The history of Jamaica

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The history of Jamaica or, General survey of the antient and modern state of the island: with reflections on its situation settlements, inhabitants, climate, products, commerce, laws, and government..
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3 v. : fold. fronts. v.1-2 plates 1 fold. fold. maps, plan ; 28x22 cm
Long, Edward, 1734-1813
T. Lowndes
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Slavery -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Jamaica   ( lcsh )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Volume 3
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Vols. 2-3 paged continuously
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Illustrated with copper plates...

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RefleAions on its Situation, Settlements, Inhabitants, Climate,
Produds, Commerce, Laws, and Government.


V 0 L. III.
mea fruit femper hic in re voluntas et fententia, quemvis ut hoc vellem de iis, qui
tffent idonei fufcipere, quam me;-me, ut mallem, quam neminem.
CIc. Orat. in C cILIUn M.


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/a^-^-^^ A^-*^^*-^' THE li I s JAM TORY O F A I C A, O R, A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE ANTIENT AND MODERN STATE O F THAT ISLAND: WITH Reflections on its Situation, Settlements, Inhabitants, Climate, Produds, Commerce, Laws, and Government. IN THREE VOLUMES. .. — -— — — — .— — ..-.II '\ ILLUSTRATED WITH COPPER PLATES. VOL. III. — — men tuit fcmpcr hac in re voluntas et fententia, quenivis ut hoc Tellem de lia, qui tiient jdouei I'ufcl^iere, qu;im me ; — me, ut mallem, cjuam neminem. Cic. Oral. inCACiLivM. L O li D O N : PRINTED FOR T, LOWNDES, IN FLEET-STREET. M UCC LXXIV.


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li PREFACE TO THE THIRD VOLUME. If this hypothefis be juftly founded, the conclufion would follow, that all new Iettlen:ients here fliould be cleared cf their wood, and left bare for fome time, before the fettlers are fuffered to dwell upon them. But experience does not pofitively confirm the fadl. It is certain, however, that the woods themfelves in this ifland are not unwhohbme to thofc who inhabit in the midft of them, whether Whites or Blacks. Our Negroes, for the moft part, are fond of living among trees and thickets. The truth perhaps may be, that they are too lazy to be at the trouble of felling them ; this is the cafe in Africa, to a furprizing degree. The Indians on the American continent clear no greater extent of woodland, than what is barely fufficient for their annual corn harveft. Their erratic way of life, indeed, may be the chief reafon why they do not cut down their forefls; yet all thefc people efteem them not unfavourable to health. The Indian Aborigines of Jamaica cultivated only the favannahs. Thefe fertile plains were affluent enough to fupply thetn with more grain than they could poflibly have confumed, if their number had been double what hiftorians report of it. I fliall quote a refpedable tefi:imony hereafter, to fhew that thefe congregations of trees are, in their growing ftate, far more friendly, than inimical in the alterations which they produce on our atmofphere. But in relation to the hypothefis beforementioned, let it be acknowledged, that the difeafes which ufually invade a new colony of people upon their firft endeavours to plant themfelves in a Wefl: Indian ifland, are of the putrid, nervous clafs. Heat and fermentation will generate a.faBkious air from vegetable fubflances, from fallen fruits and leaves, and the mingled falts of burnt wood, and calcined flones and earth ; this fpecies of air, when confined and accumulated, may be deftrudlive to animal life; and when more diffufed, the effeds, though flower in their operation, may ftill be capable of afi:eding health in a degree, by its power of irritating and debilitating the nervous fyftem. But it Icems next to impoflible that fuch cjjiuvia can be concentrated on fpots that are laid open tothe fun and the winds ; they muft furely be Toon exhaled or diflipated. Yet it is not denied, but that the vapours emitted from their furface, for fome little time after the denfe veil of wood is removed,


PREFACE TO THK THIRD VOLUME. iii reiuoved, may be injurious to a perfon conftantly abiding there at all hours, and more efpecially during the night, when they may hover near the earth, for want of wind to difperfe, or of heat to rarefy them. Such fpots are likewife commonly firft fet with plantane luckers, which are of quick growth, extremely porous, and adapted to purify the air; infomuch that walks, or plantations of them, are remarkably healthful for reiidence. This fixed air, wK\ch, per fe, or uncompounded, is thought to be one of the greateft antifeptics in nature, and may be received into the lungs and bowels in a confiderable quantity, not only without danger, but with eminent advantage in many purulent diforders; is, neverthelefs, under feme modes of compofition and application, deflruulive to vitality, and affirmed to be the fame as mephitic air. Philofophers, however, feem not to be as yet entirely agreed in this charadleriftic : for fome alledge, that it is of a denfity or fpecific gravity much greater than that of common or atmofpheric air ; whereas the experiments made upon the air of a well, in which a lighted torch was inftantly cxtinguifhed ; on the air of the Grotto de Cani in Italy, and that of the cavern of Pyrmont f.], feem to indicate, that the mephitic does not differ from common air, either in gravity, humidity, or elafticity. Until further difcoveries therefore {hall decide this variety of opinion, the definition which Dr. Dobfon has given us may fafely be admitted. Fixed air (fays he) is the general term by which this fubjedt is *' diflinguiftied ; and when it produces any noxious effeds, either in confequence of the procefs by which it is procured, or the *' manner in which it is applied, it is then properly to be called mephitic air [^]." Among the late advances towards an improved (yftem of natural philofophy, there are none which refledl more honour on the human faculties, than thofe which have penetrated as it were into the invifible world, and (by the teft of experiment, aided by rational inductions) brought forth to our perception fome of thofe flupendous agents, whofe fubtility had efcaped our fight, and whofe activity and power confounded and perplexed our judgement. Of thefe difcoveries none are worthier our^attention, than what tend to explain [a] Percival on the vapours of charcoal, p. loo. [b] P. 94, a 2 and


iv PREFACE TO THE THIRD VOLUME. and perfect the abftrufer dodlrines of pneumatic fcience, and direct their application to mofl: ufeful purpofes of human life. Modern experiments have proved, that the mineral fpirit, which imparts to chalybeate-waters all that pungent tafte, vivacity, and volatile principle, on which their virtues chiefly depend, is no other th^n fixed aif\ which endues water with the power of difiblving not only calcarious earths, but even iron. Dr. PriejUy has ftiewn an eafy mode of extracling this air from grolllypowdered chalk, juft covered with water, with a fmall addition of fpirit of vitriol, commonly called the vitriolic acid. He has (liewn it capable of operating medecinally in putrid diftempers; and the experiments tried by Dr. Perchal, and other able gentlemen of the faculty, have confirmed its amazing efficacy in feveral cafes. Such difcoveries lead us on to a moll interefting feries of enquiry j for they fucceflively prefent to our view fome new tefHmony of the divine Wifdom, in the contrivance (and moft beneficent purpofes towards us, in the den:ination)of many wonderful phaenomena peculiar to our fyftem. In this purfuit, tempefts, volcanos, lightning and earthquakes, begin to lofe their horror j and while they appear remedial in thofe diforders to which the material conftitution of our world is liable, we cannot but refpedl them as necefTary and propitious, in the fame manner as we regard thofe valuable fpecifics, which bring a recruit of found health to our own diflempered frames. The inceflant vitiation of our atmofpherej by the breath and putrefadion of animal, and the decay of vegetable bodies, by fires, and by volcanos, made it reafonable to conclude, that fome provifion there muft be in nature for corredting this depraved flate, and reftoring the air to purity. Dr. Hales feemed to think no other agent neceflary for this purpofe than motion ; that, frcfti common air, impelled with velocity into that which was flagnant, confined, rancid, and peftilential, or into flinking water, fweetened them by difperfing and carrying off the volatile, offenfive particles, with which they had been furcharged, and which loft their ill quality upon being diluted with, and abforbed into the vaft tide of the atmofphcre. He indeed fuppofed that the acid fteams of vinegar and Ailphur, having a kind of eledive attraction towards the alkaline effluvia^


PREFACE TO THE THIRD VOLUME. v effluvia^ which render the air produdive of malignant diflempers, the gaol-fever and the plague, fermented with, and neutralized them. He had alfo difcovered, that the upper and nether waters of the ocean, by the unequal preffure of its furface, when formed into vafl: waves and furges, were blended together; which contributed to the keeping its lower waters fweet ; and that in rivers, the furface being an inclined plane, the upper parts are continually defcending and re-afcending, fo as to form a perpetual inteftine motion, which preferves their water from becoming putrid. But this ingenious philofopher was not fo compleatly happy in his refearches, as to conjedtuie the means which nature has provided for carrying out of the atmofphere thofe heterogeneous particles, that are inceffantly loading it; and which, if retained and fufFered to float in it, muft foon infed the whole mafs, and render it unfit for fupporting animal life. We owe to Dr. Prieflly the fuggeftion of two grand refources for this falutary end J the firft he afligns to ihz 'vegetable kingdom, the next to ihc fea, and other large colleftions of water; not however excluding Dr. Hales's principle of ventilation from a fhare in this important office. He finds that the effluvia of vegetables are endued with the power of reviving common air, that has been vitiated, or fouled, by fire or refpiration. That the aromatic vapours of plants, are not neceflary participants in the office of refloring this purity ; for that vegetables o*^ an offenfive fmell, or thofe of no fmell at all, but are of a quick growth, prove the very beft for this purpofe. That plants thrive wonderfully well in putrid air, and in air that has been fpoiled by animal refpiration, in proportion to their vigour and the found ftate of their leaves and branches. Thus the air, which is deftrudive to animal life, is falutary and nutrimental to vegetable ; and what is poifon to the former, is food for the latter. In regard to the fecond refource, he tells us, that as well the air corrupted by tht breath of animals, as that which is impaired by other putrid mat\er, is in a good meajure fweetened by the feptic particles infufing tuemfelves into water; hence he deduces, that the fea,


vi PREFACE TO THE THIRD VOLUME. fea, extenfive lakes and rivers, which cover fo large a portion of our globe, muft be highly ufeful, by abforbing what is putrid, for the further purification of our atmofphere ; thus beflowing what would be noxious to man and other aniinals, upon the formation of marine and other aquatic plants, or upon other purpofes yet unknown. Thus we are affured that no vegetable grows in vain, but every ' individual plant is ferviceable to mankind ; if not always diftin*' guifhable by fome private virtue, yet making a part of the whole, which cleanfes and purifies our atmofphere. In this the fragrant rofe and deadly nightfliade co-operate; nor is the herbage, nor the woods, that flourifh in the moft remote and unpeopled regions, unprofitable to us, nor we to them ; confidering how ccnftantly the winds convey to them our vitiated air, for our relief and their nourifhment; and if ever thefe falutary gales rife to ftorms and hurricanes, let us ftill trace and revere the ways of a beneficent Being, who not fortuitoufly, but with defign ; not in wrath, but in mercy, thus Jloakes the naaters and the air together^ to bury ia ' the deep thofe putrid and peftilential effluvia, which the vegetables upon the face of the eartli had been infufficient to confume [c]." We may add to the lift of reftoratives, the aromatic odour of plants and the irrigation of fliowers, whofe refrefhing efifeds on the atmofphere are fo immediate and forcible, as toftrike our fenfes in the moft delightful manner. Thefe difcoveries are noble, and open to us a new fource of inveftigation into the wholfomenels or infalubrity of local fituations in different countries, whether in the neighbourhood of large wood:,' capacious lakes, and great rivers; or where the inhabitants are deflitute of fome, or all of thefe purifiers. If fuch is the grand provi/ion made for our globe at large, may we not indulge a thought, that it is difpenfed in a more liberal portion to thofe regions, whofe climate feems to require it ? Dr. Hales computes, that refpiration and perfpiration both together, in England, are equal to the quantity of half the meat and drink which the people there daily take in; this he eflimates at about thirty-nine ounces; but he rightly infers, that it muft be far greater in hot climates ; as in hot climates therefore the parents of putrefaftion, and of a corrupted atmo^here, are much [t] Sir John Pringle's Difcourfc, p. 26. more


PREFACE TO THE THIRD VOLUME. vii more numerous, adtive, and conftant; fo the means whereby their malignancy is obviated and decompofed, muft be more powerful or more abundant than in Northern counries. We cannot then fiifficiently admire and extol the very ample refources of this fc^rt, which are obfervable in our ifland. In every part of it v/e find the remedies diftributed with an unfparing hand. The atmofphere itfelf feems to be intimately blended with fome fpecies of elaftic acid air, or vapour, which renders it invigorating to the animal fpirits, which refrigerates heated liquors, abates the fcnfation of thirft, and keeps the blood in a cool and diluted ftate, fo tliat ardent fevers and canine madnefs are almoft unknown here. The rapidity of vegetation mocks the toil of the labourer j the earth abhors infecundity, and refufes to continue uncloathed. Rivers ftream around, defcending from the very fummits of high mountains, not in filent gentle flreams, but dafhing from rock to rock, and impetuoufly agitated in their courfe, in order the better to forward the procefs of nature. The lofty hills lift their thick forefls to the clouds, and embrace the frefli gales; an infinite variety of fucculent plants and trees fpring up in almoft every foil and fituation, but moft numerous in thofe v/hich are low and fwampy, where their fervices, and their multitude, may be mod neceffary. The plantane, the palma Chrifti, trumpettree, water-vines, witlies, and gourds ; the arums, bambu, Scotch grafs, lotus, and many others, feem to love thefe humble fcites, and are excellently adapted to the medicinal intention, by the celerity and luxuriancy of their growth, the expanfion of their leaves, and the large diameter of their tubes. I need not fpeak of the innumerable aquatic plants, and the varieties of rank herbage, which carpet over the oozy beds of all our bays and harbours ; of the gentler rivers and the lagoons ; affording fubfiftence and fhelter to the manati, the turtle, and a myriad of other creatures, which inhabit or graze upon them ; whilfl they are fo many drains at the fame time, to imbibe and draw from the atmofphere above, thofe foulnefTes that are offenfive to mankind. Such are then, in part, the wife and good means, which are prepared to guard againft, or to dilarm, the atmofphere of this countr of the hoflile inflruments which the warmth of climate may diipofe it inceflantly to generate ; and which can only prove baneful to 4 the


viii PREFACE TO THE THIRD VOLUME. the inhabitants, when thefe enemies are fo fuperabundant, as not to be entirely fwept away, or abforbcd. This inefficacy of their natural antidotes, it is probable, occurs but very feldom; for in all other branches of our fyftem, we fee either an exadl equUibr'nim, or at leaft a llruggle for equality, moft regularly maintained. Yet it may pofiibly happen, that, in confequence of long drought, the rivers may become almoft emptied of their waters ; the refervoirs may fail ; the leafy cloathing of the woods may be parched, arid, and juicelefs, and animals be empoifoned in fome degree by the feptic fluid which involves them : tempeftuous winds are then the cuftomary and moft: ufeful auxiliaries; they fly to beftow the defired remedy; to replenifli the earth with new treafures of water ; to reftore vegetation to the woods and herbage, purity to the air, and health to animals. 'JAMAICA,


J A M A I Q A. V O L. IIL Jtv*


596 JAMAICA, BOOK III. CHAP. VIL sr^ %^ i^ ^-v^ £-N^ SECT. I. Meteorological Remarks pn the Climate and Atmofphere of Jamaica. WHEN the influence of the conftitution of the air upon human bodies is duly confidered, it will appear that this fubjedl holdsa very near connexion with what has juft preceded. The ftudy of difeafes andfymptoms, which derive their origin from this fourcej.'hould undoubtedly claim attention from every phyfician, who wiflies to trace the occult caufe of a fudden po'pular ficknefs, and who, by due obfervance of the peculiar fymptoms and maladies accompanying every change in the atmofphere, will be the better prepared and inftrudted to counteradl their effedts upon health. I do not, however, take upon me to point out examples in Jamaica of this correfpondence between the ftate of the air, and the fymptoms of difeafes ; but only to publifh fome few obfervations, which I could not fo well introduce in the former part of this work, where I gave a general delcription of the climate ; and to exhibit a comparative view of it, with other places. For this purpofe, I have principally felecSled Charles Town in South Carolina. The greatefl; heat ufually remarked in London, (I fpeak not of one or two fingularly hot days) duribg the months of June, July, and Auguft, is very little inferior to the general medium of heat obferved at Spani/h Town in Jamaica ; yetthis heat at Spanifh Townisneither infalutary.


BOOK III, CHAP. Vir. 597 inf.ilutary, nor inconvenient, fo long as it is attended with moderately dry weather, and regular breezes. But the greateft heat obferved in this town is many degrees inferior to the greateft lieat at Charles Town. The whole range of thermometrical motion at Charles Town in one year was about 82 degrees, and at Spanifli Town not more than 19. At the former it has been remarked, that the atmofphere is 26 degrees warmer lometimes on the fame day, between fun-rife and fun-fet; and, on the contrary, that in the fpace of twentyfour hours, it became 46 degrees cooler than it had been on the preceding day. A tranfitioii fo amazingly great and fudden may well be thought to affcdi the inhabitants in a very fenfible manner, efpecially when it is confidered, that fuch an alteration of weather, as precipitates the thermometer fuddenly 10 or 12 degrees, makes it neceffary to put on warmer cloathing. On February 17, 1752, the thermometer at the Cape of Good Hope (about 54" 30' S. lat.) was up at 94 On the 22d of the fame month, at ^y^ At midnight, it funk to 61 This fudden variation of 36 J degrees was immediately followed by an epidemic diilemper, which Iwept off great numbers of people. It is not, therefore, a high degree of heat which renders a climate unwholefomc, but it is the fudden change from great heat to (comparatively) great coolnefs, and vkc verja. It is the happinefs of the Jamaica atmofphere, to be exempt from thefe noxious variations; and it may, therefore, juftly be prekimed far hcalihier than thofe parts of the world which are liable to them, even though they may be fituated many de_2,rees nearer, cither to the North or South Poles. Yet, colonel Purry, the Swifs adventurer, in his memorial of 1724 lays it down, for a certainty, that the latitude of South Carolina {ji^-^ to 3 :;) ii the happieft on the globe. A latitude (faj-s he) which, by the mcdiTot'rAi of its heat, and temperature of its air, fiieds fruitfulnefs upon the earth, and happinefs on mankind." Surely this gentleman mufl have taken up merely fpcculative ideas, or hav e yielded to the deluiions of a lively imagination.^ or he would not thus have ventured to extol 'he moderation of heat, and temperature of air. where the best is known from lepeated experiments to raife the thermometer to upwards


3f;3 J A M A I C A. upwarils of one hundred, and where the ah' is iubject to a variation of forty-fix degrees in twenty-four hours. He, indeed, fuppofts all other things equal and that there be no natural impediments, fuch as marflies, landy defarts, and the like. By this prudent faho, he excludes at once the greater part of the province, and bv far the richeft ; for thatpait, which furniflies fo large a produce annually of indigo and rice, is the moil unuholefome of any it it, and therefore not much calculated to promote the happinefs of mankind, fo far as refpe6ls health, however fruitful it may be. During the growth of the rice in the months of July and Auguft, the fevers, which attack grangers here, are very anomalous, not remitting nor intermitting foon, but partaking much of the nature of thofe diflempers which are fo fatal to the newly-arrived Europeans in Weft-India climates. The fame may be f;ud of Georgia and Eaft Florida during thofe months. It is true, the great heats, obferved at Charles Town, may perhaps be, in fame meafure, charged on its fituation ; which, I am told, is flat, low, and fandy, at the conflux of two rivers, and in the neighbourhood of extenfive fwamps. Further inland, one hundred miles from the coaft, the climate is probably more temperate in dimmer; and fomc imagine, that, as the country becomes more opened and improved, the exceffive cold, that prevails at certain times of the year, may gradually abate. But it is more reafonable to think, that the inftability of temperature, the fudden ftarts from heat to cold, and cold to heat, will never ceafe ; fince they probably owe their origin to the fliifting of the wind alternately from one point to another : when it comes from ofF the fea, it brings warm weather ; but, when it veers to the North-weft, it paf^'es over that immenfe traft of continent ftretching to the Ar6lic Circle, over vaft lakes and high mountains capped with fnow. To thefe eternal caufcs it owes its bleaknefs, which often produces fuch violent changes in the air of this province. The heat at Kingflon, in Jamaica, is fomewhat greater than at Spanifh Tov/n. Tlic air, about ten miles Weft from Spanifli Town, in a fmall vale environed with hills, was found, at an average, fix to fevcn degrees cooler than in that town. I Wlien


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 599 When at SpaniOi Town, the ther--i mometer was at j 9 >c!ifferencc 7 degrees. It was, in the vale, 82 When at Spanifh Town, 67") T. • *! 1 / f-ditto, 6 ditto. It was, m the vale, • 61 J Hence we may eftimate the difference of the air's temperature in the vaiious dih:ri£ls of the illand : i'o that, if the air of the towns is. at any time, found of a degree of licat inconvenient to health and eafe, a perfon, who travels only a few miles inland, to the hilly or mountainous fituations, is fure to meet with a temperate and refrefliing air. About feventy degrees on the thermometer is a mofl delightful temperature ; even to feventy-eight and eighty it is not inconvenient ; and feventy-eight is about the ?nedium flate at Sp.aiifh Town during fix months in the year. The hotteft time of the year, in Jamaica, is juft before the fetting-in of the autumnal rains, or the months of Auguft: and September. The vernal feafons, if they come at all, happen indifcriminatelv in April or May, but more regularly in May. But they fail, at leaft, four out of feven years ; and this difappointment is amply recompenfed by the vaft quantity of rain that falls about the latter end of Auguft, and in courfe of the two fucceeding months. When the vernal feafon flhls, I have remarked, that a double fall of rain, or double feafon, has happened ; the firft fetting-in at the latter end of Auguft and the beginning of September ; then difcontinuing till towards the clofe of Oilober, wlien it has re-commenced, and held on, more or lefs, till the loth or 15th of November. The medium heat of Spanifli Town, in the cooler part of tiie year, is, as I have mentioned, about feventy-eight; and, in the hotter months, about eightyfive. The higheft in the whole year has rarely exceeded ninety-two. I remember to have feen it above this but once, which was in Auguft, 1767; when, during fome days of very unufual heat, which preceded a heavy rain, it rofe one afternoon to ninety-three; but other thermometers made it four degrees lefs in every legifter. I fhall hereafter refume this fubjedl; but, at prefent, it it is ncccfl'iry I I'houkl mention fome particulars


(•CO J A M A I C; A. jartlcuhub relative to tl'je trade and land-wind?, whlcli h.avc a great influence on the thermcmeter in this country. SECT. II. Trade and Land-Winds. Doctor Halley, I believe, %vas the firfl wlio communicated a rational explication of the caufes of the trade, or as it is called here, the fea-breeze, which blows all the year between the Tropics. Dr. Franklin ftruck out lately a very ingenious theory, fomewhat different from the former ; and has endeavoured to make it ?.ccount for the periodical NorthWefters, which predominate in the higher latitudes of North-America. It would -employ too much room to tranfcribe what thefe learned gentlemen .have publifhed. I fhall therefore confine mylelf to fuch remarks as occurred to me at Jamaica, not without hope that they may lerve to throw Ibnie further light on a fubjefl, which has not only been thought extremely curious and interefting, but to be ranked among thofe difpenfations which are the evident refult of Infinite Wifdom and Goodnefs. A chain of hills running N. and S., of which there are many in this ifland, will, by the interruption they give to the free and dire£t courfe of the fea-breeze, render all places near, lying to the Weftward of them, hotter than other places which are ventilated without fuch obflrudions. Neverthelefs, the regular breeze, if it blows not very violent, is liable to be frequently defleded from the Ihore by the land-wind ; which latter is often fuddcnly produced after the tailing of heavy fliowers inland, and upon the mountains ; the cool vapour rufhes from thence towards the hot, dry air, which hovers over the favannalis and coafts adjacent. The great action, or rarefadlion, caufed by the fun in this climate, regularly attrads a train of vapour, or dcnfe air, after it, and by means gives birth to the diurnal breeze, which is light and gentle at firft in the ;morning, increafes as the fun afccnds higher above the horizon, and declining in the fame gradual manner, for the moft part, as the fun dcfcends in the afternoon. The


BOOK m. CHAP. VII. 6oi The land-wind is more or Icfs predominnit oveia moderate breeze, according to the greater or lefs quantity of" rain that has fallen inland ; io that fometimes the land-wind is partial, ext nding over a particular tra£t of country; whilft other places, fituate to the Eaftward and Weftward more remote from the rain, are not at all afteded by it, but have their fea-breeze uninterrupted. Rain falls heaviefl: in the mountains; the clouds tend to them; the atmofphere of the woods probably attracts in fome degree ; the rains have been known to fail, in fome parts, near a range of high hills, after the woods were cut down: befides, the vapours are there, as it were, entangled; bandied about by contrary floods of air; reverberated in a variety of directions by the various configuration of high lands, vallies, gullies, and other channels, as it happens among the flreets, fquares, alleys, high and low buildings of a large city. The land-wind, following rain, proceeds from that quarter where the rain has fallen heavieft, and feems to be nothing more than a denfe, moid vapour, ruftiing towards the heated, dry, and rarefied atmofphere in the lowlands, and near the coalt. In Spain, North-America, and fome other countries, which have hot fummers, the cold particles, brought by Northerly winds into mountainous diftricfts, frequently rufli down upon the inhabitants in the lowlands during the fummer heats, and condenfe the air below to fuch a degree, that they are fuddenly benumbed. This would probably be the cafe in Jamaica alfo, if it cont^iined any mountains of fuch altitude as to be cloathed with perpetual fnow on their fummits, like the Cordilleras of South-America. The feabreeze, though it flackens towards evening, and then difcontinues on (hore, yet continues blowing all night at about ten or twelve leagues diftance from the coaft. The reafon of this may be, that, in the day-time, the land being greatly heated, and the air which fucceffively covers it much rarefied, the breeze naturally ruflies to reflore an equilibrium, and holds on Its current, till the fun ceafes to a£l upon the land. The frigorlhc particles, then defending from a great height upon the mountains, proceed on towards the coaft-, weakening the impulfe of the fea-wlnd (which is warmer and more rarefied) as it goes ; and thence it blows out to fea, to Vol. II. 4 H the


6o2 JAMAICA. the diftance above-mentioned, growing fainter and fainter, till it is quite fpent ; and here we fall in again with the regular trade, which, at a diftance from large iflands, or the continent, ventilates inceflantly night and day. This is agreeable to the reports of feamen bound for the ifland ; and it is obferved, that the fmaller iflands, as Barbadoes, St. Kitt's, and the reft, have their fea-breeze by night, as well as in the day-time. Conformable to this opinion is what may be llkewife remarked in Jamaica; where, during very hot, dry weather, particularly in the month of June, the land is fo heated, and coiifequently the atmofphere which covers it, that the breeze continues to blow during the greater part of the night; the air on the mountains not acquiring fufficient denfity to check or interrupt it. A wind from the mountains is often obferved on the South fide, efpecially in the months of May and October ; which by many is inirtaken for the land-wind, but it is not properly to be fo called. Heavy, black clouds appear to rife in the South-weft or South towards the fetting-in of the evening, with frequent corrufcations of diitant lightning in the fame quarter. The mercury in the barometer fubfides from one inch to one and a half; the moon at full, or juft paft it. A Wefterly wind fometimes fprings up about eight o'clock in the evening, generally much ftronger than the ufual land-wind ; it continues blowing about two hours, or more ; then dies away ; and, the wind appearing to veer round to the Southward of the Eaft, very heavy fqualls come on with rain. But thefe Wefters are often very gentle ; though, if heavy rains have recently fallen in the quarter of the ifland from whence they feem to blow, they are found proportionably flronger. Thefe deviations from the ufual, regular current of air may probably happen by reverberation from the high mountains which divide the ifland, the South from the North fide. On the 9th of May, after a continuance of fultry weather for the fpace of three weeks, the thermometer, generally at eightyfive, rofe to eighty-eight about feven in the evening ; a fmart wind from the North-weft:, unufual at this time of year, came off the mountains ; about three in the morning, a very violent rain began, attended with a briik fea-breeze from the South-caft, which lafted


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 603 lafted fome hours ; after day-light, I obferved very thick, watery clouds failing from the point lafl-mcntioiied. I before remarked, that towards fun-fet the fea-breeze commonly begins to flacken its force in the South-fidc lowlands, and gradually dies away. After it ceafes to be felt by the inhabitants of thofc parts next-adjacent to the coaft, they receive in its room a gentle gale from the mountains Northwards. Yet fometimes the clouds are feen ftlll purfuing their courfe from the South-eaft. In fa£V, at thefe times the fea-breeze ftill retains its force in the higher parts of the atmofphere, and blows upon the elevated fummits of the mountainous diftrids for a confiderable time afterwards ; from whence it is reflefted towards the South coaft : fo that the mountaineers have it in a fteady current with them the whole night at fuch times ; whilft the inhabitants of the lower favannahs have what feems to them a land-wind. At a houfe fituated on a hill at the North fide, the fea-breeze frequently remained with us all night, when the people on the coaft had a land-wind. The land-wind, therefore, proceeds occafionally from the feabreeze, refle£led down from the mountainous ridges. This effe£l is produced by the particular figure of the iflaiid ; which I can compare to nothing apter than an accumulation of feveral high roofs contiguous to each other, fet upon a plain furface. I had a further confirmation of this fingularity in May, 1761 ; at which time I was at a gentleman's houfe on the South fide, which flands on a little infulated ftony hill, rifing out of a favannah that extends to the fea. Behind it, at the diflance of about a quarter of a mile, is a high mountain, communicating with ftill higher ranges, of a vaft extent. He informed me, that, the night before my arrival, a violent guft of wind from the Southward, about midnight, fet direftly againft the front of his houf: ; and fhortly afterwards another, almoft as furious, attacked the backpart from the Northward; lb that he was not witliout apprehenfions, that his houfe, and every thing in it, would have been blown down the hill. It is reafonnble to conjefturc, that this fudden and impetuous guft, which allaulted the front of his houfe with fuch vehemence, meeting prefently afterwards with refiftance fiom 4 H 2 the


6o4 JAMAICA. the mountain, was repelled with almoft equal force, and re-ailed upon the back-part. The Teabreeze divides, at the Eaflern end of the ifland, into two flreams; fo that, on what is called the North fide, the inhabitants have their breeze apparently from the Northeaft ; and tliofe on the South fide, from the South-eaft. This may, in fome meafure, account for what would otherwife appear very luigular, viz. the blowing of the wind fomctimes from the mountains towards every part of the fea-coafl: all round the ifland, when the mountains have the fea-breeze, and the lowlands none, and which comes with the greateft impetus upon thofe parts which are backed by the higheft mountains. But the great difparity on the ftate of the atmofphere at night, on the mountains and over the lowlands, is doubtlefs the real caufe of the true land-wind. The lowland atmofphere is, in the courfe of tlie day, rarefied to a prodigious degree by the folar a6lion, and reflection of the earth's furface. The atmofphere of the mountains, on the other hand, is, from the extent of their woods, frequency of rains, and their elevation, comparatively denfer. Their denfe, moifl: vapours rufli down to every part of the coafl: and the favannahs in a continued current, which will always be more or lefs violent, in proportion as the lowland atmofphere has been more or lefs rarefied ; and this ftream defcends incefiantly through ti:ie night, endeavouring, as it were, to reftore an equilibrium. But a pofitive equilibrium, perhaps, can never happen, the fun not continuing long enough under the horizon, and the heavy cold air of the upper region defcending in fuccefhon to the mountain tons, and fupplying frefli aid to the current by its condcnfing piower. However, a great change is effedled, during the night, on the Ifate and temperature of the air below, which is fo well refrigerated by the land-wind, that, immediately preceding the dawn of day, it is often extremely cool. When the fun has rifen above the horizon fome degrees, and begun again to rarefy the air of the flat councry, the current of wind becomes freOier, and augmented in its ftrength ; and fo continues, until the regular trade fcts in upon the coafl:, and fufpends it entirely till the return of evening. Tiiis may be termed the true land-wind, to diflinguifli it from thofe irregular currents of


BOOK IIL C II A P. Vir. 605 of air which happen whenever tliC liighcr la^ds receive the firfi: unpreffioii of the lea winds, or retain tliem longer; the clouds at 'iivi-i times being elevated to confiderable he.ght, and rnovin'in tlic upper region witli great velocity. Thele blails a£l wirli violence on the mountains, whillT: all is calm and ferene in the low-landj, until the rcliftance of inch lofty mafles rebuffs the current d^rvvn upon the inferior fituations ; fo that, wh.ilfl: the ivniJiitanrs here feel the impreflion of it from the Weftu'ard, or North-Wefl, thcv fee with furprize a feud flying over tlieir heads in a contraiy direction; but generally a little time clears up all doubts; a fufpenfion follows of the land current, or a temporary calm, fucceeded by a South-Eaft or Soutlierjy gale, and torrents of rain. The figure in the annexed plate reprefents the ifland extending longitudinally, Eafl: to Well, interfeded by chains of high mountains. Erom the feet of thefe to the South-fide coad, and the like in mofl parts of the North-fide, the ground gently Hopes by a fmall declivity to the fea. The fea-breeze, whilft it continues in the Eafl: and South-Eaft points, blowing upon the Eall: end, is divided in its current, palfing in curved lines along the two oppofite coafts of North and South. When the fun approaches the Northern Tropic, the fea-breeze declines more Southerly ; and then follows the fun's track, only varying fome few points in the courfe of the day. This is particularly obfervable in June. When the fun riles North-eaft, the morning breeze fets from the fame quarter; but, as the former continues its progrefs, the latter will apparently diverge to the Southward, till the fun fets in the North-well:, at which time the breeze feems to come from tlie South-eafl:. So, when the fun returns again to vifit the Tropic of Capricorn, the further he declines towards South-wefl", the more will the breeze recede towards the North-eaft and Northerly points. When he fets in the Southweft quarter, the denle air from the North gains upon the ufual trade-wind, and grows more vigorous, neceflarily haftening towards thofe regions where the atmofphere is in a ftate of greateft rarefaction. The Norths at this time fet-in early in the evening, and continue till late in the morning ; and the fea-breeze is proportionably diminilhed inftrength and continuance. When therefore the fun riles in the Suuth-eaft,


6o6 JAMAICA. South-caO:, the current of air in the morning will proceed from the North-weft, till he is advanced to confiderable elevation ; after which, the wind will be found to agitate a little from the Southeaft, till he fets ; at which time, the North will fpring up again from the North-eaft, and continue all night. Thefe obfervations do not hold regularly in all parts of the ifland ; for, in lome, the natural polltion of the interfedting mountains, or lome other local caufe, may produce a variation in appearance. But, in general, they lufficiently mark the changes which are incident to thefe currents of air in Jamaica ; the wind molt commonly falling into the fun's track in the fore-part of the day, and facing its dilk in the after-part. In the month of April, after a continuance for fome time of dry weather, with violent feabreezes, the thermometer generally at eighty-feven and eighty-eight in Spanifli Town, all day, and till late in the evening (a proof of the great heat in the atmofpherc), a hidden rain fell, which held, more or lefs, during five fucceflivc days. The thermometer funk thereupon to eighty-four and eighty ; but, the rainy weather breaking up, and the fea-breeze returning again with the fame violence as before, the thermometer role, in one day, to its primitive ftation of eighty-eight. Hence it would fcem, that the fea-breeze does not aftually render the air cooler, but only communicates a fenlation of coolnefs, by agitating the atmofpliere which invelopes a human body ; for, on the days when it blew with greateft force, the thermometer rofe higheft ; and, when it blew late in the evening, the thermometer funk very little; but the nights were hot, and difagrecable. A real, as well as fenfiblc, coolnefs proceeds here from the interpofition of clouds, which render the air of every place that is is fcreened by them more temperate. In the month of June, fome heavy clouds, pafting to the Weft ward in the afternoon, threw a very cxtenfive fhade over the part of the country where I then happened to be, and caufed lb immediate an alteration in the ftate of the air, that the thermometer fell from ninety-two to eightyleven, or five degrees; fo great a difterence is here, occnfioned by a clear or clouded atmofpherc. And this phjenomenon affifts to .flievv, why the mountains, and midland parts of tliis illand, exclufivc


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 607 clufive of their greater elevation, muft ever be tlie mofl: temperate; for the flat lands near the coaft are feldom fhaded in this manner, but lie expofed wliole days to the uninterrupted torrefaftion of the fun. The clouds, being driven on upon the Eadern extremity of the ifland by the fea-breeze, are accumulated over the mountains, or middle region, and there detained, fometimes by the reverberation of wind from different angles of high ridges ; at other times by the confliiSliog currents o:cafioned by vallies, gullies, and other in-draughts, till they are either condenfed into rain, or at length forced onwards along the range to the Weftvvard by the ftrenuous impulfeofthe breeze. The lands therefore, which lie under this track, have few days without a fhower, and none without fhade ; whilft the lowlands remain parched, for want of thefe feafonable irrigations ; and, being rarely overfliadowed by vapours, the fun's impreflion is more intenfely felt there. The like remark occurs in the places lituated under the Equator, where the air is invariably mod: cool when the fun is vertical ; at which time their periodical rains come on, and the thick Ikreen of vapours, intercepting the folar rays, brings the atmofphere below into a very pleafant temperature. The uneafy fenfations, felt in Jamaica about the time of the periodical leafons, when the days are calm, and only a few fhowers fall now and then, as a prelude to the heavy fall, may be thus accounted for. It has been experimentally found, that fixty-three degrees of liear, in a damp, hot atmofphere, is much more incommodious to remain in for a time, than feventy degrees of heat in a dry, hot fun-fliine; the great irkioraenefs arifing from a damp heat being'occafioned not only by obftruding the refpiration, but by relaxing the fuiface of the body: and the like difference is obferved between a damp, or a dry, cold air ; the former, with a lefs degree of cold, incommoding much more, than the latter, with a greater degree. The reafon of which is, that dry air attra^ls moifture ftrongly, and, by carrying off the frouzy vapours which exhale inceflantly from the body, promotes a freer perfpiration, which refrelhes and exhilarates; when infpired into the lungs, it dihues their imall veficles more than a damp air will, and caufes a freer circulation ot the blood. In a ftagnation of the air, thcfe fleams remain hovering


6o8 JAMAICA, vering about the body, and, fermenting, excite It to a corrupt or morbid ftate. Hence it is, that the cahn, ftagnant air of a country, with nioifture and heat, is bad and unwholefome [;v]. Hence too we remark, that Spanifli Town is, ca-teris paribus^ peifcclly healthful in dry weather, although the thermometer be extremely hic^h ; and ever moft fickly, when the air is moift and clofe, though the thermometer be many degrees lower. Dry air is very ele£trical. Thus a glafs tube, excited to electricity by friftion, will not only forcibly attraft little drops of water to it, but will alfo draw a fmall llream of falling water, of one tenth of an inch diameter, from a perpendicular into a curve. Is it not accountable, upon this principle, I ft, That the land-rains, on the South fide of Jamaica, come off the mountains with more facility and violence atter a leries ot dry weather in the lowlands ? 2dly, That, after the lowlands have been thoroughly faturated with water, (bowers but feldom come from the mountains; but the clouds, which have difcharged plentifully on the highlands, are frequently feen to hold up on quitting them, and traverfe to fea-ward, over the champaigne country, without letting tall any more rain ? 3dly, That fometimes, after dry weather la the mountains, curved ftreams of thin rain are feen here and there delcending upon the higheft ridges, either of very (hort continuance, or elfe appearing to increafe In bulk and extent, until a heavy (hower feems collefted over fuch parts ? As air attracts water, fo a ftream of water carries a body of air along w'lth it : the air, to ufe the phrafe of Dr. Hales, rides *' upon it." In all the river-courfes of Jamaica, there is a fenlible current of air. Rain never comes without fome degree of wind ; and we obferve the (bowers, which fall in Jamaica, almoft invariably following the very meanders of the larger rivers, unlcis the wind accompanying them is fo violent as to force them into a different track. When the wind is South and South-weft on the South fide, it is often North-eafterly on the North fide, attended with very heavy rains. [y^ Pringlc. When


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 609 Wlien the weather has been perfeflly fair at S^anifii Town (although lieavy rains fell for fome days preceding), I have known an inceiiant rain, of thirty hours duration, at the North fide, in the month of Oilober. In the month of March were very hard rains at Spanifh Town ; and, at the fame time, great complaints of dry weather at tlio North fide. The Rio Cobre was flooded in the fame month, and feveral times ran over the bridge; and the Vale of Luidas was deluged with rain ; whilft the North fide parifhes, St. Mary and St. Anne, continued exceflively dry. From an oppofition of currents in the air may proceed the frequent cahns and gentle fea-breezes obferved on the South fide in Auguft and September. Hence alfo we may account for the frefher land-winds, which now begin to gain the afcendency, till the feawind fettles in the Northerly points. In June and July, the trade-wind is generally violent, and blows late in the evening, commonly hardcft at the South fide, and fixed at South-eaft. At fuch time, the fun is near the Northern Tropic ; but, when he declines towards the Southern, a cool wind then begins from the contrary fide of the ifland, and blows towards the South fide. The land-wind blows later in the morning, comes oil earlier in the evening; and the fea-breeze is fiiint and irregular. This is ufually firfl: perceived about the latter end of Auguft. Thefe remarks, founded on the experience of feveral years, will contribute perhaps to explain the caufe of that difference in climate fubfifting betwixt the North and South fides of the iiland ; by which means the canes arrive fo many months earlier at maturity in the latter than the former; and likewife of thofe fingular deviations which diftinguifh this iiland from the Britifh Windward Hles> which, being comparatively low and fmall, and nearer the Equinoctial, are perflated with the regular trade, and have no landwinds. It is no fmall pre-eminence to enjoy this variation of temperature in the different diffriifls of the ifland ; by which the annual crop is, in general, rendered more even and uniform, fince, if it fails in one part, it is found to make amends in the others. A choice of Vol. II. 4 I fituations,.


6io J A M A I C A. fituations, hi fo large and diverfified a range, is, moreover, a defirable advantage to purchafers and fettlers, who may accommodatd themfelves eaiily in that point. Nor is it a mean coniideration, that valetudinarians, and perlbns recovering from illneG, may either derive a re-eftablilliment of health from feme of the noblefl: mineral waters on the globe, or from the pure and bracing air of the mountains ; remedies, which, though fo obvious, are too little valued here; whilft many, in feeking a cure, by defperately pofHng into the frozen climes of North-America, or Europe, frequently pcrifli in the attempt ; or, if they get through the voyage, often undergo a mod levere and hazardous trial of their conflitution, by encountering the rigours of a long winter, SECT. III. General Remarks, con7iecled ivith the foregoing Suhje£l-vi alter. 1. THE fun's courfe feems to govern the diredlion of the trade-wind, or breeze. 2. The fiilling of rain here produces a pofitive coolnefs in the temperament of the air. The thermometer, after a lliower, falls fometimes fix to eight degrees. 3. This cool flate will continue, if the fun remains obfcured with a high mift, or thick vapour. This generally may be noted immediately after the feafons. 4. When the weather is exceedingly hot, but continually dry, Spanid-i Town is perfedlly healthful. 5. There is feldom a variation of more than fix to nine degrees on the thermometer in one day at Spanilh Town, obferved from fix in the morning to ^\y. in the afternoon. 6. The barometrical variations are greateft in April, May, and Odober. 7. After fqualls and rain all day in the lowlands from the Southward, if rain has fallen heavily in the mountain?, the wind is changed at Spani(h Town, towards evening, to a North, or elfe a flrong land-wind. 8. A long-continued drought, of fome months, almofl always breaks up with a fmart thunder, attended with heavy rains, in this ifland ;


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 6ir ifland; but at the Windward Iflands, more ufually with gales of wind. 9. The firfl: appearance or dawn of day is an arch of light, which gradually dilates. From the firft radius of light, to fun-rife, is about an hour and an halL 10. The crepujculum before the moon's rifing is about half an hour. 1 1. In January, upon a fufpenlion of the North wind for about a week, the fea-breeze blew with great violence, fetting in at ten or eleven in the forenoon, and continuing till late in the evening. Wl:ien the fea-breeze blows at this time of the year, it fets in at lead two or three hours later than in the hot months, the fun being far to the Southward, and not rarefying the atmofphere near the Northern Tropic fufficiently to excite the current fo early as in thofe months. 1 2. February 2. A heavy rain from the South-weft this day, was fucceeded on the day following by a {Irong North, The wind in (Lifting round from South to North, probably occafioned this fall of rain. 13. Showers in this month, although they caufe the grafs of the South fide, low-land paftures, to fprout a little, yet being generally followed by a North, the impreflion of this drying wind checks it again immediately. 14. During this month, the land-wind feems unufually briflc in the morning, being flrengthcned probably by a gentle North. 15. Feb. The Norths and fea-breezes are obferved frequently to blow alternately J and upon a change from North-eafI: to South-eafl, drizzling rains or fmall fliowers commonly fall. 16. The variation of the thermometer was greater in this month than in any other, amounting in fome years to eighteen degrees. Whence it may be concluded, that warmer cloathing is now required, to guard the body againfl any ill effect from fuch changes. 1 7. On moving the thermometer the 1 7th of this month at fix in the morning, from the apartment where it ufually liung, inta another, lefs frequented and more expofed to the air, it funk four degrees. 18. On taking oft a mahogany cap which covered the bulb, the fpirit funk inflantly five degrees. By letting it remain all night 4 I 2 uncovered.


6i2 JAMAICA. uncovered, I found it in the morning fix degrees lower than ufual when the cap was kept on. 19. In March, at night, juft before the fetting in of a North (which continued three days and nights inceflantly with great flrength), the air^was exceedingly clofe and fuhryj but this wind funk the thermometer eight degrees. 20. April I. After fultry v/eather, and change of wind from. N. Northeaft to South-eaft, were frequent heavy fliowers, but little or no thunder from the beginning of November to this time. 21. April and May, the Northeaft wind is obferved to (hift to the Southward of the Eaft, and fometimes Wefterly ; but vice versa in September, Odtober, and November, generally caufing heavy rains with thefe variations. 22. September. Generally fultry with light breezes and calms alternately. But the thermometer not io high in this month as in Auguft. 23. Sept. 19. Exceflively hot and calm at Spanifli Town, and no breeze ; but at old Harbour-bay, about fourteen miles Southweft there was a fea-breeze, fo violent as to drive fome of the Ihips from their moorings. 24. Sept, 21. After a ftill morning, a hard rain fell at Spanifti Town, which broke up about funfet with fome thunder. The wind, whilft the rain lafted, feemed to be at no fixed point, but driving theA'apours about in different directions. 25. Oftober 4. In the evening the roar of the fea at about tea miles diftance, heard very plainly at Spanifti Town. In the night, and during fome days afterwards, fqualls, wind, and rain. 26. OiX. 15. About four in the afternoon, for two or three days paft, a light breeze obferved to fpring up from the South-weft, fcarcely perceptible but by the clouds floating from that quarter. At intervals a gentle land-wind felt from the North, and a faint breeze from the South-eaft. From thefe oppofite currents, a calm probably enfued, the clouds appearing to /lagnate for fome time over Liguanea Mountains, and then defcendcd in a very copious rain. 27. Heavy


BOOK in. CHAP. Vlf. 613 27. Heavy rains for feveral days, in courfe of this month, rentlered the air fixteen degrees cooler than it was before. 28. Nov. I I. A North, at firll fetting in this day, was obferved to afte(ft moft perfons with a fenfation of unufual coohiefs; but actually funk the thermometer only two degrees. A very ftrong North in twenty-four hours finks five to eight or more degrees lower than before. 29. Nov. 2 I. The fun fet at twenty-feven minutes part five. The largeft weflern planets appeared at five minutes paft fix P. M. The rednefs of the Weftern hemifphere difappeared about a quarter paft: fix P. M. SECT. IV. EffeSls on Health, concomitant to the Changes of IVeathcr in this IJland. A continuance of weather unufually hot and dry, is in general not unhealthy. The diforders which fometimes attend it, are fevers tending to inflammation, opthalmies, pleurifies and peripneumonies, and convulfive coughs. This n:ate of the air is favourable to inoculation. A fudden change from very diy to very wet, checks the perfpirable matter, and throwing it on the bowels, produces diarrhoeas, dylenteries, coughs, apoplexies, paralytic complaints, worm fevers, and favours the contagion of fmall-pox, chicken-pox, and meafles. Wet and cool. Quotidian, or continued remitting fevers, tumours and fwellings ; a tendency of the humours towards the head. Warm and moift:. Diarrhoeas and dyfenteries more malignant. Putrid and nervous fevers. Relaxes the folids, and caufes an afflux of humours to the bowels. Cool and dry. Braces the folids, and difpofes to fpafmodic diforders, as the belly-ache, tetanus, Qc. and turns the humours upon the fuperior parts, the heart and breaft, producing catarrhs, quinzies, coughs, pleurifies, and other diforders of the inflammatory kind. But a dry, fettled air, either gool or temperate, is, cateris paribus, the moft healthful. 7 A moii^


6i4 J A M A I C A. A moifl chilly atmofphcre at the fetting-In of the Norths, produces agues and intermittents, fometimes remittents, on the South fide. In proportion as the thermometer rifes very high, and fettles for any confulerable time at fuch a height, fevers, and other inflammatory difordcrf, may bs expeded to be chiefly prevalent. In I "64, dry hot weather continued on the South fide from January to June. I^Iultitudes of cattle perifhed at the penns in the neighbourhood, and dropped in the roads for want of fodder. It is impofiible to conceive the annoyance which travelers fuffered from the ilench of their carcafles lying unburied, till they were devoured by the crov/s and dogs. A very malignant fort of fmall-pox fucceeded in Spanidi Town, which fwept off numbers of the Negroes. The thermometer in June was moftly at 87 and 8S. The diforder raged with greatefl: fatality after the falling of a few flight fliowers. The coming in of dry warm weather after moifl; and warm, caufes a free perfpiration without inflaming the body; diverts the flux of humours from the bowels to the fl^in, and abates diarrhoeas, dyfenteries, Cfc. An unufually dry cool air braces the fibres here too fuddenly, and difpofes to fpalms. Long-continued drynefs and heat, having the like eftedl on the fibres, and rendering them too rigid, produce inflammatory fymptoms in the blood, from flight accidental caufes, as being overheated with exercife or hard drinking, and fuddenly taking cold, getting wet, or in any other way Itopping perfpiration, and fo imprifoning thofe humours which ought to have been eliminated by the pores. Negroes are in general the firfl: feized with thofe difliempers which •become epidemic, except they are of the putrid clafs. On the fetting-in of hard rains after a long drought, they fliould be reftrained as much as poflible from indulging in fruits and roots too liberally; thefe aliments, at fuch times, having abforbed the water very plentifully, are crude and unwholelbme. Such fugacious fubftances, together with indifferent cloathing, and expofurc to the inclemencies of weather, fljp perfpiration, tranflate the humours upon their bowels, and there generate violent colics, and fometimes mortal diarrhceas. 1. After


BOOK iir. CHAP. VII. 615 After a feries of hot, dry, and calm weather, eiglit days of continued rain fiicceeded in May 1761. Spanilh Town grew more fickly than ever I knew it, cither heforc or lince. From that period to Aiigurt tlicrc were buried twenty-nine white inhabitants, of whom fifteen were foldicrs. Their diforJcr had all the appearance of being the true jellow fever, and was fuppofed to have been co v.municated from fome di'p in Kingfton haibour. The ihips in the merchants* fervice have no lazaretto or hofpital on Ihore for their fick men.; though fo necell'ary a building might be, with great conveniency and cbcapnefs, ereded for them on the Pahfadocs, a tiry, airy, healthful fpot, where they tP.ight be fuppjied with nil proper aci,on)niod,itioni, either from the fliips, or the town of Kingdon, by a lliurt watercarriage. Fiom Odober 1768 to May 1770 was the longed and ftverefl

6i6 J A M A I C A. minute. It was tnofl violent at Kingfton, where it threw down fcveral kitchen-chimnies, damaged ibme walls, and alarmed ths inhabitants fo much, that many jumped out of the windows and piazzas one (lory high, hy wjiich a tew were lamed, hut no lives hi\. Two or three old huildings in the country were fliaken to pieces. Near the feaCoaft the agitation was ohferved to be greateft. In the Marine Hofpital at Port Pvoyal were feveral bathing-tubs, which appeared to be ftrongly artcdcd by the fhock ; the water undulated to and fro in them with fo much violence as to da(h over the fides. It was preceded, as ufual, with i'ultry weather and a rumbling noife. This earthqu .ke, happily •fo little injurious to Jamaica, originated at HifpanioLi, where it was ccompanit;d with eruptions, and did infinite mifchief. The hardinefs of thefugar-cane was fuffici.ntly evinced during the dry weather, it being among the laft of the vegetable kind that perifhed. One good confequence of the drought was, that fome perfons who had removed into the woodlands to enjoy a moifter foil, and procure fuftenance for their cattle, difcovered fuch advantages of fituation in thofe parts, as induced them to eftablifli inland fettlements. '1 he value of the grafs farms at Pedro's was alfo very confpicuous, for they proved the falvation of many hundred head of cattle brought thither from the lowlands, which fliewed the great utility of having fettlements in the mid diftridt of the illand. The diftempers which followed on the change of weather were moftly diarrhoeas among the Negroes; coughs, meafles, iind remittent and putrid fevers. Violent earthquakes, accompanied with vapourous eruptions, have always produced noxious effeds upon the health of thofe who have been near the place of their breaking-out ; yet I cannot think that they are the proximate caufe of any endemia, or peculiarly malignant diforder. For if we fuppofe that fome quantity of mephitic air is difcharged at every opening of the earth, this would fpeedily be cor•reded by the atmofpherical air. If putrid effluvia are emitted by turning up the filthy m.ud of lagoons and other impure fediments in ihailow water on the coaif, it imift then depend on the flatc of the air fucceeding the (liock, how far thcfe noiTome fleams may difpofe to a malignant hcknefs ; if the air continue perfedly fcrcne, it is probable any fever contraded at that time would become malignant; but earthquakes are commonly, if not regularly, followed with wind or rain, or both, which cffeduuUy purge the air of thcfe foulncfles. After the eartiiquake which happened here in 1692, a great fickn'efs raged, whicli few or no families elcaped. The like conlequencc belel the people of Ilifpaniola, after tic fliock and eruption abovementioned. Kxj died from their ruined habitations, expofed to the inclemencies of


BOOK in. CHAP. VII. 617 of the air by dny and night, their terror excited by the calamity, their anxiety for the lofs of goods, relations, or friends, dcflroytd, conftant dejedlion of fpirits, and want of neceliary conveniences for health, it is no wonder that, under the concurrence of thefe circumftances, they fliould contra6l ficknefs, that the fymptoms (hould be aggravated to a degree of contagion, and thus fpread almoft univerfally through a country. S E C T. V. EARTHQUAKES. A ferles of dry weather for five, fix, or feven months, in this ifland, generally terminates, either in an earthquake, or a gult of wind and rain, attended with or without thunder. Earthquakes ufually happen immediately after the firft fall of heavy rain, fucceeding a drought. The weather is always extremely fultry, clofe, and ftill, juft before an earthquake, or before ftrong breezes, violent Norths, or heavy rains. Earthquakes feldom, if ever, happen in windy weather. They are fucceeded here with fqualls of wind and rain, fometimes accompanied with thunder (but more ufually without) and fometimes with a brutum fulinen. When frequent fmall fliocks happen, there is lefs of thunder and lightning than at any other times ; and it has been remarked, that when thunder and lightning happen after earthquakes, the fhocks from that time either difcontinue, or become fainter and fainter. All fhocks are horizontal ; none have ever been known to a6l in a perpendicular direftion. Hence it has been fuppofed, on very probable grounds, that the air is more often the vehicle of the fhock than has generally been imagined : and that the eleclric fluid, which pervades all nature ; and, when put in motion, is equal to the moft violent efFefts ever knovi^n to happen from earthquakes, is a principal agent in caufing them. But other principles may alfo lend their aid. In its fubterrapeous progrefs it may enkindle inflammable matter, and generate a rarefied vapour of immenfe power []. The vapour feems to endeavour by every means to get vent ; and, pafling by fubftances of folidlty fufficient to divert it, fecks an eafier courfe through fandy and other X\'^\X.Jiratd, which make lefs refiftance ; and at length burfts forth into the atmofphere. Hence buildings, erecSted on a rocky foundation, are fubje£l to be lefs Injured by them than thofe which are built on other foils ; and more particularly thofe which Hand on a loofe fandy texture, contiguous to the fea. [] Water turned into vapour is faid to occ.tpy 14,000 tiincs its former fpace. Vol. II. 4 K No


^i8 JAMAICA. No earthquake perhaps ever happens without an explofion or eruption fomewhere or other ; but, where fuch explofion happen?, its etfctts are always the moft deftru6tiv"e; and the injury decreales in proportion to the fquares of the diftances from that part. At what diltance from the eruption the efFefls are fo far weakened, as to caufe no damage to buildings, has not yet been decided. The pulfation, or ftroke, we know, may be communicated through a line of fome thoufand miles in length ; thus the great earthquake at Lifbon, in 1755, caufed fome unufual agitation of the water to be obferved at Barbadoes. Ships, at 180 miles diftance at fea, felt the fhock in the fame manner as if they had ftruck upon a rock ; but I am apt to think, that the etfefts are rarely fatal to ilrong buildings at the diftance of 50 miles, unlefs they lie on the fea-coaft, or arm of the fea, whofe water freely condudls the fhock. Rivers are likewife conduftors, and the buildings fituated on their banks are more feverely affefted than others which are remote from them. On the 9th of November, 1761, the day cloudy and fultry, thermometer, at ten o'clock A.M. j^ deg. the Southern horizon looked extremely bLck, and a prodigious fwell tumbled into Kingfton harbour, which raifcd the water 2 | feet above the wharfs. On this day happened an earthquake and ftorm at Carthagena, diftant about 435 miles, which did fome damage to the town, and choaked up the entrance of their port with fand. The next day the wind at Jamaica was S. E. vcrv fqually, attended with hard rain and thunder. On the nth, a biitk North fet in. In 1 766 (June), when a violent earthquake happened at St. Jago in Cuba (dillance about 95 miles), where it occafioned vafl mifchief, the unJulatioii was felt the fame night at Jamaica, tending from North to South, and fo (Irong, that it flopped the pendulum of every clock in the ifland, but threw down no building. It was ftlt here between 1 1 and 12 at night. The evening was remarkably ferene, the Iky perfedly clear, and the air unulually clofe. Some perfons, who were abroad, obferved feveral ftreams of light, or ignited vapour to the Northwards, darting up to a confiderable height, immediately before they perceived the tremor. A fimilar phenomenon was obferved juft before the great earthquake in Sicily (1693). Some country people, who were traveling, faw a great flame, or light, fo bright, that they took it for real fire; and, whilft they were gazing at it, the (hock began. I remember likewife, that, whilft I was fitting at table after diimer one dav, the air uncommonly fultry, the liOufe feemcd to be ftruck on a ludden as with an eleflrical fiiock ; and, at the fame inllant I heard a rumbling noiie, 7 and


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 619 and felt my chair lifted up on one fide ; I knew it wns the efFett of an earthquake ; and, looking through a window which faced the fca, i ohferved two flreams of fire, which feemed to delcend from fome black clouds, at a great diftance, into the water. The fliock felt in June, 1770, which broke out fomewherc about Port au Prince, in Hifpaniola, and about 230 miles diftance from the Eaftern diftrift of Jamaica, was more violent than the former one which happened at Cuba. It is faid to have thrown down all the buildings in that part of Hifpaniola, and even to have fwallowed up a mountain. Yet its efforts were fo much fpent, before they reached Jamaica, that only a few old chimneys, flightly built, and two or three crazy walls In the country, were thrown down by the fliock in this ifland. In the following year, 1771, feveral fiuart fliocks were felt here, and fome buildings damaged, but no perfons hurt. Many finall fhocks probably happen in thefe iflands, which efcape notice ; for even the greater ones have not been perceived by perfons who were traveling on horfeback, or otherwlfe In motion. They are doubtlefs, as well as hurricanes, defllned to anfvver fome wife, and perhaps falutary purpofe in the oeconomy of nature, although it rauft be owned, that they are a fort of medicines extremely rough in their op^rationj [0]. But if their eruption difcharges noxious effluvia into the air. It feems a providential remedy that ftiowers of rain almoft invariably follow any confiderable fhock, whofe fprinkling brings a fupply of frefh air, and correfts the unwholefome ftate of what has been vitiated. Thus It was ohferved, that a fall of rain greatly checked the ravages of the laft plague in London ; and, for this reafon, ilreams of water are fcattercd down Into wells and fiiafts, for purifying their malignant vapours. The fliocks I felt in the courfe of eight years were fix in number, and at the following times of the year. jd of March, 1 2th of May, 23d of June, I 7th of September, 26th of Odober, 15th of November. There were others, noted by other perfons, which I did not feel, or was not fenfible of; and fome were faid to be felt in January and February. But I think tliere feems to be no certain or fiated time of the year for them to happen. That which befel Sicily, before fpoken of, began the 19th of January. Thefe fits therefore feem not reducible, till we are better acquainted with their origin, to any diftinft periods ; but may happen from a particular combination of materials in the bowels of the earth, or a calual diipofition of the weather and elements necefi'ary for their generation. [u] In tlie litany ufed at Jamaica, the word earlhftahe h ahvays added to the hll of \i'hat ai-p coiniiionly c;illcd natural evils, 4 K 2 SECT.


620 JAMAICA. SECT. VI. HURRICANES. The limits of the trade-wind are fixed to about the 30th degree of N. latitude ; and thefe ftorms are feldom known to proceed beyond 1 8 or 20 N. They ufually happen after, or juft about the fun's return from the Tropic of Cancer; at which time the places neareft to the North of the Equinoftial are moft fubjeft to them. The fun, by its long ftay at the Northern Tropic, heats all thofe parts that are immediately under its zenith to a very unufual degree j and hence currents of dcnfer air may rufii from the climates further North ; which, coming in oppofition to the regular trade, may produce variable winds and calms, followed by terrible gufts, till the proper ftate of the air is reftored, and the trade is fettled again in the Eaft. All hurricanes come on either on the day of the full, the change, or quarter, of the moon. They begin from the North, veer b;ick to the W. N. W. Weftward, and S. S. W. ; and, when got round to the S. E. the foul weather breaks up. The inhabitants within their track are feldom taken unprepared, as there are feyeral prognollics of their approach. Firft, Extraordinary continuance of dry, hot weather, for leveral iponths. Secondly, On their near approach, a turbulent appearance of the Iky. The fun unufually red. The air perfeftly calm. The higheft mountains clear of fogs, and feen very dillinftly. The ftars at night with large burs round them. The fky towards the North Weft looking very black and foul. The fea fmelling unufually Hrong, and rolling on the coaft, and into harbours, with a great fwell. On the full of the .T.oon, a bur is feen round her orb, and fometimes a.lislo round the fun. Thcfc figns fhould be carefully watched, in Auguft, September, and October. Thirdly, Immediately before the ftorm begins, the wind commonly blows hard for an hour or two from the Weft ; which never happenWg but on fuch an occafion, the tempeft may with great certainty be cxpeded to follow. From the Weft it fuddenly chops to the NorthEaft; then backening to the Weftward again, veers about the compafs, until it fettles into the regular tmde. This ifland has been lels affedtcd with them, than the W!indward C;iribbt:e iflands ; where they occur frequently, but do not often pafs beyond Porto Rico. Th'. Lift, which happened on the 31ft of Auguft, 1772, was parti<;ularly deftrudive to them. This dreadful tempeft, which feems not V) gone furtlier South, than 15 degrees N. lat. fell on all the Car ib bee


BOOK III. CII A P. YIL 6zi Carlbbee iflands, in their turn, from that degree of latitude, and paffing along by Porto Rico, Hifpaniola, and the Soutli fide of Cuba, iWept acrols the mouth of the Gulph of Mexico, quite into the Bay of Honduras, in a courfe of near 700 leagues, or upwards ; for its place of origination is unknown. Jamaica, being fortunately fcreencd by the iflands of Hifpaniola and Cuba, which intercepted the main ftream of wind, efcaped without any material damage ; the inhabitants thought the weather a little tempeftuous, but were not alarmed at it ; the wind was chiefly felt on the North fide of the ifland ; but, in moft other parts, they had deluges of rain, which flooded the rivers to an incredible height, tore up l"everal bridges, and drowned a good many cattle, (hcep, and ibme. Negroes. A gentleman, who was at this time paflenger in a fmall veffcl bound through the Gulph of Florida, for North America, gave the following account. They had juft left the Weft end of the ifland, on the 31ft of Auguft, but could then perceive no appearance of approaching bad weather. The wind indeed got round to the Weji-ward, and continued in that quarter, blowing moderately, for three days. They fuppofed themfclves off the Cuba Qiore, in the afternoon of September the 3d^ and were then quite becalmed. On a fudden the wind came on violently from the North, and blew very hard till midnight. About. half an hoi:f afterwards it ceafed at once, and a perfeft calm enfued^ which lafl:ed only a few minutes ; when a contrary wind as luddenly began from the South j and, by its oppofition to the range of the waves, railed a moft terrible fea. At one o'clock this wind incrcalcd to a tremendous height, and continued, without the fmalleft abatement of its fury, till two : from this time it abated but very liule till noon, when it hauled round to the Eaftward, and there fettled into a moderate gale, which brought them clear weather again. The progrefs of this florm from the Northward, round by the Weft and South, to. the ufual quarter of the trade-wind, agrees with, and corroborates, what has been before-mentioned in general, allowing for iome fmall variations which may happen in places differently fituated. The third of September has been a remarkable day in the annals of England. It was the anniverfary of the two memorable vidories gained by Cromwell, at Dunbar, 1650; and Wojj' ifler, 1651 ; he died on tiie third of September, 1758 ; and the fame day produced one of the molt violent tempefts ever remembered there, and probably only to be equalled by this, which happened in 1 772, in the Weft Indies. Hurricanei-


5::. JAMAICA. IIurr'K'anes are always accompanied with great rain?, and a cool flatc of the air ; however deftructive therefore they may be in fome refpedi, they fertilize the earth, purge the atmofphere from malignant vapours, and bring with them a healthful feafon. The folio wino; is a llfi: of thofe which have been noted at our principal iflands : ityo — Barbadoes. 1720 — Barbadoes. 3674 — Ditto. 1722 — Jamaica. 1675 — Ditto. ^733 — Caribbees in general. 1691 — Antigua. 1/44 — Jamaica. 1700 — Barbadoes. 1764 — Martinico, and Carthagena, lyoz — Ditto. and partially at fome of 1707 — Caribbeeifles in general our Caribbee ifles. 1712 — Jamaica. ^77^ — Moll of the Caribbee ifles. The mechanifm of thefe ftorms does not yet feem to be fatisfadorily explained ; for, if thty were the refult of ftated eiJeds caufed on the Tropical atmofphere, by the fun's annual progrefs to, continuance near, and recefs from, the Northern Tropic, we fhould expeft to lee thefe gales more regular and uniform, or, at leaft, that they would happen at ftated periods. But, on the contrary, we find them variable, and feemingly much dependent on the cafual ftate of the atmofphere, in particuku" regions; iniomuch, that in fome years they have been pcrfcdily local, and fallen on fome one ifland, without difturbing the reft. Nor is the caufe explained why, when they happen, the wind Ihould always incline round by the Weftern points. But, in all cafes, ii very extenfive and unufual rarefatlion of the atmofphere in fome one place, may perhaps be nccefl'ary to produce them ; and I have observed, that, in our autumnal feafons, which fall out not long after the Equinox, we have generally in Jamaica a kind of hurricane in miniature ; for, after the Tea breeze has failed and flackened, calms enfue ; thin the feafon comes on generally with a moderate gale at firft from the S. W. and before the weather breaks up, it varies to leveral points of the compafs, till it is fixed in the N, E. The analogy hetwcju tbclc little conflids and thofc greater ones, which conftitutc a -true hurricane, is very remarkable. I cannot here omit the prefcription which the learned Doi^lor Hales has given us for abating t^". force of thele ftorms. For this purpofe he advifes the firing a good number of Iky-rockcts, or hoiiting paper kites, one tied to another, with a rocket, or piftol, faftened at the tail of the uppermoft, to be let off by means of a match, on attaining its gicattft elevation. This projcft is founded on the fuppofiiion that as


BOOK HI. CHAP. VII. CzT, as the air, for (bme days preceding thcfe ftonns, is liot, fuUry, and loaded with inflammable fulphurcoiis vapours, thefe vapours may be thus let off prematurely before too great a quantity of them is collected for a natural explofion, and fo the pabulum of the ftorm be confumed. This fcheme puts me in mind of the impudent quack at Port Royal, who, after the earthquake, in 1692, advertized his '' Jpeclfic pills to prevent earthquakes.^'' The experiment, however, would afTord a very pleafing fight, if it was to be tried from the tops of the Blue Mountains ; but the greated difficulty might be, how to make the. kites afcend in that calm and breathlefs atmofphere, whi^h is obferved for feveral days preceding a florm ; this, 1 muft contefs, is an unlucky clrcumftance, and not eafy to be got over. Let us, notwithftanding, do the juftice to Dr. llales to acknowledge, that, In ftarting fuch a propofal, he begs it may not be treated as ridlculcus^ but jnerely as an experiment worthy to be tried, confidering the great importance of the objeft ; if, therefore, no anfwerable fuccel's could probably be hoped from it, we muft at leaft applaud the benevolence of the ingenious author. At the beginning of a hurricane, and whilft it rages, there are inceffant corrulcatlons of a brutiunfuhnen, not fucceeded by any thunder. Thefe feem to be rather of the phofphorus kind, than t!ie matter of real lightning, and appear to generate wind and vapour, accelerating and augmenting, inftead of oppofing, the momentum of the gale. But if we admit the doftor's theory, that the atmofphere is replenifhed with fuphurcous vapours, it is wonderful that they fhould remain unenkindled; or, if exploded, that no thunder fhould follow; on the other hand, muft not luch vapours, if exilting in the air, and hovering over any country, be quickly put in motion, and difperfed by the irrefiftible fury of thefe violent winds, from the inflant they begin to blow there. The inhabitants of fuch a country know, that the ilorm is over, fo foon as they hear thunder. And whenever vehement gufts of wind fct in, with all the fyraptoms of an approaching temped, they are relieved by this found from every apprehenfion. The explofioa of ignited matter, therefore, leems to be the roz/^ ^i? ^r^tY of hurricanes. And fo far, perhaps, the dodtor's theory may be plaufible ; that, if, upon the immediate appulfe of the ftorm, a fufficlent large body of vapour could be fired in a certain region of the air, and in the fame manner, and with the fame effeft, that the elefiric fluid caufes In darting from one cloud to another, the refiftance, formed by thefe undulations in the higher atmofphere repeatedly made for fome time, might poflibly repel the current of wind in a degree, and diminifh its nwmen-tumi.


6 24 JAMAICA. turn ; but it reems not very probable that Iky-rockets and pillols would aiilvver the like purpofc. SECT, VII. LIGHTNING and THUNDER. The lightning here, if it is not too nigh, forms one of the mort: magnificent objeds in nature, particularly at night, when it moves in a thoufand different figures, and exhibits an appearance far luperior, in fplen,dor and beauty, to the fineft artificial fire-works. It is fometimes fecn juft glimmering on the horizon ; at other times, darting along a diftant huge cloud in variegated diredions, ftrait or ferpentine ; or playing round its edge in circles or meanders, beautiful and curious, glittering in flreams or jets of the pureft, livelieft golden colour. I have remarked three apparently different Torts here ; I fay apparently becaufethe mediumol air, through which it wasobferved, might caufe a difference of the perceptible colour. 1. The red which follows rain. 2. The white, happening indifcriminately with or without rain ; and which is fure to do mifchitf, when precipitated before rain. 3. Brut urn fulmen, which flaflies with great vivacity, but without noife, and is ufually attended with much rain, and wind. The found of thunder, when it happens in fome parts of the mountains, being reverberated from hill to hill, and rock to rock, occafions a continual echo and roar; and during the rainy Icafons, this Ipecies of mufichas been known to laftfeveral hours, without any paufe or interval. When the clouds are high in the atmofphere, the thunder is a deep hollow roll through the whole extent of vapours, as if moving horizontally. When the clouds hang lower, the thunder-claps are much louder, more fmart and compaft, refcmbling the near explofion of a cannon. I have remarked that the white lightning, when darting in a finall, thready, ftream, has caufed a filvery, or metallic found, very different from any other. The deep, hoarle, rolling thunder is chiefly heard at the firlt onfct, and during the continuance of the rainy feafons. The thunder fhowers, which are the harbingers of tjiofe ieafons, or that happen upon the breaking up of dry weather, or come with a violent flurry of rain, are produced from large detached clouds, and the claps are then fmart and loud. Every clap or explofion from the clouds here, fceins to generate a thin vapour, expanded like a (lieet, in a direction againft the wind ; and tliis expanfion continues with more and more dcnfity till the um is wholly \ ciled, and the fea-breczc lulled into a calm, by repeated claps. The dcnle


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 625 denfe.air, caufeJ by the rain thu; fli;ikcn down, forjrjs a new wind from the land, which feems to dii\c the clouds from ofl" the tnoiiiitain, to lea ; and when thtlc vapours arc entirely difen[>a;'cd from tliefe high lands, the thunder generally ccafes ; they pafs filently over the level country, where there is nothinjj to obflruS: their courfe. Sometimes, when their eleftricity appears as it were exhaufted, the fea-breeze returns again, checks iheir paflTige, and impels them back to the mountains, where they either hold on their courfe pcaceablv, or, meeting with new colledlions of other clouds, re-adl the fccne over again, though with lefs turbulence than before. The expanfion, or luift, remarked to encreafe after every fiafh, may probably be owinc to a vacuum caufed by the lightning, into which the denfer particles immediately rufh ; or an extreme rarefadion of watery vapour, caufed by the fame aaent, which necellarily riles into a higher flation in the atmofphere, for it always appears elevated far above thofe clouds, out of which it has been formed. The atmofphere of thele thunder clouds is perhaps colder and more denfethan the particles which coniiitute the fea-breeze; and therefore rcfifts and overcomes their motion to a certain diftance. Hence, probably, the realon wh}', after thefe clouds have p.iffed entirely away, if the fun fliould break out again, with vigour enough to heat the air, over that trail of country where the fiiowers had fallen two or three hours before, 'the breeze gradually revives and ventilates it, but with a feebler cunxnt. Thunder and lightning often happen at the fc(ting-in of the Nbrtr.'s in November, and at their breaking up in April or May; they feem neceflary inftruments to bring about thofe periodical changes of the ftated winds, which, but for tlieir operation, would not b.^ effetled without a hurricane, or a fit of turbulent weather. Thunder-fqualis arc common to the months of June, Julv, Augufl, Septetijber, particularly In the mountains. At the town of Kingfton there Is feldom any; the vaft mountains behind it draw off the clouds on that fide, and being open towards tlie lea, on the other, the vapours from land pnfs off at a great hei-'ht above the town, free of Interruption. At Spanilh Town there is more of it, ihe Healthiliire-hiils to the Southward giving fome impediment to the clouds ; fo that when, they are checked at all by a fea-breeze. In their parage to the ocean, they are either accumulated, or drove back againit the land wljid ; and in either cafe, are fubjeft to be broken and diffufed in (ho%vers. It is curious to remark here the condant fteming attraction between the mountains and the rain. Heavy fhowers are frequently leen to traverfe the ridges, avoiding a nearer way acrofs the plain--, and lo Vol. II. 4 L creep


626 JAMAICA. creep on to' the utmoft extremity of fome cape or headland, till they reach the fea. According to Mr. Franklin's theory, a fea-cloud, charged with the flcdiic matter, paffing over a land-cloud, which is non-eledlrifed, parts with its tire by the atti-aftion of this inferior cloud, and transfers fo much it, till they are both brought to a par. This do£lrine may help us In accounting for the frequency of thunder and lightning in feme didrifts of the mountains. Lightning happens ofteneft in the midland range, and Weftern extremity of the ifland. The land-wind, when it is frefh at night, blows off a large collection of vapours, confiding partly of exhalations after rain fallen during the day, of fogs, or of clouds drained of their eleftric matter, by repeated difcharges. Thefe in their paflage over the mountains are often retarded by the atmofphere, perhaps, of lofty woods, or currents of reverberated air, and do not fail many leagues out at fea till morning j on the fettingin of the trade or breeze, they are forced back again upon the land, and the fea-clouds that follow, being raifed much higher, Injedl their eleftric charges copioufly into thefe noneleftrifed landvapours, as foon as they come within the fphere of their a£lion. In general thefe landclouds hang low [0], rarely floating above two-thirds the height of the Blue Mountain ridges, and are loweft during heavy rains; at which time, there feems to be a concatenation of vapour from the uppermoft cloud downwards, refembling a bundle of wooll fufpended In the air, the loweft flocks appearing broken and divellicated near the earth. After the land has been parched with continued heat and drought, thefe lower fleeces hang fo little a difl:ance above the furface, as to feel fome effeft from its reflected warmth, anddiflblve into rain. The firft fprinkling is feen to re-afcend from the ground, like vapour from a hot iron plunged into water. Thefe effluvia, being of the nature of land clouds and non-eleftrifed, fometimes do not alcend far before the eleftric fluid is imparted to them from above; whence it follows, that, if any building, tree, or animal, be within its fphere of attradlion, fome fatal accident may happen. The lightning which does mifchlef ufually feems to dart In a continued ftream, the velocity of motion giving it that appearance, and falls on fome objeft elevated above the earth's furface, not always preferring the higheft ; but felefting that conductor which has Ibmething of iron, or pointed materials to attra(it it. [/] Occafioncd by the gicat rarefaiflion of the atjnofjihere, wliich favouis their defcent thioughj a medium fpccifically lighter than themfclves. 4 • A houfe,


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 627 A houfe, having a pinnacle or fliarpened point on the top of the roof, will therefore be more obnoxious to its ftroke, than another which has no fuch attraftor. I have known a building not exceeding 14 feet in height, having the hip-rafters united in a perpendicular ipike, or port of timber fliarpened at top (as pigeon and mill-houfes arc commonly conftru6led here) ftruck with lightning, when a dwelling-hoiire, diftant onlytwelve yards from it, and at leaft 30 feet in height, but having no point of attraftion upon it, efcaped untouched. Hence It is, that cocoa-nut, cabbage, and other trees of the palm kind, are oftener ftruck than any other. In general, the fmall twigs of trees, or perhaps their atmolphere, attradl lightning. The lofty and maffive cotton trees are frequently deftroyed by it, or mutilated in their principal branches, which is vilible to travelers, in many parts of the mountains. From thefe obfervations may be inferred, the expediency of building low houfes in the country parts of this ifland, raifed on a foundation not exceeding three or four feet, with a roof of moderate pitch, and taking care not to fix any wooden or metallic fpikes byway of ornament at top, unlefs a conduftor or rod be eredted for its fecurity ; and except in very low and watery fituations, where buildings of two ftories are proper for health. Trees planted too near, fuch as the cocoa and cabbage, are natural conduilors, and may endanger it, by being rent in pieces ; but, at a moderate diftance, they will, by their fuperior elevation and attrafting points, catch the eledric fluid in thunder gufts approaching very near, and tranfmit it to the earth without injury to fuch buildinsrs. Houfes thus conllruded would likcwile be more fecure againft the effefts of a hurricane or earthquake. Travelers, overtaken by a thunder guft, fhould prefer a drenching, or a fhelter under a rock, rather than under trees on the road fide, as fuch trees are often deftroved. In all buildings here, care (hould be taken to have neither iron bars nor bolts, but rather faftenings of timber; by which precaution, accidents might be much prevented. Mofi: of the houfes, that I can remember to have been ftruck here by lightning, having attrafted it by iron bars acrofs the doors, or fome other iron work about them. Before the fctting-in of the periodical rains, it is ufual to fee flafliings all round the horizon. Whenever lightning appears in the evening in that quarter from whence the wind has blown all day, the enfiling day is generally rainy. Large flafhings over the S. E. fummit of the Blue Mountains, indicate rain to the flat country lying to the Weft ward of them. 4 L 2 I have


628 J A M A I C A. 1 have frequently in the night-time, in a clcur ferene air, obferved fmall orbs of fire kindled in the higher region, and defcend ver}' rapidly to the earth. Thefe arecommonl}'' c^\\Q.6JJ:ooting-Jlcirs; they are probably fulphnreocs, nitrous, or oleaginous particles, which, meeting with other ejflirc'ia at a certain elevation in the atmofphere adapted to enkindle them, fuddenly fliew themfclves in flame, and burn downwards, till the whole tr.;in of inflannnablc matter, which reaches lo the earth, or near it, is con fumed; for, lometimes, they appear extinguifhed before they reach it. TJie quantity of thi^ inflammable matter is feldom fo large as to produce any nolle. It is net an abfurd conjcdure, perhaps, that fuch colleiflions may often contribute greatly towards that havock which accompanies lightning. When the atmofphere of a cloud, impregnated with the eledric fluid, happens to come in cont-jft with fuch phlogiftic particles collected in the air, they may join their force together, and precipitate towards the earth, in the fume direfvion as the meteor would have taken fingly. I think it is not to be doubted, but that fuch meteors are as often enkindled in the day-time, as in the right, though, by reafon of the fun's itronger light, they m.iy not be viiible. As they are moflly feen in a calm and warm ftate of the air, and in dry weather, fo they are regarded as prefages of drought. The moil remarkable meteor obferved here, was feen on the 22dof January, 1770, about feven in the evening. The weather preceding was hot and dry, and accompanied with fome very flight earthquakes. This meteor came from the W S. \V., increafed in its apparent bulk as it rofe, and, when it arrived at the meridian, emitted lo ftrong a light, that, for more than the fpace of a minute, thefmalleft print or writing might eafily be read. There were darted froni the main orb, fix or feven fmaller portions, refcmbling very large brilliant ftars, which prelently difappeared. After this, the orb aillimed the appearance of a large ball of fire, loling its bulk and fplendor gradually, and, changing its former direction to that of E. S. E., it defcended towards the horizon with a long dufky reddifii coma, fomewhat interrupted acrofs, until it entirely vaniflied. The whole time of its duration, from the time it was firft feen, was about five minutes. [Plate B.] — Its firfi appearance. )G — Its courle, and incrcafe of bulk as it arofe. y — Its greatelt elevation and di\lfion into minuter portions. At this period it was moft refulgent, and appeared much larger than in any other part of the arch, and without any tail, as it alfb did in the next flation. J— Its


m Tiiftxce/i&xS' Vo/ a


BOOK in. CH A P. VII. ti<) I — Its nppeaiMncc, as it changed its direflion downwards, nnd to the E. S. E. It now began to lofe its luilre, and aflumed the complexion of a red-hot coal of tire, having fome parts brighter thanothers, as it were in concentric circles. J — Its phnfis i~5 it defcendcd with a faintly-luminous, reddifli tail, tranrverfely interrupted with dark or dulky portions, before the whole entirely difappeared. About 14 or 15 minutes after it ceafed to be vifible, there was heard a very full and loud report, like the explofion of a powder magazine^ which gradually declined into a found relcmbHng dlfiant thunder, or ih" diftant rumblin? of feveral coaches over IIciks. It uas f^cn with O the fur.e appearances at Luidas, PortMcTant; and many other parts of the ifland. Whether the explofion, that was heard, happened on its attaining the meridian, or at the time of its vanifliing, is uncertain; but, in either cafe, the diflance rauft have been alniofi: incredibly great. Sound is fuppofed to move 1000 feet in a lecond of time. \n the firfl cafe, it mull have been diflant from the obfervers about 214 miles; and, va the fecond cafe, about 18 i|, allowing the interval at the lowclt computation, or 14 minutes; conltquentlv, in the former cafe, it mull have been very far indeed above our atmofphere, at the height commonly fuppofed of 45 to 50 miles: and its velocity muft have been immenle; lince, taking' the Icnpth of the ifland for the chord of the arcli apparently defcribcd (equal to about 150 miles), it traverfed over it in fo f}\ort a fpaec of time as that of 5, or, at moli, 6 minutes. If, therefore, it could admit of menluration, the feries would turn out amazingly great. Whether it portended a change of weather feems not to be very certain; but in May following, the heavielt rains fell after the long drought, that had been known for the time of year. But to return: The means whereby the mifchief of lightning is vv^arded off from m:ns habitations, is one of the greateft and moit ufeful difcoveries that, the prefent age has afforded. Experiments in eleflricity fliewed, that the dangerous effe61s of this SEtherial fire might be obviated, by attracting it upon iron rods ercfted to the height of fome feet above the roofs of building*, and carried on to the earth below, to the depth of two or three feet in a direction, diverging from the foundation ; or into a well, or piece of water. The ingenious Mr. Franklin, whom 1 have often quoted, was the firflwho introduced this invention into prac^tice. He ereded feveral of thele apparatus on different buildings in Philadelphia; experience L^upht him how to improve them flill further ; and at lenpth that e!e2 ment.


630 JAMAICA. ment, which ufcd to be fo tremendous when left to its own iingoverned rage, fubmitted to his controul, and fuffered itfelf to be conduced with as much facility along his rods, as water through a pipe. He eftablifiied the invention upon this corollary ; viz. That iron being the kibftance in nature which kerns moft readily to attra£l the eledtric fluid, or matter of lightning, therefore an eledric or thunder-cloud, palling over an iron conduftor properly difpofed, will be difarmed of its ammunition. At fuch a time the rod will vibrate, and upon the appulfe of a finger emit fparks, with a noife, or fmall explofion. Profeflbr Richmann at Petersburgh was deflroyed by an apparatus, in which the conduclor was carried no lower than the table in his ftudy. Whilft he was attentively obferving it during the paflage of a thunder-cloud over the houfe, a ball of fire fhot from the conductor to his forehead, killed him infiantly, and damaged the room. The reafon afligned for this accident is, that his body was at that very time the nearefl: to the earth, and therefore flood in place of a conductor; and it is therefore juftly to be concluded, that if the iron chain, inftead of topping at the table, had been continued down quite into the earth, this misfortune would not have befallen him. But I do not know if we are to call it unfortunate; it was only the facrifice of one life, perhaps, to effedl the prefervation of many ; and it fuggefted a hint for the more fecure method of fixing conduttors on houfes, for the better protedion of their inhabitants. When this fluid is poffeiled of a metallic condudor, it is found to go in quefl of none other ; and is never known to deviate, if luch a condudor is of fufficient diameter or lubitance to carry off the whole that may happen to fall upon it at any one time. If luch an apparatus, of due folidity, was fixed on lofty church fpircs, it would probably refcue them from a fate that is now become too common. At prelent, the tall rod, on which their vanes revolve, fcrves as a ready attrador to draw the lightning down upon them, and conduds it as far as it beds into the fl:one or wood-work. But, in confequcnce of an obftinate and infatuated adherence to old culloms, we hear of infinite devaftations committed by lightning on fome or other of thele venerable fabrics every year, in England, and other countries; ftones are difplaced and whirled away to a great diftance, lead melted, bells thrown down, walls Iplit, and timbers fired or fhivered into atoms. A pradice equally wrong flill prevails among maritime people, of fixing iron Ipindlcs on the top gallant marts of fliips, which by their power of attradion have often produced the molt fatal confequences, as well to luch veflcls, as to the perfons on board. A few years ago, two vellels failed from a port on the North fide of Jamaica, bound to North America,


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 631 rlca, and laden chiefly with rum; on board one of which, a gentleman embarked paflTenger, with his wife and child. They had not left the port many hours before a thunder gufl: came on; the lightning, attrafted by the iron fpinclles, fell on the fhip in which the gentleman and his family were, and fct lire to the rum (probably cauled by the' iron hoops on the puncheons), which blew up in a moment, and not a foul on board efeaped; for the accident was fo fudden, that the veffel in company could give no affiftance; and fo fatal, that it did not appear any one individual furvived the explofion. Some veflels belonging to North America are furniflied with con'^ duftors; others have wooden nuts or caps on their top gallant heads, which are lefs dangerous ; but too many in the trade retain their f pindies ; and, therefore, it is no wonder, confidering their multitude, that many are every year ftruck, and much damaged, and others fent to the bottom, and never afterwards heard of. As refin is a non-conduftor, or a repellent of the eleftric matter. To it has been obferved, that when the deck of a fhip has been well paid over with a coat of refin and turpentine, it has proved a means of preferving it, by ftrongly refilling the entrance of the lightning; and fuch an inftance I remember to have read, of a fmall vcffel that was ftruck on the coaft of Guiney. It is a good remark of Dr. Hales, that natural philofophy is not a mere trifling amufement, as fome are apt to imagine; for it not only delights the mind, and gives it the mod agreeable entertainment, to lee in every thing the great wifdom, power, and goodnefs, of the Supreme Architeft; but is alfo the moft likely means of rendering the gift of kind Providence, this natural world, the more convenient and beneficial to us, by teaching us how to avoid what is hurtful, and purfue what is mofl: ufeful and conducive to our welfare. Thankful therefore ought we to be to that Gracious Being, who, at the fame time that he has for wife ends involved fome parts of his machinery in fuch concealment, as to be infcrutable by the human intelleft, has, neverthelefs, permitted our attainment of the ufeful parts of knowledge, or fuch as tend to inftruft us in the better prefervation of life and health. Before I enter upon an examination of the different methods propofed for fhaping and fixing the ele<3:rical rods, recommended for preferving buildings, I fhall relate the hifiory of fome accidents by lightning, which fell within my notice or information, in Jamaica, becaufe they will appear to corroborate very ftrongly the modern theory of that fluid. In 1758, a white man having taken (helter under a large cotton tree


632 J A i\I A I C A. tree of feveral feet diameter, from a thunder fliower, the llglitiiing fell on the tree, fevered it in two, and killed bimj his body was driven to fonie diftance by the force of the ftroke. From the effeds, obferved on trees that have been ftrnck with any conliderable flafh, it feems, that the lightning, by fuddenly deftroying •the air whieh furrounds them, or highly rarefying the :-;ir and aqueous particles contained within them, caules their tubes and veflels to burlr afnndcr, much in the fame manner as large blocks of folid wood are rent in pieces, bj the expanfion of gunpowder, which deftroys their <:ontinuity. Two Negroes afcending towards the fummit of a hill, with iron bill-hooks on their heads, in a thunder-fform, were both killed by a liroke of lightning, attracted ; no doubt, by the hooks. 1763, in September, the lightning fell twice in Spanifh Town, but pro\identially hurt no perfon. The firft ftroke darted on a tall tamar-ind tree, and fhivered it. The fecond, which happened Sept. 3, fell on two cocoa-nut trees about 50 feet high, which grew between the -gate of a yard and the corner of a dwelling-houfe, about 15 feet lower from the ridge to the ground, and diftant from the trees about 20 feet. There were other buildings near, which were taller than the fummit of the trees. It was evidently attracted by the fliarp apex of •the fpatha which rifes from their crown, tapering into a fine point. After the lightning had cut off their tops, and fet them on fire, it •darted off to the hinges, and other maffive iron work about tlie gates; it wrenched the pofts, on which they were hung, out of their place.?, and fhattered the gates. Another fiream flew to a fmallcr gate about iive feet high, diredly in a line with the fore-door of the houfe, and not above twenty feet diftant, wrenched the iron work, and damaged -the gate; but not the fmalleft injury was done to the houfe. On the 14th of the fame month, the clouds appeared extremely .black over Liguanea, and there feemed to fliU a very hard rain. 1'he leeward edge of thefe clouds was high in the atmofphere, and extended over Spanifh Town, but not fufRcicntly far to the Weftsvard, fo as to fcreen it from the fun. The air was confequently very fultry, and we had one fevere clap of thunder, which, following the ilafli in a fecond of time, was fuppofcd at no great diftance from us. About ten minutes after two o'clock P. M. I was jult about quitting my chamber, where I had been dreffing, when 1 heard a violent bounce or fliock againll the door, m if fomc perfon on the outfidc had violently thrown the whole weight of his body at once to force it open; almoft at the fame inflant, the faflies of the windows being up, 1 felt -the impreffion of a fudden (troke of air upon me, fuch as happens to


BOOK 111. C II A P. VII. 633 to perfons flnnfllng near the moutli of a cannon, when fired off; and immediately fucceeding this (hock, I heard thunder at fome diftance. I was at a lofs to account for it, efpecially a';, upon enquiry, I learnt that tlie whole hoiifc h:id been (hook, and thnt the windows rattled as if nn earthquake had happened ; but as 1 felt no tremor in the floor, I could not afcribe it to thru caufe. Some Negroes, walkin.; in tlic ftreets, faw n ball of fire defcend towards Port Royal harbour, and prefently after a colunm of bhieidi fmoke arifc, to which fuccecded the (hock of the explofion, for fuch it proved to be, of the powder magazine at Mofquito Point, diltant from Spanidi Town in a dirccl line fomcwhat more than fevcn mile^:. This magazine was built entirely of flone, bomb proof, and flood on fwampy, fandy ground, clofe by a lagoon, and ju(l within the N. E. ballion of the fort, next the harbour. As the nature of the foundation, from the near approach of water to the furface, would not admit the finking of the floor, all the powder was ranged feveral inches above it, to be the more fecure from damp exhalations. On that day the whole fea-flore of powder belonging to the Valiant man of war had been landed at the fort, and laid up in the magazine, and there were in it befides, about 2500 barrels; in all abol!it 2900. The gunner, who attended the fi^owing it, had juft finished his work; and having locked the door of the magazine, ran to the inlet of water which flows up along the North flank of the fort, where he haftily ftripped off his cloaths, and plunged in, to wa(h away the fmut and dull of the powder, with which he was plentifully befmeared. This probably faved his life; for, whilft he was diving under water, a ball of fire darted from the clouds, and the tremendous explofion immediately fucceeded. A Negroe, paffing in a boat between Kingfton and Paflage Fort, faw the lightningfall, and prefently afcer the magazine blew up, caufing fuch an agitation in the water round him (for he was at that time but a little way to windward of the fort) that he gave himfelf up for loft. A centinel, who w'as potted on the N. E. ballion of the fort, clofe by the magazine, on the firft appearance of the ball of fire, had the prefence of mind to jump through an embrazure, to the foot of the curtain next the harbour, and by this means was preferved. But another centinel, who fl:ood at the entrance of the area, leading to the magazine, was inftantly dcflroyed, together with almoft every loldier and Negroe upon the efplanade of the fort, and two loldiers, who were walking on the beach of Saltpan Bay, near a mile diftance, by the fragments of (lone. The magazine itlelf was torn up from below the foundation; even the very pil-s on which the firft courles of mafonry had been laid, were drawn out, as it were by the root, and thrown different waysj leaving a ipacious hollow of 15 feet deep, and 50 feet over, which was foon converted Vol. II. 4 M into


634 JAMAICA. into a pond by the influx of water that drained into it. It was thought that the yielding of the fand in this part, proved the caufe of the explolion's not committing fo much havock, as otherwife would have happened if the foil had been rocky, and capable of refiftance. The fiUing up this cavity took afterwards near 9000 ton of rubbifli, and coll the country 1925/. fterling. Within the fort, moft of the guns (24 pounders) on the adjacent baftion were difmounted; and one gun thrown clear over the rampart into the harbour, from the N. E. flank, which was damaged for near 140 feet of the wall. A new building near the magazine, fitted up for the officers barrack, was tumbled into a heapof rubbifh. The commandant's hoLife was only in part demolifhed; and here lieut. Monfel, of the 74th regiment, was driven through a chafm made in a partition wall behind him, and fo terribly wounded, that he died not many days after; the guard room, gunner's apartment, warehoufe, and other offices, were very much fliattered. The explolion, having vented its fury chiefly on thefe buildings, took very little etTeft on the foldiers barrack j this is a ftrong ftone building, and at that time contained a great number of men, with their vt'ives and children, none of whom providentially received any hurt, although a part of the roof at the N. E. hip was torn away, and many large ftones fell like bomb-fhells through the roof and floorings. In (hort, what with the mangled carcafes of the unhappy fufterers, the ruin and devaftation of the buildings, and the dilperfion of their materials over every part of the fort, the whole exhibited as fhocking a fcene, as if it had juft undergone a furious bombardment. There were killed in and near it, 4 officers, I officer's lady, about 25 private men, II Negroes, — Total 41 Wounded (privates and Negroes) about 50 Total killed and wounded, about 9 i The damage occafioned to the fort and buildings, with the lois of powder, furniture, utenliis, &cc. cannot be eftimated at lei's than 43,000/. fterling. The powder marked the courfe it took towards Paflage Fort N. W. to a confiderable diftancc, fcorching the leaves and fmallcr branches of the mangrove trees the whole way ; but that the whole of it was not enkindled, appeared from the black fliower of unconfumed grains^ which fell all about the houfes at that place, near two miles diftant from the magazine. The


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 6^s The fhock Imprcflcd upon the air was very fenfihly Mt at Spanifh Town, as has been rehited^ where it damaged the roofs oftwohoiifcs in a N. W. dircdion from the fort, and afretlcd the doors and windows in general. The conciiffion was felt in a circle of lo or 14 miles round. Some faid, that windows were broke at the diftance of 17 miles, but this wants confirmation. Such was the deplorable cataftrophe occafioncd by one flafli of lightning. I ninll now endeavour to trace the fource of it. The magar.ine had only one dooi^, which was very folid, and hung with large itrong iron hinpes, to the Eallward. The windows, or airholes, were likcwife leciired with lattices of iron wire. But, confidering all circumftances, tlie very low fituation of this door, and that on the ramparts (which were higher than the magazine) there was a line of guns, more likely to altraft, and many fhipping in the harbour, whofe marts prefented nuich nearer and more convenient conduftors, it is not probable that the lightning was drawn down by any of the iron work ufed about that flrudure. The gunner declared, that, in fhifting the powder, there was a large quantity of duft fcattered about in the air ; is it not then more likely, that the particles of powder were dri\-en by the breeze to a certain height and diftance in the atmofphere to leeward, until they came within the fphere of a£lion of the eleftric matter in the clouds, then hovering over the adjacent country; that they were thus ignited, and thus communicated the flame in an immediate dire6lion to the very door of the magazine? It is to be recollefted, that the lightningmade its defcent but a very few minutes after the powder was carried in : and, upon the whole, therefore, this feems to me the moft probable way of accounting for it; from which, if it really was the caufe, we may conclude, that even an iron conduftor placed upon, or near, the magazine, would not have preferved it; for there was then, in fa6V, a train of powder laid, and continued from the door, to Xhtfiife^ or eledric fire in the nearcft cloud. The diftance of time between the aerial impidfe (from the expanfion of the powder) and the found of the explofton at Spanifh Town (7 miles) was about two feconds, as nearly as I could compute; but, not being able to learn the exadt time when the accident happened, I could form no calculation of the progrefs of the found, for the given diftance of place. From the 14th of this month to the 26th of Oftober, we had a great deal of thunder and lightning every day almoft, with but few intermiffions. On the 2ith of Odober, in a fquall of rain driven oft' the moun^ tains, the lightning fell again in Spanifli Town on a tree in a gentleman's garden, very near two houfes. It deftroyed the tree, and defcending to a pepper bufti at the foot, cut it afunder in the middle, but neither damaged the houfes, nor hurt any perfbn, 4 M 2 la


82,6 JAMAICA. In 176-6, It fell on the turret of Port Royal church, and damaged it* very much. The powder magazine in Fort Charles, at no great diftance from it, has a folid terraced roof of brick, of a conical figure, round which are fixed feveral iron hooks, for better enabling workmen to repair it. Thefe were all corroded with ruft, notwithftanding which, if they had lain within the fphere of adion of the lightning's ftroke, the confequences would, in all probability, have been verv terrible and fatal. In the Vale of Luidas (the date forgot) the lightning fell upon a bell, which was raifed on a timber frame about i 5 feet high, very near the gable end of a gentleman's houfc. The axis upon which the bell turned, had an iron handle fixed into it, to which the rope was fattened. This handle made an acute angle, prefenting its point upwards, and fo became an attrador. The bell was tofl'ed to fome dittance, the frame fhivered ta pieces, and a fplinter of it driven through one of the windowfh utters, but no other damage occurred to the houfe. Happening in the month of Oftober to be traveling in company on the Northfide, in the midfl: of the rainy leafon, the rain poured down in fuch torrents, that our cloaths were all dripping wet to the very fkin ; and my hat was fo drenched, as to let the water percolate through like a lieve y in this condition we were fuddenly inveloped with a multitude of little fparks of pale blue fulphureous fire, (napping like the eledric difcharges, but muchfmarter and louder, accompanied by one of the moil: dreadful claps of thunder 1 ever heard; my horfe was lo terrified, that he jumped at once upon a rock on one fide of the road, wheve he flood trembling in every joint; 1 was obliged to dilmount, and get him off as w-ell as I could to a contiguous bank, and was not a little pleafed, whtn 1 found that none of the company had been hurt. We attributed our efcape to thequantity of rain water ftreaming from our cloaths and horles, which pro-? bably condu61:ed away whatever particles fell upon us, though we were not fenfible that any came fo near. After this, my horfe required neitherwhip nor fpur to urge him on; for at every clap of ihundrr, though i.t a preat diftance, he mended his pace to the end of the journey. In July '767,. the lightning llruck-.the main mail of a merchant^fiiip at Morant Bay^ and fpllt it, in pieces.In the fpjne month it killed a Nearoe bov, who had t:ken refuse ur.-der a tree from the rain, near the foot of Guy's Hill in Sixteen-milewalk. And in this month it alio fell on a cane-piece in the country, and burnt about eight feet fquare of cane?, I examined the ipot, but could not perceive any veftige of furrows, or perforations in the earth. There was much thunder during this montli and Augufl; the weather, in the latter month extreiiicly hot, and one day, in Spaniih Town, the th'.rmometer role to 93, which was i degree highci: than ever 1 remarked. here, either before or lince. Bti ng


BOOK III. CIJAP. VII. 637 Being, in the month of Otlohcr, at a houfc ui St. Mary's parifli, after fcvernl dry, warm days, a heavy rahi came on, and about two o'clock P.' M. twa very fmart flafhes of lightning were obfervcd near us, the thunder following almoft inrtantaneoudy. The houic I was in ftood on part of a high hill, and within about 200 yard^ of the fummit, whereon a large cotton tree grew, at Icaft Ho feet in height, and near the bafe of it was u bed of the Ibrrcl plant: I had feen the lorrel in the morning looking very well, and healthy; but on the day after this thunderfhower, it appeared all blafted, and the leaves as if finged by fire; from that time it withered, and perifhcd. It was concluded, that a ftream of the lightning had fiillen upon it; but it was a matter of the iitmoft furprize to find, that fo vaft and lofty an objeft as the tree did not appear to have fuflalncd any damage, either in its limbs or bark; nor can I as yet account for it, unlefs by liippofing, that every external part of the tree was wetted with the rain water, and thus gave an ealy conduit to the electric fiuid in its defcenc to the earth. As the progrels of lightning is nearly inllantaneous, and that of found above one thoul'and feet, or (according to Sir Ilaac Newtou) about one thouiandone hundred and forty-two feet in a fecond, the thunder and lightning happening nearly in the fame indrant, proves the explolion to have been very near us, S E C T. VIIL Themeafis ofprcferving Ships, Buildings., and Perfons from Accidents by hightmng. Firfl, in regard to (liips. We are to guard ac^ainft thofe thunder clouds, which come very near us. The mafl of every (hip which is befct vvith thofe briglit lights called conui%:mts, or theyiv^; dc St.' Elvie of the French, is within the fph^re of adion of a thunder cloud. Anciently, when thefe were feen, they were only confidered as the attendants of a fi:or.m,.and no confequence was drawn from them; hut from the late difcoveries, they are known to be no other than a, modihcation of the iame meteor which coiiftitutes thunder and ligluning. They demonflrate, that danger is near, and that its effetls. prevented. This maybe done by connefting arod of iron or other metal with the fpindles at the top of the marts, and conduft-ing it down their fides in any convenient direction into the lea water,. By this means,, the accumulation oi the matter of thunder and lightning will be prevented, to a coiifiderable dilfance from the ihlo, by us.being filently difcharged through the rod ; and, if a ftioke of li^^htniiig (hould fall, it will be coiiduded intothe fea without damage*, which


:(i^$ JAMAICA. ••which c.)!iiiot 'oc doiie hy tlic miiTt? and yards themfcU'CS ; for thefc from their heinlit, ilgurc, and confticiient parts, without ;ui apjiar.itii3 of this kiiu!, tend to direcl and condudt the lightning into the ihip. .The application of fuch rods to the marts of fhips is neither difficult nor expenfive.; as ^ brafs rod of 4 an inch thicknels may, in mofl: caics, he large enough to anl'vver tliis purpofe. Era(s is /-preferable to iron in. hot climate?, as being lefs liable to mil; and any metal, corroded witii ruft to tlie centre, ceafes to be of any life, in dircvfting the I'ghtning, in the degree hoped tor from fuc!-i an apparatus. 1 liave been informed by a gentleman, a native of Piiiladelphia, who had icon many of thefe apparatus fixed on houfes in that province, that the iron conduclors ieldoin ruft: there; but, by reafon of very frequent difcharges of the electric fluid through them, they acquire a fine fleel-blue colour: and Mr. Franklin relates, that in courfc of fome experiments for giving polarity to needles, were ihey fometimes finely blued, like a watcli Ipring, by rthe eledric flame, which was always the more permanently fixed, the greater the diicharge that was fent through them. In Jamaica, iron is very fubje6t to rutt and fcale off; here, therefore, the rods had better be made of copper or brais, and painted or gilt ; the coat of paint does not impede the deicent of the eledlric matter through the metal, though a diicharge of this kind will perhaps detach the paint, as was proved in an eleftrical experiment. In other refpefts, iron or i\ee\ is the heft condudor, as being leaft apt to fufe ; next copper; then brafs ; as in the following feries : Degrees of expanfion by Mufchen-1 Iron. Steel. Copper. Brafs. broeck's experiment ... J 80 85 89 no I fliall purfue Mr. Franklin's inftrudions in regard to the apparatus proper for fecuring buildings, ftating at the fame time his general theory on the operations of this fluid ; as his remarks are not only curious but very ufeful, and neceflary for better underftanding this fubjeft. Whatever properties we find in eletflricity, are alfo the properties of lightning. This matter of lightning, or eledlricity, is an extremely fubtile fluid, penetrating other bodies, and fubfifting in them equally -diffufed. When there happens to be a greater proportion of this fluid in one body than in another, the body which has moft, will communicate to that which has leaft, till the proportion becomes equal, provided ihe diftance from them be not too great ; or, if too great, till there be proper coududois to convey it from one to tlie other. If


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 6j9 If tlie communication be through tlie air without .my coiidudor, a bright hglit is feen between the bodies, and a found is heard. In the eledrical experiments, this hght and found is called the electric fpark and fn ap ; but in the great operations of nature, it is called lightning and thunder. — If the communication of this fluid is by a condu£tor, it may be without either light or found, tiie fubtile fluid pafling in the fubftance of the condutftor, IF the coaduftor be good and of fuflicient bignefs, the fluid paffes through without hurting it ; if otherwife, it is damaged or deftroyed. All metals arid water are good conduclors. Other bodies may become condudors by having fome quantity of water in them, as wood, and other materials uled in building ; but, not having much water in them, they are not good condudors, and therefore are often damaged. — Glafs, wax, refui, filk, wool, hair, feathers, and even wood perfedly dry, are non-condudors ; that is, they refill inftcad of facilitating the pafluge of this fluid. When this fluid has an opportunity of pafling through two condudors, one good and fufficient, as of metal, the other not fo good, it pafles in the beft, and will follow it in any diredion. — The clouds have often more of this fluid in proportion than the earth ; in which cafe, as foon as they come near enough for within the fl:riking diftance), or meet with a condudor, the fluiJ quits them and flirikes into the earth. A cloud fully charged with this fluid, if fo high as to be beyond the ftriking diftance of the earth, paffes quietly without making noife, or giving light, unlcfs it meets with other clouds that have lels. — Tall trees and lofty buildings, as the towers and fpires of churches, become fomctimcs condudors between the clouds and the earth ; but, not being good ones, th;,t is, not conveying the fluid freely, they are often damaged. Buildings that have their roofs covered with lead, or other metal, and Ipouts of metal continued from the roof into the ground, to carry off the water, are never hurt by lightning ; as, whenever it falls on fuch a building, it paiies in the metals, and not in the walls. — When other buildings happen to be within the flriking diftance from luch clouds, the fluid pafles iu the walls, whether of wood, brick, or ftone, quitting the walls only when it can find better condudors near them ; as metal rods, bolts, and hinges of windows and doors, gildings on wauilcot, or on frames of pidures ; the filvering on tiic backs of looking glafies, the wires for bels, and the bodies of animals as containing watery fluids. And, in palling through the houle, it follows the diredion of thele conductors, taking as many in its way as can allift its paiTage, whether in a llraight or crooked line; leap"^S


.640 J A M A I • C -A. iiig from one to the other, if not far diilant from cacli other, oiilj r-ending the wall in the fpaces wliere thefe partiah good conductors are too diftant from each other. ^An iron rod being placed on the outfideof a building, following the form of the roof or other parts, and continued from the highelt paits down to the moift earth in any direction, rtrait or crooked, v/ill receive the lightning at its upper end, attracting it lo as to prevent its ftriking any other part; and affording a good conveyance into the earth, will hinder it from damaging any part of the building. A fmall quantity of metalis found able to conduct a great qujntity of this fluid. Wire no bigger than a goofe-quill, has been known to conduct (with fafety to the building as far as the wire was continued) a quantity of lightning that did prodigious damage, both above and below it; in North America, it is common to make it of half an inch, fome of three quarters, or an inch diameter. — Mr. Wilfon is of opinion, that the conductors fliould be made of one piece of metal otily, and of an equal diameter throughout. What this diameter ought to be, may depend on the magnitude of the building to be protedted ; but, 'fince no one can fix the limits of the greateft difcharge that may poffibly happen, it is fafejl to uie conductors, or rods, of fuch thicknefs as to promife fecurity againfl: the nioft violent attacks ; therefore, ^ gooje-qu'ill ivlre is certainly not fo fafe as one of larger dimcnlions; and, in confirmation of this, we are told of a bar of iron of one inch diameter, erefted in Martinico, which, by a violent ftroke of lightning, was reduced in one part to the thicknefs only of a Qender wire. A rod therefore of i \ inch diameter, or even 2 inches, will not be too large. — Chains arc improper, as well as pieces of metal linked together, becaufe the links though appaI'-ently in contaft with each otlier, are not abfolutely fo, but are divided by fpaces imperceptible to the eye ; and the lightning, in endeavouring to pafs from one link to another, frequently melts them by its violent adtion, whilfl: the other parts remain entire. — The rod may be fafiened to the wall, chimney, ^c. with Itaples of iron. The lightning will not leave the rod (a good condu6tor) to pafs into the wall (a bad conduftor) through the flaples ; it would rather, if were in the wall, pafs out of it into the rod to get more readily by that conductor into the earth. — If the building be very large and extenfive, two or more rods may be placed at difFeient parts, for greater fecurity. — The lower end of the rod fhould enter the eartli fo deep, as to come at the moilt part, perhaps two or three feet; and if bent when under the lurfacc, lb as to lie in a horizontal line fix or eight feet I fufiicil: lliciru'as a drolTineP:, or feme ntlicr dclcvl in tlic fuhfl.incc of the bar, at (hit part of it, which ciiulld an inteintption to tlic ircc ciurcrt of the ilciftric ttreani through it. I from


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. ,641 from the wall, and then bent again downwards tlirec or four feet, it will prevent any damage to the ftones of the. foundation. For the upper part, Mr. Franklin propofes, that it fliould be raife'd fix or eight feet above the higheft part of the building ; and that it (hould be tapered gradually to a {\vii:JImrp point, and the point gilt, to prevent its rufting. — But a diftcrence of opinion has arifen concerning the uie of po'nitcd rods, inftead of hlunt, or unpointed. Mr. Franklin's fyftem is, X.\\-M points have an equal power to throw off, as to draw on, the ele£lric fire." — '^V\^^iX. points attradl ele6lricity at greater diftances in the gradual filent way ; but that, knobs will attradt a ftroke at the greateji diftancc." — That ponts tend to re" pel the fragments of an electrified cloud ; but that, knobs dxdiW xX'^iW nearer." To thefc pofitions Mr. Wilfon has obje^^ed very fubftantial reafons. That it does not appear that po'ints draw off and condu£l away lightning imperceptibly, without explofion, during a thunder ftorm ; but, on the contrary, there are many inftances, where violent explofions of lightning have happened to conduftors that were Jlmrply pointed., and three in particular, the account of which was given in Mr. Franklin's publication ; where \\\t points were diflipated or deftroyed, and a fmall part of an iron rod melted at the place of the point's infertion. — That every point is to be conlidered ^% Joliciting the lightning, and, by that means, not only contributing to increaje the quantity of every adiual difcharge ; but alfo frequently occafioning a difcharge, where it might not otherwife have happened. If, therefore, we invite the lightning, whilft we are ignorant of what the quantity or the efFe£ts of it may be, we may be promoting the very mifchief we mean to prevent. Whereas if, inftead of pointed, we make ufe of blunted condu6lors, thofe will as effeftually anfwer the purpofe of conveying away the lightning flifely, without that tendency to increafe or invite it. — Points are meant to invite or draw off the lightning continually ; but we find, from experience, that they are extremely fubje6l from their tenuity to be melted down, and deftroyed ; they are, therefore, fo far rendered ufelefs and vain, as no one can exailly fay what the duration, or what the effedts, of any florm of lightning may be ; and many difficulties may occur in the timely replacing of fuch as are fo melted, or rendered ufelefs. Lightning ads with more power upon Jlmrp points, than blunted ends, in the proportion of at leafl 12 to i. And as blunted conduftors, of fufficient dimenfions, are found capable of conveying away the lightning fafely whenever it attacks them, why fhould we have recourfe to a method which is uncertain, and may be dangerous ? Vol. III. 4 N A for-


642 JAMAICA. A former building on the Eddyftone rock was fet on fire by lightning. The fixing a condudtor therefore on the prefent light-houfe was thought highly proper; and it was refolved to put up a condu(5tor laithoiit a point, that no lightning might be unnecejfarily folicited to the building; and that all the lightning, which accidentally fhould fall on it, might be conveyed away without injuring it. This condudor was fixed twelve years ago, and the building has fince received no injury from lightning. Upon the lame principle this gentleman protefts againft elevating the condudtors or rods too great a height above any building. The longer the condudtors are above any building, the more danger may "be apprehended from them; as they will then approximate nearer in their eftedts to thofe that are pointed." It is, I think, pretty clear from the remarks offered by Mr. Wilfon, that Mr. Franklin, when he made his eledl:rical experiments, was confidering only how he fliould befl: invite or draw down the matter of lightning ; and that he found parp points anfwered this purpofe better than others. But the great and effential principle being, that lightning, when it defcends towards the earth, prefers a me" tallic condudlor to every other, and will readily leave any other for it;" the conclufion is plain, that there can be no polTible reafon given, why we fljould ufe methods to invite a ftroke; fince all that is required for our fecurity is, to catch that body of lightning on a metallic condudtor, and convey it fafely into the earth ; which body of lightning would otherwife, and if no fuch metallic condudor had been provided, have entered the fubftance of the building, and perhaps laid it in ruins. I have feen feveral points taken from rods or (::bndudi:ors that had been ftruck by lightning in North-America, and the metal of all of them appeared to have been greatly afFedled by the eledlric adtion ; the fine apex of fome was difiblved into a little round ball; others had undergone a greater degree of fufion ; whilft; fome were only bent into a crooked figure, but the points of all were rendered obtufe. This variety of effedl was occafioned by the greater or lefs quantity of the fluid which had fallen on them; the points, by redfon of \\\t\x Jinenefs alone, were fufed or diflipated, as a very Imail wire would have been in the fan^e fituation, whilfi: the thicker parts, and the rods themfclvcs into which they had been riveted, remained Uninjured, but condudcd the lightning fafely to the earth ; whence it is certain that, if no fuch points had been fixed in the rods at all, "^rhe latter would have condudted equally as well without^ as with them. Many


BOOK III. CHAP. Vir. 643 Many of the houfes in Janjaica are conflruded with hip roofs. A perpendicular piece of wood, or a fmall mart, might be ereded againft the wall, at one or both ends of fuch houfes, at fuch an elevation as to fupport a copper rod rifing about three feet above the ridge. If an iron or fleel rod is made ufe of, it ought to be frequently painted, to hinder the air from corroding it. Buildings made of fir entirely, having no metal for the faftenings, ornaments, or conveniencies, are the lead liable to be attacked by lightning. Houfes therefore covered with pitch-pine fliinglcs are in fome degree fecurer than others, fo long as their turpentine or rcfin remains unexhaufted. Sulphureous and inflammable vapours arifii-g from the earth are eafily kindled by lightning. So alfo the vapours fent out by ftacks of moift hay, corn, or other vegetables, which heat and reek. Wood rotting in old trees, or buildings, fuffer the like effe(3:. Such are therefore eafily and often fired. Thatch appears therefore to be an improper covering for building. And it may be owing to this, that old thatched barns are fo frequently fired in England by lightning. For fecuring magazines of powder Mr. Franklin propofes the eredling a maft not far from them, which may rife fome feet higher than the top of them, with a thick iron rod (e. g. four inches fquare) in one piece, faftened to it, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water, which lies not far from the furface in the places where fuch buildings are commonly fituated. Iron is a cheap metal ; but if it were dearer, the expence is infignificant, confidering the important fervice to which it is applied. The rod is advifed to be of this thicknefs, to allow for its wafting by ruft ; which however might be retarded by painting with common white lead and linfeed oil ; it will probably laft as long as the maft, and may be renewed with it. A perfon apprehenfive of danger from lightning, happening during the time of thunder to be in a houfe not fecured by a rod, will do well to avoid fitting near a chimney, a looking-glafs, any gilding on. pidtures or wainfcot. The fafeft place is the middle of the room (fo it be not under a metal luftre fupported by a chain) fitting in one chair and laying the feet up in another. It is ftill fafer to bring two or three mattrafles, or beds, into the middle of the room, and, folding them up double, place the chair upon them ; for they being not fo good condudtors as the walls, the lightning will not chufe an interrupted courfe through the air of the room and the bedding, when it can go through a continued and better condu

644 JAMAICA. equally diftant from the walls on every fide, and from the cieling and floor above and below, affords a tolerably fafe fituation in any room whatever; and what indeed may be deemed qnite free from danger of any ftroke by lightning, except what may happen from fplinters, or other materials violently fcattered about by the force of an explofion. The heft fecurity, and the only one to be relied on, is, however, a rod or metallic conducflor ; which in countries particularly fubjedl to thunder and lightning, ought to be fixed at every building. It is true that not many buildings are flruck, nor perfons dcftroyed, in a year; but in all countries there are particular fituations more expofed to fuch accidents than others, and there are minds fo flrongly impreflcd with the apprchenfion of them, as to be very unhappy every time a little thunder is within their hearing ; the advantage of fixing fuch condudor does not therefore confift alone in making us fafe, for it contributes alfo to make us eafy. The firoke it iecures us from might have chanced perhaps but once in our lives; but it relieves us a hundred times from thofe painful apprehenfions, which diflurb our happinefs. Terrible as this fluid appears when left at liberty to do mifchief, it is certain, that with refpecl to its operation upon animal bodies the efi'ed: is fo infl:antaneous that no pain can be felt; it is the eafiefl: of all deaths; and in this the mercy of the Divine Being is obvioully nianifefted : the particular ufes of it in the grand machinery of the world are not as yet invefliigated to any extent, but as far as they are difcerned it appears fubfervient to a variety of great and beneficial purpofes. A phyfician at Paris is faid to have introduced the praflice of electrifying the bed-chambers of fick perfons, by exciting frefh currents of the etherial fire, and thereby expelling noxious vapours, or a pefliilential difpofition of the atmofphere ; and it is aflerted, that this method has been found, on repeated experiments, a far greater purifier of foul air than even a ventilator. The lightning, which caufes fo much difmay, contributes doubtlefs to the prefervation of animal life, and the prevention of pefl:ilential diftempers; fuch of them, at Icafl-, as owe their origin to a putrid, ftagnated, and contaminated atmofphere. They could not probably be difiipated, and the air reltored to falubrity, without the agitation of winds, or the virtues of this fubtle fluid excited into aftion ; this, by confuming the fulphureous and malignant vapours, which made the air detrimental to health, adapts it to fufliain the life of men and other animals, and probably even of vegetables. Ordinary obfervatiort on


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 645 on the different Hate of the atmofphere, before and after a thunderfhower, confirms this. The air before thefe fhowers fall is ufually clofe, fuffocating, and fometimes even putrid. But afterwards, what cool, refrefhing and delightful fenfations arife from the change which lightning has occalioned, by burning away thofe foul vapours! It is inoie particularly neceffary in climates where the heat of the fun is continually loading the air with corrupt and infalutary exhalations. We find therefore the largeft fupply of lightning diftributed to fuch regions which are nioft in want of it; and by the wifdom of the Divine mechanifm, it is likewife provided for the coldeft climates, though but rarely diflinguidied there by any vifible atftion, except at thofe fealons of the year, when by the greateft fummer-heats, which fill their atmofphere with morbid effluvia y it becomes moft ufcful and neceffary to corredl them. Dr. Hales therefore well remarks, that fuch a fulphurcous (late of the air is very prejudicial to the inl.abitants of fome countries; and, when of long continuance, makes them iviJJjfor lightning to purify it. So powerful and dudile an agent is doubtlefs applicable to a thoufand good purpofes ; and, in addition to what have already been fpoken of, let me arid, that it fubdues the moft tempeftuous winds, and is to be deemed the chief preventative of that univerfal devaftation fuch winds would always caule within the Tropics, if they were not reftrained by the effects of lightning; and which they never fail to produce, when thofe effeds are for a time fufpended. SECT. IX. RAIN. The ufual prognoftics of rain in the Southern parts of this iHandare, lightniiig at windward — large towering clouds — fleecy or black, riling in the South-eaft, the South, or South-weft — great heats and faint light fea-breezes for fome weeks or days — immediately before the fall of rain a Wefterly or North-weft wind, for the moft pait gentle: at the fame time heavy clouds, with thunder approaching the land from the Southern points — the tops of the Blue Mountains appearing perfedlly clear of clouds or mifts — the objedts upon them tolerably diftini5t,. feemmgly much nearer than ufual, or the whole wearing a blucifti caft — great flaftiings of lightning at night in the Southern hemifphere, betoken rain in fixteen or eighteen hours. After three weeks of dry weather, a flight fliock of an earthquake was felt at ten in the evening : to this fucceeded a violent rain in the mountains at two in the afternoon the next day. On a change of wind from the South-eaft: to


646 JAMAICA. to North or North-eaft, and vice V'fsd, the clouds to the Eaftward feem colledted in huge piles, and prefage rain, which feldom fails accompanying thefe changes. When cockroches are oblerved in dvvelling-houles towards evening, flying and running about in great hurry and confufion, a fhower may be expedied very fpeedily. A more than unufual difturbance and noife of rats in the night-time is likewife a pretty certain prognoftic. In November, on a change of wind from North or North-eafI: to South-caft, drizzling fliowers generally follow. When the evenings are clofe and fultry at the full moon, or a day or two before or after, and a bur furrounds her dilk very near, rain will probably foon happen. Heavy black clouds from the South and South-weft always bring rain and wind. In Auguft, after dry weather, when there is much heat in the air, and but little breeze, if a wind fprings up from the North, rain and thunder may be expefted. ii\ September, October, November, and May, fultry, calm weather, and great corrufcations in the evening round the horizon, are certain forerunners of a hard rain, and moft commonly thunder. Towards the latter end of September, when the wind is gentle, fluttering, and at no fettled point, the clouds fiudtuating difl;erent ways, large towering clouds appearing (if in the day-time) of a reddifli hue, rain and thunder may be expefted from the Southward. If in the month of Odiober the roaring of the fea is heard at Spanifli Town, when the atmofphere aloft is hazy in the morning, as if a mift was elevated to a great height, thefe are indications of approaching heavy fqualls with rain. Rain moft frequently happens after the full of the moon, A thin feud obferved towards evening, flying quickly from any quarter, portends a fmart wind in the night from that quarter, either with or without rain, but more generally with. Thefe tokens rarely fail. The heavieft rains do not fall here exadlly at the time of the equinoxes j but ufually about thirty days before the Vernal, and as many after the Autumnal ; but the latter conform to more regularity in their periods ; and when the Vernal feafons fail, the Autumnal are fure to be more plentiful and of longer continuance than ufual. There is every reafon to believe that the rains happen very differently now, both in time and quantity, in this illand, from what they formerly did ; I cannot produce a better teftimony of this change, than by exhibiting the flate of them at Spanifli Town in 1688, and comparing it with recent obfervations. 3 The


BOOK III. CHAP. VI. ^47 The following Is Sir Hans Sloane's Table for that year, abridged for greater perfpicuity. Months.


6i.8 JAMAICA. TABLE of one year's rain at an average taken frcm 1761 to 1764, compared with Sir H. Sloane's.


BOOK m. CHAP. VII. 649 *' heat the atmofphere to fo great a degree, as where the days are longer, and the nights fliorter, or none at all." He adds, that •' he never found more heat here, than in fomevaUies near Montpelier; and that the favannahs are tlie more temperate, becaufe the fun' beams are but very little refleded on the body in thefe open plains; *' and the hills adjacent to them are not high enough to interrupt the ** current of the wind, or to reverberate the fun's heat." This however muft be underftood only in a general view, for fome of thefe favannahs are encircled by high lands; but thofe which run down to the coaft, which perhaps were chiefly alluded to by Sloane, are lefs hemmed in than any other. The rain precipitates in this ifland with a violence rarely fecn in England, efpecially in thunder-fliowers ; a traveler, overtaken by one of them, will find no garment, except a cloak of oiled fluff, fufficient to guard him from being foaked to the very fkin. I have known the water, after about half an hour's riding in fuch a fhower, percolate in rills through a flapped hat. On thefe occafions it is always molt prudent to ride a brilker pace than ufual, in order to keep up the perfpiration, efpecially in the evening. We may apply in effedt to the rains in this ifland, what lord Orrery remarked on. thofe of Italy, juft changing the name of place. After being accufliomed to them, we think the clouds only drop in Rngland\ but here they melt in inftantaneous cafcades. In England they only produce (howers; with us, they pour down cataradts. In truth, the dif** ference is amazing." A heavy fall of this kind was obferved to penetrate feventeen inches into the earth. The foil was what is diftinguiflied here by the name of brick mould. General quantity of rain in one year at the places undermentioned. Lowlands of Hilly parts Pifa in Paris. Surinam, Barbadoes. Mountains England. ot England. Italy. ot JamiicK. Cubic inch, 22 4* 4-3^65 19 r 48 58 tI^ 63 ^V^ Perp. feet. inch, F. I. F. I. F. I, F. I. F. I. F. J. "o 3 63 7 i'#5 I 7I 4 00 4 'OtIjt S 3 I'oV Taking the whole ifland throughout, fixty-five to feventy inches appear to be about the medium of rain that falls upon it in feafonable years. In thofe diftridls where the woods are thick, lofty, and extenfive, as in Portland, St. George, the interior parts of Clarendon, St. Elizabeth, and St. James, there is an almofl: daily drizzle. So along the whole midland range, the condenfations mufl: be very frequent, otherVoL. II. 4 O wife


650 JAMAICA. wife thofe vaft rivers, which burrt: forth at a prodigious elevation among them, could not be fo plentifully fupplied at thofe times when the lowlands are parched with drought. Not that they owe the whole of their waters to the rain that falls here, for they undoubtedly derive the grcateft portion from the ocean, by percolation, or fome other fubterraneous procefs of nature. But they receive a large increafe from rains and dews. If thefe woody parts were cleared, the rains that might fall there would be more moderate, and the rivers would lofe a part of their bulk. This vifibly has been the cafe with refpedl to fome others, which antiently ran much higher than they do at prefent ; for being laid open to the fun and wind, the quantity loft by evaporation, together with what is diminifhed for want of the ufual fupply from dews and rains, their ftreams muft: neceflarily decreafe to a certain degree. Yet as the condenfations proceeding from the height of ridges would ftill continue, therefore thefe midland parts would ftill have rains futhcient, though probably but feldom fo exceflive as at prefent ; and thus they may be faid to inherit a permanent fertility, which will infure fuccefs to their cultivators in the drieft years ever likely to happen here. Extraordinary falls may fometimes happen, which may unufually augment the annual calculation, for no two years are or can be exadl; but an average of fix or icven may turn out nearly fo. One or two dry years are almoft uniformly fucceeded by one or two wet ones, fo that what fails in one part of the average number, is perhaps made up pretty regularly in the other. The rain which fell in this ifland during the hurricane (Odl. 20, 1744) was meafured by an ingenious gentleman, and found to equal the general quantity that falls in England in a whole year. So in the year 1754, the fall at Barbadoes was 87 _^^ cubic inches, equal to 7 feet 3 -^J^-^ inches perpendicular. Whereas the medium of five years amounted there to no more than 64 -rW> equal to 5 feet 4 iVo inches, far too little for its necell'ary fupply. Seven inches are allowed in mnft parts of Europe for evaporation ; what remains is fuppofed to re[)lenilh the earth and vegetables with moifture, and fupply the wafte of fprings and rivers. But as the evaporation muft be in a far larger quantity in the W'eft-Indies than in Europe, fo we muft ufe fome proportion in applying the rule to both places. The evaporation in Jamaica is conftant all the year liirough j indeed, from fome late difcoveries, there are grounds to fufpedt that it never ceafes in the coldeft countries, proofs having been given of an evaporation even from ice. However, in Jamaica it fuffers no interruption from a dcfedl of heat in the earth or atmofphere. Now


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 651 Now as feven Inches are about one third of the fall in the lowlands of England, we may venture to fubtraft one third from what may generally be fuppofed to fall in Jamaica. Making a dedudtion then of 21 inches for evaporation, there remain 42 inches, or 3 l feet for the purpofes beforementioned ; nor will this be thought too much in a country where vegetation is fo rapid and luxuriant, and which abounds with fo great a multitude of rivers, rivulets, and fprings. But we cannot allow much more for evaporation, confidering that the earth here in moft parts abforbs the rain very greedily and copioufly, and that in other parts the fliarp defcent of hills and mountains difcharges it into the. rivers almoft as fall as it falls. If the illand was entirely clear of its woods, perhaps a much lefs quantity of rain would fall than at prefentj but what is now fupplied is not difproportiontd to the demand of its vaft forefts, which probably could not vegetate with lefs; and, being attradlors, they are doubtlefs the caufe of much more frequent fliowers than would otherwife happen: for the fcale of nature is nicely poifed in this refpedt, and every part of the machinery correfponds, according to a moft wonderful plan of harmony and fitncfs. We cannot but remark the goodnefs and wifdom of the Deity, in tluis admirably adjufting his diftributions. If a quantity of rain equal to 87 cubic inches, or even b^,-, fliould annually fall in England, that country would be deluged; the fruits of the earth would perifh, and the farmer's toil be vain. The power of the fun at that diftance from the equator would be too feeble to exhale a fuflicient quantity of it. On the contrary, if fo fmall a portion as 21 inches only fliould fall in the whole year at Jamaica or Barbadoes, this would fcarcely be half enough for fuftaining or promoting vegetation in thofe iilands. After balancing the daily exhalation caufed by the folar heat and conftant breezes, the ground would be left parched, and every herb, plant, and root, would probably die, fountains and rivers be dried up, and the miferable inhabitants be extinguiflied by thirft and famine. The like wife provifion and combination are likewife difcernible in thofe fiiowers which are fo often leen defcending on the mountainous parts of Jamaica, whilft the lowlands receive not a drop. The fteep acclivities of many of their ridges, like the roof of a houfe, throw off the water with a velocity not much inferior to that with which it falls upon them ; hence the foil of fuch parts would foon grow infertile, if it was not fo frequently moiftened with feafohahle fprinklings. The lowlands, not permitting the rain that falls on them to run off fo fpeedily, retain their huraedtation much longer ; the 4 O 2 water


652 JAMAICA. water here finks deep, and the mountainous refervoirs fupply the fprings and wells below with a liberal (lore. I have no meafurement of the dews which fall in this ifland, but in many parts of it they are very confiderable, inlotnuch that in one of the mountainous diftridls, where there is a fcarcity of fprings, the cattle are fufficiently watered by the dew which overfpreads the herbage every morning; in genera], in the mountains, it is fo heavy that a perfon, walking among grafs, or through a cane-piece early in the morning, would foon be as wet as if he had gone through a river. It is always leaft before heavy rains, and moil: copious in the cooler months of the year. Yet I obferved once, in the month of January, that, although the weather had been very warm for the time of year, and dry, with (trong fea-breezes niglit and day, which are not common in this month, the dews in the South lowlands were unufually heavy. In Spanifli Town they are much larger than in Kingfton, owing perhaps to the vicinity of the Rio Cobre. Hail is a phenomenon that has often been obferved here. In 1757, a fhower fell at Port Royal. The flakes were fome of them large, but foon difTolved. In the midland mountains it is more common; tranfient fhowers happening almofl: every year, generally in Auguft, or September. They fall from thunder-clouds, floating at a confiderable height, and produce a fudden great change to coolncfs in the air. The freezing point in this atmofphere is probably not higher than about two miles and three eighths in the hottefl fealbn of the year [] ; lince, on the fummit of the mountain Pichincha, in Peru, which is little more than two miles and an half in height, and under the line, the thermometer [0] was obferved, on the 17th of Auguft, to fink four degrees below the freezing point, about fix o'clock in the morning. S E C T. X. Thermometrical Remarks. Comparifon of Heat and CooLnefs, during one Year, between Charles Town, in South Carolina, and Spaniflj Town, in Jamaica. Monti). '" January, February, March, AprU, May, June, Place.. Hottelh


July, Auguft, September, Oaober, November, December,


654 JAMAICA. Quito,


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 6ss' Lat. N. Sun in S o 18.341 10 20.290 20 21.737 30 22.651 40 23.048 50 22.991 60 22.773 70 23.543 80 24.673 90 25-055 From this table we find the heat of the Northern part of Greenland, which lies in lat. 80, compared with the heat on the Northern part of Hifpaniola, which lies in lat. 20, is as 24.673, to 21.737, ^^ lome days when the fun is moving through this quarter of the Ecliptic; for it is the length of time that the heat is applied to any particular country, as well as the degree of it, that determines the quantity of heat communicated to it. Where, therefore, the days and nights are of pretty equal length, the fun's heat cannot exert itfelf lb powerfully, as where there is no night, and confequently no interruption to its aftion for many months ; and the heat, which arifes limply from the prefence of the fun, is, from Halley's theory, reducible to this problem, viz. that the lun's heat, for any Imall portion of time, is as a redangle, contained under the fine of the angle of incidence of the rays producing heat at that time. For thele complicated reafons, although, when the funis vertical, and darts a perpendicular ray, it is fuppofed to ihike with gieateft force; yet, in thole countries where it is vertical twice a year, in palling to and from the Tropic of Cancer, the greateft heat is not during the inlfant of its verticalities, but fome weeks after, when it is returning from one Tropic to the other, and its ray^ oblique. A Dutch captain afferted, that he had been quite under the North Pole, where he found the climate as temperate as at Amftercam, and the lea quite open. This aflertion has been deemed not imj robable, confidering that the fun's rays, though falling very obliquely in that latitude, mull neverthelels produce a very great degree of heat, from his long continuance above the horizon ; lo, notwithftanding the obliquity of the rays, it is found, that in the middle of iummer the thermometer fometimes rifes higher in Sweden, and at Pcteriburgh, than under the Line. But, for the better comparifon of climates, and the degrees of heat, under different or under parjlicl latitudes,, it is greatly to be wilhed, that.


656 J A M A I C A. that we were turiiinied with more regideis, and thole formed with more regularity. To be corre(5lly accurate is Icarcely to be expeded, iiiice thermometers, graduated alike, often vary much from each other in their indications. But what chiefly impedes the enquiry is, that experiments, made in ditlerent parts of the world, are by inflruments of very different graduation. It one llandard thermometer was univerlally in ufe, a comparifon of remarks or regifters, formed in different parts of the globe, or in the hme country, would be very pra'flicable, and lead to a knowledge of their refpective temperatures with far mure precifion. The tliermometers I made ufe of were a ipirit and a mercurial, both of them graduated according to Fahrenheit. Yet, upon comparilbn, the former always ro'e two degrees iiigher, excepting in one inftance, in x^pril 1762. The weather, havinj?' been fultrv and (howerv for fomc time, became on a fudden very cool, and cleared up; when, to my great furprize, I oblerved the mercurial tliermometer had rifen two degrees higher than tiie other, I could only account for this, by fuppoling, tliat, as the parts of mercury are more iulceptible of immediate impreffion from changes of the atmolphere than thofe of fpirir, they are likewii'e fooner affe£led with any fudden rarefaction or denfity. The elalficity of the air in the upper part of tlie tube has been found fometimes to overcome the expanfion of the fpirit; and often the air, when very hot, is faid to make the Ipirit rife difproportionately high in the tube, v.'hen what is contained in the ball is not equally affedted. The ball of my fpirit thermometer was covered with a mahogany cap ; upon taking off which, in the month of February, the liquor funk immediately two degrees, I left it uncovered a whole night ; and, early in the morning, after fuffering the niglit air to blow upon it freely, through a window left open for that purpofe, I perceived it fallen fix degrees lower than had been ufual when the cap was on. I obferved frequently, that, the houfe being fliut up all night, upon viewing the thermometer in the morning before the fun was any height above the horizon, the air within doors was warmer by five or fix degrees than the air abroad. Similar variations have been remarked in London. 1748, june II, the thermometer out of doors, in a fhaded air, was at • 83 1 Within doors, at 68 a difference oi fifteen degrees and an half; which is almofl: incredible. At nine in the evening, without doors, 74 5 Within,


BOOK III. CHAR VII. 657 Within, 71 July 23, Without doors, at nootr, 84 Within, at I P.M. ^ 85 On the i.ith of June the thermometer within doors, at nine in tlic evening, was ^higher than at noon; thougla the thermometer out of doors fell, ,cpnfiderably. The realon alligned for this was, that theair without was ftill warn-ier than the air within, and continued to communicate its heat to tlic internal air. So Mr. Rouppe, at fea, in the month of July,; 1760, in latitude 18. N., found the open air at night fix degrees cooler than the air between decks. If t'lermometiersy ufed in Jami'.ica, werefufpended in a ihady place out of doors, where they would be more afFedled by changesin the atmofpliere, the tables of heat and coolnefs for that ifland might be far more accurate. The air within doors there, efpecially in the towns, is in general much hotter than the air of any fliaded place without. Hence the degree of heat raay be erroneoufly fuppojed many degrees higher than what it really is. On the other hand, in England, where the houfes are much loftier, tlie walls more mafly, and many apartments impervious to the fun, and where its rays never enter into rooms of a Northern expofure; the air within doors, on the liotteft days, is much cooler than without ; and obfervations, taken there by a thermometer fufpended always within doors, will confequently give a fallacious regifter of the heat of fummer air, and often reprefent it to be much lefs than it really is, as the example above cited moft clearly demonftrates. In making obfervations in Jamaica, (where the inhabitants are amphifcii) regard (hould be had to the fun's flation, whether in the Northern or Southern Tropic. When he is in the former, the inflrument fliould be placed in a room not inhabited, having a South afpefl, the window left open ; and due care taken that the air may freely, ehter, v/ithout any refiedted gleam of fun-fliine, or heat from any wall or'building oppofite, 'Or too ftrong a light. When he paffes to the Southern Tropic, it may be moved to the Northern lide of the houfe, with the like precautious. The mercurial thermometers, 1 have reafon to believe, are the moll: to be depended on ; and they have this further advantage, that the ball is generally uncovered, fo that every variation of the atmofphere ipnmediately afFedts the whole mafs. Perhaps, two inllruments, or i Vol. III. 4 P even


658 JAMAICA. even three, placed fide by fide, would enable the obferver to be as exa£l as poffibk, by noting their deviations, and taking the medium of all. Fahrenheit's conflrudion, from its fimplicity, is more generally approved of, and perhaps more ufeful, than the other fcales. But, whatever inftrument is thought mofl eligible, the graduation ought always to be noticed and prefixed to the diary. A want of this has made many regifters unferviceable, in refpeft to the advantage that might be hoped from a comparifon of climates ; and dependent on this, the analogy of fymptoms and difeafes correfpondent to the various changes of the atmofphere in different countries. There are no lefs than 1 6 or more of thefe inftruments of various inventions; fo ttiat a perfon, ignorant of their graduation, or the method of comparing them one with another^ would find himfelf greatly puzzled in the attempt. In 1740, Dr. George Martine publiflied fome very intelligent eflays on the fubjecl of Thermometers, and added a plate, exhibiting the graduation of 1 5 of thefe inftruments in a comparative view ; this Defogul'iers has given {p. 364) vol. II.) and it will be found extremely ufeful to experimentors. SECT XL BAROMETER. According to four years obfervations at Spanijh Towtu In one Day One Year Jamaica. In England, Inch.-ioths. Inch.-ioths. Inch.-ioths. Inch.-ioths. GiCiitell fall on the approach of a gull or "1 „ galeof v/iiid from S.W'. attended u-ith rain, J General fubfidence before 1 /iu. ,1, ^ r t ibsjhr Ihowers, o ? Afcent attcr J The fame before and after violent rains, c 6 Whole range, 3 £ General flation, Greatell afcent, Lowell fall, Doftor Halley obferves, that near the Equinoftial there is little or no variation in the height of the barometer. He accounts for it thus ; that in thefe places there is is always an caly gale of wind blowing nearly *' from the fame point ; fo that, there being no contrary current of air ** to exhauft or accumulate it, the atmofphere continues much in the fame ftatc. However, upon hurricanes, the mercury has fubfided very low; '•' but this happens only once in two or three years, and it foon recovers *' its fettled flate of about 29 i inches, as at Barbadocs." At this ifland (laft 3


BOOK III. C H A P. VII. <^59 (lall mentioned) the mercury is rarely known to rife above 30 Inches, and. its fettled ftate is about 29 }. Jamaica, lying nearer to the North American continent, and being a much larger ifland, is more fubjedt to variable winds ; and the Norths, which always raife the mercury higheli, are far ftronger here. The mercury is therefore not fo ftationary here a^ in the Caribbee iflands, which lie near the Equinodlial. The atmofphere is heavier in its prefTure ; and would be more falubriqus, for this reafon, to European conftitutions, if the woods were opened. We may afcribeto thispreflbre of the air, in great meafure, that lively flow of fpirits which moft of tlje inhabitants enjoy, which may naturally happen whereever the mercury's ftation is ufually near about 30 inches. The variations here are minute, as DoAor Halley has remarked, except upon the approach of ftormy weather ; and hence the preflure of the atmofphere on the body is generally uniform, and equable, from day to day, or, at leaft, with very little fenfible difparlty. Yet no contemptible advantage may be derived from this inftrument even here ; where, although the mercurial motions are fmall, yet they afford certain indications of change in the weather likely to happen in 24 hours. A knowledge therefore deducible from fuch a prognoftic is not without its ufe to the planter, in direding his operations in the field, with regard to planting or fowing. Science too may be benefited from its application in a different way. An accurate meafurement feems to be wanted of the height of the different mountains, particularly the various Blue Mountain ridges. In taking the height of a mountain with the portable barometer, the experlmentor is firfl to remark, at what degree the quickfilver ffands at the level of the fea, or (that being too diftant) at the foot. Having afcended to the fummit, or as high as he chufes to go, he is then to obferve how many inches, and parts of inches, the mercury has fubfided. From variety of experiments it has been fuppofed, that the mercury fubfides one tenth of an inch at every ninety feet of afcent ; but It has likewife been proved, that, from the different degrees of denfity in the air, the higher we afcend, if the mercury falls one tenth of an inch at the firft ninety feet of rife, it will not fall the next tenth, till the barometer is carried up ninety-three feet higher; and fo the height of every column of air, of the weight of one tenth of an inch of mercury, will vary according to the height of its fituation in the atmofphere, each being about 4 P 2 thre^


66o JAMAICA. three feet longer than the laft. If, therefore, for an height of 1,035 feet, the mercury falls one inch, the different ftages of its fall, in proceeding upTOcirds towards the mountain top, will be marked as follows : N. of feet afcent. Fall of the Mercury, tenths •f i inch. 90 I 93 I ^6 I 99 I I02 I 105 I 108 I III I I 14 I 117 I 1035 4-2^ths or I inch It is from fuch kind of obfervations that doftor Halley, and others, framed tables, to fhew what would be the heights of the mercury in the tube, and the denfity of the air, at different heights from the earth. The following two are abridged from Dr. Halley 's, as it would be unneceffary, for the purpofe of meafuring mountains, to carry the calculation further than their greateft known height. AtabJefhewingihealtitudpsofn mounA table, fliewing the height of the mercury at giving will to given heights ot the mercury. altitudes ot a mountain. Inches. Feet. 29


-V BOOK III. CHAP. Vir. 66i The general theory of the operation is built on this principle ; That the column of air upon high mountains is much fliorter; and, confe** quently, lighter than that of the plains." Suppofing a hill, fuch as Snowdon Hill, where the mercury fettles nt four inches below the mean altitude at the level of the Tea, and whofc hei'^ht is about 3,720 feet ; the column of air, at fuch an height, and of one inch diameter, it is fiippofcd, would be found lighter by 14,320 grains, or 29 oz. 6 dwt. 3 fcfup. than belo-w. Hence it follows, that, in fuch places, the blood, having a load taken:: from it, will fwell and diftend the veflels ; and, at leafl, occafion a Ihortnefs of breath. The like dilcitation happens to bottled liquors carried to that height; the air contauied in the liquor rarefies to the fame pitch with the external air, cracks the bottle, and makes it fly into a thoufand pieces. From the like caufe, perhaps, ludden changes of weather in this climate, from very dry and hot to very wet, and again to hot and dry, produce a variety of difordeis in the human body. In the year 1761, after very heavy rains, for feveu or eight days in-. May, fucceeding dry fultry weather j and followed by a return of dry hot weather, a bad fpecies of fever appeared in Kingfton ; the firrt lymptoms of which were afudden vertigo, and deprivation of fight; inflant bleeding was found moft ferviceable; and, if neglected, the diforden lovvs 14 toifes, or about 90 Englilh feef, to every tall of 1 line of mercury ; but he thinks, the allowance ufually made, particularly in great elevations, where the air is cxceedinL;ly thin and lij;ht,. is much tjo fmall. His conjefture is probably jull : and it To, the Englilh mcniuration, given in the former tables, may he tound more exail than any formed by Callini, and other luieigneis. The foUowincr are the ihiuons ot the thermorueter and barometer obferved by JNIr. Br^done in his afcent : Height of Fahrenheit's Thermometer. Deg. 1 In. Tin. Height of Barometer. At Cutanea, mid-day, May 26 7.6 Ditto 5 in the morning 27 72 Nicolofi, mid-day 73 Spdoma rlel Capriole, where there Was.] fnow (7 at night), j' Irtthe fame cave, half part n at night, 52 Torre del Phdofopbo, 3 in the morning, 34 Foot of the crater, 33 About half way up the crater, 29 On the fummit, a little berore fun-rife, 27 39 8 {-Seafide at Citama, 27 8 Picdinotitc, in the firft region of jEtna, 27 i\t^icolojii in the fame region.. 26 ^\ Cpfiagm de Cento Cavalli, ft cond region*. 2,4 2 Sprlancti di'l C.aprrioh, fame. 20 ^ Torre del Phllcjhpbo, third region. 20 4j Foot of the crater. 19 6| Within about 300 yards nf the fummit., 19 4 Byfujipofitionat thefummitol the mountain. According to this regiller, and the former tables, the height of /Etna, above the Ten's level, fliouM be about 11,630 teet ; Mr. Brydone fuppofcj it not to exceed 12000. But, at the tormer computation, it is upwards of 4000 teet higher, than the higheft part ot our Blue Mountain Rid;^e in Jamaica. The thermometer being at 33, or 1 degree above the freezing paint, when the barop jneter was at 20 inches 4I lines; we may fuppofe the freezing pointt to have been at the elevation f near two miles, or about 10,368 feet, ia the mondi of May, general 1^>


i 662 JAMAICA. generally proved mortal. The barometer, after being too low during tlie fall cf rain, rofe to 31 ,.%.. In this cafe the column of air became luddenly light, and as fuddenly became heavy again ; the quicknefs of which tranfition, doubtlefs, caufed very extraordinary commotions in the blood and juices; for, in rainy weather, the atmofphere near the earth is lighter than at other times ; and, in fair or clear windy weather, it is heavieft. The barometer therefore may have its ufe, In leading us to prepare, or to account for, diftempers of the anomalous clafs, as well as in dirCifting our choice of fituation for dwelling. They who live in the thin air of high mountains are generally remarked to be perfons of quick, lively parts, their blood and fpirits of a free loofe texture, and their veflels enlarged, fo that the brain is fupplied with all that is neceffary for performing its functions well. Befides, the coolnefs and elafticity of the air ftrengthens their fibres ; and fuch places are ufually either rocky, or well drained, and free from vapours. But at thofe heights, where the vapours conftantly brood and fettle, their fibres, inftead of being corroborated, would probably grow flabby ; and fuch perpetual moifture of the air might be productive of dropfical complaints ; hence appears the reafon, why perfons labouring under an incipient dropfy, contrafled by redding in a vapourifli air, have, upon their removal to fome of the dry, fandy cayes, which lie off the South coaft of this ifland, recovered very furprifingly and foon. In Dodor Trapham's time the dropfy was fo endemic in Jamaica, that it went by the name of the country difeafe ; but as this dilbrder is iiot at prefent very frequent, we may reafonably fuppofe (among other caufes of its decline) that the air of the country is much lefs moift than formerly it was. From the foregoing obfervations we may infer, 1. That perfons whopafs fuddenly from a low fituation into the air of high mountains, ought (on coming to refide there) to lofe a little blood. 2. That fuch parts or lines of the mountainous range, at which fogs and vapours daily fettle, impregnating the air with continual moifture, are the leaft fit for habitation. 3. That the healthier elevated fpots are either fuch as are above or below this line ; of the latter fort arc thofc the ifland moftly abounds with,


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 663 with, v!z. the lower rocky hills, and mountains, which are not raifed Sufficiently to be inveloped with fuch hovering mifts. Nature, as if were, points out thefe fpots for refidence, by their multitude ; and further recommends them, by the variety of aromatic plants with which they abound. The richefi: vales are Teen furrounded with rocky eminencies, for the mod part unadapted to profitable culture, though peculiarly favourable to health. Thofe parts of favannah land alfo, which have a fandy or gravelly foil, and are fo much elevated as to have no ftagnant water lodging near them, nor fubjedl to be overflown, and are at fuch diftance from hilla as to receive free currents of wind, are remarkably healthful. I have confequently obferved, that they who have been fo prudent, or fortunate, to fix their conrtant habitation on fuch fpots, were always the moft healthy and robuft ; enjoyed lively fpirits, keen appetites, and lived to a good old age, exempted from thofe many infirmities to which the inhabitants of clofe towns, or of low, rich, damp, and badly ventilated places, are perpetually liable. Before I quit the fubjeil, it may fuggefl: fome curious experiments to obferve, that, as all bodies are fubjeift to expand with heat, and be condenfed with cold, it follows, that the Jpecific gravities of bodies cannot be the fame here as in Northern climates ; and, of courfe, that a meafure of any fluid here does not contain fo much of that fluid, as the fame meafure would contain in England. This circumftance would caufe a remarkable effe£l on the .Tripping which load at this ifland, or other parts of the Weft Indies ; and they would fink much lower here in the water, than in the Northern latitudes, if Providence had not furniflied the ocean with a larger portion of fait; and, hence it has been found, to increafe its fpecific gravity the nearer we approach to the Line, this augmentation of weight commencing about the 30th degree of North latitude jP^. The natural effedls produced on other bodies are, that the water oi rivers and fprings is lighter herp, and, ccetens paribus^ more wholefom>e than in England -, and that fpirits, and all other bodies^ are propor[<^] Lowthorp's Abridgem. Vol. 11. p. 297* 7 tioaably


'664 JAMAICA. tionably expanded, and occupy a larger fpace. This piece of philo ophy I remember to have feen proved by lame Negroes, wlio had oblerved, that when they went with a calk of rum in a Vvaggon, to market, in the heat of the day, and agitated it as much as polfible, by driving the carriage over the roughed parts of the road, the calk, upon deHvery to the wharfinger, would appear quite full up to^the bunghole, though they had ftolen fome bottles-full out of it by the way. The cfted: likewife upon mercury deferves to be noted; becaufe it materially concerns barometric obfervations j for mercury w^ill expand with heat; and fince, by this expanfion, it muft extend the column upwards in the barometric tube, it is therefore probable, th^t an extraordinary rife of it in very hot dry weather is fometime^ o^^;i"g. tQ this caufe, and not to any encreafed prellure or gravity of the atrrjof])here. Hence it appears, that fome uncertainty mufl inevitably attend the motions of this inllrument, in all hot countries ; for which reafon, upon every unufual rife of the mercury, the flate of the air, at that, time, in refpcft to heat and drynefs, ought carefully to be noted [r]. A regard muft alfo be had to the choice of the inftrument; for the tubes of the ordinary, cheap barometers contain fo fmall a quantity of mercury in them, that they are good for nothing : in thefe fmall tubes the attra6llon of cohefion makes the mercury flick to the fides of the glafs, fo as not to rife and fall regularly, according to the variations in the atmofphere, as may be {ttw on comparing thetn with the barometers of larger and better ftru£lure. Thermometers likewife are not free from irregularities, occafioned by the expanfion of their liquor, which, confequently, may often indir cate a greater degree of heat than is aftually prefent in the air. The pendulums of clocks and watches, we find, are lengthened from the fame caufe in this climate, fo as fometimes to require railing very high ; and hence, till they are redified, they mufl continually lofe their time. They are alfo liable to alter their vibrations from the figure of [<•] An int;enious ger.tleraan obferved here, that ahhough there was but little or no variation in the life and fall of the mercury, from the Itatenf the weather, there was a tonliuerable one in rlie height of the mercury, in the day and night ; for it rofc every night, and lunk next day, foniefimes one ifivifion, and at other times only a poition of cue. A change which it is difficult to acKount for, iinlcfs by fuppoling, that the atnior])here being dcnfer at night occafioned a greater preUiae, than in its more heated and rareficri flatc d.'iing the dny time, even al! for tl.c utrncitl expanfion by the hear. the


BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 665 the earth, which is fiippofed 3 1 miles higher at the Equator, than at the Poles. Hence, in traveling towards the line, it is found that clocks with long pendulums (exclufive of what is allowed for rarcfadtion by heat) go too flow, as Dr. Halley, Mr. Richer, and other aftronomers, obferved, who were o iliged to fhorten the pendulums of their clocks before they could make them keep true time; according to Mr. Richer's experiments, the pendulum, to vibrate feconds under the iEquator, muft be about onetenth of an inch fliorter than In the Northern latitudes ; without which, the clock which it regulates, will lofe between two and three minutes a day. The diiference caufed by the expanlion or lengthening the pendulum by heat, has fometimes amounted to about the fortieth part of an inch ; which in many vibrations will make a confiderable alteration in time. It is neceflliry, therefore, that both the clocks and watches, intended for ufe in this climate, (hould have their pendulums duly adjufted to this variation, and the curvature of the earth; after which, they may be regulated tolerably well by a thermometer, remarking the different ftates of heat and coolnefs in the air, at which they appear to vibrate loo flow, or too faft. The experiments made for dlfcoverlng the expanfion of fluids, were tried by comparing the abfolute weight of a cubic inch, of feveral forts of bodies, in fummer and winter in Europe, of which the following table gives the rekilt in regard to a few, which fliews the difference to be confiderable ; and we may reafonably prefume, that the flime bodies are rarely in the Weft Indies lefs rarefied, than they appear to have been in Europe by the fummer's trial, and that in the hotter months they are much more fo.


666 JAMAICA. But it has been found, that a cubic inch of good brandy is i o grains heavier in winter than in fummer, as appears by the table; and that 32 gallons of fpirits in winter will make 33 in fummer. Suppofing, therefore, a puncheon of proof rum, containing 1 10 gallons by meafurement, to be bought in Jamaica, and carried to England, and there fold in the winter, it will have fhrunk, by contraction occafioned by difference of climate, 3 gallons, and about | of a pint. If the prime cofl was at 2 s. bd. per gallon currency, the lofs to the buyer is 7 j. "] I d.', and on 10 punchcons, 3/. lbs. 51^.; and on 100 puncheons, 38/. 45. 7^. Hence it has been rightly judged more profitable, to buy fpirits in winter, or cold weather, and fell them in hot. The cubic inch of proof fpirit, accord-"! Troy weight. Avoirdup. ing to the Englifh hydroftatical table, > p. wt. gr. oz. dr. weighs J 9 19-73 ^.6z SECT. XII. S E A W A T E R, &c. The fea-water, being more faturated with fait' in this climate than in the Northern Zones, exhales lefs, and loles lefs of its weight. Hence, not only the atmofphere refting on it is lefs foggy, and therefore lefs incommodious to the inhabitants bordering upon the coafls, but it is thereby more effeftually preferved from putrefying, and loading the air with noxious effluvia, which, combined with the heat, would become highly peftilential. The water of the rivers here, and frequently that of the fea, is In the early part of the morning warm to the feel, and cool in the evening. The truth is, the fenfes are deceived in this experiment, and it happens from the different ffate of the atmofphere at thofe times. Early in the morning the air is cooler than the water, the warmth which the latter has acquired in the courfe of the day, being partly retained by means of the land or mud at the bottom; but in the evening, the atmofphere having been heated to a greater degree than the water, and not yet much divefled of its warmth, either by the fun's abfence, or the land wind, Is aftually warmer than the water. In the morning, tlierefore, the rivers are frequently fecn to exhale a flight mill or fteam, efpccially when the air is more than ufually cool. The


BOOK III. CHAP. VIT. 667 The water of the brackifli rivers on the coaH: yields about i drachm of fea fait from 2 quarts, or i ounce from 4 gallons. I have no meafurcmcnt of the quantity contained in a gallon of our feawater J but it would be curious to try the experiment in the hotter months, and compare with that of the Britifh Channel, whofc produce has been computed at 5 § ounces per gallon. SECT. XIII. 'Tides, Currents, and Mcigfietic F'ariations. The centrifugal force of the earth, arifing from its diurnal motion, is computed by Sir liaac Newton, to raife the water at the Equator to the height of 85,472 feet above the water at the Poles ; and the united force of the fun and moon raifes the ocean 10 1 feet; confequently the attraction or gravitation muft be greatefl: in this part, from the greater proximity of thefe two bodies. If the moon were conftituted at the iEquinodial, there would be always high water under that circle, and low water at the Poles; and, therefore, the nearer the moon approaches to the i^i^quinoftial, the lefs is the agitation of ocean in that part of the globe. That the tides may have their full motion, the ocean in which they are produced ought to be extended, from Eaft to Weft, a quarter of the great circle of the earth at leaftj becaufe the places where the moon raifes moft, or moft deprefles the water, are at that diftance from one another j hence it appears, that it is only in the great oceans, that fuch tides can be produced ; and why in the large Pacific ocean they exceed thofe in the Atlantic ocean; why the tides are not fo great in the Torrid Zone, where the ocean is narrowed, as in the Temperate Zones on either fide; and why they are fo fmall at iflands that are far diftant from continental fliores. As the tides pafs over fiioals, and run through fl:raits and bays of the fea, their motion becomes various, and their height depends on fo many circumftances, that it is impoffible they fliould be regular. Thus the tide at Bermudas fets varioufly, and does not flow above i; feet ; and that only when the fun is in the Southern Tropic; at other times, not above 3 feet. At Jamaica, it rarely flows (according to my obfervation) above 1 3 inches or 2 feet at mofi; ; though the violence of fea breezes, and Norths, 4 Q 2 will


668 J A M A I C A. will fometimes create a fmall difference; and in rivers which fall into deep bays on the South fide, the flux and reflux rarely exceed one foot. The influence of the before-mentioned bodies upon the Tropical feas, is doubtlefs one caufe of thofe prodigious currents obferved among all thefe iilands fituated within them. Thefe currents are faid to be variable, as well in their times of fetting in, as their direflion; however, a more certain knowledge of their motions and doftrine, which can only be tlie refult of very careful and regular obfervation, feems defireable, for the fake of navigation. The currents on the South coafl of Jamaica ufually fet during the reign of the regular trade wind, to the N. W., into the gulph of Mexico, and circulate to the N. through the Florida channel ; while the Norths prevail, they tend rather S. Wefterly. The continual torrent which fweeps through the gulph of Florida, and along the North American coaft, with fuch flirength and rapidity, as even to have been remarked fo high as the ifle Sable, in North latitude 44" 30', is attributed to a certain permanent caufe; and, if the theory be ripht, can feldom vary much in its direction from the influence of winds, O or, at leaft, only to fome little depth beneath the furface. Carting our eyes over the map of this quarter of the globe, we obferve a great multitude of iflands, rocks, and cayes, which form a femicircular barrier, from the N. W extremity of the Bahamas, adjacent to North America, quite to the ifland of Trinidado, nigh to the Southern part of the continent; ranging through an extent of fifteen degrees of latitude. The paffage of the water from the great Atlantic ocean into the Carribbean Tea, and Bay of Mexico, is, therefore, confiderably obftrufted j and being inccfl'antly urged on to the Weflward, and N. W., during great part of the year, by the trade, or S. E. and Eafterly winds, and by the preffiire or gravitation of its own vaft body near the Equator, it ought to caufe ftrong currents in the like direftion between feveral of the windward Antilles, or Carribbee iflands ; in a fimilar manner as the fl:ream of a river, whofj motion is accelerated between the arches of a bridge. This current muft diminifli in violence, when the water finds ample room to expand, and diffufe itfelf freely on every fide, as it does after its arrival in the Carribbcan fea ; but it is again impeded, at its entrance into the Bay of Mexico, by the two Capes of St. Antonio on the S. W, end of Cuba, and Catoche on the oppofite continent ; which projed to meet each other, like two moles or lunettes at the mouth of a fea port ; and, approaching


BOOK IIT. CHAP. VIT. 669 proachlng fo near as about fifty leagues, neceirarily contract: the pafllige, and occalion a v^ery fwift current to the Weftward through this ftrait. It is accorduic ly obfcrvcd, that a prodigious current fets, with a conftant ftrong rtrv^^am to the Weft ward, upon all the Southern parts of the Mexican Bay, fo far as the Strand of Vera Cruz ; and, being then dcfleded by the curved fhape of the land, veers round to the Eaftward along the oppoilte fhore, endeavouring to pafs out again where it meets with leaft reliftance ; and making its progrefs by the W. end of Cuba to the Northward, till it difembogues by the Florida gulph into the Atlantic ocean ; the ftrong barracade of the Bahama ifles and flionls, together with a counter current proceeding from the Bahama ftrait, feeming to guide its efflux that way. The natural courfe of the water, on the Eaft Florida coaft, fliould be fuppofed from Wefl to Eaft; but the current here has been obferved to be often irregular. When it runs with greateft impetuofity, the Bah.ima ifles and flioals againft which it fets, may poffibly occafion an eddy; and the reverberated water may turn back again along the Florida fhore to the Wertward, or S, W,, towards the Martyres. At other times, the rivers, which difcharge in great abundance from the lakes and fwamps m that country, may produce a like eflfcrft. Mariners have remarked, that within the gulph, the current often fets Wefterly, or S. W., on the Florida fide, along fliore, and N. E. and N. off the Cuba and Bahama fides; and, in order lo avoid thofe dangerous reefs which environ the Florida coaft, they endeavour to get well in with the land about the Havannah; make an allowance of four or five points in the compafs for the current;, and fteer, as near as poflable, for the Bahama fide. The regular trade blows at Cuba from March till October or November; during this fpace, the flux of water continues with little variation, from the E. and S. E. into the Bay of Mexico, and out again, to the Northward through the Florida gulph. In the other months, the wind often blows violently from the N., or N. VV., into the Northern mouth of the gulph ; and, meeting the current in oppofitlon, raifes a chopping, dangerous fea. When this happens, the efflux of the water might, in fome degree, (it would be imagined) bs retarded; at leaft, to a certain depth, although below that depth it might be unalfeded, and perfift to run in a direftion contrary to the wind ; but there is reafon for believing, that the current runs with unufual velocity at inch times, aided by the drift of water from the Florida fide; where itis.remai-ked, that Northerly winds almoft:.


670 JAMAICA. almoll empty all the bays. The fame wuids may a£l alfo upon the Bay of Mexico, and m fome meafurc obftruLt the regular influx between Cape Antonio and Cape Catoche; whence it may happen, that, a lefs fupply thai at other times flowing into the gulph, the channel there may be lowered, and confequently caufe a drain from the Florida bays to replenifli The difficulty of ftemming this current at any feafon of the year, is the reafon, that all fhips bound for Jamaica, as well from the Norciiern colonies, as from Europe, run into the latitude of 17% or 17 30' North, to fall in with the trade wind, which fets with tiie current, and favours their pafiTage. It is no lefs Inconvenient for them to attempt a courfe to the ifland by the windward paffage, though fome few French, and other light (hips, have gone to Hifpaniola this way, between the Caicoes, or Turk's lilands; for the current almoft uniformly fets to North ward through that paffage, and is therefore, in general, favourable only to veliels homeward bound from Jamaica to Europe, or North America. The fliips which load towards the Wefliern end of Jamaica, find great delay when they are deep in the water, and homeward bound, in beating up againft both the trade wind and current; and, for the moft part, bear away for the gulph, having then both of them in their favour. The (hips, therefore, which load at the Eaftern parts, have an advantage in this refpeft; for after ftretching acrofs to the N. VV. land of Hifpaniola, they haul through the windward paffage, with a current to help them, and, by this means, fhorten their navigation confiderably. The larger, or main currents, feem to be pretty regular; but the variation in the fmaller ones often difconcerts the expertell pilots, and requires a courfe of attejitlve obfervation, to determine the probable caufes of their fhifting at different times of the year. Whether owing to the pofition of the globe, to the tides, the fhifting of the trade wind, the angle of incidence at which thefe currents flrike the different head lands, iflands, and coafl;s, an accidental drain, or an accumulation of water at fome fmall dihance, or other caufe ; and in what manner the direftion thefe currents take may ufually corrcfpond with the relpedive caufe. [ /'] It lias been obfcrvcd, that the tide runs unufually high tipon the South coafl of Jimaica, when the Norths blow with greatelt violence; this is tindoubtedly occafioned by the obllrurtion then given to the current fetting towards the Bay ot IMexico, by which means, the water is repelled, aad accumulated upon the coails of this illand. The


BOOK III. CHAP. Vir. 671 The range of the more fteady currents in tliefe feas, according to the teftimony of navigators, may be thus Hated, for a general rule. Diredion. In the Strait between Cape Nicolas (Hifpaniola) and Cape Mayze (Cuba), N. E. E. end of Jamaica, and Cape Tiburon (Hifpaniola), N. by E. N. fideof Jamaica, and S. fide of Cuba, W. by N. Old BahamaChanneUN. fide of Cuba, W. N. W. Cape Catoche, and Cape Antonio, W. Off the Havaunah, E. Off the Colorados, — — E. by N Gulph Channel between Bahama Ifles and Eaft Florida, N. fCoaft of Eaft Florida within the gulph, fometimes S. W j Caicoes or Turk's Iflands, (off N. E. t part of Hiipaniola,) fometimes Wefterly. The tides are equally as variable and irregular as the fmaller currents. In their periods of flux and reflux ; but feldom flow more than three feet, either at the North fide of the Bay of Mexico, at the Weft end of Cuba, or at St. Auguftine, the Northern extremity of Eaft Florida. We obferve here, four remarkable provifions for keeping the ocean between the Tropics in conftant motion, that its waters may not, by ftagnation and corruption, prove deftruftive to animal life ; they are, the trade winds, the greater faltnefs of the water, tides, and currents. The greater advantage of currents to perform the apprirent deftination of tides in this climate, where the ebb and flow is fubjedl to fo much irregularity,, and is, in general, fo inconfiderable, arifes from hence; that if the fea lliould recede here from the fnore to a great dlllance, during feveral hours, as in the Northern countries, leaving an extenfive traft of mud and filth, expofed to the exhalation of the lun, and attion of the wind, the flench produced from them would be infupportable to human inhabitants. A moderate North wind, now and then, lets the water fomewhat higher upon the North coafts of this ifland,. and forces it to recede proportionably from the South (hores ; but the coolnefs and drying quality of that windi as well as its fetting off the South ihore, eorre6t or diffi5 pate


672 JAMAICA. pate any putrid exhalations, fo that they cannot annoy the inhabitants of thofc parts. Thus has the Ahnighty not left this portion of the globe deftitute of neceiTary prefervatives againft the inclemency of the climate ; fo that they, who a6l here agreeably to the didates of right reafon, may enjoy every pratification of health and felicity in a reafonable extent, without b^ing afflicted with more than their jull proportion of natural evils, in common with the reft of mankind. And there is no doubt, but that the fame Wife Being, who contrived this couftant agitation of the fea, to preferve its vaft colleftion of waters in fufficient purity, has likewife in the ^Equatorial climates, defigned the extraordinary ebb and flood of the atmolphere, and its vafi; elevation above the air of the Poles, with the like good view of fecuring the frefhnefs and brifl-L temper of this fluid lo cffential to life, and keeping it, by a perpetual circulation, from deadnefs and ftinking. The variations of the magnetic needle were obferved by Dr. Halley, to be very fmall near the ^Equator. I have feen no account of them for this ifland, that can be relied upon ; but, if obfervations fliould be faithfully made here, they would probably confirm his opinion. According to Alountaine's chart, conftruded in the year 1700, from Dr. Halley 's tables, the variation at Port Royal then was about 6 30' E. Some late obfervations make it about 6 o' E. But, as in moft parts of the world it is found to be continually either increafing or decreafing, lb we may reafonably conclude, that it may have altered in both refpedts very much during this long interval that has pafled fince the conftrudtion of the chart. For want of a regifler of annual obfervations given to the public, we have no data whereby to determine either what the whole variation amounts to in a feries of years, or whether it is at this time on the increafe or decreafe. A corred obfervation might be made here, by two ftations, one at Port Royal point, the other at Long Bay, or Green Ifland harbour at the Weft end, in the month of December, at which time the fun's amplitude, at rifing and fetting, may be taken to a degree of great exaftneG, from his having then the greateft Southern declination, and not being intercepted by the mountains, from oblervers placed at thofe convenient ftations. In 1682, the variation at Martinique (lat. 14 30' N.) was found to be 4 deg. 10 m. Eaft : in the year 1704, it was 6 deg. 10 m. E. which makes


BOOK III. CHAP. Vll. 673 makes 2 degrees in twentyone ydars. At La Vera Cruz (19" 12' N. lat. or about a third of a degree more to the North than Jamaica) in the year 1727, it was only 2 15' E. In 1746 the variation at Cape Francois (19 45' N. lat.) was found to be 5" 15'E. Dr. Halley conjeftured three lines of no-variation, or lines vC'here the neei^le does not deviate in the leaft from its true Northern point. The Eaflern or Atlantic line takes place in N. lat. 23 > and increafes very flow, as appears from the preceding examples. The origin of thefe magnetic powers, as well as the caufe of their variations, remains hitherto a myftery ; though, without doubt, they are contrived by the fame infinitely Wife Being, to anfwer fome very important purpofes in the mechanifm, or Inotions, of this globe ; but the afcertaining thefe variations with precifion in the different meridians, as it is attended with no great abftrufity, fo it is extremely interefting to corredt navigation, and the right prbjedlion of charts and maps [^]. [j'] A regular attention to the courfe of this variation is of the ittmoft importance aifo to landed property in this illand, in regard to the true fixing of boundaries ; their uncertainty having been a conllant fource of difpute and Htigation ever fince the ifland was firll: fettled. Formerly moll furveys were merely imaginary, fo that it is but of late years that our furveyors have been con drained by mecr dint of penal laws to make aftual furveys; if we fuppofe an aftual furvey made, and the lines duly marked on earth, or on trees, in order for a patent purfuant to the diagram returned, and that a difpute, concerning the true fixings on all fides, fliould happen five or fix years afterwards, it is highly probable, that, on the faireft refurvey, a moftmateiial difference would be found ; for, ifthefirft iurveyor has not allowed for the variation of the needle, but has taken the magnetic meridian for his guide; or if he has made an allowance, but the fubfequent furveyor fliould not do the like, a confiderable alteration may be made to the boundary in the courfe of a few years, and the fite of the plat varied, both with refpeft to its Eaflern and Weltern lines. This effed has undoubtedly happened in a muliitude of examples, fince few furveyors here advert to it, or make any fpecification of it, either on the original diagram, or on a re-furvey. This is fufficient to fhew, what an equivocal life we make here of the term hormiJaiy, which, inflead of bfeing rendered fo uncertain by the omilfion of furveyors, the decay or deftruftion of marked trees, and other caufes, ought to be perfectly diftindl and obvious, fo as to be afcertained upon the view only. It is needlefs to add, the many hardihips which may fpring from this irregularity, to the vexation and dirturbance of the poorer fettlers, who are ill able to contcft their location with a grafping, litigious, and opulent neighbour. For putting ftop to fuch injuftice, the Icgiflature cannot interpofe too ftrittly ; and, next lo regulating the qualifications, duties, and proceedings, ot every fworn furveyor belonging to the illand, it might, perhaps, be attended with veiy happy effefts, it every proprietor ot land, or his agent, fliould be obliged by law, to make an ^m\va\ perambulation round his lines, on a certain day to be fixed by the law, in that feafon of the year which has ufually been experienced the dryeft, and moll convenient for the purpofe, in each refpeilive pariih. By this eafy methoil, the marks might be coaflantiy preferved or renewed, as they are in England, where this is the cuftomary practice for afcertaining the bounds of parities, manors, &c. Re-furveys would beconre unnecefliiry, ad many expenfive lawfuits be prevented. Vol. III. 4 R Juftly


j574 JAMAICA. rz-Juftly, therefore, may we conclude with the poet; *' In human works, tho' labour'd on wiih pain, *' A thoufand movements fcarce one purpofe gain ; ;i,-t-' *'.'!" God's, one fingle can its end produce; ** Tef fervjs to fecgnd .tga fame other ufe" ^, jrr. '\ Pope s Eu ay on Man, Ep.l. n y C H A p. VIII. ji Synopsis of Vegetable and other Produ£lions of this Ijland^ proper for Exportation, or Home life and Confumption. Of Exotics, cultivable for one or other, of thefe Purpcfes ; and of its noxious and ifeful Animals, &c. I. Sugar Cane. — Arundo Saccarifera. fir^ H E manufadures produced from this valuable plant having al1 ready been difcuffed, it remains only to fay, that the proper manner of its cultivation in different foils, and the whole procefs of the manufadure of its exprefled juice, would lead into too exteniive a field. The cultivation of it is now, in general, well underftood in this ifland, and the manufadlure daily impro\'ing; a knowledge of them, perhaps, as things are at prefeiit circumftanced, is beft acquired by pra<3:ice and experience, fince we have no rules as yet laid doH^n, fuitable to every peculiarity of fituation; nor hiftory of foils and manures, &c. for the ftveral diftrifts of the ifland : fuch a work might be extremely ufeful, and indeed is much wanted. The general proportions, with refpetSt to the juice of this plant, and its manufaftures, are rated as follows : Cane Juice. Mufcovado. Refined Sugar. Melaflcf. Rum. Ilhds. Punch. Gallons. lb. wt. Single double gall. t^ts. pints, gall. qts. pints, at 15 cwt. .it 1 10 gall, lb. wt, lb. wt. 00 I 35 14 12 2 40 ji 496 210 187 2 62 2 I 49,600 21,000 18,750 6250 100 5; The remainder of the juice confifts of vvattr, fcum, and dregs, from which rum is alfo dillilled. A portloji of the ikimmings is given to mules and hogs on moft eflatesj and, as the proportions mufl vary with the quality of the foil, the goodnefs, or impoveriftied ftate of the land, the quantity of rain, and other circumftanccs, it is impoffible to fix them to any unerring ftandard. Many reckon 200 gallons of rum to 3 hogflieads of fugar, and this may be admitted, where Ikimmings and melaflcs arc both 1


BOOK III. CHAP. VIIT. 675 both of them applied : in general, it may be computed, that only about onefourth part of the ingredients [/6], ufed in the diftilbtion of rum, confilts of melalfcs. In this cafe, 100 lb. \vt. of mufcovado is proportioned to i gallon of melaffe^, or 4 gallons of rum [i] ; i. e. one puncheon of 1 1 2 gallons to two hogflieads of 14001b. each, nett weight. There is a great wafle of this fyrup in various ways; in the curing-houfe, the cifterns, &c. and much is left in the fugar hogftieads, undraincd. The wafte in a hogfliead of fugar on the voyage home is very frequently 106 lb. wt., which chiefly (if not entirely) is nielafies ; from ill-cured fugars the drain is ftill greater, amounting fometimes to one-third of the whole weight fliipped. 1 00 lb. may, therefore, be calkd the average per hogfliead. This, on 1000 hogflieads, is 1 00,000 lb,, ^which probably might have 1 yielded 8750 puncheons of rum, worth upwards of 1.2,000/. fterling. Sugar is of the fame nature as honey ; it yields the fame principles, and. in the fame proportions; it is a native vegetable foap, contaioing an oilj niifcible with water, by means of a fulino-acid lubftance. Lime readily ^ unites with all acids, but probably lofes all its cauftic quality by the ; union, and by imbibing a large quantity of faftitious air in the procefs. 2. Indigo. — Indigofera. There are three fpecies of it, the common, the guatimala, and the wild. The firft yields more of the dye than the others, but is fubjeft to more mifchances in the culture. The fecond is better than the firfl; ; but the wild indigo is preferable to either ; its leaves are fmaller, the ftem more woody, and it grows fometimes 8 or lo feet high. It is found in great plenty in the river courfes and favannahs on the South fide of Jamaica, particularly about the Rio Minho in Clarendon, near the banks of which it was formerly cultivated, as appears from the ruins of feveral vats ftill remaining. It is much hardier than the other fpecies, and the dye extraded from it is of a beautiful copperifh caft, and clofe grain. As it has a tap root, it requires a deep foil, and thrives beft in what is free and rich, in a warm fituation, where it is frequently refrefhed with rain. It may be planted at any feafon of the year. The land is firft hoed in little ftrait trenches, about two Inches deep, and eighteen inches afunder ; the feed is fown in thefe trenches not very thick, and then lightly covered in with earth. A buftiel of feed is allowed for fix to eight acres. If the \J}\ The proportions may be found to vary from one-fourth to one-fixteentli, according to the, yielding of the canes, and the pleafure ot the diftilleis. [/] It was foroierly computed in Barbadoes, that loolb. wt. of mufcovado wo.uld yield 5 gallons of' rum; but, I think, this allowance of fpirit too large, if it is of good proof, or highly reftified. 4 R 2 weather

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676 JAMAICA. weather proves warm and ferene, the plant will appear above ground in a few days, and, with moderate fhowers to bring it forward, will be fit to cut in fix or feven weeks. The ground mufl; be hoed and ^leaned as foon as the young plants appear to loofen the foil about them, and facilitate their growth. In fome parts, they do not come to perfedlion under two or three months ; and are generally obfervcd to aufwer beft when cut in full blolTom, as the leaves are then thick, and fu-Ueft of juice. The French diftinguifh the time by fqueezing a plant in the hand; and, if the leaf cracks, they fuppofe it to have acquired the due maturity. The vats for manufadturiiig it are generally three, placed in a regular flight, like fteps, one afcending to the other. The highell, which is the largefl, is called the fteeper. and the dimenfions about fixteen feet fquare, and two feet and an half, in depth. This opens by one or two holes, made through a junk of hard timber (built in the front-wall towards the bottom) into the fecoiid, which is of greater deptli ; and the fecond opens in the like manner into the third, or fmaileft. Thefe latter are called batteries, or beaters ; and fome make them both of equal fize, which, in proportion to the dimenfions above given, ought to be twelve feet length, by ten breadth, and four and an half depth in the clear. They are built with malbnry, and Hned with a flrong terrafs, like the deeper, or of clofe-grained plank (not cedar) of two inches and an half thick, well faftened to the frame with large fpike-nails, and caulked, to prevent leaking. Vats of thefe given dimenfions are proper for about (even acres of the plant. > idKn: When every thing is in readinefs, the plant is cut, and regularly laid in the fteeper, with the ftalk upwards (which hartens the fermentation), till this vat is three-parts full. A number of rails are then laid the whole length of the vat, at the diftance of about eighteen inches from one another : thefe are ftrongly wedged down, by means of timbers, whichare made to prefs upon them, to prevent the plants from buoying up when water is put upon them. The fofteft water anfwers beft for the purpofe ; and as much is let in as the weed will imbibe, covering it with a furfiice of four or five inches. In this ftate it is left to ferment. In twenty-four hours it grows fo hot, that no one can bear the hand in it; and, if the procefs goes on well, it will bubble like water in a pot upon the fire and

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BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 677 and {hew a tinge of very dufky blue. Great nicety Is required, as well in not fuffering the tender tops to run into putrefaction, which might fpoil the whole, as in drawing off the water at the critical moment ; for, if it is drawn two hours too foon, great part of the pulp will be loft ; and, if the fermentation is kept on as much too long, the labour will be loft. To avoid thefe difafters, a handful of the weed is frequently taken out ; and, when the tops are oblerved to become very tender and pale, and the ftronger leaves to change their colour to a lefs lively pale, this is known to be the proper point j and the liquor muft be Ipeedily drawn off into the fecond vat, there to be thoroughly beaten and incorporated [/j] ; to perform which operation, a variety of machines have been invented. In Jamaica, they formerly lliffered the liquor to ftand twenty-four hours in this fecond vat, and then cluirned it for three or four hours with paddles, or pieces of board, drilled full of holes, and faftencd on the end of long poles. The French made ufe of a kind of buckets, without any bottom, fixed to poles, which refted on pivots, and were pulled up and let fall agaui alternately with a jerk. But far more convenient machines are now conftrudted, with a cog-wheel, which moves the levers, or beaters, with greater regularity, and faves the labour of many Negroes; the whole being kept in motion with a fingle horfe, or mule; and one of them will perform more work in half an hour, than fix Negroes are able to do in fix hours; fo that they fully anfwer the expence of erecting them, and frequently reduce an imperfect tindure to grain, which could hardly othervvife be brought about. When the liquor has, by means of fuch a machine, or any other method, been well churned for the fpace of fifteen or twenty minutes, a little of it being taken up in a plate will appear curdled, or as if full of a fmall grain. A quantity of clear lime-water, always kept ready for the occafion,, [i] Some have ufed the following fitnple contrivance on this occafion with fiicceft. A fmall fquare ftick, painted white, and graduated with black lines, of fix or eight to an inch (the inches being numer'cally marked from the bottom), is fixed conveniently within the llceper in a perpendicular pofition. Tliis is carefully obfcrvcd, from time to time, to note with exaiftnefs the highell rde of the fcum ; and immediately, when it begins to fubfide, the plug is to be drawn out, and the liquor difcharged into the next vat. A limilar method is praftifed in Egypt, to difover the increafc or. fall of the Nile by a graduated column, called the mohkuis ; from whence perhaps the hint was taken. is

PAGE 102

678 JAMAICA. is then gradually let in, to augment and precipitate the /^a//;^ ; the ftirring and beating the indigo water being flill continued, and the colour and appearance of the facula being carefully examined from time to time, as the work advances; for the grain paffes, by degrees, from a greeniOi caft to a fine blue, which is the proper colour when the liquor has been fufficiently worked. Too fmall an agiration will leave the grain coarfe and green ; whilft too long continued a beating caufes it to turn almoft black. By examining it therefore repeatedly during the procefs in a filver cup, or a foup-plate, the operator may f'oon learn to diftinguifh whether to have his indigo of a deep, copperifli blue, or of a paler complexion, as he chufes. When the liquor wherein the fkcula fwim is quite clear, he may be fatisfied it has lime-water enough. The lime-water mu ft be perfedly clean, or otherwife the indigo will be very much fpeckled ; nor fliould too large a quantity of it be let in, which would render the indigo too hard, and of a greyhh caft. When the indigo water has acquired a ftrong, purple colour, and the grain has become fcarcely perceptible, it muft be left to fettle, which it will do in eight or ten hours. The clear water is then very gently drawn off, out of the beating-vat, through the plug-holes, fixed for that purpofe a few inches above the floor, or bottom; and the fediment remains behind, which is carefully ftrained through a horfe-hair fieve, to render the indigo perfectly clean, and then put into bags of ofnabrig, or other coarfe linen, eighteen inches long, and twelve wide, which are lufpended for about five or fix hours in the fhade, to drain out the water. The mouths of the bags are then well faftencd, and put into a prefs, to be entirely freed from any remains of water, which would hurt the quality of the dye. The prefs is a box of five feet in length, two and a half width, and two depth, having holes at one end, to let off the drained water. In this box the bags are piled one upon another, until it is quite full ; a plank, fitted juft to go into it, is laid at top, and loaded with a fufficient number of weights, which, by a gradual, conftant preflbre, entirely fqueeze out the water, and the indigo becomes a fine ftiff parte. It is then taken out of the bags, fpread upon a plank, and cut into fquares of two inches each, which are ranged, under cover, in a free air, without expolure to the fun, which would be very hurtful to the colour of the dye. Whilft it is 3 i"

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BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 679 in the drying houfe, it fliould be turned three or four times a day to prevent its rotting. The flies muft likewife be driven from it. Care is taken to have it thoroughly dry before it is packed, becaufe, if it is put damp into the cafks for exportation, and headed up, it will Aveat, and inevitably be fpoiled. Good, marketable indigo fhould be of a fine, copperifh, blue colour, deep, and fliining, with a fmooth grain. It ihould break eafily, fwim in water, and burn very freely, leaving fome white cinders behind. The faults in indigo generally arife, firft, from too long a putrefaction, which gives it a dirty hue ; fo that it looks like black mould, or mud : lecondly, from too little beating; and then it has a coarfe grain, and a greenifh colour : thirdly, from too much beating, which always imbues it with a black caft : fourthly, from a mixture of the particles of lime, when the lime-water has not been fufficiently depurated,, or when too large a quantity of this water has been let in, which renders itgreyifli, and hard : fifthly, for want of lime-water, or when none is ufed; by which negled, it never comes to a due granulation, nor fettles well, and depofits only an inconfiderable part of the fubftance. From all which it appears, that no fmall degree of ikill and attention are required in conducing and perfedling this manufacture. And hence we may eafily conceive, how the right management of it came to be loft in Jamaica, after the planters had for many years difufcd it; for much depends on the knowledge gained by a long courfc of experience and obfervation, to dire£l the exa£l degree of fermentation, of beating, and application of the lime-temper, as well as the method of curing and drying for the market. This valuable comm.odity is the principal ingredient known for dying a fine blue ; and no part of the world affords better foil for the culture of Indigo, than the interior parts of Jamaica. Add to which^ that it is not bulky in the carriage: and that a few barrels, of fmalt fize, fuch as a mule may convey through the moft difficult road?, will contain a quantity of it of great value. Fifteen Negroes are efteemed {ufficient to manage and attend twenty acres; and twentyfive Negroes are allowed to fifty. Four Negroes are therefore about equal to five acres ; which proves that it may be entered upon by men of exceedingly fmall capital?. And it is alfo certain, that they will have time for doing other occafional work through the year. One

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6So JAMAICA. One acre of rlcli foil, well planted, will, with good feafons and proper management, yield two hundred pounds weight [V\ in twelve months; for this plant gives ratoons, or re-produces, affording four or five crops in a year; but muft be rc-planted afterwards. One Negroe's load, of good plants, will produce one pound weight of good indigo; and, fuppofnig a mule-load fix times as much, the latter will be equal to fix pounds weight, A planter, pofl'eiTed of four Negroes, and two mules, with five acres in this cultivation, may therefore be allowed, by prudent management, to make one thoufand pounds weight f>er annum ; which, at 6 J. per pound fterling, is wortli 300/. About the year 1620, the trade for indigo flood thus. Three liundred and fifty thoufand pounds weight was fpent in a year in Europe ; which, at 4.J, bd. per pound at Aleppo, coft 755833/. 6j. 8^. ; at I J. 2/ in the Eaft-Indies, cofl: 20,416/. I2J. 4^.. In later times, Great-Britain and Ireland have confumed eight hundred thoufand pounds weight and upwards per annum ; and were computed to pay France 200,000/. annually for what they bought from her. Jamaica once furnifhed a large fupply ; but, the tax of jj. dd. per pound being injudiciouily impofed by parliament, the planters were obliged to drop it, and went upon other commodities. In confequence, until the planters of South-Carolina undertook this article, the French iflands (and principally Hifpaniola) fupplied not only Great-Britain, but the greater part of Europe. About 1747, the Carolinians remitted about two hundred thoufand pounds weight to Britain j which fold well, though of a quality inferior to the French: but they have fince improved it fo, as to be nearly equal. Such were the effects of this high duty ; which loft the nation many thoufand pounds yearly, and extirpated indigo from Jamaica, to the ruin of feveral induftrious families. A wifer parliament, after the manufailure began to thrive in Carolina, inftead of laying on duties to prohibit, granted a bounty of fix-pence per pound weight on all indigo raifed in the American colonies, and imported into Great-Britain di[/] Thirty to eighty pounds weight is allowed for tolerable yielding in South-Carolina. But it is to be obferved, that thefe lands are poor in comparifon with the frefli-cleared wood-land of Jamaica, which requires to be exhaullcd by this, or fome other vegetable of an impoverifliing nature, before it will make fugar ; and for fuch foils two hundred pounds weight will not appear at all exaggerated; and fifty pounds weight /• acre, for the midium produce of indifferent foils. 4 reftly

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BOOK III. CHAP. Vn. 68i rci^ly from the place of growth. The encouragement was politic ; yet this article does not feem as yet to be cultivated in our colonies to ibch extent as to furnlfh the home-demand ; for the importation of French indigo is ftill permitted. Whence it feems, that, for want of employing more of our lands in this article, the market for fiioar will be glutted, and that for indigo not fufficiently flocked. In 1672, Jamaica had fixty indigo-works, chiefly in Vere, which produced fifty thoufand pounds weiglit per annum. If, therefore, it had not met with fo fatal a check, we may judge, from this flourifhing ftate of it at fo early a period, that, in the courfe of twenty or thirty years, it would have yielded five or fix times as much, and gone on increafing, in proportion to the home-demand, to the prelent hour ; by which the nation might have fiived fome millions of money. At prefent it is cultivated here by about twenty different fettlers, moft of whom refide in the parifh of St. Thomas in the Eaft. The medium produce, in Jamaica, of one cutting is fifty pounds weight per acre. Few, who have cultivated it here in the lowlands of late years, gained more than two cuttings, the firft in July, the fccond in Auguft, for want of feafons. In the wet, rich lands of the interior parts, it is probable, four or five cuttings a year might be got, as in Hifpaniola ; where the French cultivate it on frefii woodlands, to fterilize and prepare them for fugar, repeating the cut every fix weeks, five times, or even oftener, in the year. And this kind of foil feems the beft-adapted, as it unqueftionably produces an indigo of the bed quality, and worth feveral fhillings per pound weight more than what is made from poorer foils, or in fituations which have not feafbnable rains. Hence, it will not fucceed well in the lower favannah lands of Jamaica, whofe ftaple is rich enough, but not fufficiently watered. 3. Coffee, — Coffee. This fiirub, it is needlefs to mention, was originally brought from Arabia Felix, where it is cultivated, between the hills, in a dry foil, and watered frequently by artificial channels from rivers, cut on purpofe. It grows luxuriantly in all the inland parts of Jamaica j which are therefore, with great reafon, in general, thought too rich and wet for it. The drier the foil, and warmer the fituation is, the better will be tbe berries ; they will be fmaller, and have lefs pulp : Vol. III. 4S and

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682 •"•) A M A I C A. and this is the ibrt which will gain the preference at market, from the fuperior excellence of its flavour. The South-fide parts of the ifland produce a much betterflavoured coffee than the North-fide. The berries of the latter and midland-parts are large, and have a full pulp, which requires a long time to dry; and the atmofphere and weather of thefe diflrids are too moift for the purpofe: lb that the coffee, brought from thence, is frequently c6vered with a degree of mouldinefs, and contrails a muft}^ difagreeable Irnell and tafte. The larger, therefore, and more lucculent the berries are, the worfe will be their flavour. The befl way of raifing them is from the feed ; for the young plants do not take root well, nor thrive, in the lowlands, if they have been brought from the mountains: but, if railed in a nurfery in the lowlands from feed, they may be tranfplanted with fuccefs during the rainy I'eafons, or when the ground is thoroughly moiftened. The feeds, or berries, for this purpofe, fiiould be fet immediately after their being gathered from the tree ; otherwife they are apt to fail. When the plants are about hve or fix inches high, and grow double(or two together), they fliould be carefully feparatedj which is done by drawing one or both, and planting tiiem in feparate beds, without injuring the fibres of the roots, or expofmg them too long to the air, which would probably kill the plants. The berry ripens from Auguft to 061:ober, blackens in November, and is fit to gather in December ; but it ought never to be gathered until the pulp is exhaled, and the coat fuffered to become thoroughly dry and fhriveled ; fo that they appear ready to drop off" thcmfelves, and aftually fall ofFupon a flight touch. 1 have always experienced, that the befl-flavoured coffee was coUeiled from under the trees, where it had recently fallen, quite dry, black, and fhriveled. Wherever it is cultivated, it ought to be planted at diflances fuitable to its growth ; for, in the lowlands, it rarely exceeds five feet in height ; but, in the mountains, it rifes to ten feet, or more. The diflance therefore at which they are fet from each other ought to equal the height at which they ufually grow in thefe parts refpectively. The produce of a good tree is from one pound and a half to two pound weight. The mountain coffee might be improved by fending the berries, %\bcn gathered, to the lowlands, where the heat is greater, and air 5 more

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BOOK III. CHAP. VII. ^% more dry, to be prepared for the market; inflead of keeping thefm involved in a clammy juice, which will not pafs off freely in a damp atmofphere, but corrupts and hurts the ieed. The proprietors of extenfive walks fhould provide themfelves with a large barbacue, or platform, terraffed or planked, to fiiiifh the drying of the feed ; and, if it was contrived under a roof, it would be more eligible than the common method of laying them open to the weather, as tlie quantity fpread over a large platform cannot be ealily refcued from a fudden (hower. A drying houfe therefore, with one or more floors, which would admit a free current of air, and exclude the rain and funflnine, might be molf proper. After the berries are thorouglily dried, they are cleared of their coat or hulk. This was formerly performed in Jamaica by pounding them in large mortars ; a laborious and very improper method, as, by the violent and llicceiTive blows of the peftle, they were frequently contufed, and broke in pieces. The Arabians, after having dried their coffee fufficiently upon mats, i'pread it on an even floor, and break off the hulk by pafiing a heavy wooden roller to and fro upon it; they then winnow and cleanfe it, and expofe it to the air for fome days, to give it a more perfedl drying, without which it would be apt to heat, and fo lofe its flavour. The praftice now ufed in Jamaica, fince it has come into more general cultivation, is fimilar to the Arabian; the hulk being taken off by machines turned by mules. Wooden rollers are preferable either to flone or iron ; for the (lone is fubjeft to depofite a grit, and the iron a ruft: and the large timbers of Jamaica are fufficiently ponderous. The advantages of the roller are the difpatch of work, and equality of p refill re ; both which contribute to render this article more fit for market, as well as more profitable. And the advantages of delaying to gather the berries, till they are dry and fhriveled, are, that the hufks may betaken oft with the utmoft facility, and the berries be impregnated with the bell flavour [il. The great fault of the Weft-India cofiee is the want of flavour, or having a difagreeable one. This may be attributed to feveral caufes. I. The growing in too moill: a foil; which (though it always increafes the fize of fruit and vegetables, yet) greatly depreciates tlicir quality. [i:] The moft approved engines., nnw ufed in this illand, were invented by the ingeniovis Mr. Latham, and are capable of clcanin^;^ one hundred hogfhcads in a day. 4 S 2 2. Gatherinjr '^

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6H JAMAICA. 2. Gathering the berries too foon. Some planters gather them while they are red, and hence find the utmoft difficulty in extricating the hulk. At this time, the berries are much larger, and weigh heavier, than thofe which are permitted to ripen perfedly on trees ; for, when they are ripe, the pulp is difcharged, and they are lighter, as well as fmaller, than before. 3. Some error in the drying of them when gathered, which muft be con flantly attended to; for they cannot be too much expoled to the air in the day-time ; but they mufl be, every evening, removed under cover, and carefully fcreened from dews and rain. Nor (hould they be placed near any fort of liquid or moiflure ; for thefe berries are very apt to imbibe moiflure, and the flavour of any liquid near them ; fo that, even if it is pure water, the berries will be enlarged, and their flavour diminifhed by it. A bottle of rum, being placed on a fhelf, in a clofet in which a canifter of coffee-berries, clofely flopped, was {landing at fome diflance, in a few days had fo impregnated the berries, as to give them a very dlfagreeable tafte. The fame confequence happened from a bottle of fpirits of wine. The berries (liould never, therefore, be laid to dry in houfes where fugars are curing, or rum is kept ; nor fent over in (hips freighted with rum, or pimento ; left they acquire the flavour of thefe commodities, which cannot be avoided, if they are flowed in the fame place [I]. From what has been faid it appears, that the foil, to be chofen for the cultivation of coffee-trees, (hould be rather dry than moifl, in which they will not grow lb luxuriantly as in wet mountain-foils, nor the produce be lb great ; but as the quality of the produce will be lb much more improved, fo it will certainly turn out more to the planter's advantage. I'he next thing neceflary is to permit the berries to remain fo long upon the trees, till their Ikins are (hrlveled, and turned black, and that the berries readily part from the flalk. Their weight, it is true, will be greatly diminilhed ; but the crmmodity will be more than double the value ot that which is gathered Iboner. When gathered in the proper Hate, rhey mutt be well dried by cxpofure to the air, but cnrefully preierved froracxpofure to moillure. And, when thoroughly dry, they fliould be packed in Vftry tight calks in preference to bags, and Hiippcd in thofe velfels which have [I] lMi;lcr. n'

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BOOK HI. CHAP. VII. 685 no rum, or other fpecies of freight, that will impregnate them with a detrimental flavour. It certainly deferves the attention of the planters in this ifland to improve this article to their utmoft, and not to have fo much regard to the quantity, as to the quality of it ; for, altliough the former may plaufibly appear to have the advantage in profit, it certainly has not, lince the goodnefs of every commodity always claims the preference at market, commands the beft price, and becomes the quickeft in demand. Eight Negroes are equal to clean and gather from fifty to fixty acres, and upwards, according to the bearing of the trees ; and fifty acres will yield, at leaft, ^oo I. per annum, if well taken care of. I have known a man, with two affiftauts, manage a walk of thirty acres, befidcs attending other work. An ingenious gentleman, fome years ago, caufed a pound of coffee to be analyfed by diflillation, and found it yield, 5 3 G Spirit, or Phlegm, 660 Oil, 242 Caput mortuum, S 3 '^ It yielded almolt double as much oil, as horfe-beans ; and almoft treble as much, as wheat. The virtues of it are thought to confift in its oil. The feparation of this oil is promoted by roafting; and it is what gives the peculiar flavour to the infufion ; for the raw berries impart none but what is very difagreeable, and unattended with the efFe£ts peculiar to roailed coffee. Taken in moderation, it is allowed, by phyficians, to exhilarate the Spirits ; quicken the action of the flomach ; difpel the load and pams in the head, proceeding from faulty digeflion ; and to cLar the ideas. It is moft appropriated to moift, phlegmatic temperaments ; and, though decried by fome writers, is experimentally found medicinal and innocent, if never taken in exceis. Per flat. 5. Geo. HI. c. xliii. §. 3^, coffee muft be imported into Greit-Bniaiti in packages of one hundred and twelve pounds weight nert at leaft, and fto-vcd openly in the
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686 JAMAICA. 4. Cotton. — G'Jfip'ium fcminibus major ibus BrafiUanum. Tlii:! fhrub was probably brought into the illand by its antient Indian inhabitants from the South-American continent. It is propagated dcferves ;,erLifpearancc, but its truit will have a very ditfeicnt quality trom that which is the produce of a fertile, moift foil. Plants therefore, removed ti-om the Soutlvfide of our ifland to the Norih-fide, or from a bulky, impoverifted piece ot ground into a clayey, loamy, or brick-mould foil, or trom places, where it feldom rains, to others where the atmofphere is always cool and moilt, may bear large, fucculcnt berries, but of veiy interior goodnefs. It ought to be planted in a foil as flmilar to its natural one as poflible. There are fome kinds of trees, perhaps the greatell p.irt, whole truit, while the trees are young, is either more infipid, or the tafte ot it lets refined, than at a more advanced age. The 6'uit ot young walnut-trees is large ; but it is watery and inflpid : as the tree grows older, the nuts decreafe in {\Li.; but their tafle is more agreeable. A flmilar progrtfs may be obfeived in other fpecies. And it is not improbable, but the coflle-tree may be another inflance of the like properties ; for it is certain, that the Iruit ot old coffee-trees is much finaller; but whether the flavour of it is likewife improved mult be lett to the deciflon ot future experiment. 'J"he remark, however, will be fuflicient to juflily the planter's caution not to cut down an old walk, in ex])ec^ation of obtainini"; mun excellent buries trom one to be newly planted in its room. It is true, that the trees, plained in rieh foils, yield commonly trom t\ielve to fixieen ounces of coffee ptr ])!ant, and upwards (ll:e p. 68;.) ; and that, in dry foils, they fcarcely turnilh more than trom fix to eight ounces ; ivhich makes an immediate difference ot one halt in the weight, Now, at the European icarkcts, the i;aly llated ditfcience, in the price ot the fmall, well-jircpaied colfee, and that which is larger and ot the wor e kind, ii trom fliiccn to tucniy /tr cent. The planters therctore find it their advantage to plant iheir trees in the richelt foil. Thole only will have the fmall and fli.e beirics, who have no other than bad grounds, and have not a luflicient number of Negrots to improve them. And thus felt-i.iterell prevents many rrom apj>lying thcmfclves to the culture of that kind of cottte vhi..h is moll lalued in Europe: for the remedying ot which, and exciting a fjiirit of einularion jmong thcin, ilie difference ot price between the various forts of coffee IhoulJ be as confidcrable, as it

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BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 68; pagated by the feed, whicli is Town, about five feet afunder, at the latter end of September, or beginning of Oclober, and at firit but IHghtly it is betu-ecn tlie fcveral kinds of fiifjar. Bat, nonvithftaiidino; this diifercncc, it may jullly be are made to drying them in the fun, on the iuppolition that this procels may extract great part of their virtues, particularly the tine flavour giod coltec has, which is fo gr.atettil to the fmell, when it is firll poured out. And, in the fmaller illands, other objections are made to the eixpence of ercifling buildings, to ihade their coffee tVom the iuu and rain. Fur iny own part, I conceive that moiflure is the principal bane to coffee ; and that it is not fo much injured by expoCure to the fun and bree7e. They, however, who think differently, may, in Jamaica (where materials for the purpofe are plentiful enough in all parts), conftruCt a drying-houfe, or (bed, where it may be guarded trcm dews or rains, as well as ttom a too violent action ot the lun npon it, and yet be lufticiently ventilated by a continual circulation of air. Shipping it. The French exceed us vaftly in this refpecT:; and the greater price, which the coffee of their American produce gains beyond ours, is owing, in a great degree, to their fuperior care and management. One would hardly fufpert the merchants and planters could be capable of fo much inattention, as to (liip coffee in vcflels loaded with rum and coarfe fugars, confined in a ihip's hold; So much ot it ouyht to be collerted together at one place, as to load a velTel. This is a point very ealily to be regulated in Jamaica, either by the fociety of coffeeplanters at their meetings, or by the merchants there, who buy it up for exjiortation, and who ought to ufe erpial care not to flotv it in their ware-houfes (before its embarkation) among cafks ot rum, fugar, pimento, ginger, faltli(h, or other commodities of llroiig fmell, whole vapour may be communicated to the coffee, and alter the qualities of it in any degree. The French put it into calks that are perfeftly dry. In the Windward Iflands, where the bell of their American coffee is made, the fhip is neither laden with raw fugars, nor rum. Clayed fugars only arc exported with it ; which are ot little, it any, detriment to it. The captains take care alio to place it between decks, or in fome other very diy pai t ot the fliip. The Englifh, on the contrary, llow raw fugars and rum in almoll every part ot it ;. and thefe do a conliderable injury to the coffee that lies near them. Moll ot the Englifh iliips are hired for the freight ; the captains tlow the goods as they receive them ; and the owners are fatistied, if the veflel is but well-filled. It is a matter of little concern to theiri, whether the feveral kinds of goods have been properly dlfpofed, or whether they have received any detriment by lying near each other. The French Ihips are generally laden tor the proprietors own ufe : the captains buy the goods themfelves; and, that they may be able to give a proper account ot tlieir management, and to fhew that they have acled with prudence and caution, they are obliged to pay great attention to the ilowage of their veflel, and to the prefcrvation of their cargoes. Hence it follows, that the coffee, which is carried to France, is better than that which is brott^ht to England. Another jxjint ought

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688 JAMAICA. {lightly covered. After it fprings up, and becomes a plai^f, the root is well-moulded. The feed is fubjcd to decay, when it is lor too deep, efpecially ouglit not 10 be omitted; vvliicli is, tliat our plan) atian coffee i^ made life of too foon. Perhaps, one part of the excellence of the Mocha coffee a rife 3 rrcm this circiitriftLince : the i'aft-India company fend a fliip once in t\\'o j'cars ; it is moft prubnble, a part of the l^iading hrrhren kept, in that hot country, above a year; it is fix months before it arrives in England; it may be fix ur twelve months more before it comes into the conhm-ier's hands. Thus between two and three yeai-s mull inevitably intervrne between its growth and confumption. Miich or that m'jcila-c, which moft probably in roafting is the balis of its flavour, i? changed by tiis delay ; ind, indeed, experience confirms it. Dr. Fothergill mentions his having received a prcfcnt o^ lav cotfee from the Weft-Indies. Some of this, which a year ai;o was fo ill-tafted as to be untit lor ufe, was laid by in a very dry clofet. This year it was again tried, and found to he greatly amended. In another jear, it will probablv be little inferior fo the Afiatic, if it continues to amend in proportion. It is of much confeqiience therefore, whether the coffee is kept in molll, damp ware-houfes, or in dry, airy places; idietherit is (hipped with other goods, or alone; whether it is ufed immediately, or not until after it has been kept a coniiderable time. It might be well worth the planter's labour and expence to keep his coffee in the ifland, from year to year, till he has got fuch a quantity', either of his own, or bought from his neighbours, fuflicient to load a fmull veflel, marking the different ages on the feveral caflcs. A merchant in Kiiigfton, in which town there is no want of excellent, dry ware-houfes, might fet apart one for the fole purpofe of receiving coffee ; and, colIctfing that of the fmalleft berry, keep it ftored for a twelvemonth, and then remit it to England, in a veflel chartered for the purpofe ; excluding all other commodities of the ifland, except mahogany, which would ferve to cover the bottom part of the hold, while the cofl'ee might have a dry llowage above and between decks. It feems probable, to think that fuch a cargo, being houfed with equal care on its arrival in England, and lodged in a ware-houfe diliinft from rum, fugar, or pimento, would repay the lofs fullained by keeping fb long on hand. This, indeed, is partly proved by the amended flavour of that coffee, which, by reafon of the glut at market, aad low price, has not met with a prompt fiile. The hcji Means nf encouraging its improved Culti'vation, It may be of ufe, to conlider the meafures which would fooneft put our planters upon overcoming ever}' difficulty ; which would oblige them to if udy the culture of this plant, the curing of the fruit, and the fending it home in the higheft perfection polTible. By what means can it be made the Weft-India planter's interell to cultivate coffee in fuch a manner, as to approach, in talle and flavour, as near to the Aliatic as polTible > The fhort anfwer to this is, Make it their intereft ;" that is, encourage its importation. The duties and excifc on cotfee from our plantations are as follow : /. s. d. The duties at i/. 13 j. 6i-^ univcrfally drank ; inllead of being, as at prefent it is, attainable only by the richer families J who, together with the frequenters of cotfee-houfcs, ar its chief, if not only eonfumerS, and that in a more fparing degree than they would be, if the price of it was reduced by Icirening the tan it is now charged with. perfc(flii;g

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BOOK III. C H A P. VI r. 689 efpecIaHy in wet weather. The foil, moft proper for it, fiiould not be Iliff", nor (hallow, as this plant has a tap-root. The ground is hoed perfefting its quality. The planters in our iflands not only could furnifh the whole amount of the prt-fcnt confumption, but any further quantity that might be wuntid. A tew years lince, the excife on foreign coffee was raifeJ, for the encouragement of the Britith iflands : but the duty and exci(e on our own wert left as before; which are fo confiderablc, as to rtllrain the middling and conunon people, who alone make a large consumption, from the u(e ot it. The French, in this, feeni to have underrtood their intereft better. T/.vir crrffee pays htit a fmnll Aiitj ; and ten isjlarcc heard of a'/fti^ them. It might be fo in Great-Britain, did we not inake tliat article, as well as chocolate, dearer than tea, by difproportionate and enormous duties ; which, others ile, would be fold as cheap^ and probably be the means of preventing, in a great meafute, the exportation of our bullion to China. We fee at prefent (1774), that a temporaiy fulpenfion ot the India company's j)urchafes of tea has confiderably affefteJ the price ot fdver ; fo that we may toon exped a new : li age, which would not hare happened, had they continued to drain this kingdom of bullion as tornieily. This can only be avoided by fubllltuting another yofw/, reficjlj:ng liquor, inftead ot tea. Cotfte and chocolate are its natural rivals ; and .voukl, in ail hkelihood, have the t'uperiurity, if government would be faiisfied with their contributing to the necellities of the ftate in the fame pr.)portion : more is at prefent exafted ; and that alone dilables them from a competition. It snay be inojght ftrange, that articles, which our own colonies can raife, fliould pay a iiigher duty than a Ch'nefo commodity, the place of which they might lupply. This aflcrtion, however, may be pioved in the tnott convincing manner. One eighth part ot au ounce of tea, :'. t. one fpoonful and an half, is commonly uled for the breakfatl of one perfon. At that rate, a quarter of a pound is confumed in thirty-two days ; which, to avoid fractions, we will confider as a month, both with refped to the other articles and this ; fo that, upon the whole, it will make no difference. A quarter ot a pound ^<;r month is three pounds in the year. One quarter of an ounce of coffee is ufually allowed for a good di(h ; and it may very well be fuppoled, that, were it cheap, three fuch difhes would be confumed for a breaktali: howver, to avoid objec'lions, let us reckon but two ; which will require half an ounce of coffee, that is, four times the weight of the tea, confcquently one pound in a month, ana twelve pounds in the 3 ear. It is common to give out one ot the fmall divifions in a cake ot chocolate (of which there are eight in a quarter of a pound) to make one difli : two at leatl would be requifite for a breakfall ; and they would weigh an ounce, which is eight times as much as the tea, and double the weight ot the coitee. The contumption ot the month would be two pounds ; and, of the year, twenty-four. From hence it is plain, that, if tea is charged with duties and excife to the amount of 1 s. io\d. fier pound, which is adfuatly the caie, roafted cotfee, of which/e/.r times the quantity is neceflary for the fame purpofe, ought to j'ay hMl one fourth oi that fum, that is to fay, id. and |-ths /impound ; and chocolate, one eighth part, or 4^. and -.'jths: and, if the duty and excife fliould continue to be paid on the cotfee before it is roafted, they ought to be near one quarter lefs, becaufe it lofes ot its weight, in roafling, Z4lb. on ii2lb. The lots ot weight on the chocolate nut is lik?wife 1 8 lb. on an hundred. Allowing for which, the duty on roafted coflee will be reduced to 6|(/. (and chocolate ftiould not pay quite 3^(/.) inftead of 331. 6(/.^fr hundred on plantation coffee at the cuftom-houfe ; that is, 4 <^. /rr pound, and is. 6i/./<'r pound, at the excife; in aJl zz d. It inuft be afterwards roafted, which reduces n 2 lb. to 88 lb. ; and izd. upon raw cotfee is full 21. ^
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690 JAMAICA. hoed frequently, and kept very clean about the yoyng plants, until they rife to moderate height ; otherwile, they are apt to be deftroyed by government would receive, on each perfon's annual confumption, upon the footing that has been propok'd. The Confumption of aYear-, /. i. d. On 3 lb. of tea, valued at 3 J. 9 (/./tr pound, which is o 11 3 The duty and excife, at 2 J. \o\d. amount to 8 7-|On 1551b. ot unroafted coftce, which, when tit for ufe, would be reduced to 12 lb. the prime-coll, at 6^. /(/• pound, is ^ 1 ik. Suppoied duty on the 15-Tlb., at 6|^/.j#fr pound, is o 8 6|-jOn 29^ lb. of chocolate-nu'-s, which wouKl make 24.1b. of chocolate, the prime-coll of the 29jlb., at 6 i/. / pound, is o 14 7^ Suppofcd duty thereon, at 3i (V. /)• pound, -086 T..e duties, payable at piel'eut on the fame quantities of the two lalT: articles, ftand thus : /. 5. d. On 1 5f lb. of unroafted coffee, equal to 1 2 lb. when fit for ufe, at i /. 1 3 j. 6-Jj d^pcr cent. wliicn is about 4 d. per pound, --0^1 Excife on the lame, at z .c. 6 on, their cuftomers, becaufe there will be no occaliou to raifc the price to them. Another conlideration, in, tavour ot this plan, is, that the payment ot the tax cannot bs. evaded, and will be eafily levied.. The reduction of the duties would bring all, that, is fhipped Irom. our colonies, to a regular entry ; at leall, this is very probable, as therewxjiild, then be no temptation left tor fmu;,'gling it. It remains only to conlider, what difference he inctealed confumption ot coffee and i-hocolate, in litu of tea, would make with refpei5t to navigation. The Eaii-liidia company has lately agreed to pay 26/. \os. per ton tor trtight fron\ vhina. Que ton ajifwers the lame purpoies as four tons ot cofiee; and the freight on that quantity, at the ufual rale ot ^ /. loj. /irton, would be 2,2/., which is fomething lefs thati on the priiponional <)ii,mtity of tea. But the difference is very confiderable in tavour of chocolate: and l there arc molt material advantages attending ihe Weft-India navigation,, in prelcrence to tlie Eall ;.T particularly, that our brave failors are lefs liable to fatal dillcmpers in Inch, a voyage, having no occafion to remain tor fo long a, couti nuance abo:iid a ffiip ; and, what is ot great imporauce, fliould their king and couiury, on a fudden emergency, need thpii alliilance,, it may foon be commanded. On ihe coninuy, when. once a fliip.lrom China has left ourports,, we can cxpcCt no fervite of that kind from the crew tot eigh.eeii months, however much they may be waute
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BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 6gt by caterpillcirs. It grows from four to fix feet, aiul produces two crops annually; the Hrrt in eigiit months, trom the tune of fowuig the pay a pmportionahle duty with tea, it may l^e aflerted, that the revenue cannot be leflened by tbe ttrmer taking of the latter. On the contraiy, as^t'ne Weft-India pioduce is all paid tor in our m.uiutaitures, tliC in.;enicjus aitill, the traJelmiin, and huibandman, at home, mull bo bi;ttcr enabled to pay taxes : the duties and exi He upon cotl'ee and cacao being reduced, nioie than double the quaniijy (.efpecially ot the former) would be conluir.ed. Such an enlarged conlumption would make it the inicrell ot the planters to cultivate the trees with more care. It is cenainlv-of gieat moment, that the Icller pi nters (hould be alile to gain a fublill'enec by the cultivation ol: thefe Iniall articles, which require but little llock, and no great expence tor Negroes. No little planter, generally fpeaking, can go upon lugar with adi-antage ; the expence of Negroes, cattle, works, and other requilites ot a lugarplantation, are beyond his reach. If he has any landed property, by one means or other he is ohen obliged to f 11 it to liis richer neighbour, and remo\e to fome other country, lefs unfavourable to contracted circutr;(lance3. Thus the iflands are gradually thinned of white inhabitants, and bemme leli; able to queil the inlhriecfions ot their Negroes, or to oppofc any hollile invafion. Whatever articles ot produ.t, there/ore, tend to divide the landed propcity, to multiply the dillribution of it, and confequemly. ttirniih fubfillence to a gieatcr number of white inliabitaiu?,. certainly mull add to the llrength and fecurity of the ilknds. Manner of preparing tbe Infujien, and its ufef'd ^aUt:es. The French Inhabitants in the Vvinduaid Iflands always make ufe of coffee for theu' brcakfaft, taking equal quantities of the infufion and boiled milk (or rather milk that is fcalded) ; and, after their dinner, they commonly drink a cup ot coffee without milk ; and they have, in general, excellent health, and a fine flow ot fpiiits: the Engliih fubjcLls, whom it is difficult to wean from prejitdices, llill perlift in the uft; of tea ; and, though they enjoy a good Hate of health, do not to have halt the vivacity of the French in the fame iflands. It the coffee is old and uell-roalled, and itnmediately covered up, fmo:iking-hot (when the roarting is Hntfhed), in a bowl, or cup, to prevent the fine, volatile particles and flavour froin going off; it then, \ihen cold, it is ground, and made properlv with boiling, good water; it is looked upon to be in its higheif perfection. The better fort of Fiench, in all the iflands, make a practice ot taking a cup ot equal parts, coffee and fcidded milk, with a cruft ot bread, almoff as foon as they get out ot bed in a luorning: and the reafons they give for this cuftom arc, that it clears the brain, enlivens the fVnfes. cleanfes the itomach, throws off any rheum or fortuitous matter that may be lodged about the head, llcniach, or lungs, trom foul vapours; and they likcwile lav, that it prevents, and even cut es, the gravel. The Turks alfo fet the higheff value upon good coffee, on account of its exhilarating qualities. Surely then it mull be preteiable to tea, which has quite contraiy cft'cils. Coffee, made in the following manner, is pleafing to moil people, and is much preleiable to tea, or to coffee inade in the ulual manner, tor breakfafl. Let it be made in the ufual inanner, only a third part flronger ; let as much boiling milk be added to the coffee, before it is taken from the fire, as there is water ; let it fettle ; drink it with creaiu, or without, as may be moll agreeable." Were the poor and middling peo])le enabled to procure this, it would be much more nnurifliing and beneficial than the wretched beverage thev indulge themfelves with of the moll ordinary teas. Doftor Fotheigill mentions, that, ahhough he was fond of tea, he found it unfavouiable to his health. He then tried coft'ee, made in the mann^f above-recommended, end has drank it almofl conllantly, many years, w ithout receiving any inconvenience fiom it. He thinks it difhcult to determine how tar the French cullom, of drinking it immediately after dinner, is right ; but it can admit of no difpute whether a diih ot eoffee, or a bottle of v, ine, mxy then be lefs prejudicial to health. It is lefs injurious, howevei, to drink coffee immediately after dinner than later in the evening ; tor it moll certainly proinotes watehlulnefs, or, in otlier words, fu'pends the inclination to fleep. Was it fubllituted, inllead of the bottle, immediately af:er dinner, it teems more than probable, that many advantages would flow from it, both to the health of individuals, and general crceuomy : and it feems not improbable, but, by deterring coffee or tea fo late in the evening as is ufualhpraCfifed, we interrupt digellion, and avid a new load to that already in the flomacli, which, after a full meal, is not a matter of indlffcienee. To conclude. In rcfpc.'t to real ufe, and as a part of our food, there is no evidence to induce us to think that cotfle is interior to teu, + T 2 In

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6g2 JAMAICA. the feed ; the fecond, within four months after the firfl: ; and the produce of each tree is reckoned about one pound weight. The South-fide planters generally cultivate it in May, and gather, in the 'January following; but, unlefs they have rain between January and April, which more often fails than happens, they rarely make much of the fecond crop ; for which reafon, September feems to be a fitter feafon for planting the feed, as it will have certain rains in Odlober, to eftablifh its vegetation ; and, being gathered about May, the fhowers, which may probably fall in the fucceeding weeks, promife to enfure a tolerable fecond crop. The feed is fet, in regular lines, at the diftance before-mentioned, fo as to let the branches fpread freely, which however are fometimes pruned, if the foil be too rich, and their growth over-luxuriant ; and they are likewife pruned, or trimmed, conftantly after the firfl gathering. When the pods are come to maturity, they burft open, and difclofe their feeds, intermixed wJth the flock, or wooll. When great part of the pods are thus expanded, the crop begins, the wooll is picked, and afterwards cleared from the feeds by a convenient machine, of very fimple contrivance, called a gin, coropofed of two or three fmooth, wooden rollers, of about one inch diameter, ranged horizontally, clofe and parallel to each other, in a frame; at each extremity they are toothed, or channeled longitudinally, correfponding one with the other; and, the central roller, being moved with a treadel, or foot-lath, refembJing that of a knife-grinder, makes the other two revolve in contra direftions. The cotton-wooll is laid, in fmall quantities at a time, upon thefe rollers, whilft they are in motion, and, readily palfing bein refpeft tonational oeconomy, the benefit of our colonies, and the lives of the feamen, eveiy lircumftance concurs to give colt'ee the preference. It is raifed by our fellow-fubjefts, paid for by our manufactures, iuid the produce ultimately brousjht to Great-Britain. The great obllacle to a more general ufe of coffee is the verj' high duty and excife. Leflening thele impofitions would not lelfen the revenue. Smutjgling would be diliouraged ; and an incrcafcd coniumption would make up the dciiciency to the treafury. The planters would be induced to cultivate it with more attention, and with more fldll, if tljere was a belter market for it. As the L'U'er planters might be able to fubfift by raifing this, and other fmall articles of Weft-India produce, their numbers would Increafe, and add to the defence and fecuriiy ot the fevcral jflands ; more efpccially fince the cultivation of fuch articles would be airenJed with no greater labour than what Europeans are capable of enduring without any peril to their lives. Up )n th-jfc various confiderations, it is to be hoped, that government will fee its error before it is' too late ; and, by relicvi.ig the planters trom the imtnidcrate burthens laid ujxjh them, wliich arc fo riiinou; to their indubv, jircvcnt the cultivation of thele articles trom being wholly loll to our ;ll.inds, th; latter weakened and
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BOOK III. CHAP. VII. 693 tween them drops Into a fack, placed underneath to receive It, leaving the feeds (which are too large to pafs with it) behind. The wool thus dilcbarged from the feeds, comes afterwards te be hand-picked, and clcanfed thoroughly from any little particles of the pods or other fubftances which may be adhering to it. This is a tedious though nece{Iary operation ; but is cafily performed by children or invalids, who are fit for no other work : it is then flowed in large bags, where it is well trod down by a Negroe, whilft it is thrown in, that it may lie clofe and compaft, and the better to anfwer this purpofc, fonie water is every now and then fprinkled upon the outfide of the bag. This operation is performed in a fbady place, that the moifture may not evaporate too fuddenly. The weight of a marketable bag is ufually 30olb. and that weight per acre may be expedled from plants. To bring therefore the profit of this cultivation into view, we may fuppofe a planter poflefled of ten able Negroes, and twenty acres in cotton, the produce may be rated as follows ; Acres. 20 Number of

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%4. JAMAICA. It ib luppofed, that not fewer than 120,000 perfons are conftantly employed in England in different branches of the manufacture of thi* fingle ftaple. There Is but littlc^of it worked up at the places of its growtii, except in the fabric of hammocks j and even thi? little branch has nes'cr yet reaLhedJamaica. In lome parts of the iiland, as in Verc^ ii few induilrious houlewives make knit flockings with it, for their families; and fome few planters fpin their own wick for lamps in crop time ; but, probably, not a third of a bag is fpent in this way, as the greater number buy what is imported from Great Britain. In this example we have a proof of the great comparative value of the. Weft India colonies, which do not rival Great Britain in manufaftures, over thole which are dangerous competitors with her. This difparity begins from the very verge of the Tropic, and grows more vilible, the further we recede from thence to the Northwards. In the Carolinas, I liave been informed, that the planters have in general lo great 2 number of looms at work, as to be able to cloath their black and white labourers with a coarfe fabric of cotton cloth : they fave, bj this means, a heavy annual charge, being the groivejs, as well as manufaSlurers. If the Jamaica planters were to purfue the lame fcheme, and each to fet up a loom in his houfe, the lols to Britain would be near 300,000 /. fterling per ann. ; but fuch eftablifliments only take effcft in very populous colonies, where the people are too poor to buy, can afford cheap labour, are not over nice in their cloathing, and cannot give their time or hands to more lucrative purpofes. In Jamaica it is not worth while to enter upon fuch a manufacture; becaufe, upon computation, it would come to a higher price than ;\ better fabric imported from the mother country ; becaufe labour can be applied to more gainful works ; becaufe the inhabitants are fond of being well drefled; and, laftly, have a variety of ftaples, which re(^uire too conltant attention to give them Icilure for attending the loom. The Indians of the Ifland, when it was difcovered by Columbus, mauufadured this article into hammocks and apparel. Nature having denied fleeces to the fheep of thefc climates, this vegetable wool ieems to have been given them as a lubllitute j and it is certainly the beft appropriated, and wholelomeft material, for a Tropical drefs. The

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BOOK 117. CHAP. VII. 695 The feeds are efteemed efficacious in the bloody flux ; and an oil is obtained from them by expreffion, which fupplies the boiling houfe lamps on fome plantations. 5. Cacao. Thsobroma. This tree once grew fo plentifully in Jamaica, that the inhabitants flattered themfelves, it would become the fource of inexhauftibls wealth to them; in 1671 there were fixty fine walks in bearing, and many new ones in cultivation j but fome years afterwards they were all deftroyed at once, as it is faid, by a blaft, which pervaded the whole iiland ; fo that they were never afterwards recovered ; and, at prefent, there are but very few ; the greateft diicouragement in goins'tipcn this article being the extreme tendernefs of the young plants, and the length of time they require to come to maturity ; which mo(t fettlers are too fanguine and impatient to wait for, but rather ap^jly to other commodities, which make a quicker return, akhou^^h it is certain that a good cacao walk, once eftabliflied, is far more profitable, and demands fewer labouring hands, than almoft any other marketable Weft India product, 'i'licre are many trees ftill in ihe ifland, fcattered about in the woods, and found chiefly in rich, cool bottoms, that are fheltered. from the wijids. As the cacao is a very capital, article in trade, and may be produced as fuch in this ifland,. I fliall lay down the bell rules, for the culture of it, tliat I have been able to meet with. The moft proper foil for the plants is a mold:, rich, and deep earth; for they generally fend forth one tap-root, which runs very deep into the ground ; fu that, whenever they meet with a rocky bottom near the furface, they feldom thrive, nor are long-lived.. A rich glade of brick-mould near water is perhaps the beft; fituation of any. Before the plantation is begun, the ground ihould be well prepared, by digging it deep, and clearing it from the roots of trees and noxious plants. When the ground has been thus prepared, the rows fhould be marked out with a line. Some of die largcft, fineft cods, full ripe, are then to be feledled ; and, after being kept two or three days from; the time of their gathering, they are opened, the nuts taken out, and thrown in a fmall veflel of water ; fuch as Ivvim are to be rejeded j the Qthers are wafiied clean from the pulp, the putct (kin taken ofF,, aiid

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696 JAMAICA. iind they are fuffered to lie in fhallow water, till they appear juft ready to Iprout, A hole is then made about one foot diameter, and fix inches deep, in the ground prepared for their reception. A plantain leaf is laid in the hole, fo as to retain a length at one end of about eight inches above ground ; the mould is lightly rubbed into the leaf, till tlie hole is filled ; and the nuts are afterwards fet triangularly in it, three in a hole, at two inches depth, care being ufed to place them with their ends perpendicular ; they are to be covered with mould, loofely fhaken over, and the extremity of the plantain leaf folded down, and kept in that polition, with a Imall fi;one laid upon it. In about eight or ten days time the plants will appear above the mould ; the plantain leaf is then raiied, and fome thatch tree, or other ftrong leaves, ai'e fet round, to (hade and prote(St the young plants from the fun. Small hurdles, of about eighteen inches, made in balket work, or reeds bundled together, would perhaps be preferable, as they are fixed more firmly by their flakes in the earth, lo as not eafily to be thrown down by the wind, and brufh oft the feed leaves of the plants; for thefe are only the tender divided lobes of the kernel, and the lols of them w^ould wholly put an end to their further growth. Thefe Ikreens are continued about fix months, after which, the Spaniards take a branch of cora/ bean tree^ and fet it S. S. W. (in Jamaica it (hould be N. N. E.) at a fmall diftance from the plants, and intermixed between the rows. Thefe (lips will grow up with the cacao, and defend it from blowing, violent weather. The young plants are fo fufceptible of injuries from ftrong winds, a too hot fun, or great droughts, that they cannot be too well fecured againft fuch accidents. For this reafon, the moft ftieltered fituation muft be chofen for them. The winds moft to be feared in Jamaica are the N. E. S. E. and Southerly. Some defend the young plants, by planting plantain fuckers about two months, or caflada fix weeks, before the feeds are fet. They plant the nuts in the rainy feafon, or, at leaft, in cloudy weather, or when rain is expeded ; and, in cafe the weather proves too dry and fcorching after the young cacao makes its appearance above ground, they contrive to water it, by laying pieces of rag, cotton, or even weeds, thoroughly wet, gently round the ftem, and let them reft: there, till the earth has abforbed a confiderablc portion of mo'iflurc ; a watering-pot, with a rofe liead of very

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 697 \Ci-y fmall holes, would, no doubt, be Icis troublefonic, and perform this operation much better ; but tlie water ufcd for the purpofc (hould be taken from a river, and fufFcred to ftand for ibme hours in a tub or ciftern, previous to its being ufed. Plantain trees afford the inoft natural and agreeable fiiade for thefe plants, while very young ; but, as they rife, they fhould be furnifhed with a more fubftantial defence agaiiift the inclemencies of the weather, till th.ey attain to full perfection ; and it ought even then to be removed with caution. If the walk is extenfive, a few large timber-trees may be left on the outline, or ikirts, here and there, to break the force of the wind. '^I'iie Spaniards fet orange-trees, but they are, 1 think, too flow in their growth. 1 have feen the horfe caffia, and mammce, ufed for this purpofe i and they feem better adapted, from the largenefs of bulk, and thick (liady leaves. When the cacao is fix months old, the planter, from this period, muft not be too fond of cleaning the walk from grafs and herbage ; becaufe they keep the ground cool ; but all creeping, climbing plants, and fuch weeds as grow high enough to overtop the cacao, fliould be deftroyed. The ditlance for laying in the feeds may be about fixteen or eiiihteen feet from tree to tree. The reafon for putting in three feeds is becaufe they fcldom all fucceed ; or, if all gi"ow, they will not all be equally vigorous; when therefore they are about eighteen inches high, one of the weakeft and moft unpromifing of the three may be drawn up, and thrown away, care being taken not to injure or difturb the roots of the two renjaining. It is found by experience neceflary to plant the feeds whei'e the trees are to remain ', for the tranfplanted trees will never thrive, nor bear well, on account, as is fuppofed, of the tendernefs of the taproot, which, if it be the lead injured, will bring on a decay of the tree. In two years time, the plants, havir>;i: grown to the height of about five feet, will begin to flower ; thefe firft blolibms are always plucked otfi for, if fuflered to rem lin, and produce fruit, the vigour of the trees will be greatly impaired, and they wili never bear well afterwards. Their fruit is not allowed to remain for maturity till the third year, and then only fo much as leems proportioned to the ilrength of each tree. By thefe precautions they will afterwards yield a larger, Vol. III. 4 U better

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698 J A M A I C A. better nourifiicd fruit, and hold their vigour much longer. In the fourih year they nre permitted to bear a moderate crop, but fome flowers are generally pulled off from thofe that appear too weak, in order that they may recover their ftrength, before they are old. When planted in a good foil, and properly managed, they will continue vigorous and fruitful for thirty years. They bear two crops a year ; the greateft in December or Junuary, the other in May ; and from the time when the flowers drop off', to the maturity of the fruit, is about four months. The time of maturity is known by the yellownefs of the pods, and the rattling of the nuts, when the pods are ftiaken. The latter are then plucked, the nuts picked out, and leaving the pulp, if any remains upon them, they are expofed every day to the fun, for a month, upon mats, blankets, or Ikins [?;]. It is beft not to wafli off the pulp, as it makes tliem keep the longer. The pods contain no certain number; they have from ten to twenty, and e\en thirty nuts j but this depends chiefly on the right training them, during the firfl: three or four years of the growth. When thoroughly cured, or dried, they are ready for the market. After a wnlk is once efl:abliflied, it renews itfelf, the roots fending out fuckers, to fupply the place of the old (locks, when decayed, or cut down. The produce of one tree is generally eftimated at about 20 lb. of nuts; which, at 5/, Jamaica currency ^er cwt. is worth i /. A walk of ten thoufand trees will therefore yield a yearly profit of 10,000/. T^he produce ^^r acre in Jamaica has been rated at 1000 lb. weight j^^r annum^ allowing for bad years. In poor foils, and imder bad management, the produce per tree rarely exceeds 81b. wt. j and ten thoufand fuch trees will therefore yield 4000/. When well cured, the iiuts are plump, fmooth, oily, and of a bitterifli tafte, eaten raw. The chymical oil extraftcd from them is extremely hot, and eftcemed a good embrocation in paralytic cafes ; the Mexicans are faid to eat the nuts raw, to aflUage pains in the bowels. The chocolate, fo much and fo juftly preferred by the Weft Indian natives to moft other aliments, is highly refl;orative, inlomuch, that one ounce of it is laid to nourifti as much as a pound of beef. It is [] It is ufual firft to l;i) ihc j^oils in heaps to fwcat for thiee or four days before they are •ipcncd. efteemcd

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BOOK in. CHAP. VIII. 699 efteemed in all countries where it is known, and is found a fbitablc part of diet for all ages, but in particular agreeable to infants, old perfons, valetudinarians, and fuch as are on the recovery from ficknefs ; and, prepared with milk, it is highly approved of in confumptive habits. From what has been premifed it appears, that this is not a plant which can be every where cultivated. It will not thrive in the dry, low parts of the South fide, nor on elevated or rocky fpots in the mountains. It requires a flat, rich, moift foil, well Iheltered by furrounding heights; which occafioned Sir Hans Sloan to remark, that it is but ill living where there are good cacao walks ;" for fuch moift, unventilated places are, without doubt, the moft unwholefomc for mankind to rcfide in. Yet, where fuch glades or fpots are found, they certainly cannot be turned to any fort of culture, that will yield more profit ; and it doss not follow, that, becaufe a fettler is pofTeffed of fuch a fpot, that he is therefore to live upon It; fince the fituation fuppofes the neighbourhood of higher fpots more proper for conflant refidcnce. Sir Thomas Modiford, about the year 1670, drew a plan for the fettlement and management of a cacao walk, wi'Ji a computation of the expence. At that time, Negroes were bought for two-thirds Icfs than the prefent rate; common white fervants were to be had without wages, and 24/. a year was thought fufficient for the wages and diet of an overfeer. The expence now, compared with what it was in his time, is as 700 to 250, or near 3 to i more; it is needltfs therefore, to quote his calculation, but his general diredions in regard to forming fuch a plantation, may be of feme fervice. He propofes fix able Negroes, and four white fervants, with one overfeer, and the land in wood. The firft operation, after providing proper dwelling-houfes, is to fall, clear, and plant four acres in potatoes; which, if the work is begun in the middle of March, may be very eafily performed with ten hands, by the middle of April. After this, they may continue to fall, clear, and fet plantain fuckers until the latter end of February in the following year. In this fpace, which is above ten months, they may have cleared and planted 21 acres, beiidts keeping clean the ground that is planted. A good flock of provilions 4 U 2 being

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700 J A M A I C A. being now at hand, ten more hands nre to be purchafcdj and hi the courle of the month of March, the cacao nuts are planted between the rows of plantahi trees, then about five or lix feet high, fo as to have the whole 2 1 seres in cacao by the lirft of June. Thefe, in live years, (according to Sir I'homas Modlford) will produce conipleat crops, and at 1 coolb. wt. per acre, will yield 21,000 lb. wt. ; worth at the Jamaica market (at the prcicnt prices) from 5 /. to 6/. per cwt.j 1050/. to 1260/. The whole of this fmall plantation, we find, is compleated in about fifteen months ; and during the five years that the cacao requires to attain maturity, annual additions offome acres may be made to the walk, corn may be planted, ginger, or coffee; hogs and fmall ftock bred; and vaiious other kinds of bufinefs attended to, for a prefent gain; and when once the walks are come to perfeftion, the largell may be managed, and the crop gathered and cured, with very few hands. 6. Ginger. — Zm-zaber vel Amomum Scapo fiudo. Spied ovatd. This is propagated by the fmaller pieces, prongs, or protuberances of the root, each of which throws up two ditferent flcms ; the firft bears tb.e leaves, and rifes to the height fometimes of three feet, or upwards, but its ufual growth feldom exceeds 18 inches. It thrives beii in a rich, cool foil, and, therefore, what has been recently cleared from wood, is well adapted to the culture of it, more efpecially, as it is fuppofed to be a great impoverifher of land. In fuch a foil, it grows fo luxuriantly, that a hand, or large fpreading root, will weigh near a pound. It is, however, remarked, that wiiat is produced from a clayey, tenacious foil, flirinks lefs in fcalding, while fuch as is raifed in the richer, free, black moulds, lofes confiderably in that operation. The land intended for the cultivation of it, is firft well cleared with the hoe, then (lightly trenched, and planted about the month of March or April. It attains its full height, and flowers about Auguft or September; and fades about the clofe of the year. When the ftalk is entirely vvitherejl, the roots are in the proper flate for digging. This is generally performed in the months of Januaiy and February. After being dug, they are picked, cleanfed, and gradually leethed or fcalded in boiling water, they are then fpread out, and expofed every day to the fun, till futficiently dried ; and after being divided mto parcels of about 100 lb.

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BOOK III. C II A P. VIII. 701 100 lb. wt. each, they are packed in bags fur the market: this is called the black ginger. The manner of fcalding the roots is as follows : a large pot or copper is fixed in the field, or fome convenient place, which is kept full of boiling water ; the picked ginger, being divided in fmall parcels, is laid in balkets, and plunged alternately in the water, where it is fufFered to ftay for a Ipace of ten or fifteen minutes; it is then fpread on a platform for drying ; but care is taken during {he proceis, to change the water fu loon as it becomes much impregnated with the juices of the root. The white fort differs but little from the black roots. The difference there is, ariles wholly from the methods 01 curing them ; the white is never fcalded, but inliead of this ealy procefs, they are picked, fcraped, and waflied, one at a time, and then dried ; all which requires too much pains and time for any real advantage to be gained in the properties ; though, being made more agreeable to the eye, the price of the white is much hii'her at market. When the root is intended for a fugar prefcrve, it is dug while leader, and full of juice ; the ilems at this time rarely exceed five or fix inches in height; the root is carefully picked, and vvafhed, and afterwards fcalded^ till it is fufficiently tender ; it is then put in cold water^ and peeled and fcraped gradually. This operation may laft three or four days, during which it is commonly kept in w..tei-, and the water frequently fhifted, as well for cleanlineis, as to extradl more of tlie native acrimony. After this preparation, it is laid in ungiazed jars, and covered with a thin fyrup, which in two or three days is fhifted, and a richer put on ; this is fometimes again removed, for a third, or fourth ; but more than three are feldom requifite. The fhifted fyrups are not loft, for in Jamaica they are diluted with water, and fermented into a plea£ant liquor, called cool drink, with fome mixture of the chaw-ftick, lignum vitae, and fugar. A ginger plantation, which fliould alfo contain fufTicient pafturage and provifion, may require about 146 acres ; of which, 50 being allowed for ginger, may produce about 1 40 lb. /"^t acre, in all 7000 lb. wt., or 70 bags of 100 lb. each, which at 25 ). currency /-• cwt., is 87/, 10 s. = 6x1. 10 J. llerllng. Bags,

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-TO 2 / OJ JAMAICA. Bags. Ciflcs. lb. 1 cwt. each. 6oolb. each. In the yenr 1738 this ifland exported, ^0,933 817 8864 which is the largeft quantity ever fhipped from it in one year. In 1748, it fell to 1961 79 And, at a medium then taken of three years, it was found to be /i^rann. ^9948 1300 Which is not quite one-eighth of the export of I7j3. At prefentj the export is very fmall, this article not being fo much in demand at the Britifh market as it formerly was, when large quantities were re-exported to Rullia and Germany. Yet the price now {or lately) given, feems to make it a commodity worth attending to, efpccially the preparing of the white fort, which as it requires more pains, fo it is much higher prized ; the medium of this fort being lately at 575. 6d., and of the black 30 j. fteriing per cwt. The cultivation of it will not anfwer fo well, as fome other commodities, in old lands ; but in frefh-opened foil, in a wet part of the country, it might Day well for the planting, by the largenefs of its roots in luch a fituation, and by leffeningthe exuberant richnefs of fuch land, which makes it unfit for the fugar cane. The preferved ginger, if exported to Great Britain, is liable to fo high a duty as a fuccade, that the remitter cannot fail of loling confiderably by his adventure. "^V'hat is fent, therefore, in this form, is chiefly in prefents. Whether in its natural ftate or candied, this root is efieemed a good remedy againft the colic, loofenelTes of the belly, and windy diforders. It ftrengthens the ftomach, helps digeftion, and is often added as a corredlor to purges ; its ufe in culinary preparations is well known. 7. Pimento, Jamaica Pepper, All-Spice. — Caryophyllus FoUis lanceolatls oppofith, Flonbus racemojh termiiialibtis, et axillarlbus. This tree riles to the height of thirty feet, and is found almofl eveiy where in the woods of Jamaica; it is alio cultivated in many parts of the ifl;uid, but chiefly tlie North fide, and planted in regular rows. It begins to fru61ify in three years after it is firfl: planted, but does not arrive at maturity under feven, and then it repays very abundantly the patience

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BOOK HI. CHAP. VIII. 703 patience of the planter. It feem? particularly fond of a white marley, or ch;i!ky foil, having a fiiallow fiirflice of mould, and of the lands, which can fcarcely be put to any other ufe; but it requires refreOiing fliowcrs in its infunt ftate, and, therefore, is trained with difficulty in the mofl: Southern hills near the coaft. It grows luxuriantly, and bears well, in every richer mould, on a gravellv fubitrate, and rarely fails expcftation, planted any where, except the parts mentioned; but when cultivated in places which are fubje(ft to drought, the berries (and TDoX. young plants brought from inland mountains) Ihould be let immediately before the autumnal feafons. It flowers in June, July, and Auguft; but in fevcral pl.ces fooner or later, according to their lituation, and diflcrent feafons for rain; and after it flowers, the fruit foon ripens, though earlier in open grounds, than in thick woods. It is generally gathered in July, whil.; green; for if the berries are fuffered to remain till they are full ripe, they will not cure. They are, when ripe, of a dark purple colour, and full of a fweet pulp, which the birds devour greedily, and muting the feeds afterwards, propagate thefe trees in all parts of the woods. It is thought that the feeds paffing through them in this manner, undergo fome fermentation, which fits them better for vegetating, than thofe gathered immediately from the tree ; and I believe this is the fadl:, for the ripe berries will take with more certainty, after being laid together fomc few days to fweat, than when immediately put in the ground, or kept feparate till the pulp is dried. They are gathered in their green ftate, by twiftlng off the twigs either with the hand, or a pole cleft at one end. The berries are then feparated from the leaves, and other particles, and laid on cloths fpread over the barbacues, or terraced floors railed a little above the furface of the ground, inclolcd with an upright ledge of eight or ten inches in height, and divided by tranfVerle partitions into four or more fquare compartmer.t?, that each may contain a day's picking. During the lirft and fecond day they are turned often, that the vhole may be more cxpofed to the fun ; but when they begin to dry, they are frequently winnowed, and laid in cloths to prcferve them better from rain and dews, iViU expofing them to the fun every day, and removing under cover every evening, till they are fufficiently dried, which ulually happens in tenor twelve days, and is known by the darknefs of their com2 plexion.

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704 J A M A 1 C A. plexion, and the rattling of the feeds ; they appear at this time wrinkled, and have chanced from 2:reen to a very dark brown ; and in this flate, being re.idy for the market, th-y are flowed in bags or cafks. Some planters kiln dry them with great fuceefs, and it feems indeed a mod eligible method, where, from the abnndarjcc of the crop, difpateb, a'.id fecurity againft rain, are very eflential [o]. Some of thefe trees are obferved to bear no fniit, whidi has led feveral perfons to coniedlure, that there are male and female trees ; but Dr. Browne refutes tliis notion ; aflerts they arc hermaphroditical, and ilippofes, that if thofe called males were lopped and broken like the Teft, for one or two years, they would produce equally well. As there is i'o great an affinity between this and the true clove, it has been propofed, as worthy of, if the fruit, when firft formed, or the flowers picked off the tree, and dried, might not anfwer the fame purpofe as the Aliatic ; at Icaft, it might anfwer as a good fuc
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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 705 bloflbm, as well as at other times; the fricHiion of the leaves and fmaller branches, even in a very gentle breeze, diffufing a moft fragrant and exhilarating fcent through the circumambient atmofphere; they are efteemed, therefore, the moft wholfome places of refidtnce. The berries have a refemblance infmelland tafte to cloves, juniper-berries, cinnamon, and pepper, or rather a peculiar mixture, fomewhat akin to them all ; whence their name of all-Jpice. It is defervedly efleeuied the moft temperate, mild, and innocent, of all the common fpices, and fit to come into more general ufe, inftead of the Eaftcrn commodities of this kind, which it far furpaffes, by promoting digeftion, attenuating tough humours, moderately warming and fortifying the ftomach, expelling wind, and doing other friendly offices to the bowels. Diftilled with water per vejicam, it yields a very fragrant chemical oil, which finks to the bottom of the water like oil of cloves. A decoftion of the leaves, ufed by way of fomentation, has relieved in rheumatic aches and pains in the bones. One of the principal advantages arifing from a pimento plantation is, that the crop lafting only from two to three months, the Negroes may be profitably employed in any other branch during the remainder of the year. The yielding per acre is computed about one thoufand pounds weight, clear profit about 18/. 15^. 8. Wild Cinnamon. — Canella alba^ or Bajlard Cortex •w'lnteranus. This tree is very common in all the lower woods and rocky hills of the ifland, growing without any care, and propagated chiefly by the birds. For the berries, like thofe of the pimento and other aromatic plants, grow foft and pulpy when ripe, and lofe all that pungency that is peculiar to them in their immature ftate ; they arc therefore greedily devoured by the wild pigeons, and other feathered Inhabitants of the woods, who difperfe the feeds in different places with their muting. The bark, which is the canella alba of the fhops, confifts of two parts, the outer and inner ; the outward bark is as thin as a milled fliilllng, of a whitifh a(h, or grey colour, with light fpots here and there interdperfed upon it, and feveral (hallow furrows of a darker colour running varioufly through it, and making it rough ; the inward bark is much thicker than cinnamon, and twice as thick as the outer coat, fmooth, and of a lighter complexion, of a much more biting aromatic Vol. III. 4 X tafte,

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7o6 JAMAICA. tafte, fomewhat like that of cloves, not glutinous like cinnamon, but drjcand crumbling between the teeth. All the parts of this tree when frefh are very hot, aromatic, and pungent to the tafte, refembling cloves. It is cured without any difficulty by drying in the fhadej what is taken from the branches is thinner, and rather milder than from the body of the tree, more nearly approaching to the true cinnamon. The bark yields by diftillation a warm, aromatic oil, which is often fold for, and generally mixed with, oil of cloves ; nor is the adulteration thought of any prejudice to the medicine. It is reckoned a good remedy in fcorbutic habits; invigorates the blood, is carminative, and flomachic. Powdered and fnuffed into the nollrils, it is cephalic, and produces a copious difcharge of rheum. It is ufed by moft apothecaries inftead of the true cortex winteranus, and may very well fupply its place. Four ounces of the bark, with fix ounces of cajjia Ugnea (which it very much refembles), and one gallon of proof fpirit, (a handful of common fait being thrown in to dephlegmate the fpirit) makes a cinnamon water ; and the greater part of what is vended in the fhops is compounded in this manner. A quantity of the bark mixed with badly dlftilled rum, is faid to difcharge in part its naufeous empyreumatic tafte and fmell, probably by promoting the union of the oil with the fpirit ; but what the proportion is, I cannot direft, having never made the experiment. The export of this article is, at prefent, too inconfiderable to merit notice. 9. Aloe. — Aloes fempervive. This plant was firft brought into the ifland frona Bermudas,, as it is laid ; but there are feveral fpecies, and the fort fi-om which the beft aloes for the fiiops is produced, has very long narrow leaves, with fpines on their edges [51]. [j] The fuctotrine aloe is iliiis dcfcrrbed. It has long, narrow, fucculcnt leaves, nhich comi; cut wiihout any older, nud form hirge hads. The ftalks grow to the height ot three or ibiir feet, and have two, three, ami fometimes tour ot tlicfe heads branehing out; the lower leaves fpread on every fide, but the upper leaves turn inward towards the centre; the flowers grow in long I'pikes, upon (lalks about two feet high, each flauding upon a pretty long foot ftalk; they arc of a briglit red colour, tipt with green. This fpecies is not coinmon in Jamaica, but might cafily be procured from the grecn-houfes in England. The more common fort here is, what is called the Barbadocs liloe, which is very inferior to the fuccotrlne, in the opinion of tlie faculty; as being more iicrid in its nature, and rough iu its opciaiion. It

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 707 It is cultivable in the moil dry, parched, and barren foils, where fewother vegetables will grow, and thrives wherever it finds mould enough to cover the roots. It is propagated by fuckers, which fpring from the roots or ftumps of the old plants, fet in little fhallow pits, at the diflance of eight to twelve inches afundcr ; and care is taken to keep them free from weeds, for fome time after they are planted. When they are grown to a perfeft ftate, the labourers go Into the field with tubs and knives, and cut off the largeft and moft fucculent leaves clofe to the ftalk; thefe are immediately placed in the tubs, and ranged one by the fide of another in an upright pofition, with the cut part downward, that all the loofe liquor may dribble out at the wound. Some make alfo a longitudinal incifion from top to bottom, to facilitate the difcharge. When the juice has been by this means fufiiciently extrafted, it is put into fhallow flat-bottomed receivers, and gradually exhaled in the fun till it has acquired a due confiflence ; and thus prepared, it is packed in large dry gourds for exportation. The bell of this manufafture is fhining, tranfparent, fat, and in hot weather fomewhat foft ; of a yellowifh, or purple-reddifh colour, but when powdered is of a fhining gold colour, with an aromatic bitter tafle, and flrong aromatic fmell, almofl like myrrh. The planters frequently adminifler the crude juice to their children in worm diforders, and with very good efFeft. The infpiffated juice confifls of two parts, a gummous and refinousi the purging quality refides in the former, and mufl be extrafled by a watery menjlruum; the latter is aftringent, and is extracted with fpirit of wine. In general, it is not only a good purge, but ufed as a remedy againfl diforders of the bile. It has the peculiar property of loofening the body, when given in the fmalleft dofes, but when given in too large a dofe, it is apt to create haemorrhages, and particularly the piles ; it is alfo improper for women with child. In moderate dofes it promotes the piles and /f;2/f J, purges off vifcid humours, opens obftrudions in the bowels, flrengthens the ftomach, helps digeflion, and provokes an appetite ; but It is beft in cold conftltutions, and flabby relaxed habits, and after furfeits, or hard-drinking, when there is no fj mptom of an inflammation. The crude juice, drank with milk, heals ulcers In the kidneys and bladder, and deftroys worms. The Indians firft compounded it with 4X2 myrrh.

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7o8 JAMAICA. myrrh, and formed an admirable medicine (externally applied) for cleaning and healing the worft ulcers, even when the bone has been rendered carious; this they called moceber\ and the tinfture in frequent ufe, made from thefe two fubftances, was borrowed from this Indian difcovery. The method of preparing the common, or horfe aloes, is not fb tedious, nor does it require fo much care ; for in manufafturing this fort, all the leaves are cut off, fevered into junks, and thrown into the tubs, there to lie till the juice is pretty well drained out; they are then hand-fqueezed, and the liquor mixed with water in the proportion of about one quart of water to ten quarts of juice; after which, it is put into convenient boilers,^ and evaporated to a due confidence, which may eafily be known by dropping a fmall quantity from time to time upon a plate, and obferving the thicknefs as it cools, it is readily difcovered by the touch, or the eye, after a little experience: when the juice is brought to the proper ftate, it is emptied into large (hallow coolers, and afterwards into fmall barrels. As the droffy refinous part of the aloes is not foluble in water, it has been found, when combined with other mixtures, an excellent prefervative to fhips bottoms againft the worm, and was firft applied to this ufe by the Indians. The fhips trading in the Eaft and Weft Indies are particularly fubje£l to the annoyance of this worm, which frequently burrows through all the planks that lie below the furface, eCpecially in harbours. The rcfult of feveral experiments, tried by a perfon at Bermudas upon different forts of wood, proves, that a mixture of one ounce of aloes, allowed to two fuperficial fquare feet of plank, is the juft proportion. There are various coats with which It may be incorporated ; one of the beft Is, 6 lb. of pitch, i lb. of Spanifh brown or whiting, and one quart of oil ; or the like proportions of turpentine, Spanlfti brown, and tallow, may be ufed. Such a coat, incorporated with aloes, will preferve a fhip's bottom for eight months, provided it is made tenacious and binding, and is not rubbed off by any accident. About I 2 lb. wt. is fufficient for a vefiel of 50 tons burther, and fo in proportion; according to which, about 3001b. wt. v\ill be found enough for a firft-rate man of war. In preparing the aloes to be more effectual for this purpofe, a larger portion of water may be mixed with the juice when fet on to boil, viz, two quarts of water to every one gallon of juice ; and after fufllclent boiling.

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BOOK III. CHAP. Vlir. 769 Boiling, or when the water is thoroughly impregnated, it fhould be fhifted into any commodious veiTel ; fuffered to ftand for twelve hours, and the water then poured off: by this procefs, the foluble part, or gum, which is of no ufe in the operation, will be extraded ; and what remains in fediment is the drofs and relin, which being left to remain till it is pretty well dried and brought to confiftence, expofed to the air and fun, will be fit for ufe. The aloes, thus prepared, may be worth about 6/. ficrYmg per cwt. And at this rate, the expence to a veflel of 50 tons will be about 15J., and for a firft-rate fhip, of 2000 tons, no more than 18/. It is but juftice to this commodity to recite the efftfts of one experiment, tried by the perfon before-mentioned. He took feveral pieces of oak, cedar, and mahogany plank, of two feet in breadth, and four feet in length, and with particular diftindl marks to prevent miftake?, put on different coats, or compofitions, fome with, and feme without, the aloes mixture ; thefe were fuffered to lie under the fea-water for eight months; and, upon taking them up, he found that where the aloes had made part of the compofition, there were few impreffions made; one piece, in particular, was as frefli, found, and untouched, as on the day when it was put in ; this had been befrheared with turpentine, tallow, Spanifh brown, and aloes ; but the other pieces, which had none of the aloetic mixture, were perforated, and eaten into a honeycomb. The ufe therefore of this ingredient would certainly produce a faving of many thoufand pounds ^^r ^w?/^;/?;, both to the merchants, and the crown. If is the bitter naufeous acrimonv which refides in the refinous part, that renders it a very proper defence againft every fpecies of infedts; and this part, being indiffoluble in water, will adhere to the plank unimpaired, folong as the compofition lafts, with which it is blended. Neither an extravagance of price, nor apprehenfions of a fcarcity,need be any objedion to the general ufe of it. The fa van nabs, and other barren pLaces in Jamaica alone, are capable of producing much more than could be employed by all the Ihipping belong'-, ing to the Britifh dominions; and, was it encouraged by a regular demand, Bermudas and other colonies would enter upon the cultivation," fo tlatthe price could probably never rife high. The fame compofition may be ufed with great advantage in Jamaica, for preferving the rafters and other timbers belonging to the fioors and roofs

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7IO JAMAICA. roofs of buildings, from that deftrufiive infefl the wood ant; nor would a preparation of the aloes be lefs efficacious in fecurlng books from the depredations of thtfcarabceus, which, in its reptile-ftate, is a great enemy to all that are newly bound. If in binding books mtended for this ifland, and other parts of the Weft Indies, a fmall quantity of the aloes tlnfture, made by folutlon in fpirits of wine, was mixed up with the binder's pafte, it would effeftually prevent the attacks of this infeft. The quantity of aloes exported from Jamaica, Is extremely inconfiderable at prefent ; but, as an article of growth, and as it may be prepared for different demands in commerce, at very little expence and trouble, and is to be propagated in almoft any foil, it could not with propriety be omitted ; more efpecially fince in the variety of foil here, the fettler may turn the different parts of his land to the culture of fuch plants as appear beft appropriated to them. 10. Great American Aloes, or Coratoe, — j^gave. This plant Is found In moft parts of the ifland, but is moft frequent In the rocky hills of the South fide, and near the fea coaft ; it 11 kewife grows very luxuriantly in the richer foils of the mountains, always preferring thofe which are moft rocky. When defigned for cultivation, it is to be obferved, that it bloffoms in the fpring, and the top is then covered with a multitude of little plants, which are to be carefully gathered as the ftems wither, and planted from eight to ten feet afunder in any foil. The lower leaves of the moderate-grown plants may be cut off for ufe, without Injury to the others, care being taken not to lop away io large a quantity, as to prevent the plants from vegetating and flowering ; the nutriment received, from rains and dews, being chiefly colleded by the expanding leaves^ and tranfmitted to the root. The leaves of this plant are extremely large and fucculent ; after being cut, they are paffed between the rollers of a mill with their point foremoft; and the juice being conduced into wide, (hallow receivers, through a coarfe cloth or ftrainer, in thcfe receivers it is fuffered to lie cxpofcd to a hot fun, like the other aloes, until, the aqueous contents being exhaled, it is reduced to a thick conftftence. It I may

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BOOK III. CHAP. V//7. 711 may then be made up into balls, or any other figure, with the help of lye afhes, which prevent it from flicking to the fingers, after which it may be kept for years, and ferve for ufe as well as Caflile foap in wafhing linen ; but it has the fuperior quality of mixing and forming a lather with fait water, as well as frefli. Hence it appears, how very ufeful this compofition muft be at fea in long voyages, for example to and from the Eaft Indies ; nor is it lefs convenient in thofe fituations adjoining to the fea, where the water is hard or brackifli, and immifcible with the common foap. Another method of preparing this foap, is by cutting the leaves in pieces, pounding them in a large wooden mortar, and then expreffing the juice, which is brought afterwards to a confiftence, either by expofure to the heat of the fun, or by boiling over a fire. One gallon of juice, thus prepared, will yield about i lb. avoirdupoife, of a foft extradl. It will anfwer, prepared in either of thefe ways, provided the juice, before expofure to the fun, or the fire, is very carefully ftrained ; for otherwife it will be intermixed with fmall particles of the bruifed fibres, and outer membrane of the leaves; which, being indiflbluble notwithftjnding the boiling or expofure to the fun, will remain in the fame ftate after the juice becomes infpiflated, and may abrade and injure any fine linen waflied with it ; for in fuch cafe, thefe little particles aft like the briftles of a fcowering brufh. A caution muft be ufed, never to compound the extradl with tallow, or any other un6tuous materials ; for fuch mixtures deftroy its effe£t. This method of preparing a vegetable foap was communicated to the public, firfl:, by Mr. Anthony Robinfon, a praiflitioner in furgcry in the iflsnd, and very able bot^nift, who received a premium for it from the affembly. It has not as yet become an article of export ; but, even though it (hould happen to be difcouraged by the Britifii parliament, as likely to interfere with the foap manufafture of the kingdom, tlie fettlers, efpecially of the poorer clafs, may find their account, in being able to furnlOi ihemfelves with fo neceflary a domeftic article, for their own private ufe, by fo eafy a procefs, and at the expence of very little trouble in procuring a plant which abounds every where, and will thrive without any care beflowed upon it, after being once fet in the ground. The leaves are ufed likewifc in Jamaica, for fcowering pewter, and other kitchen utenfils, and flocri, which work they perform to admiration. The

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jiz JAMAICA. The inward fpongy fubftance of the decayed ftalk takes fire very readily when quite dry ; and, for this quality, is often ufed by fifliermen, and others, inftead of tinder. The Indians, on the South American continent, feparate the fibres of the leaves, by bruifing and fteeping them for fome time in water, and afterwards "beating them till they are entirely difen tangled .; thefe fibres make an excellent flrong thread for their common ufes, of clothing, fifhing lines, and nets, &c. The crude juice, mixed with fugar, has been adminillered internally, for provoking the menfes ; it is a great diuretic, and cleanfer of the gravel and ftone. The infpifikted juice, or extraft, well boiled, and fpread upon leather, or white paper, may be ufed as a plaifter upon parts aflfefted with the gout. At the firft application it feems to increale the pain ; for it draws ftrongly a fort of dew or moifture from the part ; but in three or four hours the pain ceafes ; and the part afFeded grows ftronger every day, the plaifter being left till it drops off. If the extraft is not well boiled, it will be apt to occafion a violent itching. n. Oil-nut-tree, Palma-christi, Agnus-castus. — Ricinus Amer'icanus. It is not a part of my plan, to define all the varieties of the plants exhibited in this catalogue. Botanifts reckon eight fpecies of this plant; I need fay only, once for all, that, for general comprehenfion, J have conceived it fufficient to recite, firft, the popular names, and oppofite to them, the common general term given by botanifts. A difplay of fclence is not requifite nor expedient, where the principal objed: has refped to the ufeful qualities of each plant, whether for manufacture, food, medicine, or commerce ; defcriptions at large are added where they were fuppofed abfolutely necefl[ary. The oil-nut plant is now much cultivated in Jamaica ; it is raifed from the nut or feed, grows with a furprizing rapidity to the height of fifteen or fixteen feet, and feems to flourifti moft in gullies, or near running water, in cool fhady fpots. The feeds being freed from the hufks or pods (which are gathered upon their turning brown, and when beginning to burft open), are firft bruifed in a mortar, afterwards tied .up in a linen bag, and then thrown into a large pot, with a fufficient quantity

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BOOK III. CHAP. Vin. 7,3 quantity of water (about eight gallons to one gallon of the feeds) and boiled till their oil is rifen to the fiirface ; this is carefully fkinuncrl, ftralned, and kept for ufe [g]. Thus prepared, it is intirely free from all acrimony, and will freely flay upon the flomach, when it rejeds molt other medicines. This oil is conlumed on many of the plantations, ia the boiling and ftill-houfes, during crop, and much preferable to the filthy, (linking lamp-oil imported from North America and Britain ; for it affords a clear, lively light, emits no difagreeable fmell, is obtained at lefs than one half the expence, and may be kept many years without growing fetid. When intended for medicinal ufe, the oil is more frequently cold-drawn, or extradled from the bruifed feeds, by means of a hand-prefs. But this is thought more acrimonious, than what is prepared by codlion. The cold-drawn oil at Hrft is perfe£tly limpid ; but, after being kept for fome time, acquires a pale tindlure, refembling Lifbon wine, probably caufcd by the men)brane which covers the kernels. It is adminiftered, with the greatefl; fuccefs, in the belly-ach, and all obftinate conflipations of the bowels, given from one, to even four or five ounces. It is likewife taken, with peife<^ fafety, by infants afflifled with worms, which it both deflroys, and fweeps away ; and therefore much fuperior to calomel, or tin-powder. It is given to newborn children, within the nine days, in a dofe of one tea fpoonfuU every morning, mixed with a little melafles, or any other fyrup, to purge off the meconium ; which purpofe it efleftually anfwers, and has faved the lives of many thoufand Negroe children. The retention of this excrement has been fatal to multitudes, by bringing on mortal convullions, generally known here by the name of jaw-falling [r]. The [(/] One gallon of nuts will yield about one quart of o"l. [r] Some of the abltrt phyficians have concurred in preferring the oil obtained from nuts, to olive-oil, in vermicular cafes ; the reafon of ^vhich is, that, as the worms have their bodies overfpread with extremely minute pipes, which are neceflhry to their refpiration; and, which being plugged up or llopped, they immediately die ; fo oils are found to anfwcr this effeA ; and nutoil, much fooner, and with more certainty, than any othet ; ns its parts are lefs porous, and therefore better qualified to exclude the air, the want of which deftroys them. It is mentioned by fome writers, that in ccitain parts ol Italy it is a common praftice, for mothers, to give their inhints, once or twice a \veck tailing, pieces ot toalled bread uipp.d in nut-oil: and that what they ufe tor this puipofc, is extrac'tui tiom the iiTi-f/i-;/;//, and felaom fails to cle:ir their bowels of thefe dangerous animalcules; the rkiiitis oil is equally powerful, and might be adminiftered after the fame manner. Vol. III. 4 Y leaves

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714 JAMAICA. leaves of this plant are applied to blifters, inftead of melllot ; boiled' with ground ivy and wild ginger, and then fermented with a little fugar or mdafles, a drink is made, which purges ftrongly, and is a very iignal fpecific in droplies, yaws, and pains in the joints, occafioned by the venereal. The leaves, applied to the head in fevers, relieve pain, and excite a diaphorefis in that part; made into a cataplafm, with caffada flour, and a little of the oil, and applied to female breafts, they difcufs coagulated milk, and hardnefs. The oil, externally ufed, is excellent in removing cramps, and pains arifing from colds, and kills lice in the heads of children. It is but of late that this oil has made an article of the Jamaica exportation, and that only in very fmall quantities ; it now forms part of the Britifh materia medlca, but is moft ufually obtained there from the feeds imported in barrels ; the oil, drawn in the Weft Indies, not being encouraged, becaufe it is-^ manufa£fure. What is intended for exportation, fhould be packed in jars, well ftopped with corks or plugs* covered with waxed cloth, and properly tied, or wired, or in fmall tight calks. The oil is not fubjedl to contraft rancidity, unlefs it is made from parched or roafted feeds, which are impregnated with an: empyreuma, 12. Anotto, or Roucoi; — Bixa. This flirub is very common in Jamaica. It loves a rich {oil, and fhady fituation, and flioots luxuriantly near rivuhts. The pods, or feed veffels, when full ripe, are of a deep brown colour, open of themfelves, and contain between 30 and 40 feeds, covered with a fplendid rtdi farina. When a fufficient number of thefe feeds are collected from the pod, they are thrown into any convenient vefTel, and as much hot water poured upon them as is neceflary to fufpend the xtAfarirja, which is gradually wafhed off the feeds by the hand, or a fpoon. When the feeds appear quite naked, they are taken out, and the waQi left to fettle ; after which, the water is gently poured away, and the fediment put into fhallow veffels, to be dried by degrees in the fliade ; and, after acquiring, by this means, a due confiftence, it is made into balls, or cakes, and fet to dry thoroughly in an airy I place

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 715 pljtce until it is peifedly firm, in which ftate it is fit for market. This plant is propagated by the feeds, in any moift and fertile foil, among ihe -mountains. The powder is cooling, cordial, and much ufed by the Spaniards in their clDOcolate and foups, both to heighten the flavour, and give them 4in agreeable colour. Medicinally adminiftered, it Is efteemed good in bloody fluxes, and -diforders of the kidneys. Mixed with lemon juice and a gum, it makes the crimfon paint, with which the Indians adorn their perfons. It was formerly ufed by dyers, to form the colour called Aurora; and then fold in America at nine fliillings a pound ; but at prefcnt it is not held in fuch efliimation as a dye, though It ftill maintains its ground with painters. It generally bears fruit in December. The bark makes good ropes for the common plantation ufes. 13. Vanilla. — Epidefidrutn. This plant is a climber, and rifes with great eafe to the tops of the loftlefl: woods. It is found wild in many parts of Jamaica ; but has been particularly noticed at the North-fide, in the pariflies of St. Mary, St. Anne, and St. James. It grows luxuriantly in cool, fhady places; and may be propagated from the feed, or bean, or by the germ. It is chiefly planted in low, rich foils, along walls, or at the feet of trees, or other props. The pods grow in pairs, are generally the thicknefs of a child's finger, of about five or fix inches in length, green at firft, then yellowifli, and turning to a brownifli cafi: when they ripen. When this plant is defigned for propagation, cuttings may be taken, of about three or four joints in length, and planted, clofe to the items of trees, in low, moifi: fituations. The earth is afterwards to be kept clear from weeds, which, if permitted to grow about the cuttings before they are well-rooted, would overbear and deftroy them ; but, after they have faftened their flioots to the flems of the trees, they are out of danger from injuries of this fort. They do not produce flowers until they are grown ftrong ; fo that fome affirm, that fix or feveu years pafs from the planting to the time of their bearing fruit. 4 Y 2 But,.

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7i6 JAMAICA. But, when they begin to flower and fru6lify, they continue bearing for feveral years without nny further cukure. This plant produces but one crop of fruit in a year, which is commonly ripe in May, or fit forgathering; for it is not fuffered to remain till it is perfedly mature, becaufe it is then not fo lit for ufe. When it is about half changed yellow, it is efteemed better for keeping, than when it is changed to a brown colour, at which time it fplits, and difclofes its feeds. While green, it aftbrds no remarkable fcent ; but as it ripens, it emits a moft grateful aromatic odour. The method, ufed to prepare the fruit, is to gather it when it turns of a yellow colour, and before it opens. It is then piled in fmall heaps, to ferment two or three days ; and afterwards laid in the fun to dry. When it is about half dry, the pods are flattened with the hand, and rubbed over with the oil of falma Chrijli ; then expofedonce more to the fun, rubbed a fecond time with oil, and put in fmall bundles, covered with Indian leaves to preferve them. In fome parts of the South-American continent, the Indians gather and hang them up by one end in fome fliady place, to dry ; and, while they are drying, prefs them every now and then between the fingers gently, to flatten them ; then rub on the oil, to prevent them from drying too fafl and burfting open ; which is repeated till they are fit to be rolled up in leaves, or paper. In other parts, after gathering as before-mentioned, they fcald them in the following liquor ; viz. a brine is made with fait and water, ftrong enough to bear an egg. To this are added, a fourth part of chamber-lye, and a fmall quantity of quick-lime: thefe are boiled together for half an hour, and then taken off. The vanillas are put into this liquor, until they are thoroughly fcalded ; then taken out, and dried in the fhade. When they are fit for market, they are put up, from fifty to one hundred and fifty, in little bags. The Spaniards are very attentive to the manuring and cultivating their vanilla-grounds. After planting in well-dunged land, they take care to mould the plants up as they grow, and fix poles for them to climb upon, as the hops in England are managed. The vanilla yields a great quantity of oil and volatile fait, and is eftecmed cooling, cordial, and Ilomachic; cephalic, and car5 minativei

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 717 minative ; opening obftrudlions ; and attenuating vifcid humours; but it is feldom ufed in medicinal compofitions. It is mixed in chocolate by the Spaniards, French, and Italians, to give it a delicate fmell and agreeable flavour. It is likewife ufed to perfume fnuffs and other fubftances. 14. CoNTRAYERVA. — Arijlohchta. This plant, which is alfo a climber, abounds every where amongthe wood-lands and thickets, on the South and North fides of the ifland, and rifes frequently to a confiderable height among the trees and buflies. The root is much in efteem here, and often adminiftered medicinally. Both this and the I'eeds are extremely bitter, hot, and aromatic. They are reckoned an excellent alexipharmic againft all forts of coagulating poifons ; flrengthen the ftomach ; help digeftion ; difcufs wind; promote diaphorefis and urine; and deftroy worms : for the latter intention, the root is chopped in fmall pieces, and given by the planters to their horfes, mixed with corn. The root is found to produce feveral other iinportant effe6]:s. It throws out the fmall-pox and meafles ; and is a wonderful antifeptic in malignant fevers. It gently purges fomeby ftool ; but never fails working powerfully, either in this way, or by urine, or fweat. A fimple deco£tion of it in water has often recovered perfons from lingering diftempers, loft appetite, and debilitated limbs. But, infufed in wine, it makes the fincft bitter known ; and, with the addition of fteel to this tindure, is a great fweetener of the blood. It is fo abundant in this ifland, that it might be colle<5ted annually, in very large quantities, for exportation, if there was a demand for it at the home-market ; and it feems to merit this encouragement, as it has been thought, by very able phyficians, to be fuperior in efficacy to ihe Spanifli contrayerva, and is probably another fpecies* ,15. China-root. — Smihx. With a taper, prickly flalk ; and' oval, heart-flaped, unarmed leaves. This plant is frequent in th^ more cool inland-parts of the ifland ;: and is the fame as that of the Zafl-Indies. The roots are compofed

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7i8 J A M A I C A. of many thick, flefhy fibres, which Ipread wide xjii every fide, and flrike deep into the ground ; from which come out feveral flalks, .taper, very ftrong, and armed with fliort, flifFfpines. They faflen themfelves by their clafpers to the neighbouring trees, and rife twenty feet high, and upwards. The leaves are of a thick fubftance, and have no fpines : they are oval, heart-fliaped, four inches long, and three and.a. half broad at tlieir bafe, ending in an obtufe point, and have three longitudinal veins. TIk flowers are imall and whitiOi, have no petals, and come out from the wings of the ftalk in clofe bunches ; and the berries are red. It. is propagated by the feeds. The root is heavy, woody, befet with unequal tubercles ; the colour on the Qut-fide of a.dulky red, but within of a reddifli white. It has been found difficult in Jamaica to preferve it from a worm, which breeds, in it,, and deftroys all the farina, or n:iealy part, in which its virtues are fuppofed to relide. The method of guarding againft this depredation is, by cutting off all the fafer tubercles, or knobs, and fleeping it in frefli-made, flrong limewater. The virtues.of it in venereal cafes are not now in fuch repute as formerly. It, is of a (heathing nature, and a very fit ingredient in apozems ; it is fliid alio to refolve thick humours, and promote infenfible perfpiration. i6. Antidote-cocoon. — Fe-vlllea. Browne, p. 274. This plant is frequent in the mountains, and generally found climbing among the tallefl trees in the woods. It bears a pod, which contains feveral broad, flat feeds, of a reddiih colour when ripe. Thefe feeds are largely impregnated with an oil; which is extraded by prcfling, and burnt ai lamps. The Negroes burn the feeds themfelves. They fallen a number of them upon a fkewer; and, fetting fire to the uppermoft:, it defcends very gradually to the bottom. They are extremely bitter ; and, when grated and infufed in rum, or other fpi'its, a fmall dofe opens the body, and provokes an appetite. The infulion is alfb made with Madeira wine, and taken to relieve pans in the ftomach. The oil gives a clear, fine light, when burnt in lamps, and emits no difagreeable Imell. But its other medicinal virtues, if it poflbfies any, have

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BOOK III. CHAP. Vlir. 719 Have not as yet been examined. It is caliiy cultivated, by planting the feed at the foot of a tree, or a pole. It bears very luxuriantly. 17. Tobacco. — Nicoi'mna. This plant is already cultivated extenfively in the ifland ; chiefly by the Negroes, for their own confumption. There are feveral fpccies of it. The beft: forts are thofe of Peru and Vera Cruz; the feeds of which might eafily be procured. When a regular plantation of it is intended, feveral beds are prepared, well-turned up with the hoe. The feed, on account of its fmallnefs, is mixed with aflies, and fown upon them a little before the rainy feafon. The beds are then raked, or trampled with the feet, to make the feed take the fooner. The plants appear in two or three weeks. So foon as they have acquired four leaves, the ftronged are drawn up carefully, and planted in the tobacco-field, by a line, at the diftance of three feet between each plant: this is done either with a ftick or the finger. If no rain falls, it fhould be watered two or three times, to make it ftrike root. Every morning and evening the plants muft be I'urveyed, in order to deflroy a worm which fometimes invades the bud. When they are grown about four or five • inches high, they are to be cleaned from weeds, and moulded up ; and, as foon as they have eight or nine leaves, and are ready to put forth a ftalk, the top is nipt off, in order to make the leaves longer and thicker. After this, the buds, which fprout at the joints of the leaves, are all plucked ; and not a day fuffered to pafs without examining the leaves, to dcftroy a large, green caterpillar, which is fometimes very deftrudive to them. When they are fit for cutting, which is known by the brittlenefs of the leaves, they are cut, with a knife, clofe to the ground ; and, after being left to lie there for fome little time, are carried to the drying-fhed, or houfe, where the plants are hung up, by pairs, upon lines or ropes ftretched acrofs, leaving a fpace between, that they may not touch one another. In this ftate they remain to fweat and dry. When they are become perfeflly dry, the leaves are flripped from the ftalk, and made into fmall bundles, tied with another leaf. Thefe bundles are laid in heaps, and covered with blankets. Care is taken not to overheat them ; for which reafon, the heaps are laid open to the air

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720 JAMAICA. air from time to time, and fpread abroad. Thiii operation is repeated, till no more heat is perceived in the heaps; and the tobacco is then flowed in cafks for exportation. The Spaniards have a method of fcenting their manufafturcd tobacco by wrapping it up in the leaves of a fhrub, called trebole, or tribole^ which retains its odour for many years, and is a native of Peru. The tobacco thrives beft in a rich, free foil ; but I have feen very fine plants in gardens at Spanifli Town, and other parts of tlic South-fide, in very dry and indifferent foils. The tribole of Peru is probably no other than the greater caltrops, or the field-tribukis (Sloane, cat. 93 ; Browne, p. 220), u creeping plant, growing in all the pafture-lands of Jamaica, garlulhed with winged leaves, placed by pairs, oppofite, fmooth, and fet clofe to the foot-ftalk. The flowers come out from the wings of the (lalk, compofed of five large, yellow petals, which fpread open, and have an agreeable odour : thele are fucceeded by roundidi, prickly fruit, ending in a long point. In fize and difpofition it is fomething like the Turkeybloflbm, fo common in the lowlands, and which is another fpecies of the tribulus. In Turkey, the tobacco-leaves are foaked in falt-water before they are dried, to extraft fome of their acrimony, and render them more mild. The Negroes in fome parts of Africa are faid, for the fiime intention, to fqueeze out the juice of the green leaves, and then dry them before a fire. The juice of the green leaf deflroys maggots in fores, beyond any other application ; and makes an excellent healing balfam, or falve: when beaten into a cataplafm, with vinegar or brandy, it will remove hard fwellings in the liver and fpleen. The oil, drawn in a retort from the dried leaf, cleanfes the fouleft ulcers, takes away their callous edges, and promotes their incarnation and healing. The alhes are an excellent dentrifice-powdcr, and correal a putrid difpofition in the gums. Thefe, perhaps, are the mofl innocent ufes to which It is applicable J though we find, that, in all hot countries throughout the world, where it grows, the inhabitants have fmoaked it from time immemorial. The odour has been thought to correct malignant rffltivht ;

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 721 efluvia', and it is probably not without fome fuch opinion, founded upon experience, that we obferve tins cuftom fo univerfally prevalent. Nor is it found to be noxious to the conftitution, unlcfs wlieis abufed by an exceflive indulgence. The commontobacco fcarcelydeferves culture, in this ifland, forexportation: but the choicer fpecies of Peru, Vera Cruz, and Cuba, might beworth fome attention ; as the fuperiorqualityof theirflavourwould entitle them to be preferred in Great-Britain to the produce of Virginia; and they may be raifed, in Jamaica, in a perfedion equal to what they poflefs in the countries from whence the feed is brought ; which is not attainable in the more Northern climates. 18. Small-grained Black-Pepper. — Piper. With rough, fpear(haped, oval leaves, having five veins. Browne, 121. Lin. Sp. Plant. 29. This plant has generally been confounded with the pepper-elder, whofe leaves have feven veins, or nerves, and which grows more luxuriantly. The black-pepper grows here in moft of the hilly fituations, ji very bufhy and fpreading. It rifes to the height of fix or eight feet, thrives bell: in cool, fhady places, and fcems to delight in a mixed clayey foil. The feeds, and other parts of the fruftification, grow in the fame manner with thofe of the Eaft-Indian blackpepper, from which they differ only in fize ; for the grains of the Jamaica fruit feldom exceed a large muftard-fecd in dimenfions: but the tafte and flavour are in every refpe£l the fame ; and there is no perceptible difference between it and that of the Eaft-Indies, whether ufed in cookery, or feafoning. To colled any quantities of this aromatic, it muft be picked when full-grown, and before it ripens or changes colour; for it grows pulpy and fucculent in the mature ftate, and lofes its flavour and pungency. It may be left adhering to the natural fpikes, or twigs, and dried in the fun, like pimento. Thefe fpikes feem to have the flune flavour as the grain itfelf, and are as eafily ground to powder. This pepper, fo far from becoming as yet an article of export, has not excited the attention or induftry of the inhabitants even to Vol. III. 4 Z prepare

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722 • JAMAICA. prepare it for their culinary ufes ; inftead of which, they fend to Britain for the Eaft-Iiidia pepper, becaufe it is far-fetched ; and becaufe it is thought too much trouble, to gather what the too bounteous hand of nature has planted in fuch abundance at their very doors. Yet I conceive fome hopes that it may, one day or other, form a commodity for exportation ; at leafl. it is fome fatisfaction to fettlers to know, that they can eafily fupply themfelves with an article in fuch efteem for domeftic ufe, in every refpecl analogous to the Eaft-Indian commodity, except in fize of the grain, which furely is of no confequence ; though it is probable, that even the fize is capable of improvement, like other fruits, by taking the plants out of their wild flate, and giving them place in a rich and well-chofen foil, pruning off tl>e too luxuriant branches, leflening the quantity of fruit when the bearing is too great, and fuch other means as are praftifed by gardeners for the like purpofe. This plant feeds in the month of July, and may be propagated from the ripe feeds. There are three or four other fpecies of this pepper in the ifland, but not of equal value. 19. Indian-Pepper. — Capficum, There are about fifteen varieties of the capjicum in this ifland, which are found in moll parts of it. Thofe, which are more commonly noticed, are the bell-pepper, goat, bonnet, bird, olive, hen, Barbary, finger, cherry, &c. Of thefe the bell is efteemed mofl proper for pickling. The pods, for this purpofe, are gathered before they arrive at their full fize, while their fkin is tender. They are flit down on one fide, to get out the feeds ; after which, they are foaked two or three days in fait and water. When they are taken out of this, and drained, boiling vinegar is poured uponthem, in a fufficient quantity to cover them ; and they are clofely flopped for two months. Then they fhould be boiled in vinegar, to make them green ; but they require no addition of any Ipice ;. and are efteemed the wholefbmeft pickle in the world. The bird-pepper is gathered when ripe, dried in the fun, pounded, and mixed with fait, and kept, clofcflopped in bottles, for ufe. This is commonly known 4)y the name of cayan-hiitter, and in ge5 ueral

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BOOK III. C H A P. VIII. 72^ neral efteem for the excellent relifli it gives to foups, turtle, and other dirties. Thefe peppers are ufed liberally in the Weft-Indies, gathered frefh from the bufti, generally before they are ripe ; though the bird-pepper has the beft flavour in its mature ftate. Perhaps they are neceflary, in this climate, to affift digeftion, promote the tonic motion of the bowels, invigorate the blood, and corred the flatulency of vegetable aliments. The mixture, called man-dram, feldom fails to provoke the moffc languid appetite. The ingredients are, fliced cucumbers ; efchalots, or onions, cut veryfmall; a little lime-juice, and Madeira w^ine ; with a few pods of bird or bonnet-pepper, well-mafhed, and mixed with the liquor. The bird and Guiney-pepper are given internally, to cure the dry-gripes in hories or mules, when occafioned by rank or four grafs. They are likewife externally applied in cataplafms. An infufion in fpirit of wine takes off much of their acrid, inflaming quality. They are propagated, like the former, by their feeds. The pickled pepper and cayan-butter may be regarded as articles of export, though not confiderable : yet they are objefts for fmall fettlers ; and, with other minute articles, might greatly help our commerce with the North-Americans, 20. Balsam-Tree. — Clujia. This fhrubby tree grows very abundant in all the Southern diflridt of the ifland, generally rifmg to t!ie height of iixteen or eighteen feet. The leaves are round, brittle, and thick ; and, when broken, emit a milky, refinous juice, which flicks to the fingers like bird-lime, and foon turns yellow. The fruit and body of the tree are filled with the like balfam. It has no fcent, nor pungency. It is ufed among the Negroes as a vulnerary ; but its virtues are ftill unexplained any further, though it feems to merit fome experiment, to determine them more fully. 21, HoG-GUM Tree. — Metopium. The tree producing this gum is frequent enough, and wellknown in this ifland. It is faid the wild hogs, when wounded, 4 Z z ufed

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724 JAMAICA. ufed to have recourfe to it for a cure. In February the tree fheds its old leaves, and is then very full of fap. On wounding the bark, a pellucid juice illues out, which gradually turns yellowifh, and acquires in the air a hard confiftence, and dark complexion refembling pitch, and is equally brittle. About two fpoonfuls of the juice freih drawn, if mixed with the fame quantity of water, and fweetened with a little fugar, is an excellent remedy in the colic, or bejly-ach, gives immediate eafe, and produces an evacuation in four or five hours. When it is old, it flill retains its laxative quality diflblved in water, but in a gentler degree. It is conftantly ufed here in ftrengthening-plaifters ; and, adminiftered in form of pills, it flops a gonorrhoea. It poffefies a warm, difcutient nature, and may be ufed with great propriety in all fwellings arifing from colds, weaknefs of the veffels, or poverty of the juices, either internally or externally adminiftered. It is thought to be an extraordinary diuretic, and is an admirable vulnerary. 22. Gum Lignumvit^, or Pock -wood Gum. — Gujacum. The gujacum tree grows in vaft abundance on the South-fide of the ifland. I do not remember to have obferved any on the Northfide. The wood and gum are too generally known, to require a defcription. The largeft trees make a very good remittance to Britain, for manufa£luring the trucks of fhip-blocks, and a variety of turnery-ware, as well as for medicinal ufes. The gum is no lefs in demand for its virtues in venereal taints, rheumatifms, and other difteniperatures. It is obtained by jagging the body of the tree in May. It exfudes copioufly from the wounds, though gradually ; and, when a quantity is found accumulated upon the feveral wounded trees, hardened by expofure to the air and fun, it is gathered, and packed in fmall kegs for exportation. This gum has been fufpeded, fometimes, to have been fophifticated, by the Negroes, with the gum of the manchineal-tree, to which it bears fome fimilitude at the firft appearance ; but it is eafily diftinguifhed by diflblving a little in fpirit of wine, or rum. The true gum imparts a whitifh or milky tinge; but the manchineal gives a greenifti caft : and this is ftill further diftinguifhablc, by pouring a little of the fame tincture

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BOOK JIJ. CHAP. VIII. 725 ture Into fair water, which takes from the gujacunty almoft immediately, the complexion of milk. The fruit is ftiaped like a heart, flattifh, and of a bright-yellow colour, containing a reddilli, pulpy fubftance, inveloping a fmall, black, fhining feed, of a very bitter tafte. The fruit is purgative ; and, for medicinal ufe, far excels the bark. A decoftion of it has been known to cure the venereal diforder, and even the yaws in its advanced flate, without the ufe of mercury. The flowers, or bloffoms, are compofed of five petals, of a beautiful blue colour; from which is made a laxative fyrup, refembling fyrup of violets. The frefli bark opens the body, and is deemed a great fwectener of the blood. Care, however, is requifite to moderate and temper the native acrimony of thefe medicines in the beginning of a courfe, and to prepare the body for the ufe of them. The foliage is of a very deterfive nature, and frequently ufed ta fcour and whiten floors, which it performs much better than foap. The infufion of them is alfo applied to wa(h painted linens, and other flained garments ; which it is faid to do very effe6lually, without diminifhing the luftre of the dyes. The tree, at its full growth, rifes to the height of forty feet, and meafures from fifteen to eighteen inches in diameter. There are none of this fize now left in Jamaica, luch multitudes having been cut down, either for clearing land, or for exportation. They are of flow growth, and are many years in attaining to maturity. The wood is heavy, and of clofe, tough grain; which recommends it as a very ufet'ul timber, efpecially for lintels, and out-door work. It is certainly one of the molt valuable trees in the Weft-Indies, fmce the body, the bark, gum, fruit, leaves, and bloflom, are all of them applicable to fome ufeful purpofe. It may eafily be propagated by the feeds, or fruit, and feems to love a dry foil and hot expofure. The gum is commonly fold in the ifland at 2s. (>d. ^fr pound weight, equal to i s. gid. fterling. 23. Cashew, or Cashou Tree. — Ann-cardium. This tree is eafily raifed from the nirt. It is of very q4.iickr growth, bearing fruit in two years after its being plantsd ; and, in ^oo4

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726 JAMAICA. good foils, rpi-eads to the fize of an Englifh walnut-tree, which it much lefembles in the fliape and fiiiell of the leaves ; and they are equally efficacious, in decodion, for cleanfing and healing old ulcers. The fruit, or apple, has an agreeable, fubacid flavour, with fome degree of reftringency. The juice, exprefled from it, ,and fermented, yields a pleafant wine ; and, diftillcd, a fpirit is .drawn from it far exceeding arrack, or rum, which makes an adi-nirable punch, and powerfully proinotes urine. Some planters xoaft the ripe fruit at a fire ; and flice one or two into a bowl of punch, to give it a pleafant flavour. The reftringency of the juice ;has recommended it as a very fignal remedy in dropfical habits ; infomuch that many Negroes, labouring under this diforder, on ;being fuft'ered to eat plentifully of the fruit, and of the roafted kernels, have foon recovered. The nut fprings from one end of the apple : the outer Ihell is of an afli colour, and very fmooth ; under this is another, which covers the kernel ; between this is a vifcid, inflammable oil, of a reddifli colour, extremely acrid, bitter, and cauftic, which has been ufed with great fuccefs in mating off ringworms, cancerous ulcers, and corns ; but it ought to be applied with caution. The kernel, when frefh gathered, has a mofl delicious tafte, and abounds with a fweet milky juice. It is likewife an ingredient in puddings, and other agreeable preparations. When fomewhat older, or after being kept for fome time, it is generally roafted ; and in this flate it is not fo proper for coftive habits. Ground with cacao, it makes an excellent chocolate. Thefe nuts are often fent as prefents to Great-Britain; but, after keeping too long, the kernel becomes fhriveled, and lofes its flavour and bed qualities. The tree annually tranfudes in large quantities, viz. from five often to ten or twelve pounds weight of a fine, femi-tran(parent gum, fimilar to gum-arabic, and not at all inferior to it in virtue and quality, except that it contains a flight aflringency, which perhaps renders it, in many refpeds, more valuable; for which reafon, it is often ufed as a fuccedaneum in the Jamaica fliops, and might .anfwer equally well in Great-Britain, if encouragement was given to colled and remit it. The

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. ^27 The tliick oil of tlie nut, or (hell, tinges linen of a rufty, iron colour, which can hardly be got out; and, if any wood be fmeared with it, it preferves it from decay. If a proper metliod eould therefore be fallen upon for extrading this oil from the fhell, which at prefent is generally thrown away as ufelefs, it would doubtlefs be aj^plicable to various good purpofes ; for 110 worm would attack the wood, whofe pores are filled wirh it. It would certainly be an excellent prefervative to houfe-timbcrs, if not to fhips bottoms, mixed with other compofif ions ; though, for the latter operation, perhaps it might be difficult to obtain it in plenty fufficient, or at a price that would make it anfwer to the experiment. But, where a lefs quantity might be wanted, there is great: probability of obtaining it ; as the tree is fo eafily propagated, grows in almoft any foil, bears luxuriantly, and lives to a very great ageFrom the body of the tree is procured, by tapping or incifion, a milky juice, which (lains linen of a deep black, and cannot be got out again : but whether this has the fame property with that of the 'E^H-lndhn ^nacarc/ium, has not yet been fully experimented; for the infpiflated juice of that tree is the beft fort of lac which is ufed for ftaining black in China and Japan. Dr. Grew mentions the juice being ufed for flainingof cottons: but it is doubtful which of the fpecies he means; though Sir Hans Sloane fuppofes it to be of the acajoUy or coJJhw^ herementioned. However, it may be very well worth the trial. A few of the treesmay be tapped in the bleeding feafon, the juice collefted in earthen pots, kept in a place free from duft, or the pots covered with a linen cloth, to prevent duft from mixing with it ; and, when of a proper: eonfiftence, experiments may be made to fee if it has the fame property with the Japan lac, which if it has, it may prove a valuablecommodity \s\ It may be proper, for greater certainty, to vary the experiment; to expofe fomt of the juice in fliallow, wooden receivers, covered with a fingle linen cloth, to the heat of the fun, and reduce it to a confidence in the fame manner as the aloes ; or infpiflate it in iron pots over a fire by gentle evaporation. If either way (liould fucceed, a new and important article would be gained to the commerce of the ifland. [i] Miller. way

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728 JAMAICA. 24. Gum-Tree. Sapium. Browne, 338. This tree which is found in the Eaftern and North-eafl: parts oT the ifland, yields plentifully a refin of the confiftence of turpentine, which the planters of thofe parts ufe in their boiling-houfe lamps, and the wood of it makes hogfhead flaves, as I have already remarked in the defcription of St. Thomas in the Eaft. The virtues and properties of this refin (any further than has been mentioned) are as yet unknown for want of experiment. 25. Locust-Tree. TJymenaa. This tree, is not an indigena of the ifland, but introduced probably from the Southern continent, and was firfl: planted in Liguanea [j-] ; the feeds obtained from it were afterwards fown in other part,s, fo that it is now common. It is very large and fpreading, and of quick growth. It bears thick flefliy brown pods, fliaped like thofe of the garden-bean, about fix inches long, and two and an half broad, of a purplifli brown colour and ligneous confiftence, with a large future on both edges. They contain three or four roundifti comprcfled feeds, divided by tranfverfe partitions, and inclofed in a whitifh fubftance of fine filaments as Ivveet as honey. The Indians eat this fubftance with great avidity, though it is apt to purge when frefh gathered, but lofes this quality after it grows old. Between the principal roots of the tree exfudes a fine tranfparent refin, yellowifti or red, which is coUedled in large lumps, is called the gum a}2Wie of the (hops, and makes the fineft varnifh that is known, fuperior even to the Chinefe lac<:a ; for this latter ufe it is dilfolved in the higheft re£lified fpirits of wine. It burns readily and with a clear flame, emitting a grateful and fragrant fmell, for which reafon it is fometimes ordered by way of fumigation in the chambers of perfons labouring with afthma's, or fufFocative catarrhs. Its vapours not only ftrengthen the head, but all parts of the body uAefted with cold. Some apply it outwardly, diflblved in oil or Ipirits of wine, to ftrengthen the nerves. An oil may be diftilled trom it, equally prevalent in all cold difeafes, palfies, cramps, and [j] I have been lately informed, that It was originally brought into this ifland, by ithe little colony removed (torn Suriiia//! ; who planted a great variety of feeds, and (among others) of this tree; particularly at the fpot allotted to them, cMeil Sifn'na.-K-^/artc-n, ia the parifli of &. £//aalntb, where llic Ipecies is now growing in \\\& abundance. 7 contradions

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 729 contraflions of the fincws. The folution in fpirits has been thought not inferior to gujacuni in venereal cafes, given in a dofe of half a fpoonfiil in wine, and fweating after it. A decoftion of the leaves expels flatulencies, and gives eafe in colicky pains, by gently opening the bowels; and the inward bark is an excellent vermifuge in fubftance or decodtion. The wild bees are fond of building their nefts in thefe trees ; fo that if we agree with the Dutch in opinion, that St. John the Baptill: fed upon the fruit of them, we have no difficulty in fuppofing that he found the locufl and wild honey, mentioned in fcripture, on the fame tree. 26. Tamarind. Tamar'mdus. This tree is exceedingly common in Jamaica, grows to a vaft bulk, and thrives well in the favannah lands, but befl: in deep rich brick mould. The fruit or pods are gathered in June, July, and Auguft, attaining fooner to maturity in fome parts than in others. The ufual method of preparing the fruit for exportation is as follows. The pods are gathered when full ripe, which is known by their fragility, or eafy breaking on a fmall prelTure between the finger and thumb. The fruit taken out of the pod, and cleared from the fl:!elly fragments, is placed in layers in a cafk, and the boiling fyrup from the tache or firfl: copper in the boiling-houfe, juft before it begins to granulate, is poured in, till the cafk is filled ; the fyrup pervades every part quite to the bottom, and when cool, the cafk is headed for fale. The more elegant method is, with fugar well clarified with eggs, till a clear tranfparent fyrup is formed, which gives the fruit a much pleafanter flavour. The Eaft-India tamarind differs not from that of the Weft-Indies, but the pulp of the fruit is preferved without fugar, and exported to Europe in this form, which is better adapted for an ingredient in medicinal compofitions. The duty payable in Great-Britain upon the fugar-preferved tamarind is fo high, that it cannot anfwer as a remittance; but if fent as a drug, that is, the pulp carefully feparated from the feeds, put in jars, and well covered from the air by a covering of oiled paper, and waxed cloth, it might be a profitable article of remittance. The Vol. Ill, 5 A duty

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730 JAMAICA. duty on the fugar-preferved, being 614^.; and on the raw pu!p 14.1.^. per pound weight; which is (^per cwt.) on the former, 3 /. 4 J. 4 4,4 d. i and on the latter, only 1 7 j. 8 44. ^. ; or 2 /. 6 f. 8 ^. difference. The pulp would poflibly be better fecured from mouldinefs, by giving it a gentle heat in an oven, by which the cruder parts may be evaporated, and the virtue of what remains not in the leaft diminiftied. The wood of the tree is firm ; and, fawn into boards, is converted to many ufeful purpofes in building. The pulp of tamarind, befides its purgative quality, temperates the acrimony of the humours, abates the heat of the bile and blood, quenches thirft, and is good in acute burning fevers. It correds the fault of violent purgatives, and quickens thofe that are flugghh. It is frequently made an ingredient in punch, efpecially at fea, and never fails to open the body. Mixed with decodion of borage, it is excellent in allaying the heat of urine. A decodlion of the leaves is faid to deftroy worms in children. It is obferved that the leaves clofe up at the approach of evening, or of cool moid v/eather, like thofe of the fenfitive plants. 27. Cassia-stick Tree. CaJJia Fiftularis. Browne, 222^ With five pair of leaves, oval, fpear-fliaped, and fmooth. This tree grows in many parts of Jamaica, but is not indigenous. The pods are from twelve inches to eighteen, and even thirty, in length, and about an inch in diameter. They confiit of a woody fhell, of a dark brown colour, hard but thin, divided within into feveral cells with tranfverfe partitions ; the pulp is foft, black, fweetifh, and of the confidence of thick honey, and contains oblong, roundifb, flattifh feeds, that are liard, fliining, and of a dufky yellow. Thofe pods are beft that arc frerti, full, and will not rattle when, fliaken. The pulp is only in ufo which is taken from the pods, and paffed through a fieve. It is looked upon as a mild, inoffenfive purge, agreeing with all fife\es and ages.

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BOOK III. C H A P. VIII. 731 In the Weft-Indies, the fliell is obferved to be thicker, and the pulp acrid; in which refpedl it differs from that of the Eaft-Indiesj and perhaps this is owing to a difference in foil and culture; in Jamaica the fineft fruit is produced from trees growing in rich deep mould in fome bottom or vale, warm, and well {lieltered; it is not wonderful that the quality fhould degenerate, when no pains arc taken in the cultivation of it. The pulp of the horfe-cajjiu is likewife a purgative, but fo violent and griping in its operation, that it is rvever adminifter^d except to horfes. 28. Prickly Pear, or Indian Fig. CaSlus. There are feveral varieties of this plant in Jamaica; but the fpecies I fliall particularly refer to, are what is called the prickly pear, with broad flefliy leaves dotted with fpikes ; and the cochineal-catfus', whofe leaves are larger, more fucculent, and free from fpikes. The former fort is abundant in all the South fide parts of the ifland, growing in dry, hot, rocky fituations, and in very fferile foils ; the other feems not to be a native, and requires a better foil ; but although this is probably the Mexican plant, called by fome the [/] opuntia maxima, it is certain that the cochineal is found upon both fpecies indifferently. It is well known that thefe plants bear a fucculent fruit or berry at the extremities of their leaves, filled with a juice of delicate red colour, and agreeable tafte. This juice is the natural food of the cochineal infed', which owes to it the value and property it poffeffes, as a dye in fome of our principal manufadlures. The exuvice and animal falts of the infedl are, from the minutenefs of its parts, infeparable from the effential principles of the dye ; whence it follows, that fuch an heterogeneous mixture muft neceffarily deftroy the brilliancy of colour inherent to the juice of this fruit ; and that the juice itfelf, which alone contains the dying • [/] Neither the leaf nor fruit of this fpecies have any prickle. The flowers are of a very beautiful red or criinfon. This is generally called the true cochineal plant. The infect that feeds upon it is of a filverjcolour, larger, more plump, and yields a greater quantity of the A'j^. The difference in point of goodnefs, obfervable in the cochineal, is entirely ouing to the plant it feeds upon. The prickly plants, fo abundant m Jamaica, are covered with the fame fpecies of infc£t ; but not being the proper food for it, we find it in general diminutive, having very little red tincture in its body. I have fcen feveral of the true cochineal plants growing in LongviHe Garden, in the parilh of Clarendon, 5 A 2 principle.

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y32 JAMAICA. principle, muft, if unmixed and brought to confiftence, yield a true perfe
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BOOK III. CHAP. Vlir. y-^^. makes in favour of the national balance of trade. There is np doubt but the inventor, for a competent reward (of which he i& well deferving), would have publifhed the fecret of his procefs j thoufands of acres now wafte in Jamaica might be cultivated with this plant, with little trouble or expence ; and a qui^ntity obtained anfwerable to the home demand. The difappointment this gentleman met with, would intimidate me from proceeding further in the catalogue of productions, if 1 had not fome gleam of hope remaining, that the endeavours of ingenious men in thefe remote branches of the empire may hereafter be more regarded, by the patriots of Britain, and the guardians of its commercial interefts. The fruit of this plant, eaten when it is ripe, is faid to check fluxes by its mild reftringency ; it is alfo a powerful diuretic, and fometimes imparts a tinge to the urine ; which furniflies a proof that the juice is not always altered with refpedl to the principles of its dye, by the animal falts and fluids with which it has to encounter in its fecretion through the body. Modern difcoveries have fliewn a chemical method of ordering the cochineal dye fo as to retain a very great brilliancy of colour. Drcbel, a Dutch chemifl:, firfl: invented the procefs of obtaining from cochineal, by means of a folution of tin in aqua regia, a bright" and folid fcarlet, exceeding in beauty and luftre any before produced. This however anfwered only for woollen flufl^s. Monfieur Macquer difcovercd lately the method of dying filks, and cottons, or linen, in equal perfedion, by a flight variation in the common procefs. He flril dipped a piece of filk into a faturated folution of tin in aqua regia, fomewhat weakened by the addition of a quantity of water, fo imall as to produce no precipitation of the earth or the metaL, Having exprelled the liquor from the iilk, and afterwards wafhed it in water, in order to free it from any fuperfluous part o^the folution, he dipped it into a decoction of cochineal quickened (as is ufual in the dying of woollen cloths) with a fmall quantity of cream of tartar.. The filk immediately took a full bright colour, which refilled all the tells or proof? ufually employed on wool. The dyers are therefore, it appears froir^ this narrative,, now poffefifed of the art of giving the cochineal dye a brilliancy, perhaps 7 fomewhat;

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734 JAMAICA, fomewhat nearer to that of the caSlus juice j yet in all manufa£lures of this fort, it is certain, that the cheaper and fimpler the dye is that is principally required, and the fhorter and lefs laborious the procefs, the more ufeful and valuable it ought to be^ efteemed ; and therefore, without detrading any thing from the merit of Mr. Macquer's difcovery, we muft prefume, that the preparation of the juice invented by Mr. Riz, which flrikes at once the perfedt colour with all the luftre that the dye naturally poffeffes, is, by reafon of its fimplicity, cheapnefs, and facility of the procefs, very far fuperior, exclufive of its being the production of a Britifh colony, and obtainable with a vafl: annual faving to the national ftock of riches, and general balance of trade. The juice of the fruit is probably reducible to a confiftence, by expofure to the air and fun, like the juice of aloes; but the difficulty was, to fix and render it undifchargeable (without injury to the colour), from the principles of the mixture with which it is combined for the dyer's purpofe; and a procefs to this effe
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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. ^y^ {. ,,, r — Elutherlum. Browne, p. "360. Alligator-Wood; .m • r-h/r r l ,, ,,7 I — Lauro Mjhmst Ligno Mo churn or Musk-Wood. | ^^^^^^^ j^^^ ^^^^ ^p_ ^^^^ ^ This tree is frequent in the midland woods, and grows to a confiderable fize. All parts of it, but efpecially the bark, fmell flrongly of mulk [], and may be ufed inftead of that perfume for many purpofes. A fmall piece of the bark put into a pipe of tobacco and fmoaked, will fcent a room immediately. As the wood grows old and dry, it lofes this odor, but the bark continues to retain it. The wood is full of a bitter, refinous fubftance, which renders it unfit for rum-puncheons, being obferved to communicate both its fmell and tafte to all fpirituous liquors. But it is often cut for Jlaves and heading for fugar hogfheads, when there happens a fcarcity of other lumber. Some old Negroewomen are extremely fond of perfuming their perfons with the powdered bark, till they fmell like civet-cats. There is no doubt but the refinous parts of this tree contain a volatile odoriferous oil, and that this as well as the refin itfelf, which, is foluble in fpirits, might be converted to many ufeful, and probably medical purpofes. 3 1 America n Nutmeg. — Arbor mofcbata vel myrijlica Americana.. This tree was firft planted at Mr. Beckford's plantation,. caJledi The Retreat, in Clarendon ; the feeds, from which it was produced,, were probably brought from the South American continent.. It bears a confiderable number of large round pods refembling the cahballi, hanging from the branches by a long pedicle. The pods are from four to five inches diameter, and contain a multitude of nuts or kernels, of about one inch in length, and one third of an inch in thicknefs, all packed clofe in a very Angular regularity, fo that after difplacing them, it is impofllble to reftore them to the fame order and compadnefs as before. Thefe kernels, when thoroughly dried, are of a light, reddifli, brown colour, impregnated with an aromatic oil refembling that of the Eaftern nutmeg, from which they differ fo little in flavour and quality, that they may be ufed for fimilar purpofes in food or medicine ; the only perceptible [a] Refembling that of die %)•— whence its name.. diiFerfiJice;

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736 JAMAICA. difference to the tafte, is, that they arc Icfs pungent than the E aftIndian nutmeg. It was a long time before the tree at The Retreat bore fruit; at the time of its bearing it was about eighteen feet in height. It has fmce been cultivated by many gentlemen in different parts of the ifland, and may probably in a few years be adopted into general ufe, as well as furnifii an article of export. I take it to be the fame as that found in Guiana. When intended for exportation, it might be advifeable to fend them in the dry pods entire, or lay the kernels in lime-water for a little while, drying them afterwards again in the fun, or a fhady place. 32. Indigo-Berry. — Randia. The fhrub of this name is frequent in the low-lands, and chiefly in the more barren clayey foils, rifes to the height of feven or eight feet; the main ftem tough and hard: the branches fomewhat prickly at the ends : the leaves of an oval or roundifh form, growing in tufts. The berries are round, grow very numerous on the fmaller branches, and contain a thick pulp, which ftains paper or linen of a fine fixed blue colour, which ftands wafliing either with foap or acids; but does not communicate fo fine a colour with heat. If it was brought into cultivation for the fake of this property, an excellent blue tint might be obtained from it for painting. 33. Silk Cotton Tree. — Bombax. The ftupendous fize of thele trees has attracted the notice of moft travelers in the WeftIndies. They have been known to rife to upwards of one hundred feet in height, tapering from the bafe, and are frequently feen from fifty to eighty feet length of fliaft, meafured to the firft infertion of the lower arms or branches, and from twelve to fourteen feet circumference. The wood is light and porous, and makes excellent canoes. In Columbus's firft voyage it is faid, there was a canoe feen at Cuba made with one of thefe trees, large enough to contain one hundred and fifty men. They are frequently known to carry from fifteen to twenty hogfheads of fugar, of from twelve to fixteen hundred weight ; the average of which is about twentyiive tons burthen. When fawn into boards, and thefe afterwards well faturated with lime-water rubbed into the pores, the

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BOOK III. G H A P. VIM. -j^the wood bears expofure to the weather for many years ; it h alio formed into laths for roofs, curingpots, and hogfhead heading. The leaves when young and tender arc very mucilaginous, and lK>iIed by the Negroes as greens, in their pots. The pods are pyrlforin, upwards of fix inches long, and proportionably thick in the biggeft part, tapering towards the pedicle like the pear kind. This fruit when ripe burftj open in five divifions, and lliews a dark cotton, of a foft filky texture, inclofing a^numbcr of roundifli feeds. It has been luppofed that this fiibftance might be rendered ufeful in the hat manufadure. It is fomctimes uied for fluffing pillow-cafes, and feems to poffefs the elafticity of the eider-down, as loon as it Is impregnated with the warmth of the body J but it is thought unwholefome for Weft India beds, as it is apt to excite too ftrong a perfpiration ; it might probably anfwer better for winter coverlids in Great Britain. Whether it has a fufficient ftaple lo be mixed to any advantage in fabrics of the loom, experiment muft determine. The larger canoes are generally fold for 50/. to 60/,, and the fmalIcr 10/. to 30/., Jamaica money. Thofe of largeft fize are called petiagiias. When the tree decays, It becomes a neft for the macaca beetle, whofe caterpillar, gutted, and fried. Is efteemed by many perfons one 'of the p-rcateft delicacies in the world. The bark of the root has been fometimes ufed with iuccefs as a vulnerary and fub-aftrlngent; and the feeds are adminiftered in emullions, and perioral Infufions. The down-tree Is another fpecles, and varying in many refpeds, not exceeding 30 feet in height, and having large Iprcading, roundifli, fcalloped leaves, growing at the extremity of very long foot ftalks. The pod is likewlfe dift'erently formed, being longer, larger, blackllh, comprefled, and channeled longitudinally; producing a cotton of much better ftaple, which has been ufed for fluffing beds and mattraffes, and feems well adapted to the loom. They are probably from the South American continent, for they are not common In Jamaica. They are found at Oake's plantation In Clarendon, on the binks of the river Pindar, and fome other parts; and might eafily be propagated from the feeds. If the fpecles is the fame as that of the Spanifh continent, it is certainly capable of being manufadured ; fince the Indiana fpin and work the cotVoL. III. 5 B ton

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738 JAMAICA, ton of their trees into garments. This fpecies in South America is thus diftinguifhed: Bombax,folus quinqueangular ibus^ viHofis, cattle genicidato, herbaceo. Silk-cotton^ with five-cornered, hairy leav^es, and a jointed, herbaceous flalk. — In Jamaica it bloflToms in the month of November. 34. PiNGuiN. -^ Bromelice fpecies. This iifeful phmt has been clafled with the ana7iasov pine apple, from the refemblance of the leaves, tho' it is fo diftindl from it in every other refpeft, that it fecms rather to be a different ^<';wj. It is common in every part of the ifland, being generally ufed for fencing pafture lands, planted on banks, and anfwering this purpofe extremely well, as the prickly edges of its leaves, arched backwards, are very formidable to cattle. The leaves being flripped of their pulp, foaked in water, and then beaten with a wooden mallet, until the exterior coat is difcharged, yield a ftrong thready fubflance, or coUedion of fine fibres, not inferior to hemp, which is commonly twilled by the Negroes into cattleropes, and wain-whips. Among the Spaniards it is manufactured into hammocks. An ingenious gentleman, of this ifland, fent a fmall quantity, a few years fince, to North America for experiment, where it was worked into linen cloth, of an excellent fubftance and texture. The flower of this plant is exquilltely beautiful, being compofed of red, blue,. and purple colours, varioufly intermingled, and furrounded with glofly leaves of fcarlet, orange, and green, with fome mixture of white. The fruit contains a very fharp, acid juice, a fmall quantity of which dropped into water, makes an admirable cooling draught in fevers; a teafpoonful of it,, correfted with fugar, dellroys worms in children, cleanfes and heals the thrufh, and other ulcerations in the mouth and throat;, it is extremely dim-etic, and in a large dofe is faid to caufe abortion.; it raakes a very fine vinegar. 35. CocoaNut Tiiee. — Palma Indica coccifcra. This tree is planted in mofl parts of the ifland, both for its beauty and produflions. It thrives equally well in the low-lands as in the mountains, rifes to the height of 50 to 60 feet, and flourilhes remarkably on the very margin of the fca, planted in the fand with a little moulds It is produced from the nut, which bears tranlplanting extremely I

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BOOK III. CHAP. Vlir. 73^ tremely well, though rendered more vigorous by mixing fait with the earth into which it is removed. The fubftance which iiiclofcs the fliell is made up of tough fibres, of which the Indians make not only cordage, and other tackle for fI•lip^, but a kind of oakum for caulking, which is highly extolled. Steeped in water, and beaten like flax, it is manufadurcd into an excellent linen. After this coat is taken off, the fhell makes its appearance, which takes a fine polifli, and is often formed into drinking cups fet in filver. The fhell is filled with a very agreeable, fub-acid, coolingfluid, while young ; but as the fruit advances, this concretes into a gelatinous coat adhering to the infide of the fhell, hardening with age, till It acquires a firm texture, when it refembles an almond in flavour, and makes part in various preparations of the kitchen; it contains a large portion of oil, is wholefome and nourifliing. The liquor is generally efleemed highly antifcorbutic, one of the plcafanteft drinks in America, and makes a falutary emulfion in fevers; It is alio added in the diflillation of rum, and thought to improve the flavour of that fpirit. The leaves of this tree are ufed for thatch, and the tender fhoots at the top afford an agreeable green, or cabbage. The trunk is formed into gutters, and occafionally employed for inclofing, and roofing outhoufes, and, being nailed dole, is lb hardy as to refift the weather for many years. The juice, obtained from the trunk by tapping, mixed and fermented with melafles, affords an excellent fpirit. In order to make arrack from it, the tree mull: be kept from bearing fruit : for this purpofe, the fprout which produces the nut, and which flioots every month, is cut, and jars faftcneJ to it to receive the liquor; or the body is bored, and a plug put into the orifice, which is occafionally taken out when the liquor is wanted : this liquor Is fuffered to ferment, and whilft It Is in this ftate, it is diftilled into the fpirit called arrack, which far excels what is drawn from rice. If this liquor is expofed to the fun, it foon turns to vinegar; it mufl therefore be carried, immediately afcer it is collected, into a fhady place. Near the bafe of the larger branches or foot-fi:alk^, is a web-like plexus.) compoled of fibres curloufly interwoven by the hand of nature, which is the cloathing this tree is laid to aflbrd ; and is often ufed in this ifland for ftrainers. 5 B 2 Confidering

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740 JAMAICA. Confidering this variety of produftions, thofe writers have not been guilty of much exaggeration, who affert, that it furnifhes meat, drink, phyfic, cloathing, lodging, and fuel. 36. Palm-Tree, or Oily Palm. — Palmafru5lu luleo oleofo. This tree is not fo frequent in Jamaica as it delerves, being chiefly cultivated by the Negroes only. The nuts are covered with an oily pulp ; when they are roafled, it taftes very much like the outfide fat of roafted mutton. The oil is obtained by boiling the nuts in water, when the oleaginous particles rife to the furface, and are ikimmed off, and drained for ufe. The Nesroes are fond of this oil, which fometimes makes an in^redicnt in their food; but they oftener apply it by way of embrocation, for drains, or to difcufs rheumatic aches, for which purpofes it is very efficacious. 37. Great Macaw Tree. — Palma fpinofa major. The fruit of this tree, as well as that of the fmaller macaw, is full of oil. The Negroes affirm this to be the tree which yields the true palmoil. They make necklaces of the woody part of the feeds, which are black, round, flat, and about the fize of what is called here the horfeeye-bean, covered over with a yellow pulp, of which the macaw bird is exceffively fond. The outer coat of the body of the tree is remarkable for its folidity and toughnefs; which qualities recommended it to the Indians, who iifed to make their bows, and feveral other utenfils, with it. The inflde, or heart, is full of a pithy, farinaceous fubftance refembling that of the cabbage tree. 38. Lesser Palmeto, or Thatch Tree. — Palma 71071 fpinofa minor. The body of this tree is much ufcd in piling for wharfs or buildings^ having been found to ftand the fea-water very well, uncorroded by length of time, or the worm, which is not able to penetrate it. The foot-ftalks of the leaves are tough and flexible, ferving, when they are fplit and pared, to make balkets, bow-ftrings, chair-bottoms, and many other conveniencies ; and the foliage is thought to afford the 5 tieft.

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIIT. 741 beft, and mofl; durable, thatch. There are immenfe groves of them in the leeward parts of the illand. 39. Larger Palmeto. — Pahna non fpinofa major. The trunk and foot-ftalk of the leaves anfwer the like pnrpofes with the former, but efleemed, if any thing, to have fuperior toughnefs. 40. Palmeto-Royal. — Palma Brafilienfis, caudice fquamato, folia pl'icatUi feu fiabelU-forma — Brafilian Palm, with a plaited or fanfhaped leaf, and a fcaly ftalk. This is much larger-bodied and taller than the other palms. It hasbeen fufpeded, that the Spaniards obtain the gum called caranna from the trunk of this fpecies, which is celebrated as a vulnerary and cephalic. This gum is hard, refinous, and of a dark olive colour, inclining to green, of a fweet fmell, and fomewhat aromatic flavour. When frelh, it is duftile as pitch; and, kindled, yields a fragrant odour. It is fold at Carthagena, wrapped in plantain leaves ; but the manner of colleding it is carefully kept fecret. This tree is frequent in Jamaica, particularly in the favannalis of Clarendon. The leaves are circular, and when divided through the middle to the extremity of the ftalk, which is thick and ligneous, they form two fans, each being of about two feet diameter ; thefe, when dried, and ftained with different colours, are commodious inftruments in hot countries, and very much ufed in the Spanlfh dominions. The leaves are a good thatch, efpecially thofe of the younger plants ; and from the larger ones are made hats, fmall balkets, and other utenfils. The trunk of this tree is bullet-proof; and, cut into ilockadoes, makes an excellent inclofure, equal to a ftone-wall in refifting the attacks of an enemy. 4I. Prickly Pole. — F alma fpinofa ?mnor. This tree bears fmall, round, red berries, containing a fweet yellowifh pulp, of a very pleafant tafte ; the wild hogs and pigeons eat them with great avidity. The outward part of the trunk is extremely tough and elaftic, of the colour of black ebony, ahd capable of a very high polifli, refembling winikbone. It is ufed for launces and ramrods, and may be c onverted to various other ufes, fuch as knife handles, &c. It is fo hard, that the Indians. uled

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^^:i,z . JAMAICA, ufcd to make their arrow heads with it, fharpened to a fine point, which was almoft equal to iron. The prickles of this fpecies, and the macaw, in their native ftate, are very elegant toothpicks, and require only an eye to ferve the purpofe of needles for coarfe work. The Indians formerly are faid to have ufed them for a very inhuman purpofe : after tying their prifoncrs of war to fome tree, they took thefe thorns, and wrapping them in little pellets of cotton dipt in oil, ftuck them into the fides of the milerable fufferers, till they were briftled like hedge-hogs. 42. Date Tree. — Palma major., feu Phanlx daSlilyfera. -^his tree has been cultivated in fome few gardens, and feems to agree extremelv well both with the foil and climate. T\\t fruit is undoubtedly nutritive, as it conftitutes no inconfiderable part of food among the Afiatics. In Africa it grows naturally, and from thence probably the feeds planted here were obtained. Moft authors affirm, that, unlefs the female or fruit-bearing trees have the affiflance of the male, they are unprolific. In fuch places, therefore, where there are no male trees near the female, the inhabitants cut off the bunches of male flowers when they are juft opened, and, carrying them to the female trees, place them on the branches of the female flowers to impregnate them, which they fay has the defired effeft, rendering thofe trees fruitful, that would otherwife have been barren. The flowers of the male have fix fhort jlain'ina, with narrow four-cornered fummits filled \v\x\\ farina', the female flowers have no Jlamina but have a ronndifh ^frwfw, which afterwards becomes an oval berry, with a thick pulp, inclofing a hard oblong ftone, with a deep furrow running longitudinally. The bunches of fruit are fometimes very large. Thofe dates are efteemed the beft, which are large, foft, yellowifli, with few or no wrinkles, and full of pulp, either of a good white throughout, or elfe reddifli towards the furface, and white towards the kernel. They are preferved in three different ways ; fome preffcd, and dried ; others preffed more moderately ; but the befl: are thofe not prefled at all; only moiftened with the juice of other dates, as they are packed up in balkets or flcins. In regard to their medicinal virtues, they are faid to flrengthen the ftomach, ftop loofenefles, and corroborate the intellines; they are alio good in difeafes of the breafl, and promote the expedoration of grofs humours;

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BOOK III. C H A P. VIII. 743 humours; they arc ufed for this intention fometimcs in peroral decoctions. They are recommended likewife in the piles, taken in red wine. The import duties on this article have no refpe6t to what may be produced in our own colonies, but we can fcarcely hope that it will be fo extenfively cultivated here, as to become an article of remittance to Great Britain. There are fome in a garden at Spanifh Town, which bear every year; and it is to be regretted, that their fruit is not difperfed and planted annually in different parts of the ifland, moreefpecially in thofe where the macaw, and other palms, naturally flourifii; as the foil in iuch parts is probably beft fuited to the date alfo. Without carrying' the view fo far forward, as to its becoming a commodity for export, it is worth cultivating for the fake of the beauty of the tree, and the pof^feffion of the frefh fruit for the ufe of the inhabitants. In Upper ^gypt many families fubfift almofl: entirely upon the fruit. ThciEgyptians make a conferve of the frefh dates, mixing them with fugar; this has an agreeable tafte. The ftones or kernels are as hard as horn, and nobody would imagine that any animal could eat them; but the ^Egyptians break them, grind them in their hand-mills, and, for want of better food, give them to their camels, which cat them. In Barbary, they turn handfome beads for Pater nojlers of thefe ftones. Of the leaves they make balkets, or rather a kind of fhort bags, which are ufed in Turkey on journies, and in their houfes. In ^gypt they make fly-flaps of them, and bruflies to clean their fophas and cloath.-. The hard boughs they ufe for fences about their gardens, and cages to keep their fowls in, which they carry to market. The trunk or ftem is fplit and ufed for the fame purpofes as the branches; they even ufe it for beams to build houfes, as it is ftrong enough for fmall buildings. It is likewife ufed for firing, when there is want of better; the wood is foft and fpongy, and burns well. The v/eb-like integument covering the tree between the boughs has threads, which run perpendicularly and horizontally crofling each other, in the fame manner as that of the cocoa-nut tree: this is of confiderable ufe in i^gypt, where they make all their ropes and rigging of the fmaller veffels v/ith it. It is efteemed ftrong and lafling [w]. [^u] HalTcIciuill. 43. B.'^RBAUOES

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744 J A M A 1 C A. 43. Barb A DOES Cabbage Tree. — Palma caudtce aa mftum tiirgido. 44. Jamaica Cabbage Tree, or Mountain Cabbage, — Pnlma caudice cequali. Thefe trees are In faft, 1 believe, the fame fpecics;; and the difference between them in rcfpeft to their figure feems to be owing entirely to the fituation in which they grow, whether in open ground, or in the midft of woods. In the former cafe, nothing hinders them from affuming that graceful form peculiar to their nature ; in the latter, being inclofed on all fides with other lofty trees, they rife Iplndling, and often crooked; and feem to be confined in their growth to a continual afcent, preferving an uniformity of bulk in the fhaft from the root upwards, until they have overtopped the whole wood. The Barbadoes cabbage, which is planted here for ornament, is one of the moil beautiful trees in the world. No limits feem to be fet either to its age or afcent. Ligon mentions fome at the firfl fettlement of Barbadoes, above 200 feet in height. And Ray Ipeaks of another of 270 feet, or thereabouts. One hundred feet is a very common height. It is propagated from the feeds. The upper part of the trunk, from whence the foliage fprings, relembles a well-turned, finely polifhed balufter, of a lively green colour, gently fwelling from its pedeftal, and diminifhing gradually to the top, where it expands into the branches, elegantly arranged, and waving like plumes of oftrich feathers. From the center of the fummit rifes the fpatha or flicalh, terminating in an acute point. The trunk itfelf is not lefs graceful, being a flraight, fmooth, flightly annulated column, large at the bafe, and tapering from thence to the infertion of the balufter or cabbage. This tree is fo much reverenced for its majeftic form, that It is not deftroyed like the others for the fake of the cabbage. The Jamaica mountain cabbage is cut for this purpofe ; and the cabbage ftripped of its outer green coat appears perfciflly white, cylindrical, and formed of feveral concentric lumince. The inner tuniclcs are fliced, and either eaten raw, with onions, pepper, and vinegar, or boiled, and ferved up with butter; in which way, it moft refembles the European cabbage in rl-^vour; or converted into a pickle, in which ftate it is fent to Great Britani. The

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 745 The out:^varcl texture of the trunk of thefc trees is ufed for laths, and other purpofcs. The fpatha: are made into mats by the Negroes. The leaf is compofcd of longitudinal filaments, or thread-like fibres, which, being properly feparated, arc fpuu like hemp, and formed into twine' and cordage. The tunicles are extremely thin, and may eafily be exfoliated and dried; after being prepared in this manner, they may be wrote upon with a metallic pencil or Jlyliis ; and will retain the charafters fo long as the fubftance lafts, which may be as long as vellum, if care is taken to keep it dry; for this property, it feems to refemble the papyrus of the ancients. The beft cabbage is obtained from this tree when it is young, and not above 15 or 16 feet in height. From the real fummit of the ftem fpring two branches full of Imall flowers ; thefe are followed by fmall round berries, about the fize of a hazel-nut, which are devoured by the birds, who mute the flone or feed, by which means there is a continual nurfery of thefe trees, which otherwife would foon be extirpated ; for whenever they are cut down, no frefh fhoot arifes again from the root ; and whenever robbed of their top or cabbage, they ceafe from growing. The external coat of the trunk is impenetrable to a mufquet ball, though it is fcarccly an inch thick. The Spaniards are faid to have cafed their buildings in the country parts with this covering, which made them defenfible againft: enemies, and equally proof againft the affaults of earthquakes and hurricanes. Within this hard integument is a pithy, farinaceous fubftance, fimilar to fome other of the palm kind. Dampier, fpeaking of the trees growing in the ifland Mindanao, one of the Philippines, mentions a fpecies called by the natives the Iibby. This tree is not unlike the cabbage, the bark and wood hard, and inclofing a white pith. They cut down the tree, and, fplitting it In the middle, take out the pith, which they beat well in a mortar ; then put it into a iieve made from the fame tree, and, pouring water upon it, ftir it about, till the water carries the mealy part through into a tronoh placed underneath. After it has ftood till it has fettled, they pour oft the water, and, taking out the fcdiment, and drying it, bake it into cakes; this meal they call /ago or fagu, which is exported to other parts of the world, dried in linall grains like comfits. In Java it is called biilum^ and according to Linnaeus is made of the pith of the cycas clrcinnalis. Vol. III. 5 G In

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746 JAMAICA. In the Moluccas the tree is called laiidan, the pith of which fnrnifiies them with this foft meal for bread, as the leaves ferve them for the covering of their houfes ; and the larger veins for rafters, as the lefler make good cordage ; while thefe leaves are young, they are covered with a kind of woolly fubftance, which affords materials for fluffs. They refemble the cocoa trees. From thefe defcriptions there is reafon to believe that the fago tree is of the palm kind, as it bears affinity to thofe of the Weft Indies in moft refpefts. The ingenious Mr. Robinfon, whom I have beforementioned, was of this opinion, and refolved to make fome experiments upon this ground. He took the pith of the mountain cabbage, caufed it to be pounded, and the mealy part paffed with water through a coarfe cloth laid in a fieve. The experiment fucceeded to his wifh j he obtained a fine white meal in large quantity, which, in the judgement of many perfons who tafled it, furpaffed in goodnefs what was imported. It was in the form of an impalpable powder, and in this ftate boiled to a thicknefs much fooner than the common fago. That which comes from the Eaft Indies is probably granulated by means of fome gum intermixed with it; and the art of bringing it into a granulated form, is all that remains for perfecting the Jamaica manufafture ; for Mr. Robinfon doubted, whether in powder it might keep fo long as in the granulated form, but there is no certainty that it would not. This is a manufaiSure which might eafily be entered upon, to fome extent, in Jamaica, if necefliry ; and more particularly by fettlers in the interior parts, where thefe trees are fo abundant; at leaft, it may be of fervlce to them to be informed of the means, by which they can furliiflitheir families with fo nourishing and reftorative an aliment, with very little trouble, 45. Mahoe, or Bark Tree. — Ahhtiea tnant'nrut arborefcens. This tree is frequent by the fea fide, in many parts of the ifland,. particularly about Po.tland Point, and the coafis of Vcre. It bears a yellow Hovver. The bark is exccedinoly tough, and not inferior to hemp or ffax in utility and ftrenglh. It is naturally white, and of a fine, foft, filamentous texture; which recommends it as very fit for tlie paper-mill.. Ropes are made of it for plantation ufe, which, if ihey i> were.

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 747 were tarred and well twifted, would be equal to thofe made from the beft hemp. All the parts of this tree, efpeclally the flowers, abound with a mucilage, emollient, and laxative. 46. Smaller Mahoe Althaa frutefccm aquatica. This Is generally found in marfhy places, and on the banks of rivers. It bears a fmall yellow flower. The bark is not fo flrong as that of the former, but the Negroes ufc it to tie up their bundles of Scotch grafs, and fometimes tvvifl: it into ropes. 47. Mountain Mahoe. — Hibifcus arbor eus. This tree grows to a confiderable fize, and is frequent in the woods. It bears a large open yellow flower, not unlike thofe of the yellow lily. It is generally reckoned an excellent timber tree. All the tender parts of it are mucilaginous, and ufed upon occaiion for the fame intention as the other medicines of this tribe. There is another fpecies, which bears a red flower. 48. Bur-Bark. — Triumfetta. This plant is frequent in the ifland, and rifes to the height of fix or feven feet in a rich moifl: foil. The bark is tough and ftrong, and ferves for ropes, and other conveniencies of the like kind. 49. Prickly-Bark Tree. — Hibifcus arboreus, foliis fub-rotundo angulatis. This is rare in Jamaica. It is found in the woods of St. Anne. The inward bark is very tough, and fit for ropes; but it is coarfer and more fibrous than that of the mahoe. 50. Laghetto, or Lace-Bark Tree. — Frutex foliis majoribus. It has a laurel-like leaf, and therefore called by Sloane arbor laurifoUa. It is common in the woods of Vere, Clarendon, and St. Elizabeth. The inner bark is of a fine texture, very tough, and divlfible into a number of thin filamentous lamina, which, being foaked in water, may be drawn out by the fingers into a reticulum, refembling fine lace fo nearly as to be fcarce diftinguiflied from it. The ladies of the ifland are extremely dextrous in making caps, ruffles, and compleat fuits of lace with it ; in order to bleach it, after being 5 C 2 drawn

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748 JAMAICA. drawn out as mucli as it will bear, they expofe it ftretched to the fun fhine, and fprinkle it frequently with water. It bears wafliing extremely well, with common foap, or the coratoe foap, and acquires a degree of whitenefs equal to the beil artiricial lace. There is no doubt but very fine deaths might be m:Ac with it, and perhaps paper. The wild Negroes have made apparel with it, of a very durable nature. The common ufe to which it is at prefent applied is rope-mnking. The Spaniards are faid to work it into cables; and the Indians ejnploy it in a variety of different fabrics. It may, perhaps, be of fervice to Great Britain as a manufa>5luring nation, that the inhabitants of thefe colonies are very feldom difpofed to improve what nature offers, or apply many produdlions here to the obvious ufes for which they are intended. Neceffity, that great fpur to fuch improvement, is wanting to ftimulate ; or otherwife, they would foon find out methods of turning them to account. 51. BonacE'Bark. — ^ri^or cortice fjfo, fofns oblongis, ^c. Browne, 372. This tree is common near Montego Bay, where it grows to a moderate fize. The bark makes very good ropes ; it fpreads or dilates like the Laghetto bark, but neither altogether fo free nor regular. 52. White-Bully Tree, orGALiMETA Wood. — Salich folljlato arhor^^c, Slo. Cat. 170. Achra=, 8. Browne, 201. This tree is moft ufually found in the low-lands, efpeclally about Liguanea and Manchineel. The bark of it anfwers all the purpofes of the Jefuit's bark in robufl: conftitutions, when the difeafe proceeds from a weaknefs of the •vifcera, and a grofs undigefted chyle. It is a fafe and convenient medicine to be adminiftered in Great Britain ; but thought not fo fafe nor proper in Jamaica, where thofe fevers that generally put on the appearance of intcrmittents, are attended with nervous fymptoms, and require more aftive and flimulant medicines ; for which reafon the Jefuit's bark is preferred for ufc in this ifland. But as the Jamaica bark is found to anfwer, as a ftrong afiringcnt, all the purpofvS of the Jefuit's bark in the Britifh clin)ate ; and the latter is a very

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 749 very expenfive medicine, being often retailed at half a guinea a pound, the Jamaica bark would form a good fubftitutc, and be found equally effeftual as the other in the intcrmittents, moft prevalent in that climate. After the great fire, which dcftroyed Port Royal in ijo^, Jefuit's bark became fb fcarce in Jamaica, that few practitioners could procure any ; upon which they had refource to the galimeta bark, and adminiftered it with good fuccefs, but were obliged to encreafe the dx>fe to a much larger quantity. Not long after they found out another bark, which anfwered every purpofe of the Jefuit's ; this was the ^2, Locus, or Lotus-tree. — L.oii arl)orls folio angnjliore, rubro jlore, fruElu potyfpcrmo, umb'tlicato. Sloane, Cat. 162. Slu'? Achras i^. of Browne, p. 201. Beefwood? It has a very beautiful reddiih flower, the fruit round, and about the fize of the American clammy-cherry, or malphigla', of a yellowifh colour, and agreeable tafte ; and contains a flone, or feed. The bark, taken from the limbs and fmaller branches. Is of the fame complexion, in all refpefts, as the Peruvian quill bark (which iseftecmed the beft) and cures intermittent fevers equally as well, as has been often experienced. There is another fpecies, the flowers of which are more yellow, and the fruit much fmaller, but of the fame nature. 54.Black -OLIVE, or Bark-tree — Buceras. This tree Is a native of the lovv^er fwampy lands, and grows to a confiderable fize. It is the fame as the French oak of Antigua. The bark, mixed with that of the mangrove tree, is much efteemed for tanning leather j and an excellent llyptic water may be made from it. The w^ood of the tree is a very fine timber. 55. Button-tree, or Button-wood — Conocarpm 2dus Br. p. 159. Alnifru5lu laiirifoHa arbor, SI. Cat. 135. This tree grows luxuriantly in all low fandy b.iys and marflies round the Illand, and may be propagated by flips or cuttings ; the bark tans leatlier well; the fruit Is drying, binding, and healing. ^6. Yaw-

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75 JAMAICA. 56. Yaw-weed, or upright Woodbind, or Honey-suckle, with oval leaves — Morinda, an P.cnclymenum ? There are feveral fpecles of this plant ; it is common in the lowlands, and frequently found climbing among the bufhes in all the lower hills ; one of them, which rifes to the height of twelve feet, and bears fcarlet flowers, is fuppofed to be the Chili itiu, or periclymenum, ufed by the Indians in dying. The roots of all thefe fpecies, boiled, colour linens of a dark hue, and probably might be a ufetul ingredient among the dyers ; for they will make a tolerable ink : and it is affirmed, that the colour is fo permanent, it cannot be wafhed out. The peridymenuin of Jamaica, with round bunches of flowers at the end of the branches, and oval leaves, growing in whirls, with foot ftalks, the flowers of a coral-colour, feems to approach neareft in affinity to that oi Chili. It rifes with a flirubby flalk, ten or twelve feet high, fending out many (lender branches, covered with a light brown bark, and garniflied with oval leaves, near two inches long, and one inch and a quarter broad; four of them coming out at each joint, in whirls round the ftalk ; they fland upon fliort foot-ftalks, and have one ftrong mid-rib, with feveral veins running from the mid-rib to the fides. The flowers appear in round bunches at the end of the branches ; they are of a deep coral colour on their outfide, but of a pale red within. That of Chili agrees in moft points, except that the bark is greyidi, the leaves are pointed, and the flowers are fucceeded by oval berries, the fize of fmall olives, and are cut into four fegments at the top. Some varieties may happen in plants of the fame genus from foil and climate ; but as all of this clafs in Jamaica are found to pofTefs this dyeing quality, in fome degree, fo the fuperiority may be decided by Ikilful experiment ; and there is no doubt, but thefe roots may become a valuable addition to the articles proper for export, if, upon trial, they are found not to lofe their quality, by moderate keeping, or in their dry ftate. ^'j. SwEET-wooD, or Shrubby Sweet-wood — Atnyrls. Profeflor Linnaus, having obtained a fpecimcn of the balfam of Mecca tree, was of opinion, that it was a fpecies of this genus. Mr.

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 75X Mr. Robin/on, purfuing this hint, found three fpecies, differing only from each other in the fize of the trees, dimenfions of their leaf, and greater or lefs aroma of their bark and wood. They grow in great abundance on the rocky hills of the Southfide coaft, and other parts more inland ; and are remarkably frequent in Healthfhire, in St. Catharine. Their leaves and bark are impregnated with a fine, balfamic juice, and, if the body was tapped at the proper feafon of the year (fuppofed to be Auguft) might be found to tranfude a thick liquor refembling that of the Gilead balfam, to which the tafte of this bark, and wood of the fmaller branches, bears a very exadl relation. The leaves, infufed in boiling water, after the manner of tea, have a very pleafant flavour, and odoriferous fcent, and may be drank with milk and fugar, inflead of tea. This infufion is highly cephalick, ftrengthens the nerves, and is particularly reftorative to weak eyes ; infomuch, that I knew a gentleman, who, by the conflant ufe of it for fome weeks by way of breakfaft, was able to read a fmall print, and view objefts diftindly, with-^ out the affiftance of fpeftacles, which he had been unable to do for fome years before. The leaves, dried thoroughly in the fhade, might be very fecurely packed, and exported, for further trial of their virtues, which, in Jamaica, did not fee m to be impaired by their drynefs, or length of keeping. There is then the flrongeft reafon to believe, that the amyrls may, by ineifion, produce a b:3h':uTi, not much inferior to the celebrated balm of Gilead, or opohaljamum ; which, for better information of the inquifitive -reader, 1 fliall here defcribe, from competent authority. It is a liquid refin, of a very light ycllowifh colour, and a fragrant' imell, not unlike that of citrons ; butthe tafte is acrid and aromatic. It is pellucid, teiiaciou?, or glutinous, {licking to the fingers, and may be drawn into long threads. It fcarcely ever becomes fluid or liquid, by the Ircat of the fun, in the wefleily part of Afian Turkey, where it is produced. lis virtues are faid to be thefe. It is one of the beft ftonlachicS'^ known, if taken to three grains, to ftrengthen a weak ftomach. It \=, a capital

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752 JAMAICA. a capital vulnerary ; for, if applied to a frerti wound, it cures it in a very iliort time. When frelh, it is faid to have a much greater efficacy, than when old. It is given internally againrt. putrefaftion of the 'vifcera, and abfcefles of the lungs, liver, and kidnies. It alfo cleanfes foul ulcers, and heals them very foon. But it is difficult to obtain it unfophifticated ; for which, and other reafons, it well deferves the experiment of ingenious gentlemen in this ifland, to find if a balfam, or refin, be obtainable from the^;j/m; fince the difcovery would naturally lead to form fuch a fubftitute for the true balfam, which is fo feldom to be got in its genuine (late; and there feems no weak ground for prefuming, that this fubftitute would anfwer fimilar good purpofes In medicine. 58. Calibash — Crejcentia. This tree grows univerfally in Jamaica. The wood is very tough, and fitter for the coach-makers ufe than any other fort of timber known. The fliell of the fruit refembles a gourd, is of various fize and capacity, from an ounce to a gallon ; and is ufed by the Negroes to hold water, or rum. It is thin, but of a clofe, firm texture, and ferves to boil water, or even broth, as well as an earthen-pot. The thicker and more fubfl:;intial parts are frequently fcooped into buttonmoulds, in all the Weft India iflands. The Negroes fupply themfelves, from this tree, with very convenient, and not inelegant, cups, faucers, bowls, punch, and other ladles, fpoons, and other utenfils, of various fhapes and fizes j upon fome of which they beftow the beft: carved work in their power. They fteep the feeds in water, which makes a tart, cooling beverage. With the pulp they cure burns, applying it in form of a cataplafm, and renewing it every fix hours. The pulp of the green fruit is faid to caufe abortion, and even to make cows and mares caft their young ; for which reafon they are carefully kept from eating of it in dry feafons ; at which times only they are prompted to it, by fcarcity of other food. 2 ^o. Wild-

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 753 59. Wild-cane. — Arundo Indka^ Bambu j^^c/Vj. This grows in all the river courfes throughout the ifland. It is full of pith, and refembles the oriental bambu in every refpe^JV, but dimenfions. The foliage, when dried, is iifed for thatch. The tender tops of the young plants, gathered after they juft fpring out of the ground, are boiled, and made into an agreeable pickle. The ftem or cane is ufed for wattles or laths, for covering the walls, cieling, and roofs of buildings ; and, if fmoak-dried over a fire, previous to tlieir being employed for thefe purpofes, will lafl: undecayed fo long as they are kept from rain. When fplit into flips, and cleared of the pith, it makes exceeding good balket-work. The Negroes manufacture it, and the bafkets ufed on plantations are generally made of it. An ingenious gentleman of this ifland, Mr. Wallen, has fome of the oriental bambu cane growing upon his eftate, called Chifwick St. Thomas in the Eaft, from which it is hoped this ufeful plant may be propagated in other parts of the ifland [>v]. It is well known, that the bambu attains to a prodigious magnitude, and is converted into a variety of utenfils by the Eaft: Indians. The inner-bark of it is made into paper, extremely thin. It is faid, when thefe plants are young, the Chinefe draw from them a juice of very agreeable tafte, from which they prepare a delicious fauce, called achar. The leaves are commonly put round the tea-chefls, imported into Great Britain, faftened together, fo as to form a kind of mat. Some authors relate, that in China this cane grows fo large, that fmall canoes or boats are made out of it. It is certain, it may be regarded as a valuable acquifition to this ifland ; and, if it reaches but to moderate bulk here, will be found extremely commodious for huts, and fmaller buildings, various plantation utenfils, conduit pipes, and other neceffary ufes. 60. Lilac, or Hoop-tree, — Syringa baccifera. There are feveral fpecies of the lilac ; what has been introduced into this ifland bears a beautiful flower, in which, white, purple, and crimfon, are varioufly intermingled. It grows from the feed very rapidly in almofl every foil, but is moft luxuriant on the banks of rivers, or [a] I am informed, it was brought from Hifpaniola ; and, having been difperfed by this gentleman, and Mr. Ellis ot Jamaica, fince its firll introdntlion, it is now flourifliing in many different parts of our ifland; where, its growth is aftoniihingly rapid. Vol. III. 5 D running

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754 JAMAICA. running ftreams. By the falling of the berries, and their difperfion in the currents of water, near which they grow, as well as by the induftry of birds, it has been very extenfively multiplied. To prepare the tree for hoops, the fide-twigs and branches fliould be regularly trimmed and lopped clofe to the ftem, as it proceeds in growth ; it is fit for ufe in two years from the planting the feed. It may then be cut, and the ftem fplit longitudinally into pieces of proper length and thicknefs, and after being duly fhaved, the hoops are fmoak-dried on a barbicue (formed by four forked ftakes, placed fo as make the angles of a fquare, and crofs bars laid to bear upon the fork or crutch) over a fire made with wood or trafh, till they appear well feafoned and fit for ufe. They will prove fufficiently durable for fugar hogfheads, coffee calks, and fuch like. Thefe trees are fubjed to be bored by a beetle of the fcarabaus fpecies, which it is not ea{y-'"o deftroy ; but, perhaps, a compofition of tar and aloes might defend them from it. The bark makes good ropes, for ordinary purpofes. 6i. Logwood, — Hcematoxylum. It feeds in April. The feed is very perilhable, foon lofing its vegetative principle. The feafon for fowing it fliouId not be too wet, otherwife it will rot in the ground. In the neighbourhood of Savannah la Mar are fuch quantities of it growing wild, as to incommode the land-holders extremely ; occupying that diftrift, as the opopinax and cafhaw have the Southern parts of Middlefex county ; but the logwood is fo luxuriant and hardy after it comes up, that it will overrun the other two, and ftarve their growth. It was firft propagated in this ifland in the year 1715, from fome feed brought from the Bay of Campeche, with defign to eftablifli it as an article of export, and prevent the necefiity of forming fettlements upon the bays of the Spanifli Main, where the cutters were liable to great rifques, by working up to their knees in water, and conftantly harrafled by the flings of innumerable mufquito gnats, and the adaults of the Spaniards ; but, although the event did not fully correfpond with the benevolent intentions of thofe who firft cultivated it here, it has aniwered many ufeful purpofes. Exclufive of its merit as a dye, it poflefles other good qualities ; it makes an excellent and beautiful fence, which, if kept properly trimmed, grows fo ftrong and thick, that nothing can break through. The

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BOOK III. CHAP. VII I. 755 The fmaller Items, if of good length, are made into hoops, wliere better materials are wanting. The wood gives a purple tinfture by infufion, which is eaftly changed or heightened, by acid or alcalious mixtures. The bark and gum are gentle fubaftringents ; but the laft excels, and adds a fweetnefs to its virtue, which renders it more agreeable to the palate. It is found very efficacious in loolenefs ; for if two ounces of the chips are boiled in a quart of milk, and a quart of water, to one quart, and a tea-cup full of this decoi5lion be given every three hours, it feldom fails to cure a conniion diarrhoea. The growth of this tree is fo quick, that it will rife, in proper foils, to the height of teii feet in three years. If an advantage is propofed to be made by the wood, the leeds ought to be fown in fwampy lands, fuch as thole about Black River, and all the branches permitted to remain, which will be of great ufe, in augmenting the bulk of their Items. In preparing it for market, the wood is cut into junks or logs, of about three feet length, and cleared of the rind or bark; this is called chipt logwood. It is chofen in the largeft thickefl: pieces, found, and of a deep red colour. The current price is from 3 /. 1 5 j. to 4/. 4.1. Aerling, at the Britifh market. 62. Fringrigo, or CocKSPUR. — Pifonea Acukata. Browne,^. 358. Paliuro ajinis arbor fpinofa. Slo. cat. p. 137. The feeds are glutinous and burry, (ticking fo faft fometimes to the ground-doves, and pea-doves (which feed upon them), as to prevent their making ufe of their wings. The item is often iifed for hoops. The root is a fpecific among the Negroes, for the cure of the gonnorrhcea Jtmplex. The leaves, chopped and mixed with corn, are given to horfes, to free them from bots and worms. 6 2. HooPwiTHE. — Rivitiia fcaizJens. This plant is very common in the lowlands, and ftretches a great way among the neighbouring fhrubs and bufhes. The berries make the principal part of the food of the nightingale, while they are in feafon. They contain a very oily feed, and after that bird has fwallowed a good many of them, it flies to the next pepper biifli, and picks a few of thefe warm berries alfo, by way of promoting digeftion. 5D 2 The

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756 JAMAICA. The ftalk Is very tough and flexile, and often made into hoops ; but they are not In efteem for long voyages, as being not fo ftrong nor durable as fome others. 64. HoRSE-w^ooD, or Hoop-wooD. — Zygia. This fiirub is common at the North-fide, it grows generally in low, moift lands; but is likewife found in the mountains : the wood is pretty tough, and fometimes cut for hoops. 65. Birch-tree, — TV/v^/w/j^wi, vel Piflacia fpecles. This is very common in all the Southern hills and lowlands. The wood makes excellent cattle yoaks. The bark is thick, and tranfudes a clear tranfparent reiin, very odoriferous, and refembling majlic ; but it yields a confiderable quantity of a more fluid rcfin, by incifion ; which has much of the fmell and appearance of turpentine, and may be ufed for the fame purpofes. The bark of the root, has been conjeflured to be the^/?w rouha of the fhops, the moft effeftual remedy hitherto known in bloody 1 fluxes, given in decodion of one or two drachms to a quart of water. I It is certain they are very fimilar in appearance. i Thcjimi roiiba grows in Guiana, but has not yet been fufficiently '; defcribed, fo as to determine the analogy with more exaftnefs. \ 66. '^E^v.-ifi-E.^.—Adlanthum maximum^ ramofum, arhorefcens, \ There are near 100 varieties of the fern and maidenhair, fcattered I over this ifland, which are endued with the like qualities as thofe of ; Europe. \ In many parts of England it is common to burn them, and make balls of the afhes for bucking or cleanfing coarfe linen ; before they are ufed, they are made red hot in the fire, and readily fall into powder when thrown into water. The root of the female ferns, which are diftlnguiflaed by the black colour of the lower part of the ftalk, powdered and mixed with honey, has been given to a drachm or upwards with great fuccefs for deftroying the tania^ or tape worm. The trunk of the fern tree is hard, and ligneous, often rlfing to the height of fix or eight feet ; it is extremely durable, refifts all weathers, and is frequently ufed for hog-ftie pofts, and other inclofures. 64. Brancdhe

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. ISl (>']. Branched Horse-tail. — Equifetum ramofum. This plant is commonly found about the river courfes of the North fide. When dried, it is ufcd by the cabinet-makers, to give a polifh or finlflilng to their work ; for the fiirface of it is like a fine file, furnifhed with fliort deliciite denticles, which rub off the fmall protuberances of the wood by flow degrees, and caufe it to become fmooth and fhining. Dried and powdered, it is efteemed a fpecific for flopping internal or external haemorrhages of blood ; and healing ulcers and excoriations, flrewed upon the part affe(51ed. It is likewife recommended In coughs, and cattarrhs. 68. Trumpet-tree, or Snakewood. — Coilotnpalus, This tree grows in mofl of the woody parts and gullies ; but particularly at the North fide, where it rifes to a confiderable height. The leaves and flowers are eaten by the Negroes in their broths. The fruits or berries refemble the rafpberry and fl:rawberry, in tafte and flavour for which reafon they are very agreeable to European ftomachs. The bark is flrong, and frequently ufed for all forts of cordage. The leaves are good fodder for cattle. The trunk is very light and hollow. This tree is probably a fpecies of the balza, mentioned by UUoa, of which the Indians of Gulaquil form convenient rafts, byplacing nine or ten pieces of about 36 feet long each, fide by fide, and bracing them clofe with crofs pieces well lafhed, on vhlch they tranfport all fort of merchandize. Similar floats are likewife made with the trumpet-tree in Brafil, called jangaras ; with which they crofs rivers. The Indian name for the balza-float is (according to Ulloa) jangada ; which fimilitude confirms the opinion that the fpecies are alike, though the trees of the continent may probably be of much greater bulk chaa what are found in this ifland. The juice of the tender tops are fubaflringent and medicinal in immoderate fluxes. The leaves, bruifed and made into .1 poultice, aie an admirable vulnerary. The dry wood foon kindles into a bla :f, by fridion with a piece of harder wood. The Negroes, who have recourfe to it for this purpofe, make a /rnall hole, with 1 the

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758 JAMAICA. the point of a knife, in a dry piece of the trumpet-tree ; then fix it between their feet, and, fliarpening the harder wood to fit the hole, twirl it rapidly with the palms of both hands till the fire is kindled. The trunk and branches yield a great quantity of fixed fait, much heavier than any other wood-afhes, and making a far flronger lixivium : for this property, it has formerly been adminiftered with luccefs in dropfical habits. But the French planters have applied it to a much better ufe: they mix a quantity of it in their coppers, to dclpumate and granulate their fugars, when the juices are io vifcid, that the alkaline falts of the lime will not procure this efiecl. The cane-liquor, either by the foulncfs of the ground, or tl.c plants being too old, bruiled, or rat-eaten, will often acquire an uncommon degree of fharpnefs, not inferior to the acid of lemons, which renders it black and lyrupy. In this cafe, as well as when th-e liquor is obtained from canes growing in rank, frefli foils, the trumpet-tree afhcs promife to bring on the granulation beyond any other ingredient that can be ufed. Its operation may be aflifted by additions of lime-water, where a fournefs prevails ; or of clear water, where the liquor is too vifcid. The acid principle, by thefe infufions, maybe gradually abforbed, and neutralized; and, in order to depurate it from thofe particles which by intermixture often darken its complexion, about four ounces of finely-powdered allum to every one hundred gallons of liquor, may be thrown into the fecond tache; which will precipitate fuch feculencies. Before the liquor is caft from the firft tache, it (hould be fufiered to fland uudifturbed by the ladle for a fliort time, and tlien pafled through a good drainer ; and, if the lad ladle-full or two appear dirty, they may be given to the flill-houfe. The great ranknefs of the North-fide canes, ov/ing to the frefli and rich quality of the foil, occafions their liquor to be very commonly in the ftate before-defcribed. In thefe places, the trumpet-trees are always found in greateft abundance; nature having furnifhcd the planter with this remedy ever at hand, if he is difpoied to make ufe of it. 6<). Indian

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 'j^<) 69. Indian Arrow-root. — Maranta. The origin of the name is faid to be this. An Indian, being taken prifoner after he had wounded an European with a poifoned arrow, was put to the torture, till he promifed to cure him ; and performed it efFe£tuaIly with the root of this plant, applying it bruifed in form of a poultice, and giving the juice inwardly. It has a ftalk and leaf exadtly like the plant called Indi;in fhot ; but the flower differs ; that of the latter being a beautiful fcarlet ; and that of the former, milk-white. The leaves fall in December, and the root is fit to dig in January. A gentlewoman of the ifland, having been bitten on one of her fingers by a black fpider, the part became inflamed, and her whole arm was fwelled quite to the fhoulder ; the pain of which threw her into a fever, and fymptoms of fits, in lefs than an hour. But fome of this root being procured, and applied bruifed, fhe was greatly relieved in half an hour's time, la two hours, a frefli poultice of the lame fort was put on ; which ftill brought more cafe, abated the fever, and in twenty-four hours (he was perfc*5lly well again. I have mentioned, in another place, the powerful efi'cifls of this root, in counter-working the poifon of the dog's-bane, or It has been admlniflcred alfo with very good efiecl in malignant fevers, when all other remedies failed. It is given in dccokftion, but mofl approved in powder, in a dofe of one to two drachms. It has no ill tafl:e or fmell, operates chiefly by fweat and urine, and yet is a very fmgular cordial ; fo that, if it was to be candied like the eringo-root, it would form an agreeable preferve, and poiTefs the like prolific virtues. The root is mealy ; but may be kept perfedly found for many years, as no infe<£l; will meddle with it. Waftied, dried, and reduced to an impalpable powder, it makes an excellent flarch ; and has been ufed as ^fuccedaneum for the common fort. 70. Stiptic, or Velvet-bur. — Verbena. 5 Browne, p. i j6. This plant is applied to bleeding wounds, and thought fo pow.erful a flyptic, as to flop an haemorrhage even when fome of the principal arteries are cut. It is likewife an excellent application in all manner of fores in relaxed habits, 71. Velvet-

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76o JAMAICA. 71. VfeLVET-LEAF. — Clematis baccifera, &c. SI. Hift. p. 20Q. This plant grows in great plenty commonly amongft ebonytrees, climbing about them. Its leaves are as foft as velvet, rounding, of a yellovvifh-green colour. It is a great vulnerary, applying only one of the leaves to the wound ; and heals ulcers in the lungs, a fyrup being made with the leaves and roots; which has performed very extraordinary cures in confumptive cafes. 72. Vervain. — Verbena, folio fubrotundo, ferratOy Jiore caruleo^ This differs not in appearance from the Englifh vervain in leaf, flower, or feed, except that the leaf is fomewhat rounder, and it is green here all the year round. It is efteemed a very powerful remedy in worm-cafes. The death of moft children in America is occafioned by thefe reptiles, which are propagated (it has been fuppofed) by too great indulgence in fruits. The juice of the vervainleaves, joined with the contrayerva, and made into infufion with Madeira wine, expels them, and checks the fever confequent to thefe diforders. 73. Hog WEED. — Boerhavia, Browne, p. 123. This Is tliought to be a fpecies of valerian. The leaves are gathered for the hogs, who devour them very greedily ; and they are looked upon as a fattening and wholefome food for them. 74. Broad-leafed Commelina. — Commelina, foliis ovato-Ianceolatisy acutis, caule procumbente glabra This plant is an annual ; has oval, fpear-fliaped, pointed leaves, and a fmooth, trailing ftalk, near two feet long : thefe put out roots at the joints, which ftrike into the ground. At each joint is one oval, fpear-fhaped leaf, ending in a point. The flowers come out from the bofom of the leaves, inclofed in a fpatha, which is compreffed and fhut up. It is an excellent fodder for moft kinds of cattle. y^. Rush. — Scirpus. There are fix fpecies, growing in moifl: places and ditches, obfervable in this Ifland. The fmaller are proper for candles ; thp larger for mats and chairbottoms, y6. Reed-

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 761 76. Reed-mace, or Gat's-tail. — Typha, This is commonly found in all the lagoons. The leaves are long and enliformed. They make excellent mats. The feeds have a flupifying quality ; and, when pounded and mixed with butter, or other proper fubflance, deftroy mice. An unguent is prepared of them, with hog's lard, for burns, or fcalds. The feeds are efculent, roafted. yy. Scotch-grass. — Pan'icum majus. This grafs obtained its name from a part of Barbadoes, called Scotland; from whence it was originally brought. It thrives luxuriantly in all low, marfliy places, and in the brackifli rivers. It is propagated by the joints, fet in holes, placed about two feet and an lialf afunder. In fix months, from the time of planting, it is fit to cut ; and continues to be cut every month, or fix weeks, after, if the feafons are favourable, and the land cleared of weeds. An acre of proper foil, well-flocked with this plant, near the towns, has been computed to yield, in feafonable years, a profit of above 120/.; which is fuperior to the yielding of the fugar-cane, or almofl any other vegetable production that is cultivated here. When once planted, it holds for many years j but young joints mud be occafionally fet, in the room of the old, ftubbed, and hard ftalks. It is a hearty fodder for horfes, or cattle. fGuiNEY CoR^7. — Pan'icum er eel urn maximum, paniculd S J Singular}. ' j GuiNEY Wheat. — Panician eredlum maximum, patiiculis [ plurimis. The former of thefe is more univerfally cultivated, and thrives well in the favannah lands. The grain of both fpecies is fimilar in' appearance, and of the millet-kind. It yields a fine, white flour, very nourifhing, and conftitutcs a principal part of the food of tho Negroes, It is likewife the proper grain for poultry ; and fometimes is given to horfes and hogs, but to very little purpofe, being fo fmall, that it pafles through them entire. The ftalks are an excellent fodder, and, when dried, may be laid up in a rick, for the Vol.. III. 5 E ufc

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762 JAMAICA. ufe of labouring cattle in dry years. It ripens in three months from the time of planting. 79. Barbary Corn, or Millet. — Panicum Maurltanum, I have feen this growing extremely well in a gentleman's garden on the South-fide. The grain refembled the Guiiiey corn, except that it appeared fomewhat larger. It is perfedly adapted to the foil and climate of this ifland, and will therefore become without doubt more generally cultivated. The feed was brought from Mogadore, a fea-port town on the coafl: of Morocco. 80. Great Corn, or Indian Maize. — Zea. With yellow Grams, This is univerfally cultivated throughout the ifland ; but thrives mofl luxuriantly, and bears the largefl grain, in the richer foils, and where the feafons are favourable. It is a hearty, wholefome food among the Negroes, who make it into various mefies, according to their fancy. It is given to horfes and mules, inftead of oats,, and. to (heap and poultry, in order to fatten them. It was probably brought from Guiney, where it is faid to require a hilly, good foil, not fubjedl to be over-flown ; whereas the rice and millet thrive befl: in low, moifl: grounds. It is generally planted here a little before the ufual periods of the rainy feafons, though Ibme plant it indifferently at any time, and frequently fail ; but it is ufual to get two crops in the year. It is laid in rows, at the depth of three or four inches. As foon as it appears fix inches above the furface, it is weeded ; and, when grown to a tolerable height, the earth is moulded up about the roots. The ears have from two hundred to two hundred and forty grains; and, allowing three fpikes to each flem, and three flems to one feed, the produce from each fingle grain is two thoufand for one. They are often gathered before they are thoroughly ripe ; and, being roafted, form a difh known here by the name of mutton^ The ilalks are full of a faccharine juice, from which a fyrup may be made, as fweet as fiigar. Thefe flalks are an excellent, hearty fodder for cattle, and may be flacked like thofe of the Guiney com, for provifion in times of drought. This plant is thought to impoverifh

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BOOK III. C H AV. VIIT. y6s verifti land ; and, confidering the rich juices of the ftalk, and greatnefs of yielding, it undoubtedly requires as good and flrong a foil as the fugar-cane: for this reafon, thofe planters are much blamed who cultivate it on the banks between their young canes ; for, the ufe of thefc banks being to be drawn down, and apply nourifhment to the canes in the courfe of their growth, they are too much exhaufted by the maize, which feems to abforb and extract nutriment from the fame vegetable principles as the fugar-cane ; and it muft confequently rob them of great part of that food of which they are in want, efpecially in the poorer, well-worked lands ; though the objedlon is fo far from lying againfl rich, frefii foils, that it may be very ferviceable in fuchf and afiifl to drain away that fuperfluity of the vegetative principles which throws up too rank and luxuriant a cane. This opinion is ftrengthened by a common obfervatlon, that the maize-corn will not thrive well in foils where the fugar-cane will not thrive. But I have feen fine corn produced in a very poor, exhaufted piece of ground, by laying manure with every feed, or grain. And in North-America, near the fea-coaft, the Indians ufed to put two or three dead fifties under or adjacent to each corn-hill ; and by this means gained double the crop they would otherwife have got. The Englifti there learned the fame huftjandry, near the fiftiing-ftages, where they could procure the heads and garbage of cod-fifli, in abundance, at no charge but the fetching. In that continent, the feed is regularly planted after the plough ; and the ears, when gathered, are threflied with a flail; but, as this method breaks and bruifes them, a better way has been recommended ; which is, to rub the ears hard againft the edge of a flat piece of iron; this feparates the grains from the hufk without hurting them. The huflis, as well as the ftalks, are good fodder for cattle. In Jamaica, the Negroes rub one ear againft another ; and the callofity of their hands, added to this method, anfwers the purpofe of iron. When this corn has been well-dried in the fun, it will keep feveral years, if the weevil does not attack it ; but it is remarked, that this infeft is more apt to fall upon it while it is left in the ear, than when the grain is feparated, the fweet juice of the llalk, perhaps, attrading them more than the corn itfelf. When it 5 E 2 is

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764 JAMAICA. is laid up in a granary, care is taken to keep it from dampnefs, and turn it occafionally. This corn does not make a good bread by itfelf; but, if the flour of it is mixed in the proportion of one pint to three pints of wheatflour, it will anfwer for common ufe. The dough made with it is Vjiry heavy, and fermented with difficulty. The Negroes parch and grind it into powder, fometimes mixing a little fugar with it. They efteem it a dainty, and particularly convenient on a long journey. But the more common way of ufing it is in puddings, after it has been well pounded in a wooden mortar. All creatures fed with this corn have firm, fat flefh. The pork of corn-fed hogs is efl:eemed tlie finefl: in the world for flavour and goodnefs ; the horfes, cattle, and mules, foddered on the leaves and hulks, are hardy, and enabled to go through the greateft degree of labour ; and tfie people, who make the grain a principal part of their diet, are healthy, ftrong, and adlive. The ears of it, while it is growing, are faid to be greatly hurt by cutting off the panicles, or beards, too late. They ought to be cut before the hoods, or hulks, open ; and, by leaving a plant with its male ears at every twenty feet diftance, all the female plants will be impregnated. The meafure, ufed here for fale of this corn in the grain, is the common Winchefter bufliel, of eight gallons. The price feldom varies much, being generally from 5^. to 6^, 3^^. currency, or flerling 3 j. 6l d. to 4J. 5^., per bufliei. What is imported from North-America is chiefly of the white, large, flat grain ; which is fold cheaper, but is reckoned far inferior in fubflance and goodnefs to the Jamaica product. In times of great fcarcity, it has rifen to 10 J. per bufliel ; which ferves to fhew the advantage to be derived from a more extenfive cultivation of it in the ifland, as the failure of importation from North-America always caufes a fcarcity, or gives an opening for an impofition, the inhabitants not railing much above half enough for their own confumption. In the midland parts^ where the foil is rich, the feafons regular, and canes would grow too luxuriantly, it may be cultivated with the greateft fuccefs. 5 8 k Wild

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 765 81. Wild Oats. — Pharus. Browne, 344. This plant is frequent in all the woody hills, and cfteemed an hearty, wholefome food for all forts of cattle, being generally gathered for them in times of drought. Zz.'LzYgc^'Nii'L'L'ET-R'E'ED.-^ArundofylveJlrisramofa. Browne, 138. This plant is very common in the woods, and makes an hearty, agreeable fodder, like the laft-mentioned. 83. Mountain-Grass. — Andropogon ereclum montanum, Browne, 365. There are feveral varieties of this and other grafles ; and their multitude fo great, that to infert the lift of them would be inconfiftent with my plan. I therefore refer to Sir Hans Sloane's work, where the major part are enumerated ; and (hall only fpeak of a few, that are efteemed the moft ufeful. The Dutch, burr, crofs, fpcckled, and manna graffes are among the bed for fodder in the lower fituations. 84. Sour-Grass. — Andropogon avenaceum ajfurgens. Browne, 365.. This plant is found, in great abundance, growing in fences, and at the feet of walls, and the banks of gullies, flioots luxuriantly, and retains its verdure in the drieft feafons. The cattle will not meddle with it whilft it is green ; but, after it has been cut, and dried in the fun, it makes an hearty fodder for them ; and has the merit of being vigorous and ufeful when other grafles are fcorched and periOned for want of rain. In the time of great drought tlierefore, during crop, it may be cut and cured for the road-cattle. Tlie roots and leaves, pounded and applied externally, are obferved to cure fores and ulcers, of all forts, with more certainty than moft other things ufed" for that purpofe. It is a ftrong deterfive and agglutinant, and would probably make an excellent ia
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766 J A M A I C A. All unduous fubrtances, imported from Europe, fooii lofe their mildnefs after crofling the Line, and turn acrid ; by which degeneration of quality, they impart to ulcers a putrefaftive tendency, and, fo far from healing, often render them incurable : an evident and very cogent reafon, to prove the expediency of uniting a knowledge of botany to chirurgical pradice in this ifland, and of preferring the freOi-gathered vegetables, indigenous in it, to the Hale and corrupted medicaments imported from Europe. 85. Worm-grass. — Anthehnenthia. This plant is now cultivated in many gardens in the ifland. It was brought originally from theSpanilli Main, and takes its name from the extraordinary virtues it poflelles in deflroying worms in the 'human body. Two moderate handfuls of this plant, either green or dry, are boiled over a gentle tire, in two quarts of water, till they are reduced to one quart. The decoilion is then ftrained off, and a little Higar and lemon-juice added, to make it more palatable. Sometimes the decoftion is made into a fyrup with fugar ; and in this form may be given to children. Half a pint, at the hour of going to reft, is the dofe for a full-grown perfon, and proportionably to -weaker perlbns and children. This is repeated once in every twenty-four hours, for three or four days fucceffively. But, left this Jofe fliould prove too large, it will be a fafer praftlce to begin with about a third of a pint for a grown perfon ; and fo in proportion for others ; repeating it in a ftill liiialler quantity at every interval of fix hours between each dofe, if its anodyne quality will permit. But in weaker conftitutions, and for infants, it may be repeated only at the diftance of twelve hours. This is continued for thirty-fix or forty-eight hours ; at the expiration of which, the double dofe may be again adminiftered. After this takes effedl, it is to be worked off with gentle purgatives, as the infufion of fenna, or rhubarb, with manna, and the like. It procures fleep almoft as certainly as opium, removes the fever and convullions, and expels the worms in great quantities. When a few only are brought away, and many are fufpeded ftill to remain, the dofe muft be repeated, and will rarely or ever fail. Jt is fuppofed rather prejudicial

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. ^tj prejudicial to weak eyes, and is therefore cautioufly given to very young children. 86. Grassy-Cyperus, or Sedge. — Cyperus. There are a great many varieties of this plant in the ifland. The roots of all are efleemed Ipecifics in peftilential fevers. 87. GuiNEY Grass. — Holcus mqjor qlfurgens. This plant, like the Scotch grafs, is univerfally cultivated in the ifland for pafture and the ftable. It is planted by the root, or thejoint, when the earth is well-moiftened with rain. It does not require fo much moifture as the Scotch grafs; and is juftly efteemed: a more hearty and nourifhing fodder. After it is planted, particular care is taken to keep the ground well-hoed, and clean about the roots, till they are well-eftablifhed. When it firlt feeds, it is ufual, at the time of maturity, to turn; in cattle to graze, that, by Ihaking the plants, the feed may be difperfed, and their vegetation accelerated by the dung. When the flocks are old, the roots appear extended into very large tufts, and the leaves fhort and llender, intermixed with dry, hard ftems ; thefe are burnt off, without injury to the root, a little before the fettingin of the rains; and,, the root being divided, a new plant is made on fome detached piece. Upon the firft fall of rain, the oldroots recover their former verdure, and flioot up furprizingly quick. In. the drier lowlands, it may be. cultivated to the beft advantage in trenches; but in the mountains and more inland parts it thrives bell, and in fome places runs into a fed. When planted in the intervals of cane-pieces, it occupies no ground that is convertible to any other ufe; but ferves as fodder for the mules, horfes, and^ working cattle; affords a valuable addition to the flock of manure ; and proves a fafeguard to the canes againfl the fpreading of accidental fires. It is alfo planted in the gullies and other wafle parts. The ufual time of planting it on the Southfide is in September, or OtR:ober. Where it is in fuf^icient quantity, it may be cut, fundried, and put in ricks, for the working cattle in crop-time; and makes a very nourifhing hay, 88. Rice,.

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768 J A M A 1 C A. 88. Rice, — Oryza. This plant thrives extremely well in moirt: bottoms between the mountains. It ought only to be cultivated in places where the ground can be flooded with water. The marfhy grounds therefore in this ifland, fuch as thofe at the Ferry in St. Andrew's, the Eaft end of St. Thomas in the Eaft, the lands about Black River in St. Elizabeth's, Negril in Weftmoreland, and other fmiilar parts, appear naturally adapted to this grain, if it fhould be thought worth while to cultivate it, as an additional fupply of food for the Negroes. A gentleman having planted fome out of feafon, it grew very rank, but did not bear. Upon which, he cut it down clofe to the root, and fed his horfes with it. But it afterwards fprung up again, and, in the proper time of bearing, yielded an extraordinary quantity of grain. I mention this for the fake of experimentors, who, <3eceived by the apparent fterility on a firft trial, if they fiiouKl happen not to have hit upon the proper time of putting the feed in the ground, may learn from this example in what manner to re(51:ify their miftake, fo as not to be difappointed of gathering a crop in the end. 89. Ramoon. — "Tropljis. This tree is well known among the planters. The tops and leaves of it are fucculent, and make an agreeable wholefome fodder for all forts of cattle. For this purpofe the branches are lopped and thrown to them in dry weather, or when other fodder isfcarce; jind they are always obferved to thrive and grow fat upon this aliment. The berries are about the fize of large grapes, and of a pleafant flavour. 90. Bread-nut. — AUcaJlrum arbor cum. The leaves andyounger branches of thefe well-known trees are a hearty fodder for cattle, horfes, and fhcep. They are propagated by the birds and rats from the feed ; and fometimes tliey have beta planted in the dryer paflure-lands of the Southfides. I have obferved that every old fence in fuch places is a nurfery for thefe and other valuable trees; which obfervation may furnifli a good hint

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIIT. 769 hint for the fuccelsful planting them, the fiiade of the fence generally keeping the ground beneath much more cool and moift than it is ill the opt-'n pafture: the foil is alfo richer, from the mould of decayed leaves and vegetables. Hogs are extremely fond of this fruit j and, when boiled with falt-hfli, pork, beef, or the pickle of falt-meat, it has often furniihed a nourifliing repaft for the Negroes in times of fcarcity. When roafted, it taftes fomcwhat like the chefnut. The bread-nut of St. Anne is an excellent timber, and much efleemed for cabinet-ware. 91. Arum. There are a great number of this clafs in the ifland, of which I (hall mention only thofe mod in ufe. Dumb-Can e — Arutn canna; Indica foliis. It is found in almoft all the river courfes among the mountains, and delights in moift, cool, fhady fituations. It takes its name from the property it has, upon being chewed, of benumbing the tongue and dilating it, fo as to obftrudl the fpeech entirely, caufing at the fame time a great efflux of the falha. It rifes in joints, and refembles a green fugar-cane; The greeneft and moft fucculent, pounded into a pulp, and mixed with hog's or turtle's fat, and agitated together for feveral days, heated and ftrained through a coarfe cloth, are then boiled up to a confiftence and kept for ufe. This ointment is applied warm, and chafed upon the fwollen parts in dropfical cafes, and a cataplafm of the fame laid over the Jcrotum; and it is faid to difcufs the watery humour collected in thofe parts. The crude juice of the ftalk, thrown into the tache, Is ufed by fome to bring fugar to granulation, when the fyrup is fo vifcid, as not to grain with lime-water alone. The acrimony of this plant is much greater in Odober, than in the fpring ; being probably fuller of fap, after the autumnal rains, which caufes a ferment. 92. PuRPLJE Coco and Tannier. — Arum acaule fiirpureum. This ufeful plant is cultivated from the feed, and generally in ufe among the Negroes, who boil the roots in their broths, and find them a hearty aliment. Vol. III. 5 F The

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770 J A M A I C A. The tops are called tanniers, and ufed for feeding hogs. After they appear above ground, they contuiue their vegetation without any further trouble of hoeing, moulding, or weeding. 93. White Coco and Tyre. — Arum acank maximum. The, tops of this plant fometimes fupply the table with greens, but are reckoned inferior to the Indian kale. The young roots are wholefome, dry, and nourilliing, and ufed in broths. Thofe which fhoot round the top of the old roots are called t^res. Scratch Coco and "( Arum acaule maximum, radke le'icante. {"Scratch Coco and "1 Arum acaule t "^* (^Eddyes or Eddoes. J ?iiter mordii The roots of this fpecies are ufed like thofe of the others, but not fo commonly cultivated. The old roots, though boiled for a long time, ftill retain a degree of pungency, which affecfts the throat. The young ones, v.'hich (hoot round the top, are called eddyes. 55. Baboon or Hog Coco. — Arum acaule fuhcceruleum maximum. The root of this fpecies grows to a monftrous fize, is very coarfe, and of an eafy growth. It is planted chiefly as food for hogs, which it fattens well. The roots of every fpecies, more efpecially the fpotted ones, poflefs an extraordinary acrimony ; but after being dried and kept for fome time, they lofe all this quality, and become infipid to the tafte. The dried root, pulverized and mixed with Iioney, expedtorates tough phlegm, and is reckoned excellent in ailhmatic complaints. Mixed with flour of brimftone, it is a fpecihc in confumptions. The frefh roots and leaves, diftilled with a little milk, form an approved cofmetic lotion. And the juice exprefled from the leaves is recommended for cleanfing and healing foul ulcers. 96. Indian Kale. — Arum acaule, medium, radlce mlnor'i carnoid. The leaves boiled are a wholefome palatable green. They are tender, mucilaginous, with a flight pungency, and agreeable to moft palates. It is cultivated in moll parts of the ifland, and a fmall bed of it is fuflicient to fupply one or two families all the year,

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 771 year, for it grows very luxuriant and quick, and the oftener it is cut, the better it thrives ; but it ought to be tranfplanted from time to time into fre(h foil, to prevent its dwindhng. 97. Branched Calalue. (f f'^^^''^ ^/"'^'^^"^ difufmt Br. 174. ^' \ooianum Jownijerum, 'IheJ. Zey. It is remarked of this plant, that it is equally common in Europe, and though of a heavy ftrong fmell, and very narcotic quality in cold climates, it is void of both in Jamaica, when drefled by fire. It is in daily ufe here for food, and the leaves found by long experience to be a pleafant vvholefome green. ThQfmooth red calalue^ or atriplex, has the fame ufe and good quality when boiled. 98. Prickly Calalue. — Amaranthns aculeatm rufefcens. This is frequent in the mountains and lower hills, and ufed as a green, being univerfally efteemed a wholefome agreeable vegetable. 99. Spanish Calalue. — Phytolacca ere£la Jiinplex. This is cultivated in mod of the kitchen-gardens; and in conftant ufe as a palatable wholefome green. The tender flalks arc no bad fuccedanea for afparagus. 100. Mountain Calalue, Pokeweed, Surinam or Juckata Calalue. — Phytolacca ajjiirgens ramoja. It is indigenous to this ifland, and found in all the cooler hills and mountains, where it grows very luxuriantly. It rifes generally to the height of four or five feet, divided towards the top. It is called eirher red 01 white, from the colour of the flower-ftalks, for all the branches terminate in long and tender fpikes of thofe colours. The leaves and tender {hoots are frequently ufed for greens. The infpifiated juice has been thought a fpecific, or at leafl a very powerful remedy, in open cancers, applied in form of a plaifler. The root, pounded when frefh, and applied as a poultice to the ulcers of pocky mules and horfes, performs a certain cure. The drefiing muft be renewed every day, and, previous to the application, the parts affeded are waflied clean with a mixture of fait and limejuice in warm watery and a drench of flour of brimftone in gruel, 5 F 2 fweetened

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772 JAMAICA. fweetened with melafTes, may be given at the fame time, to afiift the difcharge. The poultice has been found no lefs efFedlual in healing fores on the human body. This plant is the fame as the red weed or poke of Virginia and New-England, from which the Indians prepare a red dye for ftaining their bafkets, fkins, and feveral other manufadures. Some dyers there, are faid to gather the roots, and make a fine red tint of them J but I incline rather to think they make ufe of the flower, berries, and ftalk for this purpofe, as they are all of a beautiful red J whereas the roots are very white. When the juice of the berries is put upon paper, or the like, it flrikes it with a high purple colour, which is as fine as any in the world, but requires fomething to fix it, and prevent its fading. A fpoonful or two of the juice of the frefh root purges Arongly, but when it is dry it lofes this quality. The young tender leaves have very little of it; but thofe which are old, large, and thick, are faid to operate violently ; neverthelefs I have known them boiled and eaten, in order to open the body in the dry belly-ache, and with great advantage and fafety* loi. Thorny, tufted Solanum. — Solarium fplnofum & vilkfum. The pounded leaves are fuccefsfully applied to kill the maggots which infefl: large fores on cattle; the juice keeps them clean, and deftroys mod forts of vermin. 102. Brownjolly, Valinghanna, or Mad Apple. — Solanum pomiferum. This plant was firfl imported into Jamaica by the Jews, and is cultivated by many perfons. It bears a number of large berries, which fhoot and ripen very gradually; thefe fliced, pickled for a lew hours, and boiled to a tendernefs, are ufed inflead of greens. Some parboil them, take off the fkin, which is a little bitterifli, then fry them in oil or butter. 103. Love Apple or Cock-roach Apple. — Solanum 'vHlofum', Jpinofum, fruBu jnajori, mucrwiato luteo. This is a native of Jamaica, and bears its fruit on fingle foot flalks ; the fmell of the fruit or apple is faid to kill cock-roches. Turkey

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BOOK Iir. CHAP. VIII. 773 104. Turkey Berries. — Solanum ajj'urgens trlchotomum foliis ovatis, fruSlibus mlnoribus. This and the other plant of the like name are common in the lowlands. They bear pretty thicks the berries are generally of the fize of the European cherries, and ferve to feed turkies. There are feveral other fpecies of the folanum, whofe roots are poflefTed of great medicinal virtue, anfwerable to different intentions, fome being hot, and others cooling. 105. Tomato. Lycoperjicum calicibiisfeptem partis, fruSfu rotunda, glabra. Thefe berries are very large, comprefTed at both ends, and deeply furrowed all over the fides, filled with a pulpy juice, which has fomewhat the tafte of gravy, for which reafon they are often ufed in foups and fauces, and impart a very grateful flavour; they are like wife fried, and ferved up with eggs. The Spaniards efteem them aphrodtfiacs. The juice is cooling, and of fervice in defluxions on the eyes, and all inflammatory indilpofitions. 106. Winter Cherry. Phyfalis. The berries are yellow when ripe. They are looked upon as diuretic, and ferviceable in over-heated or febrile habits; they have a gentle fubacid tafte, joined with a light bitter, which renders them agreeable to the palate in fuch cafes. The fume of the plant in irs fucculent ftate, burnt with wax, and received into the mouth, has been obferved to kill the worms in and about the teeth, and eafe the tooth-ach. Where the berries are required as a diuretic, they are bruifed and flieeped in Rhenidi wine, or the juice thickened to the confidence of an extrai!^. The juice of the leaves and fruit mixed with Indian pepper is faid to give immediate relief in the colic, provoke urine, and open obibudions. Irish

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774 JAMAICA. 107. Irish Potatoe. — Lycoperficon radice tubercfa. io8. Sweet or Bermudas Potatoe. — Convolvulus repens, radice crajfo, carnofo, albo. 100. Potatoe Slip. — Convolvulus repens, radice crajfo^ carnofo luteo. Thefe feveral forts are cultivated extenfively in the ifland. The firft is thought to degenerate. It grows what is commonly called ivaxy^ and acquires in time a more faccharine tafte than thofe which are imported from Europe. The fecond and third differ from each other only in the colour of their roots, thofe of the former being white, and of the latter yellow. Thefe two rife from flips, and are cultivated by laying a few fliort junks of the flem, or the larger branches in Ihallow trenches, with inter-fpaces, and covering them with mould from the banks. The roots come to maturity in three or four months, and the propagation is continued by covering the ftems, bits, and fmaller protuberances with mould, as they dig up the more perfed: roots for ufe. The leaves are good fodder for horfes, flieep, goats, hogs, or rabbits. The roots pounded are often made into a kind of pudding, called here a pone, which is baked, and, with the addition of a few ring-tailed pigeons, jufl:ly elieemed a nourifliing and relirtiing difh. Boiled, mafhed, and fermented, they make a pleafant cool drink, called mobby. They will alfo make an excellent bread mixed with ilour j for this purpofe they are boiled till they begin to crack, or that the fkin peels offreadily; they are then peeled and bruifed (while they are hot) in a mortar, till not a lump remains in them. This operation is performed in the evening before the bread is to be baked. The next operation is, to dilute them well with as much boiling water as is neceffary to give them the confiftence of dough. Then, after mixing them well with the leaven and flour, the whole is well kneaded together as quick as poflible, and the dough covered with a cloth in a warm place, till it rifes. The water that is ufed ought to be boiling hot, or it will not anfwer fufficiently, and is poured upon the potatoe mafs before the flour is added. Tlic

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. Tjs The heat of the oven is to be the fame as for other bread, except that it mufl be rather flackened to prevent this bread from taking too much colour; and it is in the higheft perfedion when thoroughly baked. The proportion of flour varies according to fancy or neceffity ; there muft be at leail one third part flour to make it eatable ; but that which is made with an equal quantity, or a little more, is bed. It will then be well tafled, wholeCome, very nourifliing, eafy of digefl:ion, and will retain its moifl:ure many days longer than other bread ; a circumftance which recommends it particularly to common ule in this climate. It might be worth the trial, whether putting a fmall piece of chawflick, vl%. about one or two inches length, into the water jull before it begins to boil, might not fo impregnate it with air, as to caufe the dough to rife better, and render the bread much lighter; or a fpoonful of water in which the ftick has been infufed for leveral hours, might be added after the boiling water is poured on. iio. Okro or OcHRA. — Hibifcus ramofus, hirfutus, foUis lobatis^ ^c. Browne, 285, The pods of this very common plant are a cuflomary ingredient in mofl foups here; and that celebrated and defireable hotchpotch called pepperpott cannot be compleat without them. They are fometimes boiled feparately, and ferved up with butter. The fruit when grown is cut tranfverfely with its feeds, and when dried, is packed in well-flopped bottles or cannifters, and fent to Great-Britain to be ufed in rich foups. This was formerly an article of commerce, and fold in England at ten ( per pound. It is cooling, emollient, highly nutrimental, and very proper for difeafcs of the breaft; it provokes urine, and has been found beneficial in the (tone and gravel. But it is chiefly efficacious in confumptlve cafes, attended with a depraved appetite, hedtic heats, and lof of.flefli j and for fuch cafes, the feeds are equally remedial, as the other parts of the fruit. They are eafily dried, and may be fent in this ftate to any part of the world, packed in tight kegs or caflcs. When ufed, they are beaten very fine^

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776 J A M A I C A. fine, and the flouf fepirated from the hufk. A finall quantity of this flour may be put into broth, or foup; and, when taken daily in this manner, it has been known to recover many perfons, from the very brink of the grave, to a robuft ftate of heaUh. iir. Musk-Okro. — Hibifcus hifpldus,feniine mujcato. The feeds of this plant, when grown to full maturity, have a Ihong and perfe£l fmell of mulk, a few grains being fufficient to perfume a whole room. It is ufed with great propriety in powders, pomatums, eflences, and the like, as well as in medical preparations ; and might be ;i valuable article of export. J 12. Jamaica Salop. — SatyrlumtfoUh Urath longjjfimis, c£c. Browne, p. 325. The leaves of this plant, which is found only in the cooler parts of the mountains, refemble thofe of a young cocoa-nut. The root, as it dries, acquires a great deal both of the colour and tafte of rhubarb; but it Ihould be fliced, and kept a long time in the open air, to be properly cured. It is ufed as a flomachic, and is oblerved to thicken the J'a/iva when chewed, and thought to abate the acrimony of the humours by its mucilaginous quality. Browne defcribes fifteen fpecies of the fa/yrium. Sloane mentions feveral, under the name of orchis j and, among the reft, orchis e/atior, lati*^foUa,afphodeU radice, fpicdjlrigofd.''^ Cat. p. 119. This has double tuberous roots, much like thofe in England, and was thought a fpecific to help impotency ; the eflence, juice, or extraifl, being taken twice a day in a glafs of wine. Mr. Moult lately communicated a very fimple method of preparing the roots. They are firft deprived of their thin Ikin, then kept in the heat of a bread-oven eight or ten minutes, where they acquire a tranfparency like that of horn ; and are afterwards removed into a common room, in which they grow dry, and harden in a few days. 113. Wild Cass ad a. — Jatropha humilior^ Jetis ramojis, foliis tri vel quinque lobis., leviter denticulatis. This is very common about Kingfton, Spanifh Town, and mod parts of the ifland, where the foil is dry, and fituation warm. It 3 grows

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BOOK 111 CHAP. Vm. ;;7 grows luxuriantly where the ground has be:n manured with dung. It is a very beneficial plant in every fcttlement where poultry is bred; for moft forts of birds, and eipecially thofe of the crawed kin.d, feed heartily on its feeds. In the months of March and April is found, in the infide pith of the foot-ftalk, an hard, knotty fubftance, of an oval form, and yellowifh colour. This, powdered and applied to the nofe, excites a ftronger fneezing than white hellebore. The young tops of this plant, boiled and buttered, have fomctimes been given in the belly-ache. One or two of the feeds, powdered, and added to any other purging medicine, add confiderably to its operation, and have therefore been compounded, by fome pratStitioners, with the ^/7/. ex duobus, to quicken their effe£t, and keep them moift. 114. Cass AD A. — latropha foll'is pahnatU^ came fuhlaSted^ ^c. Browne, p. 349. This plant, which furniflies the Brafilians with great part of their fuftenance, is much cultivated in this ifland. It thrives beft in a free, mixed foil, and is propagated by the bud, or germ, in the following manner. The ground is firft cleared, and hoed into fhallow holes, of about ten inches or a foot fquare, and feldom above three or four inches in depth, and without much regularity. A number of the full-grown plants being provided, they are cut into junks, of about fix or feven inches in length, as far as they are found to be tough and woody, and well-furniftied with fwelling, full grown, hardy buds. Of thefe, one or two are laid in every hole, and covered over with mould from the adjoining bank. The ground muft be kept clean till the plants rife to a fufficient height ; the plants moulded up; and the growth of weeds prevented. They come to perfection in about eight months ; but the roots will remain in the ground for a confiderable time uninjured, if the want of frefh plants, or bad weather, fhould make it neceiiiuy to cut the ftalks. When the leaves wither, and the plant bloffoms, the roots are fit to dig. They are then (in good land) nearly as thick as a man's thigh. They are taken out for ufe, as occafion requires, and then prepared, viz. after being well-waflied and fcraped, and then rubbed into a kind of pulpy meal with an iron grater, they are put into flrong Vol. III. 5 G lineii

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778 JAMAICA. linen bags, and placed in convenient prefles. The common method of preffing is as efFe£lual as any. One or more large flat ftones are placed to a proper height upon the ground, near the root of fome old tree, in the fide of which a hole, or notch, has been cut equal to the elevation of the ftones. Into this hole is fixed the extremity of a ftrong plank, or beam, which ftretches over the flones by way of a lever, preffing with all its weight upon the caffada-bag, which is laid upon the uppermoft flone. Several heavy loads are fixed at the other end of this lever, or as many as it will bear. And in this ftate the bag remains until the juice is thoroughly fqueezed out. After this operation, the meal is fpread in the fun for fome time ; then pounded in a large, wooden mortar, pafl'ed througli a coarfe fieve, and baked on flat, circular, iron plates, fixed in a ftove. The particles of the meal are united by the heat, and, when thoroughly baked in this manner, form cakes, which are fold at the markets, and univerfally efteemed a wholefome kind of bread [y]. Toalled and buttered, they are very relifhing, and ufed by moll: families. They are alfo made into very delicious puddings. The juice of the root is of a poifonous nature; but, when boiled, it throws up a fcum, which being taken off, the remainder is found, by long experience, to be an inoffenfive and agreeable drink, much refembling whey in tafle and quality. But, however noxious the juice may be in its crude ftate, unmixed with any corrccftive, it is well known that hogs eat the frefh roots with gieat avidity, and fufi'er no inconvenience: either, therefore, their itomncbs and inteflines are formed to afiimilate it into wholcibme nourifhment, or they corrc£l its bad qualities by the. Jurrounding mould fvvallowed with it, or by fome antidote which inftinft prompts them to eat after it. The Negroes boil and eat the leaves as a green. It is fuppofeJ, that the aclion of the fire carries off its malignant qualities. What is not a little extraordinary, the meal, not yet difcharged of its juice, makes an excellent falve, and feldom fails to heal the word fores ; anJ, to improve its effect, it is fometimes mixed for [ ;'] The Sjiaiiiaidi, when tht-y fiiil difcoveied the Weft-Indies, found it in general life among; the riiiiivc Indians, who called hCcixHiii, and liy whom it was prefcned to every other kind of bread, on account of its eafy digcliion, the facility with which it was cultirated, and its prodiJ giDus incrcafc, this

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BOOK III. CHAP. Vlir. 779 this intention with the freOi leaves of tobacco pounded. Several BCcidents having happened to Negroes newly-come to the ifland, who have ate of the root roafted without exprefling the juice, I iliall mention what remedies have been propofed. The fymptoms, confequeiitial to fwallowing the poifon, are, firft, a pain and fickncfs at the ftomach, a tenfion and fwelling of the whole abdomen ; then violent vomiting and purging, giddinefs of the head, a cold fenfation and fliivering, dimnefs of fight, fwoonings, and death, in a few hours, if no relief is given. The exprefled juice is very fweet to the tafle. It foon putrefies, and breeds worms, called by the Indians topura, which undoubtedly draw their nourid-iment from thofe particles that are fo baneful to mankind; and, when dried and pulverized, they have formerly been applied to the molt mifchievous purpofes by the Indians and Negroes ; who, having conveyed fome of this powder under their thumb-nail, prefented a cup, or other veflel, of drink to the perfon they intended deftroying ; contriving, at the fame time, to fufpcnd the tip of their thumb in the liquor, in order to impregnate it ; for which reafon, whenever a Negroe was feen to let the nail of his thumb grow to an extraordinary length, he was always fufpefted of having Ibme bad defign of this fort in agitation. The common remedy in Brafil is, firft, to adminifter a vomit of ipecachuana ; and then the juice, or powder, of nhambu. The nhambu is a plant, defcribed by Pifo, p. 228, and 310. It has a fibrous root, from which rifes a moderately thick, hard ftalk, knotty, rough, and hairy ; fo are the branches. The leaf is broad, green, and fucculent, largely indented, or divided. From between the leaves come the flowers, on a long foot-ftalk, which are fingle and monopetalous. Then follows the fruit, round, about the fize of a fmall cherry, covered over with a chefnut-like, rough coat, in (hape like that of the rici71US, and containing flat, oval feeds, of a fliining, yellowifh, brown colour. Every part of this plant has a hot, fpicy, pungent tafle, w ith an aromatic flavour. The bark, leaves, and fruit, are the parts generally ufed. Bluet, in his account of Guiney, mentions, that a cow, having drank a hearty draught of the juice, went and fed on a (hrub which grows common in Africa, cdWedi fejijitive phnt, and received not the lead hurt. 5G 2 It

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780 JAMAICA. It feems probable, that the fenfitive plant of Guuiey is the nhambu of Bradl, or, at leaft, that the nhambu is a fpecies of fenfitive, and agrees fomewhat in defcription with a fpecies found growing naturally at Campeachy by Dr. Houfton, which is thus defcribed, mimofa, foliis Jubdigiiails^ pinnathy caule aculeate hijpido; fenfitive plant, with winged, handed leaves, and a prickly, hairy ftalk." The flowers are white, and fucceeded by prickly pods. It has alfo fome affinity to the black-bead fhrub, or large-leafed mimofi, of Jamaica ; a (hrubby fenfitive, and called, by fome, the bumble plant, which has a declining, prickly ftalk, with pods growing in clufters, with prickly coverings. It deferves experiment, whether flrong deco6lions of the leaves and feeds of thefe fpecies, "or an extract made from them, or the crudejuice of the leaves, with powder of the feeds, might not counteract the effeds of this poiIbn, tried on dogs and cats, or pn fowls. Dr. Browne advifes the following remedy, to prevent any mifchievous effect. gi a little mintwater, andyiz/ ahjynth. (or fait of wormwood), and mix." If the poifon has not been fwallowed any confiderable time, he aflerts, that this eafy preparation wiJl calm the moft violent fymptoms.. The virtue of the fixed fait of wormwood confifts in its being a good febrifuge, and very fuccefsful in removing tertian agues, pofiibly by promoting the circulation of the blood, and attenuating it when it is agglutinated and fluggifli. The effefts of the nhambu are fimilar ; for it undoubtedly a£ls by its heat and pungency, flimulatlng the fibres to aftion, warming the ftomach, and alfilHng the blood's circulation. The poifon is of what is called the cold kind ; and hence the bed: antidote to it mufl be a medicine of a warm, active, and attenuating quality. The Indians, therefore, of Guiana give a mi.Kture of red pepper bruifcd in rum. The leaves of the minofa Jnmaicenjis, Jamaica fenfitive, without prickles, have been ranked among vegetable poifons ; but the root is laid to be an antidote to the effefl; of the leaves. The

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BOOK m. CHAP. Vlll. 781 The caffada-bread, mixed with milk and a httle fweet-oil, makes an admirable poultice for ripening and breaking tumors. 1 15. Sweet Cassada. — latropha, foliis falmath, came nlvedy £s'c.. Browne, p. 350. This refembles tlic former plant, and is cultivated after the fame manner ; but the root is free from any of the ill quality obferved in the juices of the other fort. It is roafted or boiled for ufc : but the latter is thought the beft method of dreffing it; for, in this ftate, the outward part is commonly brought almoft to the ftate of a jelly, and is extremely delicate and agreeable, A fine flour is made from, it. This fpecies bears a large berry. r Neg roe-Yam. — Diofcorea, radice iuberofd luted. (.White-Yam. — Diofcorea, radice albd aut purpurea. Both thefe plants are cultivated here viniverfally for food ; but the former, which is of a yellowifli colour, is coarfe, frequently ftringy, and not fo much in efteem as the fecond, vulgarly called, by the Negroes, bocbara-yam. The roots grow to a confiderable bulk, and above a foot in length ; are mealy, eafy of digeftion, palatable,, and nutritious. Both plants are propagated by a flice from the root, fo cut as to have a little of the Ikin upon it, by which alone they germinate ; for the roots have no apparent germs, but caft out their weakly fl-ems from every part of the furface alike. They are put into convenient holes (two or three in each), generally dug pretty regular, and about a foot and an half, or two feet, fquare. Thefe are afterwards filled from the adjoining banks ; and the whole piece covered with cane, or other tralh, which ferves to keep the ground cool and frefh, and to prevent the growth of weeds, from which thefe plants muft be carefully preferved, until they grow fufficiently to cover the mould themfelves. They may be planted about January and February, and will be fit to dig about Chriftmas, or in Auguft,. m order to come in about May following. When the root is dug up,, care is taken not to wound it, or aslittle as poflible ; for fuch as are cut throw out fprouts very early, and are leldom fit for any thing, except planting, if they hold out even till the proper feafon comes round. After they are taken up,. and cleared from the mould, they are rubbed with wood-a(hes,. 7 and

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783 JAMAICA. ;ii)d piled on hurdles raifed above the floor in a dry room, admitting the air to pafs between them, and prevent their fweating, which would foon rot them, when any quantity happens to be laid ill an heap. Twelve months are generally allotted for their coming to maturity from the time of their being planted ; but in feme parts, wh^re well-fupplied with moifture, and brought forward with a hot fun, they will ripeu earlier than in others. 117. Plantane-tree. — Mtifa, fruclu major i triquciro. This is cultivated in every inland fettlement, or wherever the foil and feafons are propitious to it, with great care, as the fruit fupplies a principal part of fuftenance to the inhabitants, black and white. It thrives beft in a cool, rich, and moifl. foil, and is comTOonly planted in regular walks, or avenues. It is propagated by the fuckers, which ipring up from the roots, fet at the diftance of fix or eight to ten or twelve feet apart, and the latter more commonly, as the root throws up, every year, a number of young iprouts, and confequently require a confiderable fpace to be allowed for their exteniion. When the bunch, or clufter, of fruit is gathered, the ftem gradually decays j to prevent, therefore, the young fuckers from being injured, the Item is always cut down clofeto the ground when the fruit is wanted, in order to affift the growth of the new plants. The fruit is generally ufed when it is full-grown ; but, before ft ripens, this is known by the colour, which turns yellow, as foon as it begins to grow ripe. It is peeled, and either roafted in embers, or boiled; and thus ferved up at table, inftead of other bread. Many white perfons, after being accuftomed to it for fome time, actually prefer it to bread, efpecially when young and tender. The Negroes commonly boil it in their melles of falt-fifli, beef, or porkbroth, and find it a very ftrengthening wholcfome food. When the fruit is ripe, it becomes lufcioufly fweet: it may then be made ufe of for tarts, or fliced and fried in butter. The Spaniards dry and prefcrve it as a fweetmcat ; and, perhaps, it is wholefomer than many other forts of confectionary that arc more in vogue. The ripe fruit and maize together are the bell: food for hogs

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 783 hogs put up to fatten ; and give their flefh and fat a moft exquifitc flavour and firmnefs. The leaves are dried, and made into mats, and fluffing for matrnffes, pads, &c. The frefli leaves are fuperior to melilot for drefling blifters, and generally in ufe for this purpofc. Upon thrufting a knife into the body of one of thefe trees, there iffues out a large quantity of a limpid water, of a reftringent quality, which has been given, with the greateft fuccefs, to perfons fubjedi to a (pitting of blood, and in other fluxes. 118. Banana. — Mufa, fru^u brevlori oblongo. The fruit is generally ufed when ripe ; it refembles the plantane, but has rather a fofter, mellower tafte, and more proper for tarts and fritters. The leaves of this tree are fuppofed to have furnifhed our firft parents with the modeftypieces, or aprons, mentioned in fcripture. A very excellent drink is made from the juice of the ripe fruit fermented, moft: refembling the beft South Ham cyder. A marmalade is likewife made with it, efteemed an excellent pectoral, good for coughs and hoarfenefs, lenifying the fharpnefs of the catarrhal humours, cooling, and reircfhing. The Spaniards conceit, that, on cutting this fruit athwart, there appears the form of a crofs in the middle, and, out of the fuperftitious reverence they bear to this figure, they never cut, but break it. The fruit of thefe two fpecies may be regarded among the greatefl bleflings beftowed upon the inhabitants of this climate. Tiiree dozen plantanes are allowed fufficient to ferve one man for a week, in lieu of other bread, and will fupport him much better. The green leaves of both fpecies are an excellent fodder for horfes ; and, as their juice is fomewhat reftringent, preferve them from fcowering too much after grazing on four or falt-marfh grafs. The banana fruit, ripe, has been noted for its efficacy in correcting thofe fharp humours which generate, or accompany, the fluxes, to which Europeans are often fubjecl en their firfl: coming into the Weft-Indies. It is fomewhat furprinng, that captains of fhips in this trade do not lay in a quantity of the roafted-fruit of thefe trees, or plants, for their fea-ftore, efpecially as it might be kept

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784 JAMAICA, kept foia long time, packed In the dried leaves, and flowed la tight caflvs, and requires only a frefli roafting, or heating, when wanted for ufe. It is a cheap, hearty food, and would fnrnifli the fallors with a wholefome and agreeable change, after a tedious^repetition of falt-meat, and not only keep them free from fcorbutic foulnefles, but ferve the purpofe of other vegetable aliment not fo eafily to be had at fea, and certainly much better for them than mouldy bifcuit, full of weevils and dirt. 1 19. Wild Plantane. — Miifa,fpadlce ereclo^ &c. This beautiful plant grows wild in moft of the cooler mountains and gullies of Jamaica. In growth and leaves it perfedlly refembles the other fpecies, but differs widely in the more eflential parts, and produces no fruit. The ftem, or body, of it is fomewhat fmaller, •but equally fucculent. I have feen, in this ifland, very large trafts of land, which once were confiderable fugar-plantations, but, in length of time, became fb exhaufted, as not to make any proportionable return to the labour beftowed on them, and have therefore been thrown up, and deferted. Where this has happened from a change of feafons, and the want of fhowers, the difafter is Incurable ; and fuch land cannot be reftored to fertility, except by the return of favourable weather, or by artificial waterings ; the firft is fcarcely to be hoped for ; the fecond Is not always pra£licable. But there are other lands, which have been worn out with inceflant cultivation, and not fo deftltute of (howers. In many places, It is ufual to let them lie fcillow for two or three years, negleding what Is abfokitely requlfite during this interval of time; which is, to hoe-plough them, once a year at Icaft, before the weeds feed and ripen ; fo that the rains and dews, falling upon them, have only aHifted the growtli and multiplication of weeds in fuch a manner, that they cannot afterwards be exterminated. It has been demonfhated, that water (more particularly rain) is the principal fupport -^xud pabulum of all vegetables. In their ftate of dillblution, the more rarefied particles of the fluid, they have imbibed, re-afcend into the atmofphere ; but much of the remainder becomes earth, affording a folid and adual fuftentation and addition to the furface on which It falls. For this reafbu

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 785 reafon, probably, in the modern, improved flare of hufoandry in England, turnips are applied as an excellent manure for impoverin*ed lands. In Jamaica, the fame root is not equally fit for the purpofe, becaufe it does not grow here to any confiderable bulk, nor is it fo fucculent as in England. 1 would propofe, therefore, to fubftitute, in its room, the wild plantanc-tree, wherever it can be brought to grov/. This plant is, in truth, a vegetablcj^'/'^s;/, full of water; and as it never frucSlifies, fo it cannot probably exhauft any foil. A walk of thefe fuckers might be planted on impoveriflied land in a feafonable year, and fuffered to ftand for three years ; and the ground hoed only till the plants appear to have ftruck root, and to rife with vigour. In the third year they might be cut down, and left to rot upon the furface. To fupport them in the early part of their growth, it is neceffary to keep the ground clear of weeds about them. Hoeing performs this, and loofens the earth ; which facilitates the penetration of rains and dews through the furface. When they are tolerably well grown, their broad, expanding leaves will fliade and cool the ground in fuch a manner, as to preferve it always moifl: and open, and fupprefs the afcent of weeds : from this period, therefore, hoeing will not be fo neceffary. I fliould not recommend the fruit-bearing plantane for this defign, as it certamly exhaufls land very much, and therefore would add to the evil, inflead of removing it. The flems, or trunks, of any of thefe fpecles, cut in long junks, are the bell provifion that can be laid aboard the homeward-bound fhips, for fupport of the live-flock. Sheep, goats, cattle, hogs, and poultry, are all fond of it ; and, as the flems preferve their fucculence for a long fpace of time, the flock fed with It require little or no water. For the fmaller animals the junks are chopped into fmall pieces. They are flowed behind the mizzenchains, where they do not in the leaft incumber the fhip. 122. Bonavisti;-Bean. -— Pbafeolus maximusperennis, &c. Sloane's Cat. 67. This is cultivated in moft parts of the country, and thrives well in almoft every foil. The bean is a wholefome palatable food, and in general ufe. Vol. 111. 5 H 123. Kidney-

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786 JAMAICA. 123. Kidney-Bean. — Phafdolus. 5. Browne, p. 291. This is likewife every where cultivated ; and the feed, or bean, left to dry ; then gathered, and kept for ufe, chiefly as an ingredient in pepper-pots. 124. Lima Bean. — Phafeolus perennh. 6. Browne, p. 292. This is efleemed the moft dehcious bean in the world. It requires a rich foil, and continues bearing four or five years fuccefTively. 125. Calavances, or Red Bean. — Pbafeolus. 7. Browne, p. 293. This is fown at any time after rains ; and, in fix weeks time, the fruit is large enough to eat green. It is a hardy plant, very much cultivated, thrives in every foil ; and the bean is efteemed a wholefome, ftrengthening food. The Chinefe have a white fort, called tao. They plant it on dry hills. The Europeans buy, of this fort, great quantities for fea-llore on their return from China. The Eaft-India foye is prepared in the following maimer [z]. Take a certain meafure; for inflance, a gallon of calavances; let them be boiled till they are foft : alfo a gallon of bruiled wheat, and a gallon of common fait. Let the boiled calavances be mixed with the bruifed wheat, and be kept covered clofe a day and a night in a warm place, that it may ferment. Then ptjt the mixture of calavances and wheat, together with the fait, into an earthen veffel, with two gallons and an half of common water i and cover it up very clofe. The next day ftir it about well with a battering flick, or a churn (the barrel-churn, which is made with flips of board, placed perpendicular to the fides within, about three inches in breadth, and running the length of the barrel, mounted on an axis at each end. placed on a frame, and turned with a windlafs-handle, would anfwer belt for this purpofe), and for feveral days, twice or thrice a day, in order to blend it more thoroughly together. This work, muft be continued for two or three months ; then flrain off and prefs out the liquor, and keep it. for ufe in kegs, or fmall parrels.. The older it is, the clearer it will be, and of a proportionabl)^ higher value. After it is prefled out, you may pour more [z] Ellis, water

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BOOK Iir. CHAP. VIII. 787 water on the remaining mafs, then ftir it about violently ; and, in fome days after, you may prefs out more foye. X26. Black-eyed Pea. — Phafeolus, 8. Browne, p. 293. This is much like the foregoing, and thought by fome to be rather more palatable. 127. Cuckold's Increase. — Phafeolus. 9. Browne, p. 293. This refembles the calavances in fize and manner of growth. It is a profitable pulfe, and much cultivated. 128. Sugar-bean. — Phafeolus. 10. Browne, p. 293. This is generally cultivated, and ferved up at every table. It is of eafy growth, and continues to bear a confiderable part of the year. 129. Broad-bean. — Phafeolus perennis. 12. Browne, p. 294. This is cultivated more for the fake of its {hade than its fruit; though the latter is equally wholefome and palatable, and frequently feen at the befl tables. There are fome other varieties, as the great Angola, the claycoloured, &c. Sir Hans Sloane reckons above twenty-one forts. 130. The Pigeon, or Angola Pea. — Cytlfus fruSlkofus, ra* mofus, triphyllus, Browne, p. 296. This fhrub is chiefly cultivated by the Negroes in their gardens and grounds, becaufe it is a perennial, and does not require much care. It bears a great number of pods. The feeds, or peas, are a hearty wholefome food, and generally in ufe, green or dried. The leaves are very good fodder for cattle. 131. English Beans and Peas. The various forts of thefe, brought in feed, are cultivated here, but thrive befl; in the mountains, particularly the beans : but I have feen exceedingly fine peas in the lowlands, which generally come to maturity in two months. They thrive well in brick-mould, and in the hills near Spanifh Town, the Liguanea mountains, and all 5 H 2 the

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788 JAMAICA. the other inland mountauious parts. The large marrow-fat pea, which came from Cuba, is the moft m efteem, and anfwers well in raoft parts of the ifiand. 132. Coral, or RED-BEAN-TREE. — Erythrina arborea, fpinofa et non fpinofa, &c. This grows in many parts of the ifiand. It is propagated by the flips or cuttings, or by the feed ; it bloflbms in three years from the feed, and has young pods about the middle of February j and by the latter end of March the feed is full grown, and of a beautiful red colour. The prickly fpecies make good fences. They rife to the height of fixteen or eighteen feet. They were probably both introduced by the Spaniards formerly, to be planted among their cacao walks, where they lay moft expofcd to the weather, to break the impetuofity of the wind ; and hence their common appellation of madre de cacao, or mother of cacao. A feed of the bean-tree, being planted by a gentleman in his garden, for experiment-fake, it was found, in two years nine months, to have grown to the height of feven feet, meafured from the bafe or root to the branches. The quicknefs of its afcent, and fturdinefs, prove it admirably well adapted to be the protedor of the young tender cacao plants. 133. PiNDALS, or GROUND-NUTS— -^r^<:-6Af. The plant, which produces thefe nuts, was firft brought from Africa. They refemble a filbert in colour, fhape, and fize. They are found m the earth, environed with a thin cifta, which contains two or three kernels, and feveral of thefe bags are feen adhering to the roots of one plant. When ripe, and fit to dig, the covering, in which they are contained, appears dry, like a withered leaf ; this being taken off, the kernels, or nuts, are immediately difclofed to view, reddifh on their outfide, and very white within. They have fomewhat of the almond flavour, but more of the chefnut j fome think them equal to the piftachia. They are nourifhing, and often given as food to Negroes on voyages from Guincy, where they pafs under the name oi giibagiibs. They

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 789 They may be eaten raw, roafted, or boiled. The plant thrives beft in a free foil, and warm fituation. In Southern climes vaft crops of thefe nuts are fald to be produced from light, Tandy, and indifferent foils. Doftor Brownn'ggy of Nort^ Carolina, tranfmitted fome account of l\\£. value of thefe nuts to the Royal Society. From a quantity of them, firft bruifed, and put into canvas bags, he exprefled a pure, clear, well-tafted oil, ufeful for the fame purpofes, as the oils of olives or almonds. From fpecimens both of the feeds and oil, produced before the Society, it appeared, that neither of them were fubj. ft co turn rancid by keeping. The oil in particular, which had been fent from Carolina eight months before, without any extraordinary care, and had undergone the heats of the fummer, remained perfedly fweet and good. A buftiel of them yielded (in Carolina) without heat, one gallon of oil, and with heat, a much larger quantity, but of inferior quality. It has been juftly fuppofed, that, from a fuccefsful profecution of this manufafture, the colonies may not only be able to fupply their own confumption, in lieu of the olive oil annually imported from Europe, but even make it a confiderable article of their export.. The nuts bruifed, and applied in form of a poultice, take away inflammations, caufed by the venomous flings of bees* fcorpions, wafps, ^c 134. Cera SEE — i. Smooth-leafed ; and, 2. Hairy 1. Momordica glabra. 2. Id. hirfuta. Both thefe plants are cultivated in many parts of the ifland, and efpecially in the town-gardens. The internal part of the fruit is of a very elegant red colour, and filled with feveral large red feeds, in fize and form refembling thofe of the tamarind. If the point of the fmalleft pin or needle is ftuck into any part of the fruit, it will immediately fly open in divifions, turning, as it were, iniide out, as if by a kind of magic touch. The plants make very beautiful arbours. The leaves and fruit, externally applied,, are efteemed great vulneraries. The leaves boiled, or a decoftlon of thim, is taken to promote the lochiaeand in obflruftions of the liver and inefentery. The root powdered? and given with cream of tartar, from a fcruple to forty grains, is anfwerable to the like intention ; and a diftilled water is made from S. the

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j()o JAMAICA. the leaves and fruit, mixed with fait of nitre, recommended as a lotion for the St. Anthony's fire, and pimples in the face. The pulp of the fruit is purgative, and an oil may be obtained from it, which cures burns, and takes away fears. 1^5. Clammy-cherr y — Malphigia arbor hacc'ifzra. This beautiful tree grows to a confiderable fize in the lowlands. The berries come out in clufters of a fine red colour, about as big as a middling cherry, having a foft, fweetifli, clammy pulp, inveiopins: a number of fmall feeds. It bloffoms in February, and has ripe fruit In April. The turkles, and other poultry, nay even hogs and dogs, are extremely fond of the berries, and are thought to fatten upon them. The fruit of the baftard cherry ferves likewife for poultry. 136. Barbadoes Cherry — Malphigia, punici mali facie. This fhrubby tree has much the appearance of the pomegranate plant. The fruit is of the fame fize and form as th^ common Englifli cherries, of a lightred colour, a pleafant fubacid tafte, and very fucculent ; it makes very agreeable tarts, and excellent jellies. 137. Sea-side-g rape — Coccokbis uvifera Uttorea. This tree is very frequent on all the low fandy fhores. It is eafily propagated in other parts of the country by flips or cuttings. It grows to a large fize, and is then looked upon as a beautiful 'vood for cabinet "Ji'are. The berries are about the fize of common grapes, and, when ripe, have an agreeable flavour, but the juice Is reftrlngent ; and for this quality it is remedial in fluxes, particularly fuch as may enfue from drinking the brackifli water, common to the places where they grow adjacent to the Tea. There are fome other varieties of the coccolobis, whofe fruit poffeffes the like quality. 138, Jamaica Grape-vine — Vitis fylvejlris. This grows fpontaneoufly in the woods; the fruit appears in bunches, I cfombling the Englifli elder, of the Came bignefs and complexion, 7 but

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 791 but endued with a pleafant, vinous flavour. It ufed to furnifh the hunters with refrefliment, and is no lefs grateful to the animals purfued. It is alfo known by the name of ivater-withe ; for the vine is fo full of juice, that a junk of three feet length will yield near a pint of clear, taflielefs water, which has faved the lives of many who have wandered long in the woods, without any other liquid for their fupport. For this reafon it deferves to be cultivated in all thofe parts which are deftitute of fprings, as it is a natural refervoir, coUedling and keeping a pure and falutary water in the driefl, hotteft feafons ; and. has been obferved to thrive exceedingly well in the Red Hills, and other rocky, mountainous diftridls, where fprings of water are moft deficient. The vine produces a large quantity of fmall black grapes, of a rough tafte, which would vmdoubtedly make an excellent red wine, under proper management. 139. Grape vine. — Vttis. The white and red grape vines, particulai-ly the mufcadine, have been introduced here from Europe and Madeira, and feem to thrive extremely well. The bunches grow to an extraordinary magnitude, and the pulp is more flefhy, and lefs watery, than in the South of France ; a difference to be naturally expeded from the greater heat of climate, and richnefs of foil. The mufcadine anfwers better in the lower fites than any of the other fpecies, ripens all its berries near at: a time, and with due care might be brought to the utmoft perfe6lion. The clufters are very large in the lowlands, the grapes mellow, and might doubtlefs produce a fine mellow wine, if cultivated in any fufficient extent, and by perfons of competent fkill. The hills of Healthfliire, of Liguanea, the -Long Mountains, the Red Hills near Spanifh Town, feem all well accommodated to fome or other of thefe vines, felefting the cooler and higher afcents for luch as are indigenous to Europe ; but the mufcadine would probably fucceed beft in the lower hills of Liguanea, which have a South afpeft, and a friable, gravely furface. The method in which the grape vines are ufually cultls'ated here,, ig.very abfurd. The tendrils are generally carried over frames, or arbours,

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792 JAMAICA. arbours, eight or ten feet above the ground, by which means the fruit is deprived of all reflefted heat, which is neceffai-y to mature it. In Madeira, the beft vines are moftly growing on (lopes, in a South afpeft, and trailed within two feet of the earth. The bunches ufually fold at the Jamaica markets are ripe only on one fide, refembling a joint of meat on a motionlefs fpit, the one half roafted, the other raw, I have feen branches of eight pounds weight, having only the fide that faced the fun thorougly ripened, whilll: the other, being conflantly fhaded from his rays, and elevated too high to receive much impreffion from the warm vapours of the foil beneath them, remained perfedlly green. No perfou here has attempted hitherto to make wine, it being a bufinefs with which our countrymen are very little acquainted ; nor perhaps, is it worth while to attempt it, except for domeflic confumption ; finc;e( the French Proteftant families fettled in the province of South Carolina are entering fo largely into this branch, that it is highly probable, they will be able, in a few years, to fupply the Weft India iflands, and even Great Britain, with excellent wines, at a much cheaper rate than they are now purchafed from foreigners. 140. Pine Apple. — Ananas. There are feveral varieties of this delicious fruit; fome of which, may have been obtained from feeds ; and it is thought that if the feeds were fown frequently, there might be as great a variety procured of this fruit, as there is of apples and pears in Europe. Some of the forts obfervable here, are. The bog-walk pine, of a compreiTed form, and deep green coat, white flefh. The fame, with a yellow coat. The pyramidical, or fugar loaf, with yellowifti flefli, and deep green coat. The fame, with a yellow coat. The fmooth-leaved, or king pine. The queen pine, with leaves fmooth, or fometimes fpikcd. The fmaller green or yellow pyramidal, or Montferrat. Of

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 793 Of thefe the fugar loaf is moft cfteemed ; it is propagated by the CTOwn arifing from the fummit of its pyramid, or by the fuckers Ipringing from the roots ; but the latter come quicker to maturity. They all thrive bed in a brick mould, and warm fituation. Some perfons cultivate them on the top of fmall ridges or banks, raifed about 18 inches, and difpofed in ftraight rows; they grow mofh luxuriantly when they are thus affociated together, like t!ie penguin, and the fuckers from them are flronger and finer than when the plants are feparated to a diftance from each other, and their roots are likewife kept cooler and moifter. They are fubjeft, efpecially in a very dry feafon, to be attacked with a fmall white infeft, which, if not deflroyed, will overfpead the leaves quite to the root, flop the growth of the plants, and confume their juice. This is fufpefted to be the fame which frequently does fuch mifchief in long droughts, to the cane pieces, and is called the blafl. In order to kill them, it has been recommended to fleep the frefh leaves and flems of tobacco, for twelve Jiours in water, and fprinkle all the plants every day with this water,' by means of the common garden pot, till the infedls difappear ; the water fo impregnated is laid to kill thefe animalcules, without doing the fmallefl injury to the plants. Some ufe a fponge ; but this is too laborious and dilatory a method, where the plants are numerous, and all or moft of them affected. Perhaps a flrong decoftion of the tobacco leaves, ufed when perfectly cool, might be found ftill more effeclual; the experiment might likewife be praftifed on cane pieces, by means of a water engine, with a rofe-head ^^it^ upon the difcharging pioe. The bog-walk pine is not fo Iweet or agreeable as the others ; and next to the lugar loaf, the Montferrat pine is reckoned mofl eligible; there is, however, a variety in their flavour, accommodated to different palates, fome being more acid, or more rich and cloying than others. The fermented juice of the fvveeter forts has been made into a very pleafant wine, and is Ibmetimes mixed in the ciflerns that contain the liquor for rum, in order to communicate a more agreeable zefl. They are a profitable commodity in this ifland, either for liile in the towns, or to the fhippingj and lome of the fruit is exVoL. III. 5 I ported

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794 JAMAICA. ported by way of prefent, preferved in fyrup, as they form a very elegant appearance with their crowns, at a defert. They are now fo well known in Europe, that more need not be faid of them. 141. Wild-pine. — T'dlandfia maxima. The plants of this clafs v/ere formerly ranged under the head of the vifcus, or parafitical ; which, inftead of rooting in the earth like other plants, fix themfelves, and take root on the bodies and branches of trees. There is an infinite number of them in Jamaica, feme of which may be made to grow upon a broom, or a mop flick, fixed upright in the ground; which proves that they derive their fupport and growth principally by abforption of moifture from the atmofphere. The wild pines, are by much the largeft of this clafs, and very' frequent in this ifland, in the thick woods of the interior mountains ; where they are feen growing in abundance between the forks, and on the larger branches of the bigger trees ; and by the eafy bend, and hollow bafe of the leaves, become natural refervoirs, which catch water from every fhower that falls upon them, fuflficient to lafl during the longed continued drougths, and at hand to fupply the thirfly hunter, or to refrefh other animals. Nothing can be more fignal than the benevolent and wife provifion which the Deity has made in the example of the vine before mentioned, and this plant, for remedying thole ill effefts which the inclemency of weather may occafion in this climate to the inhabitants. In the deep recefles of the forefl, and where the foil is rich, and the trees of great magnitude, the wild-pine prefents its cooling beverage at every turn ; in the more flerile rocky fituations, where the trees are ftunted, and the pine cannot vegetate fo luxuriantly, we find its place fupplied with the wild-vine ; there is no end to our admiration of the Divine benignity, nor ought we to fix any to our gratitude. J42. Lime*

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIIL 142. Lime. — Citrus fruBu ovato, minorly act do. Id. FrtiSlu rot undo. 791 This bufhy tree does not grow to any confiderable height or bulk ; it is commonly ufed in fences. The fruit is well known, as a principal ingredient in punch. If intended for exportation, it fiiould be gathered when a yellowifli tinge firft begins to appear on fonie part of the rind, and will keep well, hung up in an airy part of the fhip in nets ; or, where a quantity is fent, it may be packed up in dry corn hulks, and flowed in a calk which has fome air-holes made in it. If a method could be fallen upon of drying the ripe fruit in Jamaica, until the coat grew perfedlly hard and tough, it would bear the voyage much better fo preferved, and go in e.vcellent condition for ufe ; and this, I apprehend, may be done by expofing it, fprcad out on a platform, to the hot fun, after the manner of pimento, for a week or two before it is packed for exportation. The unconcodcd juice of the green fruit is generally injurious to weak bowels. This fruit, as well as the following, makes an excellent fweetmeat, cleared of the pulp, and prepared with the beft clarified fyrup. The bark and fibres of the root are excellent ftrengthening aperitives, and found frequently effedual in obftinate febrile cafes, as well as in weaknefies and obflrutlions of the bowels. The leaves are generally ufed in difcutient baths; and the fruit in a variety of cafes. The crude juice, mixed with fait of wormwood, is given in the ftate of ebullition in fevers, and commonly ufed in the compofition of faline draughts. The fruit is roafted, and the pulp applied to cleanfe ulcers. It anfvvers all thofe intentions where a livelier fub-acid than that of the lemon is required. The Negroes take the young fruit foon after it is formed, or when it is about the fize of a fmall hazel-nut, pare off the rind, which they beat into a fine pulp, and with a hair pencil apply it carefully to the lids of fore eyes, for a cure. It is fiippofcd, this rawnefs of the eye-lid, accompanied with a humour, is generally caufed by worms, which lodge in it, and that this application deftroys them. This hint is worth a further attention, fince the animalcules, if they really lodge there, may be difcoverable by proper glafles ; and hence the knowledge obtained, whether the application would be proper, or otherwifc. 5 I 2 There

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796 JAMAICA. There are \arieties of this fruit. — The fmall round lime ; the large oval J the bergamot ; the fweet lime. Next follow the lemons. 143. The Common, or Lisbon Lemon. — Citrus vel Limo arbor. Thefe differ little, except in the rough nefs, or fmoothnefs, and diameter of their coat. 144. St. Helena Lemon. — Citrus fruSiu majori^ acido ovato. This is cultivated for the largenefs of the fruit, one of which will yield above half a pint of juice; and feems to be a milder fub-acid than the common lemon. The efficacy of lemon juice in preventing the fea fcurvy, has been commended by all modern writers on the fubjeift, nnd was not unknown in the earlier times of our navigation. Sir James Lancafler, In his voyage where he was general in the Eafl Indies, in the year i6oi, carried with him feveral bottles of lemon juice; and by giving three fpoonfuls to each failor in the morning, who then fafted till noon, kept them entirely free from, or cured them of, this terrible diforder. The juice of limes and lemons depurated, and mixed with good rum, makes the liquor cvM^dJJjrub, which may be confidered as an article of export. 145. Sour Orange, or Seville. — Aurantlum JoUht ovato-JanceohitJSy friiBu acido. 146. Sweet, or China Orange. — Aurantiiim foliis lanceolatisj aculis, fru£lu dulci. 147. Shaddock. — Aurantium Joliis, ovatO'lanceolatis, craJfis,friiSlu maxima. Thefe are fo well known, as to require no defcription. The firfE grows wild in many parts of the woods, and is but little regarded. The fecond varies much in flavour, and appearance of the coat, occafioned probably by the difference of foil and litiiation. I am perfiiadcd, that if pains were taken, thefe fruits might be brought here to the utmoft pitch of perfedion. They

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BOOK III. CHAP. Vlir. 797 They thrive beft in a brick-mould foil ; I have feen the China orange, produced from a tree growing in fuch a foil, fo exquilicely fweet, that when the fruit was ripe, the whole rind was covered with a Jaccharine farina. The fhaddocks,in general, are but indifferent ; moft of thein inclining to a white pulp or flefli, and a watery bitterifli juice, greatly inferior to the Eaft India fruit. Mr. Miller accounts for this by runarking, that by conftantly raifing thefe trees from the feeds, the fruit degenerates continually; whereas, if the inhabitants would only bud or inoculate from the good fort, they might have it in as great plenty as they pleafed : but that they refign the whole to nature, feidom giving themfelves any further trouble, than to put the feeds in the ground, and leave them to grow as nature fhall incline. This obfervation of his is perfeftly true ; and, perhaps, their pradice is not fo much the effeft of carelellhefs, as the want of knowing how to perform the inoculation j for which reafon, I fhall give the method recommended by that ingenious writer, which is very prafticable in Jamaica, and where we may hope to fee it adopted; fmce it is furely fome fatisfadlion to pofiefs fo favourite a fruit in its moft perfedl and delicious ftate, whether for confumption within theifland, or for exportation. I am the rather induced to this, upon finding that oranges are an article of export from fome of the Northern colonies, where they ca-tainly cannot be brought to the fame degree of goodnefs, of which they are capable, with moderate culture, in this ifland i for, in faft, the fineft China orange I ever ate in England, was not comparable to the worft 1 havetafted in Jamaica. The exports from Charks Town, South Carolina, in the year i 747,, comprehended 296,000 oranges; in 1761, 161,000. Whence it appears, that this fruit is as much an eftablifhed commodity for their export, as it is at Lilbon, or Seville, and may, with propriety, be made fuch at Jamaica The manner of performing the inoculation is as follows : you muft. be provided with a fharp penknite, having a flat haft (the ufe of whicti is to raife the bark of the ftock to admit the bud), and fome found mat,, which fhould be foaked in water to increafe its ftrength ; the various barks ufed tor making ropes in this ifland, will anlvver this purpofe full as well. Then having taken off the cuttings, or young fliootSj from, the trees you would propagate, you Ihould choofe a fmooth part of th3 flock.

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79B JAMAICA. ftock, about five or fix Inches above the furface of the ground. If dcfignedfor dwarfs; but if for ftandards, they fhould be budded fix feet above ground : then with your knife make an hori.zontal cut crofs the rind of the ftock, and from the middle of that cut make a flit downwards, about two inches in length, lb that it may be in the form of a T; but you muft be careful not to cut too deep, left you wound the ftock ; then having cut off the leaf from the bud, leaving the foot-ftalk remaining, you fhould make a crofs cut about half an inch below the eye, and with your knife flit off the bud, with part of the wood to it, in form of an efcutchcon. This done, you muft, with your knife, pull off that part of the wood which was taken with the bud, obferving whether the eye of the bud be left to it, or not (for all thofe buds that lofe their eyes in ftripping fliould be thrown away, being good for nothing) ; then, having gently raifed the bark of the ftock where the T incifion was made, with the flat haft of your knife, clear to the wood, you fhould thruft the bud therein, obferving to place it fmooth between the rind and the wood of the ftock, cutting off any part of the rind belonging to the bud, which may be too long for the flit made in the ftock ; and fo having exaftly fitted the bud to the ftock, you muft tie them clofely round, beginning at the lower part of the flit, and proceeding to the top, taking care that you do not bind round the eye of the bud, which fhould be left open. When the buds have been inoculated two or three weeks, thofe which remain plump and frefh, you may depend are joined ; and at this time the bandage muft be loofened, which if not done in time, will pinch the ftock, and greatly injure, if not deftroy, the bud. The directions 1 fhall infert hereafter, with regard to the tranfportation of plants and fruits from one climate to another, may furnifli hints for the method of packing the fruits of this clafs, when defigned for export. The rinds of the orange, and citron which likewife flourifhes here, have many medical virtues; and, when preferred, are applied to a variety of culinary ufes; however, the high duties on fuch confeftionary dilcourage their exportation in this form. But the diftilled water obtained from their flowers might be made here in large quantity, and grea; perfection, for export, and would anfwcr in point of profit. A perfon fkillcd in this manufaflure might, by varioully blending the 5 different

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIIT. 799 different flowers of the feveral fpecies, increafe the value and demand for it at home. The citron water conftitutes a feparate, and no mean article, for commerce. The fmaller fhaddock, or forbidden fruit, is preferred by feme palates to the larger, for its fuperior fweetnefs. The feeds of all the fpecies have a bitteriHi, but pleafant tafte, and, doubtlefs, wo\ild make very good emulfions, which might be kiccefsfully ufed, when the flomach is weak and languid, and cannot bear the ftronger bitters; nor is it improbable, but they may prove an excellent mixture with milk in confumptive cafes. They are very fuccefsfuUy adminifirered in dry belly-aches, and convulfive fpafms ; and one of the moft effeftual remedies that can be ufed to reftore weakly limbs to their former vigour; but it fliould be continued for fome time, aided by regularity and other affiftants, and ufed before the parts are emaciated. The fhaddock is generally in perfection in December; the orange and lemon fpecies are to be had all the year round. 148. Water Lemon. — PaJJiflora (4) foliis cordatis product is, &c. Br. p. 328. This grows frequent in the woods, and fupplles the wild hogs with a great part of their food in the feafon. It bears a beautiful flower ; the fruit is a pleafant fub-acid, cooling, and highly refrelhing in fevers; it is a climber, and makes very fine arbours. 149. Liquorice Weed, or Sweet-Broom Weed. — Scopiiria ere^a ramofa, &c. 150. Wild Liquorice, or Red-Bead Vine. — Glycine foliolis pinnatis, fpicis nodofis axillaribus. The firfl: grows, by a branched ftalk, to the height of 18 or 20 inches. The whole plant, efpecially the flender fhoots at the top, is frequently ulcd in diluting and peftoral infufions, and may defcrvedlv be confidered as an excellent vulnerary. The European liquorice grows well in this ifland, but It is inferior in virtue to the fecond plant above-mentioned, which climbs in all the hedges on the South fide, and winds itfelf about any flirub in its neighbourhood. The ftalks are about the fize of a goofe-quill, fet with fmall winged leaves, equal in number on each fide, and ranged oppofite to one anotb

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8oo JAMAICA. ther, which poflefs the exa3: liquorice taftc. The pods contain three or four fcarlet peas, with a black fpot, which in the Eafl: Indies and Africa are ftrung for necklaces, A ftrong decoftion of the leaves, boiled afterwards into a thick fyrup with iugar, is frequently given for a cough, and generally found to be a certain remedy. An infufion is likewife made from the leaves and tops for the fame intention. It opens •both the body and the (kin very mildly, and helps expectoration. The feeds are of a very deleterious nature j and, when bruifed, cannot t)e taken inwardly without great danger; when fwallowed ivhole, they commonly pafs intire, and are rarely attended with any of thofe violent fymptoms that accompany the powder, which operates furioully wards and downwards. An extraft may be made from the roots, no ways inferior to what is obtained from the roots of liquorice. 151. Melon. — Melo. There are feveral varieties of the melon kind here, where they thrive exceedingly well, and with little trouble or attention. The varieties cGnfifl in the fliape, whether round, oval, comprcfled, ,or long; the roughnefs or fmoothnefs of coat; the colour of the flefh, whether white, red, greenifh, or yellowifh; and in fweetnefs and flavour. A gentleman here, the moft curious in their cultivation, ufed to prepare fome fine mould in fmall balkets, in which the feed was fown; thefe balkets were fet in little hillocks of earth, and fuffered to decay. I know not the particular reafons for this method, but his fruit was of a fuperior quality to moft. The muik and cantelupe are higheft in efteem, grow to a large fize here, and arri^'e at the utmoft perfedlion, particularly the latter kind with a greenifh flefli, which (contrary to Mr. Miller's obfervation in regard to thofe raifed in England) is by far the richeft, fineft flavoured, and diilblves in the mouth. The mulk has no net work about it here as in England, and turns very yellow. 152. Water Mrlon. — Anguria fol'iis multl partitis. This fruit grows here to a monftrous fize; the fort which has the red pulp, is preferred to the other. It is more recommended by its good effeft in cooling the blood, than by its flavour, which much refembles Jthat of water, flightly fweetened with fugar. Dr.

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 8oi Dr. HafTclqulft cautions, that this fruit fiiould be eaten with circumfpei^ion ; for if taken liberally in the heat of the day, when the body is very warm, bad confequences c^ften enfue; and it may occafion colics, loofenefles, fluxes, a foul llomach, &c. It will fometimes chill the flomach like ice, and a too free indulgence in it is thought to nourifh and multiply the gourd and tape worms. The like caution is requifite in regard to all the melon and cucumber tribe, which ought to be eaten iparingly in this climate, and not without fome correftive, fuch as fugar, Madeira wine, or pepper and fait. The French in the iflands uie fugar, and fometimes an addition of a little lime juice, with moft of their fruits. 153, Wild Cucumber. — Cuciimis fubhh-fidus, minor, fylvejlris. This grows wild in the woods in great abundance ; and the fruit is efteemed a wholefome, agreeable ingredient in foups ; it makes a good pickle. The European cucumbers thrive fo well here, that they may almoft be reckoned indigenous. The tribe of gourds is very numerous; Ifliall only notice the more ufeful. 154. Small Gourd. — Cucurb'iia v'iUofa,fruElu pyrlformi mlnor'i. The fliells are generally made ufe of by the Negroes for bottles and water-cups; a deco6lion of the leaves is given in purgative clyfters ; and the pulp is often employed in refolutive poultices. 155. Slender-winding Gourd, or Sweet Gourd. -^ Cucurbita fru£lu loiigijjimo, bipedali, incurvo, obtufo. This is cultivated for the fake of its fruit, which, when boiled, is wholefome and nourifliing, frequently made into puddings, and particularly relifhing with fait meat. 156. Large Gourd. — CucurbitafruSiu maxima fubrotundo. This is cultivated chiefly for the fake of its fliell, which grows frequently fo large as to contain between 30 and 40 quarts. Dr. Barham Ipeaks of one prefented to him which held 36 quarts; and adds, that he carried two to England, which were perfedly globular, exadly of a iize, and contained 24 quarts each. Where the aloes is manufactured for export, it is commonly preferved in thefe fhells, of middling bulk. Vol. III. 5 K Thej

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8o2 JAMAICA. They are generally ufed here by the Negroes inftead of large jars, for holding water, fait, rice, corn, &c. The Negroes prepare them in the following manner: they make a hole at one end, into which they pour hot water in order to diiTblve the pulp ; after this they extraft the pulp with a ftick, and rinfe the whole infide thoroughly with fand and water, in order to loofen the fibres that remain, and clear them away. After they are thus cleanfed, they are luffered to dry, and are then fit for ufe. The pumkin and fgu'^ih are no lefs generally cultivated, and the boiled fruit in universal efteem at every table. 157. Chocho. — Secbium. This vine is cultivated in mod parts of the ifland, and grows luxuriantly. It makes good arbours. The fruit, boiled, is ferved up by way of a green, and elleemed agreeable and wholefome. It is likewife ufed for fattening hogs. With the addition of fugar and lemon juice, it is no bad Juccedaneum for apples, when fuch a fauce is wanted for pork or goofe. The root, boiled or roafted, is extremely palatable and, nourifliing. 158. Pa PAW. — Car'ica mas et fcemina. The male and female trees may be propagated by layers. They grow wild in mofi: parts of the ifland. The flowers, buds, and tender foot-ftalks of the female tree are preferved as a fweetmeat, and the long mango papaw or fruit as a pickle, which is very little inferior to the Eaft India mango. The rounder fruit when ripe is boiled, and eaten with any kind of flcfli meat, and is looked upon as perfectly wholefome ; but eaten raw, it contains an acrid juice, very injurious to the inteftines; and fo penetrating is this fluid in the green unripe fruit, that, boiled vvich the hardefl: fait meat, it will render it perfectly foft and tender. It is faid to caufe the like cfteft on hogs, who, if fed with it for any confiderable ti;nc, are fubjedl to have their guts excoriated with its acrimony. The flowers of the male tree are white, and thofe of the female yellowifh, and much larger; but the fex is plainly diftinguifliable to the moll common obferver, by the former nc\er producing fruit. The

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 803 The green fruit, thoroughly boiled, fqueczcd, and dulcified with a little fugar and lemon juice, is frequently ufed as a fubftltute for apples in fauce and tarts, and refemblcs them fo exa6tly in tafte, as fcarcely to be diftinguifhed. The milky liquor, obtained from the raw fruit, is faid to take away warts, and deftroy the ring-worm. The Negroes are poflelled with an opinion of the good or bad qualities of particular trees, when planted near any habitation, as to the effefts their neighbourhood may occafion to the inhabitants. This opinion feems to be well founded ; for as trees (efpecially in this climate) have a very extenfive atmofphere, and difFufe a fragrant or difagreeablc odour to a great diftance around them, fo it is hig'-!ly probable, that thefe effluvia are impregnated with fome of the more effential properties of the tree, from which they are refpired; and thus may have a confequence to health, fimilar to the breath of a difeafed perfon, or the vapour of a perfumed fubftance. There may alfo be falutary or noxious qualities in the atmofphere of fome, when the particles are fo fubtile as not to be diftinguiflied by the olfadory fenfe. The fmell of the manchioneel fruit has fomething in it which induces a fenfation of faintnefs and languor. The fcent emitted from the opopinax wood, and roots frefli cut, is exquifitely cadaverous and loathfome. The fecret agency of thefe effluvia of trees and plants may have a more powerful influence upon human health, than many are aware of. The Negroes fuppofe that the papaw trees are very conducive to render the air healthy, and therefore plant them near their houfes. The bloffoms are extremely odoriferous, and the trunks fo fucculent, and growth fo quick, that they pofiibly affiH to drain the foil, where they are planted, of luperfluous moiHure. Thefe properties, exclufive of any other, may ferve to corrcd the air, in certain lituations. The fullgrown papaws, as well as the plantain trees, feem to be good natural conductors of lightning, from the redundancy of aqueous fap v/hich they contain. 159. GuAVA. — PJidium fruclicojum. The fruit of this tree, which is common every where in the ifland, is juftly eftecmed very agreeable, efpeciaily the preferve or marmalade niade'from it, which might form an article of export to the North American colonics. The wood is extremely tough, and general!}'<; K 2 ufcd

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8o4 JAMAICA. iifed for cattle boivs and mule crooks. The feeds of the fruit are eileemed an excellent reflringent medicine in fome fluxes. 160. Seven-year Vine, Spanifh Arbour Vine, or Spanifh V/oodbind. Ipomea heptadaSlyla major fcandens, Jlore majori campanulato. This plant is a climber ; and, from the thicknefs of its foliage, and largenefs of the flowers, it is extremely pleafing to the eye ; it is chiefly planted for arbours, and fpreads to fuch extent, that it may be carried over an arbour of 300 feet length, from one root. Every part of this plant is purgative, and it was Barham's opinion, that zfcammony might be made from the milky juice of the root. 161. The Gran AD ILL A — PaJJiflora foliis ampUoribus cor da t is, is planted for the fame intention, grows well from the flip, and bears a mofl: agreeable fruit, which contains a white pulpy fluid, intermixed with the feeds, of a mild fubacid tafte, and delightful flavour, cooling and medicinal in feverifli heats. X 6 2. The Climbing, or Vine-sorr el — Rumex Jyhejhh fcandens^ foliis cordato angiilatis. This plant is very common in the woods, and raifes itfelf to a confiderable height with the help of the neighbouring flirubs. With its clavicles it lays hold of any thing that is near; and fo thick in foliage, that it covers pales or walls intirely. The leaf is thick and fucculent, and preferves its verdure throughout the year; it is of an irregular heart-form, increafing more on one fide of the middle vein or rib than on the other ; and has a very fliarp four tafte like forrel ; when it grows in a free open air, the flowers have an agreeable flavour, and are fometimes uled in making of whey, where wine cannot be admitted, and other acids are thought too aflive and irritating to the fliomach. It bears a round berry, firfl: green, but turning black when it comes to maturity ; this is fometimes inveloped with a large matted bunch, like dodder, as big as a man's head ; and, at the feafon of the year when this bunch appears dryilh and withering, if it is fqueezed, there iflues a light fubfl:ance like lamp-black, which will adhere fo ctefcly to the fingers as not to be eafily waflied off". It is 4 conjeftured,

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 805 conjecfturecl, this emanation might be of ufe for flaining, colouring, or dying, if the properties of it were accurately examined. 163. Red Sorrel — Hibifcus rufefcens, acetofus foliis trilobus. 164. White Sorrel — Hibifcus luteus. The Bowers, cups, and capfulae of thefe two plants, freed from the feeds, are the only parts that are ufeful. They differ but little in tafte and quality from the common forrel, except that their acid is ftronger, and of a livelier, pleafanter flavour. The acid of the white (or rather yellow flowered) is fomewhat fainter than the other. Both are cultivated in moft gardens. The flowers are made, with the help of fugar, into very agreeable tarts and jellies ; or fermented into a cooling beverage, very cordial in fevers ; they alfo make a very excellent vinegar. They bloflbm about the month of Oilober. The fyrup prepared with them is thought to exceed that of the Englifh forrel. The beft way of making it is to take the capjules or flower-leaves which are moft juicy, and, adding twice their weight of double-refined fugar, put them without any water into a glafs veflel, and place it in a fand-heat ; the digeflion is carried on with a moderate heat, till the leaves are all diflblved, which foon happens, as they are loft and fucculent ; the red fort yields a beautiful fyrup, which will keep much longer than that which is made with water. The bark of thefe (hrubs is ftrong and tough, and has the appearance of being adapted to the fame manufiidlure as hemp. 165. Artichoke — Cynara. There feem to be three varieties of the artichoke in this ifland ; the firft fort is the common fmall French ; the fecond the chardon ; the third the large French. They are cultivated here, and propagated by flips or fuckers, taken from the old roots. The third fpecies has not been long introduced from Hifpaniola, and is generally diflinguifhed by the name of the Hifpaniola artichoke ; it is much fuperior to the others. I have feen the bottoms of fome near twenty inches in circumference. As yet they are chiefly cultivated in the Liguanea mountains, but might undoubtedly fucceed as well in all the other cooler mountainous parts, and probably at the North fide. The

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8o6 JAMAICA. The French pickle or preferve them in fait ; but, in this ftate, they are not near lb reliftiing as when they are frcfh. The ground where they are planted fliould be well dug, freed from weeds, and fo thrown up, as to prevent water from lodging about the roots. It is bed to leave only one (hoot and head to each root j by which means the artichokes will be much the finer and larger. They arc jprofitable articles for the town markets. i66. Samphires. There are varieties here of the famphire. The firfl is the Crithvium vulgare, or common famphire, which grows in all the faltgrounds by the fea fide, is fimilar to the Britifli herb, and makes an equally good pickle. The fecond is \.ht portulaca ozoidcs maritma procumbens, or aizoon, with a purple flower, thick, fucculent, faline leaf, refenibiing purflane, and is proper alfo for pickling. This is called by fome the larger turnfole, or heliotrope. The third is the fupine, afli-coloured turnfole, or heliatr opium, of fome authors, with a white flower. But the mofl: valuable is the fo^foJa frutefcens, or l.ali fruticofum coniferum of Sloane, with a white flower, which is common in all the falinas on the South-fide of the ifland. It abounds with alkalious falts, and might be prepared for the Britifli manufci(Stories of foap and glafs : Browne thinks that the azoides, will xmfwer the fame purpofe ; this is very frequent about Pafl'age Fort. Th€ manner of making the kali for glafs is ns follows : Having dug a a trench near the fea, laths are laid acrofs it, upon which are placed the herbs in heaps ; and a fire being made below, the liquor which runs out of them drops to the bottom, which, at length thickening, becomes the fal alkali ; partly of a black, and partly of an afli colour, (harp, corrofive, and of a fiiltifli tafte. This when thoroughly hardened, is like a ftone in confiftence, and is fit in this flate for exportation. 167. West India tea. — Caprarii7,ereBa raivofa, &c. This plant is very common every where in the favannahs, and about tlie towns. What Barham fays of it may not be thought unentertaining. A Frenchman (lays he), captain of a fliip, aflirmed to

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BOOK III. CHAP. Vlir. S07 to me, as we were walking about our town of St. Jago de la Vega, and obferving this plant growing fo plentifully, that it was the fame as the tea plant of China ; that he had lived in that part of the world many years, had feen large fields of it, and the manner of cultivating it, and all the difference was, that the Chinefe plant was larger, which he afcribed to their care, and culture of it; and had no doubt, but the Jamaica plant, if it was let in rich ground, and attended with equal care, would grow to a much greater fize, than in its wild flate. P\uher Labat was led into the fame raiflake, who, finding the capraria at Martinico, aflerted it to be the real tea-plant. The difference between them will appear better by comparifbiv.. Capraria. ,^ Stalk. Rifes to the height of three or four feet, woody, ramofe, covered with a fmooth clay-coloured bark. The branches difpofed in no regular order, and very thick-fet with leaves. Leaves, From one to two inches long, half an inch broad in the wideil part, tapering to a fharp point, of a deep-green colour, fmooth, thin, ferrated at the edges, no footftalks, or at mofl very fhort. Flowers. Come out between the leaves and ftalk, (landing on a fhort footftalk, very fmall, white, feeming to confift of five petals, but are only deeply divided into five parts, capfule green. Chinefe Tea-plant.. Stalk. Rifes to the heipht of five or fix feet, woody, ramoic, covered with an afh-coloured bark, reddifli towards the top. The branches alternate, in no rco;ular order. Leaves. From two i to three inches long, and near one in breadth in the wideft part, elliptical, obtufe at the extremity, and not (harp, as Kainfer llippofes ;. of a deep-green colour, fmooth, thin, gloffy, ferrated, the footftalks very Ihort, Floijoers. Come out between the leaves and flalk, (landino; on a fhort footffalk, large, white, confifling of fix petals, or varying in number ; but when they conhft of fix, two are lefs and exterior, greenifli, incloiing the flower before it is fully blown.

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8oS JAMAICA. blown, and four interior, and dl^ vided, the capfule green. Seed. Seed. The pericarpium oblong, cylinThe per!carp/um,'n-\{ormo( three drical, four-cornered, very fmall, globular bodies united, has three when dry is of a light-brown cocells, and three feeds, lodged fingle, lour, contains a number of fmall iglobous, angulate on the interior brown feeds. [fide, of a reddifh-brown colour. The difference between thefe two plants is obvious, more particularly in the flowers, feed veflels, and feeds, even from this general defcription of each ; and the diftinclions w^ould probably multiply, on comparing the fexual parts of their flowers. Barham himfelf was fatisfied they were not the fame, but he feemed to think the capraria a fynonym : for he adds his opinion, that it may poffibly have the fame virtue, and mentions a gentleman of his acquaintance, who never drank any other than the Weft Indian tea ; and that, although he could not coil up the leaves fo dextroufly as they do in China, yet he performed this operation tolerably well ; and every perfon, whom he regaled with it, extolled it as the very beft green tea they ever drank in their lives. It is certainly unknov.-n to what perfedion it might be brought, if reclaimed from its wild ftate, and cultivated in the rich foil of gardens ; and it well deferves the experiment of the curious. The decoclion of the leaves, is recommended as an excellent febrifuge. 1 68. Avocado Pear. — Perfea. This tree grows to the fize of the largeft European apple tree. The pulp of the fruit is in univerfal efteem in the ifland ; and diftinguiftied by fbme with the name of vegetable marrow, it is generally eaten with fugar and limejuice, or pepper and fait; it has a delicate rich flavour, and is extremely nourishing. There are two fpecies of the fruit, the green, and the red ; the latter is preferred, having a firmer, better-tafted flefh than the other ; but I have obferved that the goodnefs of both depends entirely upon the place of growth ; for the fruit produced in a wild ftate ii fmall, and often bitter ;

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BOOK iir. en A p. VIII. 809 bitter; the finen; come from the Red Mills near Spanlfh Town, the Liguanea Mountains, and the Inhmd parts. They are a favourite food with the Negroes, and often conftitute the fole flipport of many of the lazier, who have neglefted to ftock their grounds with other provilion. They are thought great provocatives ; and, for this rcafon it is faid, the Spaniards do not like to fee their wives indulge too much in them. It is extraordinary, that moft creatures are obferved to eat this fruit with pleafure ; it is equally agreeable to the horfe, the ox, the dog, cat, and birds in general. It is in perfe(ftion fiom May to September. The Negroes are fometimes apt to eat it immediately after the May rains, or when it is crude and watery, in which flate it occafions fluxes and diarrhoeas. The feed is contained in the center, and rattles or fhakes when the pear is ripe, and fit to eat. This feed is hard, wrinkled, and heart-formed. On writing upon a white wall with one of them, the letters turn to a red colour, and will not fade, until the wall is wafhed, and even then with difficulty. So, if a tablecloth, or rather white linen, is laid upon the feed, and a letter or fio-ure pricked out with a pin, the cloth will be imprinted with the form in a dark yellowifh colour, or ftain, which cannot eafily be got out. It is feen by the experiment on the wall, that the alkali of the lime or plaifter on the furface fixes the juices of this feed to a red colour : experiments therefore may be tried, by macerating a quantity of them with lime-water, to difcover whether they might not produce a tincture proper for giving fuch a dye to linens, or other fubflances ? There are feveral other efculent fruits ; but I fhall, for brevity fake, range them hereafter in a general lift, with fome of the preceding, and mention their particular or remarkable qualities by way of note. 169. Vanglo, Wongala, or Oil-plant — Sefamiim Orientale, Twofpecies of this plant are cultivated in this ifland. They are faid to have been firft introduced by the Jews. The feeds are frequently ufed in broths. They are in great efteem among the Oriental nations, who look upon them as a hearty wholefome article of diet, and exprefs an oil from them, not unlike or inferior to the oil of almonds. They are cultivated In Carolina with great fuccefs ; and it has been computed there, that nine pounds of feed will yield upwards of two pounds Vol. Ill, 5 L uett

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8io JAMAICA. nett wt. of Oil, which grows more mellow and agreeable with age, and continues without any rancid fmell or tafte for niany years. The w^arm tafte of the feed which is in the oil, when firft drawn, wears otf in about two years, and it may then be ufed as fallad oil, and for all the purpofes of fweet oil. The Negroes grind the feeds between two ftone?, pnrch them, and mix with other ingredients. The Jews ufe the oil in cakes, inflead of butter. In iSthiopia and /Egypt it is ufed for the fame purpofes as we do the olive oil. In Greece it is liberally eaten in their cakes and bread ; and in China it is equally efteemed. The vanglo plant requires a rich warm foil ; and there are few which more deferve to be exteniively cultivated in this ifland ; iince it might, with the greateft propriety, be admitted into general domeftic ufe, in the room of that abominable rancid butter imported hither from Europe. Nothing but the groffell: prejudice, in favour of old habits, can influence the inhabitants to perfevere in the importation of that unvvholefome, naufeous rtuff, and to fwallow it every day with their food, when they may fupply tliemfelves with fo fine, nourifhing, and wholefome an oil, as the fefamum, for an ingredient in their pafiry ; nor are they lefs blameable, for continuing to import the olive oil, which is generally rancid before it arrives, and fitter for perukes than fallads. 170. Jack-in-a-box. — Hernandia arhorea mice oJeofa. This tree is common in the Windward Ifles, and is faid to be frequent in the woods of Portland pariOi. The cups that fuffain the nuts are large, and the wind, blowing into the cavity, caufes a fonorous, whiffling noife, very often alarming to travelers. The feeds are very full of oil, and may be applicable probably to a variety of necefiiiry ufes. 171. Anchovy Pear, or West India Mango, Calophy^LUM — PaJmis ajpnis malus Perjica maxima, Slo. Cat. 179. This beautiful tree is frequent in the mountains, as well as in low moiff bottoms. The feeds grow very readily. The fruit is about the fize of an alligator's egg, and much like it in fliape, only a little more 2 acute

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BOOK III. C H A P. VIII. 8 1 1 acule at one end, and of a brown, nuTet colour ; when pickled, it exaftly refembles the Eaji India Mango, and by feme conjcdured to be the iame, or at leafl: to have the nearefl affinity to it. The fruit is ripe in Auguft. J 72. Red Mangrove — Rhizophera, Br. 211. Ma?igle phifoHay SIo. Cat. 155. This tree is generally obferved on the borders of the fea, In the fmaller creeks, and on the banks of the maritime rivers. The roots throw out a multitude of fibres, arched, and fixing themfelves in the mud, or groiuid, intermingled in different directions, which not only icrve as props to the parent tree, but form by degrees an extenfive range of bafket-work, fpreading acrofs rivers, or along the fhore, and proteding its bank againft the furge of the ocean. The Jamaica oyflers adhere clofely to thefe fibres, after they have penetrated below the furfice of the water, and cannot be got off, without cutting fome of the bark with them, which firft gave rife to the fabulous account of their growing upon trees in this part of America. The wood Is very tough and hard, bears water well, and is much ufed for knees and ribs in long-boats, wherries, and other fmall-craft ; for which the angular form of the limbs moft naturally adapts it. The bark is mofl excellent for tanning leather ; it performs this operation more perfectly in fix weeks than the oak bark will do in ten ; and the leather tanned with it is the mofl durable and firm of any for foles. The decoiSion of it is a very powerful reflringent. Barham mentions his having a fon affllAed with the confluent fmall-pox to fuch a virulent degree, that the callous part of his feet feparated, and came off intlrely, leaving them raw, and fo tender, that he was unable to £et them upon the ground; upon which the Dodlor fent for fome of the tan-vat, or liquor of this bark, from a tanner's ; and, adding a little alum, made a ftrong deco611on, in which he bathed his fon's feet everv day ; and, in about a week's time, rendered them fo firm, that he was able to walk about, without any inconvenience. I have often wondered, confidering the powerful efFeds of thefe reftringent barks upon animal fubftances, and that by numberlefs 5 L 2 experl-

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8.12 JAMAICA. experiments, their Wronger infufions have been found to recover from a flate of abfolute putridity, that feme trials are not made, how far perfons in the latter ftage of putrid and malignant fevers, when livid ^^/6'<:/v(^ make their appearance, when the blood is nearly diflblved, and the difeafe feems defperate, might not be recoverable, by being plunged into a warm bath made with bark decodtions ; the finer virtues of the bark, abforbed into all the pores fpread over the furfice of the body, muft (it is reafonable to imagine) have an immediate effedl upon the fibres, in fome meafure reftore their tone and fpringynefs, and by their antifeptic quality re-unite the globules of the blood, and correft their difpofition to putrefcency. I am perfuaded, from more than one obfervation, that the Jefuits bark may be adminiftered to infants in this manner when they are incapable of taking it by the mouth, and with the happieft effedls. Such experiments are deemed bold, becaufe they are out of the common track ; but furely what is called a defperate cafe would always juftify the attempt, and efpecially when it is at leaft probable that it may fucceed. The quantity of fluid which may be carried into the human bod)r by abforption, in a bath is amazing ; and upon this principle the ingenious Dr. Hales fuggefts a means by v/hich perfons at fea, when ready to perlHi with thirft from want of frefh water, may obtain a recruit ; which is, by immerfing their naked bodies frequently in a tub of fea-water; they will imbibe the water at every pore freed of its fait, which is too large to enter with it, and remains condenfed upon the furface of their fkin[rt]. But in the cafe of the bark de— codion, much of its antifeptic principles are fucked in with the water. n A (Mimofa i. Br. 2Cr. 17 2, POPONAX or ACACEE. < j a ci r^ ^ -^ \Acacia Americana, bh. Cat. p. 152^-. It is faid, a certain perfon brought the feed of it to Jamaica and^ planted it, affirming that if he lived to fee it grow, he fliould get, an eftate by it; but by what means, remains a myftery. It was, certainly, the word, evil he could have introduced; as it became[a] When Coiumbus difpatched nn exprefs from this ifland to the commander at HifpanioLij the Inilians who vveie employed in navigating thecaiioc, pUnigcd thcinftlvcs into the lea every now and then, when almoll fpcnt with the tati;uic ot rowing, and parched with heat and thlrll ; for they had iound by experience^ that this piactic? revived their fpirits, and enabled them to rciiew tlicii labour. propa..

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 8:3. propagated, the planters made fences with it in the Southern lowlands and favannahs, but its feeds difperfing about, it foon fprouted fpontaneoufly, and now it over-runs vafl tradls of land, and maintains its ground fo firmly, that fo long as the leafl: particle of the root remains, it never ceaCes throwing up its thorny plants ; whence it is next to impofiible to eiadicate it entirely from a piece of land in which it has once flourished. The pods are richly impregnated with a flicky aftringent gum, eafily to be extracted. When theyare half ripe, this juice may be made ufe of for cementing broken China. The trunk, when wounded, emits a tranfparent gum, likegitni'Arabic. This gum is produced from the acacia vera, or/Egyptian thorn, Vv'hich very much refembles the Jamaica plant, and is found in feveral parts of America.. The yEgyptians call the true plant, Charad, and it is known to botanifts by another name,. m'lnwfa Nilotica, which relates to the place of its growth near the Nile. The hulk of the pods of the Jamaica tree being foaked all night in water, and a little allum added, may be boiled to a due, thicknefs, and makesa good black ink, which .never fades nor. turns yellow like the copperas ink. Dr. Barham, having carried fome of, the pods with him to England. in 1717, gave them to a dyer, who tried them, an.d reported that, they exceeded galls for dying linen,... and would be far preferable if they could be procured at a cheap rate. They are liableto be deftroyed by a worm, but they might probably be preferved by fteeping. a little while in lime-water, by. fumigation .with brimftone juft before they are packed, ,or by put-.ting a fmall bag or box of camphor into the package. The roots, when bruifed, yield a very oftenfive fmell ; and. a decoiSion. made from them is faid to be mortally poifonous. But fince this plant is now grown fo common and even trouble— fome, not be worth while to try if fome benefit could be,: made of it in trade?. TJie perfon who firft gave it introduftion. = probably miftook it for the true acacia, which yields the medicinal gum zx\^ Juccus oi thelhops; experiments are. required to determine, whether the gum obtainable from the trunk of thefe trees is not of fimilar ufe and efficacy in medicine.? and whether the gummy juice of the pods may not be cxtraded, and prepared in a proper form, for .a renjittance to Europe ? Thirdly, whether they cannot be

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8j4 J a M a I C a. be brought into demand and confumption among the dyers, as they yield fo fine and ftrong a black tint, which is much wanted for linens. It is evident from the affinity of thefe plants, that the Egyptian might, if it was introduced into this iiland, be propagated with equal facility. 174. Silk-Grass. Aide Species? Abe Tuccajoliisy Slo, Cat. \\^. This I take to be the aloe with leaves embracing the Ralks, which are reflexed and indented at their edges. The flowers *' growing cylindrical and (lalk flirubby.'" Aloe Afrkana, cau~ lefcens^foliis glaucis cauleni ampleBantibusy The ^' African /word*' aloe." The flowers growing in a pvrimidal fpike, tubulous, and of a bright-red colour. The leaf is not fo thick nor juicy as the femper-vive, but much longer; fome extending five or fix feet, and narrow: but not i'o narrow as the pinguin leaf. The edges of the leaf are fet with fmall prickles, and it rifes tapering from the bafe to the point which. is fliarp. The chief ufe of this plant is for making a kind of vegetable filk, which is manufadtured by the Indians into hammocks, ropes, fifhjng-nets, and many other conveniencies. For this purpofe they lay the blade or leaf upon a flat piece of wood, and, holding it fafl: at one end, fcrape ofi^ the outward green fubftance with a wooden knife, till the filk or fibres appear in straight threads, extending the whole length. After both fides are itraped, it is thrown into clean water, cleanfed from the remaining iTcin and pulp, and, being dried in the fun, is then fit for ufe. There is no doubt but with a little improvement it might be made capable of being worked up into very fine fi:uffs and merchandize. Some of thefe plants, I have been informed, are growing at Wreck' bay near the Healthfliire hills. They might eafily be procured, either from Africa, or fome of the grecnhoufes near London. 175. Jalap, or Four o'Clock Floweu. — Mirabilis. This plant is cultivated here chiefly for the beauty of its flowers, which generally open with the cooler hours; and thence it has obtained its name. The

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BOOK III. C II A P. Vill. 815 The root, fliced and preferved, opens the body. It has fometiincs been dried, powdered, and adniiiiiflered for jalap; i^ purges moderately, but requires to be given in too large a quantity. The root fcarcely differs from that of the true jalap in appearance ; one pound weight of it yields about half an ounce of refin ; but the fame quantity of the true jalap root gives from an ounce and an half to two ounces; and as the purgative quality lies in the refinous part, the difference between the two roots in their operation may be eafily accounted for. The true jalap is a convolvulus plant, climbing upon trees, ha a milky, knotted, multangular, reddidi flalk ; with here and there folitary leaves, which are tender, very green, and heart-formed. The flowers mcnopetalous, with four indentations; the outfide of a pale rofe-colour, but purple on the inlide towards the bottom^ and {landing in a capfulc ; after the flowers follow the feeds, about the fize of peas a little comprefled, and contained in an umbilical c'lfta. The outfide of the root is rugofe, brown, of an oblong form and large. Dr. Houfl;on carried two or three of thefe plants from the Spanifli Weft-Indies to Jamaica, where he fet theai in a garden ; but they were afterwards rooted up and deftroyed by hogs. They are eafily procureable from the Spanifh Main, and might be propagated in this ifland, by a fmall degree of care and attentiort given to fuch as may be introduced for trial. The Afckpias (4th) of Browne^ p, 183. Scandens villofa major, foliis et capfulis majoribus ovatis." Climbing Afckpias with large pods.''' And the 5th of the fame, minor fcandens foliis rariffmiis, floribus paucioribus racemofis racemis fparfis." Smaller climbing Afckpias," which are both claffed by him under, the Ipecacuanha tribe, feem to approach neareft. The former was found in Portland and St. Thomas in the Eafti tlie latter is more frequent in the lower fwampy lands. 176. Barbadoes Pride, or Flower Fence, — Poinciana, This fhrub frequently rifes to the height of fix or feven feet, and bears an elegant flower. Sir H. Sloane calls itfena fpuria, arborea^ fpinofa, or baftard fena, and it comes very near to the Alexandrine-

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8i6 JAMAICA. Jhic! ; for the leaves, when dried and kept for fome time, are with difficulty to be diflinguifhed from that of the (hops, and pofTcfs the fame virtues. The flowers make a delicate red fyrup of a purgative quality, and the root affords 2i fear let dye. The pod likewife refembles the Alexandrine. This plant is fulleft of flowers in the months of November and December, and .the feed ripens in January. I'jj. Bastard Saffron. — Carthamut. This plant was introduced by the Jews, from the Spani{h Main. The flowers are ufed by the Spaniards in all their broths, to give them a yellow colour. They are alfo of ufe in dying. The k.t&, or rather kernel within the feed, is what is chiefly applied to medical preparations ; it is pounded, and the emulfior. taken in water fweetened with honey, or in chicken-broth as a purge. 178. Wild Sage. — Salvia Sylve/iris, arborcfcejis. There are varieties of this fhrub, which grows very common in all the lowlands and hills near the coafl;. The leaves are extremely odoriferous, and feem impregnated with a refinous or balfamic juice. They make an excellent fliomachic and febrifuge tea, which promotes diaphorefis, and relieves the head. When bruifed and applied by way of poultice, they will cleanfe and heal the worft ulcers; they are likewife an admirable vulnerary; and a decoction made with them flirengthens weak limbs or joints : the flavour of the tea refembles what is made with the garden fage, except that it is more .aromatic. c ^ Mefofpharum hirfuium, &c. Br, p. 2 57. 170. SPIKENARD. < n^ /n Ql r a/ ' (^Mentajtriun maximum, bio. Lat. 04. The leaf refembles that of baum, but is much larger ; the ftalk large, f^uare and rough, with a globofe head, full of fmall blue flowers. It grows in great abundance in the low gravelly lands about Kingfton and Old Harbour, rifing to the height of two or three feet. If the tops are fqueezed, a clammy or oleaginous fub.lUnce exfudes, of a flrong odoriferous fcent, like the befl oil of n fpike

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BOOK III. C H A \\ VIII. 8i fpike or nard. It is an annual, and in greateft peifedion about Chriftmas, foon after which none of it is to be feen. It is a powerful provoker of urine, and diflblvent of the flone. Barham mentions an extraordinary cafe of a patient of his, wi;o was relieved under the lall; mentioned diforder, by drinking a flierbet, in which a little fpirit of vitriol, and an oily fpirit extracted from this plant, were infufed ; which produced a large evacuation of gravel and ftones, *' as many (he fays) as would fill the hollow of the hand ;" the confequence of which was, a perfcdl exemption from the like complaint ever after. In urinary obflructions it is a certain fpecific, and is fometimcs adminillered to drive out the fmall-pox. It is one of the mofl: grateful cephalics and alexipharmics of this claf'^, and may be ufed in mofl diforders of the nerves and bowels, where fuch warm medicines are required. 180. Wild Rosemary. — Croion Ric'mo qffinis, odorifera, fruticofa. 181. Wild Tansey. — Ainbrofia ereBa, raniofa. 182. Wild Wormwood. — Parthenium fubhirfutum, ramofum. 183. Jamaica Rues. — Riua murarice. Thefe feveral plants and their varieties pofTefs the feveral virtues and properties in medicinal ufe, fuch as baths and fomentations, that are remarked in European plants of fimilar denomination ; except that the rofemary of this ifland is more aromatic and odoriferous. {^^r r) { Afckp'iai 2. Br. p. 18:?. with a faffronWiLD or Bastard! -^ \ ^1 -^ -n ^ -j coloured or white flower. I Apocynum ereBumfolio oblovgo SI. Cat. 89. f (Jfckpias 3. Br. p. i8j\ uith a o J Lesser bastard climbI flender fbalk. ^* 'j ING Ipecacuanha. ^Apocymim fnitlcofiim fcandens. Si. L L Cat. 89. The roots of thefe two forts were formerly remitted to Europe for the true ipecacuanlia ; but they are attended with bad efFeds on the bowels, adminillered too liberally. The roots are of a dark brown colour, or rather yellowifli caft ; tlie fillures, wrinkles, or corrugations, few ; the back fmooth. Vol. III. S M The

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8i8 JAMAICA. The roots of the true ipecacuanha are brought from Peru and BrafiL The Peruvian have an alh-coloured or hght brown bark; many circular rings, wrinkles, or corrugations, furrounding a firing or nerve in the middle, and feveral fiilures or cracks on the outward bark, reaching quite to the nerve. The mealy parts of the bark and nerve are whitifli. They are brittle, refmous, and have but little fmell. The Brafilian are of a brownifh colour, crooked and rough, having rings like the former, but more rugged. The infide white, and of a bitteridi tafte. Sir H. Sloane fufpedls the firft of the fpurious plants abovementioned to have bad qualities, but condemns the root and juices of the fecond or lejjer Afdepias, as abfolutely poifonous. Although this may ferve by way of caution againft a carelefs ufe of them, yet they probably contain very exalted virtues: as among mankind we often meet with fliining qualities and great abilities, joined to great vices -, fo in the vegetable kingdom, we find the mofl exalted medicinal principles lodged in plants which are vulgarly thought to be poifonous ; fmall dofes well prepared from them, poffefling in abftradl the moft falutary powers in combating with many diflempers; on this account fome of thefe plants, when their nature has come to be fully developed and well underfhood, have ranked amongft the nobleft of the Materia Medica j becaufe they contain more efficacy within a fmall compafs, than a multifarious compofition, made out of many fimples efteemed more innocent. Thofe plants therefore ufually fuppofed poifonous, or violent in the operation of their juices or parts, are proper fubjeds for a further critical examination and analyfis. The wild or fpurious ipecacuanha, firft mentioned, has been medicinally given in this ifland ever fince it became known. The juice of the plant, made into fyrup with fugar, has been obferved to kill and bring away worms in a very effcdtual manner, even when moil other vermifuges have failed ; it is given to children from a tea to a table fpoonful. The juice and pounded plant are applied to flop the blood in frefn wounds, and it is faid to be I a very

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BOOK III. C II A P. Vlir. 8f9 a very powerful aftringent in fuch cafes. The root dried, and reduced to powder, is frequently ufed among the Negroes as a vomit. The dofe from one to two fcruples. To weaken the operation of the root, it may be gently infufed in warm water, which poured off is mildly purgative ; and the root, being afterwards dried and pulverized, will fora- a more fuitable and lenient cathartic for infirm or delicate habits. i86. Bastard-Cabbage. — Spigelia Fceminea. This grows to a confiderable fize. It is reckoned among the bed timber-trees in the ifland ; for which purpofe, it is frequently cut down in all parts of the country. The bark of the female tree is efteemed a very powerful anthelmintic, or deftroyer of worms, and adminiftered either in the powder or dccodion ; but the latter method is preferred, in general, among the white inhabitants, and is thus prepared : Take four ounces of the bark, bruife it well in a mortar, and put it in a proper veffel, with two quarts of water, which mufi: be reduced by boiling to one quart ; then take it off, and let it ftand till it is cool. Strain and bottle it for ufe. It will keep only three or four days. The dofe is, two table-fpoonfuls to children of about two years old, given on an empty flomach, either three mornings fucceilively, or three alternate mornings, according to the child's flrength ; and proportionally for younger, or the more advanced, only not exceeding three fuch fpoonfuls for children under (even years of age. With a due attention to the age and habit of the patient, this medicine may be very fafely adminiftered, and will be found to anfwer the intention mod eiTe6lually. The female tree is not generally known to the Negroes ; but there are feveral among them who are well acquainted with it, and make a profitable bufinefs of gathering and felling the bark, which might be added to the articles of export, and probably find its way into the praftice of the faculty in Great-Britain, upon their having trial of its virtues. 187. Bitter -Wood. — Xylopicron. This tree grows in the mountains to a confiderable fize, and rifing to the height of fifty or fixty feet. The wood, bark, and berries, 5 M 2 have

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^20 JAMAICA. have an agreeably bitter tafte, not unlike that of the orange-feed, and would probably be found excellent medicines, if they were brougiit into ufe. The wild pigeons feed on the berries, and owe all that delicate, flightly-bitterifh flavour, fo peculiar to them in the feafon, wholly to this part of their food. Frefh gathered, they are agreeable to the palate, and fit well on the ftomach. The bark is alfo richly impregnated with the fame juice as well as the wood; and both yield a very pleafant bitter in the mouth, while frefti. The facility, with which this quality is communicated, is very furprizing. An handful of the (havings, butjuft immerfed in water, and inftantly taken out again, will render it of a very bitter tafte. A trough happening to be made of the wood, for watering hogs, it was obferved thofe animals refufed to drink at it. This effedl was firil: difcovered in Jamaica by a fingular accident. A planter, ignorant of the property of the wood, but imagining it to be very convenient for his purpofe, caufed a number of hogfhead-ftaves to be made from one, and remitted his fugars to England packed in the cafks. Some time afterwards, he received advice from his correfpondent, that his fugars were fo intolerably bitter, no perfon would buy them. At firft, he thought this piece of intelligence a meer banter ; but, upon further confirmation of the fa£l, he applied himfelf to difcover the caufe, and upon diligent enquiry found it out. Bedfteads and prefles, made of this wood, are proof againft the invafion of cockroaches, and all other infefts ; none of whom will venture near it. The effluvia, emitted from it, are extremely volatile. Carpenters and others, who are employed to work the wood, perceive a bitterifh tafte in their mouths and throats. I have been very fenfible of the fame effeft only from iitting a little while in a roon) that was floored with it. The decodlicn is ftiid to be of fervice in colics, and to create appetite. The leaves of this tree refemble thofe of the Englifti afti. Browne clafles it among the polyandria. i88. QuASSi. — StuaJJJa arbor. An Ciiharexyhn [pedes} The quafti, quaftiec, or Surinam bitter-wood, was firft noticed at Demarara, the Dutch fcttlemcnt ou the South-American con5 tincnt;

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 821 tincnt ; but, after its virtues came to be publifhed, it was likewife uifcovered to be indigenous to the ifland of St. Chriftopher, and fome of the other Caribbees. It is defcribed as about the fize of an apple-tree, of the pentandria monogynia claf?. The ftyle grows out of the rt/'f.v of two iViiVind: gcrniina ; the berries are bilocular ; the plant itfelf in every part firm ; the root and leaves are of a very bitter tafte, without aroma; the bark by much the bittereft part; if any thing, the leaves are of a flightly-aromatic tafte. It grows in the mountains, and near the fides of rivulets. It is vulgarly called, by the Negroes, the bi/fer ajlj, and is ufed by them to promote abortion. But it is likev.ile proved, fince the white inhabitants brought it into ufe, to be a great fpccific in dropfical cafes. The wood is extremely light, yet firm ; of a pale-yellowifli caft, without fmell, and of a bitter (liarp tafte. It is more bitter than the Jefuits Bark, and does not feem more difagreeable : it is fomewhat lefs aftringent in operation ; and preferred to it by Tiflbt, for the intention of flrengthening a weak flomach, recovering the digeftion, dilTipating flatulencies, and relieving coftivenefs proceeding from debility ; ftill better in all febrile, gaugrenouSj purulent, worm, and convulfive cafes. The following is the method of admmiftering it in pradice at the Windward Iflands. Boil four ounces of the bark in two quarts of water until reduced to one; rack it off; then add a gill of be ft Coniac brandy, which will preferve it from turning four ; and bottle for ufe. A wine-glafs is the dofe for a grown perfon, to be taken twice a day for fwellings, and dropfical cafes. When it is applied in fevers, the wood is pulverized, and the powder given from eighteen to twenty grains, as frequently as the Jefuits Bark is ulually exhibited for the like intention ; or a decoction is made of the wood, and given in as large a quantity as the patient can bear. It is fo inoffcnfive and mild in its nature, that no extraordinary reflri^tions are neceflary in regard to diet. It is uncertain as yet, whether or not we have the fame tree in this ifland ; but the citharexylon, or old woman s bitter, feems to have a very near affinity to it in feveral circumftances. Firft, as to the clafs, the old woman's bitter may not with much imprapriety be ranked among the pentandria mono^nia. It has one ilyle, four

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822 J A M A 1 C A. four pexicd jhiinina, and one iinpcrfcd. The root, uood, and leaves, are very bitrer; but the root has chiefly been admhilftered here in decodion, to promote the locbice, and bring away the afterbirth, for whicli it is thought to be exceedingly powerful, and confequently may alfo occafion abortion, and raay have been ufed for this inhuman purpofe by many of the fem.ile Negroes. The decoiftion is of a fine, reddifh colour, like new Madeira, or rather Azores wine. It grows in the South-fide hills and mountains, and rifes to the height of fourteen or fifteen feet ; in fome places perhaps more. The bloflbms of this tree require a more attentive examination, and fuller defcription of their parts, as well as of the fruit, in order to determine their affinity with a greater degree of precifion. There feems, at prefent, fome ground for believing that the qualities of both are very near alike. However this may be, it is certain the Caribean tree might cafily be propagated here; and it is therefore to be wifhed, that fome gentleman of the ifland would procure and plant feeds, or flips, in order to eftablifli a nurfery, from which the inhabitants in general may, in courfe of a few years, obtain a fupply, and cultivate it extenfively, as its properties feem incomparably better adapted than mofl: other vegetable remedies, hitherto difcovered in the Wefl:-Indics, for the cure of dropfies, and putrid, nervous fevers, which may jufl:ly be called the endemial maladies of the climate. 189. Old Man's Beard. — Renealmia Jili-fonnis, parajit'ica. This flender plant is found upon the trees in many parts of the ifland, particularly on the ebonies in the lowland favannahs. The fibres, when fl:ripped of the outward membrane, or bark, fo much referable black horfe-hair, that the difference can fcarcely be perceived without a clofe inipedion. It is ufed, like horfe-hair, by fadlers and coach-makers, to fluff their panncls, cufhions, &c. It is funk in water till the outward membrane rots ; then taken up, boiled, and wafhed until the fibres are perfcftly cleared ; and, when dry, it is fit for uie. In fome parts of North-America it grows far more luxuriant, and furnifhes an article of exportation. 190. Soap-

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BOOK Iir. CHAP. VIII. 823 190. Soap-tree, or Soap-berry. — Sapindtis. This tree is common in the South-fide hills. It very much refembles the common Euglifli afli in fize, colour of the bark, and (hapeof the leaf; but much diftering in fruit, vvliich is a black, round berry, contained in a (kin appearing like a piece of dried bladder, and very tough. It does not adhere to the berry, but is feparated by a fmall interval, Thefe Ikins, foaked in water, and rubbed with the hands, form a lather, and fcour any fubflance like foap. They are frequently ufed inftead of it ; and a few of them will cleanfe more than fixty times their weight of common foap. But they are obferved to corrode and hurt linen ; and therefore, iinlelstliey could be blended with a fuitable corrective, they are not fo proper for this ufe as the curatoe juice. It is faid, that the aflies of this tree will fpoll a great quantity of pot-a(h, and make it unfit for ufe. This, if true, is a very extraordinary circumftance, and difficult to be accounted for. The feeds of the fruit are round, black, and have a fine polifli. They are frequently converted into buttons and beads by the Spaniards ; and formerly ferved the like purpofcs in England. The feed-capfules, leaves, and bark, pounded and fteeped in ponds, or the deep holes of rivers, are obferved to intoxicate and kill the fifh. The medicinal virtues, if the tree or its parts poflefs any, are not as yet difcovered. 191. Surinam Poison. — Cytifus minor villofus. This plant was introduced from the South-American continent, and is cultivated here for the fake of its qualities. The leaves and branches, being pounded and thrown into a pond, or into a river (where the current is very gentle), are fiirred about, and take almoft immediate efreit. AH tb.e filh are prefently intoxicared, and rife to the lurface ; where they float with the belly upwards, as if they were dead, andareeafily taken. The larger ones foon recover from their trance ; but great part of the fmaller fry perifii on thefe occafions. It feems therefore to be a very pernicious mode of fiihery; and, indeed, is not much prailifed, except in the holes of the mountain rivers, which abound with excellent mullets, but arc fo deep, that the tifn cannot well be caught by any other means. 192. Dog-

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824 J A Tvl A I C A. 192. Dogwood. — Itthyometbia. I'his tree is common in the ifland, particularly the lowlands, where it rlfes to the height of about thirty iect, or upwards. It is one of the bert and motl durable timbers in America, and lafts alnioft equally well in or out of water. It is reckoned not inferior to theEnglifh oak, and refembles it much in the fhape of the leaf. It flowers about May or June, and throws out all its bloffoms before the leaft appearance of any foliage. The flowers, which grow in bunches, cover all the branches in fuch a manner, as to make a veiy beautiful (how. The wood is of a lightiili-brown colour, coarfe, crols-grained, heavy, firm, and rehnous; and makes excellent piles for wharfs. This tree may be j)ropagated from flips, or cuttings; and the flakes foon form a good live-fence. The bark of the root, pounded, is ufed for the lame purpofe, and with the fame eflcft, as the Surinam poifon. It has a very ftrong, rank fmell. The bark of the trunk is very reftringent : a decoftion made with it flops the immoderate difcharge of ulcers, efpecially when it is combined with the mangrove bark; cures the mange in dogs; and would probably anfwer well with the other reftringent barks for tanning leather. The mountain dog-wood tree differs but very little. It grows to a more confiderable fize, infomuch that it may be had, of almoll any dimenfions, for plantation ufe. Its timber is of a rather darker complexion, but efteemed not inferior in durability. 193. Yellow Nick a r. — Guilandia biennis, fejiiinibusjhvefceniibus. 194. Grey Nickar. — Guilandia fpinofa, fetn'mibus cinereis. The feeds, bark, and roots of both thefe fpecies, which are extremely common near the coafl, are thought to be aftringent, and are fometimes adminiftered in gleets. The Indians and Negroes chiefly apply them to this intention; affirming, that they purge off the diforder, and likewife reftore and flrengthen the parts. Thefe plants are common al fo to the Eaftern regions; and the feeds are faid to be made ufe of by the women in Egypt and Alexandria, by way of amulet, ftrung in necklaces, and hung about their children, to guard them from forcery. The grey nickar makes a good fence. 195. Canker-

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 825. 195. Canker-Berry. — Solanum ereStum, bacciferum, cauk tereti aciileatijjimo. The berries of this plant are bitterifli, and efleemed very fcrviceable in fore throats. 196. Bastard Lignum-vit^. — Polygala. 3. Browne, p. 287. There are feveral fpecies of the polygala ; but I take this, which was examined by Mr. Robinfon, to be the baftard lignum-vitt^e, found in the Red Hills, near Spanifh Town, whofe feeds are impregnated with a fine aromatic oil, endued probably with great medicinal virtues: but it requires a further investigation. If it is what is here fuppofed, the wood refembles the gum-guiac in tafte, and is applied to the fame purpofes. 197. Co WITCH, or CowHAGE. — Strlzolob'tum. Sir Hans Sloane tribes this fpecies among the phafeoli. Browne mentions three fpecies ; the third of which is the tragia, with hairy leaves, caufing a violent itching when handled. The two firfl are well known, both in Great-Britain and America, for the like efFe£l produced by the villous coat on their beans or pods. A fyrup, prepared with this hairy covering, is very effedlual in deftroying worms ; and a vinous infulion of the pods (twelve in a quart) is affirmed to be a powerful remedy in dropiies. The roots of all the ipecies are an excellent aperient and diuretic ; and, boiled in oil, they are faid to give relief (externally applied) in gouty inflammations, and the St. Anthony's fire. In worm-cafes, the cowitch is fometimes adminiftered with melafles, and the clarified juice of worm-grafs. 198. BuLL-HoOF, or Dutchman's Laudanum. — Pafjiflora^foIlls tenuiorlbusy trlnervlls, blconiibus, lufiafls,feu anterlorl obttifo. The fyrup and deco£lion of this plant are ufed inftead of, and found to anfvver all the purpofes for which, fyrup of poppies and liquid laudanum are ufnally adminiflered. The flowers are applied to the fame intention, infufed in, or pounded and mixed immediately with, wine or fpiiits j and this compofition is efleemed an cfFeftual, eaiy narcotic. Vol. III. 5 N 199. Rose-

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8a^ JAMAICA. 199. Rose-Wood. — Roiiium. The rofe-wood is found in St. Ann's, and moft hilly parts on the South-coaft, grows to a conliderable iize, and is confideredas one of the moft valuable timber-trees in the ifland. The wood is white, of a curled grain when young, but grows of a dirty, clouded aflicolour with ape, bears a fine polifh, and has a moft agreeable fmell. The younger trees are frequently cut down for fire-wood. They are full of refin, burn very freely, and with a delightful fragrancy. The wood is heavy, and much valued by the cabinet-makers. The berries are of an oblong form, and have much of the tafte of balfam-copaiba. I fhall beg to refer to what has been fiiid of the amyris ; and to recommend thefe trees to further experiment. The Negroes, in thofe parts where they abound, may give fatisfadlory information of the tree, known to them by the name of oil-tree, as well as the feafon of the year, and manner of extrafting the balfam. 200. Prickly Br abila, with fmooth, oval leaves. — Bralila fru~ ticofa^Jplnofa -, foliis ovatis, &c. Browne, p. 370. This fhrub was found near Port Antonio, in Portland. The fruit has all the flavour, and much of the appearance, of the European plum. It is roundifh, fucculent, unilocular, of the fize of a walnut, but the kernel larger, and covered with a ligneous, fhining nut-lhell, perfeftly fmooth; the pulp and ikin of the fruit, of a pale-red colour ; the leaves and foot-ftalks, all of a pale green. The plant rifes to the height of nine feet, or upwards. PLUM-TREES. The plums, commonly fo called in this ifland, are very inferior in good'iefs to thofe of Europe : moft of them confift only of the feed and fkin, with very little pulp or juice between. I fhall mention the moft noted. 20T. Spanish Plum. — Spondias, vel myrobalamis minor, fruSlti hit eo. This is one of the inoft efteemed, and is tolerably pleafant. 202. Tor.

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 827 202. Top-knot Plum. — Myrobalanus minor ^ frudiu purpureo. 203. Maiden Plum. — Comjcladla. The fruit is eatable, though not inviting. The wood is hard, of a fine grain, and reddi(h colour, but adapted only to the fmaller pieces of workmanihip, being only three or four inches diameter. The fruit is about tlie lize of the black-cherry; it turns black when it is ripe, and has a fvveetifli and not unplealant taftc. 204. Damson Plum. — Chryjophyllum, fruSiu m'lnorl glahro. The fruit is full of milk, and retains it even in its moft perfe£l ftate ; but although it is rough and aftringent before the fruit Hpens, yet, when it comes to full maturity, it is fweet, gelatinous, with an agreeable clamminefs, and is very much efteeraed. The juice of the fruit (a little before it is perfcftly ripe), being mixed with a fmall quantity of orange-juice, binds the body in a very extraordinary manner, and doubtlcfs would make a powerful remedy on many occafions. But Browne doubts, whether, if it was infpiflated by fire, the native aufterity of it might not be greatly diminiflied. 205. Cocco Plum. — Chryfohiilanus fnitcofus. This is very common in Portland and Carpenter's Mountains, 3nd feems to thrive bed in a cool, moid foil. It grows to the height of fix or {Q'iQW feet, and bears a fruit not unlike the Englifti plum in fize and fliape. Of thefe fome are red, fome white, and others black, without any eflential difference in the Ihrubs of either fort. The fruit is perfcdly infipid, but contains a large nut, inclofing a kernel of very delicious flavour, which makes up abundantly for the infipidity of the pulp. The fruit of the feveral complexions mentioned have been preferved with fugar, aad fent by way of |>refent to Europe ; but the red and black kinds are generally preferred. -06. Yellow, or Jamaica Plum. — Spondias, follis pinnatisy ovatis, cortice rubenti. 207. Hog -Plum. — Spondias,foHis paucioribus, nitidis. It is,Q[ £.^(y [Q determine, whether thefe two trees are variations only, or ^ffj^i^Qt; fpecics, they fo nearly referable each other. They 5 N 2 rife

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828 JAMAICA. rife to a very confiderable height, whether they are planted in the lowlands or mountains. They produce a large, yellow fruit, of a rankifh fmell, but very pleafant, tart tafte. Hogs and flieep devour very greedily all that fall ripe upon the ground. Dr. Barham mentions, that, after a violent fever, an inflammation and fwelling fell upon both his legs, attended with a pitting, as in the dropfy. A Negroe undertook to cure him, when feveral of his own applications had failed ; and immediately brought him the bark of the firft-mentioned fpccies, with feme of the leaves ; with which he made a bath ; they imparted a flrong tinfture to the hot water, giving it the colour of claret. The doftor kept his legs immerged in it as long as he was able, covering them with a blanket ; had them rubbed very well afterwards with warm napkins, and carefully wrapped up; and, by repeating the operation five or fix times, he became perfeftly recovered, and found his legs reflored to their full flrength and ufe. 208. Prickly Yellow Wood. — Zanthoxylum, caudice Jp'mojd, Ugno fubcroceo. This is common in moft parts of the ifland. It has a leaf like the Englifli afh. The outfide bark is brownifh, fet full of protuberances, about an inch or two inches in length, and as thick as a man's finger, at the extremity of which is a fliort, fliarp prickle. The wood is extremely yellow, and reckoned a good timber. 209. Prickly White Wood. — Zantoxylon, caudice fpinofd, Ugno alb'ido. This grows like the other, only the inner wood is very white. The flowers are fmall, and fucceeded by bunches of triangular, black feeds, which are hotter than Guiney pepper. The Negroes take them as a remedy for the colic ; and a deco6i:ion of the root,, fbr gonorrhceas. 210. Yellow Hercules. — Zantoxylon, arbor aculcata^ fr^ Hercules. This fpecies Browne confounds with the firfl:-mentioned ut it is much thicker fct with pointed protuberances, and tb/ ^''^ o^ mucli

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 829 much greater length. The name given to it was founded on the refcmblance it was fuppofed to bear to the club of Hercules. The wood is very yellow. The blofibms have fome fimilitude to thofe of the cajjiaffula ; after them follows the pod, in fhape and bignefs like a man's thumb. It is fird green, then red, and when ripe turns quite black, containing three or four flat or comprelled feeds. The frefh root, finely fcraped, and applied by way of a poultice, will cleanfe the foulefl ulcers, and heal them. The bark is fomewhat aromatic. The wood of this, as well as the firft-mentioned, are thought by many to be very proper for dying ; but iio experiment (as I am informed) has as yet been made with them, to determine how far they are valuable in this relpecl. They are generally confidered here as timber-trees, and ufed as fuch ia buildings. 21 r. Shrubby Goat-Rue, with round, afh-coloured leaves. — Ga^ lega frutlcojay nonfpimfa, fraxinl folio rotimdiore. This plant grows chiefly in the lowlands, near the Tea. It is fuppofed, that the leaves would produce a dye not inferior to indigo; and, if this fhould be demonflrated by experiment, it feems preferable for cultivation in many parts of the lowlands, as it may be raifed, with little trouble, in dry and poor foils, where the indigo plant cannot be brought to thrive. It rifes to the height of fix or feven feet, the trunk of a dark afh colour, and bears many long, cylindrical pods, full of feveral oblong, oval feeds,by which it might eafily be propagated. 212. Fu STICK. — Morus, foliis oblong'is acuiis, lig?io chrino. This is one of the moil: valuable trees in the ifland, whether we conlider its ufe in dying, or the excellence of its timber; the latter quality, indeed, has proved fatal to fo many of them, that, un'efs care is taken to propagate from the feed, it is likely to become "V^y fcarce. The fruit, in fize, colour, and flnape, refembles the wh.Q mulberry ; it is inperfeftion in March and April. It is lubaUij^ggj^j-^ cooling, and makes an excellent gargle for fore mouth^j^j throats. The afhes of the wood yltld a lalt, which, S^^^^^ '^'"'e quantity of ten grains, with mithridate, for three or four.

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Sjo } A M A I C A. four lucceffive day&, is highly reeominended by fome authors for the gout and rheumatilm. It is painful to reflecl on the vaftnunaber of thefe, and other valuable woods in the ifland, which have been annually cut down, for burning, and other trifling purpofes ; for which many other trees, of lefs worth, would have been equally fit. This devaftation is fo inconfiderately made, and fo extenfive, that the whole clafs might, by this time, have been exterminated from Jamaica, if the birds and other animals had not replenilhed it, in the lefs frequented parts, with young plants. Thus much m:iy be faid for the fettlersi that, upon opening land for a plantation, it is neceffary to clear the whole wood away; which is not the cafe in farming pafture grounds -, but when the confideration happens, which trees fhall be cut down, and which fpared, fuch a crowd is found, of what are valuable and ufeful for lome or other important purpofe, that the choice is difficult. Yet, as moft eflates are pofleHed of wafte land, what deferves to be recommended is, the planting nurferies of the moft ufeful trees on fuch lands; which if any number of perfons were to do, the feveral fpecies would foon be propagated by birds, and other means, in moft parts of the ifland, where, at prefent, they are fcarce, or not to be met with; and, at a fmall expence, a fure foundation laid of great future profit. 213. Turkey Blossom. — Tribulus folils fex jugatis, fuljcequalibuSf Jiore amplo odor at 0. This plant is common about Kingfton, and fome other parts ; It is a fpreading creeper, and grows luxuriantly. It is cultivated in gardens for the fake of its flowers, which have an agreeable odour. The fowls, particularly turkies, are fond of the bloflbms, which are thought •to heighten the flavour, as well as contribute to the fattening of them. 214. Bastard Cedar. — Theobroma foliis ferratis, friiStu minor' fcabro. This tree is peculiar to the low-lands, where it adorns the pa''^'''^^^, forms a neceffary fhadc for cattle, and in dry fealbns fupplics th ^^'^" food, from its leaves and fmnller twigs. On this account, ''"^ ^'^ve. piade ret^ular plantations of it ; and the birds or rats take c" ^ propagate

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 831 gate it in all the furrounding hedges. The leaves refcmble the Englifh hazel; the fruit feems to be of the mulberry kind; it is green at firft, but turns black and hard in its ripe ftate. A little before it ripens, it has a pleafant, fweet tafte, and is frequently eaten by the Negroes, either raw or boiled, as a green in their broths. It is agreeable to cattle, fheep, hogs, and goats, who are faid to fatten upon it. The flowers are yellowifh, and very odoriferous, having much the fragrancy of the Englifh hawthorn bloflbm. I'he wood is light, and fo eafily wrought, that it is generally ufed here by coach and chaifemakers^ for their lide pieces. 215. Job's-Tears. — Coix feminibus ovatis. This plant grows wild every where in the woods, and is excellent fodder for cattle. It has all the appearance of a reed, and rifes to the height of four feet, or upwards. If it is the fame as that of the Archipelago, and which is cultivated alfo in Spain and Portugal, the grain or feeds may be ground to flour, and made into a coarfe, but nourifhing, kind of bread ; to which ufe it is applied by poor people in thofe countries, when a fcarcity happens of other grain. Sloane calls it the larger pannic grafs, claffing it with the Negroe Guiney corn, and Guiney wheat. The other fpecies of the coix has angular feeds, but equally applicable to the fame ufes in oeconomy. The feeds are ftrung in necklaces for infants, in order to help dentition, but of their efficacy for this purpofe I can fay nothing. 216. Broad-leafed Broom-Weed. — Sida humlUor^foUis ovatis ferratis alternis. This is very common in all parts of the ifland, and grows in the very pooreft foil. It is toxigh, and, being generally at hand, ferves for brooms. It feems to be fomewhat of the malvaceous kind, the leaves and lender buds containing a large quantity of mucilage; and lathering with water, like foap. For this quality, it is fometimes ufed in (having wafhes, by luch perfons as cannot conveniently bear the fmell and acrimony of foap. The larger cap-roots ferve for toothbruflTies, for cleanfing the teeth and gums. The Negroe women, when their children are fcabby, often make a bath with the IcaveSji to cleanfe their ikins, and make them thrive. It has.

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832 JAMAICA. has unqueftionably other medicinal iifes, which, in the multiplicity of healing plants, with wlilch the ifland e\'ery where abounds, are difregarded. It bears a yellow flower, which opens every day about an hour before the fun comes to the meridian ; fo that this, and the mlrab'llis, or four o'clock flower, are a fort of vegetable fun-dials, correfponding (where the days are fo nearly of equal length throughout the year) with tolerable exaftnefs to determine hours or flations of the fun, in the fore and afternoon. 217. Alligator Apple, or Gork-VVood. — Annona uliginofa aquatica. It grows in great abundance about the Southfide lagoons, and on the banks of feveral rivers. The fruit or apples are large, and of a cold watery quality, efteemed highly narcotic, and even poilonous; but of the latter, we have no certain proof: when they are ripe, and drop into the water, the alligators watch their falling, and at the proper leafon of the year, are faid to fubfift chiefly upon them. They have a fweetifh tafle, but, perhaps, the crudity and coldnefs of their juice might make them a fort of poifon to the ftomach in this climate, where even melons and cucumbers, not duly correfted, will fometimes convulfe ir. The wood of this tree is fo extremely light, that it is commonly ufed by way of cork, to fl:op jugs, bottles, and cafks 3 and it makes excellent floats for fifhing nets. 218. Great Reed Mace. — Typha fol'ils fub-enfi-formlbus. This plant abounds in the lagoons, fwamps, and rivers, on the South fide. The leaves dried make good mats, and a convenient thatch, which will lafl feveral years. 219. Morass, or Morass Weed. — Ceratophyllum. This is very common in all the brackifli rivers, and other waters ; and is generally ufed for covering fifli, or aquatic plants, inch as watercrefs, and the like, that are fent fome difl:ance inland ; for it i-etains a great deal of moifiure, which keeps them frefli and cool for a coiiliderable time. Where it can conveniently be obtained, it is very proper to be laid round the tender feeds of the cacao, for a few days after they are planted, or about the young plants ; it might likewife be found a, ufeful

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 83 J iifeful wrapper for jars ojpots oifrejh butter, fent to any place remote from that where it is manufadured; as from Pedro's Cockpits to Spanifli Town or Kingfton. 220. TurtleGrass. — Alga foUis angujlh fere Unearibus. This plant grows in moft of the fandy fiiallow bays round the iiland, and is the favourite food of the manatee and turtle. 221. Larger Tt/rtle Grass, with Fleshy Roots. — Alga foliis planh angujlis, radice nlbd geniculate.. Is found in the fame places, and ferves the fame purpofes as the foregoing. 222. P0RGING Sea Bind-Weed, or Scammony. — Convolvulus maritimuSifoliis nitidis, fubrotundis emarginat'ts, Gfc. Br. p. 153. 223. Christmas Gambol. — Convolvulus Polianthos glaber undique repens. Br.p. 153. The firll: fpecies grows generally near the fea, and is very common, in many parts of the ifland ; it creeps a confiderable way, and throws out fome fhort foliated branches from fpace to fpace as it runs ; the leaves are beautifully veined. The root is a ftrong purgative, and fometimes fuccefsfully u fed in dropfical cafes. The whole plant is full of a milky juice. The fecond is common about Spanifh Town, fpreads very thick about all the buflies near it ; blooms about Chriftmas, and bears a great number of white fragrant flowers. All the parts of the plant are fmooth. The milky juice of both thefe plants, boiled to a confiflcnce, makes Vi-fcammony, proper for the fhops. The beft fort is light, greyifh, tender, and brittle, of a bitter tafte, but flightly pungent, and faint unpleafant fniell. 224. Broom Weed. — Corcta folils minoribiis ovatis. This plant is extremely common. It grows in dry Tandy places, fcldom rifing above two feet and an half from the root, and Is converted by the Negroes into beefoms. Vol, 111. 5 O 225. MouN-

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§34 JAMAICA. 225. Mountain Broom. — Chryfocoma arborea ramojijfwia ramuUs teretibus, &?<:. Br. p. 316. This IS found only in the coldeil parts of the mountains. It refembles the European broom, and is applicable to the fame ufes. 226. Ebont. — Brya arborefcens, eredia fplnoja: There are two forts, the black and the white; they grow every where in the Southfide favannahs. They bear a flower, refembling that of the Englifli broom ; feldom rife above 1 8 feet, and in the largeft part of the ftem do not exceed 5 inches diameter. It is a fine timber wood, has a fmooth even grain, which takes a good polifh, and is very proper for bed-pofts, and a variety of turnery ware; for thefe purpofes the black is generally preferred, whofe heart is the complexion of jet. There is likewife a baftard ebony, called mountain ebony, which is of a dark brown. An oil diftilJed from their wood is faid to cure the tooth-ache, applied with cotton. The fmaller twigs of each fpecies arein common ufe for making brooms, and rods for the corre6lion of delinquent flaves. 227. Basket Withe. — Toumeforiia recUnata, dffufa, ct h'lrfnta, foliis ovatisf&c. Br. p. 169. This plant, which feems to have fome affinity with the turnfole, grows very luxuriantly, and ftretches fometlmes many feet from the main root. It is commonly ufed in the country parts for making dung-balkets. 228. Supple Jack-. — Paulinia farmentofa, ^c. Br. p. 212. This plant is very common in the woods. It has a flender, ligneous ftalk, and generally rifes to a confiderable height, with the help of the neighbouring bufties. For its toughnefs and flexibility, it is ufually cut into junks, barked and ufed for riding fwitches, and the larger pieces for walking-flicks; and many are annually remitted to Great Britain. After being kept fome time, they become very brittle, and apt to fplit, unlefs rubbed now and then with oil. The juice of the leaves is a great vulnerary; and the fruit, or pea, intoxicates fifli. There is another fpecies in the Leeward, or Weftern parts of the ifland. The junks arc commonly known there by the name of ciidjoes ; I they

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIIT. ^35 'tliey are pcrfeiJlly ftralght, fmootb, and without knots, on which account they might anfvver better for a remittance. 229. Barbadoes Cedar. — Cedrela foliis majoribus plnnatis^ ligm levi odorato. This is extremely common among the interior mountainous parts, and grows to a prodigious fize, being frequently found of 3 to 5 feet diameter at the bafe, and proportionably lofty. The timber is full of a refinous fubftance; it is light, eafily worked, and gives a fragrant fmell; for which reafons, it has always been in efteem for wainfcotting, and a variety of cabinet ware. The fhingles made from it are extremely durable, and therefore reckoned the cheapeft covering of the kind. It is not fo well adapted for calks, efpecially for thofe intended to contain fpirituous liquors, which readily diflblve and become impregnated with the refin, fo as to acquire a ftrong bitter tafte. It is the beft wood known for canoes and petiaguas, as well as for wherries, and all other veflcls, ufed for plying round the idand, or in thefe feas, as the worm will not invade it, fo long as the refin continues. The gum, which may be eafily extrafted from the tree, is tranfparent, diffolves in water, and very proper for the fhoemaker's ufe. 230. Bermudas Cedar. — Junlperus foUoIis inferioribus ternis, ^c. Br. p. 362. This is likewife a native of the ifland and grows in moft of the higher parts of the Blue Mountains. It is juftly admired for its clofe, even grain, and agreeable fmell, and in common ufe for cabinet ware, pencils, and other conveniencies. The gum, or refin, has an antiputrefactive quality, and may be ufed to preferve other fubfi:ances from the erofion of worms and infedts. 231. Bastard Mammee, or Santa Maria. — Mali perfica Manimea di£l(e,Jpec. folio longlore arbor maxima., &c. SI. Cat. 180. This is one of the tallefl; timber trees in the ifland, many of them exceeding 80 feet. The bark is afli -coloured, and furrowed. As they rife fliraight and tapering, they have formerly been ufed for fhips mafts, and thought preferable, for their toughnefs, to the fir or pine. They are likewife ufed for the fweeps and arms of fugar-mills. <; O 2 Barham

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836 'J 'A M A I C A. Barham mentions, that a Spaniard prefented him once with a green balfam, of a beautiful colour, and pleafant fmell, which he faid was the fineft remedy in the world for frefli wounds, but could not tell from what tree it was obtained. Some time after, a Negroe brought him fome balfam, exactly the fame in colour and fmell, which he got from the baftard mammee, and the doftor found it to be an excellent medicine; for, uporv diflblving, and appl}ing it to a frcfh cut, it healed the part with two dreffings. The Spaniards, when it is juft gathered, put it into cafes made of the hollow joints of the trumpet tree, and call it the admirable balfam ; but it is for fome extraordinary virt\ies difcovered in it, that they have honoured the tree with a confecratlon to the Virgin Mary, and chriftened it after her name. 232. Mammee. — Mammea. The two fpecies of this tree are good timbers, and much alike; but their fruit differs. It is large, and round, but comprefled, covered with a thick ruffet coat. The pulp of one fpecies red, of ,the other white.. The latter is the moft efteemed, for, when ripe, it is perfedly lufcious, and moft refembles the apricot in flavour, fo much indeed, as fcarcely to be diftinguiftied. The pulp of both forts is firm, before it is perfedlly ripe, and would make an exceeding fine fweetmeat or preferve. It is faid, that they who plant the ftone or feed of thefe trees, ne** ver live long enough toeat of their fruit." The foundation of this notion is, that they are near fifty years in growth from the time of planting, before they begin to bear. The wild hogs feed on the feeds, which are a very fattening diet for them. 233. Mountain Guava. — Pfidhim arborcum maximum, foliis ovatis nitidis, lignofufco, &c. Br. 239. This fine timber tree grows to the height of 60 or 70 feet, and proportionably thick. Its wood is of a dark colour, and curled grain, works eafily, and takes a fine polifh. It makes very beautiful walkingflicks, and is a proper article for exportation to Great Britain, where it would, doubtlefs, be greatly approved of. 234. Brasiletto.

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIIL S37 234. Brasiletto. Ccefalpina arbor ea^ inermis. Id. Id. fpinofa. This grows in great plenty in moll: of the Southern rocky hills near the coaft. It is thought a very excellent timber, though in general of fmall diameter. J?' The wood is elaflic, tough, and durable, takes a fine polifh, is of a beautiful deep orange colour inclining to red, full of refin, and yields an excellent tinfture by infiilion. Its life among the dyers is well known. The true BrafUan is a large tree, with a reddifli and thorny bark; the leaves fmall, obtufe, of a fine fiiining green ; the flowers a little fweet, of a beautiful red hue ; the pods flat and prickly, containing two compfelled feeds, like thofe of the gourd. There are two fpecics in Jamaica, one of which is equal in rednefs to the.Brafillan, and containing a red gum, or refin, of an aftringent tafle. The wood tough and flrong, and ufed by the wheelwrights, who fay It makes the befl fpokes for wheels. A dccodtion of the wood is thought to be fl:omachic. A red ink is made with the rafplngs in the following manner: infufe them in vinegar, or fome flrong lixivium, and with gum arable, or cafliew glim, and a little allum, put into a glazed earthen pot, gently lltep them for a few hours. it is fometimes ufed to colour tooth-brufties. 235. Pigeon Wood, or Zebra Wood. — Arbor foUis oblongo ovatis Jpicillis alaribiis, CsJc. Br. p. 368. This fhrubby tree is generally found in the mountains. It rifes to about 18 feet in height, and rarely exceeds 5 Inches in the diameter of its trunk. The wood is hard, of a clofe even grain, bears a good polilli, and is beautifully ftriped and clouded. It is often remitted to Great Britain, and ufed among the cabinet-makers chiefly for fineering. It refembles, in the colouring of the wood, what is called the breadnut in St. Ann's; but the latter is a tree of much larger diameter; both are very proper for cabinet-work, and therefore valuable for export. This is not what is commonly called zebra wood, although it well deferves the name, for the uniformity of its flripes. 1 he fpecies of zebra wood at prefent in efleem among the cabinetmakers, is brought to Jamaica from the Mofquito fhore; it is of amoft lovely

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838 JAMAICA. lovely tint, and richly veined; but not In lifts like the pigeon wood: the latter nuich better correfponds with the zebra fkln In the dlfpofitlon of its ftripes, and the other leems to have the nearer refemblance in its general colouring and ground. Both of them are exceedingly elegant, and would probably give the beft effedt by a \^i?ll-fancled intermixture on fineered work. 236. Smooth Acacia, or Acac'ui I'el m'lviofa fruticofa, inermis, diffuja major ^jiorejiavo odoratijfimo. This tree grows to a large fize, and is found in great abundance in the neighbourhood of Paffage Fort, and the Bridge River in St. Dorothy. It Is luxuriant, and fpreadlng. It is efteemed a good timber wood, and uled for building fmall craft, and wharf piles, on account of its being off^nfive to the worm, tough, and lafting. The w^ood is of a firm grain, beautiful brown colour, very glofly when pollflied, and though it ft:lnks worfe than ajj'afaiida when firil cut, it acquires, by keeping, a perfume, or agreeable odour, very iimilar to that of the rofe-wood. It feems to be largely impregnated with a refin, which probably is not without fome valuable quality. Both the bark and roots of this tree afford a red dye, at prefent unati tended to. 237. Manchineel. — Hippomane arbjreum laSlefcem. Browne, 351^ This tree feems peculiar to the lowlands, and is rarely found at any confider.ible diftance from the lea. The wood makes very hnndlome furniture, refembling in appearance the Englifli oak, or wainfcot ; but takes a finer polifh. The hewers ufually make a fire round the root, and burn lome depth into the trunk, before they venture to cut it. The fire is fuffered to prey upon It till very little remains to be done by the axe. The lawyers and carpenters, who work it up, generally cover their mouths and noftrils with crape, in order to exclude the finer particles from getting down their throats. Upon enquiry among the Negroes, I could not learn that they fuffered any inconvenience from drops of the juice, which were accidentally fj)urtcd upon their fkin whilft they were employed in felling the trunk, or hacking off the limbs: but they informed me, that, if any chanced to flic into their eye, it would give them a feverc

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIIT. 839 vere pain for feveral hours afterwards, occafioning an Inflammation, wliich was relievable by applying lime-juice to the part. The flories, related of the fruit or apple of this tree, are certainly to be clalled amongft vulgar errors. The romantic tales of the early voyagers and travelers into America have been copied by different writers; and the credibility of their relations, thus built upon a feries of fuch frail authorities, has at length been received as authentic and indifputable. Moll of thele hiflorians affirm, that ' the apple is lovely to the eye, pleafant to the tafte, but mortal in its effedls ;" and that certain failors, having taken re" fuge from fudden Ihowers of rain under the branches of this tree, were terribly bliftered in their Ikins by the drops which trickled from the leaves." It is true, that the apple bears fomc fimilitude, viewed at a fraall difhmce, to the Englifh crab-apple j but the crab-apple was never admired for lovelinefs of afpedl. It feldom exceeds an inch in diameter, is of a yellowifh colour when ripe, and has fcarcely any pulp at all; the fruit conlifting of the outer ikin, or rind; a pulp about as thick as a wafer ; and then the ftone, or feed, which is perfectly hard and inedible. Its tafte is bitterifh ; and, when it is green, acrimonious, like the hulk of the ca(Iiew-nut ; which muft necefllirily render it fo difguftful, that no perfou could eat it in tliis ilate for pleafure. A gentleman of my acquaintance, who was fond of making experiments, to fatisfy himfelf upon doubtful points, cut the green fruit ; and a fmall quantity of glutinous juice ifllied out at the wound. He tailed this, and likewife the bark and leaf of the tree ; but could perceive only a flight aftringency on his tongue. He then cut deeper into the bark of the trunk, and tafted feme of the milky juice that' oozed out. He obferved that it tingled his tongue gently, and rendered his falroa thin and fluid. He afterwards tailed the fruit nearly ripe, and, chewing the riper part, found it perfedly infipid. From thefe fails it appears, that, when green, the juice of the fruit is difagreeable from its acrimony, and, when ripe, for its infipidity. Browne fays, that he has known many perfons who have ignorantly ate of the fruit, which they had millaken for crab-apples ; that •

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840 J A M A 1 C A. that thcv generally vomited in a fliort time, and continued to complain ol" a burning heat in the mouth, throat, and ftomach, for feveral hours alter. He adds, that he never iiad known any one to die by eating this fruit, though he had feen fome who had eaten ftine or fen ot the apples at a time; and that oily emullions and mixtures give fpeedy relief to thole who are difordered with them. Barham, indeed, mentions the cafe of a Negroe man, who ate feveral of them, with a wilful and premeditated defign of deflroying himfelf ; that he complained of great heat and burning in his flomacli, but could not vomit; that his tongue fwelled,-his eyes were red and flaring ; and he was inceiiantly calling for water till he expired. Confidering this Negroe's intention to commit felf-murder, as well as the iymptoms which followed, I think we may conclude, that he chofe the green, and not the ripe fruit for the purpofe. The white land-crabs are fond both of the leaves and fruit. But I have known perfons taken extremely fick at their fl:om?chs after eating thefe crabs, and who were not relieved until they had difgorged, by drinking plentifully of warm water and oil. I remember a Negroe who continued ill for three days, from a meal he had made on thefe crabs, but, without recourfe to medicine, was relieved by natural evacuations downwards, and was perfectly well after them. Sir Hans Sloane gives us an example of a turner, whofe eye became extremely inflamed and fwelled with fome of the juice, which fpurted into it as he was felling one of thefe trees. Sir Hans ordered him to be bled, gave him a purge of extr. nid. and ordered him to wet his eye very often in cold water, and apply wet brown-paper continually, to cool the part. With thefe applications he was cured in three days. He likewife fpeaks of a man who zlefour of the apples, yet was not much hurt. It is plain froni hence, that the trunk and unripe fruit contain an acrid juice, which operates like other materials of the like nature, exciting heat, irritation, and thirft, when Iwallowed and received into the flomach, producing fuch a pungency on the throat, and tender, nervous coats expofed to its adtion, as greatly to diforder the whole

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 841 whole fiMme, and bring on very bad fymptoms, and fomctlmes death; but that the juice, when matured and conco6ted as we find' it in the ripe fruit, lofcs much of this acrimony, and, though ftlll unpleafant in its operation upon the bowels, docs not produce mortal effeds, unlefs perhaps in very weak and delicate habits ; but, as to thefe latter, I fpeak only from conjedure. ' That the fruit fliould fometimes produce violent irritation, andat other times be chewed, and even fwallowed, without any difagreeable confequence, can only be accounted for by fuppofing, that perfons of ftronger or weaker habits are differently affedcd by it ; and that the juices of the fruit may poffibly vary much in the different flages of its advance to maturation, and until the exadt time of its being thoroughly ripe, when, by a perfed fermentation and concodion, their acrimony is almoft fubdued. It is not unlikely alfo, that the juices of this tree may be more poignant and cauftic in the hot months, than during the cooler feafons of the year, becaufe the fap in thofe months is more redundant and aftive. It is well known, that -goats, and even fheep (Tertre adds, macaws), feed very greedily upon the fallen fruit, when it is in a flate of perfe£t maturity, and doubtlefs refolve it into wholefome nourifliment. Inftindl, which determines the choice of thefe animals, points out this as an aliment not baneful (at leafl: to them) ; for they fufFer no injury from it. Barham obferves, that, however venomous the crude juices of the tree may be, they depofite this quality fo foon as they become concoded ; that the milk, which oozes out at the bark, hardens in time, and turns to a fi^ie gum, which he adminiflered inwardly many times, miftaking it for gum gii'tacum, and not knowing that the Negroes, of whom he bought it, had put a cheat upon him, and fold him the one for the other. But, after he difcovered the fraud, and perceived no ill effefl refulting from it, nor any other than what the giiiacum itfelf ufually produces, he continued to give it, generally diflblved in redihed fpirit of wine, making a tinclure which the niceft eye could not diftinguifh from tindure of guiac. He infifls, that it poflcfles all the virtues of the other J and that he had found it, by experience, to be a fpecitic for Vol. III. ^ P the

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842 JAMAICA. dropfy, carrying off all the watery humours by ftool and urin, only taking care, after the water was evacuated by the gum, to give a decoflion of contrayerva and fteel, to ftrengthen the lymphatic veflels, &c. The gun"! of this tree is moftly of a light-reddi{h, or yellowifh caft ; the gulacum, moft commonly of a deep green, when held up to the light. The tincture of the latter gives a milky appearance, when a few drops are let fall into a glafs of water, 1 believe the one has veiy often been ignorantly fubfrituted for the other ; yet, if Barham's veracity is to be relied on, which I think it is, there is not much room for apprehenfions from the confequence. The gum is mofl: plentiful upon thefe trees in the month of February; and it is to be wiOied. its nature could be more accurately examined and put to the ted. Upon the whole of the fads, which I have either known, or here delivered, I find no fufBcient ground for the llories related of this tree ; though, 1 readily confefs, thefe tiftions may have their' ufe, as cautionary to ftraggling failors, and others, againft fmarting for the rafli indulgence of a liquorifh appetite upon every occafion ; ; for they are too prompt to eat of any fruit that falls in their,, way, without knowing or confidering the elfeds it may produce on their health. In regard to the odour of the ripe fruit, it is faint, and far from being inviting. 23). Mahogany. — Cedrelu, foUis pinnaiis, Jlorihus fparjis, Ugm graviori. This graceful and valuable tree, which furniHies a conllant (hare towards the annual exports from tlic ifland, grew formerly ia very great abundance along the coaft j but, having been almoll exterminated from thofe parts in procefs of time, it is at prelcnt tound chiefly in the woodland, mountainous receflies, where vaft quantities of it f^ill remain, particularly in the uncultivated diftridts of Clarendon, and the leeward parillies. It thrives in moff foils, but varies in its grain and texture. What grows in rocky ground is of fmall diameter, but proportionably of clofer grain, heavier weight, and more beautifully veined. What is produced in low, rich, and moift lands is larger in dimenllon.^, xnore

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BOOK nt. CHAP. VIIL 8^ more light and porous, and of a paler complexion. This qonilitutes the difference between the Jamaica wood, and that which is colleded from the coaft of Cuba and the SpaniOi Main; the former is moflly found on rocky eminencies; the latter is cut in fwampy foils, near the fea-coaft. The fuperior value of the Jamaica wood, for beauty of colouring, firmnefs, and durability, may therefore be eaifily accounted for ; but, as a large quantity of balks and plank is brought from the SpaniOi American coafts to this ifland, to be fhipped from thence to Great Britain, the dealers are apt to confound all under the name of Jamaica wood, which in fome meafure hurts the credit of this ftaple produftion. The tree grows tall and ftrait, rifing often fixty feet from the fpur to the limbs ; the foliage is a beautiful deep green ; and the appearance, made by the whole tree, fo elegant, that none would be more ornamental for an avenue, or to decorate a plantation. It generally bears a great number of capfiilce in the feafon. The flowers are of a reddifh or faffron colour ; and the fruit, of an oval form, about the fize of a turkey's egg. It is eafily propagated from the feeds, and grows rapidly. Some of them have reached to a monftrous fize, exceeding one hundred feet in height, and proportionably bulky. One was cut, a few years fince, in St. Elizabeth's, which meafured twelve feet in diameter, and cleared to the proprietor above 500/. currency. The value of it, either for fale, for ufe, or beauty, being fo great, it is amazing that it is not more cultivated on wafte lands, of which every proprietor has fome within his range. Thofe particularly, who have families, might by this means apply the worft part of their trails to produce a future fortune for their younger children. We may imagine the plenty of it in former times here, when it ufed to be cut up for beams, joifis, plank, and even fhingles. But it is now grown fcarce, within ten or twelve iniles from the fea-coail ; and mull every year become ftill fcarcer, and confequently dearer, unlefs nurferjes, or plantations, are formed of it in places where the carriage is more convenient for the market. In felling thefe trees, the moll beautiful part is commonly left behind. The Negroe workmen raife a fcatlolding, of four or five 5 P 2 feet

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844 JAMAICA. feet elevation above the ground, and hack oif the. trunk, which they cut up into balks. The part below, extending to the root, is not only of largefl: diameter, but of aclofer texture than the other parts, moft elegantly diverfified with {hades or clouds, or dotted, like ermine, with black fpots; it takes the highefl polifh, with a fingular luftre, fo firm as even to reflect objefts like a mirror. This part is only to be come at by digging below the fpur to the depth of two or three feet, and cutting it through ; which is fo laborious an operation, that few attempt it, except they are uncommonly curious in their choice of the wood, or to ferve a particular order. Yet I apprehend it might be found to anfwer the trouble and expence, if fent for a trial to the Britilh market; as it could not fail of being approved of beyond any other wood, or eventortoife-fhell, which it moft refembles. It feeds in May. 239. Sand-box. — Hura. This tree is cultivated chiefly for ornament, and the fine fhade it yields. It loves a deep, rich foil, and thrives beft near water. It rifes to the height of about thirtyfive or forty feet, and expands its branches to fuch a diftance, as fometimes to caft a fhade of fixty feet diameter. But, by reafon of the quicknefs of its vegetation, its parts are of fo loofe a texture, that a loud clap of thunder, or a fudden guft of wind, frequently caufes the largcft boughs to fnap afunder. Nor is its trunk of any ufe, except for fire-wood. The fruit is flat and round, difpofed regularly into cells, each inclofing a flat feed. When the feeds are taken out, the fhell, which is very firm, is converted into a box for holding lettcr-fand. The feeds, roafted, purge upwards and downwards with great violence: they contain an acrid juice, which fcakls the mouth and throat, and are therefore very properly rejected from the ttmteria medica. The leaves are often applied with great fuccefs to the head in fevers, to mitigate, or remove, the pain and tenfion in that part. 240. French

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 845 240. French Oak. — Bignonia, foHis ovatisy cordatis, fmplicibus, cauk ere£fo, arborea, &c. This beautiful tree is cultivated likewife for ornament by the curious. It thrives luxuriantly in the lowlands, as well as in the mountains, and is generally looked upon as a good timber-tree. 241. Jerusalem Thorn. — Parkenfonia acukafa. This Is an ornamental, fhrubby tree, firft introduced here from the Spanifii Main, for making in clofu res. It feldom grows to any confiderable fize ; but it makes a beautiful appearance with its flender filiques, and is cultivated in many gardens. 242. PviNGWORM-BUSH. — Cqffia fiUquis quadrialatis, &c. This plant is now very common in mofl parts of the South-fide. The flowers and juice of the leaves are compounded into an unguent for deftroying ringworms. 243. Yellow Thistle. — Argemone Jpinofum. This grows in all the fandy favannah foils. The feeds are efteemed an excellent remedy in diarrhoeas and bloody fluxes. They work by ftool and vomit. But the faculty deem them rather too draflic. The ftem contains a milky, glutinous juice, which turns in the air to a fine bright yellow colour, and, when reduced to confiflence, is not diftinguifhable from gamboge. In very fmall dofes, it is probably of equal virtue given in dropfies, jaundice, and cutaneous eruptions. Barham relates, that the feeds are a much ftronger narcotic than opium, and gives the following hiflory of their efte*Els. A runaway Negroe, who had been fome time abfent from his mafter, lived by fkaling poultry, iheep, and other ftock. One night he came to the fheep-fold, vvhicli was guarded only by a feeble old man, and demanded a (heep. The old man, not being able to oppofe him by force, had recourfe to flratagem, gave him good words, and invited him to fmoak a pipe ; to which the other confenting, he immediately flepped afide to fill the pipe, taking care to mix a quantity of the feeds of this plant among the tobacco; and, before the thief had fmoaked it half out, he fell into a moft profound nap.

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845 JAMAICA. nap, and was eafily fecured. The fame gentleman mentions, that a ftcer, having fuddenly dropped down dead, was opened, and feveral handfuls of this feed found in his ftomach ; to which he doubtlefs owed his death. It appears from hence, that, although dangerous in a large quantity when received into the flomach, yet the feeds might be, on fome occafions, fafely ufed after the manner of tobacco, and produce the fame effeds as opium, which fome flomachs cannot bear in the fmalleft dofe. 244. Bay BERRY, or Wild Clove. — Caryophyllus. This is common to moll: of the Weft-India iflands, and grows to a confiderable fize. It fills the woods with the fragrance of its leaves, which nearly refemble thofe of cinnamon ;.and the berries .agree with the Oriental clove very much both in form and flavour. 245. Stinking Eryngo, or Fit-Weed. — Eryngium Fcetidum. All the parts of this plant are reckoned very powerful anti-hyflericks, and moft ufed by the Negroes and poorer Whites on all occafions of that nature. It is chiefly adminiflered in decodions, or infufions. 246. Wild Olive. — Non-defcrtpt. The tree commonly known by this name is remarkable for its durability in the earth, or under water. A melafles ciftern, made with it, after lying fourteen years, being taken up, was found entirely firm and undecayed. The wood is finely grained; and {o hard, as to turn the edge of the workman's tools. I have fet it down as a non-defcript, not knowing to what clafs it is referable, nor having feen any more of it than the wood. But I fufped it is the olive-mangrove, or bontia, of Browne, p. 263. f Spanish Elm, or r — Gerafcanthus. Browne, p. 170. ^'' 1 Prince Wood. \ — Cordia,foHis ovatis, intcgerrimis. L. Sp. This is efteemed one of the befl timber-trees in the ifland. The wood is of a dark-brown colour, and gently ftriped. It is tough and claftic, and tafily worked. The tree rifes to a confiderable height, but fcldom exceeds twenty or thirty inches diameter ; cf2 pccially

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 847 f ecially in the lowlands, where it is moft common. The flowers are white, grow in great numbers at the extremity of the branches, are very odoriferous, and continue upon the tree till the fruit falls off. The coopers fometimes make hoops for fugar hogfheads with the young ones. It is certainly an excellent wood for cabinet-ware. An oil is extraded from it, not inferior to rodium, having the fiime Icent, ufe, and virtues. 248. Water-oats, or Tare-grass. — Zizania pannlcula effuja. L. Sp. PI. This plant is common in all the lagoons. It is alfo found in the fwampy groimds of North-America; where the Indians eat the gram inflead of rice. 249. Water Arrow-head, or Great American Arrowhead. — Sn git tan a, foliis max /'mis, ^c. Browne, p. 345. This plant is very common about moft of the ftagnating waters in the ifland, and particularly thofe near the Ferry. It is alfo, like the Zizania, found in NorthAmerica, where the Indians drefs and eat the roots. 250. Chaw-stick. — Rhamnus farmcniofus foliis ovatis. Browne, p. 172. The bark of this plant is of a pleafant, bitter tafte, and raifes a great fermentation in the y^//Av/, or any rich liquor with which it is agitated. It gives a flavour to the frnall diluting drinks in common ufe here; and is an excellent dentifrice, whitening and pre.ferving the teeth better than moft others, and anfwering the purpofes as well of a brufti, as a tooth-powder upon this occafion. It is likewile fuppofed a good antileptic, from the quantity of fixed air contained in it. I have now complcated a fummary of thofe trees and plants which, 1 think, appear in general to be the moft ufeful in refped to commerce, and the accommodation of fettlers, not omitting; thofe medicinal properties for which they have been chiefly diftinguiflied. It would be far too great a talk for me to attempt a compleat materia medica, including all the fanative planis in the iiland. I muft beg

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848 JAMAICA. beg to refer the inquifitive reader to the bulky colle^-^ion pubiifhed by Su" Hans Sloanc, and the fupplemcntal labours of the ingenious Dr. Browne, to whofe work I am largely uidebted for many of the foregoing remarks and defcriptions. I have obferved no regular order in the difpontlon of genera and Jpecies. An omiffion of this fort, I apprehend, will be readily exCLifed; as the fubfequent index will enable every reader to find the liibjea whofe qualities are defcribed in the catalogue. The fubftances next-mentioned may be taken colIe£lively with the preceding ; though, for the fake of propriety, I have given them a detached place diftinct from the vegetable tribe. 251. Marine Salt Is eafily manufadlured, upon all the liilina's in this ifland, by exfolation. This article, as I have before-mentioned, was formerly a very confiderable part of the annual export, till other commodities. of greater profit were undertaken. Gn fome parts of the coafts it is flill made, chiefly by coftion, for the ufe of a few particular eflates. In a large work, whether by exfolation in pans, or by boiling (where a confiderable number of cauldrons are ufed), the water maybe very conveniently thrown in, by means of a fmall wind-fail pump. After being boiled to a granulation, it is flowed Jn balkets, which are fufpended in an airy, fhaded place, to let the bittern drain off; after which, \% is fit for confumption. 252. Petrifying Water. ?Many fprings in the mountains are of fo petrifying a nature, that I have feen very excellent hones, made with pieces of hard wood, properly fhaped and planed, then laid to foak in fuch water for feveral montiis, until the ftony particles had lodged firmly in the pores ; after which, they had all the appearance of real floiie, and were made ufe of accordingly for fharpening razors and penknives. 273. Nitre. JLarge quantities might probably be obtained from thofe caves where the bats have dcpofited their dung, as in the grotto of St. Anne, where there arc many dozen cart-loads of this filth. The 1 nitrous

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIIL S49 nitrous flioots, or efflorfecencies, are feen in great abundance about all ftone and brick buildings in the ifland, near the fea, where the mortar, or plaiftcr, has been tempered with brackifli water ; and they very fpeedily demolifh prints, or other paper, placed in coutad with them, 253. Marble. The whltifh fhell-marble is confounded with the lime-ftone in this ifland; it is mofl common in all the hills and lower mountains j it has a fmooth grain, and takes a good polifli. There are found veins of black and white marble in feveral parts of the countrv, but none have as yet been worked. The common runc-flone is of various kinds but the fliell-marble above-mentioned makes the beft, cement ^ and when compounded with a fharp, clean fand, and frefli water, acquires in time a foUdity equal to ftone. The lime, when properly burnt here in ftanding kilns, is not inferior to any in the world, either for building, or tempering fugar ; notwithftanding which, fome planters, rather than be at the trouble of manufafturing it properly, import their lime, at a confiderably greater expence, from Brlftol. Moft of the planters, who ufc the Jamaica lime, burn it in circular, conical piles, ranging the ftrata of ftone and wood alternately from the bottom to the top, which they bring to a point. In the Northfide parifhes, where the fugar, from richnefs of land, is often foul and difficult to granulate, and the trumpet trees grow in fufficient abundance, it might anfwer well to burn their temper-lime intirely with this wood ; and, by making ufe of a flanding-kiln, a lefs quantity of fuel would fuffice. The afhes, mingling with the lime, would add greatly to its flrength and efficacy in refining and purging the fy rup. It is certain, that our planters here are not fo provident as they ought to be in the choice of lime, and in ihc tempering of their fugars. In the Windward Ifles lime is not manufaftured, by reafon of the fcarcit/ of fuel ; they import moft of what they ufe from Briftol. The great error with us in Jamaica confifts in not burning our temper-lime in ftandlng-kilns. Some gentlemen, who ufe kilns of this fort, find their lime not at all inferior in ftrength to that which comes from BriftoL Vol. hi. 5 Q Thefe

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850 JAMAICA. Thefe kilns, like reverberating furnaces, confine the heat, and keep it up to fuch a violent glow, that one half lefs fuel is neceflary than in the conical or French kiln before-mentioned, made in open air, with circular layers of wood and ftone, piled one upon another. This form, and their having no inclofure, expofe them to a continual dlffipation of heat ; • infomuch, that the ftones, which are ranged near the exterior parts of their circle, are never thoroughly burnt, and often fcarcely at all affeded ; they confume a prodigious quantity of wood ; and confequently, fo large a portion of dilcordant vepetable falts is intermixed with the lime, as to render it weak, and lefs fit for the purpofe intended in the boiling-houfc, where the moft cauftic lime that can be procured is found to anfwer beft. The conic kilns are well enough contrived, where a large quantity of lime is wanted for carrying on a building ; as they are fet up on different fpots, where fuel and flone are mofl: abundant. But every capital plantation ought to have a ftanding-kiln, appropriated folely for makingtemper-lime, and no other ; what is required for carrying on ftructures, or making repairs, it would be more advifeable to buy, than to exhaufi: the materials adjacent to the kiln for thefe purpofes. Or, en-couragcment might be given to inferior fettlers to build flandingkilns, and prepare lime for temper, in a Ikilful and careful manner, fo as to become a fort of fixed marketable commodity, and article of regular traffic, for fupplying the fugar efiates; for, if it fliould be fo conftituted, and fold to them at a certain reafonable price, it would be found to indemnify thefe fettlers for their pains bellowed upon it ; and caufe a very great improvement in the quality of our Jamaica fugar. Lime-fl:one, in common with all other calcarlous fubrtances, contains a large portion oi fixed air ; the prefence of it makes them what is called mild, and the deprivation of it, by means of fire, renders them caufiic\a'\ This explains the change of mild, calcarlous earths into quick lime, which is efftfted by expelling the fixed air that naturalized them. It is found by experiment, that foft water is a much more powerful diflblvent of quick lime, than hard water, at the fame time that it covers and meliorates the hnrfhnefs of its tafte. What is made witii diflilled water is by far the moft pungent, and yet the leaft difagreeable ; whereas, what is prepared with raw, pumpvyater, is extreniely harfia and naufeous, without being proportlonnbly [] I'lielHy. 1, i.npreg-.

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 851 Impregnated with the acrimony, or ftrength of the quick lime. Where diftillcd water CJiinot conveniently be had, rain water, freed by filtration of its impurities, may, with equal efficacy, be fubllituted in its room. Different kinds of quick lime are found to impregnate water with different degrees of ftrength ; but a diverfity in the menjlruum in which it is diffolved, appears alfo to vary it confiderably. In order therefore to procure what is of the fitteft quality for the boiling-houfe, it is full as necefliiry to be careful in the choice of water, as of the lime-ftone. In Jamaica it is ufual to throw a quantity of quick lime into privies, that are grown offenfive, in order to fweeten them ; which purpofe it very fpeedily and moft effeftually anfwers, by abforbing probably the mephitic particles. In Madeira it is thrown on the corpfes buried in church, to accelei'ate their diffolution, and prevent noxious effluvia. 254. Free Stone. 255. Agats. I have occafionally fpoken of their varieties generally remarked here *, 256. Refining Clay. 257. Potters Clay. 258. Pipe Clay. The firfl: is ufcd in claying Mufcovado fugars, as well as for a better fort of earthen ware, manufactured by the Negroes. The fecond is more frequent, and fupplies the inhabitants with water jars, and other convenient veffels for domeftic ufe. It is likewife moft proper for tiles, and drips. The third fort is common to many parts, or at leaft a fpecies of it. In Sixteen-mile-walk, the foil in general is a reddifh clay, upon digging into which a fmall depth are found detached veins of a white clay, refembling that from which tobacco pipes are made ; it bears the fire well, and might doubtlefs anfwer in manufacture. 259. Aboo Earth. This is chiefly found in marley beds, running in veins of various colours, but generally anfwering to that of furrouniiiij; l.iyeri : it is Vol. II. p. 66. 5 Q 2 apparently

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852 JAMAICA. apparently fmoth, untluous, and fomewhat cohefive, of a fweetifli tafte, and dlflblves readily in the mouth. Some Negroes get luch a habit of eating it in excefi, that it often proves mortal to them, by entering into the circulation, and obftrutVmg the capillary veflcls. Dr. Browne fays, it has even been found concreted in the glands, and fiiialler veflels of the lungs, fo as to become perceptible to |Jie touch. It breaks the texture of the blood entirely, brings on a wafting of the flefh, a general depravation of all the organs, and a lingering 'but certain death. Notwithftanding which fatal confequences, there is fomewhat fo bewitching in this pradice, that it has been found exceedingly difficult to wean any from it, who have been addifted to the ufe of it for any length of time. In regard to the other fofiile, and mineral fubfl:ances found here, 1 refer to Browne i Natural Hiftory, who has clafled them in regular order. 260. European and North American Herbs, Roots, and Fruits, cuhivated in this iftand, inhere, from their free vegetatioriy they may be conjidercd as j^aturoUzcd produSlions. Apple [a\ Burnet. Alparagus [1^]. Burarge. Artichoke. Carrot. Baum. Cabbage [c]. Baftl. Cauliflower [d]. Beans. Carduus. Beet, Clary. Buglof>. Celery. [a] Several varieties of this fiait have been cultivated in the cooler diftriifls, particularly in tLe JLicuanea Mountains, where tliey leem to thrive beft, and bear large and well flavoured fniit, 1)1'.' in no great abundance ; tlie trees ftioot too much into H'ood. [3] Thi^ glows to a moderate lize ; but not fo large as in Europe: nor is it managed proi)erly, to raife it in jxrtertion^ for it is naver laid deep enough, nor regularly cropped. Sjir H. Sloane mentions the wild fort, or marilimus, ctajioir foUi>, as indigenous to this illand ; it ij probably the fame as what is cultivated at IMontpelier, Gibraltar, and Minorca, an,! might be prop;igated here in great perfeiftion, as it has been found by experience to thrive only in waiiii climates. [c] Thcfe "row to greater perfeiFlion than in England : I have feen heads of enormous fizc and weight produced in foil juft cleared from the native wood, on the Nortlvfide, poITcfling ati extraordinary fivccinefs, and remarkably fnm and compart. [ /J Tiiefo do not attain to any conilderablc bulk. They are fomctLiiCi brought to Kingiloa market, from the Liguaaca JAour.t;iins. Crefs.

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BOOK III. Crefs. Cucumbers. Efchalot. Endive. Fennel, Fig [.]. Ground Ivy. Garlic. Grape vines. Hyflbp. Horfe-radifh. Hafel. Lavender. Lettuces. Leek. Liquorice. Marigolds. Marfli-mallow. Marjoram. Mints. Muftard. CHAP. vm. Melons. Mulberry Carolina [/]. Mulberry Virginia [/]. Onion. Parfnip. Parfley. Penny-royal. Purflane. Peas. Potatoe, Peach [gj. Quince [-6], Radifhes. Rue. Rofemary, Rofes. Sage. Saffron. Savory. Scurvey-grafs. Strawberry [/'J. ^5S Sun[e] This thrives very luxuriantly in the low-lands, bears well, and produces fo delicious a fi ult, that it Is probably not excelled in thofe countries \vhere it is indigenous. It is advifed to propagate it by layers ; the tree fhould hardly ever be pruned, or but as little as poffible ; but if it grows too luxuriant, the ground fliould be dug up on one fide of it, and about two or three feet irom the bottom of the trunk, all the roots ihould be cut away (big and little), and the bole filled up withrubbifh, of a dry barren kind; which, if the like fuperfluous growth fliould continue may be tried on the other fide, the following year. But if the tree does not bear thick, or the fruit be obferved not to come to perfeftion upon it, the top Hems ihould be cut off, fo foon as they and the fruit begin to appear in the fpring. BriKvm\ [f] Thefe thrive well here, but do not bear fruit when planted in the low-lands. The berries of the fiift fort are longer than the European, and of a whitifh colour ; thofe of the fecond are red, but fmaller, though perfeftly well flavoured. [g] Thefe feldom fruftify, nor does the fruit attain to any tolerable fize; but it has all the fine flavour peculiar to it ; I faw fome in a gentleman's garden, in the Vale of Luidas. They might poflibly anfwer better in fome part of the Liguanea Mountains. [*] Thefe thrive well in the mountains, and bear in as great perfciSion as in moll parts of England^ [; ] Thefe grow in as great perfeftion here as in England, but chiefly in the mountains : how* ever, they are apt to fpend themfelves ia runners or fuckers, trailing over a large traift of ground.

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?54 JAMA Suii-flovvcr [k]. Succory. Tanfey. Thyme. I C A. Trefoil. Turnip. Walnut. Worm-wood. Catalogue of Jamaica produftions in ufe for Pot-herbs or Greens, and of efculent Farinaceous, Roots, Fruits, Grain, Berries, Legumina, Dissert Fruits, Spicery, Flesh, Fish, &c. That Grangers to this ifland, who intend to vifit it, may have the fatisfadion of knowing that they are not bound to a land of famine, I think, it may not be unacceptable to lay before them a l>ill of fare which may likewlfe have its ufe with new fettlers, who by this means may foon learn to fupply themfelves, from the great garden of nature, with a variety of wholefome and palatable viands. 261. PoT-HERBS and Greens. Papa wfruit. Baftard cedar-fruit. Mountain cabbage. Wild cucumber. Cotton-tree leaf. Trumpet-tree leaf. Bread-nut fruit. Branched calalue. Brownjolly berry. Calalues. Caffada leaves. Cucumbers. Squafh, Tomato fruit. Ochro. Choco. White-coco-tops. Tyre. Indian cale. Gourd or pumpkin Amyris, or Sweet-wood, Wild fage, Well India tea >leaf for teas. 5f cave be not taken to keep them conflamly triinnietl ; \\\v:\\ they are futfercd to run wild, they bloiTom, but never bear well. They are in feafou here about the latter end of June. Kahn fay, that in 1749, an Eiiglinmian from Jamaica informeil him, there was none of this fruit in the ifiand ; but he was certainly mifinlormcd, ior they were very plentilul here fo long fi nee as the year 1 7 1 6, perhaps earlier. An old gentlewoman afl'ured me, that when the Duke of Portland was Governor (about the year 1722), tlicy were in fuch abundance, that his table was conllantly well fupplicd in the feafon. And I hit\'e ate large quantities of them in the monihs ot June and July, brought from the Liguanca Mountains ; I have likewife feen them J very flourldiinij in gardens in the low-lands. \U\ A very ufeful oil may be extradled from tlic feeds of this plant. 262. Fari-]

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. ^55 iGz. Farinaceous Fruits, Grain, and Leg.umina, Plantain. Lima. Banana. Calavances. Great corn, or Maize. Kidney bean. Guiney corn. Sugar bean. Guiney wheat. Pigeon peas. Black-eyed pea. Marrowfats. Cuckold's increafe. Broad bean. Rice. Water oats. Bonavifte. Sweet potatoe. Baftard Irifh potatoe. White coco. Purple coco. Eddoes. CafTada. Sweet caflada. 264. Apple of Europe, Avocado Pear, 2 varieties, Biche, or Bifiy[/], Banana ripe, Brabila, Cherries, Barbadoes, Citrons, Cafhew, 4 varieties, Cocoa-nut, Cuftard Apple,, Date, Fig, 263. Roots. Negroe yam. White yam. Choco root. Indian arrow root. Pindals. Water arrow head. Dissert Fruits. Forbidden Fruit, Granadilla, Genip, 2 varieties, Grape of the Sea Side,. Grapes, varieties, Goofeberry of the Spanlfh Main, Lemon of St. Helena, Lemon common, and 3 other varieties. Lime, 2 varieties, and Lime Bergamot, Mammee, 2 varieties, [/] The tree which bears this fruit was introduced from the coaft of Guiney, and is not yet common, though extremely vaUiable. The bark is ol a dufky red, and ufcd in fome parts of tliat country for dying cloth and cotton. The tree is eafily propagated from the feed, in a good, moirt Ibi), and might be procured by any of the captains ufing the trade. Cocoa*

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856 Mammee Sapotc, Melons, 5 or 6 varieties, Mulberry of Carolina, Mulberry of Virginia, Nafeberry, 2 varieties, Orange Sweet, 2 varieties, Orange Sour, 2 ditto. Orange Bergamot, Pomegranate, Papaw, 'Damfon, Maiden, Hog, Spanifh, Topknot Leathercoat, Cocco, Jamaica, Plumb, 265. Pine Apple, Ginger, Oranges, Lemons, Limes, Citron, Guava, Red Sorrel, Barbadoes Cherry, 266. White-tufted Mufliroom[], Wild Cane-top, Wild Cucumber, Papaw Fruit, JAMAICA. Prickly Pear, I Penguin, Pine Apple, 7 or 8 varieties. Plantain ripe, Rofe Apple, Sapodilla, Sweet-fop, Sourfop, Star Apple, 2 varieties. Sorrel, 2 ditto. Shaddocks, {Olive [w]. Almond, Walnut, Nuts, Cocoa, Ditto, Cafhew, Ditto, Pindals, Ditto, Palm. Preserves. Mammee, Cocco Plumb, Leather-coat ditto, Cafhew Apple, Tamarind, Papaw Bloflbm, White Sorrel, Plantain, Banana* Pickles. Artichoke, Samphire, Anchovy Pear, Peppers, &c.\ [m] The olive trees intrcxluced here, bear tut very indifferently as yet. I have eaten almond* produced here of an excellent flavour, but they are fcarce. The walnut is hitherto unprolific. [] This fpecies is common after heavy (howers, and grows generally on the decayed trunks of the hog-plumb and cotton-trees. It is the only fort that is in ufe here; and when waflied and pounded, is fometinies boiled with beef in foups, to which it gives a very agreeable flavour; it is no Icfs palatable when pickled. 2^7-

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 267. Spicerv and Peppers. ^sr Ginger, Pimento, Wild Cinnamon, Wild Clove, or Bay-berry, Jamaica Black Pepper, Indian Pepper, .j Bell, Goat, Bonnet, TBird, Olive, Hen, I Barbary, Finger, Cherry, Ram's-horn, Coral, &c. American Nutmeg. 268. Perfumes. Miilk Wood, Mil Ik Okro, Vanilla, Coratoe, Soap-tree, Guiacum, Hog-tree, Cafhew, Gum-tree, Locuft-tree, or Gum Anime, Sweet Wood, Birch, Rofe Wood, Prince Wood. 269. Vegetable Soaps. Broad-leafed Broomweed, Lignum Vitae Leaves. 270. Gums and Resins. Candle Wood, Balfam-tree, Manchineel, Acacee, Palmeto Royal, Ballard Mammee. Indigo, Anotto, Logwood, Brafiletto, Nicaragua, Fuftic, Indigo Berrv, Vol. 111.' 271. DvES and Pigments. Scarlet Seed, Prickly Pear, Morinda Root, or Yaw-weed, Prickly Yellow Wood, Shrubby Goat Rue, Lignum Vitce Leaves, for refrefliing faded colours, 5 ^ Cafhew-

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858 J A M Cafhew-tree, Juice infpiffated, Mountain, or Surinam Calalue, Vine Sorrel, Avocado Pear-flone, Acacee, Flower Fence, Baftard Saffron, A I C A. Baftard Lignum Vitas, Yellow Wood, Yellow Hercules, Calhaw, Bark and Root> BiiTy Bark, Shrubby Goat Rue. :72. Oils. Cotton Seed, Oil-nut, or Palma Chrljll, Macawtree, Palm-nut, Cocoa-nut, Vanglo, or Sefamum, Oil-tree, or Sapium of St. Thomas in the Eaft, Antidote Cocoon, Pindals, Sunflower Seeds, Prickly Yellow Wood Seed, Jack-in-a-box ditto, Cacao-nut, Pimento, Vanilla, Tobacco, Locuft-tree, Cera fee. Ebony, Spanifti Elm, or Prince Wood, Cafliew, Gum-tree, Alligator Wood, Baftard Lignum Vitas. Cotton Wool, Down-treedown, Coratoe Leaf, Penguin ditto, Silk-grafs, Cocoa-hufk, Mahoe-bark, Mahoe-bark, Laghctto-bark, ?3. Substances for Cloathing. Laghetto ditto, Bon-ace ditto. Date-tree, Mountain Cabbage^ Red Sorrel Bufh, Hides, Ski ides, "I uns, J varieties. 274. For Manufadluring Paper. Mountain Cabbage-tree. 275. For

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII, ^59 275. For Tanning Leather. Malioe-bark,

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86o Wild Cane, Baiket-vvithe, JAMAICA. 280. Baskets. Palmeto Leaf, Rufli. 281. Candles. Bees Wax and Tallow. See Oils. Cotton, Indian Arrow-root, Rufh, Broom Weed, Mountain Broom, Great Reed, 282. Lamps. 283. Wick. Rufli. 284. Starch. Rice. 285. Chair-bottoms. Palmeto Leaf. 286. Brooms. Ebony Twigs, Tamai'ind ditto. 287. Stuffing for Beds, Matrafles, Chair-bottoms, &c. Old Man's Beard, Plantain Leaf, Down -tree-down. Banana ditto. Cotton, Wire Grafs. 288. Crockery Ware. Potter's Clay. 289. Domestic Utensils, as Water-jars, Bowls, Cups, Saucers, Spoons, Ladles, Pots, and Bottles, &c. Cnllbafli Fruit, Gourds. Cocoa-nut, 290. Corks, Cork Wooi 291. Cattle

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White Cedar, Birch, Guava, BOOK in. CHAP. VIII. 291. Cattle YoAKs. Calibafh, Baftard Cedar, 292. Bows. Calibafh. 293. Mule Crooks. 861 Santa Maria, Gum Tree, Guava. 294. Wheel Carriages. Bodies, — Baftard Cedar, &c. Spokes, — Brafiletto, Shafts, — ^Lance Wood, Fellies, — Calibafh, Naves,— Dog Wood, WM Tamarind, Calibafh, Fuflic. 295. Hogshead Staves [0]. Alligator Wood. 296. Heading. Alligator Wood, Broad Leaf. 297. Sugar Pots. Cotton Tree. 298. Materials for Building. Sand, Brick and Tile Clays, Wire Grafs, for plaiftering. Cotton Tree, Wild Tamarind, Loblolly, Broad Leaf, Cedar, Lime Stone, Marble, Free Stone, Stone, varieties, 299. Wattles and Laths, Lilac. Wild Cane, Loblolly, [0] Hogftiead ftaves are required by law to be 3 1 feet in length, and 4 Inches broad. One cooper is reckoned to be capable of hewing 70 / 'Hem^ good allowance^ 5 300. Shingles.

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862 J A M A I C A. 300, Shingles [/>]. Cedar, Broad Leaf, Mahooany, Fiddle Wood, Maftic, Bullet-tree, &;c. 30 !. Thatch. Gre::t Reed Mace, Cocoa-nut Tree Lejf, Palmeto Leaf, Wild Cane, Thatch-tree, Sugar Cane, Macaw, Sour Grafs, 302. Timber. Trees for Building, Sec. Barbjdoes Cedar, Black Olive, or Bark Tree, Broad-leafed Cherry, Ballard Green-heait, Baftard Bully Tree, Break Axe^y], Biftard Lignum \hx, Bitter Wood, Brafilctto, Broad Leaf, Baftard jManchineel, Biack-heirt Fiddle Wood, Baftard Iron-wood, Baftard Cabbage, [/>] They mull be iS inches long, and ; broad. Siippofing the blocks ready hewn, two Negroes iifually fpllt 500 /iT (iicm. The price 3/. to 3/. 10s, and 4/. fer mill, according to the quality of the wood. [y] This is one of the bcft and largeft timbers in the ifland. It is fo extremely hard, that it is found a difficult matter to cut it down, and from this quality it takes its appellation. The general properties of the Jamaica timbers are thefe: heavinefs, fliort clofe grain, hardnefs, firmnefs, fmoothnefs, folidify ; the wood often refinous, and its fibres fhort and brittle. Some few are remarkable alio tor toughnefs and elallicity. The hardeft timber, and, if on the mountains, the loftieft, is fuch as grows in a moderately rocky or ftony foil, having a great depth, and yielding eafy paflage to the tap-roots below. The timber of the more arid parts of the country is almoft as hard as iron, though many of the trees are of exceedingly fmall diameter. In the North fide, Eaftern, and Weftern parts, the greater fupply of rain occafions a greater redundancy of lap. The trees in thofe parts are larger and loftier, but their timber, in general, lefs durable, and of many, lefs compaft, than thofe of the dry Southern dilbids. The grain of feveral old mahogany, cedar, and other timber trees, near the root, has often been found impregnated with minute calcarious particles, which mull have been carried up with the fap into the veliels of the trunk itfelf. Thefe particles are fometimes fo intimately incorporated with the heart of the wood, as to give workmen an extraordinary trouble in working it up, by fpoiling the edge of their planes, and other fine tools. If I milluke not, the like remark has been made with relpect to grape vines in fomc countries, in the hearts ot which is fometimes difcovereil a concreted llony fubftance; and it is probably owing to this facility of abforption, that feveral wines, particularly the more acclcent, are fo copioully charged with tartar. Thofe which are marked with a are only proper for infidc work. Cotton

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BOOK III. Cotton Tree, Dog Wood, Ebony, Fuftic, French Oak, Green-heart, or Logwood, Green-heart Fiddlewood, Iron Wood, 2 forts, Lignum Vita, Locuft, Lance Wood, Mountain Grape, Mountain Guava, Mountain Mahoe, Mountain Dogwood, Mammee, 2 forts. Mahogany, Maiden Plumb, Milk Wood, CHAP. Vm. 863 Nicaragua Baftard, Nafe berry Bully Tree, Prickly Yellow Wood, Prickly White Wood, Rod Wood, 2 forts, Santa Maria, Spanish Elm, Sweet Wood, Silver Wood, Tamarind, Wild ditto, White Fiddle-wood, White Bully Tree, orGalllmeta, Wild Olive, White Candle-wood, or Rofewood. White Cedar, or White Wood, Yellow Sanders, Yellow Hercules, Dogwood, Cafliaw, Palmeto, Olive Mangrove, 303. Wharf Piles. Brafiletto, Lignum Vitae, Cedar, Bitterwood. 304. Naval Architecture. Canoes and "1 Cotton-tree, Timbers, — Cedar, Piraguas, J Cedar, Mahoe,Plank, — Cedar, • Cafliaw, Timbers, — Olive Mangrove, — — Larger Calibafh. Mahogany, Barbadoes Cedar, Bermudas ditto, 305. Cabinet Ware. Rofe-wood, or Candle-wood, Mulk, or Alligator Wood, Spanifli Elm, or Prince Wood, Pigeon

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§64 JAM Pigeon W^oodj Bread-nut Zebra Wood, or Rain bow Wood, Brafiletto, Fuftic, Bitter-wood, Yellow Sanders, Cafliaw, 306 Branched Horfe-tail. A I C A. Callbafh, Sea-fide Grape, Maiden Pliunb, Manchineel, Mountain Guava, Lignum Vitae, Ebonv. Reed for Polishing. 307. Birds and Fowls in common Uk for Food. Ortolan, or Butter Bird[r], Snipe fmaller. Ditto larger grey [j], VVhlftling Duck, Thefe are birds of pafilage, and make their appearance everv year about the beginning of October, in prodigious flocks. But the wild ducks, teal, and k-fler fuipe, breed Spanifti Main Duck, in the ifland, and are found during American Wood-duck, and (ethe whole year ; though not in fo great abundance as about the feafon of the autumnal rains. Thefe, as well as the preceding, are by the fportfmen efteemed game. vera! varieties. Teal [/], Plover, Wild Goofe. "Ring-tailed Pigeon [?/], Mountain Pigeon, Bald Pate [iv], i White-winged Dove, Pea-dove, White-bellied Dove [.v]. Mountain Witch, [r] Thefe are tlie rice birds of South Cnrolina. They grow exceedingly fat in Jamaica, m tis • featon, and are ellcenicd by connolllcurs not interior to the true ortolan. [.(] Thefe aie f
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BOOK III. Thefe, as well as the preceding, are by the fportfmen efteemed ^afjie. Houfe-pigeon, Bantam ditto, Barbary Dove, Ground Dove, Peacock, Guracoa Bird, Curacoa Fowl, Turkey [
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866 • J A Sheep North Amerloiin, Red Deer[^], Fallow Deer, Nanny Goat[/], Riipi Goat, Baltard Ibex Go:it, Englifh Rabbit [5], M A I C A. Indian Coney, Wild Hog[Z;], EngliOi Hoglb], Guiney Hog [ii], Guiney Pig, Guana [/]. r -V.fiT 3^9' Mountain Mullet [i], Silver Eel, Mud-fi(h, Fresh-water Fish. Minnow, or Ticky-ticky, Cray-fifh, Thefe frequent both the fait and frefh waters, but are more comnioniy found in brackifh rivers. new-fifli[/], 1 Calipever[ Mullet, I Snook [], / Shrimp. m\ [A Thefe were originally importeJ from the Continent, and are now grown fcarce. They rarely tcrow fat here in their wild Uate, but tlieir flefh has a good flavour. r/"| The wether goat here is efteemed, when fat, not inferior to Englifh mutton, and flrongly refembles it in flavour. Both goat's and (heep's milk is ufed here in common, and thought very niuiifliiiig and rellorative. The cows ot the lowlands yield little, r.nd their milk is often poor and waterifli. The young kids, roalled whole, are julHy elkemed a delicioi: '. regale. [gl One buck is reckoned fufficient for ten does. It is computed, that jO bleeders will annually furnifn 50 for family ufe, 50 for fale, and a fufficient number befides to keep up the flock. The .iilver-haired ikins anfwer bed for fale. [i>] The tlime of our Jamaica bwbccnc ami brawn is fo well eflablilhed, that it would anfwer no purpofe to reiterate their praill's, except to tantalize the reader. The tame forts are a very profitable flock to the fettler or planter, as they multiply tafl, and are kept or fattened with very little uouble. One boar is generally allowed to ten fows. [ /] This animal ftcms to be fomewhat ot the lizard kind, but of the larger fpecies. It will feed en cock-Toache, or any other infeft, and even fmall fifli. It is eafily tamed when young, and entirely inoft'enfive. [k] The mountain mullet is not unlike the fmelt in (hape, but it is at leaft fix times larger, and juftly reputed one of the moft delicious filli in the univetfe. When it is in feafon, the female bears a roe nearly as big as her body. \l] Thefe are of all fizes, from 3 lb. to 3001b. wt., and upwards; the fmaller-fized, or from 41b. to lolb. wt., are moft approved, the overgrown ones having a difagrceable ranknefs, not to befubdued by all the arts of cooker)-. [;] Tlley fhoot their roes in the middle of November. They arein general much larger than the fnook, and fcem only a larger fpecies of the fea mullet, extremely refembling in form, flefh, and flavour, thofe of Arundel in SufTcx. [) One of thefe mcafvued three feet four inches in length, from the fnout to the tail's end, and irtighed 23 lb. 310. Sea

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 867 310. Sea-Fish. *' I know not (fays Sir H. Sloane), neither have I heard of any *' place where there is a greater plenty of frefh water and fea firties, *' than on this ifland and on its coafts ; which is a great providence *' and contrivance for the fupport of the inliabitants ;" — more efpecially for thofe vvho refide near the fea, who do not enjoy the produftions of the earth in fuch luxuriance as thofe of the interior parts, and in unfeafonable years depend upon the produce of the ocean, which never fails them, for a large part of their fubfitlence. I (hall enumerate only fuch as are the moft in cfteem ; viz^ Black fnapper.

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S68 J A MA 1 C A. -^11. Amphibious. Manatti or fea cow [/>], Hawk's-bill[^]l Green > turtle, Terrapin Hecatee or land turtle' [r], Thefe are more properly ter-|[j]'^Iountalii or black crab") with fome reftrial, or fub-amphibious. J Mangrove or white crab J varieties. 312. Shell-Fish. Mangrove oyfter [/], Engliih bank oyderju], Flat or bank oyfler [/], -----.-. .' i'lAii [p] It tafles as well as looks like very white veal, but the (kin has the ranknefs of pork. It is beil falted. [y] The fhell of the hawk's-bill, and the flelh of the green turtle, are their refpeftive excellencies. The gieen, of fifty to eighty pounds weight, is in the higheft repute; but both are now fo commonly known in England, that it would be fuperfluous to fay more of them, except the remarkable circiimftance of their being drell in Jamaica in a plainer manner, and with Icfs fauce or fealbning, than in England. [)] Some of thefe have been known to live thirty years. [j] In December and January they begin to be in fpawn, and are then extremely fat and delicious ; they continue in feafon till May, at which time they begin to call their eggs, and to lofe their richnefs and flavour; they difcharge their eggs into the furf, and then returji to the mountains ; about July and Auguft, they begin to grow fat again, and prepare tor changing their ihell^ how this operation i: performed, feems not to be certainly known ; but as foon as the old covering is difcharged, they are in the richeft llatc, being cloathed only with a tender membranous fkin, which gradually hardens afterwards into a perfeft (hell. During this change, there are ftony concretions always formed in the llomach or bag of this creature, which wafte and diflblve, as it forms and perfcds its new cruft. The white crabs arc not fo much efteeraed, and are chiefly eaten by the Negroes. Till late years the black crabs fwarmcd fo amazingly in fome parts of the North fide, that the inhabitants ufed to deftroy millions of them every year, in order to extraft an oil from them for their lamps ; a praiflice, which every admirer of this exquiCte dainty, concurs in pronouncing a burmTtg Jhame. [/J Thefe are much fmaller than the European, but extremely delicate, and not at all inferior to the Colchclkr. They do not only faflen u^xm the mangrove roots, but any other fubftance. I have feen a quart bottle taken out of the water entirely covered with them. The flat oyfler comes very near the vegetable kingdom ; it flioots out Icveral prongs refembling the fibres of a foot, by which it is fixed ; this latter fort is unwholfome at certain times ot the year. [] Thefe are the defeendants of a parcel imported from Europe by a gentleman of Vere •many years ago ; but they feem to have degenerated. Tliofc of Panama, or Florida, would prob.ii)ly anfwcr better. Sea-

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BOOK III. CH A P. VIII. 869! Sea crabs [w], Wilk, Lobfler, Conch, Shriinp.iiari) Mufcic, White cockle. Soldier or hermit. .Jndi 0-.. 3'3' Animals of prey...-. r.bod) lo 3bni>i Marine • 'i'\h o^ Shark. : Terreftrial None properly fo called. 314. Amphibious Alligator. The alligator is a fluggifh, timorous animal, never venturing far beyond the margin of thewater, ealily difcovered when on Ihore by its mufky fmell, and as cafily avoided, from the great difHculty with which it turns itfelf to the right or left; in the water it is foon maftered by the Negroes, fome of whom are very dextrous, and attack and defeat it in its favourite element. In the morning and evening, thefe animals bafk in the funfliine upon fand-heaps in retired places, on the banks of rivers, near the fea; for they are not found in the mountain rivers, nor at any confiderable diftance from the (liore. Sometimes they feem to float in a dog's-fleep, keeping their heads juft half raifed above the furface of the water, with one eye fliut, the other open ; or hold their jaws extended, to admit the mufkeeto's, and when a fufficient number are coUedled, fuddenly enclofe and gulp them down, as a child does carraway comfits. The pupil of their eye refembles that of a cat, in form, as it likewife does in refped: to its dilatation into a circular figure in the dark. Between the times of their ordinary refpiratioa when on fliore, there was obferved an interval of one minute, to one and a half. Their movements are extremely flow, the conlequence probably of the inert circulation of the blood and other fluids, as we obferve in regard to the turtle. They pay no attention to a perfon gently and gradually approaching them ; but a fudden agitation of the body, or a loud noife, difl:urbs and terrifies them. It is not yet known what thei'r principal food confifts of. They feed on the water-apples; but as thefe are only in feafon during [fiv] The crab aud lob'fter are' mucli fmnller than the European ; the former is ver}' indi'rercnt me;it, but the latier agreeable to moil: palates, iind very delicate : the (hrimp is excellent. The reft are principally uled in pepperpots, and efteC'iied very relilhing and whole fome ingredients. one

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7J -^'ij .'A AM A I G A.'fl one part of tl.e year, they mufl: neceflarily have recourft; ak other times to a different aliment. It is certain, that they will prey :6poii the dead carcafes of animals thrown into the water near their, haunts. They will alfo carry off living animals, fuch as calves and co\ts, whenever they are able to fiirprize them : they are likewife faid to devour filh, when they fall in their way; it feems therefore tiiat they are endued with a capacity to digeft thefe feveral kinds of food, and convert them to their fubfiftence ; but although I have feen many of them cut open, I never obferved any fubftances of this fort in their maws. It is probable, from the torpid circulation of their blood, that they can endure hunger for a great length of time; and that they catch their prey by furprize, fur othervvife the fmalleft degree of adiylty would elude their attempts; filh of every fpecies are too nimble, unlefs blockaded in holes which they often (efpecially the Jew-fifh and Calipever) form in the river banks, into which the alligators are faid to purfue them. Cattle, fuch as young calves and colts, which frequent thefe rivers to flake their thirft, are apt to venture too far, till thiy are entangled in the mud or weeds at the bottom, .and, have not ftrength enough to extricate themfelves; whilfl they are hampered in this manner, they fatigue themfelves with violent efforts, till they are either fmothered or drowned, and may then beconie a treat for an alligator ; I have been told of one, that feized a very young colt by the leg, as he was ftanding on the low margin of a river, drew him into the water, and having jirovvned him by diving, was making towards a convenient fpot to regale [.v], when he was fuddenly met by a canoe manned with two or tiiree Negroes, upon whole fliouts he let go his hold and retired under water, leaving his booty to the captors. Upon examining the maws ot feveral, I perceived nothing, but pebble-flones, and in fome few the (hells of alligator's tggs ; whence I conclude not only that they are often deftitute (f food, [x] It is faid by fome writers, that they let their prey lie tour or five days underwater *' untouched, for that they cannot eat the lead bit till it is half rotten; but that when it is thorou<;hlv putrefied, they devour it with great voracity.'* It is not probable, that an i .imal furniflieJ as he is, with fuch a number of teeth fitted for rending and dividing the toujjh !t tubftances, and vvhofe apj;ctite is reprefentrd to be fo Icen, could abltain fo long from gratil lig it; bcfides, it fcems to contcaJift the aflertion of otliers, who relate, that an alligator, having once tafted the blood of a living aaimal, becomes iniatiablc for it ever after* but

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BOOK Iir. CHAP. Vlir. S/ii but that '(agreeably to the relations of feme writers) the male de-i voiirs the eggs whenever, he can liiid them. Their time u< gene-' ration is about the month of May. TJie female lays a great numb.r of eggs, about February or March ; thirty and upwards haviivg been foundj-in one ncfl, buried in the faiid, on the bank of a river near the fea [^y]. Hefice it is credible, that Providence-has defigned thefe eggs as food for rnany creatures, if not for man; they are far from being difguftful ; but, when boiled hard, are as reliihing as the eggs of a duck or a goofe. We are not for this rcafon, and from this inftance, to conclude too haftily againft the general notion, that animals of ,, prey breed but few young." In fad, the alligatorhas many enemies ; but few more deftructive than mankind, whofe antipathy to it arifes from its formidable and unpleafing figure, rather than any real mifchief it is capable of adling. Its appearance has afforded grounds for fuppofing its nature to be equally horrible, but this idea is the rcfult of meer credulity and apprehenfion. Ulloa relates, that the bitds called by the Spaniards gallinazos (a larger fpecies of the carrion crow), in South-America, fit perched among the branches of trees which overhang the rivers in that country frequented by the alligators, to watch the laying their eggs in the fand ; and as foon as the females have depofited their hoard and are withdrawn, thefe birds dart down, and feaft on as many as they can find. Our Jamaica carrion crows (which, though inferior in fize, are of the (amQ gemaj are probably diredted by the like inftindt, though it may have efcaped obfervation ; for thefe birds are fo acute and diligent in their queft after food, as to juftify the conjedlure. The Negroes allert, that not only the male but the female alligators devour great numbers of their young after they are hatched : that the male devours the eggs, I have already (hewn J nor is it unlikely bujt the fame fharpnefs of appetite which impels them to eat the eggs, may ftimulate them alfo in a fcarcity of other provender to gobble up fome of the young fry. It is certain that many other animals, as fwine, cats, rabbits, and rats, are equally unnatural in this refpedl. And what feems to confirm this opinion, is that a large brood of young ones is feldpm or ever obferved. i 1 once found twelve in a clufter, on the water, amongft^ fv] Thirtylix were found in the bpd)j of a female; we may therefore venture to fuppofe that the number is generally between thirty and forty. the

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8;7 JAMAICA. the fedge near the bank of a river, and this was reckoned by the Negroes an uncommonly numerous brood ; fo that, if the fuppofition be true, fcarcely one third of the eggs they lay ever come to maturity, but perifh by fome means or other. The little ones abovementioned were eafily taken up, and while they were held in tlie hand difeovered all the figns of native ferocity; a Negroe having brought me an egg which was near batching, I broke the ihell very carefully, and found the young one coiled up in this narrow compafs in a moft curious manner ; the fnout was deprefled, and refting upon the bread : the hind feet were drawn up, and the fore crofTed juft below the fnout; the tail extended under one of the fore feet, and turning over the back, the tip refted upon the bend of the fnout; I put him into a fliallow veffel of water, and teized him for fome time with a bit of draw till he grew very angry, and fnapped at it, with great fury. It is faid, the female is guided by inftincl to the neft, at the time when her young fhould be delivered from their confinement; that fhe goes to the fpot followed by the male, and, tearing up the fand, begins breaking the eggs, but fo carefully, that fcarce a fingleone is injured [z], and a whole fwarm of little ones are feen crawling about ; that (he then takes them on her neck and back, in order to remove them into the water; UUoa, who gives this relation, fays, that the gallinazos make ufe of this opportunity to deprive her of fome ; that the male, who indeed comes for no other end, devours what he can, till the female has reached the water with the few remaining ; and that even the female eats all thofe which either fall from her back, or do not fwim ; fo that of fuch a formidable brood, not more than four or five efcape. This account has rather an air of the marvellous ; but if we believe that thefe animals prey upon their young, this feems the leafl improbable part of it, fince it is well known, that tbeir brood, in propoitior/ to the number of eggs they lay, is always diminilhed, which cannot be otherwife reafonably accounted for: if it be aPited, why they fliould leave any undevoured, as it would be impoflible for thefe little ones to efcape them ? I anfwer, that the lame queftion may as well be propofed in regard to the fow, the cat, 5cc. who content themfelves with regaling ona few^ but generally fpare fome, and [7;] Oihcr authors rekitc, with rrtoic probability, that flie kills many of her young by the dumfinefs of her feet, ami lluiipneft of hci talous, 2 doubtlefs

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BOOK III. ^HAP. VHI. 573 (loubtlefs not from any freedom of choice, but fuhjedl to the limitation of the fame in(lin6t, which urges them to dcftroy the fuperfluous part of their progeny. Nothing, I venture to think, but their ill looks has faved thefc animals from being a favourite article of food among the Negroes ; but, if this prejudice fhould happen to wear off, their numbers in Jamaica would be confiderably leilened in the caurfe of a few years. When Columbus firfl: came to St. Domingo, he found that their flefh was in high efleem with^tlig^Indians. I have no doubt but the flefh of a middlefized one ^ as relifliing as turtle, which it exactly refembles in appearance, and in tafte alfo, as I have been afilired by a gentleman of my acquaintance, who made the experiment, and caufed fome to be drelied turtle-fafliion, which he extolled very highly, and found it fit equally well upon his ftomach, though a man of rather delicate habit. But, in order to prepare them for cookery, the mufk-bags muft be cut out before their bodies are cold; otherwife thefe glands wall communicate their flavour to every other part. An oflScer, who was ftationed at Penfacola fince the war, declared to me, that his men very frequently ate them, and found them relifliing and nutritive. They probably took the hint from the Indians in that part of the continent, who are faid to have been always fond of this food. It is plain, I think, that writers have confounded the alligator with the crocodile; and have reported more on the faith of ftories they heard from others, than their own critical examination. Barbot, fpeaking of crocodiles, fays their ufual food is fifli. Le Maire, that they will fometimes eat fi(h only, and at other times venture upon nian ; likewife, that fome are venomous, and others not; and that they feed on pifmires. Navarette affirms, that fcuUs, bones, and pebbles, have been found in a crocodile's belly. Bofman, on the other hand, ailerts, that the crocodile is an inoffenfive animal ; that he never heard, it devoured either man or beaft ; though moft authors infift, that it will attack both. Norden reports, that he faw feveral crocodiles on the landy banks of the Nile, of different fizes, from fifteen to fifty feet in length j that the greater part of them would not permit themfelves to be approached, but darted into the water before any man could get within gun-(hot of them; that the natives. Vol. III. 5 T who

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874 JAMAICA. who bathe themfelves every day in the Nile, do not take any precaution againfl thefe animals ; nor did he hear of any accident happening from them. Ulloa mentions, that thofe alligators, which have once tafted flefh, become fo fond of it, as never to take up with fifli but in cafes of neceflity ; that there are even too many melancholy inftances of their devouring the human fpecies, efpec.ially children, who have inattentively rambled near their haunts; and that alligators, who have once fe^ftted^pon human flefh, are known to be the moft dangerous, and become as it were inflamed with an infatiable defire of repeating the fame delicious repaft. It is uncertain whether what he has here related was meant of the crocodile, or the alligator, as both fpecies pafs with the Spaniards under the fame denomination of cayman: but it feems to have been founded on the accounts which he heard from the inhabitants; for, when fpeaking of his own knowledge, he fays, whatever may have *' been written with regard to the fiercenefs and rapacity of thefe *< animals, I, and all our company, know, from experience, they * avoid a man, and on the approach of any one immediately plunge *' into the water." It is certain the crocodile is found in all the larger rivers of the South-American continent; and it is probable, that they vary, in colour at leaft, from thofe of Egypt and Africa, if not in difpofition. It is true, there are well-attefted inftances in Jamaica of the voracity of the alligator, and his making attempts upon the human fpecies ; but, whether the rarity of luch examples may be attributed to this creature's being more fierce at certain times of the year than at others, or when no other food is to be procured, or to the care which mofl perfons take to avoid them, is very doubtful. I am apt to think fuch attempts are owing more to neceflity than inflinft. It would probably appear, tipon a fair flatc, that, of the two, the alligator is the more inoffenfive animal. But the miftakc of feveral writers, who confound them together, is very apparent ; for they talk of alligators thirty feet in length ; whereas the large ft real alligator, known to have been ineafurcd, did not exceed twenty, and was juftiy thought to be of an extraordinary fize, as they are rarely more than from twelve to fifteen or fixteen feet. We are not, however, to repute I the

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 875 the alligator an Innoxious creature, fince we know that they will attack helplefs animals, whicli happen to be unable to get qut of their reach ; fiich as little infants, carelefsly flanding near them, or colts and calves, entangled in the mud and weeds at fome frequented watering-place. Though the crocodile lias never been cbferved in any of the rivers in Jamaica, he is found at the Grand Caymanas, the Ifle of Pines, fome of the Cuba lagoons, and is very commonly met with at the Mofquito fhore. How much he differs from the alligator will appear from the following comparifon, of a few particulars only ; but I muft obferve, that there are feveral other diftinilions between them unmentioned. Alligator Crocodile. Has fixty-eight teeth; two of He is faid to have fixty in fewhich, belonging to the underveral rows, and ferrated. jaw, are fo long, that he could not poffibly clofe his mouth, if it •were not for two perforations, or holes, in the integument of the upper-jaw, into which they are received, as into a Iheath ; and pafling through, appear above the upper-jaw when his mouth is fhut. His head is long and iharp. He is naturally Hiy and timorous. He Is of a dufky-brownlfh hue, except the belly, which is whitlfh, or refembling that of the turtle. His legs are extremely fhort. His tail is elaftic, and has a naturally horizontal motion, like a fi(h's tail, which anfwcrs the fame purpofe of facilitating his courfe through the water. His 5T2 His head is thick, flat, fhorter, and lefs pointed. The American is faid to be quite the reverfe. The American is faid to be yellow. His legs are much longer. When he runs on fhore, he carries his tail above the ground, and turns the point of It up like a bow. movement

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tyd J A M A movement on fhore is very flow and difficult to him, from the Ihortnefs of his legs, and the incumbrance of his rail, which he trails heavily after him. His eyes are placed on the fummit of his head, for the convenience of feeing fifli and other objefls above him, as he more frequently lies at the bottom than on the furface of the water. He has four mufky glands, about the fize of a piftachia-nut, two under the throat, and one on each fide the anus. Thefe are obferved in all of them indifcriminately, old or young. I C A. He makes a noife refembllng the barking of a dog. His eyes are placed parallel tothe aperture of the jaws. Haffelquift fays, there is iifoiliculus, or fmall bag, under the (houlders of the old, full-grown crocodiles of the Nile ; containing' a thick fubftance, which fmells like mulk. But Dampier affirms, that the American cro* codile has no mu(ky glands. ; He is faid to utter a found re* fembling the crying ofan infant .in diftrefs. Biit^f The barking of the alligator may poflibly have been afligned him as a decoy to the canine! fpecies,of which he is remarkably fond, as if they -were his favourite prey. Dogs are aflonifhingly afraid of this animal, but are fecured from feJling into his clutches (other wife than inadvertently) by the ftrong, mufky fcent which he diffufes to a very confiderable diftance round him, whenever he is repofmg on fhore, and which gives them timely warning. After all, it does not appear that he is fo tremendous a moniter as the ideas of timorous perfbns have pictured him; lince he isnaturally a co\vard, difqualifi-ed fof quick purfuit, eafily detedled, and as eafily avoided, except in the water, .where there is furely no neceflSty to ventufein hisway,. NOXIOUS

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 877 NOXIOUS ANIMALS, or as are commonly fo reputed. 315. Scorpion. It is but of a fmnll fizein this ifland; and the fting not fo venomous as is reprefented in the countries of the South-American continent, where it is found of much greater bulk. A fcorpion was irritated to fting a young cock on the fide of the head feveral times fucceflively ; but no efFe£t was perceived to arife from it, not even to the exciting a fwelling. Their venom is mortal to themielves here, as in other parts of the world where they arc found ; ; and it is probably more virulent at fome feafons of the year than at others. 316. Red-tailed Spider. It is of a glofl'y jet-black all over, except the tail, which glows with a vivid red. It is extremely fluggifh and averfe to motion, even when difturbed. It inhabits chiefly in holes of old walls, or decayed timber. A young, robuft Negroe man happening to bo flung by one, the venom irritated his nerves fo much, as to throw him into convuUions, which were of no long continuance: upon being blooded and chafed, thefe fymptoms left him ; and he felt no further bad effe6l: The pindals-nut, bruifed and applied as a poultice to the ftung part, is efteemed an antidote to the venom of : both thefe infers ; but any other refolutive oil or oily, fubftance applied warm is equally efficacious, 317. Tarantula.' I have heard of two fpecles of this fpider ; but I am doubtful whether they were not, in fad, the male and female of the fame fpecies. I'never had the opportunity of feeing any. Their qualities feem not to beknown as yet with any degree of certainty, as they are very rarely to be met with. Browne fays, the nip of tile larger fpecies isvery painful for many hours ; that it lometimes caTifesa fever and deliriums, whidi ar£ relievable with a draught • of warm punch, to force a fweat ; and that the Negroes, ,who. are moft fubjedto fueh accidents, are recovered in a few hours by ufing, this fimple. remedy, 318. CfiNTirEa,

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^i'S. Centipe's, of StotoPE>rbRA; The centipes of Jamaica is not equai to the fize of what are com:monlv obferved at Carthagena. Tlie yip of this reptile is not near fo inflainmatory as the fliiig of a wittp ; nor-wiU it offend, unlcfs firfl: hurt, as I have experienced. It harbours mod commonly in timber; and is believed to have been introdviced hither originally ,amon"" logwood, and other woods imported from the continent. But, if this is true, it has certainly degeneiated in bulk, feldom exceeding five inches; whereas, at Carthagena, according to Ulloa, .they are from a yard to a yard and a quarter in length. 319. Gall I WASP, The bite of this animal (which is Ibmewhat of the lizard-make, .and about twenty inches in length) was never known to be mortal; but the effefts of it have frequently been exafperated by terror, and the ridiculous method of cure. A Negroe, when bit by it, is inilantly feized with the moft difmal apprehenfions, and haftens with all his fpeed to reach fome piece of water, from a full perfuafion, that, if the galliwafp gets at it before him, he (hall certainly die; but that, if he plunges in firfl, It will be fatal to the animal. This done, he cuts out the bitten part. It is but very feldom luch accidents can happen, as this creature is not only fliy and timid, but infrequent. It ikulks among rocks in deep woods ; and never bites, unlefs when trod upon, or otherwife hurt. The confequence to the Negroe is, that he is feized with a fever, which lafts a day or two. If, therefore, we confider the violent agitation of mind and body, into which the patient throws himfelf after the bite, together with the feverity of the operation he performs upon the bitten part; we muft be of opinion, that it would be very extraordinary, if a fever was not the certain and invariable confequence. Thcfe animals, it is litid, have been fometimes found in niarfliy places ; but I queftion whether they ever take up their conftant refidence in fuch places, as they fccm to delight moftly in rocky fituations. If they enter marfhy ground, it is probably fuch only as lies adjacent to loofe rocks, and in order to make an occafional repaft on the muikcctos frequenting it. Although

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BOOK III. CHAP. Vlir. 879 Although they have been vulgarly reputed inoft venomous creatures, yet there has not been one well-attefted account, to pro ^'e that they are fo in the fmalleft degree, more than other animals of equal iize, fuch as large ratb, ferrets, &c. whofe bite is fevere, but not malignant. The firft voyagers held the very fame opinion of the guana; and it prevailed a long time, till it became a favourite article of food, and, being by that means better known, was found by eX' perience to be a poor, harmlefs animal. The forbidding appearance of thefe creatures, when fuil beheld by ftrangers, has contributed chiefly to the prepofleffion againft them ; nothing being more natural than to combine the idea of evil qualities with that of an' \igly form of body. This opinion, being once eftabhfhed and propagated, foon becomes implicitly received, and grows into a vulgar error, which gathers ftrength from the fear imprefled by the general idea, and caufes mofl perlbns rather to fly from fuch aunnals, than feek them out for decifive experiment. Much may likewife be charged to the flupid ignorance and fuperflition of the Negroes, as well as to the implicit credulity of others, who take every thing they hear upon truft, and paffively fubmit to the impofition, without giving themfelves the trouble of examining any further. > 320. Vipers. There are none yet difcovered in this ifland, • :.|y Black Snake. ^ 1 Yellow Snake. The bite of both is perfeftly harmlefs, and free from venom.' ^ Their food confifls of rats, mice, young pigeons, chickens, eggs, and fuch like. They feem to be endowed with voracious appetites ; • for a yellow fnake has been known to fwallow a whole nefl: of hen's eggs entire and unbroken.' They are frequently turned into cornhoufes, to free them from rats; and thev do infinite fervice amons; the cane-pieces in the fame way: for this reafon (as I have been informed) the planters, belonging to one of the fmaller Windward ifles, imported a breed of them from the continent, in order to: prote£l their canes fromthe depredation of vaft numbers of rats, which

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S8o JAMAICA, which had over-run the country. Some of the African Blacks, after tliey come to Jamaica, make the yellow fnakc a favourite part of their food, whenever they can catch it. They extraft the fat from it by boiling, and ufe it inflead of butter ; but it is faid to render them fcabby. I have frequently handled them alive. They feem not prompt to bite, unlefs firfl provoked, and then with no more inconvenience than a moufe. They are remarkably domeftic, and have often been know^i to enter dwelling-houfes in the country parts, and take up their abode very peaceably for a long time, until every rat has either been devoured, or put to flight. They are alfo of a docile temper, and may eafily be tamed. They are not fhy, like feveral noxious reptiles ; nor apt to retire at the light of a man ; a circumftance worth remarking in refpeift to animals in general, and which often diflinguifhes the friend from the foe. 321. PoiSON-SXAKE. It is fo called by the Negroes from fear only, and not from any known venomous qualities. One of this fpecies being killed, a large bean, of about one inch in length, was found in its gullet whole and uncorroded ; which feems to prove its food to be of the vegetable kind. This fnake meafured three feet and one inch in length. The yellow fnake is the largefl: fpecies in this ifland, fotne of them meafuring fifteen or fixteen feet in length. 322. Amphisbena, or Silver-Snake. This curious reptile feldom exceeds fixteen inches length. It is believed, by the Negroes, to be venomous, but without the leafl foundation, for it is as harmlefs as an earth-worm. It is either very uncommon in the ifland, or very rarely feen. 323. Wasp. This infeft differs but little, in fize, form, and colour, from the European; and it is equally irritable, and apt to give annoyance upon the flighteft provocation. They build fmall, waxen nefls, or combs, in empty, deferted houfes, fufpcnding them from the rafters of the roof. The cells are hexangular, and covered over one end with a varnifhed membrane, to defend them from the rain. 324. HONEV

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 88i 324. Honey Bke of Europe. Thefe ufeful Infeds were fiifl: introduced from England, and have multiplied (o well, as to fpread innumerable colonies over every part of the ifland, fwarms of them being often found in hollow trees in the woods, in holes of rocks, or banks of earth, and other convenient retreats. Several perfons here keep apiaries, which fupply them abundantly with honey for family-ufes, and wax for candles ; and fome families burn none other but their own manufacture. The honey is, in general, aromatic, delicious, and, like the Minorcan, always in a fluid ftate. The honey produced on fugar-plantations is not equal in flavour or quality to what is made in other parts ; for the bees, when they can find a conftant plenty of melafles in their neighbourhood, will not ramble in queft of flowers, but make ufe of the ready-prepared fyrup. The wax is commonly bleached here in the following manner. It is melted in boiling water over a fire ; and, as it floats on the furface, it is taken oif in very thin cakes by dipping-in a plate. When the whole is taken up in this manner, the cakes are laid in the (unfhine, for two or three days, until the yellow tint is entirely difcharged ; after which, it is perfedly white, like virgin-wax, and fit for ufe. A commodity, fo cheaply produced, fliould excite the inhabitants to extend the number of their apiaries. A moderate induftry would furnifh them with fuHicicnt for their own confumprion; and, in time, with a fuperfluity for export. It is an article annually remitted from the Carolinas to Great-Britain, and might with equal advantage be eftablifhed in this ifland. 325. Wild Bee. This is much fmaller than the European, and very frequent in all the South-lide woods. It is remarkable for having no fting ; and is probably the fame fpecies fo common in Guadaloupe. It builds in the hollow boughs of large trees, particularly the locufl", and makes its comb, not with wax, but a compofition of gum, and minute particles of tree-bark, worked into a brownifti pafte, or cement ; which acquires, in time, the firm texture of papier macheCy but thin, and therefore eafily broken in the weaker parts. The Vol. III. S ^ cells

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882 JAMAICA. cells are pear-fhaped, about the fize of a bantam's egg, and filled with a moft delicious honey, limpid as cryftal, extremely odoriferous, and cordial. Thele refervoirs hang conneaed together in clufters, and are fo contrived, that each of them has a convenient aperture during the time of work, which is doled, or fealed up, fo fooh as the meafure is full. When the honey is required to be taken out, the cells, or bottles, are to be pierced a little way from tlie bottom, to avoid draining out the fediment, which is vifcid and glutinous. This honey is gently folutive, the quantity of half a pint generally caufing two or three evacuations downwards in as many hours, if taken upon an empty ftomach ; but, fwallowed at meals, it has not this effeft. It is, doubtlefs, applicable to very excellent purpofes in medicine ; and, as well as the other common honey produced in this ifland, may be kept for many years in bottles, without running into fermentation like that of Europe. The number of thefe ufeful, little infefts is greatly diminifhed by birds and other animals, who coullantly prey upon them ; but they may be removed, hive and all, into the common apiary, with great fafety, where they would be fecured under fome degree of protection. fPEPPER-FLY. .Sand-Fly. Thefe are very troublefome infers, particularly in the neighbourhood of fandy bays, on the Southfide coafl: ; but they are not fo frequent in the interior parts, nor often rife to the cooler mountains. The firft, if it happens to fall upon the tunicle of the eye, gives a very difagreeable fmarting pain, refembling what is caufed by .pepper. The fecond aflaults the hands and face; and, though extremely minute, its nip, or fting, is fenfibly felt ; when the infc£l that occafioned it can hardly be difcerned ; though the efFcft is rather teazing than painful. 327. ClECOE, Otherwife called Chigoe, or Chigger, viewed through a mierofcope, cxadiy refembles a flea, and is a fpecies of the fame ge4 nuSf 326. {,

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIIL 883 niis, but far more troublefome. The Negroes, who come hither from Africa, are feldom free from it ; and it feems uncertain, whether it is indigenous to this ifland, or propagated from importation. It lodges under the Ikin of the feet, and forms a little, round bag, of the lize of pearl-barley, in which its eggs are depofited. All this, however, is not performed without creating au intolerable itching in the part, which gives notice of the attempt to form a lodgement: in which cafe, it is thought advifeable to extrad it, with the bag, by carefully managing the point of a needle, to clear it without breaking the membrane ; and the cavity is immediately filled up with tobacco-afhcs, which allay the itching, and prevent a fore. Uncleanly perfons, or thofe who feldom wafh their feet, are moft frequently fubjed to this annoyance. They may be deftroyed, without extrailing, by the application of a eataplafm, made with Caftile foap and train-oil mixed; fometimes a little aloes is added : a poultice, of pounded calVada-root, anfwers the like purpofe. But it is better to guard againft their attacks by cleanlinefs, and forbearing to walk often in places flrewed with quick lime, or in ginger and potatoe grounds; which are their cuftomary haunts. 328. MUSKEETO. Thefe gnats, of which two or three fpecies are reckoned in this ifland, furpafs all the other infedls here in the annoyance they give to the inhabitants of the lowlands. Their ufual time of fallying forth, to attack mankind, is about fun-fet ; and, from this time till the morning, they pofl'efs the greateft adivity. During the former part of the day, they are commonly torpid, and forced, by the violence of the breeze, to keep in their hiding-places. Yet they do not make their aflaults without giving notice, with a kind of fhrillhu^m, in the pitch-pipe tone ^; fb that, when a confiderable number of them areaflembled in a room, they perform a full concert ; which affords but a melancholy prefage of the approaching onfet, and may be called their war-fong. When they are ready to begin the attack, they defcend gradually with a feeming caution ; and, after wheeling in circles for fome time, like birds of prey, dart down at once with a fudden fwoop upon any naked part of tjie 5 U 2 bod/

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884 JAMAICA, body that prefents itfelf moft favourably. In thofe places where they are very numerous, as in the neighbourhood of water, it is iieceflkry to guard againft them by day, as well as in the night, efpecially in calm weather, at which time they are eafily difturbed, and put in motion. In fuch places, the ufual guard for the legs is the mu(keeto-boot, or a kind of half-trouzer, made of linen, tied above the knee, and reaching to the flioes ; but, at night, they are kept off by a Ikreen of lawn, or gauze, which enclofes the .j bed inftead of curtains, and, being tucked in on every fide, prevents their entrance. Thefe muikeeto-nets, as they are called, from having been ufed at firft near the coaft, and in the lowlands, are now grown into general ufe ; and we obferve them in thofe elevated parts to which thefe infeds feldom, if ever, afcend. But, although few parts of the ifland are totally free at all times from fome, yet their fwarms are far lefs numerous near the coaft, than either on the coaft of the North or South-American continent. The North-Americans are obliged to wear paper under their ftockings, and wrapped round their legs. In the hot months, they are annually vifited with prodigious multitudes; whofe fting, or rather bite, is far more inflammatory than has been obferved in this ifland, where, the pores being kept in a more uniform ftate of relaxation, their pundlure is made with more eafe, and lefs feverity. So foon as one of thefe infeifls has perched upon the hand or face, it fhoots out its probofcis, whofe point is fo fine, that it enters the pores, but continues penetrating very flowly till it reaches fome one of thofe delicate ramifications of the blood which circulate near the furface: the muflceeto then begins to fet its little pump, or tube, at work, firft, by means of a well-difpofed mechanifrn, exhaufting it of the air contained initj after which, the blood rifes according to the laws of hydroftatics, and continues its afcent in a full tide till this diminutive canibal is perfecftly fatiated, and its body dilated to fuch a fize, that it is fcarcely able to withdraw its weapon and retire. The probofcis enlarges, or fwells, at the fame time; infomuch that, by drawing the fkin tight, and fo ilraightening the orifice, 1 have feen them pinned down like a bear to a ftakc, and difabled from efcaping, notwithftanding all their ftruggles. If they are fuftered to drink their fill without being mokfted.

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 885 lefted, they feldom raife any, or but a very (light degree of, inflammation; but, when fuddenly difturbed, or bruflied away, it is probable they wound or lacerate the part, by haftily extra6ling their probojc'is, and fo leave a fmall pimple, attended with an itching, which is foon removed by rubbing on a little lime-juice. The method, commonly praftifed for difperfing them, is by making fmoak in the evening about the time when they aflemble. They love dark rooms, and black complexions ; which ferve to hide them from view : the Negroes of courfe are exceedingly annoyed with them, except in their huts, where the conftant cuftom of kindling a fire at night proteds them during their hours of fleep. The fire-flies are natural enemies to the mufkeetos, and feed upon them. The Indians, having difcovered this, ufed to attrad thefe flies with lighted torches ; and, when they had caught a fufficient number, let them loofe in their huts at night, to drive the mufkeetos from their hammocks; which office they arefaid to have performed very effedlually. Thefe inlefts depoiite their eggs indifferently in all flagnant fluids. They even hatch in water flrongly impregnated with quick-lime. Their young, or tadpoles, in their fmalleft ftatc, are fo extremely minute, as to be fcarcely vifible to an unafiifted eye upon the clofefl: view. The river-waters in general on the South-fide may be fufpedled of containing their eggs, or young ; but it is not probable, that they can exift a minute in the human flomach. However, this, among other things, is a reafon why it may be proper to ftrain all fuch water through cloths before it is drank, in order to depurate it from thefe, or otlier animalcules, which may poflibly float in it unperceived by the eye. Kalm fays, thefe infsds have a great averfion to greafe, and will not meddle with a Ikin that is anointed with it ; but fuch a remedy is nafty as well as unwholefome; though conftantly pradifed by the bucaniers, who ufed to befmear their hands and faces with hog'slard } to which they added the burning of tobacco leaves by night in their huts. 330. Cockroach., i • This infe£l has a variety of names. ''In North-America it is called mill-beetle: the Dutch, fettled there, %le it kackerlack; the Swedes,

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886 .J A M A I C A. Swecjes, broJoefiis, or br^ad-eater. Lianffius diftinguil'hes it by the name of blattq Orientalis; for it is common to both the Indies, There are three Ipecies in Jamaica. The firft is very fcarce, of a greeu colour, and has been noticed only in the leeward parts of the illaud. Th§ -ftpoiid, whiqli;.chiefly refides in vaults and cellar^ is.X)f .a ytJ^Y dark-browfi colour; the belly black, with tranfvcrfe lines of white; it, 15. ioagi^r than the EnghOi cock-chafers, torpid, madive, and loathfome. The third fort, which frequents the apartments of dwelling-houfes, is fmallcr, of a light-chefnut, or reddifli hue, with a very comprefled body, which enables them to iofmuate theinfelve? into bureaus, boxes, and dr.g.^yers, through very fmall crevices. The cabinetware, made in England for exportation to this ifland, ought to be very clofely paneled, fcrewed 3t the back, top, and bottom, and of dry, well-feafoned fluft : otherwife, when the wood comes to fhrink, it will aftbrd numerous apertures for the free paflage of thefe jijfefts, who not only do a great deal, of damage to cloths of all kinds, but impart to every thing they touch a moft offenfive Imell. They are fond of glutinous, or greafy, fubfiances; but will eat any thing, leather, parchment, linen, woolen, manna, and even yEthiops mineral ; nothing comes amils. Nature feems to have given them fcarcely any appearance of inftinftive choice in feledling wholefome, or rejecting noxious, aliment: for want of this fagacity, they often fall vidims to their ravenous appetite ; and, indeed, if it were not fpr this, they would foon fwarm in fuch multitudes, as to become worfe plagues than any that infefted the land of Egypt ; for they are extremely tenacious of life, and, when crufhed with the foot, are often feen crawling again, and dragging a trail of bowels after them. A fcorpion, a houfe-fpider, and a cock-roach, were put all together for experiment into a well-corked phial, and imprifoned till they died ; but the cockroach furvived the longefl. They lay a great number of eggs, which are of a wedge-like form, and covered with a firm, (hining, brown integument : they generally fallen them to fome fubftance ; and they are not eafily demolifhed by other infeds. So wifely are the Icales of being ordered, that all creatures are checked in their redundancy ; neither being fuffered, ow the one hand, to multiply beyond a cextain allotted limit, nor, on

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 887 on the otlier, to be wholly annihilated by the cafLialties to which they are fubjeft. Thefe infedls (I do not mean it as a proof of their good fervices) are remarkably covetous of pomatum and powder, which they nibble away very dextrouOy, and with them many hands-full of that bufhy covering, ycleped a perriwig, fcarcely having the manners to leave nine hairs on a fide. Oft have t!ie venerable JicU-bottotn, the fage tye, and refpeSlable major ^ fallen victims to the appetite of the!e ravenous creatures, and been utterly fhorn of all their dignity, learning, and authority, in the Ihort fpace of one night. Yet, notwithrtanding fuch mifchievous pranks, thefe domeftics are not without their ufe; for they are exceedingly induftrious in gleaning up fuch filth and naftinefs, as the flovenly negleft of bad houfewives has left in holes and corners undiflurbed by the broom: tliey are, on this account, very neceflary in fuch habitations in hot climates, where uncleanlinefs and fluttifhnefs may generate putrid fmells, and corrupted air, to the detriment of health. In houfes of this clafs, they are always found in the greateft abundance, attracted by their favourite food, and proportioning their numbers to the quantity of fcavenger's work ncceliary for them to perform ; fo that, if I was to addrefs one of thefe houfewives, it (hould be much in the llyle of Solomon, *' Go to the cockroach^ thou Jlut ; confider her ways, and be -*•' cleanly y They are not lefs fond of bugs, and frequently creep at night behind beds, in order to furprize and devour all the stragglers they can meet with. They feem to be full of volatile, urinous, and animal fiilts ; and, I believe, a very ftrong fpirit might be obtained from them, of ufe in hyfterical cafes. They are certain foretellers of rain or wind ; previous to wliich, they are {^tw ifluing from their lurking places behind loofe pannels, or floors, in a violent hurry, and flying about in the utmoft confufion. The larger grey houfe-fpider, which carries' its eggs in a Vvfhite bag beneath its belly, is a natural enemy to the cockroaches, and feeds upon them. 331. Wood-Ants. Thefe are very Angular infe6ls. They build their nefts, of very large diameter, generally upon fome tree, or the rafters of deferted houfes.

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88 JAMAICA. houles. I have fecn fome near four feet in height, and eighteen inches thick, in the broadefl: fe£lion. They are pear-fhaped, round, biggeft in tlie upper part, and diminifliing towards the bottom. They feem compofed of particles of wood, and a refinous fubftance, which hardens in the air, and is indifibluble in water ; for no rain can penetrate into them. Thefe infe6ls never work abroad, but carry on their traverfes and approaches, to and from their habitation, under vaulted paffages, which are covered with a cruft, pro-bably compofed, in a great meafure, of fimilar materials. As each hive, or neft, contains two fets of differentlyformed ants, it is probable that the diftindtions are fexual, as their occupations are Jbmewhat different. Their living always fecluded from the air has been thought to account for the white colour of their bodies, and tendernefs of their Ikins. One clafs has a large, round, whitirti head ; but the head of the other is covered with a fliining, darkbrown ikin, of a horny fubftance, and pyri-form, being round where it joins the body, and terminating in a point. Upon breaking one of thefe caufeways, a party immediately run to repair the breach, which they perform very expeditioufly in the following manner. The former fort apply their tails to the broken edge, and let fall a fmall drop of glutinous matter, and, then withdrawing, make way for the others, who work it about with alternate motions of their head, as a mafon ufes his trowel, to incorporate and make it firmly adhere, Succeffive labourers continue the work, till the hole is entirely clofed up. This operation cannot be well obferved without the affiftance of a glafs, and is equally curious and entertaining. Thefe infe
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BOOK III. CHAP. Vlll. 889 The ufual method of deftroying them is by throwing a very fmall portion of arfeiiic in at a hole made into their nefl-, or covertway, mixed with fugar ; which loon kills the whole focicty. They are excellent food for yoong poultry; and their nefl?, burned to aflies, yield a very fine and (hong lixivium, which might be made ufe of for many purpofes. If the fubftance of the materials could be diliblved by boiling in water, or maceration, I doubt not but it might be caft in moulds, and adapted to a great variety of ingenious manufadures, as Inufl-boxes, toothpick-cafes, toiletboxes, and the like. It is likewife worth experimenting, whether a cold or hot infufion in fpirit of wine would foften it. 332. Sugar-Ant. This minute infetft is to be found in moft houfes, and feems to have a peculiar attachm.ent to fyrups, preferves, and all fugared dainties. In order to (top their march, it is ufual to fet the feet of a table (upon which fuch articles are laid) in little troughs, or pans, of water : but fuch is their liquorifli appetite, that many dozens perifli in attempting to crofs the water. If fuch articles are kept in a fafe, or fufpended (helf, an old wig, or a bottle, is fixed at the bottom of the cord. The entangled hairs of the former perplex their journey fo much, that they rarely get to the end of it ; and the glafs is too flippery to afford them a pafl'age. 333. Black Stinging Ant. Thefe are mod troublefome in fome of the country-houfes, where they frequently con{lru
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890 JAMAICA. bound. So foon as the little worm, or maggot, is hatched, it beI gins its depredations on the back-part of the binding, feeding upon f the fubftance, and boring numerous holes. It afterwards proceeds in the fame manner with the leaves, till they become a perfeft fillagree. After it turns to a beetle, it retains a predile£lion in favour of the place of its nativity; and new broods fucceed fo long as any pabulum remains. Under the article Aloss, I have propofed a method for fecuring books from the erofion of this creature; and it will not appear unimportant, on refleding that very coftly and valuable libraries have often been entirely deftroyed by it in this ifland. 335. BIRDS, and fome other Animals. It is only my intention to give an account of fuch as are moft remarkable for their good or ill qualities, or fingularities, that have not been already enumerated, or fully diftiiiguiflied, in other publications relative to this ifland. 336. Carrion-Crow. This bird, at a fmall diftance, refembles very much a wild turkey, and was miftaken for it by the firft navigators into the WeftIndies. It is of the vulture fpecies, and extremely ufeful in this climate, where it contiibutes not a little to prevent the generation of malignant difeafes, arifing from the putrefadlion of dead animal bodies. On the fir^ft letting-in of the morning-breeze, it takes its fland upon fbme elevated place, as a houfe, or the uppermoft bough of a decayed tree ; where it holds its wings expanded for fome time, and vibrating, as if to prepare for a cruize ; then fuddenly iprings into the air, and, wheeling as it rifes, afcends to an amazing lieight. It is endued with fo keen a fcent, that, after gaining a fufiicient elevation in the atmofphere, it has been feen to fly diretlly to carrion, lying at a prodigious diftance to the windward from it. Nature has given it an appetite fo voracious, and a digeftion fo quick, that it is always either crammed very full, or it is extremely lank and empty. If a carcafe is in the higheft ftate of putrefaftion, it perfcvercs in gormandizing till it is fcarccly able fo fly, but ftands motionlcfs, with its mouth wide-open, gafping for

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BOOK IIL CHAP. VIII. 891 for breath, and its eyes ftill riveted with infatiable defire upon the filthy remnants; like thofe human Epicures, who, after fluffing themfelvcs up to the very top of the gullet with turtle or venifon, have loft the power of returning to the charge, yet retain an unabated craving for the fcraps and offals ftill in view. It is a mofl wonderful mechanifm, that its ftomach is capable of refolving fuch rotten fubftances into wholefome nouriflTiment. Experiments have (hewn the antifeptic power of the bark, ading by its ftipticity on the fibres of putrid tlefli, and difcharging it of its fator within
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892 J A M A 1 C A. In the country parts they eat dead lizards, fnakes, rats, or any other putrid fledi, without feeming to prefer one fpecies more than another. Sometimes they are known (when hunger prefles, and their cuftomary food is fcarce) to fnap up a young chicken, or duckling, juft hatched. They make no neft, butdepofite their eggs (which rarely, if ever, exceed two) under fome rock, or in a iblitary part of the woods. The cock birds frequently tread the hen poultry. When this happens, the gills of the hen turn gradually black, and look as if they were in a ftate of mortification. She declines, lickens, and is fure to die very foon after. Whence it feems probable, that the leminal fluid of thefe birds has Ibmething in it extrremely acrimonious, and even poifonous to the female organs of a different ^w/. It may partake of the purulence and mephitic quality of their food, and bring on a mortification. A peifon, intending to play a trick upon one of his acquaintance, caufed a carrion-crow to be plucked, roafteJ, and ferved-up at table ; but the flefli was fo black, and the flench lb intolerably offenlive, that it was impoflible to pals the deception upon any man who had not entirely lort his faculties of hght and fmell. There is fomething extremely remark.ible in regard to theTe birds ; but it has been obferved ib repeatedly, that it may be deemed a charafteriflic. They cannot bear to be looked at, efpecially after they are gorged with carrion: they baiig down their heads to the very ground, and feem as if afliamed of their filthy office, or of their Immoderate gluttony. Dogs, who have gorged themfelves with the fame dainty food, have often the fame abalhed, downcart: look, when caught in the facl ; and I do not queftion, but this emotion, the refult of inftinft, is defigned to convey a moral Icrtbn to man, and fhew, in the pidure exhibited by thefe animals, that fuch a voracious indulgence is equally odious and degrading. The foft down under the wings, or taken from the young birds, who are perfe>5lly white, is uleful for flopping the blood in frefh wounds. 337' ^^^'

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 895 337. Barbadocs and Savannah Black-eirds. Thefe birds may be fpoken of together, as they naturally aiTociatei and, although of a ditfjrent fpecies, yet their food and manner of life being alike, they are infeparable allies. The former is called in North America the maize thief, or purple jackdaw. They have lome refemblance to the daw of Europe, and are great devouiers of corn and fruits ; but they are very ferviceable, at the fame time, in devouring thofe worms which prey on the corn, before it is ripe ; they are likewife extremely fond of the ticks, which infefl; cattle, horfes, and fheep. Thefe quadrupeds, as if fenfible of their benefador?, very patiently fuffer them to hop about their bodies, either when grazin|j, or lyin^^ down ; the induftrious birds (called for this reafon tick-eatersj pick off all within their reach, and gulp them down with amazing vivacity. In February, and feveral of the fucceeding months, they affemble in large flocks, towards evening, among the mangrove trees on the coaft, to f^end the night together. Immediately after their meeting, the whole fliore is enlivened with the delightful harmony of their orchellra. Their note is fomcwhat like the creakino of an innkeeper's fign in a high wind, or the handle of a grind-ftone ; at odier times it more refembles the gentle fqueak which may be formed by means of a comb and paper. They vary frequently both the key and the tone, making altogether a very whimfical kind of concert, or medley of queer founds, which have more of rediativo than air in them; and, after all, may poffibly be nothing more than a mufical confabulation on the fubjedt of thtlr preceding adventures. A wildpigeon fometimes mingles his pipe with thefe birds, by way of German flute, amongft a numerous band of violins. In regard to their general charader, 1 have no doubt, but the fervice they render to the young corn, by deftroyiiig the worm, and to cattle, by devouring the tick, compenfates very fully for the little fhare of the ripe grain they are able to purloin. In fome of the North American provinces thefe birds were profcribed by the Icgiflature, and rewards granted for killing them ; but fince their number has been thinned almoft: to extirpation, the inhabitants have difcovered, that the corn-worm, which they ufed to feed upon, has committed infinitely worfe ravages. 258. Sing-

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894 J A M A I C A. 338. Singing Birds. There are but few of thefe vocal performers natives of the ifland. The chief are the nightingales j of thefe are two fpecies. One is more properly the inock-btrd of North America, and is not fo frequent as the other. It is principally feen in all parts of the Healthlliire Hills, and probably delights in this diftrift, bccaufe it is almofl uninhabited by men, or becaufe it finds here greater plenty of its choiceft food. Its plumage is of a light-brown colour, inclining to reddifh, and a few dark feathers in the wings and tail. It is much larger, particularly about the head, than the other fpecies, but equally bold. The other fpecies is the lefler mock-bird of Edwards, t. 78, and is found in mod parts of the ifland, efpecially the low lands. Their note is a compofition of the thrufh, black-bird, and European nightingale ; but it has the ncareft refemblance to the thruOi, and is infinitely fweet, flrong, and various. Every morning and evening they warble their melody, and enliven the rural retirements, anfwering each other with their inchanting echoes, and to fuch a degree of exaftnefs in the key and inflexions, that, although perched at a confiderable diftance from tree to tree, it is very often difficult to diftinguifh between them, except from the more articulate tones of that \vhofe ftation is neareft to the hearer. At certain times of the year they fing during great part of the night, efpecially when it is moonlight. It is not certain, whether they are kept fo wakeful by the clearnefs of the light, or by any extraordinary attention and vigilance, neceflary at fuch times, for the prote(^ion of their nurfery from the piratical alfaults of the owl and night-hawk. It is poffible, that fear may operate upon them, much in the fame manner as it has been obferved to affe6t Ibme cowardly perfons, who whiille ftoutly in a lonefome place, while their mind is agitated with the terror of thieves or hobgoblins. When taken young, they may be kept in a cage ; but will not long furvive their captivity, unlcfs they are fed with the hoopwithe berry, and the fmall-bird pepper, mixed together. Thefe birds are fcen throughout the fummer in the North American colonics ; but. about autumn, retire to the Souihward, and ftay away the whole winter. • They

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BOOK III. CHAP. Vlir. 895 They doubtlefs take their rout towards Florida ; and In very feverwinters crofs, like many other birds of the continent, to Cuba and Jamaica ; where they breed. 339. Black-bird. This is commonly called here the two-penny chick. It builds on the branches of the plantane tree, and is not obferved to lay more than two eggs. It is a very fearlefs, tame bird, and perks up its head and tail as it hops along the ground, like the Englifli blackbird, whofe wild note it feems to imitate very much in its long, as it refembles nearly in fize and make. Its young are callow about the end of June. 340. Fly-catcher, or Whip-tom-kelly. This bird is common alfo to the continent, from whence it probably makes an annual emigration. It has only a few notes ; but they are loud and fweet. 341, Banana Bird. This beautiful bird is a native, and builds its neft with the fibres of the Renealmia, or old-man's-beard, curioufly interwoven, and fblpended above from the twig of fome tree, generally the larger ebony. It has a fweet delicate note, and is eafily tamed. The bird-fanciers of this ifland rejeft the native choirifters ; but are at great expence in importing the cardinal from South Carolina, and the gold-finch, canary-bird, and linnet, from England. The goldfinch of Jamaica refembles the Englifli in fi.ze and plumage, but it is not efteemed a bird of fong. 342. Humming Birds. Here are four different fpecies. The fmalleft is much admired for the gracility of its frame, lovely plumage, and the delicate ftrufture f its neft, which is commonly built on a fmall twig of the orange tree. They flit with fuch velocity, whilft they are fucking the nectareum of a flower, or bloflbm, that their wings are intirely imperceptible, and their pafliage from one flower to another refembles more the quick dart7 I ing,

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896 JAMAICA. Ing of a large fly, than the (kimming of a bird. They feem the contiguous link which joins the bird and infe(5l fpecies. 345. Blue Mackaw. Jamaica Parrot. Smaller-grren Parrot. Red-breasted Parroquet. Green Parroquet. Thcfe are all natives, and too generally known to need any def.Tiption. 344. Cabling Crow. This is a native. It is perfedly black, and about the fize of the Englifli crow. It is remarkably fhy, and rarely heard or feen, except in the lonely woods of the midland diflridts. When a flock of them afiemble together, they are diverting enough to a traveler, with their ftrange, noify gabble of guttural founds, which imitate fome human languages, and are thought to have much the confufed vociferation -Oi a parcel of Welfli folks cxercifing their lungs and tongues at a grand fcolding match ; hence thefe birds have been nick-named the IVdjlomen. The flruclure of their organs of voice adapt them probably to articulate words in a manner more correal and exad than any of the parrot kind ; but they fliun the fociety of mankind with fo much caution, that it would be no eafy matter to come at their young, and train them up for the experiment. ---'. QUADRUPEDS, 345. Horse. The horfes here are of various breeds ; Morocco, Spanifli, Britifli, and North American. They degenerate in bulk, but improve in beauty of ftiape. The natives are, for the moft part, well-made, cleanlimbed, hardy, of great fpeed and ftrcngth, and fit either for draught or faddle. Though their bones are flender, their finews are exceedingly firm, fo that they are capable of drawing vo-y heavy coaches with a furprizing activity, and of undergoing very long journies with great expedition, and indifferent fare. They are fubje(ft to fewer 3 diftempe 9

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BOOK Iir. CHAP. VIII. -897 diftempers tUnn the imported horfes, and their hoofs are naturally fo tough and compaft, that flioes are feldom found ncceflary for them, even in rocky roads. The wild breed, defcended from the Spnnifh gennets, obferved here in D'oyley's time, and very numerous in the woody parts of the lowlands, are diminutive and worthlefs. The wild cattle, on the contrary, arc remarkably large and beautiful ; a difference not eafy to be accounted for, as the latter feem to require a richer pafturage for enlarging their bulk, than what they are able to meet with in thofe places where they are mofl abundant ; perhaps it may be owing to the vicious propenfity of the ftallions, who begin to cover when they are not more than halfgrown ; and, by thus early confuming their vigour, become incapable of begetting any other than a puny offspring. The general flandard of the Creole horfes is from thirteen and an half to fourteen hands. In order to mend the breed, fome perfons have thought, that a very high tax fhould be impofed, by aft of alTembly, upon all Itone-horfes, three years old, under fourteen hands.. Perhaps a tax of 10 or 15/. per head per annum, and a penalty of the like amount, payable by the owner, befides forfeiture of the horfe, upon conviftion of any fuch, omitted to be regularly given in at the veftries, might anfwer the purpofe fo well as to put a flop, in a few years, to this diminutive breed ; encouragement being given, at the fame time, to import large ftallions and mares from Europe and North America. By an aft paffed in 1759, all ilone-horfes, under fourteen hands, three years old, and running on the commons, are ordered to be caftrated ; but this aft extends not to horfes breaking out of any flable or inclofed pafture. A premium of 10/. is granted upon every ftonehorfe, or mare, fifteen hands high, and not exceeding five years old, imported from England. Horfes imported from Ireland, or NorthAmerica, are not included. This aft, with fome amendments, could not fail of producing a very good effeft. 346. Ass, The fineft afles for breeding mules are brought hither from Spain and Portugal. They degenerate in the low lands; but the native breed. Vol. III. 5 Y if

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898 JAMAICA. if carried very young to the rich Guiney grafs paftures of the moun* tains, attain to a large growth, and produce aimoft equally good mules* 347. Camel. Thefe animals were originally bred here, with a view of carrying fugar and rum to the market, inftead of mules. Great expeftations were formed from this projeft, as the camel was known to be far more docile and traftable, and equal to bear much heavier burthens ; but, upon trial, it appeared, that the roads were much too rocky for their hoof; that the hills were too fteep, and that nature had defigned them only for exteniive and level landy defarts. They anfwer no other purpofe here at prefent, than that of terrifying horfes traveling the roads, and caufing the overturn of carriages now and then. The humanity of their owners preferves them from extirpation, though at the hazard of many a man's neck. The young ones are fald to be good meat, and often ufedas fuch by the inhabitants of thofe countries where they are more common ; but the epicures of Jamaica have not yet thought proper to Introduce this Afiatic dainty into their bill of fare. They attain here to their full growth ; and fome advantage might doubtlefs be made, 'by annually (hearing their hair, at the time when it has the longeft ftaple, in December, or January ; at prefent, they are the moft ufelels animals belonging to this ifland. 348. Dog-. The Engllfh breeds, Introduced here, degenerate In fize, but feem to lofe no part of their more peculiar character, whether it confifts in coui-age or fagaclty. The moft ufeful of the race are thofe belonging 60 the hog-hunters ; they feem to be a mongrel mixture between the maftiff and greyhound, fv\Ift and fierce.; the brindled are efteemed the heft. Thofe of the Spanilh breed poflefs the like qualities, are much tnlkr, and have more of the greyhound make. The Negroes dread them as much as the Indians formerly did, when the Spaniards made ui'e of them for piirfult. I have feen feveral of the Gulney-breed here. They are about the jfize of turn-fpits, of a jet-black colour, and cloathed with a fleek fliinlng fkin, without a fmgle hair ; their appearance is extremely Angular,

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII, 899 lingular, loathfome, and dlfagreeable ; yet they are confidcred as a great dainty in Gulney, and are faid to conftitute a principal part of fbod among the inhabitants oi Benin, and other provinces. It is a remarkable circumftance, that madnefs in dogs is almoft unknown in this ifland, and other parts of America. 349. Rat. Four different fpecies infeft this ifland. The krgcfl is commonly called the Charles-price rat, and obtained its name from having been firft obferved here about the time when the late Sir Charles Price, Baronet, returned hither from Europe. It is faid to have been imported by a Danifli fliip belonging to Sanfta Croix, which was driven into Kingfton harbour by llrefs of weather. By whatever means they firft got introdu6tion, it is certain the breed multiplied fo fafl;, as very foon to fpread over the whole ifland, where they are now grown exceedingly numerous and troublefome ; dieting chiefly upon fowls, eggs, and young poultry. They are no other than the water-rat of Europe, but grow to a larger bulkin general ; for I have feen fome that meafured eighteen inches from the fnout to the extremity of the tail. They are amphibious, aad found in holes on the banks of rivers, and the fides of ponds. They burrow like rabbits, and generally make their nefl:s under ground, though I have fometimes found them in tufts of long grafs. As the flock-houfes, where poultry are kept are mofl;ly built in a flight manner, with wattles plaiftered, thefe animals perforate a long way juft below the furface of the earth, and paflSng under the lowefl: wattles, to the inner part of the houfe, always take care to emerge behind a box, a hen-coop, or fome other concealment, from whence they fally forth in the night-time, feekuig what, they may devour. I found a nefl once with nineteen young ones ; they breed as frequently as the rabbit, and hence fome judgement may be formed of their prodigious increafe. Some have fuppofed that they are carnivorous only, and not granivorous ; but it is certain that they eat corn of every fort, dried roots, and canes. They take the fame delight as the jackdaw in flealing and hiding fubftances, which they are utterly incapable of applying to any ufe ; fo that in their haunts or repo5 Y 2 fitories

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900 JAMAICA. fitories have fometinies been found tea-fpoons, thimbles, leaden bullets, coat and fleeve buttons, beads, and the like. This paflion for hoarding is very unaccountable, as they feem to poflefs too much natural cunning not to know the difference between any fuch fubftances, and others that are proper for food. They are faid to devour the black-houfe rat j in proof of which it has been remarked, that the latter are not near fo numerous as they ufed to be before the arrival of thefe foreigners. Their moft favourite aliment, however, feenis to be iifli ; fo that, whenever it is intended to deftroy them by poifon, there is no bait fo effed:ual as fprats, or other fmall fry, well impregnated with arfenic, mixed, for better difguife, with a fmall quantity of dripping-fat, or butter, and laid near their haunts. Browne has claffed this fpecies with the beaver, calling it Cajlor ; but there is very little analogy between them, either in ftrufture, food, or manner of living. It is true, the tail of this rat is thicker and fliorter than that of the other fpecies, and without hair ; its feet are webbed ; its teeth are long, yellow, and like thofe of the fquirrel. It is fond of fifh, and amphibious ; that is, it is furniflied with means of feeking its prey in the water, as well as upon land; but docs not, like the beaver, take up its conftant abode near the water; in fliort, it might, with equal reafon, have been cl nffed with the alligator. The black houfe-rat was originally brought hither from England with the (hipping. There are abundance of them wild in the woodi, where they make their nefls in thick fhrubby trees. I have frequently feen them on the branches, and once found a nefl, conftructed fomewhat like the Englifh magpy's, coated with clay on the inliJe, lined with mofs, and roofed at top with fmall twigs, dried grafs, and other like materials, adapted to keep out the rain. Thefe particulars feem to give the rat-kind fome affinity to the fquirrel ; and their tail, in fa(51, conftitutes the effentlal difference between them, conHdered in their ftate of nature. The two other fpeci^^s are prubably indigenous to the ifland, and are both what are called fieldrats, in contradiitinflion to thofe which are domeflic. The larger is of a light-afh, or greyifii colour, on the back, and other part?, except the belly, which is intirely white. This fubfifts almoft wholly upon the fugar-cane, and therefore generally termed the caiierat ; from the nature of its food the flefh acquires a lufcious and very delicate flavour, as I am informed by thofe who have eaten them, when

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BOOK III. CHAP. VIII. 901 when roafted ; but they are not an article of food wUh the white inhabitants, though highly efteemed among the plantation Negroes, who fpit half a dozen of them at a time, upon a long Ikewer, and broil them In this manner on their fires, leaving their heads on, but always cutting off the tail, clofe to the rump, which they think is not proper to be eaten. Their horrid appearance on the Negroe fpits is fufficient to difgufb moft perfons who have the fmalleft delicacy of ftomach ; but the Negroes are happily affedled with fo little prejudice or nicety In their food, that they will eat every other fpecies of rats with equal indifference, and even cats, which, they alledge, are not at all Inferior in tafte and goodnefs to rabbits. The fourth fpecies Is much fmaller than the former, being In bulk no larger than an Englifh mole. It is of a beautiful reddifh colour, with a milk-white belly; the fkin would anfwer the fame purpofes of drefs, as thofe of the North American fquirrel. This is like wife a field rat, and, like the other, takes up its habitation chiefly about the hollow roots of large trees, and the rocky acclivities of gullies, and river banks. It is far from being numerous, and it is probable, that it either does not bring forth io many young ones at a litter as the other fpecies ; or, being weaker, and Icfs able to defend itfelf, more often falls a prey to fn:ikes, owls, and Its other enemies. All thefe different fpecits agree, in committing moft dreadful havock on negleffed, foul canefpieces. I have feen a vifto, of about fourteen feet In breadth, cut by thefe animdls through a large cane piece, almoft in as a flralt line, as if it had been purpofely done with a reap-hook. They gnawed all the canes nearly through, at the bottom, and laid them flat ; no fewer than a numerous army of them could have been employed in this mifchievous work, which they effected in the fpace of one night. Wiicn the canes are thus bitten, and left on the ground, the wounded parts afford a nidus for fome infeft to depofite its eggs ; the animalcules produced from them feeding afterwrds upon the juices of the plant, the circumjacent parts acquire a fine crimfon hue, but the cane withers,, the remaining juice turns four, and becomes totally unfit for making fugar, though it is often fermented and dilfilled uito rum. The Negroe rat-catchers are very expert at their bufinefs ; their trap very much refembles a fmail ftrawberry bafket j an elaftic piece of ftick, like what is uled In the Englifh mole trap, is fixed into one end 3 ^'^

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9a JAMAICA, of it, the ether end of the flick, having a noofe made oTftrono; twine, is bent fo as almofl to touch the trap; the noofe is conduced to the infide, and the twine hitched by means of a fmall peg lo difpoled, that, in approaching the bait, the rat is forced to difplace it ; the ftick i> then fet at liberty to recoil, and the rat, being caught in the noofe, is inftantly fqueezed to death. This trade is very profitable ; for, over and above a dated reward of rum for a certain number of tails, the bjdies are fold among the other Negroes : fome of thefe rat-catchers are fo Ikilful as to take a thoufand per week, fo that the Turkifli bafhas of ten tails make no figure, when compared with thefe fable baflias of ten hundred. Nor is this their fole advantage ; the emoluments they earn are of luch importance, as to recommend them ftrongly to the favourable opinion of the black ladies, who emulate each other in their careilci', with a view to participate either of the capture, or the profits arifing from it. The terriers, particularly thofe of Scotland, would be found very iifeful here, in tracking and digging out the firfl-mentioned fpecies, or water-rat; and, by deflroying the females, their numbers might in time be leifened; though it is now impofiible to extirpate them entirely by any method ; even when they are well cleared by poifoning from one plantation, new colonies very foon arrive from the neighbouring woods and efiates to fupply their place, and generate a new flock of freehooters. The firfl: and fccond fpecies, which are beft diftinguifhed by the name of domeftic rats, are certain prognoflicators of i-ainy or blowing weather, when they are more than ordinarily noify and adive about dwelling-houfes. They haften thitlier for fhelter about twenty-four hours before the change happens, and leave them again after the weather grows fair. C H A P.

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BOOK III. CHAP. IX. 5J03 CHAP. IX. SECT. I. 350, ^Catalogue of fuch foreign Plants as might be introduced^ and cultivated, in Jamaica, unth great propriety. nUBlA Pae^riria. ^ercus Galli/cra. Carthamvs TinBorius. T:Jlachla Vera. Slyrax Officinale. Parkinfon, 1386. Lin. Sp. 1162. P454P6js. Gall-bearing Oak. Safflowe Pllbchia Vera. Gum Storax Tree. P apaver Somnifirum. p. ":6. Caran I acajai.'ai:a. Pifo, 126. Pomct, 197. Sandaracha, B^aljhm, Ptrwviariri.ft, Dale, 337. Baljam. Toluta/utm. p. (^49. 'Cnplvi. p. 557. Croton Sehifcrum,. p1425. £,aHrui Cinfiamomum. p. 528. Laurus Camphci a. p. 528. CycasCircini.ali!. p. 1653, Cajjina. ^uttdo Bambu, Lin. Sp. Turkey This is fuppofed to be the fame that is now idedit. p. 158. Madder, cultivated in Smyrna for a crimfon dye. Galls from Aleppo and Smyrna. This grows in Egypt, and is much ufed in dyeing. A fpecies of it, brought into Jamaica by the Jews, for an ingredient in their foups, thrives well. Br. p. They are propagated at Aleppo, where the female, or fruit-bearing ones, are ingrafted on ftocks raifed from the nuts. This is fuppofed the fame as the copal or cu. palm tree, which grows on the continent ; but I take it to be the ococal, or gum niatricalis, of New Spain. The feed might be obtained from Turkey. The trees producing thefe gums grow in NewSpain. This comes from Afrlc. New Spain and Brafil. Grows in China, and introduced into Jamarea bv Mr. Ellis, where it is now growing. In Guadaloupe, and Martinico. In Sumatra, and feme Engliih Grcen-houfes. In Java, and ti.e warmeft pp.rts of the Eaft Indie?. This grows in Erafil, and is fuppofed the fame as that ot Carolina, and the adjacent Southern colonies. This is already introduced into the ifland, as has been mentioned, but deferves a more general cultivation. This is thought to be a different fpecies from the cathew tree of the Weft Indies. The fruit of it is the Malacca bean, or Oriental anacarciiitm of the (hops. The tree yields the varniftv commonly ufcd in the Eaft Indies. rhccK True Opium Poppy, Caranna, Tachamahac. Sandarach. Balf. Peruv.-j Balf. Tolu. i Half. Copaiba. J Tallow Tree. Cinnamon Tree. Camphor Tree. Sago Palm. L. Gen. PI. Caffiiie,Cafiio* P' i'ii' berry, or Paraguay Tea-plant. L. Sp, Bamboo Cane. p. 120. Anacatdus Orifittalis. Kaemptfer SiamVarnilh, Araasn.p.793. orTonrack.

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BOOK III. CHAP. IX. 9^5 Garcinia Monona Siotia. p. 635. Mangoftecn. Ipecacuanha. D;ile, 1 70. True Ipecacuan. Loniccra SymphoriClayt. St. I'eter's hocarpoi. neyfiickle. Mfiica Cerifera. C:ite(b. I, Candle-berry t. 13. Myrtle. Panax quinquc folium. Ginfeng root. SaJJaJras Laurus. Pifo, p. 146. Saflafras. Bread-fruit of the South Sea. Luktau, A mofl delicious fruit, growing 111 Java, and fcveral parts of the Eaft InJies. Bralil. Vcr}' defcrving of propagation here. Carolina and Virginia. Its root pounded, and taken in a moderate dofe, is an infallible remedy againil intermittent fevers. The berries are ufcd in many parts of North America, to extrad a wax for candles, by infufion in boiling water. This is common to Virginia, Pennfylvania, Louifiana, and Canada. It grows in great plenty in Eall Florida, and about St. Augurtine. Eaft Indies, anil George's Ifland. This is a final] fpecies oi phafeolus, or kidneybean, growing in China, and lately introduced by Mr. Samuel Bowen into Georgia, from whence the feeds might eafily be obtained. He fays, that where grafs is fcarce, this furnifhes an excellent fodder for cattle, as it may eafily be made into hay; that it rifes from 18 inches to 2 feet high, and produces four crops in the year; it is therefore very deferving of a trial in different parts of Jamaica, as there arc fome, no doubt, where it might be found to thrive extremely well. 351. PREMIUMS offered by the Society of Arts in'Lon^onfor the Advantage of the Britijl) American Colonies. American Cotton. For the beft fpeclmen, not lefs than ten pounds, of cotton produced in the Britifh dominions in America, equal to the fine Brafilian cotton; to be produced, with certificates of the place of growth, on or before the firft Tuefday in January, 1774 ; the gold medal. The fame premium is extended to the year i "^j^. Anotto. For the greateft quantity, not lefs than two tons, equal to the bellimported, produced in his Majeity's dominions in America, and imported into the port of London in the year 1773; 50/. Certificates of the production, under the hands of fbme perfons of known chara£ler refiding near the place, and of the importation from the proper officers of the cuftoms in the port of London, with fpeciVoL. III. mens

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966 JAMAICA. mens often pounds weight, taken out of the whole parcel, to be produced to the fociety, on or before the firft Tuefday in April, 1 774. The like premium for any quantity, not lefs than 500 lbweight, equal to the beft imported. The fame premium is extended to the year 1774, and certificates to be delivered on or before the firil Tuefday in April, 1 775. For the beft fpecimen of anotto, not lefs than fix pounds weight, equal to the beft Spanifli anotto, to be produced to the fociety, with certificates of the place of growth, on or before the end of the year 1773; the gold medai. The fame premium, on the fame conditions, is extended to the year ^774Indigo. For the beft fpecimen of indigo made in his Majefty's dominions m America, equal to Guatimala indigo, not lefs than four pound*, to be produced to the f jciety, with certificates of the place where it was made, and an account of the culture and procefs ; the gold medal. This is extended to 1775Zebra Wood. For the greateft quantity, not lefs than fix thoufand fuperficial feet, of the variegated wood proper for fineering, called zebra wood [rfj, imported into the port of London ; the gold 7nedal. The fpecimen to confift of not lefs than 300 fuperficial feet. This premium is extended to the year 1774. Mosses, Plants, Barks, and Berries. For a fpecimen, not lefs than 20 lb. weight, of the beft fort of mofs, of the growth of America, and there known to be of ufe in dyeing, but not yet introduced into Great' Britain; 10/. The fame premium is ofiered, on the fime conditions, for plants, barks, or berries feverally, and extended to tlie year 1774. Barilla, or Kelp. For the greateft quantity of merchantable barilla, not lefs than ten hundred weight, made in any part of his Majefty's dominions in America, and Imported into any port In England ; i^ /. 11.'. ; [rt] The'fpecies here meant, is what comes from the Mofqitiio Shore 2 Foi*

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BOOK m. CHAP. IX. 907 For the next greateft quantity, not lefs than eight hundred weight, 10 /. Samples, to confift of not lefs than fifty pounds weight, with the proper certificates. This premium is extended to the year lyy^. Camphor Tree. To the perfon who (hall cultivate, in any part of his Majefty's dominions in the Weft Indies, the greateft number, not lefs than 25, of the trees which produce camphor, in the Eaft Indies; the gold medal, or 50/. Certificates, under the hand of the governor, lieutenant governor, or chief magiftrate of the ifland, fpccifying the number of plants, and that they are in a growing or thriving ftate, together with a branch of the tree, and fome of the leaves, to be produced to the focicty, on •or before the fecond Tuefday in November, 1776. Quinquina, or Peruvian Bark. To the perfon who fhall introduce into any of his Majefty's dominions in the Weft Indies, the greateft number, not lefs than ten, of the quinquina, or that tree which yields the Peruvian or Jefuit's bark, on or before the firft day of January, 1776; 50/. The certificates fubjed to the fame conditions as in the preceding article. The preceding catalogue [3] is chiefly extraded from the pamphlet publiftied by John Ellis, Efq; F.R.S., who has likewife given fome ufeful dlredions for the tranfportation of plants and feeds from one country to another. As thefe may be confidercd fupplemental to the catalogue, 1 fhall tranfcribe fuch as appear moft ufeful, and add fuch others as I find recommended by thofe who, by experience, have been taught to prafllfe them with the happieft fuccefs. In the firft place, it ought to be carefully attended to, that the feeds fhould be perfcdly ripe when they are gathered, and they ftiould be gathered in dry weather; afterwards they ftiould be fpread thin upon paper or mats, in a dry airy room, but not in funfliine. The time neceflary for drying them, will vary according to die-climate, andfeafou of the 3'ear; but the hotter the feafon, the lefs time will fuffice. [/.] Wz. N. 350, 5 Z 2 There

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, 9oS JAMAICA. There are two methods which have fucceeded hi bringing over the feeds of the China tea plant to Great Britain, and may ferve alfo for the leeds of other valuable plants. The firft is, by covering them with bees wax, after due precaution. It principally confifts in chocfing only fuch feeds as are perfedly found and ripe ; thofe that are outwardly defective, or marked with the punfture of infers, muft be laid afide. When a proper choice is made of them, they fhould be wiped extremely clean, to prevent any dirt or moifture being inclofed ; each feed fhould then be rolled up carefully in a coat of foft bees wax, half an inch thick; the deep-yellow Englifli bees wax is the beft. When you have covered the number you intend to inclofe, pour fome of this bees wax, melted into a chip box of fix or feven inches long, four broad, and three deep, till it is above half full; and juft before it begins to harden, while it is yet fluid, put in the feeds you have rolled up, in rows, till the box is near full ; then pour over them fome more wax, while it is juft fluid, taking care, when it is cold, to flop all the cracks or chinks (that may have proceeded from the flirinking of the wax) with fome very foft wax; then put on the coser of the box, and keep it hi a cool airy place. In order to preferve feeds from growing rancid from their long confinement in the voyage in hot weather, they may be put up in feparate papers, with fine fand among them, to abforb any moifture. Thefe papers fhould be packed clofe in cylindrical glafs, or earthen vefllels, and the mouths covered with a bladder tied faft round the rims. The veffels are then to be put into other veflels, fo large that the inner onemay be covered on all fides for the fpace of two inches, with the following mixture of falts; half, common fait; the other half, to confift of two parts faltpetre, and one part fal-ammoniac, both reduced to a powder, and all thoroughly mixed together, to be placed about the inner veflcl, rather moift than dry. Perhaps, if fuiall tight boxes, or calks, or bottles of feeds were inclofed in cafks full of falts, it might be of the fame ufe, provided the falts do not get at the feeds ; and as falammoniac may not eafily be met with, half common fait, and the other half faltpetre, or common fait alone, might anfwcr the like end. The fmaller feeds being very apt to lolc their vegetative power by long voyages through warm climates, it may be worth while to try the following experiment, upon fuch as are known for certain to be found :

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BOOK III. CHAP. IX. 909 found: dip fome fqiiare pieces of cotton cloih in melted wax, and while it is foft, and almod cold, ftrew the furface of each piece over with each fort of fmall feed, then roll them up tight, and inclofe caLh roll in fome foft bees wax[c], wrapping up each of them in a piece of paper, with the name of the feed on it ; thefe may be either fiirrounded with falts, as before, or packed without the falts in a box, as may be moft convenient. Where glalfes or boxes cannot be conveniently procured, the calibafh and gourd fhells, or joints of full-grown trump* t trees, thoroughly dried, feafoned, and rubbed on the outfiJe with palma Chrijli oil, may anfwer equally well. When plants are fent, the boxes in which they are fet, fhould be 3 feet long, 15 inches broad, and from 18 inches to 2 feet deep, according to the fize of the plants; but the fmalleft will be moft likely to fucceed, provided they are well rooted. There muft be a nurrow ledge nailed all round the infide of the box, within fix inches of the bottom, to faften laths or packthread, to form a kind of lattice-work,, by which the plants may be the better fecured in their places.. If they are packed up but juft before the (hip fails, it will be fo much the betterWhen they are dug up, care muft be taken to preferve as much earth as can be about their roots, and if it fliould fall off, it mufl be fupplied with more earth taken from the fame hole, fo as to form a ball about the roots of each plant, which muft be furrounded with wet mofs, (perhaps wet cotton may anfwer, where mofs is not to be had) and carefully tied round with packthread, after a covering of plantane, or palmeto leaves, to keep the earth moift. There muft be three inches of wet mofs laid at the bottom of the box, ai-d the young plants fet in rows upright, clofe to each other, fluffing wet mofs in the vacancies between them, and on the furface. I would advife the boring a great many holes at the bottom of the box, and placing it in a (hallow wooden trough made water-tight at the joints with pitch, and one inch' wider every way, with ledges ot one or two inches, fo placed as to keep; the box from touching the bottom. This trough may be filled, withwet cotton, which may be occafionally watered during the voyage, and; no water be given in the mean time to the plants, which may be guarded irom rain, and the fpray of the fea, by a fquare awning of oil cloth, or painted canvafs, nailed upon four upright flips of deal, rifing from, each angle of tlie box fo high, as to overtop the plants two or three; C'] See iQ. ill the lubjoiiied note. inches-;

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<,io 'J iA M A I C A. •inches i this will likewife fliade them from the noon-day fun. The vapour, continually reeking from the cotton laid in the trough, will qCcend through the holes at the bottom of the box into the oxhevjlratum of cotton laid under the roots, and preferve them in a due ftate of refrefliing moifture. The boxes may be fteadied by lafhings to the deck.' The plants fent from a hotter country to a colder, fliould be put on board (hip in the fpring of the year, that the heat of the fummer may -be advancing as they approach the colder climates ; and on the contrary, thofe which are fent from a colder to a hotter country, fliould be embarked at the beginning of winter; but if they are originally from another hot climate, as for example tie Eaft Indies,' and are intended for Jamaica, by the way of Great Britain, they will be put on board with greatefl: probability of fuccefs in January, February, June, July, or Auguft[i/j, in order that they maybe fet in the ground, juft before the vernal or autumnal rains. If they are going from a hotter country to a colder, they muft have very little watering; if, on the contrary, they are ^oing from a colder to a warmer, they may be allowed water more largely; and, being fhaded from the fun, they will arrive fafe. A great many plants of the fucculent kind will live out of the earth a long time. Thefe need no other care than packing them up with mofs in a clofe box, mofs being likewife put between them to prevent their bruifing one another, and holes bored in the boxes to keep them from heating and putrefying : in this manner, they will come fafe from a voyage of even four or five months. Several trees may alfo be Brought fafely in the like manner, taking them up at a feafon when they have done growing, and packing them up with mofs. Of this fort are, oranges, olives, capers, jafmines, and pomegranates j thefe, .and many others, are annually brought thus from Italy to England; and, although they are three or four months on the paflage, fcidom mifcarry. In order to bring fruits in perfeilion from Jamaica, fuch as oranges, lemon>, fliaddocks, citrons and limes, they fliould be gathered before they are turned entirely yellow, with about an inch or two of the flem or pedicle, the extremity of which fhould be immediately feared with a red-hot iron, and then dipped in a compofition of melted rofin, pitch, and bees wax. The fruit may be well wrapped in brown paper, [
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BOOK in. CHAP. IX. 91 r fmeared with bees wax, foftcned with a little oil, and then packed in a fhallow box, contrived with fquare parti(ions, each juft large enough to receive one of the fruit, or with divifions formed by three or four rows of ftrong cord laced acrofs tight ; the cover fhould be fitted fo as not to fqueeze them. If necelTary, the vacancies may be loofely filled with well-dried plantane trarti, or dried corn-hufks, and a good number of gimblet-holes bored all round the fides. When on board, it (hould be flowed where no wet can get at it, and railed an inch above the floor, by two ledges faflened to the bottom : the length of the box is not material, but the width ought not to exceed i 8 inches, or two feet at moil, for the convenience of ftovvngeon board, where the trouble arifing from cumberfome package?, often occafions their being tum;bled out of the way into improper places, to the injury of the produdscontained in them. After purfuing thefe diredions, it refts to entrufl: the conveyance and management on board, toa careful and intelligent captain,, or other chief officer of the fhip [rtj.. [e] Mr. Ell's, tliR ingenious gentleman before mentioned, having lately favoured the public with Ibnie additional obfervations on the means of preferving feeds and plants in a. vegetating ftate, when brought from dlllant parts, 1 lliali here infert fuch of them as appear to be of the molV ufe and importantCi Seeds of the true rhubarb, which were folded up in paper, and fent in letters by the packet to Several of our colonies in North America, did not fucceed well; whereas, thofe that were fent by the fame conveyance, after having been inclofed ia flat tin boxes, or varnilhed iion fnuti-boxes, and then put up in paper covers, grew very freely, as did thofe put up in chip boxes, and kept by the captains in their cheih.or bureaiis during the voyage. The reafcn of this deiect of the leeds fent inclofed in paper only, appeurs plainly to have arifen from their. being, prelfed too clofe together by the many letters in the miil ; and kept in a damp llate for,, perhaps, two months or more, by whicii means' chey became putrid, and halt rotten, by the time they arrived. (CX Thofe feeds that were brought to England by I\Ir. Banks and Dr. Solander, pjeferved'in wax, did not grow; for they were too thin and .chafly to keep any time, unlefs they had been prefeiTcd within their caplu'cs, in fmall fnuti'-bo5;es, or, perhaps, in phials. C3, Another bfevvation occurs in regard to feeds prelervedin wax, which is, that if they are not fown immciliateVy upon being taken out of the wax, they will certainly peridi; and this is one rea.fon, why fo many feeds of the/c'
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I2 1 A M A I C A. leaves sad gerjiu-n foon to perift, and grow rancid.. Such packets of feeds as are not opened, fliould be kept as they come over, in their bottles, canillers, cr jars, in the coolell cellars, in tight cafc, oi clofe boxes; we may obferve, that it has been the praiitice of all ages, in hot climates, to keep corn found, by placing it in fubterraneous caverns. The Italians Iiave a method offending fruit through different parts of the country, by giving tliem a llii,ht co\crIng of wax, which prefci'ves them frefli for a long time. If then, ^ve follow the lame method with mangoes, mangolleens, chocolate fruit, avocado pear, and many other fruits, packing them in boxes, or fmall calks, furrounded with clayed fugar, there is no doubt but the flones and feeds, at Icaft, will come over in a found ftate; fome of the ripe mangoes and mangodeens in wax, maybe covered with paper, and fent home in fmall boxes; for fiiould the pulp be decayed, yet the kernels in the rtones may be found, and in a growing flate, as happens in apjiles, oranges, ice, the pulp of which is generally rotten before the feeds are fown. The author mentions, that having received from Jamaica a variety of feeds of trees, many ef ivhich were unknown in England, each of which was tied up in a piece ot coarfe brown paper, and the whole packed up in fome flieets of the fame, upon examining of them, by cutting fome of each open, he found that moft of them were become dry and rancid, and very few of ihem vegetated. To prevent a difappointment of this kind for the future, he direfted his correfpondent, when the feeds ot the largeft forts which he might collett fliould be ripe, and properly fweated and cleaned, to put them into tight tin canilters, or earthen vcflels, fuch as pickling jars ; to keep each kind of feed fejjarate in a fmall bag of old white linen, or of writing paper, and furround all the forts in the bags with rice, millet, panic, or any fmall farinaceous grain, or ground Indian corn properly dried, to £11 up the interftices or vacancies between the feeds. When the canilkr, or jar, is full, and the parcel clofely prelTed down, (but not fo as to bruife the feeds) a fmall quantity of camjihire fliould be inclofed in a piece of paper, or fmall pill-box, and put in at the top of each canifter or jar, which muft be well llufted with paper before the cover is put on. The inclofed fumes of the camphire will deftroy infe£ts; and for the fame purpofe, in fome caniftcrs, inftead of camphire, a fmall quantity of fulphur, or tobacco, may be put. The tops of the caniftcis and jars muft be fecured in fuch a manner as to prevent the external air from getting accefs to their contents. Seeds have been brought from China inclofed in tortolfe-fliell, and in horn fnuff-boxes, in nioft excellent order; and fome inclofed in two-ounce phials, corked and fealed. Thefe canifters and jars fhould afterwards be put up in boxes, and packed in faw-duft, or clean fand (not fea fand) that has been well waflied and dried, and kept in a cool part of the ihip. Thefe methods are recommended, as. few people will be at the trouble of inclofing feeds properly in bees wax. Mr. Ellis takes occafion to fpeak of the garden eftablifhed in the ifland of St. Vincent, for the culture of the moll iifeful plants, intended for the general benefit of the American iflands, many of which may, in time, become protitable articles ot commerce. This garden, which appears to have owed its plan to the governor, general Melville, is under the xare of Dr. George Young, principal furgeon to the hofpital there, who has been indefatigable in
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BO OK III. CHAP. IX. 913 Scammony, Balfam capivi, Italian fenna, Colocynth, Citron, Aloes, Rhubarb, Ikrgamot orange, China tallow-tree, Tobago nutmeg, Bamboo cane, Cochineal caftus. The following plants, colledlcd from the botanic gardens about London, he has lately received for trial in it : Tea {hrub, jiifanfonia, or four gourd tree, Sago palm, Gingko, from China, which bears nuts like Gum llorax tree, pillachias, Cijlus Lahiltinifera, Cafuarina, a heavy red wood from Otahcite, Succotrine aloes, B.ilurtiaiis, Manna afh, Pillachia, AlmondSiL Tcrebinthus, Olives, I^entlfius, or mallic,Gork trees, Florida liarry-anifeed,. Camphire tree, i^/ currant tree, Garilenia, Dracena Draco, or gum-dragon tree. China Lechee,, This gentleman brought with him a cert! licate from the chief mtigillrate of St. Vincent, that he liad growing in this garden 140 healthy plants oi x\it. true chommo)!, at the beginning ot May, 1772; in confideration of which, the Society of Arts, being feniible of the importance of propagating this valuable fpice in oar American iilands, prefenicd him with a good medal, in token of their elieein and approbation. When he firll planted the cinnamon feeds, feveral parcels of which he had rcceiveil at difrere4n times, he found, though he managed them with grsat care, that none came up ; but being driven by lirels of weather into Guadaloupe, he obtained leave to go up into the country, where tl-.ere are fome cinnamon trees; and looking tor fome feeds that had laLen from tl.efe trees, he found many julf (hooting out their roots among the grafs and rotten leaves under them. Taking,this hint, the next feeds he received, he fowed very (hallow in the earth, under the lliade of a tree, and from 200 feeds raifed 140 plants. I cannot but confidcr it as a matter of reproach to the gentlemen of Jamaica, that they fliould have fuffered the little colony a£ St.. Vincent to get the Itart of them, in the execution of fo truly laudable and ufetula plan; more efpeclally as their climate, and the great extent of their illand which affords fuch a choice of excellent fituations, and luch plenty of fine foil and water, have given them advantages everyway favourable to the fuccels of an umlcrtaking of this kind. Perhaps, there are few better fcites than that deifined formerly for.the academy at Oldwoman's-favannah in Clarendon. The purchafe of the buildings and land, with fome little addition of ground, would be a trilling expencc to the public. A falary of 300/. fterling^fifra/wftw might engat/e fo:iie gentleman (kilful in botany, and zealous in promoting the plan, .to relide theie, and cairy it on; for which purpole likewife, it would be necellary to buy luelve or fitteen Netroes, to be employed under him entirely in the garden ; and the whole might be put under the lupervifion of the goverror, the two reprefcntatives, and the rector. of the parifli. A liipply ot plants for Hocking the
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[ 9H ] SECT. II. INDEX to the SYNOPSIS. A, ABOO-EARTH, Acacee, Agnui caftu!, Agats, .AUfpice, Aloes, Aloes American, Alligator, account of, Wood, Apple, Alexipharmic. See Febrifuge. American nutmeg, Amyris, Amphibious, Antifcorbutic, Anotto, Antidote-cocoon, Aajme-gum, Angola-pea, Anchovey-pear, Antivenereal, 15. 22. 2;. 62. 1 Antifeptic. Sec Febrifuge. Anthelmintic. See Vermifuge. 259 173 II 7 9 10 314 30 217 31 S7 311 8 12 16 25 131 '7' 93. 196. 209 26 Antihyfteric, Antidote, Ants, Appetite 1 oIV, Aperitive. See Purgative, Apthae, Aromatic, Arrack, Arrow-root, Arrow-head, Arum, Artichoke, Arbours, AAhma, Afs, Attcnuant, Avocado pear, 16. 69 33>33. 333 14 16 34.212 267 35.88 69 249 91 165 134. 148. t6o, 161, 162 2S9-' 93) 94 346 13. 180 168 B. Balfam-tree, Barbadoes Cabbage, Bark -tree. Bamboo, Banana, Banana Bird, Bafkets, Barbadoes Cherry, Barilla, Barbadoes Pride, Barbadoes Cedar, Baflcet-withe, Bayberry, Baftard Saffron, ^— — Ipecacuanha, Cabbage, — — — Lignum-vitaf Cedar, Mammee, Balm of Gilead. See Sweetwood. Belly-ach, 21. Beans Bonavifle, Kidney, — Lima, Red, • Sugar, — — Broad, ' Englifh, Bermudas Cedar, Bees, Bixa, Birch-tree, Bitter-wood, Birds, efculent, Boiiacc Bark-tree, Bonaville, Bols, to dcftroy. Bows for Cattle, Book-worm, Bur Burk-trec, N' 20 43 45 59 121 341 280 136 166 176 229 227 244 177 184 186 196 214 3i II. 100, 1^3 124 125 126 129 IJO 131 230 324. 325 12 187 307 5' 123 62 291 334 48 Button-wood,

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>i6 INDEX to the SYNOPSIS.

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INDEX to the SYNOPSIS; Hercules, Yellow, Hog Gum-tree, Hoop-tree, — Withe, — — Wood, or Horfewood, Hoops, Hog-weed, Horfe, Humming-bird, I. Jamaica Pepper, Salop, Jack-in-a-box, Jalap, Jaundice, Jerulalem Thorn, job's Tears, Juckata Calalue, Juniper Cedar, Indigo, Beny, Indian Pepper, Fig, Arrow-root, Maize, Kale, Inoculation of Fruit-trees, Ink, 56. Inflammations, Ipecacuanha, Ballard, Lefler Climbing, 1 73' 105. 210 21 60 63 64 27S 73 345 342 7 112 170 '75 243 Z41 215 100 230 2 32 19 2S 69 80 96 H7 61. 2J4 133. >34 184 K. Kali, Kidney-bean, Lac Varnifh, Laghetto, or Lace-bark, Laudanum, Lignum-vitiet Lilac, Lima Bean, Liquorice-weed, ^— — wild, Lixivial Salts, Limes, Lemons, Ligmim-'vlttt^ Ballard, Locuft-tree, 1 85 166 124 =5 50 198 22 60 149 150 66. 68. 182 142 '43) 144'48 .96 5 Lotus, or Locus-tree, Logwood, Love-apple, Maggots, to deftroy, Mackaw-tree, Mahoe, — — — Smaller, Maize, or Great Com, Mad-apple, Mats, Madre de Cacao, Mango, Weft-India, Mangrove, red, Mammee, Baftard, Manchineel, Mahogany, Marine Salt, Marble, Matrafles, MeaQes, Melons, Water, aiillet, Reed, M. Mountain Broom, — — — Cabbage, Calalue, Graft, Guava, — Mahoe, Morafs-weed, Mock-bird, MuJk-wood, Okro, Mulkeeto, Narcotic, Necklaces, Nickar, )ellQw, — Grey, J^itre, Nightingale, North-American Plants, &;c. cultivated in Jamaica, Nutmeg American, O. Oak, French, N. 917 NO 53 61 17. io 37 4^ 46 go 101 278 13* 171 172 2J2 ^37 =38 25:' [*253] 286 4 JJ2 79 82 44 100 83 ^33 47 219 338 30 III 3^8 17. 198. 243 ^^ 193 J9+ 253 260 31 240 Oil-nut-tree

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$>6 INDEX to the SYNOPSIS. Oa-nut-tree, Oils, Qkro, Mufk, Okl-man's-beaid, Olive, wild, Opiate. See Narcotic. Orange, Seville, — China, Opobalfamum. See Sweetwood. P. Paralyfi?, Pains in Bowels, Palma Chrifti, Plm, Palmeto, lefler, Greater, — — — Royal, Pappajuckata, Papaw, Paper, Subftances proper for, Peppery, elder. Pepper, Indiuu, Peppers, Pepper-fly, perfumes. Peroral, Peas, Petri fying-wateri Pencils, Hair, Pimento, Pigments, Pjuguin, I'i^con-pea, rindals, Pine-apples, Pine, wild Pigeon-wood, Pickles, plantane Tree, Wild, Plums, 201, 202, N II lo III 146 Pokewecd, Potatoe, Irifli, — — Sweet, or Bermudas, Potatoe Slip, Poponax, Pot-herbs, Pots for Sugar, Purgative, 42. 3 27. ito. ij8. ?9. 32, 5 S II 36 38 39 40 106 '58 273 18 19 ?27 268 148 I3 21; 230 347 7 271 j4 203, 204 iknts exotic, proper for Cultivation in Jamaica, 350 plants, Method of packing for Tninfportation, 350 pock wood, 22 4^. 100. 113. 160. 175. 177. 9. 26, 27 154 Purging-(ea-bind weed, Prickly Pear, Pole, Bark-tree, Calalue, ——— Brabila, Yellow-wood, White-wood, Prince-^vood, Preferves, Premiums, offered by the. Society of Arts, '33 140 141 235 266 120 122 205;, 206, 207 Quafli, Quadrupeds, efculent. CU R; N 100 107 108 log 73 261 297 134. 184 22Z 28 41 49 100 200 20g 35' 308 Rammoon, Rat, Refoh-ent, Reftringent, Refins, Reed-mace, Great, Red-bean Vine, Red, Mangrove Ring-worms, Ring-worm Bufli, Rice, Ropes, Rofemary, wild, Rofe-wood, Roots, efculent, Rheumatifm, Rulh, Rice, Jamaica, Goat, Sago, Samphire, Saffron, Baftard 89 349 H 23. 42. ^4. 17?, 152. 206 270 78 218 150 172 T^. 242 242 8S 275 180 199 263 %, 22, 36. 219 75 183 211 S. 44 r56 177 Sage,.

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[ 921 ] APPENDIX to VOL. III. SECT. I. THE encomiums which are copioufly beflowed upon the French Codc-Noir, and the Httle knowledge the planters of our ifland have of the articles that compofe it, induce me to believe, that a tranflation will be well received ; not merely as matter of curiolity, but an exemplar, which feveral diftinguifhcd writers have pointed out to be worthy their imitation. Should it appear to merit the high charader they have given of it, there can be no diflionour in borrowing, and intermingling with our own fyftem, fuch of its inftitutes as the difference of our conftitutional principles has not excluded. The French, it is faid, cannot perfect their cloth-manufa£ture without fomc proportion of Englifh wool. In refemblance therefore of their pra6lice, why fhould we not, in our turn, make free with their political ftaple ; and interweave fo much of their jurifprudence, a may ferve to render our own fabric more -^compleat and valuable ? Fas ejl et ab hofte doceri.'''' Let us not be deaf to indruclion, even though it comes from our r/W/; for fuch is tlic import that 1 would wiOi to give to the word hoftis. The CoDE-XoiR, or Negroe-Code ; publidied, at Verfailles, March, 1685 [a\ LOUIS, by the Grace of G O D, &c. Art. 1. We will and intend, that the edi^^ of the late king, of glorious memory, our ever-honoured lord and father, of the 23d of April, 16 15, fliould be executed in our iflands. To which end, [a] Dcnifart mentions, that this edict is regillercd with the fovereigii council at Hifpaninla, but has never been regiftered in any of the French parliaments. Tlic realbn of this probably was, that, the provifions being merely local, it was thought fulScient that it (hould be regillercd in the colony onlv where they we:e to take ettcCt. Vol. hi. 6 B wc

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923 APPENDIX TO Vol. III. we enjoin our officers, in every tlepartmenr, to banifli thence all Jews whatfoever who have taken up their refidence therein ; which Jews (beiu'iavowed enemies to the name of Chri(t) we hereby command to retire from the lame within the fpace of three months, to be computed from the day of pubhcation of thefe prefents, on pain of forfeiting their Hves and goods [S]. II. All flaves that are in our iflands Ihall be baptized, and Inflrufted in the Catholic, Apoftolic, and Romifl-i rehgion. We enjoin the inhabitants, purchafers of flaves newly-imported, to give notice thereof to the governor and intendant of the faid iflands refpeftively, within eight days at the fartheft, on pain of incurring an arbitrary fine. And liich governor and intendant fliall give the neceflliry orders for caufing tl:hem to be baptized, and inftrudted, at convenient times. III. We forbid the public exercife of any otiierthan the Catholic, Apoftolic, and Romilh religio)). We will, that all perfons, who acl contrary to this prohibition, fhall be puniflied as rebels, and contemners of our authority. In this view, we forbid all heretical aflemblies; declaring the fame to be illegal and feditlous conventicles, iubjedl to the like puniOiment; which alfo fhall be inflided upon thofe mafters who permit their flaves to attend fuch aflemblies. IV. No one fl-iall be appointed an overfeer of Negroes who does not profefs the Catholic, Apoflolic, and Romifli religion. And, in cafe any other (hall be fo employed, the Negroes, belonging to the mafler fo appointing, fhall be forfeited ; and the peribn, accepting fuch employment, fliall be fubjed to arbitrary punifliment. V. We [^] I would not recommciul tliis article to tlie imitation of our Jamaica Icgiilatiire : it is clearly bounded in fuperlKtion .ind bad policy. The French, indeed, out-numbering us in pcjple, can letter afford iupplics than we, from their European hive, to inhabit and lirengthen their WcdIndia colonies. But what murt our lofles of trade and inhabitants have been at Jamaica, had we copied f)m this precedent, and (as our council once foolirtily petitioned the crown) profcribcd thefe ufeful people from our ifland ? In f iO>, this meafure of the French government has been, comparatively fpeaking, atmoft as beneficial to us, as their perfecution ot the Hugonots, many years ago, proved to England. We gained a large acceffion ot fubjefts, who brought not only their \>eahh with them, but their knowledge in trade; and, having incorporated themfelves imnioveably with our fociety, by the purchafe and fettlement of lands among us, their gains in commerce, or planting, are permanently attached to our ifland. There are two duties" (fays Mr. Voltaite) which the Jews confider as the moft indifpenfable of all others, namely, the getting of moufy

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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. 92, V. We forbid our fubjeifls, of the Proteftant, Reformed religion, to give any trouble or impediment to our other ibbjccls, or their flaves, in the free exercife of the CathoHc, Apoftohc, and Romith reh'gion, on pain of being puniflied in an exemplary manner, VI. We enjoin all our fubjei^s, of what quality or condition focver, to obfcrve the Lord's-day, and the holidays that are kept by our fubjeds of the Catholic, Apollolic, and Romifli religion. We forbid them to labour, orcaufe their (laves to labour, on thofc days, from the hour of jnid-night to the following midnight, whether it be in the culture of land, or manufacture of fugar, or any other kind of work ; on penalty that the mailers To oflbnding (hall be fubjeift to a fine, and arbitrary punifhment, and the forfeiture of all (uch fugar, as well as of the (laves, detedled at work by our officers [r]. VII. We forbid likewife any Negroe or other markets to be kept on the faid days, upon the like penalties, and forfeiture of the merchandizes that (hall be brought to any fuch markets; befides an arbitrary fine, to be levied upon the fellers, or dealers. VIII. We declare all fuch of our fubje^ls, who are not members of the Catholic, Apoftolic, and Romilh religion, to be incapable, for the future, of contra£ling lawful marriage. We declare the children, born of any other pretended marriage, to .be baflards ; and we will that every fuch pretended marriage be held and reputed to be actual concubinage. IX. Free men, who have one or more children born during concubinage with their flaves, as well as the mafters of flaves who iiiomy and chViln-ii.^'' But, admitting this to Ic true, it is fo for from being matter of reproach, that it rather reflcrts very great honour upon them ; for what fubjefts can better deferve the appellation of good citizens, than thofe who give their conllant endeavour to introduce, into the ilate where they have fixed their refidence, not money alone, but population alfo; which is the true political wealth of every commercial country ? And as this people never difTipate unproiitablv ihc riches thus acquired, fo they do not confume their health and vigour in debauchery anil excefs. Have not thele trugal and abllemious Ifraelitcs much greater merit, and do thev not conduce far more benefit to the fociety of which they are inenibers, than all thofe profligate bcin"s (an enormous multitude they are!) who, inflead ot contributing in either way to the public good, do what they can towards the depopulation oi their countrv", the inipoverifiunent of their families, and the abridgement ot their own contemptible lives? [i] In the laws enacted by king Canute, there is one which frees a (lave whofe matter had obliged him to ivork on a holiday, befides punifliing the offence by a fine, or mulct, to the king. But it may be qucrtioned, whether this was the cficct of humanity, or merely ot fuperiHtioii." Ljitekon, Hen. II. The like obfcrvation may be made on the fubfequent article. 6 B 2 AifFer

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924 APPENDIX TO Vol. 111. fuffer fuch concubinage, fhnll be condemned each in a finh of two thoufand pounds weight of fugar. I-And, if any mafler fliall have children by his own (lave, we will, that, over and above the hke fine,, he fhall be deprived of fuch flave and children ; and that both (he and they fhall be forfeited to the ufe and, benefit of the hofpita], with difability of their becoming enfranchifed.\ We mean not, however, that the prefent article take effect, in cafe the father, not being a married man at the time of fuch his concubinage with his flave, fhall afterwards intermarry with his faid flave (according to the forms obferved by the church); in confequence whereof, fhe fhall become enfranchifed, and the children free and legitimate [<^j. X. The folernnities regarding marriage, prelcribed by the ordinance of Blois (art 40, 41, 42), and by the declaration of the month of November, 1639, ihaU be obferved, as well with refpecl to flaves as free perlons ; provided, however, that it fhall not be neceflary to obtain the confent of the father or mother, but only that of the mafler. XI. We forbid clergymen to folemnize the marriage of flaves, unlefs they can produce the confent of their mafter. And we likewife forbid mafters to ufe any conflraint towards their flaves, to make them marry involuntarily. XII. The children, produced from the marriage of one flave with another, Ihall be flaves, and belong to the mafler of the wife, and not of the hufband, if the hufl)and and wife have different maflers. XIII. We will, that, if a male flave fhall intermarry with a free woman, theiffueof fuch marriage, as well male as female, fliall follow the condition of the mother, and be free like her [t'], notwithftanding [
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APPENDIX TO Vol. Ill, 925 vvirhftanding the flavery of the fiither; but, if the father be free, and the mother a flave, her cliildren fhall in like manner be flaves. XIV. Mafters fhall be obliged to caufe their baptized flaves to be interred, after their deceafe, in holy ground, in the coemeteries allotted for that purpofe. And, in regard to thofe flaves who may die before receiving the facrament of baptifm, they fliall be buried, in the night-time, in feme field near to the place of their deceafe. XV. We forbid flaves to carry any offeufive arms, or clubs, on pain of whipping and forfeiture of fuch arms to the ufe of the feizerj with exception only of fuch as are fent a hunting by their mafl:ers, or carry their tickets, or known tokens. XVI. We likewife forbid flaves, belonging to different maflerSj^ to affemble together, by night or by day, under pretence of weddings, or any other account, whether it be at the plantation of their mafter, or any other; or more particularly in any, highway, or in unfrequented places ; on pain of corporal puniihment, which at leafk fhall be by whipping, and burning on the right fhoulder with a red-hot iron, imprefled with a fleur-de-lis. And, in cafe of frequent repetition of the fame offences, or other aggravating clrcumflances, they may be punifhed with death, or -according to the difcretion of the judges. We enjoin all our fubjeifts, whether officers or others, to purfue the offenders, and to apprehend and conduct them to prifon, even although no warrant may have been iflued'aoiainll; them. XVII. The mafters, who fliall be conviiled of having permitted orfuitered aflemblies compofed of any other than their own, fiiall be adjudged, af their own proper expence ; to make good all damage that may arife or be done to their neighbours in confequence of fuch aflemblies; and fhall pay a fine of ten crowns for the firff offence ; which fine fhall be doubled, upon every fuccceding otl'ence. XVIII. We forbid flaves to fell fugar-canes on any account or pretence whatfoever, and notwithflandingany permiffion from their were born to the' fume flate of fervitude, which was continued to all the fiicceeding generations, unlefs their lord enfranchifed them by his own a£t. The French ordinance in this cafe follows the old rule of the civil Law, \vhich we likewife adopt in our colonies, of, /•arctii Jc^uitar I'aitrein." mafler^

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926 APPENDIX TO Vol. III. inafter, on penalty that ilicU flaves fliall be whipped; and the mafter lb permitting fliall be fined in the amount of ten French livres ; and the buyer of fuch canes in the fame Turn. XIX. We likewife forbid them to expofe at public falc, or to carry into any private houfes for the purpofe of fale, any kind of commodity, not even fruits, pulfe, fire-wood, pot-herbs, or fallads, and cattle, without leave of their mafters exprtfled by a ticket, or Ibme known token, on penalty that their mafters may claim the thuigs fo fold, without making any rcftitution of the price paid by the purch^Jbrs thereof, and receive alfo from fuch purchafers a fine of fix French livres, to be appropriated to their own ule. XX. To this intent we will, that two perfons be appointed, by cur officers, for every market, who fliall examine the commodities and merchandizes brought thither by flaves, as well as the tickets and tokens of their maflers, XXI. W^ permit all our fubjecfts, living in the iflands, to feize every article they find in poflefllon of flaves not carrying tickets, or known tokens, from their mafters ; in order that fuch articles may be immediately reftored to their mafters, if their plantations be near the place of fuch leizure ; otherwife, that they may be forthwith fent to the hofpital, to be there kept in fafety until due notice thereof fliall have been given to their mafters. XXII. Mafters fliall be obliged to furnifli, every week, to their flaves of ten years old, or upwards, for their fubfiftence [f], three pints (of the country meafure) of caflava-meal, or three bunches of cafl'ava-roots, weighing each two pounds and an half at the leaft; or fome other vegetable food equivalent; together with two pounds of falted beef, or three pounds of fifh, or of fome other animal food in proportion ; and to children, from the time of their weaning to the age of ten, half the aforefaid quantity of like provifions. XXI! 1. We forbid mafters fo give their flaves any fpirituous liquors, extracted from fugar-canes, in lieu of the fubfiftence mentioned in the preceding article. [ /'J This appears to be rather a fcanty allo\v;mce. We find, tliat the Rdmans commonly gave their flaves, in general, at the rate of three pints of corn /it
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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. 927 XXIV. We forbid them likewife to exempt themfelves from the fupport and fubfiflence of their flaves, by permitting them to work for themfelves certain days in the week. XXV. Mafters Ihall be obhged to furnifli each and every of their flaves, yearly, with two fuits of linen cloth, or five yards of light cloths, whichfoever the faid mafters (hall judge mofl proper. XXVI. Slaves, that are not fubfiftcd, cloathed, and maintained, in the manner we have direded by thefe prefents, may give notice thereof to our attorney, and put their cafe into his hands j in confequence of which, or even without them, if the caufe of complaint (hall come to his knowledge by any other means, the makers (hall be profecuted at his inftance, and without any expence ; which procefs we would alfo have obferved in regard to thofe mafters who abufe [g] or treat their flaves in a barbarous and inhuman manner. XXVII. Slaves, that are become infirm by old age, ficknefs, or otherwife, whether their difeafe be incurable or not, (hall be fubfifted and maintained by their mafters ; or, in cafe of being abandoned by their mafters, they (hall be fent to the hofpital, to which fuch mafters (hall be adjudged to pay Cix-pcnce per diem for the fubfiflence and maintenance of every fuch flave [6"]. XXVIII. We declare flaves to be incapable of pofTefling any thing, except to the ufe of their maftcr; and whatever they may acquire, either by their own induftry, or the liberality of others, or by any other means, or under what title foever, (hall be and accrue to their [_•] So the evangelical precept, Eplief. vi. 9, ami, ye mailers, do the fame things unto them, forbearing threattniiig ; knowing, that your mailer alfo is in heaven ; neither is thea" refpeft of perfons with him." And to the fame efteft was that conftitution of Clement, cavf, fervo aiit ancttla impcres eicerbo animo." For which, Seneca gives us averyjull realbn : ^(r enini fiirmiih'.pjus cl contumax, lufi cum la^a blandieuti fermiilfcrh.^'' So the Jewifli Law, in refpeiit tothe kfler modes of punifhing : non opprimes cum, noii ilo/iii/iabcrii ci dure,^'' [-6] Plutarch fpeaks of it as a mod fcandalous praftice of the eider Cato, that he ufed to fell hi*flaves as foon as they grew old. So INIontefquieu : the laws ought to provide, that caie be taken of ihem in fickixfs and old age." Claudius decreed, that the flave?, \vho in ficknels had been abandoned by their mafters, (liould, in cafe they recovered, be free." A regulation in this refpeft is much wanted in our ifland ; where fuperannuated flaves, becoming burthenfome, may, from the vile principles of avaricious owners, attraifl ill ufa^c, inftead of compaffion. An exemption from taxes, for all flaves above fifty years of age, would be aa ufeful public grant in their favour.. rcfpedive-

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928 APPENDIX TO Vor.. 111. refpecllve mailer in full property [/'], iu bar of all claim to the fame by the children, parents, or. rclatioub.of Rich (laves, or any other perfons, free or fiaves, by any deed of gift or grant, or by inheritance or fucceffion, or lail will and tcftameijitjfwc declare; all fuch difpofitions null and void ; as well as all promifcs, engagements, and obli"ations, made or entered into by fuch flaves ; the iluiie being deemed to have been made, entered into, and given, by perfons incapable of contrading and difpofing in their own name. XXIX. We will, neverthelefs,, fhat. mailers (hall be bound by the a£l:s of their flaves, done in obedience to their order and command ; as alfo for what bufmefs, or aftairs, they may tranfa6t atid negotiate in trade : and as for any private fpecies of commerce, entrufted to them by their mailers, they fliall be anfvverable only fo fiir as it turns to the profit of their mafters. The emoluments of the faid flaves, which their mafters have permitted them to acquire, (hall be held liable to fecure their millers in payment of what is due on their property of the dock in trade; but, if the, emoluments confifl: wholly, or in part, of goods which, the flaves are permitted to hold and traffic with feparately, tiielr mafters (hall only come in for an equal dividend with other creditors [k]. XXX. Slaves (hall not be capable of holding, or exercifiug, any office, or commifllon, that is attended with pubUc' functions ; nor be appointed agents for any other, than their mafters, to manage and condu(£l any bufmefs, or arbitration ; nor be wituelTes in anycivil or criminal matter ; or, if admitted to give teftimony, their depofition (hall be conlidered as no more than a bare narrative, from [;] This is agreeable to the civil hw; mentionetl by Jullinian, ipfcfervm, qui in poipjlatt al. tirius eft ; nihil Jiuim potfjl haocre Among Ibiiie nations, however, it was cullomary to indulge tht;ir flaves with a right otacquiring property to theinielves. And Pliny tells us, that he permitted his flaves to difpofe of their ctrefts by a kind oif tertamentary dilbibiuion. This property, which, ill fome places, and to a certain extent, they were allowed to hold, enjoy, .tor give a'\vay, ,) indi'pcni'.cnt of their mafters, was called i\\€u fcatlium. But the villeinage-huvs did not admit of this privilege {k^ The defign of this article feems to be, that the flaves (liall not be part or fole owners of ftotk in trade; that their gains fliall lay at their maftcr's difpofal; and, in cafe of iufolvency, that the goods fliall be liable to an equal dillribution, in which tlie nialU-rs fliall not, by beiiij; fuch, be entitled to any advantage, in preference to comniou creditors. I canu t be certain ol having given the exa6t fenfe of this article, as the rrcnch copy before nie is iinperfeiS. f wJiich

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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. 929 which it (hall not be lawful to draw any prefnraption, or conjeilure, or the leaft circtimftaiice corroborative of proof. XXXI. Neither (hall flaves be capable of becoming parties iii any trial, or in any civil matter, whether as pkintiffs or defendants ; nor be parties-civil in matters criminal; nor profecutc, in any matter criminal, for reparation of outragea and exceiics that have been committed againft flaves. XXXII. Slaves may be profeciited criminally, without its beinoneceflary to make their mafter a party in the caufe, except he be au accomplice. The faid flaves, when accnfed, fhall be brought to trial, in the firft inllance, before the ordinary judges ; and, in cafe of appeal, to the fovereign council, the procels fliall be carried on with the fame formalities as in the cafe of free perfons. XXXIII. The flave that ftrikes his mafter, or the wife of his mafler, his miftrefs, or any of their children, lb as to caufe au efFulion of blood ; or that gives them, or any of them, a blow upon the face ; fhall be punifhed with death. XXXIV. And, in regard to outrages and ads of violence, committed by flaves againft free perfons ; we will, that they fhall be feverely puniflied ; and even with death, if neceflary. XXXV. Certain kinds of theft, as of horfes, mares, mules, oxen, and cows, committed by flaves, or by others who have been made free, fhall be punifhed eifedually ; and even with death, if the cafe require it. XXXVI. Slaves, guilty of ftealing fheep, goats, hogs, poultry, fugar-canes, caflada, peas, or other kinds of pulfe, fhall, according to the nature and quality of their crime, be puniflied by the judges; who may, if they think fit, order them to be whipped by the common hangman, and branded on the fhoulder with a fleur-de-lis. XXXVII. Mafters (hall be adjudged, in cafe of theft, or other damage committed by their flaves, to make good the lofs at their own proper expence ; unlefs they fhould rather chufe to give up the offending flave to the perfon who has fuflained the injury; but on this point the choice mu(t be made within three days, at fartheft, from the time of paffing the fentence ; otherwife they fhall be precluded. Vol. III. 6 C XXX VIII. A

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930 APPENDIX to Vol. III. XXXVIII. A fugitive flave, that (hall continue out for a month, computing from the day of his being publickly advertifed by his mafter, (hall have both his ears cut off, and fliall be branded on one of his {houlders with a fleur-de-hs. In cafe of his repetition of the fame offence, computing in Hke manner from the day of his being publickly advertifed, he fhall be ham-ftrung, and be branded on the other flioulder. But, for the third offence, he Ihall be punifhed with death [/]. XXXIX. Freed men, convifted of harbouring or concealing fugitive flaves in their houfes, (hall be condemned in a body to pay to the mafter of fuch Oaves a fine of three hundred pounds weight of fugar *^r diem for every day of their harbouring fuch flaves. XL. A flave, who (hall be puniflied capitally upon the accufation of his mafter (provided the mafter be not an accomplice in the crime for which fuch flave (hall have been condemned), (Iiall be valued, before his execution, by two principal inhabitants of the ifland, appointed to this office by the judge; and the price, fet upon him, (hall be paid to the mafter, for fatisfadion of whom, a tax (hall be laid, by the intendant, equal to the amount of the appraifement, proportionably rated per head on every Negroe paying taxes ; and, to fave expences, the fame (hall be levied by the farmer of our royal Weftern domain. XLI. We forbid the judges, our attornies, and their regifters, to take any fees in criminal profecutions carried on againft flaves, on pain of being puni(hed for extortion. XLIL Mafiers may, as often as they think their flaves deferving of puniflimeut, caufe them to be put in irons, or chaflifed \vith rods, or the whip; but they are not, in any cafe, to put them to the torture, nor putiKh them by mutilation of limb or member [w"], on pain of forfeiting fuch (laves,, and of being themfelves proceeded agaijift in an extraordinary manner. XLIII. We •^^/] Cfth
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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. 931 XLIII. We enjoin our officers to commence criminal aiflions againft thofemafters, or ovcrfeers, who lliall kill any (lave under their authority, or dire6lion ; and to punifh tuch mafters accordina< ; a term ^vh!ch means the portion of an eftate, which, by cuftom, re the gift of the tertator, defcends to one of the co-heirs, over and above his equal fliare with the reft. 6 C 2 every

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^32 APPENDIX TO Vol. III. everv thing regulated in the fame manner as other moveables, with the following exceptions. [o] XLVII. The hulband and wife, and their young children, {hall not be feized and fold feparately, if they are under the power of the fame mafler, we declare fuch feizures and fales to be void ; which reftriftion we mean fliould extend alfo to thofe who alienate a part of fuch divided families of flaves. The fellers in fuch cafe (hall forfeit the refidue of the parcel, which (hall be adjudged to the purchafers of the other part aforefaid, without being compellable to the paym.ent of any further or additional fum for the whole number. XLVlll. Slaves, aftually employed in fugar-works, indigo works, and plantations, from the age of fourteen to fixty, (hall not be feized for debt ; unlefs it be for what may be due for their purchafe-money ; and unlefs the fugar or indigo works, or plantations, wherein they are employed, are at the fame time adlually under extent or feizu re. We forbid, on pain of nullity, to proceed with fuch feizure and judicial fale of aiiy fuch fugar or indigo works, and plantations, without comprehending therein all flaves of th above age, and adually employed upon them. XLIX. The lawful renters, or lefl'ees, of fugar or indigo works, and plantations, adually attached, together with the flaves, (liall be obliged to pay the full rent or value of their leafe, without being allowed to dedu£l any thing for the children of the lealed flaves, ,.^A)oni during the courfe of the procefs. L. We will, that, notwithftanding all conventions or agreements to the contrary, which we hereby declare null, the faid children (hall belong to the Icflbr of the premifes, in cale the creditors are othcrwife fatisfied; or to the party to whom the eftate (hall be adjudged in purfuance of a decree; and to this effedl mention (liall be made, in the lad publick notice given, before the iflliing of fuch decree, of all fuch children born of flaves fince the final ieizure; and in the fame public notice a li(l or account fliall likewife be [] The provifions, contaiiitd in tlic 47th. 48tli, jift, :ui(l jjd, anick-s, arc founded upon the wifert policy; and are well defcrving our adoption in Jamaica, where the feverancc of Negroes from land has been always produflive of infinite hardlliips to thcni, of llupcrulous lofs to the iflanJ, and impediment to its further improvement and cultivation. given e

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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. 933 given, of all (laves deceafed fince the feizure wherein they were comprehended". LI. We will, that, for avoiding expence and unneceffary delays, the whole price of the lands and flaves, as fixed by the adjudication, together with what may be produced by fale of the leafes, fhall be diftributed among the creditors," according to the order of their rights, and mortgages, without making any diftinftion between what arifcQ from the fale of lands, and what accrues from the fale of the flaves. LII. Provided, that the feodal and feignorial dues fhall only be paid in proportion to the proceeds of the land. LIII. It fliall not be lawful for the next of kin, or the feodal lords to redeem the lands thus adjudged to another, unlefs they redeem the flaves alfo, which paffed with the lands j nor for the perfon to whom the eftate is adjudged to retain the flaves without the land. LIV. We enjoin guardians, whether nobles or commons, ufufru£luaries, lefTees, and all others in poflefllon of lands, to which labouring flaves are annexed, to govern the faid flaves as good fathers of families [^r] ; they fliall be obliged, after their adminiflration is finiflied, to account for the value of all fuch as have died, or whofe numbers have been diminiflied by ficknefs, old age, or other means, not occafioned through their fault or negleft ; and this too, without their beingallowed to retain, for their own benefit, any children born of the faid flaves during fuch adminiftration j which we hereby order to be kept and furrendered up to thofe who are to become their mafliers and proprietors. LV. Maders, having attained the age of twenty, may manumit their flaves by any deed during their life-time, or by lafl; will and teftament, without being obliged to affign any reafon for fuch enfranchlfement ; nor fhall they be under any neceflaty of confulting the opinion of their parents thereupon, even although they may be under the age of twenty -five. LVI. Slaves that are made univerfal legataries by their mafiers, or are appointed tutors to their children, or named executors in their lafl: [t?] So -P/Z-y fays, Servls, rcfpublica quidam et clvitas, domus ert." And Prifcus, fpeaking of the uianner in which the Romans treated their flaves, Eos deliaquentes q'lnji Jilios fwi caftigaiit." ^ wills.

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934A P P E NDM X : to Vol. III. wills, ftiall be held and reputed, and we do hold and repute them as cnfranchifed [r]. LVII. We declare their enfranchlfement, granted in our iflands, to be equivalant to their being born free in thofe iflands ; and flaves made free, have no need of our letters of naturalization, to qualify them for enjoying the advantages of our natural-born fubjeds of our realm, in the lands and countries fubject to our obedience, even although they inay have been born in a foreign country. LVIII. We command all thofe who have been manumifed^to fhew a particular refpedl to their former mafters, their widows, and children ; fo that any Injury which they may do to them, or any of them, fiiall be puniflicd more feverely than if they had done it to another [j]. We declare them, however, to be intirely freed and abfolved from ail other burthens, fervice-;, and claims, which their former mafters may pretend to have, either on their perfons, their goods, or inheritances, in quality of patrons. LIX. We grant to freed-men the fame rights, privileges, and immunities, which are enjoyed by perfons born free. We will, that they merit the liberty they have received, and that the fenfe of this benefit produce in them, both in regard to their perfons and property, the lame efteds that the blefling of natural liberty caufes in our other fubjeds. LX. We declare all the forfeitures and fines, that are not appropriated to any fpecial ufe by thefe prefents, to belong to us, and to be paid to the perfons entrufted with the receipt of our revenues. We will, however, that one third of fuch forfeitures and fines fliall be deduded for the benefit of the hofpital eftabliflied in the ifland, where the faid penalties (hall be adjudged. [•] This mode of granting enfranchifement hy implication, is agreeable to the villeinage cufloms. By which, it a man bound himfelf in a bond to his villein for a fum of money, granted him an annuity by deed, or gave him an eftate in fee, for life, or years, the villein became enfranchifed; for this was reputed ' dealing with him on the footing of a heeman ; or veiling an ovvnerftiip, truft, or power in him, ejitireiy inconfiftent with his former llate of bondage." But in calc the lord ijidictcd him tor felony, it was othenvi.'e; the lord could not inflidt a capital punlllimeiit on his villein, without calling in the alTillance of the law. Blackjl, Comm. vol. II. p. 94. [ij According to Bra^on, a flave enfranchifed might be deprived of his liberty, and brought back to his former fervitude, for in^ratitutlc to his nialler. ^ SECT.

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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. 935 SECT. 11. Edict of the KING, Concerning Negroe Slaves in the Colonies j iffued at Paris, in the Month of Oaober, 1 7 1 6 [/] Article I. TpHE ediifl of March, 1685, and the arrets iffued either in execu-* tion or explanation of it, fhall be put in force in our colonies, accoi'ding to their tenor and purport ; and confequently the Negroe flaves, that are employed there for the cultivation of the land, fhall continue to be brought up, and intruded in the principles and practice of the Catholic, Apoftolic, and Romifli religion. II. If [/] Mr. Hargmi'e fays, that, notvvithftanding the former edi£ls, if Negroe flaves were carried from the French American iflands into France, they were entitled to the benefit of the ancient French law, and became free on their airival in that kingdom ; to prevent which confequence this edii^ was made ; wiiich permits the bringing of Negroe flaves into France, under various reitrictions, all tending to prevent their long continuance there after their arrival, to reftrain their owners from treating them as property whlUt thev continue in the mother country, and to prevent the importation of fugitive Negroes ; and that with a like view a royal declaration was made in December, 1738, containing an expofition ot this edict, and fome additional provilions. But that the antient law of France in favgur of flaves fiom another country," ftill has efted ; and the fame, 'f if they are brought under circumllanceE, to which the ternis of thefe edids do not extend." The latter remark Icems Isardly worthy of this fenfible writer, fmce no one needs bi; told, that a penal law or ediiii, 01; any other law, liucs not Include pcifons or circumllances,, that are not included 'n\ \t. He tells us further, that £>£/?//?•< obferves, they are not regillered by the parliament of F-iris, becaufe they are confidered as contrary to the common law of the king" dom." But in reference' to this, if they carry the operation of laws in that kingdom, which none, I believe, will deny, it matters not at all, whether the parliament of Paris have regiftered them not; at the fame time it does not appear that the reafou affigncd tor their not having regiftered them is any other, thaji the au'th;jr's own conjedure. Mr. Hargave iiiys, that the ancient law of France has eflVvt, in cafe the terms of thefe edids are not ilrictly, complied with, gt extend, they were in both thefe cafes declared to be irse : in regard to the firft cafe, Mr. Hargave Icems miftaken in faying, that the Negroe became free Ly the amient law of France ; it is pkin he became fjee undei; tjie c,th ArtUk of the edict, which de^ dares,, that,. ", in ;cafopf ,negle£lin£ to obl^ye thcf formalities, in the articles rec^uired, the flaves fyiiiUbe free, and npt reclaimable." The fccond, cafe relates to a fiaye not belonging to anji of the French American or Aliatic iflands, and therefore not bound by the tenor of thefe edicts, which extend, only to flaves belonging to thofe iflands. It ivould feem, however, from this, ktter cafe, as well as from the edift itfdf of 1716, t.h,;t tbe.French law of the land ftill operates, where

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^^a. APPENDIX TO Vol. III. II. If any of the inhabitants of our colonies, or the oflicers employed in their government, are defirons of bringing any black flaves of either Tex into France with them, in the capacity of. domeftics, or otherwife, wtie'i'c it' cSn,' to* t^ke otF the yoke of flavery from all perfons coming into that kingdom from /•(.•? coiiniiie! ; following their antient maxim oi, Jerhus peregriaus, fnnul atque terram Frari" corum teiigciir, eodem inomento liber fiat;" which maxim, however, if ftridly taken, and awveeable to its original meaning, extended only to Haves belonging to foreign ilates, who might flee to, and take refuge in, their kingdom; but by no means extended to their flaves, comitiT from any diftant part of their own-territories. It is plain, that the. French government, weiehincf well the ill confequences which might enfiie to their colonies from the lofs and cmi"rafipn of, labouiers t'rom thence; and to the mother llate, by their too frequent introduiiion iiiti) it9 and intermixture with their whitfe fubjefts, has taken a moll effertualmeans, by the ordinances of this edict, to keep them' ein ployed on thofe fpots, where alone their labours can redound to the advantage of the kingdom. For want ot Ibme controul of the hke fort, enabled by the Englith parliament, our colonies at this time fuftaiu a lofs of many thoufand labouring hands, who anfwer no other purpofe, by their refidiince iii the mother countiy, except ihofe of adding to her lift of vagabonds or beggars, and generating a numerous race of walnutcoloured beings, by way of foil to the complexion of her genuine breed. 1 have already hinted my fufpicions that the French code, or edict, of 1685, however its regulations may feem calculated for repreffing the inordinate feverity of mailers, and mitigating the bardlhips of flavery in their colonies, is not obeyed, nor executed, with that energy, which their •rovernment, in a remarkable manner, compels in moft other inftances ; this remiflnefs is the more faulty, fince, in other cafes, to order and to be obeyed, is the fame thing : the remark I made has been confirmed by the late publication of one who calls himfelf an officer in the French fervice. Speaking of the manner in which their. flaves are treated at the ifland Mauritius, he gives the following horrid account : At day-break, three cracks of the whip are the fignal that calls them to work ; each man appears in the plantation with his mattock, where he works, al•' moll naked, in the heat of the fun. Their food is ground maize boiled in water, or bread ' made of the calTava root. Their cloathing is a fcrap of linen. For the leaft negleft they arc bound hand and foot on a ladder. Their overfeer, armed with a poftiHion's whip, Hands over them, and gives them, on their naked pofteriors, fifty, an hundred, or two hundred ladies. ' Every hifn brings off a portion of the ikin. The poor wretch, covered with blood, is then let loofe. An iron chain is put round his neck, and he is dragged back to his work. Some of thefe miferable creatures are not able to fit down for a month after ; and the women arc punilhed in the fame manner." There is a law made in their favour, called the black code. This law ordains that at each *' puni(hment they Ihall receive no more than thirty ladies ; that they (hall not be obliged to work on Sundays; that they fliall have their provifions weekly; their cloaths yearly; but tbi! la-M is not objcrvcd. Sometimes when they grow old, they arc turned adrift to get their living as they can. One day I faw one of them, who was nothing but fkin and bone, cutting fome fledi from a dead horfe to eat. It appeared to be one Ikeleton devouring another. When •' a fugitive flave is taken, he has one ear cut off, and is whipped. On a fecond defertion, he is whipped, has one ham ftrung, and a chain fadened about his neck. On a third, he is hanged ; though this feldom happen?, the mafters being unwilling in general, on fuch a fcore, to lo(e *' their property. A flave almoil white (ihty are mqftly brought from Ma^agafcar, ivhofe iiiha*• bitants il:Jfer in almoji e-vcry rcfpcH fiom the naliva of Afiica ) ihxew herfelf one day at my *' feet ; her midrefs made her rife early, and wntch late. If die chanced to deep, flie rubbed her mouth with ordure; and if die did not lick her lips, (he commanded her to be whipped. She

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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. 937 wife, In order to confirm them ftlll further in our reUglon, as well by the hiftruftions they may receive, as by the example of our other fubjecls, and their learning at the fame time fome art, or trade, from which, She beggeJ of me to folicit her pardon, which I obtained. Sometimes, the maflers of thefe ^vretches grant fuch requells, and within two days double their iiunifiiment, reckoning in tale of lafhfs, what they had profeiredly forgiven. I have daily beheld men and women whij" ped, for having broken a pot, or forgotten to (hut a gate ; their bloody limbs afterw'ards rubbed with vinegar and fait, to heal them. I have fren them, in the excefs of their angullh, unable to cry any longer. I have fcen them bite the cannon on which they were bound. I ficken at the recital of thefe horrors. My eyes ache with feeing them; my ears with hearing tliem!" &CC. It will be alledged, that the iloii code was inftituted in their favour. Be it fo ; the feverity *' of their mailers ftill exceeds the allotted punifhments ; and their avarice withholds the provifions, tlic repofe, and rewards, that are their due. If the unfortunate creatures would complain, to whom can they complain ? Their ji/J^cs are qfterz their greatejl tyrants^ What heart is there, retaining the lealt degree of human feeling, but mull revolt at this portrait of French barbarity! how inefficacious are all the boafted rules of this code, in a country, where the fubjeifls univerfally aft in difobedience to them ; and what abfohite dominion mufl: tyranny and cruelty, the third of blood and revenge, have cllablifhed, where even the bofoms of the fofter fex .are ileeled to every tender lenfation, and can indulge in all the wantouiiefs of indelicate, and favage barbarifm a (lavery fo conftituted is difgraceful to an)^ government that knowingly permits it ; it were but juftice to the rights of mankind, that fuch beltial inclemency fliould be fwept from the face of the earth ; if any thing could provoke the divine vengeance, this is apparently of a magnitude to call for its exertion. If the condition of llaverv be, as fome infift, in every cafe an evil, here it is the vvorll of all polliblc evils ; no argument in favour of national trade can julVity, no pretended delinquency ot the llavc, can excufe, or palliate it. The charader of the French is not that of a cruel and hard-hearted people, but the contrary ; how then fliall we reconcile this excruciating treatment of their Haves, in a manner fo oppofite to their charafter, and to the cjmpadionate injun
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938 A P P E N D I X TO Vol. III. V^hich upon return of the faid flaves, the colonies may derive advantage ; the fald proprietors ihall be obliged to obtain permiffion for that furpofe, from the governor general, or commandants in each ifland refpedively, which permiffion fhall contain the name of the proprietor, and the names of the flaves, together with their age, and defcription. anarchy; in the praiSice of every thing that is brutal, vicious, Ihameful, and derogatory to human nature. It requires all the vigour of the executive power of the French government to reclaim them, by difcipline, and examples of feverity, from their barbarous habits; but as tins llriftnefs is cautioufly adminiftered towards colonies which are but recently planted, and have fcarcely taken root, fo we may conclude that no fuch checks will be applied, until that ifland is more fully peopled ; and, therefore, that thefe iniferable flaves can have no profpefl of being treated with humanity, until their mailers are firll humanized; which will only happen by bringing them uruler the compuU (ion of wife laws, impartially and rigidly inforced. The worft effefts muft follow in thefe diftant members of the empire, when the planters of beft' rntk and fortune give bad examples to their inferiors. The writer, before quoted, mentions, that a counfeilor (I fuppofe he means one of the royal council, who, ex officio, is next in dignity to the governor and intcndant) of whom fome of his flaves had made a complaint to the governor, allured him (the writer), that although they were exempted from punilhment that day, the next he would have them flead from head to foot." The influence which a declaration of this ftatnp,. coming from a perfon of fo high authority in the colony, muft carry with it over the minds and praiStice of the interior planters, is obvious; as well as, that all the wholefome regulations of the royal code -can avail but little, when they are fet at nought by thofe whofe ftations require that they in particular (hould pay the moft implicit obedience to them. In the Britifh iflands, at leaft the more populous of them, fuch examples would have no weight with the other ranks of men; for all here are upon a footing of more equality ; nor could a privy counfeilor either hope to fcreen his turpitude under the dignity of his flation, or expeft that his example would incline others to countenance it by their own praftice ; every one here being at liberty to judge for hirafelf, and to judge of others, he muft expert to have his conduft publicly arraigned, cenfured, and condemned, in proportion as it is found not to confift with the duties and honour ot the place he holds. Upon this head, I cannot but efteem it a happy circumftance in our ifland, that it fupirts no lefs than four printing-prefles, which are open to the communication of private as well as public wrongs; to the ilrictures pafl"ed on bafe and wicked aftions, by whatfoever perfon committed, no lefs than to the approbation of fuch as are virtuous, and commendable. If thefe engines :irc neceffary to the confervation of liberty, they may alfo tend very eminently to the raitigaiion of flavery ; not merely by bringing to light tlie private abufes of it, but by the moral leflbns thty are capable of inculcating; the refmement they may produce on mens way of thinking and beh^ing; the caution and rellraint which they may impofe upon evil difpofitions; the boldnefs of their impeachments; the fling of their latire and ridicule; the force of their perfuafion; the pleafure ariflng from their encomium; the efficacy ot their cailigation, and the dread of their popular appeals: the variety of their means, and the happy efl'eds they are capable of producing, give them nearly the fame degree of power which was tormerly comprehended in the offices of tribune and cenfor among the Romans, and ren der them fublidiary to religion and the laws, in the reformation ot manners, the difperfioii of knowledge, and the polifli of focicty. That they may cHecfl thefe, and many other bcneHclal confc<]ucnces, is my finctre wiili; and that they may be applied here fuccefstuUy, not only to the conettieu ot errors in our political, but in our domeflic goverument likcwifc, (hould be the endeavour of oery honcll aud intelligent planter of Jamaica. I 111. The

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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. ^3^ III. The fjiicl proprietors fhall likewife be obliged to caufe fuch permiffion as before-mentioned, to be entered in the regiftry of the jurlfdiaion of the place where their refidence is, before their departure ; and alfo in that of the Admiralty, at the place of their landing, within eight days next after their arrival in France. IV. If at any time mailers of flaves intend fending any of them over to France, the perfons charged with their conveyance thither rtiall obferve what is ordained in regard to mafters ; and the names of fuch perfons fliall likewife be inferted in the permiffion aforefaid, of the governors general, or commandants, and in the declarations, and regifter, above prefcribed. V. Negroe flaves of either fex, brought into France, or fent thither, by their mafters, may not pretend thereby to have obtained their freedom, by coming within our realms but fliall be obliged to return to our colonies, when their mafters think proper. If however the mafters of flaves negledl to obferve the formalities required ia the preceding articles, the faid flaves fliall be free, and fliall not be reclaimable. VI. We forbid all perfons to carry off, or inveigle into France, Negroe flaves from under the authority of their mafl;ers, on pain of being liable to make good their value, in refpedl of age, llrength, and induftry, according to an eftimate to be made thereof by the officers of our Admiralty, to whom we have affigned, and do hereby aflign, the cognizance of thefe mattefs in the firft inftance. And in cafe of appeal to our courts of parliament, or fuperior councils, we will, bcfides, that the offenders be condemned for every delinquency, in a fine of two thoufand livres ; one third part whereof to enure to us, one third to the admiral, and the remaining third to the mafter of the faid flashes, when the fine is awarded by the officers of the general court of marble tables ; but, in cafe the faid fine be adjudged by the officers of the efpecial courts of admiralty, then one moiety fliall be to the admiral, and the other moiety to the mafter of the faid flaves, and that without poffibllity of moderating fuch fines, under any pretence whatever. VII. Negroes of either fex, brought or fent by their mafters into France, fliall not marry there without confcnt of their mafters ; and 6 D a if

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940 A P P E N D I X TO Vol. III. if thefe coufent to their being married, fuch (laves (hall thereby become free, and fo continue. VIII. We will, that, during the abode of the faid flaves In France, all that they acquire by their induftry, or profeffion, until they are fent back to the colonies, fhall appertain to their mafters, provided fuch mafters maintain and fupport them. IX. If any of the mafters having brought or fent Negroe flaves into France fhall happen to die, the faid Haves fliall continue under the authority of the heirs of the deceafed mafter ; which heirs (hall fend back the faid flaves to our colonies, in order to be diftributed with the other parcels of the eftate, conformable to the edi£l: of March 1685, unlefs their deceafed mafter fhall have enfranchifed them by his laft will, or otherwifc; in which cafe fuch flaves fl>all be free. X. If Negroe flaves fliail happen to die in France, their peculium, or private acquifitions, if any they have, fliall belong to their mafters. XL Mafters of flaves flial Inot lell or exchange them in France, but fliall be obliged tofen
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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. 941 tobcolonlfts, to fend back to our colonies nil Negroe flaves, of either fex, which they may have brought or fent into the kingdom ; and, in cafe thefaid inhabitants or officers flinll fail offending them back within the term prefcribed, the (laves fhall be free. SECT. III. Progrefs of the French fettlement at Cape Nicola Mole. IF the principles and genius of the French government are at all confpicuous in the preceding example, which has been given of their civil and political ordinances rcfpeding their Negroe flaves, and flaveowners ; they are ftill more fo, in the other departments of their colony-fyftem. Thefe mnnifeft a degree of forecaft, prudence, and vigour, that .are not fo obfervable in any movement of our own torpid machine. There is a fpirit in the French' monarchy, which pervades every part of their empire ; it has feledt objedls perpetually in view, which are (leadily and confiftently purfued ; in their fyflem the ftate is at once the fentient and the executive principle. It is, in fhort, all foul; motion correfponds with will ; a6iion treads on the' heels of contrivance ; and fovereign power, ufefully handled and direded, hurries on, in full career,to attain its end. With us, the liberty to which every corporate fociety, and every individual member of thofe focieties, lays claim, of independent thinking and afting, excludes alnioft a poffibility of concurrent exertion, to any one finite and determinate point. If the inhabitants of Hifpaniola were abandoned to their own condu£t and free agency, their ifland would probably be defiitute of artificial defences. It is, befide?, a natural efFeft of the continental fituation of France, the vait number of her fortified and garrifoned towns', and large (landing army, that Hie is always in condition to fpare" an ample fupply of regular troops for proteftion of her diflant provinces J of the ableft engineers for conftrufting or improving their fortifications i and of chofen induftrious fubjefls, for extending their fettlements". Her colonies are not only well fortified and garrilbncd, but xvell peopled, and all under the vigilani meafures of her government. If the income of the French planters is diminilbed by fubfidies for thefe ends; fo that they are unable to vie with princes of the blood in expenfive living, when they vifit the metropolis of their mother country, they have fiill the fatisfaftien left 'iiTcm, of enjoying a competent remainder, itv

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942 A P P E N D I X T o Vol. 111.. in full fecurUy, againft foreign or domeftic enemies. In fuch advantages we are glaringly defedive ; yet we need not deplore the want of them, fo long as we are provident for our internal fafety, and our marine force continues, beyond comparifon, fuperior to any otlicr in Europe. It is however not, nninllru6\ive to remark the aclivity and folicitude with which France has perfevered in ftrengthening her colonies, by thole inftruments wherein her ability and power have moft conlifled; and which are evidently employed to fuftainthem againft that counterpoife of naval power, which flie is fenfible we poffefs. In fome foregoing paflages I. incidentally touched upon her plan of fortifying Cape -Nicola mole,, as a reftraint upon our navigation and trade. Some authentic materials, obligingly put into my hands by a friend, have enabled me to difclofe her progrefs lince the late war, in that important imdertaking. :_ It cannot be, without very well-grounded reafons, that the French government has been, and ftill continues, at an enormous expenditure, fo earneftly bent upon the completion of this objeft. It is doubtlefs intended to fecond, in future time, fome very capital machination againft our commerce in this part of America. So deliberate a preparation for offending us in a future war ought not to be (lightly regarded. 'It calls on us, in the moft articulate terras, to ftand on our guard ; that, whilft the French are ftrenuoufly occupied in erefting a fecond J)/(7>/^ at Hifpaniola, we may not too long negleft the fame peaceful interval, to counteraft their favourite fcheme, by forming a receptacle for our own ftiips of war, at Port Antmilo^ In Jamaica, which is fo happily circumftanced to ferve as a curb upon their fortified port, and a proteftion for our homeward-bound veffels, In time of war. When we fee our competitors fo bent on a fcheme, which can have no poffible nor adequate obje£l, except that of giving us annoyance, it would be downright folly, if we fhould continue fuplne, and not catch the alarm. Whoever meditates ferioufly on the probable iffue of their defign, cannot believe that It forebodes any other than mifchief to Great Britain. But, although tills ominous meafure was very early efpoufed after the commencement of peace, and fo publicly dlfcourfed of among merchants of the firft eminence In Jamaica, as to leave no room for queftlon but that their friends at home were leafonably apprized of it, yet we do not find, that any ftep has been taken on

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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. $43 orvtDur part to obviate its malignant confequences. The moft politic and neceflary counterarrangement with us would be, the making Port Antonio one principal ftation for his Majefty's fhips. The French, it is true, have deftined their port at the Mole for a naval rendezvous, but it is not their only one. It is however of great moment to them, as it opens immediately into the Windward Fajj'age^ and, in conjunftion with Port Louis, guards the Northwefl and Weftern fide of their ifland. They will neverthelefs be obliged to divide their force, and keep part of their fquadron at Cape Frangois, to defend the Eaftern coaft. So, in reference to Jamaica, although it may be highly proper that Port Royal fliould remain the chief flation for protefting the Southern coaft of the ifland, yet it is moft neceflary that detachments fhould be conftantly attendant upon the N. E. and N* W. ends, to cover thofe parts from attack, and give fafer conduft to our navigation ; the N. E. in particular, becaufe, like Cape Nicola, it commands the Windward Paflage, which if we fliould be able to fcour with a fleet of fuperior ftrength, all the expenfive preparations made or making at the Mole, will be rendered unprofitable to the French, and harmlefs to ourfelves ; for our navigation through the PafTage, in time of war, might, in this event, be as fafe as that of the Britifli channel. We cannot indeed be certain, nor ought to indulge a confidence, that we fliall always hold this fuperiority in a future war. But, fanguine as our expectations may be in this refpeft, it is wife to provide even againft a defpicable enemy, and keep even pace with him in taking precautions, as well for attack, as defence. Where-ever fuch a ftation is projefted, there ought to be a competent eflablifhment of fortifications, and troops, to fecure the port from infult, and the magaz.ines of ftores and implements from depredation, vvhilft the fliips are on fervice at fea. This is a material branch of the French plan. Their mole is to be made as impregnable, as forts, batteries, and cannon, can render it, in order that it may flicker their men of war and privateers, while refitting, or when they are too weak for hazarding an engagement. The conveniences preparing for them, joined to the natural advantages of the place, will enable them, after a battle, to repair their damages in a very fliort time, and proceed upon their cruize again, long before our fleet could pofiibly reach Port Royal, to refit,

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944 A P P E N D I X TO Vol. III. refit, and work againft the trade wind and current, to regain their poft in the Windward Paflage. In fuch a tedious interval, our trade cannot fail of being very much exfofcd. This fliould furnifli an additional reafon to fhew the propriet}' of deftining a conliderable part of our fquadron to Port Antonio ; not to mention the fpeedy affiilance, which a force fo Rationed, and collected at the Windward part of the ifland, might occafionally afford to the Leeward coalls and channels, whenever they might be in need of it. :; I have thrown out thefe arguments, ^lot with a view of anticipating the reader's judgement, but rather as fair and unafledted deduclions from the following ftate of the French port, and the works there carried on, or (rather) by this. time perhaps already perfected. Previous to the commencement of the late war, this place was intirely unfettled ; the lands I'urrounding it, for the fpace of four or five leagues, being rocky, barren, and incapable of producing any fuftenance for man or beaft. During the heat of the war, it was much frequented by our cruizers, but chiefly the privateers, as well for the fake of taking in wood and water, as for the conveniency it afforded them to annoy. the enemy, and diftrefs their homewardbound merchant fliips, in their paflage from the Bite of Lcogaiine and the Southern coaft of Hifpaniola. Here too they generally careened their veflels in the bafon, which is (o fl^ut up within the land, that they could, not be difcovered by any fliips in the Offing. The French, determining to preclude us from holding fo advantageous a poll: in future wars, have entered at the fame time into a more extenfive fpeculation, and bethouglit themfelves how to render it, not only an afylum to their own fleets, but a iource of nevercealing annoyance to us. They relblved to fortify the harbour in the ftrongefl: manner, and fettle the adjacent country, as far as it might admit. With thefe intentions, the prefent peace was no fooner ratified, than they brought near five thoufand ^cadians to this place, and fixed a colony likewife of between two and three hundred German families, at about fifteen niiles diftancc, m the back country, who were to cultivate provifions, for fupport of the new town at the Mole^ from which a mofl: excellent road of communication was alfo made to their fettlements. In the firft three years thefe Acadians were lubfifttd

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APPENDIX TOVol. lU. 945^ Aibfifted at the cxpcnce of the goveninicnt ; during which time great animbers of them died, particuhirly the men, owing chiefly to t})C badnefs of their habit.^tions, which they provided for themleivcs, and wliich were little better than huts, covered with thatch, by no means fufficient to defend them trom the iri.iemency of the weather ; fo that at prefent very few of the men are alive ; the women fared better. Moft of the female inhabitants at the Mole are Ac.^dians, and feveral others of them married, and removed to other fettlements of the colony. About five years ago, the French, following our example, declared thh ^ J~ree fiort ; in confequence of which, the towns-people have derived a iubfiftence, that the land adjacent could not afford. The houfes, which at firft were very mean, have been all, within thefe laft three years, rebuilt, with materials from North America, framed and fliingled. The town now confifts of four hundred good houfes, and contains the following public edifices ; a houfe for the commandant; a very excellent one, of free-ftone, for the fecond in command ; houfes for the commiflary, intendant, treafurer, coUedlor, and other dependent officers ; a large repolitory for the king's fiores ; a mafthoufe, of ample dimenfions, and well filled with mafts and fpars ; an hofpital, and a church. On the South fide of the town a fmall river difcharges itfelf into the harbour; this is taken up at fome diftance, and conducted to the higheft quarter of the town, from whence it is diftributed in fmall rills to every flreet, in order to furnifii the inhabitants with good water for their domen:ic ufes, and for refreshing their gardens, in which figs, grapes, plantane-trees, and a variety of potherbs, thrive remarkably well : this is intirely owing to artificial irrigation ; for without it, the foil, confifliing only of the fea-fand with a very fmall intermixture of mould, would be incapable of producing thefe plants. Remarks on the Harbour and Fortifications. The harbour lies Eaft and Wefl:, in depth about two miles and an half. The Northern fliore feems to be iron bound for fix to twelve feet from the water's edge, then extending in a level for about one Vol. IIT. 6 E hundred

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94-6 APPENDIX TO Vol. ITI. hundred and fifty feet, and beyond this it appears to rife graduallylike a glacis till it attains an elevation of about thirty perpendicularfeet.; and hers a flat begins, which continues the whole length of the harbour, and is covered with coarfe grafs and draggling bufiies,. fuch as are commonly, produced near the fea-fide. The level on the Northern point, at the entrance of the harbour, feems much broader than what has been juft mentioned, and extending from two to three hundred yards. Upon this are thirteen. cannon, belonging to a battery that was formerly eredted here. The Southern (hore appears likewife to be iron-bound, very fleep and lofty, and covered with brufli-wood", the point on this fide has a fiat of about 150 yards over. The entrance is about one mile from the Northern to the Southern point j the channel is upwards of fixtcen fathoms deep, but near in with the Northern /hore there is ground from nine to feven fathorn. Under the Northern battery the anchorage is in fifteen fathom j but fliips in tacking to come to an anchor, are very much expofed to this and another battery erected at the bottom of the harbour. The king hz&.four hundred and fifty Negroes employed under the diredlion of an able engineer, in carrying on the fortifications, and other public works. The two batteries above-mentioned are conftrucled at each end of the town. The Southern mounts twentyone guns J thirteen in one line, and four in each of the flanks-. The Northern has embrazures for thirty-nine pieces of cannon 3 within this battery are built forty-feven houfes, difpofed in regular ftreets, each houfe about twenty by twenty-four feet diameter, framed and fliingled; forty of thefe are allotted for foldiers, and the remainder for their officers. There are likev/ife two guardhoufes, one at the Parade near the Southern battery and commandant's houfe J the other at the Point where the boats land, and adjacent to the cuftom-houfe, treafury, and king's houfe. At fome diftance from the Northern fortrefs, flands, the powdermagazine. About fix hundred yards from this fortrefs, to the N. North-eaft f the town, a fandy point fiirctches out into the harboiUj fliutting in a very fine bafon of about three quarters of a mile in breadth^ in which is excellent anchorage, and where (hips of any biirthei> 4 may

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At>PENDIX TO Vol, IIP. 94^ nlay ilde with perfedt fecurity even in a hurricane. Clofe In with this fandy point there is a depth of water, fufficient for the largeft velTels to careen ; and here the neceflary buildings and worlis are to be eredled for lieaving down, and careening the king's fhips; it is fortified with four pieces of cannon, fo difpofed as to rake any veflel that might attack the Northern battery j and, in order to render the accefs more difficult to an enemy's fleet, a citadel is projeded to be built on the North point at the entrance of the harbour, which is to mount one hundred guns, and co-operate with a flrong battery intended on the oppofite point on the South fide. Trade and Commerce. In order to facilitate their communication with the fettlements inland, to accommodate the merchants, traders, and planters, and expedite the king's fervlce, a very good carriage road is formed from this town to Cape Francois, and a regular poll eftablifhed. NorthAmerican lumber is at all times permitted to be imported, and melaffes exported. At particular conjundures the port is open for all North-American commodities, fuch as flour, filTi, ^e. At other times thefe articles are prohibited. This prohibition feems to arife from complaints which are lodged by the merchants trading from France, when they cannot find vent for their European commodities of a fimilar nature, depreciated by v/hat are introduced from NorthAmerica, which are furniflied at a much cheaper rate. Upon fuch applications made by the French merchants, the general frequently orders the port to be fhut, with refped to fuch articles as particularly Interfere with their home manufadtures. But the inhabitants being always difpofed to purchafe the goods they want, at as low a price as they can, find ways and means of coming at whatever the NorthAmericans bring for their market. Upon entry at the cuftom-houfe no oath is impofed on the mafter when he reports his cargo ; and, by the help of a generous fee, their vefiels may obtain a permit to difcharge their cargoes, at fome or other of the different Barquadiers within the Bite of Leoganne; by which means they have opportunity of buying a load of fugars, which the planters are ever ready'to furnifli, as they obtain a better price from the Americans than from the French tradersi 6 E 2 Thefe

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948 A P P EN D I X TO Vol. HI. Thefe veflels can at all times procure licence to take In a lading of mclaiFes at any pert in St. Domingo; this affords them another opportunity of vending any prohibited articles; and they are further aliifted in this illicit commerce by the French Hoops which ply in the offing, and receive their goods before they come into port; the American veffels tl^en enter light, and may embark whatever commodities of the ifland they pleafe, only taking care to lay melaffes in their upper tier. Not only the planters, but the officers, find it advantageous to give them encouragement ; and the latter connive at many little irregularities, which happen in tb.e mode of conducting this trade; fo that it is no wonder that the Americans are able, fomehow or other, to buy or to difpofe of whatever articles are moft convenient for them. Now and then, upon violent complaints of the French merchants, fome feizures have been made of thefe interlopers, for having fugars on board ; bu% after detaining them for fome time, they have generally been releafed, and fuffered to proceed on their voyages. It does not appear that the Dutch carry on any trade either at the Mole, or any other port of Hifpaniola; and if they have any with the Spaniards, it is probably of very little confequence; lb that the Americans now fland almoft unrivalled, without excepting fcarcely even the Oiipping of France ; and may with truth be affirmed to have contributed nearly as much as the French themfclves, towards the efiabliQiment of this new port, its town, and trade in particular; and in a general view, to the advancement of mofl of the other trading ports of Hifpaniola, the encouragement of its ftaple produeflions, and its prefent very flourifhing and formidable ffate. Port Duties. The duty on anchorage is from fix to twelve dollars, according to the tonnage of every veffel. On falt-fifh, one ^onnd per cent, on the falc. Lumber, flour, and other articles, two pounds per cent. Thus thefe duties can never be opprcflive on the American importer, becaufe they are levied ad valorem^ and paid in effect by the French confumers. Their produdl is applied towards the carrying on the fortifications and other public works, and contingent expences

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APPENDIX TO Vol. TIT. 949 peaces of the port; the deficiency, if any happens, is made up from the treafury of the ifland. Foreign Shipping. The number of veffels cleared in the year 1772, from the cuftomhoufe, amounted to between two and three hundred fail, confiding chiefly of brigs and fnows, with feme few fliips, all from different ports of North America. Adding to thefe the other foreign vefllls, the French coafters, and European traders; the v/hole amount is not much fliort of four hundred fail. Moft of the veflels bound to Jamaica from North America call in here, and few of them but are complaifant enough to pay another vifit on their return. The vefl"els which load or unload here, for the greater part lie clofe to the town, with their flern anchors on the beach, which fliews how conveniently this place is adapted, in every point, to invite trade, and expedite mercantile tranfadions. When we refledl that lefs than ten years ago it had neither houfe nor inhabitant, it appears next to incredible, that in lb fliort a time,, this defart Ihould be filled with people, the harbour crowded with fliipping, and its whole afpedl changed, from poverty and defoktion, to a well-eftabliflied, fecure and opulent emporium, advancing ftill by hafly ftrides to a fuperiority and grandeur beyond the oldeft: and mofl boafted feats of trade in any of the Britifli iflands. We mav envy, but I fear we never fhall equal, this wonderful pattern of French policy, in founding; induftry and ability in accomplifliing;, fo truly noble a fabric : unconcerned fpeftators of it as we are at prefent, we muft expert that the very next war in which we engage againft France, will make us moft thoroughly fenfible of its vafl: importance. SECT. IV. On the antient Indian Inhabitants of Jamaica. The Decades of Peter Martir (which till lately I had not an opportunity of confulting) afford us very little information relative. to the ancient flate of this ifland ; a few particulars however are to be found in his colledlion, which may throw fome light on thofe matters in our Jamaica hiflory, that have been doubtfully or erroneouQy treated of. The

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950 APPE ND IX TO Vol. 111. The name 'Jamaica [?/], or Jamica [w] was given to it by the Indian inhabitants ; yet feme Spanifh authors have thought that it was alfo the Babeche, or Bohlo (land of cottages), to which Columbus was directed by the people of the Lucayo or Bahama illands ; .for when he enquired the place, whence they furniflied themfelves with gold and pearls, they told him there was abundance at Bohio, .pointing to the Eaftward, which courfe brought him to Hifpaniola; but even this ifland was called by its natives ^dfqueya, (the great xountry) and alfo Aytiy or Hayti (uncouth), by which latter appellation it was likewife known to the Caribes of the windward Antilles. • It is probable, that the Lucayans only meant fome particular diflricT: cr province, as (for example) the territory of the cacique Bohcchio, .which lay between Cape Nicholas and Tiburon, on the North-wefl: .part of Hifpaniola. and neareft to Cuba, confequently the part .with which they were beft acquainted. Columbus was afterwards led into a fimilar miftake at Hifpaniola, .when, upon a like enquiry about their gold, the Indians there mentioned feveral different provinces, or petty kingdoms, where it was 'found in greateft plenty, and which the admiral miftook at firfl for the names of as many different iflands; befides, Jamaica produced but very little gold in comparifon with Hifpaniola; and, by the Spaniards who firfl fettled in it, was believed to contain neither that precious metal, nor pearls. The like opinion was formed of Cuba, when it was firfl difcovered. Jamaica was compared by Columbus to the ifland of Sicily, both .in regard to its extent and fruitfulnefs ; he fuppofed it about one hundred and fifty miles in length, and fixty in its utmofl breadth, .which comes near to exadnels, and fliews what a degree of accurate geometrical knowledge that able navigator pofTefied. At this time, the hills adjacent to the coaft were covered with thick woods; and to this caufe he attributed, that, in pafling along the South-wefl end, very heavy rains came off fliore [x] with great regularity every afternoon. [] Priiiiam rcjierit Infuliim, qj.iin Incola; Jamaicani vocant, p. 7. [w] Deveiilt ad Inllil.mi, quum Inquiliai appellant J auiicam. D Chriiloph. Colunib. Navigat. Pet. !\Iarr. p. 91. Caj). 98. [.r] In the month of Jul}'. The

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A P PENDI X TO Vol. Iir. pjr The plants and fruits of this country were found to be much tlie fame as thofe of Hifpaniolaj with this difference, that the provifions were better flavoured and more abundant, and the cotton efleemed of a finer ftaple, than in the adjacent iflands. It was commended for the agreeable temperature of its air, the fertiUty of its fuil as well near the coaft as inland, and the multitude of its convenient harbours. Martir calls it, a rugged theatre for military opera" tions;" and, no doubt, if the Indians had been of a difpofition to maintain it againft their invaders, they might have held out a long time, by withdrawing into the mountains. When Columbus circumnavigated the coaft, they ran from all quarters with arms in their hands, and menacing looks, to dilpute his landing; this induced him to think that they were more warlike than their neighbours, among whom he had met with a different reception; bur, like the people of Ocah/ttei after one or two Ilcirmifhes, in which theSpanifh fire-arms eafily prevailed, they contracted friendship with. the admiral, fhewing a far ftronger inclination to commerce than to war. When therefore he was fome time after forced by diftrefe to take fhelter here, he acknowledged it a great blefiing, that Providence had conduced him to a place, where provifions were fo abundant, and the natives fo humanized, and defirous of trading with him. They are reprefented by all authors, as a tradable, docile peoplej equal to any employment ; modeft in their manners; of a quick and ready genius in matters of traffic, in which they greatly excelled the neighbouring iflanders ;. more devoted alfo to mechanic arts; more induftrious ; and furpafiing them all in acutenefs of underftanding. They dwelt in cottages; and the illand was fo populous^ that it appeared to Columbus to be full of villages. Thefe confilled of feveral houfes, and the buildings muft have been extenfive, fince the cuftom was for a whole generation to live together in one houfe; we read of a village in Cuba, confifting only of fifty houfes, that contained about two thoufand perfons, or twenty to each houfe; The. principal articles of their food were the gumia^ and the iit'ui (or Indian, coney). They had no other edible quadrupeds, unlefs we reckon the younger alligators. Fifh, falted and frelh ; crabs; parrots; fowls^ tame and wild; caffava, whofe root they called yucca ;

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952 APPENDIX TO Vol. III. yucca; maize, tomatoes, potatos, cocos, pulfe of various fpecies, and a pepper named axi (Indian pepper) ; to which may be added Teveral other indigenous fruits; they had likewife a fermented Hquor refcmbling ale, which was prepared from the maize ; this does not appear to have been their common drink, but produced only on feftive occalions, when it anfwered the purpofe of intoxication full as well as our European ftrong liquors. Cotton they cultivated in fuch vaft plenty, as would incline us to think they exported a confiderable quantity ; for they confumed but little of it themfelves in their cloathing ; they went almoft naked) their cotton manufadlure confifted chiefly oi hamacs or beds, muiTceeto-nets for thefe beds ; a fort of caps to cover their heads ; and fmall aprons for decency. Their fiQiing-lines and nets were of bark. They rcfembled the people of Hayti or Hifpaniola in cuftoms, religion, hiftorical fongs ; in their tools for agriculture and other work, their domeftic utenfils, and their weapons of war. The flrudure of their canoes was likewife the fame. The larger fort of thefe velTels were called piraguas. They were made of cedar, or the great cotton tree, hollowed, and fquare at each end like punts. Thefe piraguas were not flat-bottomed like the canoes, but much deeper. Their gunnels were raifed with canes braced clofe, and fmeared over with a bituminous fubftance, to render them water-tight -, and they had fliarp keels. The canoe was probably intended only as a fifliing-fkiff to ply in flioal water along the coaft, or up the rivers; but the piragua for voyages at fea, and carrying on trade with their neighbours. Some of their habitations were furnifhed with chairs of highly poliflied ebony; and none were deficient in variety of utenfils, both earthen and of wood, very curioufly wrought. From the refemblance which the language of thefe iflanders bears, in fome refpedls, to the Spanifh, I am apt to fufped that many of their words have been altered by the Spanifh mode of pronunciation, and the difficulty which the difcoverers found in articulating and accenting them, without fome intermixture of their own patronymic. In fome this is exceedingly obvious, where the letter b is ufed indifcriminately for v, agreeably to their idiom. This perverfion may eafily lead us to afcribe a Spanifh or Moori/li origin 5 to

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APPENDIX TO Vol. 117. 953 to tlie names of places, iuch as rivers, mountains, head-lands, C?i-, which in hct are of Indian derivation. Thus the article gu:t, lb commonly met with both in thefe iflands and on the Soutliern continent, was often prefixed or appended to the Indian names of places and things, and even of their provincial caciques. Of the latter were Gua-rionexius, Gua-canarillus, Gua~nabo, and others. Of the former a vail multitude occurs, as Gua-nama, Xa-gua, Gua-ha-giia, Camaya-gua, Aicay-aza-gua, Ma-gua, Nicara-gua, Vera-gua, Xaragua, Gua-rico, Ni-gua (Ciiigger), ^c; which may feem to confound them with derivatives from the SpaniQi or Moorifli word ^gua (water). So the terminations, ao, ana, coa, and boa, or voa, as Manabax-ao, Cib-ao, Gu-ana, Magu-ana, Yagu-ana, Ligu-ana, Zavana, (Savannah), Furac-ana, (Hurricane), Caym-ana, Guaiac-ana, (Guiacum), Haba-coa, Cauna-boa, and fo iorth. The names therefore occurring in our ifland of Liguanea, Cagua, Tilboa, Guanaboa, Guadibocoa, and others of limilar finals, are with more propriety to be traced from the Indian than the Spanilh dialeft. There feems to be no queftio:;, but that thefe iflands were peopled by emigrations from the continent fo near to them ; but it is no abfurd conjedure, to fuppofe that they did not all proceed from one part or diltrift of it. Cuba lays convenient to receive fupplies from Eafl Florida, and the gulph of Mexico j from Cuba to Hifpaniola and Jamaica, the progrefs was equally eafy ; but as the Indians of this latter ifland were fo flrongly difcriminated from the others in feveral qualities, fuch as their fuperior ingenuity, fpirit for traffic, induflry, and bold temper, it is probable that they drew fome accefilons from thofe provinc^-S which border upon the gulph of Honduras, and more particularly that of Yucatan, lying in the fame parallel of latitude. It is not unlikely, that traders from that great commercial province might refort hither at certain feafons of the year, to take off their fuperfluous cotton, an article in vaft demand on the continent, and particularly in Mexico. Such voyages could, even in thofe days, with the greatefi: facility, be made to Jamaica, which lies fo near to Honduras and Campeche, from whence the paffage is marked out by nature, by a line of little ifles and cayes, as the Santanillas, Serranas, Serranillas, and others, continuing the track almofl: the whole way. Their larger veil'els were capable of Vol. III. 6 F much

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954 A P P E N D I X TO Vol. III. nuch more arduous expeditions ; for at Cuba Columbus found canoes nintty-five fpans in length, and able to hold fifty perfons. At Hifpaniola he faw fome piraguas of twenty-five oars, as large as brigantines ; and what is ftill more to our purpofe, in paffing through the Honduras Gulph, he fell in with one as long as a Spanifli galley, eight feet in breadth, manned with twenty-five hands, laden with Weftern corn modifies, and bound, as he imagined from the province of Yucatan j in the middle of it was an awning compofed of mats, made of palmeto leaves, and underneath it were difpofed feveral women and children, and their goods, in fuch fecurity, that neither the rain nor fpray of the fea could annoy them. The lading confided of great abundance of cotton cloths dyed, with feveral colours and curioufly wrought j (hort fhirts or jerkins of the fame materials, but without fieeves or collars; and clouts or aprons for men and women in their undrefs. They had wooden fwords edged with fliarp ftones grooved in, and fixed with thread and bitumen, copper hatchets for hewing wood, fmall bells and plates of the fame metal, crucibles for melting it, and cacao nuts, which, on the continent, pafl'ed current as money. That the Indians, therefore, on this coaft were in no want of convenient means for tranfporting whole families, nor imfkilled in trade and navigation, mufi: be very apparent ; add to this, that the clcarnefs of the heavens, and brilliancy of the ftars in this hemifphere at night, miift have greatly affifted their navigation, and enabled them to fhape their courfe with tolerable accuracy. It is laid of the Indians of Yucatan, that, in order to know the hour of the night, they obferved the evening ftar, the Pleiades, and the conftellation of Orion. By day they had particular names alligned to different quarters of the heaven, and governed their reckonings of time by them. But their voyages at fea were probably made by night, to which they had feveral inducements: a cooler atmofphere, which lefl'ened their toil of rowing; a calmer fen, and lefs wind to contend againli ; laftly, a diftind: view of thofe ftars or planets which fcrved for their guides. They lay by, perhaps, in the day-time under fhcltcr of Ibme little caye, or ifle, of which there are fuch multitudes in this fea. The people of the continent, and of this diftrifl in particular, had peither the \ife of iron nor letters; yet gave fuch proofs of .advanced Ikill

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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. ^^S fltill and Ingenuity in arts and fcicnces, as juftly railed the admiration of their Eiu-opcan difcoverers. The Spaniards looked with anonifhnient on a race of men, who, in this fequeftered part of the world, by mere dint of natural genius, unaided by books or information, had attained fuch lengths towards perfeftion in contrivance, delicacy, elegance, and utility, as appeared in their various fabrics, apparel, and ornaments; edifices, and utenfils; public works, and regulations; their methods of computing time, and of communicating or recording events: fo apt and lively wei'e their faculties, that, as foon as the Spaniards inftrufted them in the art of writing, they immediately wrote their prayers, and traditional odes or fongs, which before that period they had been ufed to recite; and quickly copied every other European model introduced among them. We are, I think, upon the whole, to conlider Mexico and Peru as the two grand feats of Indian arts, civilization, knowledge, government, and trade; that the Iflands were peopled with colonies emigrating from thele mother ftates; that they were children of the empire, but paid no tribute, nor acknowledged any fealty or dependance ; that they retained fome traits, but thofe extremely imperfeft, of the religion, manners, and cuftoms, of the larger body, from whom they had fcparated, lofing, by confequence of that reparation, in procefs of time, much of the civility, and thofe arts, inventions, and refinements, which diftinguifhed the Indians of the continent fo greatly above thefe fmall and difperfed communities. The Caribes, or hihabitants of the lefler Antilles, feem to be a tribe proceeding from the more Southern parts of the continent, and maritime anceftors. We find them fligmatized by the other iflanders with the name of canibals, yet they were not wholly deftitute of mechanic fkill ; for when Columbus firfl: landed at Guadaloupe, he difcovered in one of their huts a large quantity of fpun cotton, and a curious fort of loom for weavnig it; this dlfcovery proves alfo, that they pradifed agriculture, and cultivated cotton, as well as the natives of the larger Antilles, But they differed very widely from the latter in many other refpefts, for they were fierce, favage, and rapacious ; led a roving piratical kind of life, like the corfairs of Barbary, and made frequent defcents on the larger iflands, even as far as Cuba, carrying off captives, but forming no fettlements on their coaH. Thefe were the only foreign enemies 6 F 2 whkh

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956 A P P E xN D I X TO Vol. III. which the Indians of Cuba, and adjacent iflands, appear to have encountered, \intil the Spaniards cnme among them. We are not aliiired whether the Indians of Jamaica had more than one cacique; but as their form of government rtfembled that of the Haytians, it is hkely that the ifland was quartered into provinces fubjedt to the authority of their refpedlive chiefe. Thcfe caciques, if wc may believe what is related of the Indians in Hayti or Hifpaniola, m;.intained their power chiefly by working on the fuperftition and credulity of the common people by means of their cemis, or oracular idol: this was a liollow wocden image, within which the prieft could conceal himfelf, and deliver mandates or relponfes through a tube or pipe. Tliey had alfo in their cuftody three confecrated ftoncs ; one of which was efficacious for promoting the fuccefs of their crops; the fecpnd, for the fafe and cafy delivery of pregnant women ; and the third, for obtaining rain, or favourable weather : but thefe ftones appear to have been resrarded I'ather as a kind of amulets than divinities. The behlqiies, buut'ios, or phyficians, adlcd likewife in the capacity of pri'eftsand conjurors, and made themfelves extremely ufefiil to the caciques; for by combining all thefe trades, they were better enabled to influence the people in conformity to the pleafurc of the cicique, and the junflure of affairs. We cannot, however, depend implicitly on the accounts which the Spaniards have given of their religious ceremonies and opinions ; for they are allowed by fome writers to have believed in one God, the immortality of the foul, and a ftate of future blifs; whereas, others reprefent them addiifled to grois idolatry, and their notions of a Deity, or the fou), extremely confufed and abfurd. Weiuay venture to believe, that each cacique, with his confederate band of jugglers, framed whatever model of religion he thought fit for his own reipeiilive province, only taking care not to abolifh any favourite popular fupcrftition. Their government, taking its colour from the lin^plicity and mild difpofition of their lubjccls, leems to have been cftablifhed more on policy and cunning than violence ; gentlenefs charafterifed the fpirit of public authority, no lefs than their private manners. Columbus relates, that when he f^rft arrived at Hifpaniola, the cacique of tiie neighbouring territory paid him a vifit : it Icems the ifle of Tortuga was likewife fubjeft to the dominion of this chief. On tlic following day, a piragua came in from Tortuga, with forty Indians on baard.

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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. ()^y board, who no doubt h:id heard of thefc wonderful flraiigers, and were attraded by a very natural curiofity to fee them and their (hip?. The cacique, however, was his^hly difpleafed at their intrufion, and, (landing up on the beach, threw fome water and ftones at them in token of his refentment; upon which they very fubmiffively tacked about, and returned home again without a murmur. Tlieir attachment to thefc chiefs was unbounded and inviolable. In th'/ntemper they had no fpark of cruelty. Of the placability of their difpofition they exhibited. many fiiining examples. They frequently difdained to kill the Spani-. ards, when they had them in their power, although thofe propagators of Chrillianity, impelled by a mixture of bigot rage and avarice, committed the moft bloody and tyrannical excelles; which feemcd to call for, and to juiVify, the moft vindifiive retr.liations. During the war they profecuted in Cuba, the Indians Oew as many of diefe enemies as they could, in fair open combat; but whenever they furprized a party \>y ftratagem, and took them prifoners, they only ieized their cloaths and weapons, but fpared. their li\ es. They were unqueftionablv thc: mofi: generous of foes, and their natural difpofition truly amiable benevolent, and noble. This character Hands fully attefled and confirmed by that of the modern Indians on the Mofqu'ito Shors, who are reprefented by all the Englifh, who have been the befl: acquainted with them, as a mild honeft, docile, foithful, modefl, friendly, inoffcnfive, and naturally enlightened people; who require only that artificial culture and civilization, which religious Inftitutes,. and llholaftic improvements, befl:ow to make them rank among the molt virtuou?, and ufeful iubjeds of Britain. Upon fuch minds, the endeavours of the Milfionaries,. that have been employed by i\\q fociety de propaganda Jide, were fuccefsfully and laudably exerted. Thefe people are moft worthy of beinotaught thc principles of the Chriftian faith, for they already almoft praftife its dodlrlnes from their natural propenfity to good, and abhorrence of evil. 'Let me here take occafion to exprefs a v/ilh, that thc noble and patriotic fpii-it of that focicty may ftill perfevere with unabated zeal and (hould their comprehenfive, generous plan, admit of ftill further exr•tenfion, it might hkcwife embrace the free ivild Negroes-, eftablifhcd in our ifland, who would indifputably be more confidential and ufeful fubjeds, if they were reclaimed from their prefent barbarifm, and laifed.

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95 APPENDIX TO Vol. III. raifed above the common herd of Blacks, by the neceiTary efFeds of baptifm, and religious preccpls. The experiment, at lealV, Is worthy trial, and with great propriety may be commenced in the parifli of St. George, where there is a fine glebe of lix hundred acres of land afli
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APPENDIX TO Vex.. III. ^s9 two competitors as much as poffible, that they might not reap ail the benefits they expe(5led. Fortunately for him, they had both turned their thoughts at this juncture to the making further difcoverles and conquefts upon the continent, fo that he was left more at liberty to purfue his fcheme without interruption. He made choice of Juan de Efquivcl, an experienced officer (wlio had ferved feme years in Hifpaniola), and difpatched him with feventy men to effciSl a fettlement at Jamaica, of which he was to take the command as his lieutenant governor. This officer, foon after his landing on the ifland, began to parcel out and diltribute the country and inhabitants among his followers j which the Indians difliking, betook themfelvcs to the mountains, and flood, on their defence ; but Efquivel, after feveral engagements, in which the doas he had broug-ht with him were almoft as deftru6live as his mufquetry, found means at length to cut off the chiefs, or leaders, of the malecontents; the reft fubmitted ; and, after being divided according to his original plan, they were employed in planting cotton and provifions. A breed of Spanifh cattle, hogs, and horfes, was next introduced, which increafed very flift. The cattle improved prodigiouHy irt bulk; and the hogs, by feeding on the plums, and other fruits of the country, not only grew to an immoderate fize, but acquired luch excellence, that their flefli was efteemed the moft delicious and wholelome of all animal foods. Several fpecres of garden-fiuff were obferved to come up furprizingly quick ; lettuce, cabbage, borrage, radrfhes, and the like, were tit for gathering in fixteen days from tlie time of putting in the feed ; and gourds, cucmnbers, and melons, within the thirtieth day. Efquivel, perceiving the Indians more traceable than he had expelled, foon won them over to fubjedion by the moderation of his government, and without any further efTufion of blood. This commander has been highly extolled for his prudent and temperate behaviour. His fubjedls continued to labour hard in their cotton plantations, and other improvements, which he had planned for rendering this a permanent and lucrative colony ; fo that the exportation from it about the year 151 1 grew to be coniiderable, and it funiiihed copious fupplies of provifion to the Spaniards of the two neighbouring iflands,. who were cl.iefly occupied in quelling and extirpating the natives. At this period he had probably, with the affiflance of the Indians, bid the foundation-

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960 APPENDIX TO Vol. III. foundation ofScvilla Nueva; which, from the following account, appears to have been fituntcd very near to the inlet where Columbus ran his two fhattercd vcficls on (hore. We are told by Herrer.T, that -" whilft the admirsl was detained here, waiting for a fnipfrom Hlfpani" ola to carrv him o3", a party of his crew, headed by Francis de Porras, "entered into mutiny. Thefe revokers, after rambling feyeral days about the country, committing violence on the peaceable natives, marched towards the (liips with intention to altack him ;" and being advanced within a quarter of a le cogues dijlancc ^xom. them, halted at an Indian town called Mayma, where fome years afterwards the Spanifli colony named Seville was eftablifhed." It is moft probable, therefore, from this relation, that the inlet to which the admiral gave the name of Santa Gloria, was not, as Ibme writers have fuppofed, what is now called Port Maria (which is many leagues further Eafiward), but the -cove known by the name of Don Chriftopher's, which feems to corjefpond with the event, and is not much more than a quarter of a league diftant from Seville, or St. Anne's Bay. It is uncertain at what time the fugar cane was introduced into Jamaica. It is faid to have been brought firft into Hifpaniola, by one Aguilon, of that ifland, who in the year i 506, having carried with him fome plants of it from the Canaries \a\ they were found to thrive luxuriantly in this newly-difcovered foil, infomuch that every root produced from 20 to 30 canes [/^l. The cultivation of it was, thereupon, very zealoufly encouraged by the Jeronomite friars, who held a large fhare of authority, and, perhaps, of property, there. Thefe patriotic fons of the church offered loans of live hundred pieces of eight to every adventurer who fliould ercd a fugar-mill j and the premium operated lb well, that three Spaniards ftt up one of thefe engines in co-partnerIhip, at Laguata, near the river Nizao; others followed their example, and in a fliort fpace of time the number of thefe works augmented to forty, either water or horfe-mills ; for horned cattle were not as yet employed in them. [a] Pet. Mart. p. 499. [ff] Moll of our wrucvD J.itc tUcir tiiir intnxluCt-iuii trom Brafil; but Herrcra affirms, they were brought tVoin Old Sp:uii into the Canary Ulaiids ; il' fo, we mull draw their origin rather from Africa than America; Lut the plant was certainly common 10 both of them, as well as to This

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APPENDIX TO Vol. III. 961 This new labour of cane-planting, added to digging in mines, and a thoufand other drudgeries, contributed to wear out the poor Indians, who were every where treated as abjeft (laves ; befides, their bodies were not athletic, nor capable of enduring the fatigue of hard labour, and their fpirits were quickly broke with rigorous ufage. The Spanifh occupiers of land, therefore, increaiing as fad as thefe Indians decreafed, recourfe was had to the Portuguefe factories on the coaft of Africa for Negroe labourers; and thus fprung up the Guiney trade with this part of the Weft Indies, The climate of Mifpaniola proved fo benign and natural to the Blacks, as to have it commonly faid, that unlefs one of them happened to be hanged, none ever died there." The manufacture of fugar, and traffic for Negroes, found their way doubtleis into Jamaica likewife, as foon as the colony was opulent enough to enter upon the one, and pay for the other j for, by degrees,the Indian inhabitants, partly by efcaping to the continent, partly by the harfh ufage of their new lords, and by the natural effefls of defpondence under fo grievous and oppreffive a change in their condltion,became almoft extinguifhed in every one of thefe larger Iflands. The foundation of St. Jago de la Vega by the vice-roy Jago, or Diego Columbus, has been fixed about the year 1520, or 1521, not long before his deceafe, which happened in Spain about the year 1525. It feems, I think, evident, from the foregoing dedu(^ion, that this w\as never confidered ^ proprietary government, in the fcnfe we underftand. of Georgia, Pennfylvania, and other provinces in North America. No territorial grant was made to Columbus of any of thefe difcovered. countries; the fovereign referved to himfelf the dominion and fignorial right of foil, with nine fhares in ten of all its produftlons. Atthe period, confequently, when it became an Engllfh conqueft, it was a member of the Spanifh empire, in the fame predicament as Cuba and Hifpaniola, over which the heirs of Columbus held only the fame titular offices of admiral, vice-roy, and governor in chief. Peter Martir beftows many compliments on the climate of thefe iflands ; he dwells upon the fubjed with rapture ; but as 1 fear that L have trefpafitd too far already on the reader's indulgence, I fliall quote only one of his fine fpeeches, which may ferve by way of conclufion. Vol. m. 6G What

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962 A P P E N D I X TO Vol. HI. What greater happinefs can there be, than to pafs one's life, *' where we are not obliged to fqueeze ourfelves into little cabins, *' frozen with cold, or futtocatcd with heat! We have no winter here, to load our bodies with ponderous cloathing, or to fcorch cur ikins •' before a perpetual fire ; thefe are the practices which fhrivel us up, *' bring upon us a premature old age, dim our eyefight, confume our •* vigour, and draw after them a long train of difeafes [<:]." [f] Page 59. N I S.

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963 GENERAL CONTENTS. VOLUME THE FIRST. Book I. Chap. Seft. Page. INTRODUCTION. . — •_ i Government and Conjiitution — Remarks onfufpending Claufes in Adts of Afferably J. -^ ^ Governor; his Titles, and duties of Office — II. i. 26 His Salary . . — — 2.31 His Power in refped to Co/;;w^wj of Af/7//w — — 3-3^ InJlruSlions from the Crown to the Governor, their force and operation . . — — 4. 38 Factions. A candid explication of them ; their ill effedls ; means of preventing them hieutenant -Governor, and Prejident Great, and Privy-Seals Council . ... AJfembly . Chief-Jtijlice^ and Judges at Common Law Vice-admiralty Court Public Offices, and Patentees . Hiftory of Difputes with the Affembly concerning x^tcs • • • • • • The condud of the Officers further examined y^gent for the liland . . Militia ... . Regulations propofcd, with a view to reftoring its Dlfcipline . . Vol. III. 6 H — — 5-

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964 GENERAL CONTENTS. Book I. Chap. St<5l. Page, Appendix. The Frame of Conftitutlon, originally introduced into this Ifland, examined ; more particularly refpefting the Powers exerc 1 fed by the Pr/'uy C(Sr/7 . — — i156 Right of the firft Englifh Settlers, to an RngUp Form of Government ..... -r— — 2. 1160 Introduflion of a Leg'/Ianire— The firfl Affembly fummoned here — Appointment of a PrivyCouncil . • • •— — 3* ^^3 Claims of the Council to the prifvileges of Peerage; and tyrannical behaviour . — — 4. 169 Tlieir Powers de.fined---Scnflures on the Court of Errors • • • • — — 5. 174 Compared with the PrivyCouncil of GreatBritain • • — — 6. 176 Their extraordinary Pretenfions difcufTed — — 7. 181 The inconfiftency, illegality, and bad confcquences of their exercifing a Lf^//?i7/a'^ Pow^/' — — 8. 185 A Plan propofed for afBmilating the frame of Legiflature in this Colony, nearer to that of GreatBritain ; chiefly with a view to the peace and profperity of the lHand, and to the eafe of Adminiftration ... — — 9'9^ A (hort detail of Proceedings between the Earl of C^r///7f and the Aflembly .. . — — — 194 Abftrads of Affembly Minutes in the years 1 678 and 1679, relative to the fame . — — — 206 CromiveFs Proclamatioti for encouraging tlie fettlement of the Ifland, Jmo 1655 . — — — 213 His Inftru6lions to the Commiffioners — — — 214 Form of an Order for Land, iflucd by General D'Oyley in 1661 . . — — — 217 Proclamation by Charles II. in the fame Year — — — Id. Remarks on the origin of the Revenue Lazv, and the invefliture of this Colony with the beneficial Statutes of England, cnaftcd fincc its firfl: fcttlcmcnt with Engllfli fubjci^'ls . — — — 219 Origin

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966 GENERAL CONTENTS. Book I. Chap. Sea. Page. Campeche. With reflexions on the Treaty of VerfaUles,{\-]b2) • • • — ~ 6. 339 Conjedure on the Etymology of the name given to this Ifland — Of the towns founded here by the Spaniards — Their roads, and names of places II. I. — 343 General defcription of the Ifland— Soils, moun— II. i. 349 tains, rivers, woods, and climate . and to 2. 363 State of Population traced from the firfl: Englifli fettlement — Proportion of fencible flaves to freemen — Comparative opulence of the different counties — Deficiency Law . — — 5 375 Further thoughts on the Deficiency Law ; Jl>Jentees ; Priority Law ; Credit Laws ; LeJ/ors of Slaves • • • — — 43^5 On the expediency of extending the Population and Settlement of this fme Ifland— Remarks on the Monopoly of Lands — ^it-Rent Laws — Means propofed for bringing unfettled Tra£ls into cultivation . • • — — 5. 402 Inconveniencies attendant on the want of People — Probable happy confequences of a more thorough Population — Plan recommended with this view — Caufe of the inefficiency of the Laws for introducing white Settlers," pointed out . . — — 6. 411 State of Agriculture — Schemes fuggefled for the improvement of it — Computation of the expenccs attending the Settlement of a Sugar Plantation — General rules for eftimating the value of Cane land, and Sugar eftatcs — III. — 4 or Roads. Imperft£lion of thofe in Jamaica — The mofl: approved modes of confhuding them, as particularly applicable to that Ifland — IV. i. aCa. JVheel-Ccirriages of Burthen. Their flirudurc confidered as moft applicable to the planter's ufc; with remarks on tradtion, friftion, highj 5 low.

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GENERAL CONTENTS. ^(>^ Book 11. Chap. Seel. Page. low, broad, and narrow wheels ; and the theory of their principles concifely explained — — 2. 483 TRADE. Guiney Trade^ and benefits arifing from it — V. i 49 1 General Kftimate of Negroes, ftock, and fettlements — : — — 495 Of one Year's Produce . — — — 496 Exports to Great Britain, North America, &c. — — — Id. Imports from different parts . — — — 500 Balances . ... — — — 501 Shipping, tonnage, and fpecification of Imports — — — 504 Loofe computation of Profits gained by GreatBritain ... — — — 507 Reafons offered upon the Principles of Trade, for better peopling the Ifland — Refledions on the comparative Growth of the French Sugar Iflands — On the Confumption of Sugar; and a Statement of its import from Jamaica, into the — — 2. 309 Port of London, for a double feries of feventeen to years . . — — — 529 Inland Commerce . . — • — 5. Id, Probable amount of Coins wanted for and in circulation . . — — — 530 Suppofcd Caufcs of a fcarcity of Money in the Ifljnd . . — — Profits gained by the landed, over the monied Intereft . . • — — • 53^ 53^ i\I O N E Y, Confidered with refped to external and internal Commerce . — VI. i. 535 Refledions on the Trade of this Ifland with the Northerner/cans ., . — — — 539 111 Effefts proceeding from a fcarcity of Money in this Ifland . , . — — — 542 r\Ieans-

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GENERAL CONTENTS. 969 Book II. Chap. Seft. Page. Particulars of the Donation given by Charles lid, to the Oliverian Regiments fettled in this Ifland, (Anno 1662) . . — — — 614 Authentic Annotations tending to Mluflrate {eve— — — 615 ral matters contained in the Narrative of the to Expedition under Penn and Venables. — — — 621 Anecdote of 7?^^w^ and 731/0;^ — — — bzz Tyfons Epitaph and Character . — — — 623 Juftifieation of D'Oyley againft the cenfures pafled on his conduft by Sir William Beejion — — — 624 Emigrations from ^^r^j^o^j to this Ifland — — — 625 Rye-houfe Confpiraiors, tranfportcd hither — — — Id. Cruel treatment of Englifli Subjects by the Spaniards, after the jittierican Treaty . — — — 626 Charles the Second proved, to have been part-owner with the Bucaniers in privateering — — — Id. VOLUME THE SECOND. County of MIDDLESEX. VIE Defcription of the Parifti of St. Catharine, and — — i. 1 Town oi St. Jagode la Tega to 2. 40 Pajfage Fort . . _ „ 41 State of the Parifiv ... — — 46 St. Dorothy . '^. Id. State of it . . — — ^o .5"/. John . .. — __ 4. Id, State of it . . — — r2 St. Thomas in the Fale . . — s. O Fog in Sixtcen-mile-walk endeavoured to be accounted for . . __ rA Romantic Pafs, or River-road . ^g State of the Parifti . . — — ^a Clarendon ,. — — 6. 60 State of it . .. ... -— 66 2 Fere

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970 GENERAL CONTENTS. Book II. Chap. Seft. Page, Fere . . • — — 1' ^1 State of it . . • — — — 74 St. Mary — — 8. Id. St-ate of it . • — — — 79 St. Anne . . — — 9. Id. Azcowwl oi SevUla-7weva . — — — 80 Reflections on the Spanifh praftlce of kidnapping Negroes from the North fide of the Ifland — — — 85 Dcfcription of the IFaterJall at Roanng-rlver — — — 92 oixht Cafcade ?lX. IVhiteriver — ^ — — 93 of the Grotto . — — — 95 State of the Parifli . . — — — 101 Recapitulation of the State of this County ; flock, Negroes, fettlements, produce of fugar, reftories, and ftlpends . . — — — Id. CouNTv of SURRY. VIII. Parifh and Town of Ar///j^(j . — — I. 102 State of the Parifh . . — — — 120 St. Andrezv .... — — 2. 122 Village of Half-way-tree . — — — 123 Liguanea Mountains . . — — — 1 24 Reflexions on the advantages to be cxpefted from a more liberal cultivation oi Natural Hi/iory in this liland . . — — — 134 State of the Parifli . . — — — 138 PorZ-jRo)'^/ Town and Parifh . — — 3-^39 Recital of the Cifualties which have befallen this town . . — — — 140 Account of Powder received and expended at the fort . . — — — 148 Cajcade jX Mammee x'wtx 152 Caves, human bones found in them, accounted for — — — 153 State of the Parifh . . — — — 154 St. David ... . — — 4. id. State of it . . — — — ^57 St.

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GENERAL CONTENTS. 971 Book 11. Chap. Sedl. Page. St. Thomas in the Eajl . — — 5* ^^• Account of the Bath waters . — — — 160 Town of Bath . . — — — 165 State of the Parifh . . — — — 169 Portland . . . — — 6. Id. Account of Navy-JJland . . — — — 1 70 Plan recommended for fortifying Por/ yf/o/o — — — 173 Town of 'litchfeld . . — — — 1 74 State of the Parifh . . — — — ^J7 St. George — — 7, 178 State of it ... . — — — 181 7vfa7/5/VttA;//(? of the State of this County — — — 182 County of CORNWALL. — IX. — St. Elizabeth — — i. 183 My-day \Y\\h — — — 184 Account of a remarkable Tree . — — — 187 Town of Lacovui . . — — — 188 Black-river . . • — — — 1 89 State of the Parifla . • — — — 191 Wejlmoreland . • — — 2. Id. Town o{ Savannah la Mar . — — — 193 Refieftions on the Frff'/cr/ ^^ . — — — 194 State of the Parifli . . — — — 206 Hanover . . — — 3207 Town of Lucea . . — — — 209 State of the Parifli . . — — — 212 St. James . . — — 4. Id. Town of Montego , — — — 213 State of this Parifli . . — — — 218 Trelawny • • • — — 5220 ViWzgt oi Marthahrae — — — 22: State of the Parifli . -' — — — 223 7?fa;/)/7/^;//o of the State of this County — — — 224 Reflections on the North-fide Diftrift — — — 225 Patriotic Grants of a late Aflemblv • — — — 226 Vol. III. 6 I Review

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^72 GENERAL CONTENTS. Book II. Chap. Sea. Page. Review of the advantages obtained, or obtainable, by Greni Britai7t, from her pofleffion of this Ifland, and its progreffive improvement — — — 228 General Recapitulation oix.\\Q.St?i\.toixht\^z\\6. — — — 229 Comparative State of the different Parifhes, in regard to Taxation; and of the different Ports in regard to Shipping — Eftimate of the number of Carriages of Pleajure . — — — 230 P(5/?-0^i-6', and rates of poflage . — — — 231 State of the Clergy ... — X. — 234 Mines ... — XI. — 246 Schools . . — XII. — 246 Inhabitants oi\}i\t\^2i\\^ . . — X!II. i. Mixtures. Genealogical table . — — — 260 White Creole Men . — — — Id. White Creole Women . — — — 271 Exotic Whites ... — — 2. 286 Artificers and Servants . . — — — 287 Jews ... ... — — — 293 Quakers and Moravians . — — — 297 Aliens naturalized . . — — — 300 Regular Troops . . — — — 302 Encouragements granted to them . — — — 303 Obfervations on the recruiting Service . — — — 306 State of the different Barracks . — — — 309 Scheme of Cantonment, with a view to the general protedtion of the whole Ifland . — — — 311 Remarks on healthy and unhealthy Quarters — — — 312 Regulations propofcd with a view to the hc;ilth of the Troops . . — — — 313 Number of the White Inhabitants tried by different eftiunitcs . . — — — 316 Free-Blacks and Mulattos . — — 3. 320 Remarks on the Law regulating Grants and Devifes made by White perfons to Negroes, or the ifliie of Negroes . — — — 323 2 Marons

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GENERAL C O N T E N T S. 973 Book II. Chap. Seft. Page. III. JiJarons (commonly called the Wild-Negroes) Tlioughts on the Negroes of ^Jrica in general Guhicy Slaves ... . — Imported, snd Creole Blacks in Jamaica — Thoughts Oil the converlion of Negroes to Chriftlanlty . . — Caules affigned for the decreafe of Plantation Slaves by mortality ... . — Hiftory of Negroe Infurredions in this Ifland — Refleftions on them . — Some account of the celebrated Francis Williams — Abftraft of the Jamaica Negroe-Code, with explanatory notes ..... — Refleftions thereon; and meafures recommended — for making the condition of Slaves in this Ifland — more comfortable . . — Regulations for preferving Health in Jamaica, un der the following heads, viz. Habitation and Air Cloathing ... General Regimen of Life Diet 1 . Reji I . . hxercije ; . Clcanlinefs J . The PaJJions Abufe of Laudanum cenfured Sugar, medicinally conlidered Rum . . Water . . Reflexions on Medical Praciice and PraSiitioners in this Ifland ... Hifl:ory of a Jamaica ^lack-DoStor Expediency of a reform in Medical Pradice ; a circumftance very interefting to fuccefiful colonization . 61 z

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974 GENERAL CONTENTS. APPENDIX TO V O L. 11. Containing Notes fupplemental and explanatory — — — *597 VOLUME THE THIRD. Book III. Chap. Sea. PagePrefatory Difcourfe on the provifions made by Nature for depurat'mg the Atmofphere — — — Meteorological Remarks on the Climate and Atmoji^ii^rf of this llland . . — VII. r. 596 Trade ^ and Land Winds . — — 2, 600 General Remarks . . — — 3610 Eftefts on Health produced by cZ'<7;7^^ of weather — — 4. 613 Earthquakes ... — — 5. 617 Hurricanes ... . — — 6. 620 Lightning and Thunder . . — — y. 624 Means of proteding Ships, Buildings, and Perfons from accidents by Lightning . — — 8. 6^j Ratn ...... — — 9, 645 T/jfrwowf/r/V^/ Regifter?, with remarks — — 10. 652 Barometrical . .. — — 11. 658 Sea 2in^ Muriatic WattiL . — — 12, 666 Tides, Currents, and Magnetic Variations — — i^. 667 Synopfis of Vegetable and other Produ6lions of the Ifland, proper for exportation, or home ufe and confumption— Exotic Plants cultivable for one or other of thefe purpofes---Noxious and ufcful Animals, &c. . . — VIII. — 674 Catalogue of foreign Plants, which might be introduced, and naturalized, in this Ifland — IX. I. 90^ Premiums offered by the Society of Arts in London, for the benefit of the Brltifh American Colonies ... — •_ _ qqc Diredtions for the tranjportation of Plants, Fruits, and Seeds • ... — — — ^07 Eflablifliment

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GENERAL CONTENTS. 975 Book III. Chap. SeA Page. Eftabllfhment of a Botanic garden in Jamaica recommended ... . (Note) 913 Index to the Sy nop/is — — 2. 914 APPENDIX TO VOL. III. Tranflatlon of the French Code Noir, of 1685 Ditto, of that of 171^, with Comments on both Progrefs of the French Settlement at Cape Nicola Mole in the N. W. part of Hifpaniola, with fiiitable refleftions A compendious Difcourfe on the antient Indian Inhabitants of Jamaica; their genius, cuftoms, manners, and trade— -Of the firfl: Settlement effe£led here by the Spaniards ; the foundation of towns ; introduflion of the Sugar Cane ; and an inveftigation of the Grants from the Crownof Spain to the Heirs of Columbus ; intended to illuftrate what has been mentioned on tl>efe fubjefts, in the preceding parts of this hillory I. 921 293S — — 3. 941 — — 4, 949 CORRIGENDA. VOL. III. Pa^e.

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( 91^ ) A LIST OF COPPER-PLATES. N' Vol. I. I'd face Page, — Defcr'iption. 1 _ Frontifpiece, — Environs of Jan:iaica. o Head-piece to Introdudion, — Arms of ditto. 2 ___--422 — Plan of a Townfliip, Fig. I. and Direftion of Trade Wind upon the Ifland, Fig. II. 5 __---376 — Map of Jamaica, 1670. \^. __---584 — Old Coins. Vol. II. ^ ^ Frontifpiece,— Map of Jamaica, 1773. :^ .-..-. 10 — Governor's Houfe at Spanifli Town, &c. y _ 20 — View of a Spanifh Building;. 8 -------92 — View of the Cafcade at Roaring-river. 9 ~ 94 — View of the Whiteriver Cafcade. 10 102 — Draught of Port-Royal, and Kingfton Harbours. -11 139 — View of ditto. -12. -------160 — A View of the Bath hot Spring. 13 174 — Plan of Port Antonio. 14 -----186 — Cafcade at YS River. j^ 220 — View of Montego Bay. Vol. III. 16 --. 628 — Meteor. *" I N I S.

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BOOKS printed for T. LOWNDES. I. TTT'OOD's Body of Conveyancing, 5 vols. 5I. los. T V 2. Wood's Inlliuites ot the Civil Lavi', publinied by Mr. Serjeant Wilfon, il. 75. J. Jacob's Law Dictionary, 2I. 2s. 4. Camden's Britannia, an improved Edition, 2 vols. ^jl. 4s. 5. Miller's Gardener's Dictionary, with cuts, 3I. 3s. 6. PolUethvvayte's Dictionary of Trudeaiid Comiiierce, z vols. 4I. 4s. 7. A two fheet Map of Statforddiire, engraved in 1747, with alphabetical Lifts of the Hundreds, Towns, S^c. the whole properly coloured, 2S. 8. New Editions of Lowndes's Mai*iage Regifters, on Paper, Parchment, and Vellum. Tw^-nty-five Sheets of Demy Paper contain 400 conipleat Regifters, which are fold at 4s. and thofe on Medium 6s. Some are printed on Parchment, Demy Size, at is. others on Vellum, Demy Size, at 2s. per Leaf. 9. The Hillory of London, from the Foundation to the prefent Time, including the feveral P.uirties in Weltminfter, Middlekx, Southwark, &c. within the Bills of Mortality. By William Maiiland, F. R. S. and brought down to the prefent Time by the Rev. Mr.,Entick, in 2 vols, with cuts, 4I. 10. Milton's Paradife Lo!>, with Dr. Newton's Notes and Cuts, 2 vols, 4to. 2I. los. 11. The Complete Farmer: or a General Didionaiy of Hufbandiy, in all its Branches : Containing the various Methods of cultivating and improving every Species of Land. Comprizing every Thing valuable in the bell Writers on this Subjeft. Together with a great Variety of new Difcoveries and Improvements. Alio the whole Bufinefs ot Breeding, Managing, and Fatienin'-r Cattle of all Kinds, and the moft approved Methods of curing the various Difeafes to which they are fubjeft, Alfo Mr. Wildman's Method of raifing Bees, and of acquiring large Quantities of Wax and Honey, without deftroying thofe laborious Lifeifls. To which is now tirft added. The Gardener's Kalendar, calculated for the Ufa of Farmers and Country Gentlemen ; containing an ample Account of the Work ncceflary to be done every Month in the Year, iir the Nurfery and Kitchen Gardens. lUuftratetl with a great Variety ot Copper-Plates, exhibiting all the LiItruments ufed in Hufbandry, particularly thofe lately invented, and prefented to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. in London. By a Society of Gentlemen, Members of the Society tor the Encouragement of Arts, ike. The fecond Edition, enlarged and improved, price 1 1. 5s. 12. Fergufon's Aftronomy, Quarto, Cuts, iSs. 13. Nelfon's Feftivals, 5s. 14. Foote's Plays, 3 vols. i8s. ir. Salmon's Geographical Grammar, 6s. ih. The Songs of the Beggars Opera, adapted to the H.irpficord, Violin, or German Flute • with the Overture in Score, as compiled by Dr. Pepufch, and engraved on Copper-plutes, price If. 6J. fewed. 17. Rev. Mr. White's 21 Sermons, 6s. 18. Dramatic Works of Aaron Hill, Efq; with Love Letters of the Author, 2 vols. 12s. ig. TheDramatic Works of Arthur Murphy, Eft]; 3 vols. il. is. 20. A Tour through Spain and Portugal, 5?. 21. Compleat Houfewife, with Plates of ditferent C^urfcs, and Bills of Fare for every Month in the Year, c,%. 22. Dr. Falconer on Bath Water, 6s. 23. Bailey's Englifli Dictionary, 6s. 24. Life of the Duke of Marlborough, illuftrated with Maps, Phins of Eattlef, Sieges, and Medals. By Thomas Lcdiard, E.q; 2 vols. ,12s. j|. MUton*

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BOOKS frhitedfor T. LOWNDES. 1^. Milton'sParadlfeLoft, with Hayman's cuts, and notes by Dr. Newton, ; vols. \i\. 26. Regained, 2 vols. 10s. 27. Ward's Mathematics, 55. 28. Fergufon's Aftronomy, 0£lavo, Cuts, 9s. 29. Shakefpeare, with various Notes, 10 vols. 3I. 30. Cole's Latin and Englirti Didlionary, 6s. 31. Boyer's French and Englilh Didionary, 7s. 32. Dr. Grey's Hudibras, 2 vols. 14s. 33. Stanhope's Thomas a Kempis, 4s. 34. Every Man his own Lawyer, 6s. 3 J. Dr. James's Difpenfatory, 3d edit. 7s. 36. Fielding's Works, with his Life, by Murphy, 8 \q\%. 2I. 8s. 37. Kimber's Baronets of England, 3 vols. ll. is. 38. Mrs. Glafs's Cookery, 5s. 39. Ellays Medical and Experimental, by T. Percival, M. D. 3s. 40. Dyche's Englilh Dictionary, 6s. 41. Bladen's Ca;far's Commentaries, cuts, 5s. 42. Bailey's Ovid's Metamorphofis, La:in and Englifh, 6s. 43. Johnfon's Dictionary of the Englilh Language, 2 vols, los. 44. Capell's Shakefpeare, 10 vols. 2I. 2s. 45. Johnfon's Shakefpeare, 8 vols. 2I. 8s. 46. Wells's Dionyfius, with maps, 3s. 6d. 47. The Hillory of Inland Navigations, and particularly thofe in Che(hire, Lancalhire, Stafford (hire, Derbyfhire, &c. with the intended one from Leeds to Liverpoole, in 2 parts, price 2s. 6d. each, illuflrated with geographical plans of the difterent Navigations. 48. Marfhall on Sanftification, 3s. 49. Chambaud's French Exercifes, 23. ro. Rudiments of the French Tongue, 2S. CI. Macbride's Medical and Philofophical EfTays, 5s. ^2. Mulleron Fortification, with plates, 6s. 53. Palermo's Italian Grammar, 55. 54. Smollet's Travels, 2 vols. los. :.^. An fon's V'oyage round the World, by Walter, with maps, 6s, 56. Treatife on Opium, by G. Young, M. D. 3s. 6d. 57. Kalm's Travels into North-America, 2 vols, with cuts, 12s. .5(5. Theobald's Shakefpeare, 8 vols, cuts, il. 8s. 59. Fortunate Country Maid, 2 vols. 6s. 60. The Prater, by Nicholas Babble Efq; 3s. 61. Antigallican, or Adventures of II. Cobham, Efq. 3s. 62. Adventures of Owen Gwin Vaughan, Efq. 2 vols. 6s. 63. Sir John Vanbrugh's Plays, 2 vols. 6s. 64. Milton's Paradife I oil, with cuts, 3s.-6d. i6^. Dr. Smollett's Quixote, Plates, 4 vols 12s. 66. The Works of Mr. G. Farquhar, 2 vols. 6s. 67. Sir Rich. Steele's Dramatick Work?, with his Life and Head, 3s. 68. Kimber's Peerage of England, with plates of arms, fupportcrs, &c. &C. 3s 6d. •69. Peerage of Scotland, with arms, itc; 3s. 6d. 70. Peerage of Ireland, with arms, &c. 3s. 6d. .7 I Croxall's jEfop, 3s.

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o N? UC SOUTHERII REGIONAl LIBRARV I ACIl ITY '* %a]AIN(13\\V^ i;v6!/: ^ "audiivj jvj "OdJAiMun^ 'Cf I ^lOSANCflfj>. AIN(l]i\V ,H,OfCAllF0% M.OF-CAllFOfi'^ 1^' -^.1 i ,^UU(., 'w.'.ijvaa, .v? ^tllBRARYQ^ ^OJIWDJO'^ A\UNIVERS/A >^TiliONVSOl^ 'v/?a3M'jn3Wv fl'NIVI ^.OFCAllFOff^ ^ > -^OF-CALIFO,?;/, vr HINIV '//o o ^jclOSANCElfJV. -< ^/^a3AIN(1'H<^ ^^^tllBRARYQ/^:^\tllBRARYO/: ii ^.i/ojnvDJo'^ '''i'UJIlV. ^ A\\EIIK" %Ni I' ^' 'i'Uill NIVER% .vWSANCElfj> ^OFCAllFOfiV ^OF-CALIFOfiV 4? ^/^l iiU^i I '=XL ^ hf/". rl — =