Killer(M) 2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1
Ace Lawn Weed Killer(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Asulox asulam x 40 57 57 400 >5,000
Balan benefin x 9,000 >2,000 3 2,000 0.37b
Banvel dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Basagran bentazon x 34 17 17 20 635
Benefin Granular benefin x 9,000 >2,000 3 2,000 0.37b
Betamec bensulide x 1,000 E 83 8 50 0.7
Betasan bensulide x 1,000 E 83 8 50 0.7
Bueno MSMA x 10,000 E 1,000 1 nd 12b
Caatr CAMA x nd nd nd nd nd
Chickweed Spurge(M) 2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1
Chickweed Spurge(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Chickweed Spurge(M) dichlorprop x 1,000 E 1,000 100 40 1.3
Chipco Turf Herbicide 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Clout DSMA x nd nd nd nd nd
Crabgrass Preventer benefin x 9,000 >2,000 3 2,000 0.37b
Dacamine 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Daconate MSMA x 10,000 E 1,000 1 nd 12b
Dacthal DCPA x 5,000 500 2 4,000 100a
Devrinol napropamide x 700 100 20 700 30b
Dimension dithiopyr x nd nd nd nd 0.5
DMA 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
DMC Weed Control metsulfuron x 35 (pH7) 3 3 2,000 1,000d
Formula 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Gallery isoxaben x nd nd nd nd nd
Gramoxone Super paraquat x 1,000,000 E >2,000 1 30 15
Halt pendimethalin x 5000 556 2 300 0.199b
Halts bensulide x 1,000 E 83 8 50 0.7

HAL or HALEQ": Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent.

Continued---


6






TABLE 1. Turf-Golf Courses-Pesticide Parameter Natrix---Continued:

Sorption Relative Losses Toxicity
Application Timing2 Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff HAL or HALEQU Aquatic LC1
Trade Name' Common Name Pre Post Kc (ml/g) RLPI RPI (ppb) (ppm)

Herbicide


Hoelon dictofop-methyl x 16,000 >2,000 2 10 0.35
Illoxan diclofop-methyl x 16,000 >2,000 2 10 0.35
Image imazaquin x 20 E(pH7) 3 3 2,000 >100
Kerb pronamide x x 200 33 33 50 72
Kleenup glyphosate x 24,000 E >2,000 1 700 8.3
Laddok (M) atrazine x x 100 17 17 3 4.5
Laddok (M) bentazon x x 34 17 17 20 635
Lesco 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Lesco Eight-One(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Lesco Eight-One(M) 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Lesco Three-Way(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Lesco Three-Way(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Lesco Three-Way(M) 2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1
Lescopar(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 low toxicity
Lescopar(M) 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Lescopex mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 low toxicity
Lescosan bensulide x 1,000 E 83 8 50 0.7
Mecomec mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Mecoprop mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
MSMA MSMA x 10,000 E 1,000 1 nd 12b
Pennant metoLachlor x 200 22 22 100 2
Phenaban(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Phenaban(M) 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Poast sethoxydim x 100 E(pH7) 200 200 600 170
Pre-M pendimethalin x 5,000 556 2 300 0.199b
Prefar bensulide x 1,000 E 83 8 50 0.7
Presan bensulide x 1,000 E 83 8 50 0.7
Princep simazine x x 130 22 22 1 2.8
Progress ethofumesate x 340 133 98 nd >180
Proturf Goosegrass(M) oxadiazon x 3,200 533 5 40 >320
Proturf Goosegrass(M) bensulide x 1,000 E 83 8 50 0.7
Proturf bensulide x 1,000 E 83 8 50 0.7
Proturf dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28

HAL or HALEQ": Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent.

Continued---




7








TABLE 1. Turf-Golf Courses-Pesticide Parameter Matrix---Continued:

Sorption Relative Losses Toxicity
Application Timing2 Coefficient3 Lachin Runoff HAL or HALE Aquatic LC=
Trade Name1 Common Name Pre Post Ko (ml/g) RLPI RPI (ppb) (ppm)

Herbicide


Purge atrazine x x 100 17 17 3 4.5
Quadmec(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Quadmec(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Quadmec(M) 2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1
Ronstar oxadiazon x 3,200 533 5 40 >320
Round-Up glyphosate x 24,000 E >2,000 1 700 8.3
Rubigan fenarimol x 600 17 5 500 1.8
Sencor metribuzin x x 60 15 15 200 76
Super Trimec(M) dichlorprop x 1,000 E 1,000 100 40 1.3
Super Trimec(M) 2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1
Super Trimec(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Super D II Weedone(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Super D II Weedone(M) 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Surftan oryzatin x 600 300 83 400 3.26
Team(M) trifluralin x 8,000 1,330 2 5 0.041
Team(M) oryzalin x 600 300 83 400 3.26
Team(M) benefin x 9,000 >2,000 3 2000 0.37b
Treflan trifluralin x 8,000 1,330 2 5 0.041
TrexSan(M) 2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1
TrexSan(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
TrexSan(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Trimec Encore(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Trimec Encore(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Trimec Encore(M) MCPA x 20 E(pH7) 14 14 11 232
Trimec(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Trimec(M) 2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1
Trimec(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Turf Kleen(M) 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Turf Kleen(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Turfton II Amine(M) trichlopyr x 20 E 4 4 200 117
TurfLon II Amine(M) 2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1


HAL or HALEQ": Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent.

Continued---





8






TABLE 1. Turf-Golf Courses-Pesticide Parameter Natrix---Continued:

Sorption Relative Losses Toxicity
Application Timing2 Coefficient3 Leachin Runoff HAL or HALEQO Aquatic LC5/
Trade Name' Common Name Pre Post K (ml/g) RLPI RP (ppb) (ppm)

Herbicide


Turflon(M) 2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1
Turflon(M) trichlopyr x 20 E 4 4 200 117
Versar MSMA x 10,000 E 1,000 1 nd 12b
Weed-B-Gon(M) 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Weed-B-Gon(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Weedar 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Weedestroy Triamine(M) MCPA x 20 E(pH7) 8 8 11 232
Weedestroy Triamine(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Weedestroy Triamine(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Weedestroy Tri-ester(M) 2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1
Weedestroy Tri-ester(M) mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
Weedmaster(M) 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Weedmaster(M) dicamba x 2 1 1 200 28
Weedone 2,4-D amine x 20 20 20 70 100
Weedone DPC Herbicide(M)2,4-D x 20 20 20 70 1.1
Weedone DPC Herbicide(M)dichlorprop x 1,000 E 1,000 100 40 1.3
Weedstroy mecoprop (MCPP) x 20 E(pH7) 10 10 7 Low toxicity
XL(M) benefin x 9,000 >2,000 3 2,000 0.37b
XL(M) oryzatin x 600 300 83 400 3.26


Sorption Relative Losses Toxicity
Application Type2 Coefficient3 Leaching Runoff HAL or HALEQ Aquatic LC
Trade Name' Common Name Soil Foliar K, (ml/g) RLPI RPI (ppb) (ppm)

Insecticide/Miticide


Amdro Bait hydramethyLnon x 730,000 >2,000 1 nd nd
Crusade fonofos x x 870 218 29 10 0.02
Cythion malathion x 1,800 >2,000 556 200 0.2

HAL or HALEQO: Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent.

Continued---





9








TABLE 1. Turf-Golf Courses-Pesticide Parameter Natrix---Continued:

Sorption Relative Losses Toxicity
Application Type2 Coefficient each Runoff HAL or HALEQO Aquatic LC.5'
Trade Name1 Common Name Soil Foliar K, (ml/g) RLPI RRPI (ppb) (ppm)

Insecticide/Miticide


Diazinon diazinon x 1,000 E 250 25 0.6 0.09
Dipel bacillus thuringiensis x nd nd nd nd 95b
Dursban chlorpyrifos x 6,070 >2,000 5 20 0.0071
Dylox trichlorfon x 10 10 10 900 0.4
Ethion ethion x 10,000 667 1 4 0.5
Lannate methomyl x 72 24 24 200 3.4
Logic Bait fenoxycarb x 1,000 E >2,000 1,000 nd nd
Mavirik Aquaflow fluvatinate x 1,000,000 E >2,000 1 70 0.0029
Mocap ethoprop x 70 28 28 0.1 13.8
Nudrin methomyl x 72 24 24 200 3.4
Oftanol isofenphos x x 600 40 11 7 2d
Orthene acephate x x 2 7 7 30 730
Pounce permethrin x 100,000 >2,000 1 400 0.0041
Proxol trichlorfon x 10 10 10 900 0.4
Pydrin fenvalerate x 5,300 1,510 5 200 0.0006
Sevin carbaryl x x 300 300 300 700 114
Talstar bifenthrin x 240,000 >2,000 1 100 0.00015
Trithion carbophenothion x 46,000 >2,000 1 nd nd
Triumph isazophos x x 100 29 29 0.1 0.008
Turcam bendiocarb x x 570 1,140 351 40 1.55

Nematicide


Mocap ethoprop INC 70 28 28 0.1 13.8
Nemacur fenamiphos INC 100 20 20 2 0.11

Fungicide


Aliette fosetyl aluminum x 20 2,000 >1,000 20,000 428
Apron metalaxyl x 50 7 7 400 >100
Banner propiconazole x 1,000 E 91 9 100 1.3b

HAL or HALEQ : Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent.

Continued---



10







TABLE 1. Turf-Golf Courses-Pesticide Parameter Natrix---Continued:

Sorption Relative Losses Toxicity
Application Type2 Coefficient3 teaching Runoff HAL or HALEQO Aquatic LC,.
Trade Name' Common Name Soil Foliar Kg (ml/g) RLPI4 PI (ppb) (ppm)

Fungicide


Banot propamocarb-hydro. x x 1,000,000 E >2,000 1 700 410
Bayleton triadimefon x 300 115 115 200 14
Bromosan (M) thiram x 670 447 100 40 0.13
Bromosan (M) thiophanate x nd nd nd nd 20d
Chipco iprodione x 700 500 102 300 6.7
Clearys 3336 thiophanate x nd nd nd nd 20d
Daconil chlorothaloniL x 1,380 460 24 2 0.049
Dithane M-45 mancozeb x 2,000 286 7 20 lb
Dow Elanco Broadway (M) chlorothalonil x 1,380 460 24 2 0.049
Dow Elanco Broadway (M) fenarimot x 600 17 5 500 1.8
Duosan (M) mancozeb x 2,000 286 7 20 lb
Duosan (M) thiophanate methyl x 1,830 1,830 55 600 11d
Dyrene anilazine x 1,000 E >2,000 1,000 3 0.15
Fore mancozeb x 2,000 286 '7 40 1.9
Fungo thiophanate-methyl x x 1,830 1,830 55 600 11d
Griffen Manex maneb x 2,000 E 286 7 40 1.9
Kincaid Terraneb chloroneb x 1,650 127 5 90 >4,200b
Koban etridiazole x x 1,000 E 97 10 nd 4
Lanco Captan captain x 200 800 800 900 0.0732
Lesco thiram x 670 447 100 40 0.13
Lesco PCNB x 5,000 E >2,000 10 20 low toxicity
Lesco Twosome (M) chlorothalonit x 1,380 460 24 2 0.049
Lesco Twosome (M) fenarimol x 600 17 5 500 1.8
Naneb Plus Zinc(M) zinc x nd nd nd nd nd
Naneb Plus Zinc(M) maneb x 2,000 E 286 17 40 1.9
Manex II mancozeb x 2,000 286 7 20 lb
Manzate 200 mancozeb x 2,000 286 7 20 lb
Manzi(M) maneb x 2,000 E 286 17 40 1.9
Manzi(M) zinc x nd nd nd nd nd
Pace (M) metalaxyl x 50 7 7 400 >100
Pace (M) mancozeb x 2,000 286 7 20 lb
Penncozeb mancozeb x 2,000 286 7 20 lb

HAL or HALEQ": Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent.

Continued---





11







TABLE 1. Turf-Golf Courses-Pesticide Parameter Matrix---Continued:

Sorption Relative Losses Toxicity
Application Type2 Coefficient Leachin Runoff HAL or HALEQ" Aquatic LC,5
Trade Name' Common Name Soil Foliar Koc (mt/g) RLPI RR (ppb) (ppm)

Fungicide


Pennwalt Maneb Plus(M) zinc salt x nd nd nd nd nd
Pennwalt Maneb Plus(M) maneb x 2,000 E 286 17 40 1.9
Rubigan fenarimol x 600 17 5 500 1.8
SMCP Thiram thiram x 670 447 100 40 0.13
Spotrete thiram x 670 447 100 40 0.13
Subdue metalaxyl x x 50 7 7 400 >100
Terraclor PCNB x x 5,000 E >2,000 10 20 low toxicity
Terramec chloroneb x 1,650 127 5 90 >4,200b
Terraneb chloroneb x 1,650 127 5 90 >4,200b
Terrazole etridiazole x x 1,000 E 97 10 nd 4
Tersan 1991 benomyl x 1,900 79 2 400 0.17
Thiramid thiram x 670 447 100 40 0.13
Topsin M thiophanate-methyl x 1,830 1,830 55 600 11d
Turfside PCNB x 5,000 E >2,000 10 20 Low toxicity
Vortan vinclozatin x 98 E 49 49 200 52.5

Fumigants for Control of Soil Fungi


Brom-O-Gas methyl bromide INJ 22 4 4 7 2.5
Busan 1020 metam-sodium INJ 10 E 14 14 nd toxic
Terr-0-Gas (M) methyl bromide INJ 22 4 4 7 2.5
Terr-O-Gas (M) chloropicrin INJ 62 620 620 nd nd
Vapam metam-sodium INC,INJ 10 E 14 14 nd toxic
Vorlex(M) 1,3-dichloropropene INJ 32 32 32 0.2 5.5
Vorlex(M) M.I.T. INJ 6 9 9 nd 0.37

HAL or HALEQ": Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent.

Continued---











12





TABLE 1. Turf-Golf Courses-Pesticide Parameter Matrix---Continued:

'Trade Name: (M) indicates that the product is a mixture of two or more active ingredients.
2Application Timing: x: applied pre emergence or post emergence
2Application Type: INC: incorporated INJ: injected x: applied to soil surface or foliage
3Sorption Coefficient: E: estimated G: educated guess
4Relative Leaching Potential Index (RLPI):Smaller number indicates greater leaching hazard.
5Relative Runoff Potential Index (RRPI): Smaller number indicates greater runoff hazard.
6HAL or HALEQ: Lifetime Health Advisory Level or Lifetime Health Advisory Level Equivalent.
*: Lifetime Health Advisory Equivalent
Aquatic Toxicity LC5: value is for rainbow trout, 48 or 96 hr exposure time, unless otherwise specified
a=channel catfish b=bluegill d=gold fish.
nd: no data available.






































13







PESTICIDE SELECTION WORKSHEET


Landowner/Operator Name: County: Date:

Crop: Farm ID: Field ID Sheet of


IFAS Relative Losses Toxicity Soil Soil
Target Pest Recommended Ko Leaching Runoff Lifetime Aquatic Soil Leaching Runoff Selected Comments
Pesticides Value RLPI RRPI HALEQ* Toxicity Type Rating Rating Pesticide
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)








































If the Ko value is 100 or less or if the RLPI value is 10 or less and the soil leach rating is high, then the pesticide has a high potential for Leaching and should
be used with extreme caution. Alternative pesticides and reduced rates should be considered if possible. Apply pesticide during periods with low potential for rainfall
if possible.

14





PESTICIDE SELECTION WORKSHEET

Landowner/Operator Name: County: Date:

Crop: Farm ID: Field ID Sheet of


IFAS Relative Losses Toxicity Soil Soil
Target Pest Recommended Kc Leaching Runoff Lifetime Aquatic Soil Leaching Runoff Selected Comments
Pesticides Value RLPI RRPI HALEQ* Toxicity Type Rating Rating Pesticide
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)






































If the Ko value is 100 or less or if the RLPI value is 10 or less and the soil leach rating is high, then the pesticide has a high potential for leaching and should
be used with extreme caution. Alternative pesticides and reduced rates should be considered if possible. Apply pesticide during periods with Low potential for rainfall
if possible.

15









Acknowledgements:

The development of this document was supported by the USDA/ES Water Quality Initiative Project
#89EWQI-1-9134 and the IFAS Center for Natural Resources, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

























































COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOODAND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, John T. Woeste,
Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June
30,1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that
function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth
publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers
is available from C.M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing
this publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability. Printed 11/91.




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