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 Front Matter
 Florida state depositories
 Content






Title: Miscellaneous historical articles
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00047669/00001
 Material Information
Title: Miscellaneous historical articles mixed media Florida National Guard
Series Title: Special archives publication
Physical Description: 1 v. (unpaged) : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Military Affairs
Florida -- National Guard
Publisher: St. Francis Barracks
Place of Publication: St. Augustine Fla
Publication Date: [1991?]
 Subjects
Subject: Militia -- History -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Collection of reprinted articles from various sources.
Funding: The Florida National Guard's Special Archives Publications was digitized, in part by volunteers, in honor of Floridians serving both Floridians in disaster response and recovery here at home and the nation oversees.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00047669
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida National Guard
Holding Location: Florida National Guard, St. Augustine Barracks
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the Florida National Guard. Digitized with permission.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001638040
oclc - 23611176
notis - AHR2931

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
    Florida state depositories
        Page iii
    Content
        Page 1
        Page 2
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Full Text



Digitized with the permission of the
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS

FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD





SOURCE DOCUMENT ADVISORY

Digital images were created from printed source
documents that, in many cases, were photocopies of
original materials held elsewhere. The quality of
these copies was often poor. Digital images reflect
the poor quality of the source documents.

Where possible images have been manipulated to
make them as readable as possible. In many cases
such manipulation was not possible. Where
available, the originals photocopied for publication
have been digitized and have been added,
separately, to this collection.

Searchable text generated from the digital images,
subsequently, is also poor. The researcher is
advised not to rely solely upon text-search in this
collection.



RIGHTS & RESTRICTIONS

Items collected here were originally published by the
Florida National Guard, many as part of its SPECIAL
ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series. Contact the Florida
National Guard for additional information.

The Florida National Guard reserves all rights to
content originating with the Guard.



DIGITIZATION

Titles from the SPECIAL ARCHIVES PUBLICATION series
were digitized by the University of Florida in
recognition of those serving in Florida's National
Guard, many of whom have given their lives in
defense of the State and the Nation.






Florida

Department of

Military Affairs








Special ArGhives
PublIiation Numnber

99
MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL ARTICLES; MIXED MEDIA
FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD (REPRINTS)



State Arsenal
St. Francis
Barracks
St. Augustin'e,
Florida










STATE OFFLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS
OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL




POST OFFICE BOX 1008
STATE ARSENAL, ST. AUGUSTINE
32085-1008





The special Archives Publication Series of the Historical
Services Division are produced as a service to Florida
communities, historians, and to any other individuals, historical
or geneological societies, and national or regional governmental
agencies which find the information contained herein of use or
value.

At present, only a very Iimited number of copies of these
publications are produced and are provided to certain state and
national historical record repositories at no charge. Any
remaining copies are provided to interested parties on a first
come, first served basis. It is hoped these publications will
soon be reproduced and made available to a wider public through
the efforts of the Florida National Guard Historical Foundation
Inc.

Information about the series is available from the Historical
Services Division, Department of Military Affairs, State Arsenal,
St. Augustine, Florida.


Robert Hawk
Director








FLORIDA STATE DEPOSITORIES
State uo-uments are distributed to the following depository libraries and are available
to Florida citizens for use either in the libraries or on interlibrary loan, subject to
each library's regulations. An asterisk (*) indicates libraries that are obligated to
ci," 4P.-.rlibrary loan service. Requests should be directed to the nearest depository.

Bay County Public Library (1968) St. Petersburg Public Library (1968)
25 i-les- Government Street 3745 Ninth Avenue, North
Pai.:;Z City, Florida 32402 St. Petersburg, Florida 33713

Bay Vista Campus Library (1982) *State Library of Florida (1968)
Documents Department Documents Section
Florida International University R. A. Gray Building
No- :. ":iami, Florida 33181 Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250

Brow:ard County Division of Libraries (1968) Stetson University (1968)
100 South Andrews Avenue Dupont-Ball Library
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301 Deland, Florida 32720-3769

Cocoa Public Library (1968) Jacksonville University (1968)
430 Delannoy Avenue Carl S. Swisher Library
Cocoa, Florida 32922 University Blvd., North
Jacksonville, Florida 32211
*Florida Atlantic University (1968)
Library *Tampa-Hillsborough County Public Lib. Sys
P. 0. Box 3092 900 North Ashley Street (1968)
Boca Raton, Florida 33431 Tampa, Florida 33602

*Florida International University (1971) *University of Central Florida (1968)
Documents Section Library
Tamiami Campus Library Tamiami Trail Post Office Box 25000
Miami, Florida 33199 Orlando, Florida 32816
"*Florida State University Library (1968) *University of Florida Library (1968)
Documents Maps Division Documents Department
Tallahassee, Florida 32306 Gainesville, Florida 32611

*Jacksonville Public Library (1968) *University of Miami Library (1968)
122 North Ocean Street Gov't Publications
Jacksonville, Florida 32202 P. 0. Box 248214
Coral Gables, Florida 33124
Miami Beach Public Library (1968)
2100 Collins Avenue *University of North Florida Library (1971
Miami Beach, Florida 33139 Documents Division
Post Office Box 17605
*Miami-Dade Public Library (1968) Jacksonville, Florida 32216
101 West Flagler Street
Miami, Florida 33130-1504 *University of South Florida (1968)
Library Special Collections
*Ocala Public Library (1972) 4204 Fowler Avenue
'. Su.uthr.st Osceola Avenue Tampa-;-Florida-33620 ..
Ocala, Florida 32671
University of West Florida (1968)
*Orange County Library District (1968) Documents John Pace Library
101 East Central Pensacola, Florida 32514-0101
Orlando, Florida 32801 o
Orlando, Florida 32801 West Palm Beach Public Library (1968)
1.00 Clematis
West Palm Beach, Florida 33401



























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Page 16 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Fall 1987

by Robert Hawk

A although the Florida National Guard has three year hitch in the Regular Army, Ballard
the oldest militia heritage and most di- stayed with his home town unit, and with them
verse list of unofficial battle honors of any Na- ; was taken into federal service in November of
tional Guard organization in the continental 1940. While many Florida artillery Guardsmen
United States dating from the earliest days of : elected to leave their original units to accept
permanent Spanish settlement in North Ameri- commissions, transfer to the regular or airborne
ca, the first officially and federally recognized ;. artillery, even the air corps between 1940 and
shot fired by a Florida National Guard unit .-A 1944, Ballard chose to remain with his home
against an armed enemy of the United States :'. 'town battery. (And, after the war, Ballard rc-
didn't occur until the 13th of April 1944, near- .: joined the Plant City battery and served with
Iv 400 years after the establishment of Flori- it until his retirement in 1964.
da's first militia unit. The Driniumor River Campaign at Aitape.
For a variety of reasons the Defense Depart- New Guinea commenced in the early morning
ment does not acknowledge any lineage for hours of 13 July 1944. The 149th Field Artillery
Florida-originated National Guard units prior had established its batteries to support of the
to the First World War. infantry of the 124th. The RCT moved out at
During the First World War, Florida's Na- 0700. To the infantry, the "Queen of Battle,"
tional Guard formations, an integral part of the : perhaps the honor of the first shot would have
31st or "Dixie" Division. received no battle gone, but not this time. At exactly 0800 sol-
honors: officially, they fired no shots against diers of the 124th Infantry became engaged in
the enemies of the United States. While in the a sharp action against Japanese troops manning
United States, the 31st Division functioned as a small defensive position on the road to the
a depot division, training and transferring troops Sergeant David Ballard-1941 .Driniumor River.
to other divisions. When it was finally sent to They were eight minutes too late. A little
France, again it served as a replacement pool ting their lines of supply and re-enforcement. earlier, the. 149th had received orders to fire
for other divisions. Actually, most individual The resulting Driniumor River Campaign was registration and harassing shots on known and
Florida Guardsmen did see combat in that war. to earn the 124th the first of three Distinguished suspected Japanese positions. Thus, at 0752 on
Obviously, none did so while serving with a Unit Citations but not the honor of firing Flori- the morning of 13 July 1944, Sergeant David
Florida-originated unit. da's first shot against an armed enemy. That Ballard, the longest serving enlisted Florida
A similar situation developed during the Sec- honor would go to Sergeant David Howard Bal- Guardsman still in the battalion, was given the
ond World War, at least in the beginning. Fed- lard of the 2nd Section, Battery B, 149th Field honor of pulling the lanyard for the first offi-
cralized in November of 1940, (with the 265th Artillery Battalion. cial shot fired in anger by a Florida National
Coast Artillery being called up the following David Ballard had been born and raised in Guard unit against an armed enemy of the Unit-
January. Florida's National Guard began more Plant City, Florida. When Ballard first joined ed States. Although a much belated recognition
than three years of training, once again as part the Florida National Guard in 1926, Plant City of Florida's 400 years of active militia service,
ot the 31st Division. During that period, many, was home to Battery E, 116th Field Artillery. it is appropriate the first shot was fired by a
indeed most of Florida's Guardsmen volun- (Plant City is still home to a battery of the Florida Guardsman. Sergeant Ballard, and the
teered or were assigned to other formations of 116th). Except for brief periods of time when others in the battalion, were to fire many more
the Army and the Army Air Corps. work responsibilities interfered with his Nation- rounds in anger before the war against Japan
In late 1943. the 124th Infantry, school troops al Guard service and while he was serving a ended.
at Fort Benning, Georgia for two years, were
officially dis-established and its men scattered I m e m
throughout the Army. Political pressure led to I mmm
the re-establishment of the 124th a month later World War II Casualties; 2nd Battalion 116th ing with the 508th Parachute Infantry, 101st
in New Guinea where it was able to re-join the Field Artillery Regiment, Florida National Airborne Division, on the 12th of June 1944
other units of Florida's National Guard in the Guard. during the bitter contest in the hedgerows of
31st Division. Those other Florida units still had Of the Florida Guardsmen mobilized with the Normandy Peninsula France, several days af-
a substantial number of pre-war Florida Guards- battalion in November of 1940, eight died, of ter the "D-Day" assault.
men serving in them, while only a small hand- wounds or were killed in action during the Sec- MULLANY, Harrell Lee Battery F. Mulla-
ful of Florida Guardsmen managed to rejoin the ond World War. Only one died while serving ny was killed in action while serving with the
124th in the Southwest Pacific. with the battalion in the Southwest Pacific. The 376th Parachute Artillery, 82nd Airborne Di-
The 31st was part of the land, sea and air remainder died of unknown causes or in battle vision, on the 15th of February 1944, during
forces of General Douglas MacArthur's South- with other units of the Army and Army Air the savage contest with the Germans to expand
west Pacific Command. In June of 1944 and Corps the Allied bridgehead at Anzio.
after a lengthy, and valuable, period of jungle OUIMETTE, Edward Battery E. Ouimette
warfare training, units of the division were BLACK, Clifford R. Battery D. Black was died of wounds while serving with the 149th
alerted for action against the Japanese. A killed in action with the 466th Parachute Field Field Artillery Battalion, 31st Division, on the
Regimental Combat Team, composed of the Artillery, 17th Airborne Division, on the 24th 10th of August 1944 at Aitape, New Guinea.
124th Infantry, medical and other divisional of March 1945 during the Allied assault across SHARPE, Robert Battery F. Sharpe died
support units, were dispatched to become part the Rhine River. non-battle; date, place and cause unknown.
of the American Forces at Aitapc, New Guin- FORRESTER, Copeland A. Battery D. For- WILLIAMS, Oscar Battery D. Was killed in
ea. The 149th Field Artillery Battalion, former- rester died non-battle; date, place and cause action while a crewman aboard a B-24 of the
ly the 2nd Battalion of the 116th Field Artillery unknown. 403rd Bomb Squadron, 43rd Bomb Group on
Regiment, was attached to supply the artillery HARRIS, Gillis R. Battery F. Harris was the 25th of October 1943 during an Allied raid
support for the RCT. killed in action while serving with the 456th on the Japanese base at Rabaul in the Bismark
The RCT was shifted in position and had its Parachute Field Artillery. 82nd Airborne Di- Archipelago.
objectives changed several times at Aitape bc- vision, on the 15th of October 1944 during the (Another battalion member, Charles Nixon
fore actually entering combat. It was finally de- defensive battles at Nimegen, Holland in the lat- of Battery E, was decorated for service with
termined to use the RCT offensively to the east ter stages of Operation Market Garden. the 149th at Aitape. He received an officer's
of the American defensive perimeter, flanking MATHEWS, Arthur F. Headquarters Bat- commission in the army after the war and was
the Japanese out of their defensive lines and cut- tery. Mathews was killed in action while serv- killed in action in Korea, 29 April 1951).








Winter 1988 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Page 11

Our history:


Korea brought Air Guard up in arms




























by Robert Hawk
159th crew with 1950s armament

T he United Nations' decision to resist Communist aggression in ly four missions per pilot. They expended 141 rockets, 50 one thou-
South Korea in the summer of 1950 resulted in the call-up of most sand pound and 161 five hundred pound bombs, and 40,115 rounds
of Florida's Air National Guard. Florida's 159th Fighter-Bomber of .50 caliber ammunition against enemy-controlled ground targets in
Squadron remained in active federal service from October 1950 to early North Korea. Four of the 159th's aircraft received battle damage.
1952. The 159th trained and received orders for service in one coun- Returned to Japan immediately following the combat missions, the
try and went to another. The squadron received factory-fresh aircraft 159th resumed their air defense role. Then, on the 23rd of January,
only to see them shipped to where it wasn't going. It defended one 1952, they were recalled to Korea to participate in a multi-unit air strike
country and attacked another. It was a busy 20 months for the 159th. on Community positions in support of a major U.N. offensive.
Ordered to active duty 10 October 1950, the 159th became part of One pilot of the squadron almost didn't make the mission. His air-
the 116th Fighter-Bomber Wing and began nine months of intensive craft flamed-out over Japan and after a routine bail-out (if there is such
training at George Air Force Base in California. It exchanged its F-80 a thing), and a brief stay in a Japanese village, he rejoined the squad-
fighter plans for newer, more modern F-84s. ron in time to fly the mission.
In the late spring of 1951, the 159th was ordered to France.. After Back one more in Japan, the 159th were principal participants in
accepting factory delivery of brand new F-84E aircraft and after see- an Air Force exercise, Operation Hi-Tide. This involved in-flight
ing most of them "pickled" for overseas shipment and loaded aboard refueling of fighter aircraft during actual operational air defense sor-
a navy carrier in Newark, New Jersey, the 159th receive new orders: ties. The squadron was also busy training new men who replaced those
Japan. transferred home or to other fighter squadrons. By April of 1952 most
The men of the 159th reversed direction, were issued older and much of the squadron's original complement of Florida Airguardsmen were
used F-84 aircraft and loaded aboard the U.S.S. CVE Sitkoh Bay bound gone. Also in April occurred the strangest of events associated with
for Yokahama, Japan. By early August, the 159th was again in train- the squadron's Far Eastern deployment. Late one night a young Air-
ing, time at Misawa Air Force Base. Housing conditions, equipment, man 1st Class convinced a Japanese guard he was a pilot, boarded an
and work schedules were extremely grim and a serious morale prob- F-84, fired it up, took off, crashed at sea and was killed moments later.
lem was solved only when these conditions were corrected-and after In Late June, the 159th was ordered home for release from active
a gigantic squadron beer party. duty. It was officially returned to civilian and National Guard status
The 159th was assigned to duty as part of Japan's Air Defense Comn- on 9 July 1952. Paradoxically, after 20 months in jet fighters, the squa-
mand, but continued its training as a ground attack force, and, at the dron's pilots were issued P-51 piston-engined aircraft. Only after the
end of November, 1951, was ordered to Korea. Between the 2nd and Korean War ended would the 159th become a jet squadron again, and
6th of December, the squadron flew 92 combat sorties, approximate- so remain to this day.







Spring 1988 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Page 9
HISTORY



124th Int. Regiment helped change history

by Robert Hawk
FLANG Historian 124TH IIIFflRTRV REGIlmEIT
It was not quite a time of peace nor was it yet a time of war. President Roosevelt had
declared a National State of Emergency. The entire National Guard of the United States
was being called to federal active duty. On the 25th of November 1940, the men of
the 124th Infantry Regiment were ordered to their respective armories to take the oath as
soldiers in the Army of the United States.
The 124th, then as now, was the official infantry regiment of the Florida National Guard.
Established during the First World War, many of its component units could trace their lineage
to the Civil and Indian Wars of the 19th century. A few companies could trace their origins
to the even earlier Spanish and British periods of Florida history. All were proud to be
part of "Florida's Own."
Following mobilization, companies of the 124th were brought to war strength with "selec-
tees," most of whom were also from Florida. As in the First World War, the 124th was
organized as part of the 31st "Dixie" Division. The division established itself at Camp
Blanding in north Florida, a brand new training site.
The 124th, and the 31st Division, was involved in the Louisiana and Carolina maneuvers
of 1941 where the "Florida Boys" learned and perfected their dangerous trade. During
this extended period of non-war mobilization, a few individuals accepted appointments to
Officer Candidate School, left to attend army specialist schools, or were attracted to the divisions, including the 3rd and 30th Infan-
Army Air Corps. But most of the "Boys of 1940" remained with their original units. Most try and 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions
were still there to have their photographs taken for the 1941 Camp Blanding Yearbook. were former men of the 124th. They had an
And then there was Pearl Harbor! I impact far beyond what their limited num-
The massive mobilization and expansion of the Army which followed America's entry bers might suggest. Florida has reason to feel
into the war resulted in the wholesale dismemberment of many National Guard divisions, pride in the sacrifice and achievements of the
including the 31st. The 124th Infantry Regiment, which had distinguished itself during peace- "Florida Boys of 1940."
time maneuvers, was selected to become the training and demonstration unit at the Officers (The Office of the Adjutant General is cur-
Candidate School, Fort Benning, Georgia, and detached from the division. There it was rently involved putting the Army's Regimen-
to remain until 1943. While there, many of the "Boys of 1940" left the regiment for duty tal System into operation in Florida. One
in other divisions, especially airborne, or the Army Air Corps. consequence of establishing a 124th
Worse was to come. At Camp Jackson, South Carolina, in late 1943, the regiment was Regimental Association for the 124th has
formally disbanded and its soldiers scattered throughout the army. Due to political pres- been the development of plans for a World
sure, the regiment was re-established one month later, in New Guinea, and attached once War II Regimental Reunion for the 124th in
more to the 31st Division. Subsequently, the 124th Infantry Regiment and its Medical Detach- St. Augustine during May of 1988. For fur-
ment, would earn three Distinguished Unit Citations fighting the Japanese in New Guinea their information, contact Robert Hawk at the
and the Philippine islands. But only a relative handful of Florida Guardsmen from 1940 State Arsenal, St. Augustine).
were still serving with the regiment. They were fighting, and some were
dying, with other units in other places in many different parts of the world.
But where, and with what formations, did the Guardsmen of the 124th
serve? They have never had a 124th Regimental Reunion. Records at
the State Arsenal are largely silent on the federal service of former Guards-
men. An examination of casualty records and interviews with those
"Florida Boys of 1940" who have kept in touch with each other and
occasionally meet, reveal an astonishing variety of wartime and combat
assignments.
There were no major battles, on the ground or in the air during the
Second World War, in which former Florida Guardsmen of the 124th
were not present. They served in North Africa, Sicily and Italy with the
3rd, 34th, 45th, and 82nd Airborne divisions; in the Pacific with the 7th,
24th, 27th, 31st, 32nd, 37th, 96th, 98th and Ilth Airborne Divisions;
in Northwest Europe with the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 8th, 9th, 26th, 30th,
35th, 42nd, 77th, 78th, 85th, 94th, 100th, 104th, and the 13th, 17th
82nd, and 101st Airborne and 10th Mountain divisions. A large number'
of Florida Guardsmen served in the Army Air Corps as pilots, naviga- '
tors and gunners in every theater of that world-wide conflict.
The enormous influence of Florida's Guardsmen from the 124th on
the course of the Second World War is little known or appreciated. More
than half of all junior officers in the army were trained by the officers
and men of the 124th. The core NCO cadre of more than a dozen elite
The 124th saw service with soldiers wearing many patches






Spring 1990 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Page 7

HISTORY




















Hall examines memorial in early stage of construction

Museum and park opening a major event
it~e, -0 ..











By Maj. Doug Wiles






C amp Blanding, The opening A number of artifacts have been acquired He is a World War II veteran, serving as a
and dedication ceremonies of the as a result of a nationwide search by Hall and naval aviator in the Pacific."
Camp Blanding Museum and other volunteers. Veterans associations The search is still on for items from the
Memorial Park of the Second World War has representing most units that trained here have war era. Hall is particularly interested in
been selected by the Department of Defense made memorabilia available to the museum posters, postcards, medals, coins and paper
as the premier event initiating America's for- for displays. money from foreign countries, personal
mal recognition of the 50th anniversary of Plans for the dedication ceremony include items, clothing and equipment. Persons in-
World War II. Plansterested in donating artifacts are asked to
The ceremonies will be held at Camp a flyby of World War II aircraft, a tour of teoested in donating artifacts are asked to
Blanding on Nov. 24-26, 1990, to com- Camp Blnding and a military ball. and Memorial Park of the Second World
memorate the federalization of America's "We've invited the president to attend," War, Route 1, Box 465, Starke, FL 32091
National Guard in 1940. Hall said, "however, he's not accepted yet. 9703. Telephone (904) 533-3196.
The museum and park are located just in-
side the main gate of Camp Blanding on a
13-acre site. A World War II era barracks G um an d
building will house the museum exhibits, a Former Guardsman died
research library and archive collection. Ex- y
terior display areas will include weapons, ve- w hile n eld by ene y
hicles and aircraft from the era and a a
memorial garden dedicated to the units and
soldiers who trained at Camp Blanding from By Bob Hawk
1940-45. h during the Depression years of the Japanese invaded the islands. Sometime af-
The park will feature the Florida Regimen- 1930's, it was not unusual for men ter the retreat into the Baatan Peninsula, Ar-
tal Memorial of World War II, depicting the to come to Florida seeking employ- chief was assigned duties on Corregidor
crests and war service of each Florida Na- ment and to join the Florida Guard while Island and was surrendered with the garri-
tional Guard unit federalized. here. One such individual was Archie Doane son on May 6, 1942.
The memorial is presently under construc- from Lansing, Mich. While living with his The Japanese prisoner of war policy of cal-
tion. Barracks renovation will begin within grandmother in Haines City and working as culated brutality which resulted in the infa-
this month, according to Sgt. Maj. Rodney an apprentice baker, Archie enlisted in Com- mous "Baatan death march" was continued
P. Hall, museum curator. pany F, 106th Engineers in the fall of 1933. in the primitive prisoner of war compounds
"Funds for construction have been received Less than two years later, Archie was north of Manila. At 5 on Sept. 9, 1942, Pri-
from several sources, including a $100,000 released from service as he had decided to vate Ist Class Archie Doane died of dysen-
appropriation from the 1989 Florida Legis- seek work elsewhere. tery and was buried in one of the many mass
lature," Hall said. "An additional $40,000 graves at Cabanatuan Camp. After the war,
in contributions have come from the Nation- Apparently, work was still hard to find and Army Graves Registration teams were able
al Guard Officers Association of Florida, in 1939, Archie enlisted in the Army Air to identify his remains from his dental
Sumpter and Ivlyn Lowry Foundation, Camp Corps. Posted to the Philippine Islands with records and he was subsequently re-interred
Blanding Museum and Historical Associates the 2nd Observation Squadron, he served in in the Mount Hope Cemetery, Lansing,
and other interested individuals." the ground crew and was present when the Mich.
tionlGaduitfdrlzdhr.OesuhidvdalwsAci Dae sno My6 92







Summer 1989 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Page 11

HISTORY



Early Guardsman Became a Pasha

By Bob Hawk
Florida Guard Historian
I n the square behind Government House in Virginia. returned to the United States.
in downtown St. Augustine stands a monu- For the next several years following the Civil For the next few years, Loring wandered
meant and obelisk in memory of a most War, Loring found himself making his living around the country, visiting friends andrelatives
unusual Floridian, William Wing Loring. Boy as an advisor on Southern investments for a arnd the country, visiting friends a pasha, or general,atives
soldier in the Florida Militia during the Second group of New York bankers. He made a com- in the Egyptian Army. H tea and publish-
Seminole War, Brevet Lt. Col. in the war with portable living but the work must not have pleas- eda book, A Confederate Soldier in Egypt,
Mexico, regimental commander in the Far ed him because when he was offered profes- about his experiences. He began preparing his
West, Maj. Gen. of the Confederacy, and Pasha sional military employment with the Egyptian notes for a projected autobiography. It was not
of Egypt: Loring was all of these. Army in 1869, he accepted immediately. to be wr W m W g L g dd
Loring was born in Wilmington, North Hiring professional soldiers from other coun- deny, Dec. 30, 1886, in New York Citye
Carolina. His family moved to St. Augustine, tries was not unusual in the 19th century. When
Florida, when he was three years old. His Sherman was on a visit to Egypt, he was asked Loring's reinterment and public funeral in St.
phenomenal military career began as a volunteer by the Khedive for a list of American officers, Augustine during March of 1887 was one of
in the Florida Militia in 1832, when he was Union and Confederate, with Civil War ex- the grandest events in the city's history for that
barely 14 years old. He saw considerable perience, who might be willing to accept ser- decade. It was used as an occasion for a com-
fighting in the early stages of the Second vice with the Egyptian Army. Loring's was one bined encampment, and week-long meeting, of
Seminole War where he earned the sobriquet of the first names on the list and the very first the Union and Confederate veterans organiza-
"Boy Soldier" from the local press. Promoted to accept a position. tions of northeast Florida. Both groups, in con-
Sgt., later 2nd Lt. of the militia, he ended his Loring served for 10 years in Egypt. Initial- junction with other local civic organizations,
participation in the war to do what young men ly concerned with training and coastal defenses, sponsored the erection of a memorial obelisk
are supposed to do at his age, go to school, he took part in one active, ill-considered cam- and monument, in Government House Square,
After attending school in Virginia, he returned paign against Abyssinia, today's Ethiopia. inscribed with the details of Loring's life and
to Florida and served in the new state legislature Complications of the Egyptian command ar- military service and emblazoned with the flags
following Florida's admission to the Union as rangements, realities that made his advice, in- of the United States, the Confederate States, and
a state. fluence, and experience useless, ultimately led the Ottoman province of Egypt. It is a fine
Loring wasn't entirely happy as a politician, to defeat for the Egyptian Army. Disgusted, memorial to the local militiaman who became
and when it was announced that the national Loring soon resigned his commission and a pasha of Egypt.
government was raising a regiment of mounted
volunteers for serving in Oregon he volunteered
and was appointed captain of the new regiment. .,.,
The outbreak of the war caused the regiment ,,
to be diverted to Mexico where it, and Loring,
served with distinction with General Scott's ex-
pedition into the Valley of Mexico. Loring was
breveted three times for bravery: at Cerro Gor-
do, Churubusco, and at the Belen Gate of Mex- *.
ico City where he lost his left arm. He finished
the war as colonel in command of the regiment.
In 1849, the Regiment of Mounted Rifles,, '
with Loring in command, resumed its journey
to Oregon. For the next 12 years Loring, and
the regiment, saw duty in the American Far
West: along the Oregon Trail, against the Mor-
mons, and in many conflicts with the Indians
of Texas and New Mexico. In command of the
military district which included New Mexico
when the Confederacy was formed, Loring ., '
resigned his commission and journeyed to Rich- .
mond where he was immediately commission- I-i
ed a brigadier general, C.S.A., and sent to com- '
mand troops in western Virginia. .', .
During the following four years of bitter war- ''
fare, Loring served as a divisional and corps : ,
commander in the many major battles and cam- h ''l
paigns, east and west. He and his division were ..? "
at Vicksburg, in the Tennessee and North '
Georgia campaigns of 1863, and 1864, and with
Hood in his disastrous winter campaign against ''
Nashville. Transferred to the east early in 1865, .
Loring and the remnants of his division sur-
rendered to Gen, William T. Sherman in North _-
Carolina, shortly after Lee's surrender to Grant W. W. Loring in full regalia







Page 6 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Fall 1988

F HISTORY



Guard needs own holiday



by Bob Hawk
Director of Historical Services
Florida Department of Military Affairs

he Florida National Guard has the ol- Battle Honors Day: June 26 piratical raids, foreign invasion and world

dest and most diverse history of any war.
state guard in the continental United On this day in 1740, the Regulars and Mi- In the past, when Florida's citizen-soldiers
States. It is an enviable record, rich in color- litia of Spanish Florida attacked and defeat- were called for duty, their families gave them
ful personalities, exemplary in service to ed a force of English Regulars and Militia a send-off dinner. Perhaps that's the ap-
"Florida and country," and noteworthy by at Fort Mose, just north of St. Augustine. propriate way to celebrate this each year: a
participation in many battles, both famous This victory led to the defeat of the English family night where everyone, the children in-
and not so famous, spanning more than four invaders in the Great Siege of St. Augustine. cluded, take note of that special price as-
hundred years of history. There are other dates, other battles to com- sociated with National Guard service which
Yet, unlike all active U.S. and British regi- memorate: Alligator Creek in 1778; the demands a sacrifice from all members of a
ments, the French Foreign Legion, or even Withlacoochie in 1836; 25 battle honors for Guardsman's family.
the U.S. Marine Corps, the Florida Guard the Civil War, including the Great Charge
celebrates no special events associated with of the Florida Brigade at Cold Harbor; and
its remarkable past, promotes no traditions many, many more including all the major Memorial and Veteran's Day
of its own, and has no developed.system for battles in the various wars of the 20th cen-
honoring those events, units and personali- tury in which units and individual soldiers It is presumed all Guard units participate
ties that have contributed to the special and airmen of the Florida Guard have par- in the Memorial and Veteran's Day celebra-
character of the Florida Militia/National ticipated. tions in their local communities.
Guard.
It takes more than pay and benefits to cre-
ate individual and unit pride and to attract
quality personnel to the ranks of the Florida
Guard. You also need an appreciation for,
and knowledge of, the history, traditions and
special heritage of "Florida's Army."
It would help if the Guard celebrated one e
or more days of honor and remembrance;
days when all Florida'Guardsmen would be
one or more of the following would help
achieve this goal: .

Foundation Day: Sept. 16 N 0

This should be the most important day in
the Florida National Guard annual calendar.
On this date in 1565, the (Spanish) Florida On this day, flags should be displayed, his- They might also add a special responsibil-
Militia held its first official muster and served tory studied or discussed, perhaps military ity; that of involving all Guard vets in their
its first day of active duty in the newly es- skills tested as in weapons competitions. Or, area in memorial activities, of taking a lead
tablished presidio settlement of St. Au- maybe just a picnic and sports on a nice sum- in establishing and/or caring for veteran's
gustine. mer day. memorials in their communities?
Every armory should host an open house,
perhaps sponsor a banquet honoring local Each unit should maintain a list of vete-
citizens as well as present any former Mobilization Day: Nov. 25 rans and memorial rolls of all from its com-
Guardsmen, everyone in dress uniform, with munity who have given their lives in service
medals. It could be a day for entering or retir- On Nov. 25, 1940, most of Florida's Na- to "Florida and country."
ing from the Guard; for special announce- tional Guardsmen were mobilized for duty
ments from the adjutant general; for the during the "National.Emergency," later to These are small steps to take but steps in
presentation of medals and other individual become known as World War II. the right direction; the direction of develop-
or unit awards. The president of the United However, this day could represent all those ing pride within the Guard of the more than
States, the governor of Florida, and the king other mobilization days when Florida's Mi- 400 years of outstanding accomplishment; a
of Spain should all be informed that Flori- litia/State Troops/National Guard have been Militia and National Guard heritage neither
da's Army, its Air and. Army National called for state or national active service in equalled nor excelled by any other state
Guard, is still on duty and in service' to, times of-peace and war; times of civil unrest guard. It is a tradition worthy of "Days of
".Florida and country." and natural disaster; times of Indian revolt, Honor; Days of Remembrance.







Page 14 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Holiday Issue 1988

HISTORY




Florida Guard once defended Texas

by Robert Hawk and David Coles O. How did your employer feel about
your leaving for federal duty?
F lorida's Militia and National Guard more competent military force, all of which
has been mobilized for a wide variety was to prove of great value when these same A. I worked for Mr. R. M. Princeton,
of duties during its more than 400 Guardsmen were called for further national insurance broker, and he was a real patriot.
years of service to Florida and country. It service in the World War just one month He was highly elated that I could go and was
has fought the French, English, Indians, after their return from the Mexican border, willing to let me go.
Colonial rebels, Yankees and all the various Service "on the border" was to prove its
enemies the United States has had during the worth many times on the battlefields of Q. Did your unit leave immediately for
course of the 20th century. France during 1917 and 1918. the Mexican border?
It has brought relief to our citizens in time Joseph P. Butzloff, formerly of Tampa, 92
of natural disaster and civil unrest, protected years old and retired in Pennsylvania, was A. No, we were sent to Black Point,
presidents and popes, and even "fought" among the Florida Guardsmen who answered (Florida National Guard training camp; today
against an insect, the Mediterranean fruit fly. the president's call. the site of the Jacksonville Naval Air
And once, in 1916, Florida's National Guard Although born in Georgia, Butzloff moved Station). We went through very rigorous
was called to duty to defend the southern to Florida at the age of 2. His father was a training.
Texas border against the depredations of baker and Joseph attended schools in Tampa,
Mexican revolutionaries and bandits under St. Leo College and Georgia Tech Q. How did your unit get to the border?
the overall command of Francisco "Pancho" University. He was working in the insurance
Villa. industry when he enlisted as a charter A. We went by railroad and there were
The immediate cause of the call-up was banners on the side of the train cars saying,
Pancho Villa's March 1916 attack on the "Get Pancho Villa." We had wonderful
border community of Columbus, N.M., in 7-. receptions in New Orleans, Houston and San
which 17 Americans were killed and scores Antonio.
wounded.
In response to this attack, President Q. Describe the different locations your
Woodrow Wilson ordered a Regular Army unit was stationed at while on the border?
force under the command of Brig. Gen. John
J. Pershing to proceed into Mexico and A. We were stationed at Laredo and San
punish Villa's band. Meanwhile, the Igntio (Texas). (Pause) I'll never forget when
mobilized National Guardsmen assembled we got off the train. We were met by a
along the U.S.-Mexican border. sandstorm. It was so bad I could hardly see
Their mission was to defend American the guy in front of me. By the way, there was
citizens and property from any further l.no camp for us there. We had to make our
incursions of American territory by Mexican own camp...set up the tents.
bandits. In all, more than 150,000 National
Guardsmen from throughout the country 1 Q. What type of duties did your unit
responded to President Wilson's June 16, '- perform?
1916, mobilization order.
On June 19, 1916. Florida Governor Park A. We performed patrol duty mostly, and
Trammell called the 2nd Florida Regiment WWI photo of Burtloff regular guard duty.
into active service for duty on the Mexican member of Company H, 2nd Florida
border. The regiment was brought to war Infantry, during a hurricane, September 24, Q. What kind of equipment did you
strength by volunteers from the 1st Florida 1914. (Company H was formed and have?
and from newly recruited civilians. The 2nd commanded by Sumter Lowry, a famous
Florida was commanded by Albert Blanding, Florida Guardsman, who eventually retired A. We were issued Springfield rifles;
soon to earn his general's star during World as a lieutenant general. campaign hats are what we wore and the
War I and rightly considered one of Florida's Below are excerpts from a taped interview blankets were (worn) over the left shoulder,
most famous soldiers. (Camp Blanding, the with Joseph Butzloff, May 1988; questions diagonally across the chest.
state National Guard training facility near provided by David Coles, Florida State .
Starke, is named in his honor). Archives. Q How did your equipment compare
Following mobilization, the 2nd Florida with other Guard and Regular Army
underwent three months of outfitting, Q. Were you surprised to be called for troops?
medical examinations, and infantry drill at service on the Mexican Border?
the state training camp at Black Point, near A. They were all the same; there was no
Jacksonville. A. No, it wasn't a surprise. Captain Lowry difference.
They departed for the .Mexican Border on told us at drill we might be sent.
Oct. 2, 1916, to begin:five months of duty Q. What was the feeling toward the
in some of the most isolated and desolate Q. What was the reaction of the men; Regulars and Guard units from the other
parts of the Texas border country. There, the did any refuse.to go? states?
main enemy was boredom and
homesickness. A. We liked them all. We enjoyed their
Still, the campaign service helped produce A. Nb, of course not. They were all company. There was competition among us,
-better soldiers and their regiment became a excited about it; anxious to go. but we got along well with them.







Holiday Issue 1988 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Page I5
HISTORY




from infamous Pancho Villa

Q. How did your unit get from place to Florida troops? with you on the border?
place?
A. No, not very much. A. I don't know any. I think they are all
A. By foot! dead.
Q. Please describe any battles or (There were annual reunions of Company
Q. What type of food were you issued? skirmishes your unit had with Panco H until the early 1980s. While mentioning
Villa's followers, this, Butzloff was reminded of, and related,
A. We had a regular mess sergeant in camp the following story).
and he used very good food. When went on A. At San Ignatio there were breastworks
patrol, we mostly had beans and hardtack. around the camp because often Mexicans
tried to infiltrate the camp. We shot at them "Now there were two men (with the
Q. What kind of living and sleeping two or three times. We never found any dead company on the border) who didn't like each
quarters did you have? Mexicans because they probably took their other. That's putting it mildly! Every time
wounded and dead with them. We had a they met on the company street, it resulted
A. When in camp, we had eight-man tents "crow's nest" in camp. One evening, there in fisticuffs. Capt. Lowry let it go for awhile
with regular folding cots. On patrol, we used was a lot of shooting going on. The next and then got tired of it, so he had a prize ring
pup tents. morning we spotted a dead burro! built at the foot of the company street.
On the day of the fight, I suppose half the
Q. Did you or anyone from your unit regiment was there. The two were given their
have leaves or passes while on the border? instructions and put into the ring, stripped
to the waist and ready to fight. There were
A. I went on furlough with a friend to San a no rest periods. They started punching each
Antonio, and we had a good time there. We other. They were bleeding from the nose and
went to dances and enjoyed ourselves. mouth and one had a black eye, but they kept
on fighting for half an hour.
Q. In general, what was that area of the There were no knock-downs and, at the
country like in 1916? end, they did not shake hands. They were
still enemies.
A. Very desolate and bleak looking. Now it was the first reunion we had after
the war. About half way through dinner these
Q. How did the U.S. soldiers get along two guys were looking at each other and the
with the Mexican civilian population? first thing you know, they were shooting at
each other! I never saw anyone disappear so
A. They were neither friendly nor quick in my life! (In seconds).
unfriendly. There was not a human being around!
They had all left; but nobody was hurt for
Q. Did Gen. Pershing or any other the simple reason there were blanks (in the
general visit your unit while you were on guns) they were using! It seems the two had
the Border? Joseph P. Butzloff become very good friends since the border!"
During the first world war, Butzloff was
A. I never saw Gen. Pershing and no other Q. What was done with the Mexicans mobilized with the Florida Guard and
general ever visited us. who were captured? became part of the 31st or "Dixie" Division.
He accepted a commission and went to
Q. You spent several weeks in a Laredo, A. We never captured any. France with the division but was transferred
Texas hospital. Please describe the to the 116th Machine Gun Battalion, 29th
circumstances. Q. Were there any desertions or Division, with which he saw combat during
discipline problems among the Florida the Meuse-Argonne Offensive October-
A. I had blood (amoebic) dysentery and troops? November 1918 and later, saw a bit of Paris;
I was so sick, every time I went to the latrine, but that's another story...for another time!)
I would vomit yellow matter. They put a A. There was one soldier of Mexican
barrel right next to my bed when I became descent who went deer hunting and never Q. Looking back on your National
so weak I couldn't go to the latrine. I got up came back. (The 2nd Florida returned home Guard service, do you have any regrets?
about every 15 minutes and defecated blood, in March 1917).
My stomach was so sore that if anyone came A. I enjoyed every bit of it. I made life-
along and touched the bed, it would make Q. What kind of response did your unit long friends, and my experience in the Guard
me sick. get when it returned to Florida from the helped me prepare for further military
border? service and the rest of my life; even helped
Q. What type of medical care did you me get my commission!
.receive? A. They gave us a wonderful reception in
Tampa, and they gave us parties; dances. We (Robert Hawk is a civilian employee of the
A. I received very good medicine and I had a good time. We were glad to get back! Florida Department of Military Affairs in St.
(eventually) got to feeling very good. Augustine and David Coles, an Army
Q. Do you know any other.surviving Reservist, works for the Florida State
Q. Was there much sickness among the members of the Florida Guard who served Archives in Tallahassee).





Page 12 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Summer 1988
HERITAGE


The boys of the 124th became men

gustine in May to relive those memories, to front gate here was, where am I?
Story and Photos by greet fellow soldiers they had not seen in "I didn't recognize the place, it's so green
Staff Sgt. Joanita M. Nellenbach nearly half a century, and to participate in now," Rufus Lloyd of Orlando said. He also
the ceremonies which would officially incor- noted that back in those days the troops didn't
F ifty years ago, they were just very porate the 124th Infantry Regiment As- get around the camp much. "I never saw the
young men who joined the Florida sociation. lake (Kingsley Lake) in the entire 14 months
National Guard because it seemed the For three days, the men reminisced about that I was here.. .it sure is beautiful."
thing to do as the nations of Europe and the the special times they shared in the unit. They For William Patrick, also from Orlando,
Far East drifted into World War II. began their careers at Camp Blanding and a moment of recognition came when he no-
These Florida boys were destined to fight, returned to the post to look at the changes ticed a familiar water tank.
and some to die, in far-off places called New that had taken place since their day and to "When the Japanese bombed Pearl Har-
Guinea and Normandy, Mindanao and An- see how their modem counterparts are bor, I was put on guard duty under this tank.
zio, and a hundred other places with equal- equipped and trained. I was getting thirsty and didn't have any wa-
ly strange sounding names. "I've been waiting 40-some years for this ter left in my canteen. I was sitting under
When the war was over, the men, no to happen," Charles H. Parr said. "It's the thousands of gallons of water and could not
longer boys, came home to civilian pursuits first time it's been done." do anything about it," Patrick said.
and to memories of when they were part of Parr came all the way from Fairbanks, For the trip to Camp Blanding James
the 124th Infantry Regiment. Alaska, to attend. The first impression many Nicholson of Longwood wore World War II
About 100 of them gathered in St. Au- of the vets had while driving through the khaki. As the men left the armory to board



































James Nicholson came dressedin khakis and carrying the bugle he used in WW
# f
U., .1.









James Micholson came dressed. in khakis and carrying the bugle he used in WWII







Summer 1988 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Page 13

HERITAGE'"



before it was over, over there

the buses, Nicholson bugled them on their Department of Military Affairs and the regi- professional soldiers."
way with the same instrument he had used ment association's chief organizer, an- "Every airborne regiment in World War
to wake the troops in the 124th's Company nounced the honorary leaders, those who will II had Florida Guardsmen and most of the
K. officially represent the 124th Regiment As- junior officers of World War H were trained
On the bus ride to the camp, the men were sociation. by the 124th, which ran the officer candidate
talkative. Retired Col. Albert E. Durrell, who served school at Fort Benning from 1941-43."
"It was more than just military. It was a as the Florida Guard's first chief of staff, was "This is a bash I really can't believe,"
team," Rufus Lloyd said. named regimental colonel. Bill Braswell is Harold Witherow said when it was all over.
Lloyd really was a kid when he first joined regimental adjutant and Aubrey Tillery is "I knew it would happen some time, but I
the military, signing up at age 15, in 1938. sergeant major. didn't know it would be this fine."
He remembers a three-day, 108-mile "It was a special regiment," Hawk said N a i i 4thn
march through sand from Camp Blanding to later. "It started out as a Guard regiment. Note Regular membership in the 124th In-
the Ocala National Forest and back again. It had a family-type atmosphere and it was fantry Regiment Association is open to any-
Lloyd was the youngest in the unit, so he had very good." one who is serving or who has ever served
to carry the Browning Automatic Rifle with "While in the Dixie Division, the regi- in the 124th Infantry Regiment. For infor-
tripod. He did it, not because he was afraid ment's second and third battalions and med- mation, write to Department of Military Af-
they'd turn him in on account of his age, but ical detachment received Distinguished Unit fairs, State of Florida, ATTN: Robert Hawk,
because, "I was afraid I'd get whipped," he citations. Their actions on the Pulangi Riv- P.O. Box 1008, St. Augustine, Fla.
said. er (in the Philippines) and the Drinimour 32085-1008; or call (904) 824-8461, ext.
When he grew sideburns to show his River (in New Guinea) are still studied by 17
"maturity," he encountered a problem that .
still plagues soldiers today haircut poli-
cy. A lieutenant told him, "Don't let the sun -
rise tomorrow without getting those side-
burns off."
That's all there was to it. "They came ,'
off," Lloyd said. .
Blanding, the first place most of them had i
trained, was not the way they remembered [I
it. They were amazed by all the trees.
"You can't imagine it with all sand and It
no trees," Duane Wilson said. "I can't im-
agine it with trees. We built duckboards
(wooden sidewalks) to walk on.
"Everything looks smaller now, I remem-
ber the officers club looked so big to me. I'm
amazed, too, at the sophistication of our
Army now. It's a much better Army than we
knew."
"It's certainly bigger than I ever thought,"
William Braswell said of Camp Blanding.
"All these fellas, and young ladies, too. I
appreciate that they're there. I don't ever J
want another war."
Braswell, a draftsman before the war,
earned the Distinguished Service Cross for
trying to save a buddy's life in the Philip-
pines. A grenade, lodged between the man's
pack and back, exploded as Braswell at-
tempted to remove it, killing the buddy and
crippling Braswell's right hand.
The men saw troops rappel from a UH-1H
Huey helicopter and got a look at a Dragon i
anti-tank weapon and a 105mm howitzer.
Lunch was MREs (meals read to eat) un-
der a camouflage net.
"I was really kind of dreading this part of
the trip, but these are not bad," Glenn Can- '
trell said after polishing off his food.
The 156th Medical Company's food serv-
ice section prepared the banquet for the regi-
ment members and their wives on the
reunion's last night.
Robert Hawk, historian for the Florida MREs were new experience for Thomas Kemp





Page 10 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Spring 1987


86 Marine Street-



Generals, Ghosts


official home to 25 military commanders,
federal and state. Their separate careers
cover a wide range of military experience.
Most of the federal officers stationed in St.
Augustine were graduates of the U.S.
could talk, one could hear accounts of long
personal friendships with U.S. Grant,
.e William T. Sherman, and most of the other
great personalities, North and South, of
the American Civil War.
These federal occupants of the house at
86 Marine Street saw active service in the
War with Mexico and in many of the cam-
paigns against the hostile indians of the
SFar West and on the Great Plains. One or
more of them was present at virtually all
the great battles of the Civil War. Several
served in command positions in the
Spanish-American War and the Philippine
Insurrection and others during the First
World War.
Since 1901, the house has been the of-
ficial home of 11 Florida Adjutants General
and has been witness to the growth of the
state's military from a handful of ill-trained
and ill-equipped Florida State Troops to to-
day's larger, well-equipped and trained
Florida Army and Air National Guard.
During those same intervening decades,
the soldiers of the Florida Guard have been
called upon for service in several wars and
have been summoned more than 200 times
for state active duty to protect and bring
succor to the citizens of the state in times
of civil unrest and natural disaster.
The first Florida adjutant general to
reside in the house was Joseph Clifford
Reed Foster, twice adjutant general,
1901-1917 and 1923-1928. He was the most
Brig. Gen. J. Clifford R. Foster. important adjutant general in Florida's
long history and was elevated to the office
at the age of 28. He had served with the
1st Florida Regiment during the Spanish
American War and died in office in 1928.
There were four adjutants general bet-
ween 1917 and 1923, reflecting the general
disruption of society and governmental
By Spec. 4 Deborah Pappas garrison headquarters for the U.S. Regular organizations attendant to the events dur-
Army, 1865-1900, suitable living quarters ing and immediately following the First
F rom 1578 to 1763, the military reser- were required for personnel. Construction World War. Those commanders, J.B.
vation in St. Augustine housing to- on those quarters was begun some time Christian, James McCants, Sidney Catts
day's headquarters of the Florida National after 1865 and the buildings were essen- Jr., and Charles Lovell, all had had active
Guard, the St. Francis Barracks, was the tially completed by 1878. The quarters at duty in earlier wars or during the First
site of a thriving Franciscan monastery. 86 Marine St., immediately adjacent to the World War and all were eligible to reside
With the arrival of the.British, the proper- headquarters barracks,became the official at 86 Marine St.
ty became a military barracks and a residence of the garrison's post Vivian Collins, adjutant general from
military barracks it remained, the commander. 1928 to 1947, was a true soldier of Florida.
predecessor organization to today's Florida Following the transfer of the property to A member of the Florida State Troops
National Guard, in 1901. the state, it became the home of Florida's prior to the Great War, he had served on
While the reservation was serving as a adjutant general; and so it remains. the Mexican Border with the 2nd Florida


:7, 7-7,7





Spring 1987 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Page 11






and Guards

Regiment before the general war- served as Adjutant General during most of simultaneously, as befitting a citizen
mandated call-up in 1917. From 1940 to the traumatic and disruptive Vietnam War soldier, was chairman of the board of
1946, he commanded the Florida State era. Ensslin and Hall Advertising, Inc., in
Guard while the regular Florida National General McMillan's successor, Kennedy Tampa.
Guard was on war-time active duty. Bullard, was a Florida Guardsman called "Facing Matanzas Bay at the southern
The adjutant general who succeeded Col- to federal duty with the Guard in 1940 but end of historic St. Augustine, the house at
lins, Mark Lance, began his military career whose combat service was with the U.S. 86 Marine St. is an integral part of our
in the U.S. Navy during the First World 1st Armoured Division in North Africa and State's long history and military heritage,"
War and served with the 31st Division in Italy. He commanded the Florida Guard said Robert Hawk, director of historical
the Southwest Pacific during the Second. during the transition to an all-volunteer ar- services at the Department of Military
He commanded in Florida during the my and during the toughest and longest Affairs.
Korean War and during the great changes periods of state active duty ever perform- "A part of the headquarters complex, the
in national military reserve policy after ed by the Guard. land on which it stands has been in use
1952 which established the modern Na- The present resident of 86 Marine St., since the earliest days of Spanish settle-
tional Guard. Robert F. Ensslin Jr., began his military ment in North America.
Henry McMillan, the next Florida adju- career as a second lieutenant of artillery "As the home of the commander of
tant general, had risen from the ranks of attached to various United Nations com- Florida's National Guard, the oldest state
the Florida National Guard. He, too, saw mands during the Korean conflict. During Militia/National Guard in the United
active service during World War II, in- his career with the Florida Guard and States, one trusts the 'walls' of the old
cluding a period as military attache in the before becoming the adjutant general in house will continue to hear stories of
Republic of Paraguay. After long service 1981, he held most of the command posi- military leadership for many years to
with the Florida Guard after the war, he tions available in the Guard and come."
























e p f i t m o c s 1 .



The picket fence is the major outward change since 1908.






Page 10 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Summer 1989

HISTORY



Wounds Didn't Stop Top Medal Winner

Story by Bob Hawk
--- Florida Guard Historian
combat areas, he became platoon commander
I.and so remained for most of his active combat
SI .. service time.
kfV 'Sgt. Braswell and his platoon participated in
the invasions of Mindoro, Ramblan, Tablas and
several other small islands too small to be noted
S.on most maps. In the late spring of 1945, his
division was committed to the re-conquest of
Mindanao Island. Woody heard that his old out-
fit, the 31st "Dixie" Division was also fighting
on the island but he had no chance to visit them;
Ships new division was heavily engaged in a bit-
ter campaign to clear the Japanese out of Davao
Sand the surrounding jungle-shrouded
mountains.
S' On May 26, 1945, Sgt. Braswell, already the
S' holder of a Bronze Star and a Purple Heart earn-
: ; ed in previous combat operations, led his pla-
S toon into an area known to be heavily defend-
ed by the Japanese. He and two of his men
Scouted a trail ahead of the platoon; but let the
official citation tell the story.
SI "Sergeant Braswell was leading his patrol
j along a dense jungle trail near Panacan, Min-
Sdanao, when the enemy suddenly opened fire
Sll 3 from cleverly concealed pillboxes, and the
leader of the advance squad fell forward,
seriously wounded. The patrol was complete-
S ly pinned down and, as the squad leader lay
helpless and completely exposed to hostile fire,
one of the enemy hurled a grenade which landed
S. on the wounded soldier's back. Without hesita-
1 .' 7 tion, and in the face of withering Japanese con-
,' 2' centration, Sergeant Braswell dashed forward
SJ to the aid of his fellow soldier. He seized the
Bras l at hs h ; in W I (inert) grenade but it exploded before he could dispose
Braswell at his home; in WWII (insert) of it, tearing off his right hand.
of it, tearing off his right hand.
W oodrow Wilson "Woody" Braswell troops at Fort Benning. While stationed there, "By his unfaltering courage in attempting to
lives quietly in Jacksonville with his many Florida Guardsmen left the regiment for save a comrade's life in the face of insurmoun-
wife in a house he built by himself, other outfits including newly formed airborne table odds, Sgt. Braswell set an inspiring ex-
in the years following the end of World War regiments and the Army Air Corps. The first ample of courage in keeping with the highest
II. For many, building a home "single- Florida Guardsmen to see combat did so in late traditions of the service."
handedly," may seem no great achievement, 1942. Woody would have completed more than It was while in the hospital that Woody learn-
but Woody Braswell, while earning his nation's four years of active service before he would ed of the death in combat on Okinawa of his
second highest award for bravery, the enter combat in late 1944. brother, a former Marine Ranger with a Silver
Distinguished Service Cross, left one of his Following duty with the 124th, he was cadred Star won on New Georgia Island. On this sad
hands on Mindanao, the Philippine Islands. to the 300th Infantry Regiment, also serving as note, Woody began the long process of
Woody was born in Jacksonville, is a Fort Benning school troops. Eventually, Woody hospitalization and plastic surgery in prepara-
graduate of Jackson High School, and was was sent to the West Coast, where he was tion for life in a post-war world. He returned
working as a draftsman when he joined Com- assigned a wide variety of duties including guar- to Jacksonville and eventually retired from a
pany G, 124th Infantry, Florida National Guard ding prisoners of war. After a stint at the bat- civil service job with the Navy in his home city.
in 1938. With them he was mobilized for talion headquarters of a California replacement As far as is known, Woodrow Wilson
federal service during the national emergency, center, he was shipped to the South Pacific. Braswell received the highest combat decora-
November 1940. They had a not unpleasant Now a Staff Sergeant, he spent some months tion of any Florida Guardsman during World
year or so at Camp Blanding; training, marches, in New Guinea awaiting assignment. It finally War II. And Woody is back with the Guard,
sailboating and swimming in Kingsley Lake un- came; he was sent as a replacement to Com- as Honorary Regimental Adjutant of the 124th
til one Sunday, the 7th of December 1941. pany B 19th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Infantry Regiment, under the new Army
Woody wasn't sure where Pearl Harbor was, Division on Leyte, the Philippine Islands. Regimental System. He continues his service
but the Japanese attack there made his life, and Although without previous combat ex- to "Florida and Country." You will meet him
the lives of millions of other Americans, in- perience; Woody was made platoon sergeant of at the next regimental dinner or reunion of the
finitely more demanding and difficult. this veteran combat company of the 19th. Due 124th Infantry. Be sure to introduce yourself
The 124th became Officer Candidate Scho6l to the extreme shortage of junior officers in to Florida's most highly decorated soldier.
.. .. -






Page 6 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Spring 1990

1 --HISTORY



Florida Guard served everywhere in WWII

By Bob Hawk
I t was the greatest war in all history and Camp Jackson, large drafts of men from the Nearly half of all fatal casualties among
Florida's National Guardsmen served, 124th were sent to the 4th and 30th Divisions Florida's Guardsmen occurred during serv-
trained, fought and some died, in every destined for a war that would begin in the ice with a relatively small and select group
theater and in every great battle, on land and hedgerows of Normandy in France. Others of divisions; the 3rd, 4th, 30th, 31st and 45th
in the air, of that titanic global struggle. Most were sent as infantry replacements to the Infantry Divisions and the lth, 17th, 82nd
served in or with the infantry, many in the Mediterranean Theater where Americans had and 101st Airborne Divisions. Other divi-
Army Air Corps, and others in the artillery, been in combat with the Axis Powers since sions in which Florida Guardsmen killed in
engineers, quartermasters and as specialists November 1942. Many of these former action served included the 1st, 2nd, 8th, 9th,
in all the various technical professions as- Florida Guardsmen would serve with the 3rd 24th, 34th, 35th, 37th, 40th, 42nd, 63rd,
sociated with modern, industrial and scien- and 45th Divisions in Italy and, later, in 77th, 78th, 79th, 94th, 96th Infantry and the
tific warfare. Most came home at war's end; France. 6th and 10th Armored Divisions.
some did not. If the divisions and specialist units in which
One might suppose all of Florida's Guards- Following a political rumpus over the dis- surviving Florida Guard veterans and known
men would have served in the same unit; the bandment of Florida's 124th, it returned to to have served are included, we can add the
31st Infantry Division of which they were an existence through the expedient of re- 7th, 26th, 43rd, 65th, 66th, 83rd, 85th, 87th,
organic part prior to general mobilization, designating the 154th Infantry Regiment, 88th, 98th, 99th Infantry, the 10th Mountain
Actually, most did not. It was partly a re- then in New Guinea with the 31st Division, and 13th Airborne Divisions, the Rangers,
sult of calculation and intent on the part of as the 124th. (It is ironic and fitting that the various intelligence, signal, quartermaster
the Regular army but mostly it was simply 154th had been Florida's assigned regiment units and even training detachments in India,
the incredible demands created by the nature immediately after the end of World War I. Burma, and China attached to the Chinese
and scope of the war itself. Some artillery, Some Florida Guardsmen were already with Army.
some support troops and a handful of Flori- the 154th (now 124th), and others would find In short, there really wasn't anywhere
da infantry would eventually reach the South there way there in the months to come. But, Florida Guardsmen didn't serve during the
Pacific and serve with the 31st Division in in numbers, they never comprised more than war. Their impact on the Army must have
New Guinea and the Philippines. All of the 10 percent of the regiment. been vastly greater than mere numbers might
Coast Artillery and most of the infantry Of the nearly 4,000 Florida Guardsmen suggest. Florida provided private soldier,
would fight their war in other units and in mobilized for war in 1940, approximately NCO and officer leadership cadres to most
other places. 170 are known to have been killed in action of the elite divisions in the Army and good
Following general mobilization in Novem- or died during the war years. (This number men in many other units, on land and in the
ber 1940 (January 1941 for the 265th Coast represents about 80 percent of the total fatal air. They made a difference and established
Artillery), Florida's soldiers took up resi- casualties from the Florida Guard). Forty an enviable record, one worthy of study and
dence at the newly created Camp Blanding died of nonbattle-related disease or accidents commemoration. The new memorial and
in the north central part of the state. There or were killed at times, places and with unit museum at Camp Blanding is but a start in
they were joined by other elements of the assignments that are not part of the availa- publically recognizing the long-neglected and
31st Division and their ranks fleshed out with ble records. At least 17 were killed while overlooked achievements of those "Florida
draftees, most from Florida and the other serving in the Army Air Corps and one as Boys of 1940" to whom Florida, and the na-
southern states that contributed component a Marine. tion, owe so much.
units to the division. Almost immediately,
individuals were separated from their Guard
units; some to attend special technical
schools, a few to OCS and even more suc-
cumbed to the romantic attractions of a war
in the air; the Army Air Corps.
After the maneuvers of 1941 and the cata-
clysm of Pearl Harbor, Florida men began
disappearing from the division in large num-
bers. More volunteered for the Air Corps,
numerous individuals went off to a greatly
expanded OCS program and a very large
number responded to the appeal for men to
fill the ranks of the new airborne divisions.
By this time, the 124th Infantry was no
longer part of the 31st Division. They were
school troops at the infantry OCS school at
Fort Benning, Ga., training the thousands
and thousands of new junior officers need-
ed for the vastly expanded national army.
By the fall of 1943,;-mre. than half of the
Florida Guardsmen originally in the 124th
were gone and, at Camp Jackson, S.C., the
remainder were transferred to other units and
the regiment itself officially disbanded. From







Spring 1990 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Page 7
HISTORY


















Hall examines memorial in early stage of construction


Museum and park opening a major event
By Maj. Doug Wiles
C amp Blanding, The opening A number of artifacts have been acquired He is a World War II veteran, serving as a
and dedication ceremonies of the as a result of a nationwide search by Hall and naval aviator in the Pacific."
Camp Blanding Museum and other volunteers. Veterans associations The search is still on for items from the
Memorial Park of the Second World War has representing most units that trained here have war era. Hall is particularly interested in
been selected by the Department of Defense made memorabilia available to the museum posters, postcards, medals, coins and paper
as the premier event initiating America's for- for displays. money from foreign countries, personal
mal recognition of the 50th anniversary of items, clothing and equipment. Persons in-
World War II. Plans for the dedication ceremony include terested in donating artifacts are asked to
Wo La flyby of World War II aircraft, a tour of ested in donating artifacts are asked to
The ceremonies will be held at Camp Camp Blanding andr a military ball. contact Hall at the Camp Blanding Museum
Blanding on Nov. 24-26, 1990, to com- C d and a military bal and Memorial Park of the Second World
memorate the federalization of America's "We've invited the president to attend," War, Route 1, Box 465, Starke, FL 32091
National Guard in 1940. Hall said, "however, he's not accepted yet. 9703. Telephone (904) 533-3196.
The museum and park are located just in-
side the main gate of Camp Blanding on a
13-acre site. A World War era barracks Form er died
building will house the museum exhibits, a Former Guardsman died
research library and archive collection. Ex- w h b
terior display areas will include weapons, ve- while eld by nem y
hicles and aircraft from the era and a
memorial garden dedicated to the units and
soldiers who trained at Camp Blanding from By Bob Hawk
1940-45. during the Depression years of the Japanese invaded the islands. Sometime af-
The park will feature the Florida Regimen- 1930's, it was not unusual for men ter the retreat into the Baatan Peninsula, Ar-
tal Memorial of World War II, depicting the to come to Florida seeking employ- chie was assigned duties on Corregidor
crests and war service of each Florida Na- ment and to join the Florida Guard while Island and was surrendered with the garri-
tional Guard unit federalized. here. One such individual was Archie Doane son on May 6, 1942.
The memorial is presently under construc- from Lansing, Mich. While living with his The Japanese prisoner of war policy of cal-
tion. Barracks renovation will begin within grandmother in Haines City and working as culated brutality which resulted in the infa-
this month, according to Sgt. Maj. Rodney an apprentice baker, Archie enlisted in Com- mous "Baatan death march" was continued
P. Hall, museum curator. pany F, 106th Engineers in the fall of 1933. in the primitive prisoner of war compounds
"Funds for construction have been received Less than two years later, Archie was north of Manila. At 5 on Sept. 9, 1942, Pri-
from several sources, including a $100,000 released from service as he had decided to vate 1st Class Archie Doane died of dysen-
appropriation from the 1989 Florida Legis- seek work elsewhere, tery and was buried in one of the many mass
lature," Hall said. "An additional $40,000 graves at Cabanatuan Camp. After the war,
in contributions have come from the Nation- Apparently, work was still hard to find and Army Graves Registration teams were able
al Guard Officers Association of Florida, in 1939, Archie enlisted in the Army Air to identify his remains from his dental
Sumpter and Ivlyn Lowry Foundation, Camp Corps. Posted to the Philippine Islands with records and he was subsequently re-interred
Blanding Museum and Historical Associates the 2nd Observation Squadronhe served in in the Mount Hope Cemetery, Lansing,
and other interested individuals." the ground crew and was present when the Mich.






Summer 1989 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Page 11

HISTORY



Early Guardsman Became a Pasha

By Bob Hawk
Florida Guard Historian
I n the square behind Government House in Virginia. returned to the United States.
in downtown St. Augustine stands a monu- For the next several years following the Civil For the next few years, Loring wandered
ment and obelisk in memory of a most War, Loring found himself making his living around the country, visiting friends and relatives
unusual Floridian, William Wing Loring. Boy as an advisor on Southern investments for a and lecturing on his life as a pasha, or general
soldier in the Florida Militia during the Second group of New York bankers. He made a com- in the Egyptian Army. He wrote and publish-
Seminole War, Brevet Lt. Col. in the war with fortable living but the work must not have pleas- ed a book, A Confederate Soldier in Egypt,
Mexico, regimental commander in the Far ed him because when he was offered profes- about his experiences. He began preparing his
West, Maj. Gen. of the Confederacy, and Pasha sional military employment with the Egyptian notes for a projected autobiography. It was not
of Egypt: Loring was all of these. Army in 1869, he accepted immediately. to be written. William Wing Loring died sud-
Loring was born in Wilmington, North Hiring professional soldiers from other coun- Dec 3 1 i
Carolina. His family moved to St. Augustine, tries was not unusual in the 19th century. When New York City.
Florida, when he was three years old. His Sherman was on a visit to Egypt, he was asked Loring's reinterment and public funeral in St.
phenomenal military career began as a volunteer by the Khedive for a list of American officers, Augustine during March of 1887 was one of
in the Florida Militia in 1832, when he was Union and Confederate, with Civil War ex- the grandest events in the city's history for that
barely 14 years old. He saw considerable perience, who might be willing to accept ser- decade. It was used as an occasion for a com-
fighting in the early stages of the Second vice with the Egyptian Army. Loring's was one bined encampment, and week-long meeting, of
Seminole War where he earned the sobriquet of the first names on the list and the very first the Union and Confederate veterans organiza-
"Boy Soldier" from the local press. Promoted to accept a position, tions of northeast Florida. Both groups, in con-
Sgt., later 2nd Lt. of the militia, he ended his Loring served for 10 years in Egypt. Initial- junction with other local civic organizations,
participation in the war to do what young men ly concerned with training and coastal defenses, sponsored the erection of a memorial obelisk
are supposed to do at his age, go to school. he took part in one active, ill-considered cam- and monument, in Government House Square,
"After attending school in Virginia, he returned paign against Abyssinia, today's Ethiopia. inscribed with the details of Loring's life and
to Florida and served in the new state legislature Complications of the Egyptian command ar- military service and emblazoned with the flags
following Florida's admission to the Union as rangements, realities that made his advice, in- of the United States, the Confederate States, and
a state. fluence, and experience useless, ultimately led the Ottoman province of Egypt. It is a fine
Loring wasn't entirely happy as a politician, to defeat for the Egyptian Army. Disgusted, memorial to the local militiaman who became
and when it was announced that the national Loring soon resigned his commission and a pasha of Egypt.
government was raising a regiment of mounted .
volunteers for serving in Oregon he volunteered '
and was appointed captain of the new regiment.. .
The outbreak of the war caused the regiment "
to be diverted to Mexico where it, and Loring,
served with distinction with General Scott's ex-
pedition into the Valley of Mexico. Loring was
breveted three times for bravery: at Cerro Gor- .
do, Churubusco, and at the Belen Gate of Mex-
ico City where he lost his left arm. He finished
the war as colonel in command of the regiment.
In 1849, the Regiment of Mounted Rifles,
with Loring in command, resumed its journey .r
to Oregon. For the next 12 years Loring, and. '
the regiment, saw duty in the American Far
West: along the Oregon Trail, against the Mor- -
mons, and in many conflicts with the Indians
of Texas and New Mexico. In command of the
military district which included New Mexico
when the Confederacy was formed, Loring'" ?
resigned his commission and journeyed to Rich-
mond where he was immediately commission- t
ed a brigadier general, C.S.A., and sent to com- .
mand troops in western Virginia. '
During the following four years of bitter war-
fare, Loring served as a divisional and corps '
commander in the many major battles and cam- e r e
paigns, east and west. He and his division were -A3
at Vicksburg, in the Tennessee and North .
Georgia campaigns of 1863, and 1864, and with
Hood in his disastrous winter campaign against '
Nashville. Transferred to the east early in 1865, ; .
Loring and the remnants of his division sur-
rendered to Gen, William T. Sherman in North
Carolina, shortly after Lee's surrender to Grant W. W. Loring in full regalia










FLORIDA FIFTEEN YEAR SERVICE MEDAL

By Bob Hawk

Originally established and issued in 1906, the Fifteen Year Continuous Service Medal
was Florida's first state medal. Although fifteen years is an relatively unusual period of
service to commemorate, it is not so strange when it is noted that the Adjutant General at
the time, J. Cliffor R. Foster, had first enlisted in the Florida State Troops in 1891, exactly
fifteen years prior to the medal's establishment.

Officially, the medal was issued only twenty-nine times. There are indications several
additional individuals received the medal un-officially, and, so far as records indicate,
improperly. The records of many additional potential recipients, upon close examination,
indicate they had "gaps" in their serivce time and the "continuous service" clause excluded
them from consideration. (Periods of federal service, if mobilized directly from the Guard,
counted towards eligibility).

There were at least two individuals whose records indicate they were eligible but did
not receive the medal. Following the institution of the Florida Service Badge (medal) in
1929, many of those who might have been eligible under the older rules were issued the
new medal with the appropriate numeral clasp.

Each of the official twenty-nine recipients is listed below with brief biographical
summaries when known derived from the files of the Florida Department of Military Affairs.
(Personnel records for State Troops during the early part of the century were fairly sparse
and fragmentary. Also, the Florida State Arsenal, and its records, was largely consumed
by fire in 1915).

Recipients of the Florida Fifteen Year Continuous Serivce Medal

1906

Major General J. Clifford R. Foster

(Born in Georgia 1873 and died in Florida 1928. Enlisted in the Florida State Troops
1891, commissioned 1898. Spanish American War service. Adjutant General of Florida
1901-1917 and 1923-1928. Died in office. President of the National Guard Association of
the United States 1914-1916. Principle author of the National Defense Act of 1916).

Colonel Irving E. Webster

(Born in Vermont 1857 and died in Florida 1927. Enlisted in Florida State Troops 1878
and commissioned in 1882. Spanish American War service. Retired in 1903. (His award
was retroactive) Civilian trade listed as lawyer).









Colonel Charles M. Bingham

(Born in Wisconsin 1865 and died in Florida 1931. Enlisted in the Florida State Troops
1884, commissioned 1888. Retired as Colonel in 1907. Civilian trade listed as merchant).

Major Jacob Gumbinger

(Born in Germany 1840 and died in Florida 1920. Service in the Union Army during
the Civil War. Enlisted in the Florida State troops in 1887, later commissioned and retired
as Brigadier General in 1914. Civilian trade listed as optomitrist.)

Major Frank X. Schuller

(No information available)

Major Dominick Brown

(Born in Florida 1867 and died in Florida 1935. Enlisted in Florida State Troops 1890,
commissioned in 1902 and retired as Lt. Col. in 1910. Civilian trade listed as merchant).

Captain M. Henry Cohen

(Born in New York, 1872. Enlisted in Florida State Troops 1887. Later commissioned
and retired as a Lt. Col. in 1912. Civilian trade listed as lawyer)

Captain Thomas J. Moore

(Born in Florida 1868. Enlisted in the Florida State Troops 1890, commissioned in
1895 and retired in 1905. Civilian trade listed as salesman. His award was retroactive)

1st Lieutenant Fred Caldwell

(No information available)

1st Lieutenant Benjamin D. Jenks

(Died in Floirda 1934. Enlisted in Florida State Troops 1888, later commissioned and
retired in 1904. His award was retroactive)

1st Lieutenant Estavan A. Moreno

(No information available)









1st Lieutenant Walter G. Sharitt

(Born in Florida 1871. Commissioned in 1904. civilian trade listed as merchant. No
other information available).

Chief Musician Harry H. Newsome

(No information available)

Sergeant C. H. Wigg

(No information avialable)

Sergeant Joseph W. Pinder

(No information available)

Sergeant James C. Gibson

(No information available)

1908

Colonel Richard M. Cary

(Born in 1861. Enlisted in the Florida State Troops 1883 and commissioned in 1888.
Spanish American War Service. Retired as Colonel in 1914).

Sergeant Leonard Baker

(Born in Florida 1873. Retired from state service as a 1st Lieutenant in 1914. Civilian
trade listed as clerk. No other records available).

Sergeant J. M. Archibald

(No information available)

1909

Colonel Felix Clemet Brossier

(Born in Texas 1854 and died in Florida 1937. Texas National Guard 1874-77;
Colorado National Guard 1882-84. Enlisted in the Florida State Troops 1888, later
commissioned and retired as Colonel in 1909. Civilian trade listed as merchant).









1910

Brigadier General John S. Maxwell

(Born in Florida 1866 and died in Florida 1923. Commissioned into Florida State
Troops 1892. Spanish American War Service. World War I service with the JAG and in the
War Plans Division of the War Department. Retired as Major General in 1923. Civilian
trade listed as lawyer).

1912

Major James G. Coxetter

(Born in Floirda 1880. Enlisted in the Florida State Troops 1896. Subsequently
commissioned. Spanish American War service and with army engineers in France during
World War I. Retired from the Regular Army in 1934. Civilian trade listed as civil engineer).

Quartermaster Sergeant Harry F. Davis

(No information available)

1913

Captain James D. Dell

(No information available)

1914

Colonel Albert H. Blanding

(Born in Iowa 1876 and died in Florida 1970. Commissioned in the Florida State Troops
1895. Service on the Mexican Border 1916-1917 as regimental commander. Brigadier
General in Federal service during World War I; commanded the 53rd Infantry Brigade, 27th
Division in combat the last several months of the war. In 1924, appointed commander of
the 31st Division (National Guard) Became Chief of the National Guard Bureau 1936-1940.
Retired 1940 but re-activated for state service during World War II. Civilian trade as farmer
and dealer in lumber products).

Major Fred G. Yerkes

(Born in Pennsylvania 1870 and died in Florida 1943. Enlisted in Florida State Troops
1896. Spanish American War Service. Retired as Major 1919. Civilian trade as owner of
a hardware store)









Captain Louis J. Cowan

(Born in Scotland 1880. Enlisted in the Florida State Troops 1899 and retired as a
Captain in 1914. Civilian trade listed as businessman).

1922

PFC Albert E. Barrs

(Born in Tennessee; 1887 and died in Florida 1962. First enlisted in the Florida State
Troops 1905. Service as both an enlistedman and as an officer. Officer in federal service
during World War I. Re-enlisted following the war. Officer 1922. Mobilized again in 1940
with eventual serivce in the Army Air Corps)

1926

Colonel Vivian B. Collins

(Born in Florida 1883, died in Floirda 1955. Commissioned into the Florida National
Guard in 1908. Service on the Mexican Border 1916-1917. With the 37th Division in France
1918-1919. Adjutant General of Florida 1928 to 1947).













Military Medicine in Florida

The First 200 Years


',.





Robert Hawk


Little known and less appreciated by most During the first 200 years of permanent European
Americans is that the oldest European medical tradi- presence in Florida, the only significant settlement
tion in what is now the continental United States of was at St. Augustine. There were short-termed out-
America began in Florida. And, as Florida was a posts at Santa Elena in today's South Carolina, along
presidio or military settlement, it has the oldest the Georgia coast and in the Apalachee region of cen-
military medical tradition as well. That tradition, as tral Florida, but they do not figure in the history of
derived from a handful of surviving official records, military medicine in any major fashion. Thus, the
is extremely checkered as to quality and effectiveness history of military medicine in Florida is basically
with long periods of poor care, ill-trained personnel that of St. Augustine and the personnel based there
and vastly inadequate funding. Primarily this was a who occasionally ventured out to serve the needs of
consequence of Florida's existence on the less the more distant Spanish Florida garrisons.
desirable and less wealthy fringe of Spain's New
World empire. European background At the time of St.
Augustine's establishment by Pedro Menendez de
Aviles in 1565, military medical theory, education,
practice and organization had been undergoing revolu-
tionary changes in Europe for nearly 75 years. By the
end of the 15th century, Spain had the most modem
and effective military medical delivery system in the
western world. Armies were accompanied in the field
by dedicated surgeons and physicians. Special
assistants with wagons and stretchers were attached
to the armies to recover wounded from the battlefield
for transport to nearby field hospitals.
While the delivery system for military medicine
in the field was much improved, the actual state of
medical theory, education and practice remained
rooted in the Middle Ages, dominated by the
teachings of the 5th century Roman physician, Galen,
as revised by Avicenna in the 10th century.
The Author Galen had presumed all disease and complica-
ROBERT HAWK tions of wounds affected the four humors, or states,
Mr. Hawk is Director, Historical Services Division, of the body. The principle treatment for most illness
Florida Department of Military Affairs, St. Augustine. was massive purging sweating and bloodletting.
He is the author of Florida's 'Army'Militia, State Some herbal medicines and other concoctions of in-
Troops, National Guard 1565-1985, and Florida's Air credible composition, including pig stools, were used
Force: Air Guard 1946-1990. to help redress the balance of the body's humors.
Treatment of wounds had long been the province












of the barber surgeon. By the beginning of the 16th tients to relieve bad humorss." And the near total
century, gunshot wounds were considered poisonous, reliance on time-honored herbal medicinal remedies,
to be treated with boiling oils and formation of some of which actually worked quite well, remained
"laudable pus" by introducing foreign bodies into standard practice among practitioners of military
open wounds. Amputations had few survivors as ex- medicine long after the First Spanish Period in Florida.
treme total cauterization was the normal treatment Unfortunately for Spain and her American col-
for exposed stumps. onies, these dynamic and "modem" changes in
Finally, there was the age-old formal separation Spanish medicine, especially military medicine, were
between the physician, surgeon and apothecary. For not to last. As a consequence of the religion-inspired
hundreds of years, while the physician generally counter reformation during the last half of the 16th
received some formal education at the university, the and the first part of the 17th centuries, Spanish
surgeon was truly a barber, handy with a knife, who medical education, theory and practice included a
performed surgery when necessary and generally return to pre-Renaissance practices associated with
without a physician's supervision. Apothecaries in- Galen and Avicenna. There was even a reversion to
cluded anyone who could claim knowledge of herbs older, far less effective and more barbaric practices in
and medicines. military surgery that had been common prior to the
During the 16th century, Spain's medical educa- innovations of Vesalius and Pare. After all, Paracelsus,
tional system produced well-trained physicians and, Pare and possibly even Vesalius, were Protestants.
in what was a modestly revolutionary step, elevated Truly modem military medicine in Spain and its em-
surgeons and apothecaries to near equal status, even pire would have to wait another hundred years or so.
for a time training physicians to function as surgeons. All these developments would be reflected in the prac-
Most of these changes were in response to the tice of military medicine in Florida, even if only on
discoveries and practical achievements of Ambrose a very minor scale.
Pare, Aureolus Paracelsus and Andreas Vesalius. They
initiated a direction in medical theory, education and Garrison medical care When St. Augustine was
practice that would eventually replace those founded, the Spanish government had a mandated
associated with Galen and Avicenna, especially in the system of military medical support for all presidios.
area of military medicine. Each was to have at least one physician, one barber-
Paracelsus emphasized the need to integrate the surgeon and one apothecary. A hospital was to be
functions and treatments of the physician, surgeon and established in each presidio, staffed, equipped and sup-
apothecary. He insisted correct medical practice in- plied to provide adequate care for both wounded and
evolved a combination of experimentation and author- diseased soldiers. Each soldier's pay was to be dock-
itative literary resources. Vesalius, whose magnificent ed to pay for these services.
work on human anatomy fundamentally changed long- Menendez brought no physicians but did bring
held assumptions about the subject and ultimately two surgeons, an apothecary and five barbers with his
the study, diagnosis and treatment of many expedition to conquer and colonize Florida. Florida
diseases, is correctly perceived as the founder of would not be so generously endowed with practi-
modem clinical pathology. Pare's work on the treat- tioners of military medicine for the remainder of the
ment of combat, especially gunshot wounds, would First Spanish Period. Within ten years, all those who
not be improved upon until the advent of anesthesia had come with a conquering fleet were gone to other
and antiseptic medicine. colonies, died or had returned to Spain. St. Augustine
and Florida were left to do the best they could for the
Spanish medical training Many innovations next 200 years.
associated with these men would be incorporated in- For awhile, the best was very good indeed, even
to the training of Spanish military medical personnel. if under exceptionally unusual conditions. In about
By the second decade of the 16th century, most 1579, Juan de LeConte, probably a French Hugenot,
Spanish universities were training physicians to be was shipwrecked near Santa Elena and transferred to
surgeons and surgeons as physicians. Even the St. Augustine as a prisoner. Records indicate he was
apothecaries were provided related and substantial an excellent physician-surgeon and a knowledgeable
training including a new material medical based on a apothecary. LeConte's medical training, obtained
combination of Old and New World remedies. Dissec- primarily in French and northern Spanish univer-
tions on a par with those of Vesalius were a major sities, almost certainly included material associated
part of the curriculum. Pare's insistence that gunshot with the teachings of Paracelsus, Vesalius and Pare.
wounds were not poisoned and that ligature of blood For decades, he was virtually a one-man military
vessels and herbal poultices as bandages after amputa- medical system for Florida. He functioned as a barber
tion were more effective than boiling oils and to the garrison. In the beginning, he performed all
catastrophic cauterization became standard practice, those tasks in return for sustenance and was later
Less successful were attempts to replace Galenes- granted a small salary. He served St. Augustine until
-...: ,.. C .,rie hlPline, ind nmuring of pa- approximately 1620 when he retired to Cuba where












he died in 1630. Francis was bitterly against this "intrusion" into their
LeConte and Florida's military medical system province and the medical team of friars from Mexico
were assisted by at least two of Florida's governors, departed within months of their arrival. Florida would
During the 1580s, Catalina Menendez, sister of not experience their caliber of medical practice for
Governor Pedro Menendez Marques, cared for sick more than four decades.
and injured soldiers in her home at her own expense, There were other problems associated with pro-
serving as a nurse with one female Royal slave to help viding some form of military medical service to the
her. Another governor, Gonzalo Mendez de Canzo, garrison. During the 1670s and early 1680s, one
established a military hospital in 1597. When this first surgeon to the garrison was an Englishman who was
official military hospital burned in 1599, he built actually not a surgeon at all and intoxicated most of
another and it lasted, in one form or another, for the time. He was hardly an answer to the military
several decades into the 17th century to be replaced medical needs of the province.
by other facilities normally operated by the friars of In 1668, the governor, Francisco de la Guerra y
St. Francis stationed in the presidio. de las Vega, cheated, insulted and shipped out the
With the retirementjdeath of LeConte, Florida French-born garrison surgeon, Pedro Piques. Piques'
(4 was not to experience adequate medical care for its ship was captured by the English pirate John Davis
garrison until near the middle of the 18th century. who led Davis on a raid to St. Augustine in revenge
Barber-surgeons and apothecaries came and went, and for his poor treatment by the Spanish. The pirates
there is little evidence any were adequately trained looted and destroyed much of the city and killed
to perform their assigned tasks. Florida needed real many residents.
military medical care as the final half of the 17th cen-
tury was characterized by frequent back country wars Other providers of care For much of Florida's first
with English-supported Indian raids, occasional 200 years, medical care was administered to the gar-
province-wide epidemics of the plague, measles, rison by church friars, convicts or the soldiers
smallpox, syphilis and various supposedly climate- themselves. Considering their pay was docked for
induced diseases, most probably typhoid, dysentery medical care every month, the paucity of adequate
and yellow fever, care must have been frustrating and added im-
measurably to the difficulties and unpopularity of ser-
Assigned physicians There is little evidence a real vice in Florida. And, of course, there was no question
physician was assigned for any length of time to St. of their having adequate medical care when they took
Augustine for the last half of the 17th century. Time the field on expeditions against hostile Indians or in-
and time again, local governors urgently requested trusive Englishmen.
assignment of qualified and knowledgeable military Their pay stoppages were to pay for medicines as
physicians, surgeons and apothecaries. Their requests well, medicines which were almost never available.
were almost never answered, let alone fulfilled. About For much of the 17th century, members of the gar-
the best they could hope for was the assignment of rison had to rely on locally grown and produced her-
an occasional barber-surgeon to supplement whatever bal medicines and "Indian" cures or none at all. The
local resources there might be. records are replete with official requests for medicines
One local-bor and probably self-styled barber to be dispatched to Florida, few of which were ever
surgeon, Juan de los Reyes, served the garrison as fulfilled and then only after delays spanning several
apothecary of record from 1648 to 1712, followed by years.
his son, Estaban. It was noted by more than one gover- Because of this long period of inadequate and pro-
nor that Reyes wasn't much good and didn't know visioned medical staff in Florida, the truly sick or
his job. He was relatively unique in being styled both badly injured or wounded soldiers had to be sent to
surgeon and apothecary but as the garrison rarely had Havana for treatment. There at least those who
a stock of medicines to dispense, he could do little survived the trip could receive relatively decent
real harm. Still, he was all the Florida garrison had medical care more in line with officially mandated
for a very long time. military medical policy.
In 1680 a garrison surgeon, Juan Marquez As a presidio settlement, virtually all the people
Cabrera, became governor. He was wildly unpopular in Florida were in or serviced the military establish-
in the province, even being denied absolution by the ment and thus entirely relied upon the military
local priests. He departed in 1687 never to return, medical institutions until the very last decade of the
However, he did try to improve medical services for First Spanish Period. The general inadequacy of
the garrison by requesting the assignment of three medical service in Florida was a constant theme of
friars of the Order of San Juan de Dios from Mexico protest in official letters to the king and the
City. bureaucrats of the government in Cuba and in Spain.
The friars came to operate the garrison hospital. Sometimes changes in Spanish law made the
One was an educated physician-surgeon, one an situation even more difficult as when it was decided














medicines, a job for apothecaries. This was especial- medical care had been only occasionally available and
ly difficult in Florida where there were rarely both a rarely of decent quality. Until the final decade of
physician and apothecary and even less frequently the Spanish control, military medical care in Florida had
necessary medical supplies, not even come close to the quality and comprehen-
siveness demanded in official government documents
Substantial improvements Only after the siege of and policies.
St. Augustine in 1702 would substantial im- For most of the preceding 200 years in Florida it
provements in Florida's military medical institutions was best if a soldier of the garrison refrained from be-
and services begin to any significant degree. By the ing wounded or sick. Except under the administra-
1720s the assignment of adequately trained and equip- tions of LeConte and the garrison medics of the final
ped physicians, surgeons and apothecaries became an three decades, his chances of survival from wounds
expected and normal, even if only a periodically or sickness decreased in direct proportion to the
realizable condition of garrison life. And even when amount of care he received from the poorly trained
it was possible to obtain adequate military health and supplied surgeons, physicians, and apothecaries
care, there were problems. available to him.
In 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano, one of During the 18th century, there were major ad-
Florida's best and most effective governors, noted vances in the theory and practice of military
there were no medical personnel in the presidio and medicine. At century's end and generally as a conse-
formally requested a physician, surgeon and quence of lessons learned during the years of warfare
apothecary from the government in Cuba. His request accompanying the French Revolution, developments
was granted with commendable dispatch and the re- in the theory, practice and effective delivery of
quired medical personnel were dispatched. Unfor- medical care for soldiers in the field and in garrison
tunately, all drowned when the ship carrying them finally achieved a level of quality promised by the in-
was wrecked. It was not until after the war against novations of the Renaissance physicians and surgeons
the English, 1739-1742, that their replacements and as promised in 16th century Spanish government
arrived. policy. But it still was not recognizably modern
However, Montiano did not have to do entirely military medicine. That would remain a goal of the
without medical assistance. That same year, another future and nearly 100 years in the achievement.
ship was cast upon the coast and its well-educated and
capable surgeon, Juan Pescador, was "attached" to the Resources
garrison for several years, eventually receiving official
approval, and pay, for his sojourn in Florida. Medicine in the New World: New Spain. New France and New England. edited by
Finally, in 1743, the garrison got a new hospital Ronld L. Number. University of Tennessee Press. 1987.
Fi i 1 e o g a Notes on History of Military Medicine. Fielding H. CGarrison, The Military Surgeon.
staffed with qualified personnel, at least most of the 1921221.
time. By 1759, on the eve of the end of the First Surger Through he Ages. Lejaren A. Hillet. New York, Hastlim House. 1944
Spanish Period n F the garrison hospital was, Medical Men and Medical Events in Early St. Augustine, Webster Merrtt IFMA.
Spanish Period in Florida, the garrison hospital was, 19Ss.
by Florida standards, a remarkably satisfactory facility Medicine. Warlar and Hstory. lohn F. fulion. Smihsonin Insttuton. 19F 4
Medicine mn St. Aufustmn Dunnf the Spamish Period, Willam Straiht. IFMA, 1965.
with two large rooms, 12 beds, kitchen, privies, Trfnslaions from Stetson Collection of Florida Documents and Records ol the
apothecary shop, herb garden and sufficiently train- Casillo d San Marcos by Luis Arna. histoan of the Castillo de San Marcos Naional
ed personnel to perform the needed services. By the Monument
standards of European military medicine elsewhere, Illustrations from
it may not have been much but it was the best Florida
had had since the days of LeConte. A ,Medice: An luststed History by Alben Lyons nd R. )oseph Prtucell. New York.
S had had since the days of LeConte. Abradale Press, 1987.
In 1763 Florida was transferred to the British in Th Iustations from the Works of Andreas Vesus I.D. dcC. M. Saunders and
Charles D. O'Malley, New York. World Publishing Co.. 1950.
exchange for Havana which the British had previous-
ly captured. During the first 200 years of European Mr. Hawk,
settlement in the Peninsula, satisfactory military







Spring 1989 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Page,27
AIR GUARD.



Early Honors for Florida's Air Force
by Robert Hawk
he original Florida Air National Guard fighter squadron was tacks during the Battle of the Bulge, the airborne landings associated
formed in 1947. It was mobilized for, and service in, the with "Operation Varsity," (Rhine River crossings, March 1945), at-
Korean War. Few, however, may be aware that the lineage tacks on German airfields and in general support of Allied forces dur-
of today's 159th Fighter Interceptor Squadron includes many battle ing the conquest of Germany itself.
honors for the Second World War or that the unit received a While in combat, the 352nd Fighter Squadron was assigned to the
Distinguished Unit Citation for its support of American paratroopers 353rd Fighter Group, (later redesignated the 116th Fighter Group,
in Holland during September 1944. Georgia Air National Guard). The 352nd Fighter Squadron had no
Rarely are military units, even those of the National Guard, created distinctive insignia of its own, but used that of the 353rd Fighter Group.
out of nothing. Whenever possible, the Department of Defense transfers World War II campaign streamers awarded to the 352nd include:
the lineage of one unit to its successor formation. When Florida was Air Offensive, Europe
allowed a fighter squadron in 1947, it was assigned the re-activated 352nd Normandy
Fighter Squadron and its number redesignated the 159th to be consis- Northern France
tent with federal policy regarding the numbering of Air National Guard Rhineland
units. But the "new" 159th officially carried with it into its new life Ardennes-Alsace
the lineage and honors of the 352nd. Central Europe
The 352nd Fighter Squadron was activated in Mitchell Field, N.Y., Air Combat, Eame (European African
on Oct. 1, 1942. It trained with P-40, later P-47, fighter aircraft in Middle Eastern) Theater
New York and various stations in Virginia. Squadron personnel were
transferred to England during June 1943 aboard the liner Queen Mary. Distinguished Unit Citation
It entered combat operations on Aug. 9 of that year. While in the Euro- For escort and ground attack operations in
pean Theater of Operations, the squadron was based at several loca- support of the American airborne forces in
tions in England, France, and Germany. Holland during "Operation Market Garden,"
During its combat service, the squadron operated P-47s until re- Sept. 17-23, 1944.
equipped with P-51 fighter aircraft in October 1944. The unit provid- As a component squadron of the 116th
ed protection for American bombers engaged in attacking industrial, Fighter-Bomber Group, (formerly the 353rd),
transportation, and V-weapon sites and flew many missions as fighter- the 159th (formerly 352nd), operating F-84 jet
bombers against both tactical and strategic targets in France, Belgium, fighter-bombers from bases in Japan and Korea,
and Holland. earned the following campaign streamers for
During and following the Normandy invasion, the squadron operated the Korean War:
primarily in support of Allied ground forces engaged in the elimina- In Summer-Fall Offensive (1951)
tion of German forces from the occupied countries of Western Europe. Second Korean Winter
The squadron received a Distinguished Unit Citation for close ground Korea Summer-Fall (1952)
support of American paratroopers in Holland during "Operation Market (Excerpt from manuscript of "Florida's Air
Garden," Sept. 17-23, 1944. Force: Air National Guard 1946-1988" cur-
Subsequently, the unit operated in support of the Allied counterat- rently in preparation)



Stewart Cited "7y

For Service

To Association
Senior Master Sgt. Jimmy D. Stewart (right)
and Col. Larry D. Martin hold a plaque
presented to Stewart Dec. 4 during the unit
training assembly of the 125th Fighter Intercep-
tor Group at the Air Guard base in Jacksonville.
Martin, commander of the Professional Military
Education Center in Knoxville, Tenn.,
presented the plaque to Stewart, making the
34-year military veteran an honorary member
of the faculty at the center. Stewart earned the
recognition for his outstanding service as a
member of the Air National Guard Non-
Commissioned Officer Academy Graduates
Association for the past 16 years. Stewart has
been the vice president of the local association
chapter, the Region 4 Director for Jacksonville,
a member of the Association board and
recently-elected president of the Association. ..





Page 30 THE FLORIDA GUARDSMAN Summer 1987



Dickison and Lang:


Rebel colonels to adjutant generals

From Chapter Ten of "Florida's Army: Mi-
litia, State Troops, National Guard
1565-1985 By Robert Hawk. Pineapple
Press, Inc. Englewood, Fl.

T he American Civil War was different from
the civil wars of other nations. When it \
ended, the losers just went home. There were
no executions- except for the hanging of one S i
prison camp commandant-no lingering guer-
rilla war, no bloody reprisals. -._. '
Two of Florida's most famous and hardest
fighting soldiers, David Lang and John J. Dick-
ison, also went home. Each had achieved the
rank of colonel, Lang after Fredricksburg and, '
Dickison, officially, several weeks after the sur- '
render. Destined to become general officers a
few years after the end of the war, each, in turn, .
would become Adjutant General of Florida and
would don the blue uniform of Major General
of State Troops.
David Lang was a Georgian, born, bred, and
educated. He moved to Florida as a young man
to pursue a career in engineering and survey-
ing. When the war began he volunteered, serv- Adjutant General J. J. Dickison Adjutant General David Lang
ing as a private and then as a sergeant in the
Ist Florida Infantry. In 1862, upon reorgani- nors. He lived to see all Americans, North and trolled was know as "Dixieland."
zation of the regiment, he returned to Florida South, wearing the same uniform and fighting With reason to fear and respect his skill, Un-
to raise a new company in the 8th Florida In- a common enemy, the soldiers of the German ion commands, large and small, came to grief
fantry. The 8th Florida joined the 2nd and 5th Empire. He died an old and still proud man in at the hands of Dickison and his men. At
Florida to form a Florida Brigade in the Army December of 1917. Gainesville in 1864 and near Cedar Key in
of Northern Virginia. John Jackson Dickison was a different kind 1865, large Union forces were soundly trounced
Between the summer of 1862 and the sur- of man with a different background who fought by vastly smaller Confederate forces led by
render at Appomattox in the spring of 1865, a different kind of war than did David Lang. Dickison. Even Union gunboats were not im-
there were no major battles involving the Army Dickison came to Florida from Virginia via mune. He ambushed the Columbine and killed
of Northern Virginia that did not include the South Carolina. He became a planter near Or- or captured all the men aboard.
Florida Brigade and David Lang. Second ange Lake, in northern Marion County. He was But the war was lost; Dickison and his men
Manassas. Antietam, Fredricksburg, Chancel- modestly wealthy by the standards of the time, surrendered and were paroled near Waldo in
lorsville, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spotslyvania, but would lose it all in the war to come. May of 1865. This wasn't, however, the end
Cold Harbor, and the battles for Petersburg: Dickison's first war service was with the of his Confederate career. Later that same
Lang was always there. Marion Light Artillery in northeast Florida dur- month Dickison and several of his men helped
Lang was badly wounded twice, at Antietam ing the early months of the conflict. But he former U.S. Senator, Vice President, and Con-
and in the Wilderness. Then, due to the in- wanted to lead cavalry, and in July of 1862, federate Secretary of War, John C. Breckin-
capacitation of General Perry, the brigade com- he was eventually given authority to raise a ridge escape to Cuba.
mander, Lang commanded the entire brigade company. Mustered in as Company H, 2nd Marginally involved in politics after the war,
at Gettysburg and Spotslyvania. He commanded Florida Cavalry, its members were from almost Dickison became Adjutant General during the
again during the retreat to Appomattox when every county in the central and northern part first post-Reconstruction government of Flori-
the new brigade commander, Joseph Finegan, of the state. They were destined, however, da. With little support from the state and almost
was transferred to other duties. never to fight in any of the great or famous bat- none from the central government, he managed
He gained considerable renown for his regi- ties of the war. Their entire war was fought to establish a functioning state military organi-
ment's defense of the river crossings at within the boundaries of Florida. But fight they zation, which his successor, David Lang, with
Fredericksburg and gained immortality, at the did; in many small battles and skirmishes, near- more support, would be able to turn into a mod-
age of 25, leading his brigade into the Union ly always against great odds, always victorious, ern military force.
lines during Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg. Throughout most of 1864, and until the sur- Toward the end of the century Dickison wrote
With the election of his old brigade com- render in 1865, Dickison and his men controlled a military history of the war in Florida. It is'
mander, E.A. Perry, as governor of Florida, the central part of the state. Every attempt to still considered a valuable historical resource
Lang became Adjutant General. With modest invade his territory or to try and capture him because many of the documents he used are no
help from the state, Lang was able to establish met with defeat and great losses in Union men longer available. He probably helped write, or
regular summer training camps for state troops, and equipment. Dickison's command rarely even ghost-wrote, the popular account of his
to obtain better arms and :equipment and to numbered more than three hundred men, and wartime exploits, Dickison and His Men, os-
designate the volunteer militia units as the offi- then only when reinforced by local militia or tensibly authored by his wife, Mary Elizabeth
cial State Troops of Florida. Following his detached elements of other companies. Union Dickison. He lived to see the beginning of a
eight-year tenure as Adjutant General, he be- commanders in Florida coastal cities came to new century and died in 1903 at his home in
came private-secretary to the next two gover- call Dickison "Dixie;" the territory he con- Ocala.


...- -









Draft of article for "Florida Guardsman" magazine


FLORIDA-CONNECTED MEDALS OF HONOR:
CIVIL WAR

Established by the federal government in 1862, the Medal of Honor could not be
awarded to Florida soldiers as they were mostly serving in the Confederate States Army.
But there were at least six Medals of Honor issued to Union soldiers for actions against
Florida Regiments. All involved the capture of regimental flags. While this may seem an
insufficient reason for granting the medal, remember that during that war, unit battle and
regimental flags were considered the "soul" of each unit, to be defended literally to the
death. As a percentage, flag bearers suffered far heavier fatal casualties than any other
category of soldier in either army, North or South.


MEDALS OF HONOR FOR CAPTURE OF FLORIDA FLAGS

ALBERT A. CLAPP; 1st Sgt Co. G, 2nd Ohio Cav; at Sailor's Creek, Virginia, 6 April
1865 (Capture of flag of the 8th Florida Infantry)

THOMAS HORAN; Sgt Co. E, 72nd New York Inf; at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 2 July
1863 (Capture of flag of the 8th Florida Infantry)

AARON S. LANFARE; 1st Lt Co. B, 1st Connecticut Cav, at Sailor's Creek, Virginia, 6
April 1865 (Capture of flag of 11th Florida Infantry)

CHARLES H. MCCLEARY; 1st Lt Co. C, 72nd Ohio Vol Inf, at Nashville, Tennessee
16 December 1864 (Capture of flag of 4th Florida Infantry)

OTIS W. SMITH; Pte Co. G, 95th Ohio Inf, at Nashville, Tennessee, 16 December 1864
(Capture of flag of 6th Florida Infantry)

DANIEL A. WOODS; Pte Co. K, 1st Virginia Cavalry (Union), at Sailor's Creek, Virginia,
6 April 1865 (Capture of 18th Florida Infantry Flag. As there was no 18th Florida, it is
presumed to have been either the 1st bn of the 8th or the recently arrived miscellaneous
battalions from Florida)

That these flags were not given up easily is suggested by the following eyewitness
account of the loss of just one of them: (The action was at Sailor's Creek, Virginia during
the retreat of Lee's army to Appomatox; the remnants of several Confederate brigades
were cut-off and isolated by Union cavalry under George Custer. The eyewitness account
is by Captain Henry Love of the 8th Florida)










"The Eighth Florida, hard pressed by the enemy, was compelled to fall slowly back.
Captain Waller, heedless of the danger, reckless of everything save that the beloved old
battleflag must be saved, rushed out before the troops and tearing the colors from the
broken and shattered staff, attempted to save them by pushing them beneath his coat and
then to regain his lines. He fell riddled with bullets, his life blood staining the emblem that
he had tried so hard to preserve."

There can be honor to both sides of that highest of all American awards!

(It is believed most, perhaps all six of these flags are now at the Florida State Museum
in Tallahassee, several on permanent display)


Submitted:
Bob Hawk
FNG Historian












FLORIDA GUARDSMEN IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Approximately two thousand Florida Guardsmen were mobilized into federal service
during the First World War. Most were assigned to the newly established 31st "Dixie"
Division in Georgia. And, as the lineage certificates indicate, the units of the 31st were not
committed to combat during the war thus the Florida Guard received no battle honors for
that war.

But records show that more than one hundred and fifty Florida Guardsmen were killed
or wounded in action in addition to the nearly one hundred who died accidentally or from
disease during the war. How can an organization suffer five per cent combat and another
five percent non-battle casualties and not receive the honors due them? Army needs and
Army policies are the answer.

By the spring of 1917, most of Florida's Guardsmen were well trained and experienced
soldiers, having served on the Mexican Border or participated in a vastly intensified training
program within the state the previous year. During 1917 and early 1918, the need for the
Army to expand considerably placed a real premium on experienced men for all the new
units, especially those scheduled for early departure to France. Experienced Florida men
were simply drafted into other units and with them, fought their war.

There were no major battles in that war that did not have one or more Florida
Guardsmen present. Our records show they were killed in action while serving with the
1st, 2nd, 26th, 32nd, and 42nd Divisions. Several others were killed while attached to field
artillery, engineer and signal units un-attached to specific divisions.

If we include those wounded in action, then more divisions must be added to the list
including the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 28th, 29th, 82nd and 90th Divisions and at least one while
attached to a unit of the British Army. Finally, eighty-three Floirda Guardsmen died
accidentally or of disease during the war and if they are included in the master casualty
rolls, then virtually every remaining American division must be added to the list of those
containing at least one Florida Guardsman.

In the First as in the Second World War, the importance and diversity of service
performed by Florida Guardsmen was far greater than the official unit honors would
indicate. Perhaps someday the federal authorities will find some way to give the Guard
the honors earned by its individual soldiers as they now do for entire units.












LOST, FOUND AND LOST AGAIN

In an April 1941 issue of the Dixie Division newspaper from Camp landing, Florida,
there appeared a short article under the heading; "War Department helps dad find son in
124th Infantry".

Corporal Cecil Lawhorn of Company A, 124th Infantry, had been separated from his
father since he was a very small baby. Following the general American mobilization which
began in September 1940, his father, living in Indiana, had been trying to locate Cecil
through the War Department. He had assumed his son, being of the appropriate age,
might have been drafted or had joined the military. Some months later, the War Depart-
ment informed him there was a soldier with his son's name presently serving with the 124th
at Camp Blanding in Florida.

During the first week in April, Corporal Lawhorn "received an air mail letter from his
father, stating that he would soon see his son".

Unfortunately, the issue of the paper which presumably chronicled the historic reunion
has not survived. I can only hope the meeting took place and was a success. Shortly
afterward, Cecil volunteered for airborne duty. Eventually he ended up in the 502nd
Parachute Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. With them, he participated in the landings in
Normandy, D-Day, the 6th of June 1944. He also participated in the assault in Holland,
"Operation Market Garden" in September 1944. It was during that operation he was killed
in action at Best, Holland when his regiment was involved in defending the divisional landing
zone from a strong German counter-attack.













,' ar-irig ',our c.ou. ,_, r. I r First (







Bronze statue
at Blanding
commemorates
WW II soldiers



Museum, memorial
gardens in progress
"See story pages 8/9










,n .e ton
S9. ay..,
,.t ,,. .. -. r. ., ,
., .; -F-... -,." .- ::.. _l~',-., ,' . ,..L ,., .?*..-. .
/.







Page 8, The Compass, Thursday, February 15, 1990


Blanding honors WW II soldiers

Museum, memorial underway




By KAREN HARVEY The new museum and memori-
Compass Editor al grounds are the result of a
It is common to mark the be- dream conceived some time ago.
ginning of our country's official Because Camp Blanding Military
involvement in World War II as Reservation, near Starke, was a
the attack on Pearl Harbor (De- major U.S. Army training center
cember 7, 1941). Not so, accord- during WW II, it was deemed ap- .~.'
ing to Robert Hawk, Director of propriate that it house a memorial
the Historical Division of the Flor- to the soldiers of that war. .
ida Department of Military Affairs. About two years ago Hawk,
September, 1940, was the magic wh-, recently organized the Muse-
month. u:n of Florida's Army in Tovar
It was then that Congress ap- House (Compass July 15, 1989),
proved selective service (the was asked for guidance in estab- te orem
draft) and mobilized National lishing the museum and memori- An artists rendering shows the Florida Regiments Memorial
which Includes the bronze statue of a World War II soldier and V',.
displays honoring mobilized units and guardsmen who died or ,
were killed during the war. 96I
SHe has been overseeing construc- displays depicting various aspects
tion since the first cement was of the war, including the home
Soured, and and continues to su- front, industry at war, Medal of
i pervise as the pieces come to- Honor recipients, casualties and
gether. Although he has never military medicine.
worked as a curator before, he ad- The second floor .of the build-
mitted to finding the position very ing will contain a research library _Tv
"exciting." and archives collection to include
Camp Blanding was originally documents, unit histories and
established as a military training manuscripts. A conference room
reservation for units of the Flori- and lecture hall will also be avail- ,r
da National Guard. Following mo- able. .
S bilization of the National Guard The park area will include a .. .
"beginning in September of 1940, weapons display and a public pic-
"and especially following the Japa- nic area. World War II barracks wi:
nese attack on Pearl. Harbor,
S Camp Blanding became a major
Camp Blnding was a crowded, busy training center during multi-purpose training base for
Coa BlWna ing w many units and individuals repre-
World War II. sending all branches of the Army.
"Guard units. Also, Hawk related, it al. His proposal was quickly ac- Nine infantry divisions trained
was on the 25th of November, cepted and work got underway. there: the lst,.29th, 30th, 31st,
officially called to national ser- the physical labor being done ed also were a cavalry regiment,
vice. And it is that date that will through the prison system VO- tank destroyer, field artillery, en-
receive official recognition now, TEC program. Using prisoners to gineer and medical battalions.
fifty years later, pour cement and build cases has For most of 1944 and 1945
On November 25, 1990, the "saved over $20,000 on the monu- many of the individuals sent to
new Camp Blanding Museum and ment," Hawk said. replenish the ranks of the combat
Memorial Park of the Second One of the early dreamers of. infantry units were trained' at
World War will be opened and- the project was Sgt. Maj. Rodny Blanding's Infantry Replacement r loal a
dedicated in special ceremonies. P. Hall, whose efforts toward Training Center established in n ,, "
The event is doubly significant as opening a WW II museum caught late 1943. The camp also was the ..
it will be one of the first in the na- the attention of Blanding officials, site of a German prisoner of war .
tion to recognize the fiftieth anni- As plans finalized, Hall was. ap- compound, a large hospital, re-
versary of WW II. pointed curator of the museum. ception station and, later, a sepa-
iation center. .
-- Art courtesy of ROBERT HAWK At the end of the war the camp
"a ...reverted to state control and is
still operated as a training site for
the National Guard and other re-
serve components of the nation's
armed forces. ..
The new museum and memori- ,
al gardens are located on a thir-
Steen-acre site adjacent to the en-
trance to the camp. A WW II bar-
racks will house the main dis .
plays..The first floor will contain
displays illustrating the war-time 1 M =
-& .. history of the camp and the two
-I"- major theaters of war in which
"units trained at Camp Blanding
.. : fought. Some displays will focus
"orM the campaigns of the nine in- A bronze statue created by local artist Enzo Torcoletti stz
fantry divisions which trained at before a wall containing plaques honoring units mobilized
A hospital was one of many facilities at the camp. Blandin&, in addition to general Ing the war.













The Compass, Thursday, February 15, 1990, Page 9:


e i aths lenniad fstos r' 0t l.'. the memorial gardens.

V? Ee', ..trI" di I .


l dd Memorial Gardens will occupy























- J P GEOKGE MIRABAL Public way wl lead people to many indi- by St Augustine artist Enzo member. Information can be ob-
m and a research center. Affairs NCO. Camp Bland mg vidual memorial sites to include Torcoletti, will be the focal point tained by writing to Camp Blan-
nir 'divisions, the Infantry Replace- the statue contains engraved indi- ciates Inc. Route 1, Box 465,
ment Training Center, and Medal visual displays devoted to each Camp Blanding, Starke Florida
Sof ono n le Het eii oilie nit of te ini .
Pe i-'lidas aW' I s- t W1 % a


tentsItisthehopeoftheorganiz ating its campaign as anyone with information about











ers that addtonal s individu-. honors. Two large marble pedes- or items from WW II that could be
nHd veterans grous will Paths lead visitors through the memorial gardens.
c e to erct tr ra Photos by: ROBERT HAWK Special


( f o r I xi5 ,a $ i pa 1 a c, 4
"to-,'.4. MOPL.0 t, um onfi

Pt.I









-- Memorial Gardens will occupy Plaques have recently been mounted on the memorial walls.
Photos by: Sgt. st Class several acres of the park. A walk-al now
GEORGE C. MIRABAL, Public way will lead people to many indi- by St. Augustine artist Enzo member, Information can be ob-
Affairs NCO, Camp Blanding vidual memorial sites to include Torcoletti, will be the local point tained by writing to Camp Blan-
m and a research center. those honoring the nine Blanding of the memorial. A wall behind ding Museum and Historical Asso-
T/.Adivisions, the Infantry Replace- the statue contains engraved indi- cites, Inc. Route 1, Box 465,
ment Training Center, and Medal vidual displays devoted to each Camp Blanding, Starke, Florida
of Honor and Purple Heart recipi- mobilized units of the Guard, indi- 32091-9703.
ents. It is the hope of the organiz- eating its campaign and battle Anyone with information about
era that additional units, individu- .honors. Two large marble pedes- or items from WW II that could be
ala and veteran's groups will tals list the names of each identi- included in displays can contact
choose to erect other memorials lied Florida Guardsman who (lied Robert Hawk at the National
in the garden. or was killed in action during the Guard Headquarters or Sgt. Maj.
On a 3/4 acre of ground stands war. Hall at Camp Blanding.
.m.o a Florida Regiments memorial Organizers of the project wish .-
Scommemorating the WW II ser- it to be known that is possible to4
vice of the men and units mobi- support the effort of creating and
lized in 1940. A life-size bronze preserving the museum and me-
k statue of a WW II soldier, created morial gardens by becoming a


Sl ,-. ,.g Heavy weap.
vehicles will
-'~ -, be displayed
throughout the



S- ,j ISgt, Maj.. Rodney P. Hall, now
-the museum curator.



f r .. .... .:_ .



The gutted Interior of the barracks will be restored to hold dis-s
plays.r















Charting your course along The First Coast ._
Chris Isaak 5


























Miss Florida and friends
I




















USO tour at Bandshell 6/7
""RM R san
II. 8 I~i. 'u

'*9
,I en SladLI1
0@O-~ A 0






Page 8, The Compass, Thursday, July 13, 1989


New museum provides triple treat

5- f, Florida's army at home in Tovar House

St. Augustine in 1565. Florida National Guard Historical This done, nothing in the
By KAREN HARVEY Hawk is a historian and mili- Society, approached Edwards structure was touched except for
Compass Editor tary history authority who, in ef- about using tile building for a mu- the few holes drilled in the floors. -
Visitors to tliht newly opened feet, took his book and made it seum, a plan which delighted ev- Edwards commented that the on-
Mus-turn oI Florida's Artny in tlie come alive in the form of three di- eryone hut necessitated extensive tire inuseuni could lie removed .
histori- Tovar Hoiiuse are in store merisional mustieun displays. He renovation. Fortunately. funding and "only tlie holes in tlie floor
for it double. pirhiatps triple, treat. .did this bly carefully maneuvering was forthcoming through state would be left."
The iulseiun's exhibits are not through various organizat ions and legislated monies provided lat t le Additional lighting outside tihe
only attractive, interesting, and people to achieve tie ull' inate request of the Naltional Guard. cases uses' tle saIln system.
inform:at ive. but the iblilding itself goal. The $75.000 allocated to the pro- Track lights on the cabinets (and
is a treasure. standing as o ofne The building in which tlle mIn- ject made it possible to begin res- a few hanging from beams) ade-
the 1I oldest hlioses in St. Atigus setin is housed is localed on the toration by, mid lDeceimb r II1988. (qutilly light tIe museumll. Ed-
tine alnd fresh from recent reslo- wards noted thia one of l lit beal-
ration, ties of the system is that "You can
The treat triples when one re- Hawk, who is president of the turn it all on with one light
alizes that there anre no electrical Florida National Guard His- switch."
wall sockets or visible wiring to torical Society, approached John said that, with the help of *
detract from tie 18th century Edwards about using the John Ritson, it took him about 6 The Museum of Florida's Army is
charm of the house. Neither is building for a museum, a plan to 8 weeks to build the 14 cases, ture on St Francis and Charlotte
there air conditioning to decrease which delighted everyone but As the house was being re-
the authenticity, and the only wa- necessitated extensive reno-
ter source is from sprinklers re- ovation.
quired for Iire safety.
The museum opened to the
public on Juhly l4th. just seven grounds of the Gonzales-Alvarez Restoring the 18th century
months after restoration Iegan. It (Oldest House) Historical Park building was in itself challenging,
is the result of a collaloraitive ef- and is owned by the Historical So- but the addition of museum re-'
fort between ti lle Florida National city. It faces St. Francis Street quirements further complicated I
Guard Historical Foundation, the which is the northerly border of the project. Neither air condition-
St. Aitguistine Historical Society, the National Guard Headquarters, ing nor de-humidification could K | 5>
and ttie Department of Military an ideal location for a museum be circulated throughout the .
Affairs. about Florida's militia. house as it would dry out the
;. Thp concept of the museum Over time the building, which walls eventually damaging them. "*
--".-- However, the museum exhibits of
uniforms and artifacts required a
climate controlled atmosphere.
Dehumidified air was an abso- 'L;
lute requisite in order to elimln--
nate rust and mildew, but tern-"
perature control was not as es-
sential to this exhibit since it did Photo courtesy St. Augustine Historical Society
not contain lHooks 'or mtanuscriplts The Hardin fireplace bears the Initials of the Civil War general
more apt to suffer from teilmpera- Martin D. Hardin who occupied the house for a time. The Mal-
S ture change. tese cross in the center represents his regiment, the 5th Corps
I Museum curator, Ken John, Army of the Potomac.
I was enlisted to help solve the -
piroblems oif exliilit preservation tor an John wias biuildingt hce pisei.
as workmen and icarpliletturs gil t(ases, Hawk was Ibusily rltinling Over linui hlawk acllqtired tit
ted the house and rebuilt it to its around gathering uniforlis and utand p)ic(.s witl sollli' Ibliilgs Ii'o
S18th century look. artilfacts. Tile museum was to be vided as gifts or loans and othirrs
Working within tihe iparameters organtizedl oil a time-line thrte piurchltased. TIto large Galling GIin
'Iu'a aB described to him, .hilut louokedl for carried through with mannequins came from National Guard I had
solutions that would provide dlec- in period uniforms standing with quarters; the William Wing Lo ring
S,.. tricitv and dry air to the exhibits. items typifying personal posses- exhibit was sent by thel Florida
He did not want to build in cabi- si'os. The displays represent iml- State Museum in Gainesville:
nets or shelves or il any way dis- portant periods in Florida history modern clothing and equilpilni
turb the existing stlrunlure. The with dates ranging from 156i5 to was provided by tile National
"s cases, he determined, should be
Photo courtesy St Augustine Historical Society free-standing. The electricity --
could originate in the attic and be
The Tovar house, right rear, Is shown here during the Civil War dropped through conduits to
period as viewed from Charlotte Street looking north across cases below. The-cases could be
St Francis. "stacked" so second floor cases
would be directly above first floor
cattle from Robert Hawk who was purchased by the Historical displays permitting wires to drop
functions as director of the His- Society in 1918, housed an an- straight down from attic to first
torical Division of the Florida De- tique and souvenir shop, the labo- floor hidden within the cases.
apartment of Military Affairs and is ratory for the St. Augustine Ar- The problem of dry air was
the author of "Florida's Army," a cheology Association, a changing solved when John was leafing
comprehensive account of the room for tour guides (second through a museum publication
history of the Florida National floor), and an extension to the and discovered an ad for a cus-
Guard. Hawk is careful to explain Webb Museuml just east of it. It tor made dehumidifier. A little
that "Floria's Arny" should not be was closed in 198I. aid was, ac- research presented Ille perfect
misconstrued to mean branches cording to Society director, Page answer and an appropriately sized
of the U.S. military in Florida, but. Edwards, an "absolute horror" machine was ordered. JoIh real-
is exclusively the story of the when restoration began in 1988. ized that if the dehumidifier was
Florida National Guard, America's Windows were boarded up and placed in the attic, air hoses could
oldest militia whose lineage can plaster was falling, be run though the same openings Photo courtesy ot the St. Augustine Historical Society
be traced from its beginnings in Hawk, who is president of .the as the electrical wires. The Tovar house as It looked In the early 1920s.







The Compass, Thursday, July 13, 1989, Page 9









r-



I "





Photos: KAREN HARVEY Display cases in the second room Include the 1740s Spanish
The entrance to the museum Includes a photograph of Maj. militiaman, the 1778 British East Florida Ranger, and the 1796
Gen. Robert F. Ensslln Jr., The Adjutant General of the State of sergeant in the urban militia.
Florida.
n the restored 18th century struc- No nails pen-
etrate the
walls and even
Guard: Ray Morris of the Castillo 1830s and later fought in the U.S. information and acquires memo- the burglar
de San Marco made available an Army during the War with Mexico rabilia and artifacts, alarm, which is
arquebus for the 1565 period and in the 1840s, and in the Civil War St. Augustine's Museum of operated by
a 1740 uniform; and a former before joining a military staff in Florida's Army affords visitors a radio trans-
guardsman gave the W.W. II uni- Khedive in Egypt. chance to learn about the distin- missions,
form. Memorabilia associated with guished history of the Militia and contains no
Many local reenactors such as other famous guardsmen also is Guard; it presents an opportunity wires and is
Robert Hall, Brian Bowman, and available as are collateral displays to wander through a restored unobtrusive.
Phillip Reed, who lent his grand- associated with the Air National 18th century house; and it repre- ..
father's W.W.I uniform, aided the Guard, St. Francis Barracks, and sents a unique method of exhibit- r'
museum. Hawk himself made nu- state active duty periods. ing which is used in but a handful
merous contributions of weapons Hawk plans to continue adding of museums in the United States.
and uniform pieces to include the to the museum as he gathers new It is a triple treat in every sense.
lace on the 1778 British sergeant
and a W.W.I jacket.
The mannequins were ob-
tained Iby Hawk from "all over the
state." lHe picked tup arms here,
legs there, and a few intact bodies 'c
every n\ow and tlhot until he had
what hie niled(d. Since they were
both iale and Iheiale lorms, and .
caine i all colIors and states of
disrepair. Iwe had to modify the
hands aln fitads, ite only parts
showing ouatsid the' uniformIs.
The liandIs were cleaned aiid r'e-
wtokd Iv PoIter's Wax Musllm n
and a dark 'tociking knas placed .
over i u hI-ads- listing further
anony3llIOt. t thte litodels.
Th fir,t display, 165, repro- '
sets tiO'w original inilitary man;
however, specific uniforms did
not distinguish thi' regulars from Museum cases now line the ballroom, once the scene of par-
the militia. The 17lI0 display ret)- ties hosted by Gen. Hardin.
resents tel titne the Spanish de-
feated tlo massive invasions and .
features a uniforin appropriate to "
both regular garrisoll aindl militia"
soldiers of thel tiune. The British
period is reptiresented by a British The small dehumidifier sends dry air through conduits into the
East Florida Ranger in 1778, and display cases.
the Secilond Spatinish Period by a
Sergeant in litie urllan militia in Tovar House interesting historically
1796. The 183:! display honors
the soliirs of the Second Semi- The Tovar House, 14 St. Francis Street, stands on the northeast
nole War and the 18612 case con- *. corner of St. Francis and Charlotte Streets and is part of the St.
tains a representative of a militia- Augustine Historical Society complex.
man serving his country in the The building was originally a one-story voqluina dwelling built ill
War for Southern Independence. the mid-18th century and inhabited by infantryman Jose Tovar
World Wars I and II are repre- when Florida changed from Spanish to British rule in 1763.
sented as are the modern Florida During the British period John Johnson, a Scottish merchant,
lived in the house and it was during this time a second story was
Guard with women of the Guard added. The structure was purchased by Geronimo Alvarez at the
depicted. beginning of the Second Spanish Period (178:3-1821) and re
An important exhibit in the Photo courtesy of'the St Augustine Histoncal Society gained in the Alvarez family until 1871
last room shows a waxed head of The room that now houses the William Wing Loring exhibit Several military officers resided in the home including Civil War
General William Wing Loring who needed extensive work. The door is now a window and the 4 X General Martin D. Hardin.
served in the Florida militia in the 4 posts have been removed.







S- June










r
0-














SBy JIM LANE, staff

Military museum opens

Mb The Museum of Florida's Army was officially opened Friday by
rI State Sen. Bill Bankhead, R-Ponte Vedra Beach. Bankhead, cen-
a ter, substituting for Gov. Bob Martinez, joined with Brig. Gen.
S Richard Capps, assistant adjutant general, left, and Bob Hawk, I
President of the Florida National Guard Historical Foundation, in
by cutting the ribbon. The St. Augustine Historical Society will op-
| rate the museum which is located in Tovar House adjacent to
*" the Oldest House. Earlier, Hawk received from Bankhead, on be-
half of Martinez, the Guard's distinguished service award for his
Jhe efforts in the museum's development. Hawk, civilian administra- i
i-














ve tive assistant toJ MaA Gen. RobertNEEnsslin, adjutant general of
SFloridabegan work o the museum at Ensslir's request.
".the Oldest House. Earlier, Hawk received from Bankhead, on be- ]1

Fsl:Rorlda.,began work on the. musetfm at Ensslin s request..2.







SThe St. Augustine Record. Saturday. May 20. 19P. Page LB



__Local/state B


Military museum in Tovar House near completion
Ssie historic bildiig across St. ry structure. was the home of Joseph Private- donations totaling about
ByJACIEFEAGIN :. Francis Street and attending a Tovar. a private In the Regular ar- $10.000 and gifts or loans of exhibit
tWter dedicatory ceremony and recep rison here. Hawk said. An upper n.- materials also have gone iato the.
"ai the garden ofthe Oldet House. el was added during the Second making of them i m.
Workmm e e pttin t a Bth the 0 ldesLt usewhic a. -Spaish Period. --- Memrabii from Gen. Willam
-s IStourhieM-o a* e on-rB --ti6 y'i operated a attraction. Renovations done by local con- Wing arng s long military career
stai Tovar Hoas e a aisnto a amd Tovar House are owned by the tractor included patching deterio- will be a major display at the muse-
teling he story o Florida'smiltia. ,S Augustine Histocal Society. rated places i walls. rebuilding un. Loring fought with the Florida
SGov. Bob Martine will be in St. The retreat ceremony is open to some windows and replacing the Militia during the Second Seminole
Augustine June t for n the fro al je public. Both the reception ad r War and rose in rank to major gener.
opening otemuum at the corner .he mseu opening are invitation "They built a whole new porch on a in the Confederacy. .
ofSL Francis and Charlotte street. al. said Hawk. theback" from a design by David Muster rollsof St. Augustin mill-
Named the Museum of Floria'bs When m m ope Scott of the Historic St Augustine ia units from 1571 to 1940 are a part i
kArmy. It will pre t through o adissin. will be r at oar ta d of the displays. as are 17 pages filled
ammnnequm a uniform' p members o the oloida Naol soniill architect Herschel Shepard. with names of Florida National
d other exhibits the histsy Guard i tia ct hetounda rg ty in restor- GuCardmen who died in World War
tahe Amssisting omaLen g oing_ Ga paHwtori e od o hus e. h ae in isdtir r ha ad en wh.o e di'edcnorl o e
the stores ghtinl no g n es Guard. Shea d II. Other displays tell the story of
totehl 15 arrival of ie se Ssuhie m em st.The19 is in charge of the m eum projects
ib to Government Camp Blanding. an Army base dur- .
under, Pedi mend de*eAoiles. hadelOteistheea s( -- a rno tsd in n et intg World War and a Guard train. .
S rs going tobe a major addition ur se aund thket. mHouse. which houses the preserve, igsite today.
W. St. Auguai w museum." L. ;esegitasiagletickel. bm f f t we rtas ahdces ath
"Bob Hawk. -The museum project It the stnin what they were Artifacts unearthed at the Anrse-
project rait.to rea uty. awke sHa i d after I t Em able to do" with Tovr House. Hawk nal during an excavation last year
Hawk i prmident e F lormdI :s a ed e to develop a museum ommente also will be displayed. along with
H a t meting opento the public about
TlEon Guard Historical Foud dh.o Natioal Gur fod" Display cass, ladividually ch- flags. photographs and "a fairly sub.
d, wh ich will operate the military te Fora Natioal Guard. mate-cntrolled, are ready for instal- stantial assortment of narratives of
S ueum. He also is civilian admin -. Working with the historical sode ltion when carpenters and painters conflicts." according to Hawk.
strative assistanttoM Gen.Rob- ty, a plan wasdeveloped for use. u. have finished their work. awksaid Ken John former director o the
Art Ensslin. Florida's adjutant ge- der a lease agreement of the Tovar The Florida National Guard Olficers S. Augustine Lighthouse Museum. is
ag nd comanding officer of tse House as the museum site The 18 Association provided $0.000 for the curator of the Guard museum. By Gil LorNr Ston
lborida National Guard. Florida Legslature allocated $75,000 14 custom-built cases, in which the Hawk said he was especially ap- W on on l r, wrk o n
Martin will tou the new muse- for renovations of the early-18th.ea- uniformed mannequins armed preciative of the Guard's Quarter Kevn Wilso, on ladder, works on Tovr Hous renovations.
After watching the weekly -r- -u houe at the corner of St Fran- with weapons of the era they rpre- master Division. which "really received from a number of individu- tour of the museum on May 2 as a
atceremony on the parade ground cisdCarlotte streets. sent and other materials will be pitched in" to help with the museum als. special "thank-you' to those who as-
the state Arsenal housed in an The house. originally a singlesto. displayed. project. He also praised the help he's He plans an invitation candlelight sisted.

Hastings sets hearing on water-sewer rate increase

By PErE OSBORNE lems of water an anotller forsew- mediey upon its adoption caton to the Farmers HoMe Admin- with a Farmers Home Administra- but the federal agency "usually
age service for 0 gallons of water The are e350 to 375 utility cus- isration. asking the federal agency tion loan of $660.000 at a 5 percentin doesn't grant more than 50 percent.-
Saler Reporter supplied to the dwelling or business. tmers served by the town of Ha- for a grant to cover some of the cost terestrate. he told the town's finance committee
The present charge for more than stingMrs. Smylysaid and a loan to cover the rest. That would mean an annual pay- recently.
HASTINGS At a special msheet- the minimum use is an additional $ Now. residents pay a month for Last ear the town raised mini back o39.128 over 38 years. Mark Stantoned to mak wn auditor. s ex
ng Monday night the Town Council per .000 gallons both for water and the collection of garbage and debris. mm wait year the town raised in toPmothero e ures. a d pected to make a report Monday
wi old a public hearing on raising sewage. but that cost will rise to $075 if the mum water and sewer service rates g to Protheroes figuresnight detaing what he has learned
water and sewage rates to a mini- Only a handful of residents do not ordinance pages both readings. from $ a month to IS a month and Figuring the present amount of about the possibility of the town ex-
mum of stsf. a month. have both water and sewage service, Commercial rates for all of these fees for garbage collection were in- loss n the operation of the utilities, tending its utility tax to also provide
The meeting will begin at 7 p.m. said Carolyn Smyly. town clerk. services will be the same as residen- creased from S4 to S a month due to and debt service on the anticipated more revenue.
in Town Hall. The cost of mandatory garbage trial rates, the ordinance states. the newly imposed landfill charges. loan. Protheroe says the town needs And. Protheroe is expected to
The proposed 27.50 charge' will service also will be increased under The increase in rates is needed to In figuring proposed rate in- to raise an additional $57.232 annual- present to the Town Council a pro-
cover the use of 3.000 gallons of wa- terms of the ordinance to be consid- raise money to repay a Farmers creases. consulting engineer M. Vin- ly. posed contract for his services relat-
ter a month. Use of more than 3.000 ered Monday night. Home Administration loan which is cent Protheroe has planned on the Protheroe said he will apply for a ing to the improvements to the water
gallons will be charged at a rate of If the proposed ordinance is being sought to help rebuild the town's getting a grant of $440.000. grant to cover 75 percent of the cost. and sewer systems.
1.75 per I. gallons for water and passed at Monday night's meeting it town's utilities systems. talk s rth
another $1.71 per 1.000 gallons for can be given a second and final read- The town pans to spend s1.1 mil- Es
se"Yae. ing at the Town Council's regular lion to improve its water and sewer x f eed o m s w o rt
Currently. Hastings residents pay meeting inJune. systems.
a minimum of $ for use of 3.000 gal. The rate increase will be effective It will soon submit a formal appli- He told h s a dience he believe : ... ...."





sep. Kelly Smith. St. Johns County tpachino QstvndntQ rdioi on-.nnin. m le;illc chning .i l ----l-----


the


3rd to "
pay
County School
workshop ses- The
2, in the Super-
'nce room, Or-
Board Center,
rd will discuss
Irug screening
)r managerial,
)nfidential em- F`
".a. I h s g ing
tings to
similar

Florida secre- :
e Hastings, will it oric Psvi ing a
alimore Center
ito meet voters. The
former federal
nt, Jim Minter,
;paper editorial .
sion,

session By JOHN STUDWELL, Staff
From left, Brig. Gen. Richard Capps, Maj. Gen. tional Guard Historical Foundation, Inc., in for a
candidate for Robert Ensslin, both of the Florida National front of the Tovar House with their awards for came
y Western Dayt Guard, Page Edwards, of the St. Augustine His- the work on the house.
ing at 6:30 to- torical Society, and Robert Hawk, of the Na- "The
its will be avail-
western music Tovar House gets preservation award
___ ~trator.
endorse By ADRIAN PRATT ably during the English siege of 1740, was a residence "My
L from the mid-18th Century to 1918.
CO unty Staff Writer o By 1987, the old house was being used just for stor- said
sline-St. Johns age. In the spring of that-year the three organizations
ealtors has en- The 'rehabilitation of the Tovar House, orle of the 10 got together taattempt to-treat an old lady of St. Augus-
.". groupwtth ana-t! th er.of lat d; Sth re sr l
n'in the cdntyv oldei( tdocumebt ltbuses In St. Augustine. has won ku- tid"-with' i.t.enib. f ..t.Irithe end; the restoration
ict A at-large dos and with them an award from the Florida Trust project cost almost $100,000, including $75,000 in state
for Historic Preservation. funds. 1
ivas made by a The Florida National Guard Historical Foundation, Hershel Shepard, whom Page Edwards of the Histori- Maguire.
panel that ques- the St. Augustine Historical Society and the Florida Na- cal Society calls one of the foremost architects in Flori-
ates. The board tional Guard Quartermaster Division got together in da, was called in to help and donated his services to pre-
members. 1987 when the Tovar House also known as the Cannon- pare the plans for the resuscitation. Shepard, who teach-
SW te ball House was In a serious state of dilapidation. The es historic preservation at the University of Florida in
White result of their labors is the Museum of Florida's Army at the architecture department, was "rigid" in his desire
oeme t 'the 22 Francis St. address. that as little of the modern as possible should intrude
The Florida Trust recently awarded the project the into the new museum, according to Edwards.
and Bob White 1990 Florida Preservation Award for meritorious In keeping with this intention, the interior of the
d by a new poli- achievement for the adaptive use of an historic residen- house was restored to its late 18th century configuration. By staff
Concerned Citi tial structure. To this end, and for the protection of the original coquina
red July 25 and historic preservation-projects," said Charles Olson, ex The individual display cases were designed in such a
fibers of various ecutive director of the Flolida Trust. The next step up way that a dehumidifying machine, needed for the pres- fice was
from this, he said, is the National Trust awards. ervation of the displays, could be fed into them through
he group ana- the roof.
lidates' back- Florida Trust is a statewide, non-profit organization The project was completed in July of 1989.
and literature. dedicated to the preservation of Florida's heritage. It Edwards said that apart from the honor of receiving
,was the main has more than 2,000 members, according to Olson. the award, it has a practical purpose. sides
Endorsements, The Cannonball House, so named because of a nine- "It's nice to get it and we can use it," he said. "We
"aucek, a mem- pound cannonball lodged in the in the east wall presum- can put it on a resume if we're looking for grants."
For more infor-
group, contact Brinkhoff, Janson square off for

nq hell"












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FloridaGitais medirin inerreedin."::"",
newly appointed Hospital Milita
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OY V .19-20,1_990
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Page 8, The Compass, Thursday, July 19,1990


















Kate Dupes, dressed in period clothing stands in the apothe- The herbal preparation room Includes articles used to create
cary. medicinal mixtures, Including a still.
Photo cour







B^B W ^^^B ^^H^ u~ i a M --IY-B--. HO p t lit r
,e- -v w l. The Spanish Military Hospital on e
and p tg on,; h- all. the late 1960s. It reopens this wee[
Sclne In St. Augustine.


SThe trustees
Antiguo Foundal
ic St. Augusthi:
(H.S.A.P.B.) will
'- the formal open
tary Hospital lo(
s -- -... on Friday, July 2(



Museum of me
HeHospital interim
The five bed ward Includes religious items such as the cross The uniform of the Hibernia Regiment hangs on the wall. The
and painting on the wall. The keg on the table contains wine fireplace will be used for cooking demonstrations.
which is used In food preparation.
By KAREN HARVEY tients and medical staff. Curator Carleton
S' c Compass Editor 1. Calkin did much of the interior carpen-
The "Street of the Royal Hospital" try and constructed a miniature scale
once again can boast of a medical facility model of the hospital.
t along the narrow thoroughfare. The ground floor was opened to the
Although the Hospital Militar is a mu- public in September 1969 and work pro-
seum, not a functioning infirmary, and needed on development of a medical mu-
"Hospital Street" became Aviles Street seum on the second floor. Through the
way back in 1923, the opening of the efforts of the auxiliary of the FMA, the
Spanish hospital museum turns back the museum depicting state medical history
clock to earlier years. was opened in 1973.
"In 1759 parish priest Juan Solana de- In 1977 the museum was forced to
scribed a hospital on the west side of close as a result of state changes in pres-
Aviles Street as being the "newly rebuilt" ervation funding policies. The building
'. i former residence of Francisco Menendez was leased until recently and was used
Marques. The two-story building had a both as an art gallery and a baseball mu-
"capacity of twelve beds, a masonry kitch- seum.
en and living quarters for two convicts In June 1989 Kate Dupes and Robert
who cared for the ill. Hawk approached the Historic St. Augus-
SS When the structure burned in 1818 tine Preservation Board with the idea of
the pharmacy and convalescent home on reopening the hospital as a living muse-
the east side were renovated to become um. Director Earle Newton gave them 30
the primary hospital. That building had days to formulate a plan. A presentation
been remodeled by Scottish-born carpen- was given in July, and by January the de-
ter William Watson as stables and used cision was made to reestablish the hospi-
by him as a temporary domicile until a tal and the project got underway.
permanent dwelling was completed The San Agustin Antiquo Foundation
In the 1960s the Historic St Augustine provided funds with a supplement from a
Preservation Board and the Florida Medi- grant from the Division of Historical Re-
cal Association combined efforts to build sources of the State of Florida written by
a reconstruction representing the old Ms. Dupes. In an effort to "get the com-
Spanish hospital The property on the munity involved" Ms. Dupes explained, a
west side of the street was cost prohibi- board of directors was established to in-
tive and it was determined that the re- elude a wide spectrum of professionals,
construction be built on the site of the la- several of whom were involved in the
ter hospital. The ground floor housed an- original project
Newly arrived instruments are displayed in tique and representative furniture and Dr. William Straight, former FMA his-
the aimlnistratln office. included 14 mannequins representing pa- torian, and Renee Winkler, of the FMA












The Compass, Thursday, July 19, 1990, Page 9


Chamber pots
and other ne-
S. cessities used
I. in the 1700s
l t add authentici-
: ty to the ward
,i i room. The
flowered
S-" o c I d d 1 chamber pot in
the foreground
Is one of sev-
i eral made by
artist Gayle
S. [ Prevatt.


Kate Dupes shares a laugh with Preservation Board deputy di-
F rector Roland Loveless as they consider the placement of rare
medical books. The books, In their original sheepskin binding,
Include a 17th century lexicon of Biblical terminology, a little
toric St Augustine Preservation Board 19th century book with pharmacists recipes, and the "Theatrum
street was originally constructed In Botanlcum" dated 1753 which lists all plants and herbs known
ving history Interpretation of med- to man at that time. The listings are presented In seven different
languages. An exhibit ti-
~~' ,.1 "tled "Visions
" and Voyages
e San Agustin s In Healing"
, and the Histor- (photo left)
wervation Board covers devel-
a open house for opments of
he Spanish Mili- medicine In ,
3 Aviles Street, Florida from
I to 6 p.m. the founding
of St Augus-
S M bth tine and the
formation of
i the first hospi-
',ud betl in the'consh- a,
cine reopens ata In thgconti-
nental U.S. up
station rea y to the present.
These display
"cases house 1
ux- _ry a. .and te o exhibits about
auxiliary and chairman of the Florida specific instructions about setting up the the first forty
Medical History Museum when it closed institution. The regulations were written years, the founding of the first
in 1977, both became re-involved. Ms. in 1776 by Don Joseph Jalbez for use in hospital, and philosophical
Winkler was responsible for tracking royal hospitals in Spanish colonial Ameri- changes in medicine. Other dis-
down and reinstating many of the muse- ca. It detailed "just about everything" giv- plays depict advances in medi-
um items previously exhibited. ing specifications for linen, instruments, cine and apothecary Information
Former curator Carleton Calkin also obligations of all the individuals involved and instruments. In photo right,
returned to the ranks as did Preservation and recipes and diets. Andrea Franck, Government
Board Director Earle Newton. Although Ms. Dupes paid strict atten- House custodian, cuts labels for
members include Lus tion to the regulations, she said Luis exhibits.
Other mtoram brs icle director Page Arana informed her the "Spanish never
Edwards; Ann Poulos from the Museum obeyed orders." They probably paid less
of Natural History; archeologist ath- attention to the guidelines than she did.
en Deaa Robert Hawkh istoran f Regulations also play a part in the oral
leen Deagan; Robert Hawk, historian for interpretation. Ms. Dupes is basing the Live leeches crawl In a jar on the
the Department Sister presentations on the positions listed in apothecary counter. They are,
MarySt. Joseph;rt, archivitect Howard Davthe Sister; San- of the Reglamentos such as the comptroller, appropriately, from England,
St.ford Mullen, the current FMHoward Davis; Storian- steward, cook, chaplain and apothecary supplied by the Carolina Biologi- j
ford Mullen, the current FMA historian; Z
as well as the physician and surgeon. She cal Society. Although they will
and Ms. Dupes. said "no less than ten roles" will be not be used for bloodletting as
Ms. Dupes explained that the year played. The museum will be staffed their ancestors were, they add
1791 had been selected for historic inter- through the Spanish Quarter and each an authentic touch to the hospi-
pretation. It was that year the Spanish role will be rotated. That way visitors can tal.
government purchased the structure and, return several times to hear different in-
since it was shortly after the British Peri- terpretations.
od (1763-84), both British and Spanish Ms. Dupes noted also that she attend-
influences could be used. In fact, she ed a week long training session in colo-
pointed out, the physician at the time, Dr.. nial Williamsburg, Virginia, in preparation
Don Tomas Travers, possibly was here for opening the museum. She has re-
during the British Period and stayed on ceived .considerable guidance and some
after the Spanish returned. Both he and items from the Colonial Williamsburg
ithe surgeon, Don Juan Jose Bousquet, Foundation.
spoke English, Spanish, French and Latin Through the efforts of Ms. Dupes and --
and many of the books in their inventory members of the board of directors, visi-
indicated they used mostly British refer- tors and residents will now have the op-
ences. portunity to walk down the "Street of the
In researching the hospital, Ms. Dupes Royal Hospital" and learn about hospitals
discovered a translation of the Spanish and apothecaries of the colonial period in
Reglamentos (regulations) which gave St. Augusitine.' Photos: KAREN HARVEY'







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Page 2, Supplement to The St Augustine Record, Thursday, December 11, 1986

National Guard marks 350th anniversary Saturday
Dec. 13 is a red letter day for the 3% centuries of service a dual English tradition was most influ- periodic musters for training.
National Guard of the United States. mission in which its member men ential on the area which became the Civil war between Royalists and Engineer Battalion, Massachusetts
It's the Guard's 350th birthday anni- and women must be ready to help de- 13 original states of the United States Parliamentarians gripped England Army National Guard, with more
versary. fend and protect the citizens of their of America, and included were mili- in the mid 17th century. Following than 3 centuries of continuous ser-
On that date in 1636, three militia states and contribute to the defense tary ideas. Englishmen, from Medie- execution of King Charles I, the mili- vice.
regiments were created in the Eng- of the nation. val times, believed that every free, tary dictatorship of Oliver Cromwell These three regiments rank as the
lish settlements of the Massachusetts Today's National Guard is an es- able-bodied male had the obligation and restoration in 1660 of the monar- fifth oldest military units in the
Bay Colony. sential part of the nation's "total to furnish his own weapons and turn chy, trained bands dissolved and, in world, preceded only by the Vati-
Contrasting sharply with today's armed force" and trains to meet a out under local leaders to defend the their place, a small standing army can's Swiss Guards, organized in
Guardsmen, equipped with the latest bewildering range of potential con- realm, was created. 1505; London's Honourable Artillery
in automatic and electronic weapons, flicts, from small guerrilla conflicts By the time Englishmen were And though the average English- Company, dating to 1537; Sweden's
armored vehicles, air mobility and to traditional continental, nuclear looking beyond the Atlantic Ocean to man had no love for expensive stand- Royal Svea Lifeguards, 1580; and the
newer-than-tomorrow combat air- and biological warfare, colonies in the New World, the mill- ing armies, elected assemblies in the Royal Scots Regiment, circa 1633.
craft, those early citizen-soldiers As the "army" of individual tia had two distinct categories: those colonies recognized their need. Those Virginia and other English colo-
drilled with pikes, arquebuses and states, the National Guard must also individuals who were to serve only in forerunners to state legislatures nies were not far behind Massachu-
swords, be prepared to fulfill its state mis- time of crisis, such as the approach were determined to exercise civilian setts in creating militia units. Virgin-
Despite the changes in uniforms sion, the protection of life and prop- of the Spanish Armada in 1588 and a control over the early militias in ia formed a regiment in 1652, Mary-
and equipment, the Guard's role has erty in times of natural disaster and select number who were formed much the same way a strengthening land and Plymouth in 1658 and Con-
remained the same throughout its civil unrest, trained bands and voluntarily held Parliament managed to exert control necticut in 1672.
over the king's army in England. During their long history, the mi-
English colonists, arriving in litia/National Guards of the several
About this America, required all healthy men states have responded to thousands
section between the ages of 16 and 60 to upon thousands of calls for assis-
serve in the military. In many of the tance in times of domestic need. And
Articles in this early settlements they founded the they've served in every war in which
special edition of Massachusetts Bay Colony, for one America has been involved since the
The Record wer military service was considered a 17th century.
written by Bob religious, social and legal obligation. Today, as in the past, this continu-
Hawk, Guard ci- The three Massachusetts regi- ing contribution is being made by
vilian administra- ments which historically are consid- volunteers men and women who
tive aide; and by ered to be the beginning of the U.S. give up part of their civilian lives to
Regional Editor Guard continue today as the 181st train and prepare for every eventual-
Jackie Feagin. and 182nd Infantry Regiments, 101st ity and challenge they may be called
Field Artillery Regiment and 101st upon to face.

Militia first called National Guard in 1824
Use of the term "National Guard" to refer the age of 19 was commissioned a major gen-
to the militia dates back to 1824. eral in the Revolutionary army by the Conti-
The organization to first use the name was. nental Congress and was an instrumental
the 2nd Battalion. New York Artillery. The 2nd force in cementing American and French rela-
Battalion used it in honoring Marie Joseph tions. had served as commanding general of
Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de the National Guard of Paris from July 1789 un-
La Fayette, during his final visit to New York til September 1791. As commander, he was re-
"'SClity befoereturning.to his native France. sponsible for maintaining order in the midst of
La Fayette, the French nobleman who at revolution in his homeland.






























Supplement to The St. Augustine Record, Thursday, December 11, 1986, Page 3

Menendez had civilian militia 71 years before Guard
Florida Guardsmen trace their military tropical storm which, he reasoned, would pro- A force with usually no more than 300 regu- ties of the Civil War. Florida's Ist Regiment
tradition to the founding of St. Augustine in vide good cover for his move and delay the lar soldiers and a few dozen militia was served during the war with Spain; the 2nd
1565, 71 years before the first units of today's French fleet's efforts to bring reinforcements, charged with the monumental task of protect- Regiment was mobilized to protect America's
National Guard of the United States were or- Menendez took with him almost all of his ing Spanish Florida, stretching from the tip of border with Mexico.
ganized in Massachusetts. 500 regular soldiers, leaving behind the civil- the peninsula to Chesapeake Bay, from pirate The two world wars of the 20th century
The first day of service by Florida's militia ian settlers, who, by law, were designated invasions, Indian uprisings and treats from found all of Florida's militia, now called the
was Sept. 16, 1565 more than 40 years before "milicia" and entrusted with the responsibility other European nations. National Guard, mobilized for national ser-
the English settled Jamestown. of protecting the new settlement, St. Augustine Por more than 250 years, under the Span- vice. Florida Guardsmen fought and died in
Pedro Menendez de Aviles, the Spanish ad- author and historian Robert Hawk explains in ish, the British and, for the second time, the" France and Flanders in 1917-18 and were in the
miral commissioned to sail to Florida, plant a his book, Florida's Army, scheduled for re Spanish, the Florida militia helped successful- thick of battle, on land and in the air, in every
colony and put an end to the threat of French lease this month. ly defend their homeland against Indians, the theater of war between 1941 and 1945. In the
encroachment in territory claimed by Spain, "This first of Florida's militia forces num- French, the English and even Americans dur- years since World War II, only a handful of
made his ceremonial landing Sept. 8. He lost bered less than fifty men and, as they were not ing the Revolutionary War. After becoming Florida National Guard units have been called
no time in planning and executing a strike challenged militarily, they would prove suffi- part of the American republic in 1821. the Flor- to federal service, most notably the 159th
against Frenchman Jean Ribault's settlement cient," wrote Hawk, who is civilian adminis- ida militia fought two wars against Indians. Fighter-Bomber Squadron. Florida National
at Fort Caroline, 35 miles to the north, trative assistant and archivist at the state Ar- Supporting the Confederacy in the 1860s, Guard, during the Korean conflict.
The birth date of North America's oldest senal here. Florida's militia not only protected areas of But thousands of individual Florida
militia coincides with Menendez' rain- In the years ahead, the militia continued to the state from invasion but also participated in Guardsmen have volunteered to fight in Korea
drenched march northward during a massive play an important role in Spain's La Florida. some of the bloodiest and hardest-fought bat- and the jungles of Southeast Asia.

Graham, Martinez to mark Guard anniversary
Florida's governor and governor-elect are tinez to Tampa, each in Guard aircraft.
expected to attend Friday's regular "retreat' Use of the military for drug interdiction
ceremony, according to information earlier will be among the topics discussed at the Gov-
this week. ernor's Military Advisory Committee meeting
Both Gov. Bob Graham and Bob Martinez, scheduled for 2 p.m. Friday at Camp Blan-
who will become the state's chief executive in ding.
January. will be at Camp Blanding, the The Florida Guard is host for the meeting,
Guard's training site near Starke, earlier in to be held in the Camp Blanding armory. Maj.
the day to attend a meeting of the Governor's Gen. Robert F. Ensslin Jr., adjutant general of
Military Advisory Committee. the Florida National Guard, is chairman of the
committee.
They will come by Guard helicopter to St. Organized in 1981 by Graham and Maj.
Augustine, landing about 4:45 p.m. on the bay- Gen. Kennedy C. Bullard, who then was adju-
front parade grounds at the state Arsenal, 82 ant general, the committee maintains ave-
Marine St., for the retreat ceremony before nues of communication between the gover-
boarding the helicopter again for the flight to nr's office and the military of Florida. The
Jacksonville. There, they will attend a formal committee is composed of commanders from
diningg in" at the Officers Club at Jackson- military organizations throughout the state.
ville Naval Air Station. The dinner marks the Governor's Military Advisory Committee
U.S. National Guard's 350th birthday. semi-annual meetings have been held at major
Following the dinner at Jacksonville NAS, military installations throughout Florida. The
ifahabawill be flown toTallahasse and Mar-_.ast onowas heldat EgUa Air Force Base.








Page 4, Supplement to The St. Augustine Record, Thursday, December 11, 1986
Guard has special significance locally yS
Manned at its authorized strength and fund- funds, and doesn't take into account the mil- for each of the past three years. '
ed to the tune of $t11 million, the Florida Na- lions of dollars of equipment Florida's Guard Since Ensslin became adjutant general in
tional Guard is especially significant to St. Au- units will be receiving. 1982, the state Army Guard's strength has ris- i '.'
gustinians. Among the new equipment Guardsmen are en from 8,800 to 11,200 and the Air Guard's .-.r
It traces its origins to the first month of the most excited about are the F-16 fighter planes from 1.000 to almost 1,500.
city's history, it is headquartered in one of the $25 million apiece aircraft the Florida Air Among recent additions to the Air Guard ..i ,
city's most historic buildings and it currently National Guard, headquartered at Jackson- are a communications unit at Tampa and an
pumps in the neighborhood of $9 million into ville International Airport, is receiving, engineering organization at Camp Blanding, '
the local economy. Additionally, in the year "We're going to retire the F-106," now the Guard's 70.380-acre training facility near .I ,
ahead, renovations at the Arsenal and proper- about 25 years old. replacing it with the sleek Starke. The Army Guard opened a second fa- S'
ties in the state headquarters complex will to- new models, Ensslin said. cility at the Lakeland airport during the sum-
tal about $3.7 million. Florida's Air Guard will be the first air de- mer, marking "the first time we've had any .
"We have been resource as never before fense unit regular Air Force, Reserve or Army aviation outside Jacksonville." Ensslin '
in our history,". Maj. Gen. Robert F. Ensslin Guard to be outfitted with the F-16, the new- noted. Heretofore, the Army Aviation Support
Jr., adjutant general of the Florida National est fighter in the U.S. arsenal, Ensslin said. Facility, which maintains and flies Army i '
Guard, said in discussing Guard funding. "We finished the fiscal year at 100 percent Guard aircraft mainly helicopters had ."
"This year it will be $111 million, about 95 per- in fact, I believe it was 101 percent of our been centralized at Jacksonville's Craig Field. &r
cent federal and 5 percent state." That in- authorized strength." That's an accomplish- The Florida Guard is uniquely St. Augus-
cludes only the operating and fixed capital ment the Guard has been able to boast about tine's in that its headquarters, the State Arse-
nal, is in a 398-year-old structure that formerly Maj. Gen. Robert F. Ensslin Jr.
was a Franciscan monastery. Converted to a
A to h ti i barracks by the British in 1763, used as a
A Sa te to the National Guard Spanish garrison from 1783.to 1821. when, with
the transfer of Florida to the United States, it
became an army post. In 1907, headquarters Maj. Gen. Robert Ensslin
From for the Department of Military Affairs and the
Florida National Guard was establish there. The man who heads the Florida National
E l Gutted by fire in 1915, the building lay in ru- Guard had more than 31 years of military
Sins until 1921, when Congress donated St. service on active duty, in the Reserve and
S Francis Barracks to the state, which appropri- in the Guard before his appointment as ad
ated funds for restoration. jutant general of Florida.
Serving the South Since 1931 In most states, Guard headquarters are in Maj. Gen. Robert F. Ensslin Jr. was in-
the capital, ducted into the U.S. Army in November 1954)
,t'a- Cr ia [I nd ;i l "There has been constant military pres- after graduating from the University ol
residential Com mercial Industrial ence in St. Augustine since 1565," Ensslin North Carolina. Following basic training.
noted. While no single unit can claim an unbro- Field Artillery Officers Candidate School and
S "A -- .. ken line to that date. "we like to think we're service at Fort Knox, Ky., he served as a for-
80 South D ixie H w ... the first and oldest. So it's appropriate that the ward observer with the 32nd Infantry Regi-
S Florida National Guard is headquartered in St. meant, the Ethiopian Expeditionary Battalion
-8 24 1' 8 Augustine." and the 1st Republic of Korea Division in Ko-
"8 24"M .6 0 The historic Arsenal is due for additional rea in the early '50s.
$2.5 million in renovations in 1987. Other '87 Promoted to first lieutenant in May 1953.
renovation and expansion sites and dollar fig- Ensslin was released from active duty in Oc-
ures include property purchased this year at tober of that year and assigned to the Orfi
$95,000 on St. Francis Street. $187.000; Char- Please see ENSSLIN, Page 5
NiAIIIO Please see GUARD, Page 5
NATIONAL r"-""-"


GUARD

^ South Seas Restaurant
841 Anastasia Blvd.
S1636-1986 Specializing in
FRESH SEAFOOD
Complete Menu
5 | 824-9922
SRalph Giannotta John Glannotta

YEARS Congratulations to the

*.* National Guard for 350
e Years of Service.
Best Wishes
Best Wishes ST. AUGUSTINE
from all of us at
Barnett Bank AIRPORT AUTHORITY
S. Davis, Chairman Ted Pellicer, Attorney
m t t 4 10 J imDavid Hardesty, Sec./Treas. Marlin Pig, Engineer
[jl t D 1is Jim Griner David Roberts
BaA.H. "Gus" Craig, Exec. Dir.
Barnett BankofSLJohns County Ken Forrester Rose Pelligrino, Secretary
AuMlarnm t anks amem wsa of_.DR ..































Supplement to The St. Augustine Record, Thursday, December 11, 1986, Page 5

E N S SN i 'LI ;JaIL L982: He 'sas promoted to ma)or gem
'ENSSLIN'- "- eaal kn, J11
Continued from Page4 e* Jcksnvilenave's numerousdeco. Florida National Guard at a glance
cers Reserve Corps where he held various rations and awards include the presidential Headquarters: Stale Arsenal, St. Augustine
assignments with the 101th Division Artillery unit citation, Korean service medal with Commander-in-Chie: Gov. Bob Graham
in North Carola. three battle service stars. Republic of Korea Adiutant General: Mal. Gen. Robert Ensslin Jr.
Moving to Florida, he was appointed a presidential unit citation and and Florida dis- Troop Structure: Army National Guard, Air National Guard
first lieutenant with the, Florida: National tinguished service medal with two silver oak Strength: Army, 11,200; Air, 1,S00
GuardinFebruary l5. Durinthenext dec- leafclusters. Support personnel: 1674 (civilian and military)
ade he served in a variety of assignment and Ensslin was chairman of the board of Civilian: State paid, *187; U.S. paid, 34
in June 1966 was assigned as battalion com- Ensslin & Hall Advertising, Tampa, prior to Operating/Capital Budget: $111 million
mander of the 2nd Battalion, 116th Field Ar- his appointment as adjutant general. He and Florida Armories/Installations: 62
1 Value of Armories/installations: $85 million
tilley Battalion. Later,he wasbrigadeexec- his wife, Fae, have four sons, Robert F. Ill, Federal Equipment In useby Air Guard: 141 million
utive officer forthe Slst Infantry Brigade, in- Clyde F., Paul H., and John B. Ensslin. _
specior general on the adjutant general's Ensslin is chairman of the Governor's 42 positions reimbursed by federal funds
staff, commanding officer of the 227th Field Military Advisory Committee, vice-chairman
Artillery Group later designated the 227th of the state's Armory Board and director
Field Artillery Brigade and director, state emeritus of the Florida Advertising Federa-
area command. tion. Hle is a member of the Adjutants Gener-
Ensslin, 58, as promoted to brigadier gen- al Association of the U.S. and the National
eral in August 1980, and assigned as brigade Guard Association of the U.S., serving as .
commander, 53rd Infantry Brigade in Febru- chairman of committees in those organiza- Adjutants G general of Florida
ary 198L Heserved in that position untilhis tons, and Is a member of the St. Augustine
appointment as adjutant general of Florida Rotary Club. :. TheodoreW. Brevard ...................................................................................1861
W illiam H. M ilton ................................................................... ................. .....1861
Hugh Archer ............................................................................................................. 1864
^^. *AP r ing the maintenance of fighters and crews on a Horatio Jenkins Jr.................................................................... July 9, 1868 to Aug. 4,1868
24-hour alert status, armed and ready to inter- George B. Carse................................................. Aug. 5, 1868 to Feb. 20, 1870
G U A R D cept unidentified aircraft in or approaching John Varnum .......... ................................................... ....... Feb. 21, 1870 to March 4, 1877
Continued from Page 4 the airspace of the U.S. James E. Yone....................................................................Jan. 17, 1881 to Jan. 16, 188
"I think most people don't realize the scope David Lang ............................................................................. Jan. 17, 1885 to Dec. 4, 1893
lotte Street annex, $800,000; and warehouse, of our training." Ensslin commented. "We're Patrick Houstoun ..................................................................... Dec. 5, 1893 to May 6, 1901
$209,000. training all around the world." William A. MacWilliams........................................................May 7, 1901 to June 28, 1901' *
"Ensslin is justly proud of the Florida Guardsmen from Florida units have been in JB Christian ....................................................... Jan. 10, 1917 to March 29,1919
Guard's training and readiness to perform its training this year in Honduras, just 18 miles James McCants .................................March 30, 1919 to Aug. 31, 1919
twofold mission: For the state, to provide mili- from the Nicaraguan border. In January, the Sidney J. Catts Jr...................................................................Sept. 1, 1919 to Jan. 3, 1921
tary organizations trained and equipped to 53rd Signal Brigade went to Belgium "and at Charles P. Lovell ......................... ............................... Jan. 4, 19211 to Jan. 25. 1923
function when necessary in the protection of the same time a medical company was train- Vivian Collins .................... ......................................June 29, 1928 to April S, 1947
life and property, and to assist in the preserva- ing in Germany." And the 53rd Infantry Mark W. Lance.................................................................... April 16, 1947 to April 27, 1962
tion of peace, order and the public safety, and trained in Panama. Still another training site Henry W. McMillan.............................................................. April 29, 1962 to Aug. 12, 1975
for the nation, to provide trained and qualified was Korea. Kennedy C. Bullard .....................................Aug. 13, 1975 to Dec. 31, 1981
individuals for federal service in time of war "We've trained in 18 countries since I've Robert F. Ensslin Jr....................................Jan. 1, 1982 to date
or national emergency. been adjutant general," Ensslin said. Today's *Resigned
The Florida Air National Guard, in addi- training program, with its emphasis on mobil- "Died in office
tion. has an air sovereignty mission for the ity "enhances the value of the guard as a de-
eastern seaboard of the United States, involv-.. torrent" to military action against the U.S. __




























Page 6, Supplement toThe St. Augustine Record, Thursday. December 11 19 M
M Profile
Profile Pr
Brig. Gen. Robert Howell Brig. Gen. Otha Smith Jr.
Brig. Gen. Robert Howell ,
assistant ad The man who sets policy for and exercises
Brig. Gen. Robert L. Howell, assistant ad- general supervision over all units of the Flori-
jutant general for the Florida Army National da Air National Guard is Brig. Gen. Otha R.
Guard. successfully combined a 26-year ca. Smith Jr.
reer as clerk of the circuit court in Franklin Smit, who began his military career with
County with National Guard service dating to his elistment in the U. arine Cors in
1947. at o his enlistment in the U.S. Marine Corps in Au-
we was a freshman at Forida State gust 1946 following graduation from high
Howell was a freshman at Florida State school, is assistant adjutant general for the
University when, in October 1947, he enlisted Florida Air National Guard. He was promoted
in the Guard. He was commissioned a second to his present rank in June 1983.
lieutenant upon graduation in 1951 and as- A native of Macon, Ga., Smith, 58 earned
signed as a platoon leader with the Heavy his bachelor's degree from Tulane University
rMortar Co.n 12ah Infantry in New Orleans. He and his wife. Margaret, re-
Promotions and increasingly responsible bclr dl
promotions and increasingly resonsible side in Orange Park and are parents of two
positions in the Guard continued and in March daughters, Sandra and Susan.
1967 he assumed command of the 261st Engi- His two years in the Marine Corps included
never Battalion and promoted to lieutenant
taontnd ernG t .lMan assignment at Cherry Point, N.C., serving
colonel. With reorganization of the battalion, s qun assignment at Cherry Point, N.C., serving

commander of the 50th Support Center, then lowed direct entry into advanced Air Force

meander of the 53rd Signal Group; and director ments. Smith was on active duty at Air Force Squadron in September 1973, executive sul
of the State Area Command followed. The 57-year-old Apalachicola native and his bases in Mississippi and Idaho before an over- port staff officer at State Headquarters in Ma
He was promoted to brigadier general in wife, Rosemary, are parents of two children, seas assignment in Tripoli, Libya, where he 1977 and assumed his present duties in Jun),
March 19 and assumed commander of the Bob and Donna Howell. was psychological warfare officer and an Air 1983.
53rd Infantry Brigade in January 1982. He His civic and filations include pastdirector of Police officer. Returning to the U.S. in. the Smith has a variety of awards and detor;
served in that position until his appointment as the Apalachicola Chamber of Commerce and summer of 1953, he was released from active tions, including Air Force outstanding ul,
assistant adjutant general for FARNG Sept. 1, State Association of Court Clerks; past presi- duty and joined the Florida Air National award, small arms expert marksmanship ri,
"1983 dent of the Rotary Club and National Guard Guard a year later as supply officer with the bon, Air Force longevity service ribbon wit
Howell wears the Army Reserve Compo- Officers Association of Florida; and past mas- 159th Fighter Bomber Squadron. His subse- seven oak leaf clusters and Florida di
nents achievement medal with two oak leaf ter of Free and Accepted Masons. quent assignments included air electronics of- gushed service medal.

.350th birthday celebration schedule
Saturday, Dec. 13
Noon-S p.m. Open House, State Arsenal, 82 Ma. Parade field ceremonies, music by 13th Army Band. Static displays throughout the afternoon, includir
rine S. Visitors can tour building, including Florida Na- 3 p .m Fly-over by Fl orida Air National Guard jet helicopters, howitzers, medical and communication
tdone Guard u eum... Clghters. Formal ceremonies begin, ending with cake-cut- equipment and other Guard exhibits. Historic military r
ion2:55 p.m. ignitaries will be escorted to platform. ting. enactment groups will participate.



























Supplement to The St. Augustine Record, Thursday, December 11, 1986, Page 7

Civilian militia was backbone of Revolutionary army
Thirty-one of today's Army National Guard marily by the militia. I I
units carry battle streamers on their unit col- In the second major clash of the war for in- S ."'T "
ors for participation in American Revolution- dependence, the Battle of Bunker Hill, Ameri- .
ary War battles. That's quite a record, consid- can militia repulsed British charges twice be-
ering that only one of today's Regular Army fore running out of ammunition. British Gen. i'. .
units has streamers denoting participation in William Howe eventually took the hill but lost
the war colonists fought to free themselves 42 percent of his men in doing so.
from the English crown. The 181st and 182nd Infantry Regiments,
The National Guard continued to be the 'among three regiments which have continuous
largest U.S. military component from the Rev- service for more than 350 years and a part of 4 '
olutionary War until World War II. what is now the Massachusetts Army National
Many of the leaders of the restless young Guard are the only Army units with battle hon- "'
colonies were militiamen. No fewer than 17 ors for the Battle of Lexington. And it was i '
signers of the Declaration of Independence Massachusetts militiamen who routed sea- '
had seen militia service and 11 ofthose whola- soned British "Regulars" at Concord, killing .
ter would sign the U.S. Constitution were mili- several hundred and sending the survivors in ."
tia officers. retreat to their camp in Boston. -%
George Washington was selected as coi- But the wartime experience of what's now -'
mander of the Continental Army not only be- the U.S. Guard predates even the Revolution-
cause he was a Southeewar be and some coln ary War. Citizen-soldiers had taken up arms
nists perceived the war to be a regional con early as 1637, when they battled Indians in
flict between the New England colonies and thePequotWarinConnecticut. s
England but also because he was the most the Peot War Connecticu
experienced patriot. Washington had com- And militiamen didn't rest on their laurels
manded a regiment as a colonel of the Virginia after winning independence for the fledgling
Militia in the French and Indian War. nation.
Four major battles of the Revolutionary At the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, mi-
War Bunker Hill, King's Mountain, Cowpens litia cavalry teamed with Regular Army infan- East Florida Rangers in British Florida In 1778 are depicted in this drawing from an
and Guilford Court House, were fought pri- Please see MILITIA, Page 8 original painting by Robert Hall of St. Augustine.

Guard played active role in both sides of Civil War
Militia units from both the Union and the tia units from 18 Virginia counties and com- Columbia. And following Reconstruction, volunteered for service in that conflict.
Confederacy played important roles in the Civ- manded by Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson. black militia units continued to serve in Ala-
il War, so it's not surprising that the majority The 20th Maine, a Union Army militia regi- bama, Ndrth Carolina, Tennessee and Virgin- ish ea a as t he s st i.S.n te Snr
of Army units with battle honors from that war meant, was responsible, in part, for the North's ia. Cavalry Regiment, made up of men from A-
are in the National Guard, not the Regular victory at Gettysburg. It held the Union line on Earlier, militiamen had played key roles in onCavalry Regiment, made up of Thmen from Ari-
Army or the Army Reserve. Little Round Top against savage attacks by the Mexican War. One of the most famous ac- popularly known as the Rough Riders and was
Records show that at least 1,933,779 militia- the 15th and 47th Alabama Infantry Regi- tions of that war came in 1847 when CoL Jef- led by Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt. a former
men served with the Union Army in the Civil ments. person Davis' Mississippi Rifles, now the 1st New York National Guard captain and a fu-
War. Manpower figures for the South were not Battalion, 155th Infantry, Mississippi Army ture president.
available. Militia units of blacks had a role, too, in the National Guard, charged at the Battle of ue- president.
f ..M- .,-..CiLWar and in the years that followed. After na Vista in Mexico. The National Guard supplied the bulk of the
"die the most famousdr Confedeate units the ar, blacEmltia urits existed in Connect- Militiamen rallied again when war with U.S. forces fighting in the Philippine Insurrec-
was the Stonewall Brigade, comprised of mill- icut, Illinois, Kansas, Ohio and the District of Spain erupted in 1898. About 165,000 of them tion in 189.




















Page 8, Supplement to The St. Augustine Record, Thursday, December 11, 1986

Guard facts
Today's Florida National Guard is the line-
al descendant of the earlier provincial and ter-
ritorial militias and State Troops of Florida -
under Spanish, British, Confederate and 1-
American flags. VA
The Florida National Guard has a proud
heritage of more than 421 years of service,
both at home and in foreign lands. *.
Here are a few and in some instances,
little known facts about the Florida National
Guard:
G Francisco Menendez, a "free man of col-
or," was a captain of Florida militia for more .4 r
than 20 years and led militia troops at the Bat- "
tie of Fort Mose in 1740.
The East Florida Rangers, Florida's
British militia, were the principal armed force
employed in defeating the American Rebels at -
the Trout River in 1777, the southernmost bat-
tle of the Revolutionary War.
After participation in the British victory
at Alligator Creek in 1778, the East Florida
Rangers helped conquer and successfully de-
fend Georgia against the Americans and
French. Confederate Infantry in 1863 as depicted
During the Second Spanish Period in in this U.S. Army print.
Florida, most members of the local Spanish
militia were of American or British extraction
and most fought well for Spain. 0 During the last 100 years, Florida State
William Wing Loring of St. Augustine be- Troops and National Guard have been called
gan his military career as a sergeant in the upon to perform active state duty more than
Florida militia during the Second Seminole 200 times. The type and variety of duty calls
War and subsequently became a colonel in the have ranged from hurricane relief to finding
Regular Army, a major general in the Confed- lost children, riot control to traffic control, la-
erate Army and a pasha in the Egyptian army. bor disputes to rock concerts, and, once, for
Achille Murat, a lieutenant colonel in the longer than a year, to fight an insect, the Med-
Florida militia during troubles with the Semi- iterranean fruit fly.
noles, had also been a colonel in the Belgian
Foreign Legion and was the son of the king of Naval Marine reserve
Naples and a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. marine
More than 29,000 Florida militiamen saw forces began as militias
active service during the Second Seminole
War, 1835-1842. Militiamen took to the seas and to the air in
Several companies of Florida militia the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Both the
served in Alabema'-CreekIra8aWP hr4f1M;. -ke u rie ,wrbe
U More than 15,000 men volunteered for gan as state militias.
service in the Florida militia and later, the Between 1880 and 1900, 19 states created
Confederate Army, during the Civil War, 1861- their own naval militias. Today. New York has
1865. the only federally recognized naval militia.
There was a Florida Brigade in both the. It was a New York military organization,
Army of Tennessee and the Army of Northern too, which became the first National Guard
Virginia, Confederate States of America. unit to fly aircraft The year was 1911 and the
Elements of the Florida Brigade, com- organization was the 1st Company, Signal
manded by David Lang who later was an Corps. That same unit was federally recog-
adjutant general of Florida charged with nized in 1916 as the 1st Aero Company, New
Pickett on the third day at Gettysburg. York National Guard.

L IT I A seh, defeating him at the Battle of Tippecanoe
: ICreek in 1811. Harrison's exploits became the
"basis for the "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too"
Continued from Page 7 campaign slogan that helped catapult him into
try to decisively defeat Indians in the Ohio the White House.
Valley. The battle stemmed from the 1791 Just four years after Harrison's victory at
massacred by the Indians of settlers at the Tippecanoe Greek, militia units from Tennes-
River Raisin. see, Kentucky and Mississippi, under the com-
Indiana Territorial Governor William Hen- mand of Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson who la-
ry Harrison led a military force comprised ter would become president trounced battle-
mostly of militia against Indian Chief Tecum- hardened British soldiers at New Orleans.













Guard plays key role :

in early Florida history ? :;:
The National Guard of the United ,- ; ; 1'.
States marks its 350th anniversary Alog the
this week, but Florida's guardsmen .-'--n-L -
can trace their .niilitary tradition r FIRST (.. "
back another 71 years. 0 COAST ',
St. Augustine was officially just .. a .1 ,"-' s
eight days old when, on Sept. 16, :. : .... *. ,.
1565, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, gov- ., ;;. ,). ,
ernor-general of Florida, told Span- Jackle Feagin ."
ish settlers to keep an eye on things Regional Editor "J p *- ;' -.
at home and marched off. Taking al- : .. ... T
most all of his 500 regular soldiers.
with him, he was on his way to Fort In celebration of the 350th anni- ,p .,, .
Caroline, 35 miles to the north, to versary of the National Guard of the .. .
drive Jean Ribault and his French United States, an open!house is. ',, .
colonists out of the vast land claimed planned Dec. 13 at the State Arsenal
by Spain. on Marine Street. Events will include .... ,-. i ..
Although Florida can't point to music by the Florida Army National '
any of its National Guard units and Guard's 13th Army Band from North : -
say "This one has had 421 years of Miami, cutting of a birthday cake, a .'' / ;
unbroken service" or even 350 fly-over by jet fighters from the. 4, V "
years, as Guard units in Massachu- Florida Air National Guard's 125th,
setts can rightfully claim --Floridi- Fighter Interceptor Group and mus-. ..
ns like to think their Guard is the ket firing.
rst and oldest, Maj. Gen. Robert F. Static displays of equipment Today's Florida National Guard carries on the cit- shown in this painting by St. Aug>
.nsslin Jr.,'adjutant general of the helicopters, an M42 track vehicle, izen-soldier tradition that began in 1565 in Span- one of several included in Be'
'lorida National Guard, said this ish St. Augustine. Florida militiamen of 1835 are Florida's Army.





coas wa owers, ai s ipwrec rom ocal s rces, aw ne n rance an an ers in. -
Svictims, pu own Indian i surrec- out. while il egal, th was neces- an on virtual y every battle
Continued from Page 1A *tions and figh the pirates o several sary, e explained, because recruits every theater of war from -4.
howitzers and exhibits by commu- nations. Always threatened, several and replacements for the regular More recently, Guardsmen from the
nications, medical, security police times invaded in force, even twice garrison rarely arrived on time or in Sunshine State have fought in both
and Special Forces "A" team will burned to the ground, St. Augustine full strength and the best. of the local the Korean and Vietnamese con-
show offGuard capabilities. Historic and Florida survived for two centur- militiamen had to be taken into the flicts.
re-enactment groups will add a "how ies as a bastion of Spanish power regular garrison companies. In peacetime, their jobs have in-
it was" touch, only to fall to the pen of a treaty A 1585 attack by an English pirate c luded rescues in hurricanes and oth-
The Arsenal one of St. Augus- rather than the sword of an invad- fleet of 2,000 commanded by Sir .er natural disasters, riot control and
tine's most historic buildings and er." Francis Drake was the first major assistance with the influx of Cuban
once the home of Franciscan' monks In addition to the militia in which test of local troops, both regular and refugees. They've fought forest fires
will be open to the public from all who were physically able were re- militia. St. Augustinians, numbering and floods. They've airlifted tiny ba-
own to 5 p.m. Formal ceremonies quired to serve, there also were vol- only about 300 including civilians bies to neo-natal units equipped with
"i.,in at 3 p.m. with the fly-over. unteer militia companies existing and soldiers fled to the woods af- special life-support equipment.
Those men Menendez left behind from at least 1671. Among these was ter brief skirmishes in which Drake Fulfilling their promise to be
September 1565 to guard the little one whose members were men born lost about 20 men and hid while the ready ,- and mobile when needed
village on the banks of Matanzas in Spain or of Spanish parents. An- pirates looted and burned their town. in time of war or national emergen-
liy, probably near today's Mission other was composed of free blacks Other tests came in 1597 'when cy, Florida Guardsmen have trained
of Nombre de Dios, were "milicia," and still another of Indians who had regulars and militiamen rallied to this year not only in Florida and oth-
awl under Spanish law all able- embraced Christianity. put down an Indian rebellion to the er areas of the continental U.S. but
bod!ied men were required to serve, "Even slaves, convicts and north of St. Augustine and, later, also in Honduras, Panama, West
;t. Augustine author and historian stranded sailors or shipwreck vic- when pirates attempted, unsuccess- Germany, Belgium and Korea.
"i.obert Hawk explains in his book, tims could legally be impressed into fully, to invade the city from their
T'lorida's Army, scheduled for re-. the militia," Hawk said. "Militiamen landing point at Matanzas Inlet.. :
1(lse next week. received regular pay for active ser- Rallying to the rebel yell in 1861,
"This first of Florida's militia; vice and for most training and drill Florida's militia fought invaders on
forces numbered less than fifty men days. The white militia companies its home ground and.joined other
;, .(, as they were not challenged mil- normally provided their own weap- Confederate forces on most. of the
n h-ily, they would prove sufficient," ons and such uniforms as they chose southern battlefields whose. names
I:.,,wk wrote. to wear. Unless they had private were to become household words be-
;n the years ahead, the militia means, Indians, blacks and all other fore the North-South clash ended.
c.,ltinued to play an Important role enrolled or impressed militiamen re- Florida's 1st Regiment was called to
;. :;,;ain's La Florida. ceived their weapons from the gov- serve during the war with Spain; the
,'(or more than 250 years, under ernment." 2nd Regiment protected the U.S.-
",:.pjanish, the British and, for the In .spite of an Imperial Spanish Mexican border.
,.:1 time, the Spanish, Florida law which prohibited more than 10 to With the advents of World Wars 1
; i.men helped successfully de- 15 percent of a garrison to be from and 2, all of Florida's militia by
heir homeland against "the en- local families, it was not uncommon then called the National Guard -
As the nationality of the city's for the St. Augustine garrison to was mobilized for national service,
Srnment changed, so did "the en-
"" and at various times it was the
:aris, the French, the English and
.,i Americans during the Revolu-
::!ary War. After becoming part of
American republic in 1821, the
::rida militia fought two wars
ainst Indians within the peninsula.
Officially stretching from to-
: y's Miami to the Chesapeake Bay,
S'irida was protected by a military
;.,c that rarely numbered more
tn 300 regular soldiers and a few
,ien militia," said Hawk, who is ci-
".n administrative assistant and
,'h\ \A at' the state arsenall here.






124tn Intantry uuard reunion also marks regimental system
Men who were part of the 124th Infantry One of those who wasn't pleased with the
Regiment the Florida National Guard unit disbandment of the 124th was the late U.S. Sen ,' i...' e
mobilized here when rumblings of war shook Along the Spessard Holland of Bartow. Holland and oth- I -.. *
the world in 1940.- will get together In St. Au- FIRST er supporterss o, a rlorIn regiment were sue- / i
gustine next weell. for some reminiscing and ccssfil in having the 124th recreated. For ex- .
renewal friendships. COAST ipdliincy the 154th legilment, then serving in
More than a reunion, however, the gather- New Guinea, was redesignated as the 124th. ,i .
Ing marks the establishment of the U.S. "It is ironic and fitting," Hawk wrote, "that *
Army's regimentalB system in the Florida Na- Jackle Feag)n the 15411 had been Florida's assigned regi- alc' '. FI n .i 1 ''
tionat Guard. Regional Editor ment immediately following the end of World *', ,',. ,, R'niment, ."
The reunion, the first for the 124th, is draw-. War I. And some Florida guardsmen were al- orld War I '
Ing veterans, from throughout the United ready in the 154th and others would find their
States. A support group, the 124th Infantry as a part of it on Nov. 25, 1940. After some time way there. The continuity of Florida service in for the reunion has been the promise of a trip
Regimental Association, has been formed and at newly built Camp Blanding, near Starke, ihe regiment would survive." to Camp Blanding, Hawk said. Another event
is. sponsoring the four-day meeting, which they scattered to technical schools, Officer Of some 5,000 who were in the regiment, a which should be well received is a slide show
opensMonday. Candidate School, the Army Air Corps and air- list of about 500 who survive has been put to- one of Ihe vels has created with 1939-43 photos
A St. Augustine man, retired Col. Albert E. borne units. Some trained as officers at Fort glethr by lawk with the assistance of some of the 124th and its men.
Durrell, has accepted the position of honorary Bennng Ga. 1241h vels. Jacksonville veteran Itay Iuby lo- Events begin with registration Monday af-
colonel of the 124th Infantry Regiment and will "By the fall of 1943, approximately one-half cated about 75 of that number. ternoon at the armory and an informal recep-
assume the post at a banquet Wednesday, ac- of the Florida Guardsmen in the 1241h were one veteran, Charlie Parr, who served with tion there that evening. After coffee hour
cording to Bob Hawk, administrative aide and gone and, at Camp Jackson, S.C., the remain- the 124th in New Guinea, is coming from Fair- Tuesday, vets will go by buses to Camp Blan-
historian for the Department of Military Af- der were transferred to other units and the banks, Alaska. Another who will attend is Wil- ding, where they'll tour the facilities and meet
fairs and reunion coordinator. Durrell will ap- regiment itself was officially disbanded," li;m W. Braswell of Jacksonville, recipient of with member of today's 124th Infantry Regi-
point a complement of honorary regimental of- Hawk wrote in one of the archives publications the highest decoration given to a member of ment. Lunch, in the field, will feature today's
licials, including adjutant, sergeant major, he has put together for the Department of Mili- the Florida regiment, the Distinguished Ser- version of combat rations.
historian and others to assist him. tary Affairs. vice Cross. Still another who's preregistered is Tours:are scheduled to many of the city's
The banquet date coincides with implemen- "From Camp Jackson, large drafts of men Dr. Tom Deas, who resides in Louisiana and historic sites, including the Castillo de San
tation of the regimental system in the Florida from the 124th were sent to the 4th and 30th Di- was regimental surgeon of the 124th in the Marcos, the restored Spanish Quarter and the
Guard, Hawk said. visions, destined for a war that would begin inl South Pacific. The medical detachment of the Arsenal. Wednesday, a reception in the gar-
All who served with the regiment before the hedgerows of Normandy during June of 124th, which Deas commanded, was the most dens of the Oldest House will follow formal re-
1946 have been invited, Hawk said, and "right 1944. Others were sent as Infantry replace- decorated unit in the regiment, treat ceremonies on the Marine Street pprade
at ito from all over" have preregistered. The ments to' the Mediterranean Theater. where Gen. Henry McMillan, a retired adjutant ground. The formal reunion dinner has been
Mark Lance Armory on San Marco Avenue i Americans had been in combat with the Axis general of the FNG and battalion commander scheduled for 7:30 p.m. Wednesday in the ar-
reunion headquarters. since November of 1942. Many of them would with the 124th through its days at Fort Ben- mory, where an oral history session to include
Florida guardsmen were serving In the end up in the 3rd and 45th Divisions in the ning. also will attend. .taping of vets' wartime experiences is planned
124th in prewar days and they were mobilized Anzio Beachhead." A main attraction for many of those coming Thursday. ..


I.,










-. ... -

N. --:

Tebeau award "-
v s iU 3-' .S1.-e,-- !EV2
Sppresented to -

historian Hawk- .

St. Augustine historian and au-
thor Robert Hawk.is the recipient
of the Charlton W.. Tebeau award
for his book Florida's Army: Mili-
tia, State Troops and National
Guard, 1565-1985.
The book, published in 1986 by
Pineapple Press, Englewood, was
selected by the Florida Historical
Society for this year's award as
the best book for young readers.
Works selected for the Tebeau
award must also be judged to
have historical value and pertain Cont
to Florida. Tayl
The book covers "the whole
history of Florida militia from the R.B.
first Spanish settlement," Hawk Ma
said, adding that he is "very to cel
pleased" with the award. The tainm
publication was commissioned by with
the Florida National Guard Offi- al Ci
cer's Association. Winne
.Hawk was reared in a military be on
family, and served in the Navy as of Ma
a hospital corpsman; He received,. -the D
his bachelor's degree and mas- land.
ter's degree in history from the -alsob
University of Florida. Professional ;Leon-
background includes an 18-year -Pr
stint as a college professor of his-
.tory, freelance writing, acting ex-"
,prience and positions .in sales i
'and management. ... .L
.Eor'the past two years he as
been the director of the Historical
:-Divisioi- 'Florida Deipatrient aof 7
[MlitIary-Affairsg ihaefh eide thad
quarters of the lofda. -National
.,Guard here -: ,'"1"^ -f";' *-
,:^ e 'CharltonW..Tebeau award
;is presented ainnuly by the state
historical society based on the se-
Iettion of panel of threejudges. *
IHavk will be;foirally presented i
.with the award by Tebeau, profes-:l
sor emeritus of the University .of
Miami, during the society's anmial ',
.conference May 13 in Miaii. Brig.
G;en. Robert Howell will also 'at- -
".ted the ceremony representing -
the Florida'Deipartnient of Mili-
,taryaffairs. i" -., --, .
.-Past award winners :.include
Amy Bushnell, a former St. Au- ;
gustinian ,who was historian :for
-the Historic St: Augustine Preser-
vation Board, and Eugene' Lydn,







Book relates lives behind tombstones
There's a book behind every head I -_ a i a i
stone In any cemetery.
That was the theory of Delmar Along the
Stewart, who for many years prior to. FIRST
his retirement last fall was superin-
tendent of the National Cemetery on,: COAST
Bob Hawk, an aide and archivistt
a the state Department of Military-.. Jackie Feagin 4,
Affairs, shares that belieL .:. :.. .. Regional Editor .
Hawk relates some of those stoy .
ties In an index-guide. to interinents .
in the historic National Cemetery. rfine Street has long been one of my
The.'book; titled Special..Archivei r favorite 'historical ..attractions' in
Publication Number 44, is still ip pre- this, most attractive and historical
llmiisary fort as he continues to pol," city. It.is ieautiftl, well maintain .
Ish it and add more 'information and a nice place to biing family and
about the cemetery and the men and friends,.',
women buried there. But even in its Each headstone "represents a
rough-draft stage, the book provides. life, a family, a specific personal his-
a wealth of Information. ... .. tory," Hawk said. "The interments
Copies of the book, a helpful refer- began here in 1828 and a few previ-
ence source, can be seen at the the ously reserved places are still being Record file photo
National Cemetery, where the super- filled. Virtually all those interred Jun erve rp cd and intr rs r
intendent's residence has become of- here are military, former military or Junlor Reserve Officer Training Corps cadets and instructors from
flees for Hawk; at the state Arsenal; the next of kin of military person St.. Augustine High School place flags in National Cemetery.
and at the St. Augustine Historical nel."
Society. Hawk says he'll be glad to Although there are no known Con- lars," many were state troops or Na- their on the battlefield or as victims
arrange tours of the cemetery for in- federate veterans buried n the Na- tional Guardsmen. All served their of disease.
terested persons, but asks that ar-. tional Cemetery here, "there are country." ..: ) Along with rows of white imb-
rangements be made in advance by many former Union soldiers, black The project's first phase the stones typical of those found in mili-
telephoning him at the Arsenal. and white, who found a final resting product available today "does not tary cemeteries, the St. Augustine
Bordered by Marine, Charlotte place in St. Augustine," Hawk said, present the 'book' behind' each burial ground has some more unusu-
and San Salvador streets, the ceme-. "And although the community was stone," Hawk points out. "But it is a al markers.:
tery was at one time a part of a 16th- segregated for many decades, local start." Three pyramids of coquina rocks,
century Franciscan monastery. Un-: black veterans of America's wars He says he's about a year from formed by millions of tiny seashells,
der British rule,. during the Second were interred here in substantial completion of Phase 2, In which "sto- are memorials to more than 100 men
Spanish Period and when thd United numbers. Here reside Indians, chil- ries and visual records associated and officers who died in what's come
States gained possession of Florida,., dren, foreign soldiers,. sailors and with those buried here" will be ex- to be known as the Dade Massacre.
troops were quartered on the site,` airmen who died far from home,. panded. Major Francis L Dade, with 108
which had become known as SL. men whose real identities are not "While it still probably won't be a men and officers, set out Dec. 23,
Francis Barracks. It wasn't until known, and individuals who died in book per person, it will be a begin- 1835, from Fort Brook at what's now
1881 that land set aside more than 50 wars at the far corners of the earth, ning toward establishing the unique- Tampa, to aid Gen. Wiley Thompson,
years earlier for a post cemetery be- returned home to more familiar sur- ness of each individual personality. at Fort King, now Ocala, where the
came a National Cemetery. roundings in more peaceful times. They deserve no less." Indian agent and Indian trader has
"It may sound odd," Hawk wrote There are representatives. of the Early interments were, for the been murdered. Dade became disori-:
in the introduction to his book,. "but Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and most part, those of soldiers who died ented and, believing his column to be
the National Cemetery on South Ma- Coast Guard. Some were "Regu- during the Florida Indian wars, ei- Please see BOOK, 6A























____ ------ -- -ascut. tion's unknown dead. in addition to
Disease, as well as Indian arrows those buried beneath the pyramids.
B O O K and tomahawks, claimed many of Graduates of the nation's military
Continued from Page 1A those who died in Florida during the academies are among those buried
out of the danger zone, didn't send Indian wars. Causes are listed as here. too.
out advance or flank guards. hepatitis, tetanus. scurvy, dysentery, There's 1st Lt. Stephen Tuttle of
Only one man survived the Indi- consumption and "disease un- the U.S. Army Engineers, who was
ans' surprise attack. known." 36 years old when he met death in
A few months later, the dead were There are graves, too, of those 1835. Tuttle was graduated at the top
properly buried on the massacre whose identities are forever lost. of the Class of 1820 at Wet Point.
site. In 1842. their remains along Sites A-105 through A-112, A-225 Jackman J. Davis was 17th in the
with those of all who died within the through A-229 and A-295 through A- Point's Class of 1814; Jacob Brown
territory were brought to St- Augus- 299, for instance, are marked "Un- was 27th in the Class of 1832; George
tin and re-intered known U.S. Soldier, Florida Indian Clayton Rodney was 26th in the Class
. Close by, several plain white mar- Wars." of 133
ble tombstones mark graves of Indi- In all, 81 graves are of the na- Under a provision allowing next
of kin to be buried with their loved
t ones, many wives are buried with
their husbands Ordinance Sgt.
George Brown and wife, Mary; Col.
Clarence S. Coe and his wife, Lulu.
Joy; Medical Corps'Capt- Edgar S.
Estes and his wife, Julia Wall, are
but a few of them..
(Next Week: War of 1812 and Cri-
mean War are but two of the con-
"flicts whose veterans are laid to rest
in St Augustine's National Ceme-
^ry.) '_ -












MyStery! Tombstone claim sets off historian's searcn
Second of a tio-part series. and find'my copy of Honour the Light Bri:
Was the Canadian-born soldler,who saw gade. I turned to thd section on the 17hth
action in the Civil War also.a veteran of the ':Along the Lancers. There was one entry to a private
Lght Brigade immortalized in Tennyson's FIRST with the appropriate last name," but the
poem? Or.were his claims of service in the older's firs name was George and his en- .
Crimean War a figment of an oldman's p COAST soldier's rt name was George and hs en- .date 1842 at
imagination?- :-i '"For'obvious reasons, that was not a "....
"Th'a ne of the mysteries into whic o te b sa isfactory discovery." No other French
dob Hak s delves in history tde guide to in, Jack ie Feagin 9was listed among the Lancers. nt i
terments In the historic old National Ceme-" Regional Editor ; had a l17th Lancer who supposedly en-
tery on Marine Street. ofTomas French. listed at he'age ofa12 and subsequently
Hawk, ap e infman aide andarchiv in the state changed his frst namea N had to b
Department of iliary Affairs, has put t famIly, a specific personal history," Hawk more to it than that!" Cemetery records in-
gether the story of ThomasFrench L a rid- writs in theiitary duetion to the book.num t dictated Thomas French had died June 18, ...
die he saher e's still trying to solve in Set among rowg.of white tombstones 1904, and had been a second lieutenant.in
Special Archives Publication. Number 44. typical of.those found in milita'rycemeter- the 6th New York Cavalry during the Civil
The book, like.the Thomas French saga, is les are some more unusual markers, in- Wa. w A check of ne lwspaper microfilm pro- '
still -in preliminary form as Hawk's re- Oluding that 6f.Thomas French. duced a mention in the May 26, 190-1, edition : -."
search turns up more information about the. Larger than the standard headstone of t"
cemetery and'the men and women buried' military cemeterids,'-the" monumen'l In-' illness that "CFrnch is home on Marined o.his bed by.
"there. eludes thefollowing Inscription:nel," Hawk said.
The 'cemetery, bounded by' Marine, "Thom'a Preneh .,Now Ihada colonell" H awawk said.
Charlotte and .Sal Salvador streets, once 1830-1904 Checking courthouse records, Hawk dis-
was a part of a 16th century monastery. In- Served in the', covered that French had a wife, Harriet, ,
terments' began there in 1828, included vic Crimeah had bought and sold several central pieces '
tims of -the. Seminole .Indian Wars of the and Civil Wars oflandin the area and received an 1895 fed- '
mid.1800s,' numerous 'Union soldiers, both : One of the famous eral homestead grantof 139 acre, in Cen- '
black and white, and men who saw action in 17th'Lancers trial Florida, which he quickly sold for $500. m
the, Spanish-American War. More iecent..... .,.,.- TheLightBrigade "The old city directories informed me '
the, Spanish-American. War, Mrq recent TheLlght'l3rigade Thomas French had lived on Treasury and
burials include veteitan of other wars aind 'Nothing could.be better designed to set Thomas Freean ha d ed on Treasury and e .
conflicts in which Areridaans.have partlci- the blood pounding In'the veins of a British Mar ine streets an ad had St. art owner .
pated and,.in:some instainces, their next of" medal collectors" Hawk- wrote of. his dis- ship i a restaurant at 58 St. George St."
kin. cover of the gave while walking through Later,while'checking records in the St.
Now, all spaces are filled or reserved. the cemetery several years ago. "I could Augustine Historical Society research li- .By E P
Each headstone "represents a life, a barely contain my eagerness to get home Please see MYSTERY, 12A 3. ,Bob Hawk beside Thomas French's tom'iF:l
... .. -.. .. .. ..... h ,


S.-.,-----" -












F -o ro .r
'appll for- y --er n e afr rTheres otio


y! fo nd Frenc o b cor:
A e Ft 'name ralIli.el 0Yel ?da" foe



-A Afe'oo l m os-- Harriet beame' Frer ch na6,,eHa as
'Ieh ha^^ il ld mddfArr: O't
iii SU AuinfghH w-jcom oneNe^^





-famoi os i4thonorsiAc) Lcrande.so.OLiglidBl wn,:ai ...,eih'tef.tHe
"`.iSorable' charge.'t Baakndar He^Palso '-9wfie i t's t had efen'dis ovee .ni "
"served during the Civil War. Hea te failyhe'dlefinCnada
i .. P. S.J ". l.e- i -- .X J--.% -t).






tered at the beginningmof the. aCivil.'' AFong'papers fromd Ae'acli, Ris
I.: lose had attained the rank of o rono sent in care of te regen
hel. His mother's father was a Portu-. cmandig oic I td f
guese andwas governor of Gbral plight of French'sife and, children
the stronghold. His father was colo- ar 1963, Frech applied f leave to
Brigvadin drt'l by itiei eV







nel of the 12th InfnrRegingof ment of C visit his wife and children ii Caihada
Whe Briish's l na and his brother Irs i, "Weter or not he' ent i
c also had hattainedther coissi ons in the k nown." But the horian mnt's
nel. His'mother's father was a Portu' commanding officers It told: of..t..e




|- British Army."- ,- -*';'.'-. .'...- out "all subsequent, doc" -. .ent ,nd
g-. ese. A description o of the funeral fol- letters associated it Thomas an h
"the sd. His father ws re nci assFert, thathe l s fo ever t
nelthe 12th Infuneral f .Regiment of- isit his. i a
"t Brithinyg about his discoveries' Inther Bo ston, Fr hnvent ie iin C
"British Army.... : .. ........out. ubso qundocu.nt and'









and the unaliswered questions about 'M, 4th Massachusetts Volunteer Cav' y
Frenchi -. Hawdk b\nderedli .fie'dalry;w'hich foundd for South Cajr i
Sound an overlooked Light Brigade olina. He was appointed first ser
veeran.ri oras Col. Freisleror th' giit ainyh d ein th'south f'r the:
British n nd Union armies in pir the iiduatioi fo the ar, becoming a'sec-
imaginative creation of "an' old ''ond lieutenant i agam f- on May 1'.
man?"e 'thr-4 B'18650 Afler being miusterid out in No-'
i. Subsequently, Hawk has receive vembe. 1865f, French never againri
.. several document iand lettiig s fr or.' refed lo his service 'ith the Mas--
ne...f the 12th nfan .i.....W.. .. n............














[.'" wa the National 'BArchmie, relative to a'cihsfetle Ca ari nor dihd he use it'-
. r' : .. A' dsch'ipion f .he l una^l o ete irssc ie ositon B several
S' 'f taner aed iht Bit ar as in oiditein
tar al. the time't56ou '-. wan rmi IL "is anu]











yto help Hugo victims
collecting for the hurricane victims, Jacksonville, she said. butions marked "Hurricane Hugo Di-
said Sherri Porter. Mrs. Porter and Cochran stressed saster Relief" will go toward the re-
"It rained on us, so we stopped af- the need for non-perishable canned lief effort. Nothing will be deducted
ter about three hours," Mrs. Porter 'or convenience foods which can be for administrative costs, said Mi-
said of the campaign. prepared easily without electricity. chelle Rybka, the local chapter's di-
Howeer doati. e There's a need, too, for can openers, rector.
However, donations re being ac- .bottled water, disposable diapers, Financial contributions are re-
cepted at Trinity's fo' antry, clothing, toothpaste, soap, small bar- quested since it is more costly to ship
cated in a small white building be- becue grills and charcoal briquettes. clothing and other items. Ms. Rybka
d the church, Mrs Porter said. The local American Red Cross said. Also. the money is used to pur-
"We're taking up donations of any .chapter, 162 San Marco Ave., is ac- chase only the items needed. Often
"sort." cepting monetary contributions for the Red Cross has agreements with
Trucks from Trinity will join con- disaster relief, manufacturers to purchase the need-
voys of relief supplies going from One hundred percent of all contri- ed items at or below costs, she said.
























; ..- By JIM LANE, Stff

French Marines tour city
Bob Hawk, in period garb, presents a copy of weeks of maneuvers. This is the first year the
his book "Florida's Army," to Capt. Francisco French have trained at Camp Blanding. Hawk,
Soriano as members of the 33rd Marine Regi- an administrative aide at the Arsenal, head-
ment, Infantrle de Marine, and Hawk's son, Ca-' quarters of the Florida Guard, took the Marines
sey, 9, look on. The French Marines,:stationed on a tour of the Arsenal, Tovar House, and oth-
in Martinique, Guadalupe and:French Guyana, er sites including the Castillo de San Marcos
are .at Camp Blanding, the: Florida National and San Agustin Antiguo.
Guard's turning site near Starke, for two :
Ngbi*e d:Sies





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