Group Title: sugar trade
Title: The sugar trade
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 Material Information
Title: The sugar trade with the incumbrances thereon, laid open
Physical Description: 4 l., 22 p. : 2 fold. tab. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ashley, John, d. 1731
Publisher: Printed for J. Peele
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1734
Subject: Sugar trade -- West Indies, British   ( lcsh )
Colonies -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: By a Barbadoes planter.
General Note: Sabin 2196.
General Note: Dedication signed: John Ashley.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00047626
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001473807
oclc - 07032536
notis - AGY5604

Full Text

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Laid Open.

A Barbadoes PLANTER.

Printed for J. Peele, at Locke's Head in4men-
Corner, 1734. (Price 6d.)

) .

i. d e

I -

To His Excellency
The Rt.Hon. SCROOP,
Lord Vifcount HO TWE,
His Majefty's Catain General
and Governor in Chief, in and
over the Iflands of Barbadoes,
St. Lucia, Dominico, St. yin-
cent's, and Tobago, &c. and
Vice-Admiral of the fame,&c.

May it pleafe Tour Excellency,
HE great Concern Your
Excellency has fhewn for
the Prefervation of this
Colony, encourages me
to lay before You this
fall Treatife upon a
Trade, on which this Ifland entirely
depends; and which, I am fenfible, is
A 2 often


often uppermost in Your Lordfhip's
Mind, not only from Your thorough
Acquaintance therewith, whilft a Mem-
ber of the Britif Parliament, but alfo
from Your known Inclinations to do

TH E Senfe the BritifJ Legiflature
now have of the Circumfiances of this
Trade, and the great Experience and
unwearied Endeavours of the Auditor
General, together with Your Lordfhip's
good Offices in our Behalf, have al-
ready produced us a Law, that will
foon let us partake of the Bleffings of
our Mother Country.

THE Readinefs that was fhewn, to
give this Relief, as foon as proper Ap-
plications were made, induces me to
conclude, that when the whole State
of the Sugar Trade is fairly laid open,
and made known to that wife Legifla-
ture, we hall foon be put upon an
equal Footing with Foreign Sugar



SHOULD what I now offer, My
Lord, upon this Subje-, be any ways
conducive to that End, it will fully
answer my Intentions.

YOUR LORDSHIP'S Interest at Home,
and the tender Regard You have for
the Welfare of the People here, will
undoubtedly greatly contribute towards
making this a flourishing Colony, by
a beneficial Regulation of the Sugar

A N D I am fully persuaded, that the
Share your Excellency will have in
bringing about fo wifh'd for a Turn,
will be remembered with the utmoft
Gratitude by all his Majefly's good Sub-
jeas, and particularly by the poor In-
habitants of this Ifland.

As to my Part, I heartily wi(h Your
Excellency may live long after the Ac-
complifhment of fo good a Work, and
have the Pleafure to fee what the Bri-
tifh Sugar Planters can do, when they

are allowed to ftart fair, and are once
put upon a Level with their Rival
Neighbours. I am,

May it pleafe Tour Excellency,

Tour Excellency's

Moqf Obedient, and

Moft Devoted

Humble Servant,

Barbadoes, O&. John Afhley.



S' WHE following Piece is intended to
7 ,,.. fuew the Incumbrances and Charges
that remain on the Sugar Trade,fince
the palfing of the late Ad, for the
better Securing andEncouraging the Trade of his
Majefly's Sugar Colonies in America s and alfo to
compare the Advantages we may reap by that
A&4, with thofe which we yet fand in need of;
and thereby manifeft the Necejfity there is for
fome further Relief.
The frfJ and mofJ material Point aim'd at,
is, that of a direct Exportation of our Sugars
from the Plantations to foreign Ports: This
Advantage the French have had over us thefe
Seven Tears, which has improved their Trade
and Plantations to a great 'Degree, whilfi we
are vifibly declining for want of a more ex-
tenfive Vent of our Produce. The Reafons for
this are herein plainly fet forth; and it is here
alfo demonfirated, that the French Planter
gains over and above the Englifh Planter at
foreign Markets, from 20 to 5o per Cent. on
"his prime Coft, by this very ingle Article 3 which
"vaf 'Difference mutl, in a fhort Time, leave
them Maifers of the Sugar Trade, without fome
speedy Regulation.
The next Point is, that of the 'Duty of 3 s.
6 d. per C. upon Importation into Great Bri-

6do The PREFACE.
tain; which, upon Coa; (e Sugar, is now become
a mof heavy DDuty j Jim e the want of a direct
Exportation, together with the great Quanti-
ties imported, have brought the Price down to
much lefs than it can poffibly be made for,
without regarding the Interefi on the Value of
the Planters Land and Stock; fo that that
Stock, and the (Quantity of Sugar made, toge-
ther with the Britiih Navigation and Tower,
muff dwindle and abate, before a Living Price
can be had, under fuch Circumjfances.
If it should be thought proper to take off any
Tart of thefe high 'Duties, an Equivalent is
here proposed.
A Comparifon is made between thefe
high Charges, and the VDuty of four and half
per Cent. paid in Barbadoes and the Leeward
lands, tho' not in Jamaica.
Then the Confumption of Rum by the Inha-
bitants of Great. Britain and Ireland, is briefly
And, in the Concluzon, a Method of Re-
drefs, as to the dired Exportation of Sugar,
is pointed out.
Some of the Gentlemen FaTors and Officers
of the Cufjoms, and others, may, perhaps, at
frfl View, apprehend fome lDifadvantages from
what is here ofer'd: But it is submitted
to all Well-wifbers to their Country, whether
the two Points herein aim'd at, may not be
greatly advantageous to his Majefty's Subjecs
in general, and not in the l-' prejudicial in
any Refpec, whatsoever.






Laid Open.

S the Sugar Commerce is now
Sjuftly looked upon to be one
of the moft beneficial Branches
of Trade that belongs to Great
Britain, I think I can do no
lefs at this Junture to ferve
my Country, than to lay open
the remaining Incumbrances on that Trade in
as plain a Manner as I am able; and to hint
at fome Methods for a further Relief.

The late A& of Parliament, for the better
Securing and En.;: a.'ging the Trade of his
l-ajefty's Sugar Colonies in Amrerica, will, in
due Time, be of great Service to the Sugar
Trade more especially as it will n-.ake it earlier
to obtain the Liberty of going direly to fo-
reign Markets with our Sugar: And the Prohibi-
tion of foreign Produce to Ireland, with the
high Duties thereon when imported to our
Plantations, will render fuch a Liberty much
more beneficial than it could have been, had
not that A& paffed, in as much as it lays fo
confidcrable a Reitraint upon the Vent of fo-
reign Produce, by way of our own Planta-
The Kingdom of Ireland, and the Northern
T'c viizes our Sifters, can now be no longer
our Adverfaries, fince it will be their Intereft
to fee the R ':t. Sugar Plantations flourish
by an cxtenfive Vent of their Produce, as it
will occafion them to have fo much the larger
Demands for the Producs of thofe Ni.chi.i:
"The Supplying the Kingdom of Ireldnd
with our Produce, (altho' at a round-about
Rate as to Sugar) will accallon a much greater
Vent than we had before and the Duties.
upon foreign Produce imported into our Plan-
tations, will, no doubt, give us the Advantage
over Foreigners, as to Supplying thofe Britfi'
Dominions, notwithfianding the Duties of
i .' per C. and the four and half per Cent.
p.aid by us upon Exportation: But as to the
,uppl ing of .: n Markets, that muft fill be

given up to the French, if we remain under
the Reftri&ion of unloading our Sugars in
Great Britain, whilft they have the Liberty of
fending theirs direfly to foreign Markets, with-
out either unloading, or fo much as touching
at any Port in France.
The Bounty of 6 s. per. C. on refined Sugar,
and 9 d. per C. additional Drawback, will by
no means countervail that Advantage: For be-
fore fuch Hundred Weight of refined Sugar is
ihip'd, there is above 6 s. per C. paid on the
raw Sugar from which it is made, besides other
Charges: However That, no doubt, will in
fome Meafure encourage an Exportation, at
leaft, of the beft Sorts of refined Sugar. In-
deed the 9 d. per C. may be a Saving to the
Planter from 3 to 9 per Cent. upon the Value
of his Sugar in the Plantations, or the Net
Proceeds in Great Britain, when Sugars fell
from 40 s. down to 20 s. per C. in London:
But by a direO Exportation, the Planter may
fave from 23 to s z per Cent. upon Sugar worth
thofe Prices in London; a prodigious Advantage
that the French have had over us for thefe laft
Seven Years!

The Manner how, and the Particulars where-
in, are, I think, evidently demonstrated by the
following Table:


a -,,,

Page 4:

A TABLE, fhewing the principal Charges upon the Britijh SUGAR TRADE,
and the Advantages that may be gained or faved by the Liberty of a Direc
Exportation of Sugar from the Plantations in America to Foreign Markets:
And alfo chewing what the Sugar-Planters gain by the late Additional
Draw-back of 9 d. per C. on the Exportation of Sugar from Great Britain.

20 s. per C. in London, 30 s. per C. in London, 40 s. per C. in London,
A. or, or, or,
Si s. per C. in Barbadoes. 21 s. per C. in Barbadoes. 33 s. per C. in Barbadoes.
The federal Charges upon the Sterling Barbadoes Charges upon Sterl Barbadoes Charges upon Sterling Barbadoes Charges upon
Sugar Trade. per C. Money every I0oo. S g Money every ioo.. pe C Money every oo1.
er C. in Bariadoes. per C. per C. in Barbadoes. perC. in Barbados.
a. b. c. d. b. c. d. b. c. d.
s. d s. d. 1. d. s. d. s. d. 1. s. d. s. d. s. 1. s. d.
x. Port Charges In and Out o 1 i 211i 0o o o 1 2 5 13 3 o I I 2 3 3 13 4
2. Commiffion and Brokerage In and Out I o I 4 12 00 I 6 2 0 9 10 6 2 0 2 71 8 0 0
3. Waftage and Pilferage 0 2 o 2, 2 o0 o 3 0 4 I 1I 6 o 4 0 51 1 6 8
4. Rifque and Infura:ce 0 3 0 4 3 00 0 41 o 6 2 7 3 o 6 o 8 2 o o
5. Freight to the Ports 1o I 4 1. 0 0 I o 1I 4 6 6 o I 0 4 4 0 0
B. 3 4 4 5 40 o o 4 5 4 4 25 8 6 4 9 6 3 o
6. More Freight to diftant Ports o 1 4 12 0 0 i o 1 4 6 6 o0 o I 4 4 0 0
C. 4 5 9 52 o 5 o 6 81j3r 14 6 5 9 7 7123
7. Old Subfidy x 6 2 0 18 0 0 1 6 2 0 9 Io 6 1 6 2 0 6 o o
8. New Subfidy 1 6 2 0 8 o 00 6 2 o 9 1o 6 I 6 2 o 6 o c
9. One Third Subfidy o 6 o 8 6 oo o 6 o 8 3 3 6 o 6 o 8 2 0
3 6 4 8 42 o o 3 6 4 8 22 4 6 3 6 4 8 14 o o
C 41 per Cent. in Barbadoes and the)
10. -Leeward Iflands (but no; in o 4 6 o 6 4 io o o 8 0 o 1 4 1o o ; i 1 6 4 Io o
( 'amaica) 4 _________
per Cent. I I er Cent. per Cent.
New Additional Draw-back 0 9 0 o 9 0 0 o 9 1 o 4 15 3 o 9 1 0 3 0 0

The EXPLANATION of the above TABLE.
a. The several Articles of Charge and Lofs upon the Sugar Trade.
b. The Charge of every oo lb. Weight of Sugar, Sterling Money, upon the federal Articles
of Charge in Column (a.)
c. The Charge of every oo lb. Weight of Sugar in Barbadoes Money, upon the federal Ar-
ticles of Charge in Column (a.) without regarding the Fradions.
d. The Proportions of Lofs upon every oo 1. firft Coft or Value in Barbadoes upon the
several Articles in Column (a.)
A. The Value of Sugar in London and in Barbadoes, after deducing Freight Home, Duty,
and Port Charges.
B. The Coft or Difference upon carrying Sugars, firft to Great Britain, before they are
carried to Holland, or any other near Ports to Great Britain, allowing i s. Sterling
per C. Freight.
C. The Coit or Difference upon carrying Sugars, firft to Great Britain, before they are
carried to the Streights, or to any other distant Ports from Great Britain, allowing
2 s. per C. Sterling for Freight.

N. B. Every Charge in Column (d.) is calculated upon the Colt or Value in Barbadoes;
because the Planter is affected, in Proportion to his Firft Value or Net Pro-
ceeds, and not in Proportion to the Sale or Crofs Amount.

(5) ^/t?
It appears by the foregoing Table, that there
s faved to the Planter, or at leaft gained by
he Exporter, by the additional Drawback of
, d. per C. 9 per Cent. (but upon fuch Sugar
*nly as is exported, which of late Years has
ieen but a fmall Quantity) when Sugar fells at
,o s. per C. in London, which would be a
:onfiderable Advantage were that a living Price,
vhich in Truth it is not : But by a dired Ex-
ortation to any distant Ports from Great Bri-
ain, there may be faved to the Planter 52 per
"7ent. on the firit Coit, when Sugar fells at that
'rice, and 23 per Cent. when Sugar fells at
,.o s. per C. in London, and fo in proportion
,t 30 s. per C. or any other Price. And when
,ugars are exported to Ports nearer to Great
3ritain, there may be faved from 19 to 40o.
pon every i oo Colt or Value in the Plan-
I hall

4 (6)
I hall, in the next place, ihew how it will
fland with the Planter or Producer of Sugar, in
Cafe the Liberty of a direEt Exportation is
granted, and that 2 s. per C. upon Importation
into Great Britain, should be taken off.


-..5 :

A TA B L E, fhewing the Charges, and what may be fav'd upon the federal Articles mentioned in the forcgoimns
TABL E, in Cafe a Liberty be granted to carry SU cGA R from the Britifb Plantations to Foreign Ports ; and that
2 s. per C. Duty be taken off upon Importation into Great Britain ; with Reference to the aforefaid T A B L E.

20 s.per C. in London, 30 s. per C. in London, 40 s. per C. in L:'r.
or, or, or,
S1 s. per C. in Barbadoes. 21 s. per C. in Barbadoes. 33 s. per C. in Barbadoes.
trlarbadoes Chargi' Lpon Barbadoes Charges upon Bgarados Chargesupon
As to a diretI Exportation. Sterling Money oo. in Sterling Money oo. in Sterling one oo in
Sper C. Barbadoes. L per C. Barbadoes. per C. Barbados.
s,. s. d.d. 1. s. d. .d d. s. s. d. /, d.
r. Port-Charges In and Out -
2. Commiffion and Brokerage In and Out
3. Waftage and Pilferage -
4. Rifque and Infurance -
5. Freight to the Near Ports -
6. More Freight to the Streights -
Duty of 4 per C. in Barbadoes
o1. and the Leeward Iflands, (but 4- o6 410 o o 8 o I 4 10 o I I i 6 4 10
not in famaica) -

As to the Home Confilmption in
Great Britain. ,. s. d. d. ,, ,. s.

7. OldSubfidy, or New Subfidy 6 2 o 18 o o 6 2 o 9 Io 6 1 6 2 0 6 o o
8. The other Subfidy -
9. One Third Subfidy -
Io0 Duty of 4 t per Cent. 4 o 6 4 io 0 0 8 o0 4 10 0 I i 1 6 4 10 0

I i 2 6 22 io O 2 2i 2 I 14 o 6 j2 7- 3 6 io o o

Here it appears, that the Duties upon a di-
ref Exportation would be no more than four
and half per Cent. which is a Saving to the
Producer upon every i oo 1. according to the
abovc-mention'd Prices) from 2 3 1 to 5 2 1.
And as to what is confused in Great Bri-
tain, the Charge will be from iol. ios. to
z22. Ios. upon every ioo 1. firft Value, to
the Producer which, however, is lefs than
what is now paid by 8 /. to 24 1. upon every
100 1. according to the above-mention'd Pri-
ces: And I am informed, that the French pay
but 6 per Cent. upon the Grois Value upon Im-
portation, for what they confume, and the
'DiDtch but 3 per Cent. upon all Sugars con-
fumed in Holland.
And now having mentioned and explained
the fcvcral Charges and Incumbrances upon
the Sugar Trade, with their relpedive Propor-
tions, and let forth the Advantages which we
may gain by the late A,4 of Parliament, I
hall proceed to treat upon the following
Points, viz.
i f. The direct Exportation of Sugar from
his Majefty's Sugar Plantations in America
to all foreign Markets.
2dly, The Lowering the Duties paid upon
Importation of Sugar into Great Britain.
To which I hall add a few Words upon
the Duty of four and half per Cent. and the
Confumption of Rum in Great Britain and
Ireland; and fo conclude.
The great Benefits and Advantages of a direct
Exportation, the French, we know, have had

over us, ever fmnce the Year 1726, I think
should, in all this Time, have fhewn us the
Way: But we have not hitherto been fo happy
as to follow this Example of theirs, which en-
ables them to underfell us at all foreign Mar-
kets, and is enough to beat out any Competitor
in Trade: And this, in my Opinion, is one
of the principal Caufes why fo many of our
Planters are infenfibly run behind-hand and im-
poverifhed; and furely they cannot long fub-
fift with all their Induftry, unlefs they can be
eafed from fome of the before-mention'd Ten
Articles of Charge.
Sugar at 2o s. per C. in London, after paying
Freight Duty and Port Charges, will not make
the Planter above i i s. per C. Barbadoes Mo-
ney, which is not above 9 d. for a Shilling, in
proportion to what that Sugar cofis the Planter
before it is fhipt in the Plantations, without
reckoning any Intereft on the Value of his
Land ; as plainly appears by a Letter wrote in
this Ifland, and printed in London laft Year,
under the Title of, Propofals ofer'd for the
Sugar Planters Redrefs, and fbr Reviving the
Britith Sugar Commerce. So that if the addi-
tional Drawback and Bounty fall advance the
Sugar Trade a penny upon that 9 d. which is
above i per Cent. yet the Englijhman will
then get but Iod. for his Shilling, whilft the
Frenchman (who has fill 40 per Cent. Advan-
tage over the EngliJhman by the direct Expor-
tation) will get 14 d. for his Shilling, admit-
ting the Frenchman's Sugar to colt the fame
price in the Plantations as the F,.' ":'s,

and that they fell alike at foreign Markets.
Thus, whilft one is a Gainer of above i6 rer
Cent. upon the firft Coft of his Produce, the
other wants 20 per Cent. upon his Produce to
make up his prime Coft.
If it should be alleged, that Great Britain,
Ireland, and our Plantations will take off all
the Sugars the Englifh Plantations can make,
and at a Price that hall bear a moderate Pro-
fit; ftill, I fay, with this single Article of a di-
red Exportation, they will foon be able to
fupply all thofe Britifj Dominions, and have to
fpare for foreign Markets, to the Value of fome
hundred thousand Pounds Sterling per Ann.
which will all center in Great Britain for the
purchase of its Produce and Manufacaure, or
remain there to the Benefit of the national
Stock; whereas otherwise the French Nation
muft have the Sugar Trade in their own Hands,
and oblige us, in the End, to buy all our Su-
gars of them, with Cafh, as we formerly ufed
to do of the Portuguefe which will drain the
Britijh Nation of an immenfe Sum of Money,
to the great Benefit of a powerful Neighbour.
For as they not only fupply their own po-
pulous Kingdom of France, and all its Depen-
dencies, but alfo Spain, Italy, Turkey, Flan-
ders, Germany, and even Holland, with Sugar,
fuch a prodigious Vent mut in Confequence
daily enlarge their Plantations, and their Navy ;
and render them more formidable in this part
of the World, as well as in Europe.
But firely the Englihf would foon get the
better of there their encroaching Rivals, were
C ev

S- ( Io)
they but once put upon an equal Footing with
them; fince they have flood it fo long under
fo many Difadvantages.
For if any one Man can afford to fell his
Goods at foreign Markets, after paying 30, 40,
or 5 o per Cent. more than another, what could
not that Man do, were he eafed entirely from
that Charge? Would not fuch an extraordinary,
or I may fay, reasonable Encouragement in
fome Years near double the Acres of Cane-Land
of Britif4 American Soil, and confequently al-
moft double the Exports of Britijf Produce
and ManufaCture, take off an equal Propor-
tion of Irijh Produce more than they now do,
and be in like Manner beneficial to all the Nor-
thern Provinces ? Would not all this greatly
increase the Britiph Shipping and Navigation,
nurfe up and maintain more Seamen, improve
the Revenue to a much greater Degree, and
bring into and lodge an immense Treafure in
Great Britain ? Surely no one can deny it.
To explain all this, I will fuppofe there is
now, one Year with another, 75,0oo Hogfheads
of Sugar, containing io C. each imported into
Great Britain, Ireland, and the Northern Co-
lonies, from the following places, viz.


Mufcovado from Jamaica, of their 20,0
own Produce, -2
Mutfcovado from the Leeward Iflands,
of their own Produce, 27,000
Mufcovado and Clay'd from Bar-8
badoes, 8,000

65 j,OCO
Both Sorts from the French and
'Dutch, by way of 7amaica and o0,000o
the Leeward Ifl hands, -


This amounts to 7 5,000 Hogfheads; of which
I will fuppofe 5o,ooo to be confused in Great
Britain, o,o000 in Ireland, 5,000 in the Nor-
thern Colonies, 5,0oo (raw and refined) to be
exported from Great Britain to foreign Mar-
kets, and 5,000 to lye on our Hands.
If that 5,000 Hogfheads cannot be exported
for the many Reafons before-mention'd, then
there will be 0o,ooo lye on hand, unless fold
at a Price ruinous to the Planter.
But if the foreign Importation flops, by
means of this new A&, then no more than
5,ooo will lye on hand; which, however, is
enough to fpoil any Market.
A direH Exportation may forthwith carry
off there Surplus 5,000 Hogfheads, and perhaps
as many more another Way, and fo leave the
Producer and Confumer to do the beft they can,
C z together

.0 ( 12 )
together with the Help of the Merchants, Fac-
tors, Refiners, and Grocers, as middle Men be-
tween them; and Sugar may then rife a little,
which will encourage our Planters to cultivate
more Land, and purchase more Stock, until
they render themselves capable of making the
undermention'd Quantities, or more, viz.

Jamaica (Mufcovado and Clay'd) 60,000
Leeward Iflands(Mufcovado andClay'd)4o,ooo
Barbadoes (Mufcovado and Clay'd) 25,o0o


This is near Double what they make now;
and if no more than 60,000 Hogfheads fall
then be confumed in Great Britain and Ireland,
and 5,000 in the Northern Colonies, the other
6o,ooo may be fold at foreign Markets, and the
Produce thereof would come to Great Britain,
and would amount to 900,000o per Ann. at
15 1. per Hogjhead Grofs, one with another, or
30 s. per Hundred Weight in Europe.
"Now, should it be objected, that a direcE
Exportation forthwith might leave the Britifj
Markets too bare, and that the beft Way would
be to breath a little, and fee the Effec of this
new Law ; I would anfwer, that it may then be
too late, and that the higher the Price, the
sooner our Plantations would increase : But if
it should be alledged, that Sugar might rife to
an extravagant Heighth: To that I reply, that it

( 13 )
may be had from the foreign Colonies, upon
paying 5 s. Sterling per C. Duty in our Planta-
tions, and then you may carry it where you
will, without paying the four and half per Cent.
Duty, or the 8 d. per C. enumerated Duty ; fo
that there is no Fear of any fuch extravagant
In the mean time, while we are thus Breath-
ing, the French may be improving, fo as to
fupply all Europe, except Great Britain and
Ireland ; and what few Sugars will be then
made by the 'Dutch, Portuguefe, and Spani-
ards, and our Sugar Colonies muft, in the
End, as long as they laft, be confined to our
own Dominions.
It is to be observed, our Sugar Commerce
may be thus advanced without draining Great
Britain of more Hands than fhe can fpare,
fince the Labour in the Sugar Colonies is
chiefly carry'd on by Negroes from Africa,
(bought with Britilh Produce and Manufactures,
and Certificate Goods) and carried thither by
our own Shipping.
For what Reafon therefore should the French
be permitted thus to run away with this Trade
from us, who might fill get the Advantage
over them, by means of our low Freight and
otherwise, notwithstanding their low Duties and
rich Fertile Soil.
As Great Britain is an Ifland, and by Na-
tute fo well fitted for Navigation, why should
we tamely and indolently lofe a Branch of
Trade that may employ fo many hundreds of
Shipping, and fo many Thoufands of Seamen

S42 ( 14 )
And why should not the Englihman, for God's
Sake, have as near and as eafy a Way to carry
his Produce to foreign Markets as the French-
man fince he can, if permitted, carry them
much cheaper, and receive fo much Benefit by
fuch a Permiffion ?
Besides, there is not the leafft Appearance of
any one's being a Sufferer thereby, having a
few Gentlemen Fa&tors, Officers of the Cu-
fioms, and Brokers, dc. who after all will be
no Lofers in the End : And even in this Cafe
Great Britain muft have Sugar for her Home-
Confumption, and for Ireland, which may
amount to 60 or 70 thousand Hogfheads a
Year, or more, which muff all go thro' their
Hands, and pay Freight Home, and Duties 5 fo
that their Lofs will be only the Charges on the
Re-Exportation; and when there is little or no
Re-Exportation, (which mulf foon be the Cafe,
if we continue under our prefcnt Circumfran-
ces) there will be little or no Lofs.
Wharfage and Pilferage, Rifque and Infurance,
are dead Loffes upon this Trade, and the fe-
cond Freight the fame, when it runs fo high
on our Part, and is altogether faved by our
rival Neighbours; And the Lofs of Time and
the firft Market is often ruinous to many Voy-
ages, and generally gives a considerable Advan-
tage to thofe who are to happy as to get firft to
.',1.1 .
If any of our Planters should become Ad-
venturers, and fend part of their Sugar to Ca-
diz, Leghorn, Genoa, Naples, or any other
Port, they muft order their Returns to Great

( I) )3 /
Britain, and probably into their Facors Hands ;
whereby they, as well as the Officers of the
Cuftoms, Brokers, &-c. would gain as much as
they could poflibly lofe by fuch a dired Ex-
portation: And the like may be faid as to the
Merchant-Adventurer, who would thereby have
a Choice of Markets, and the Benefit of a
double Voyage, without being obliged to come
Home with his Returns to a glutted and re-
flrained Market.
The French were under the fame Reifraints
as we now are, until the Year 1726; when
difcovering the many Advantages of an exten-
five Vent of their Plantation Produas, they foon
obtained this Permifion.
The Refiners at Home would be great Gain-
crs by fuch a direct Exportation, as their coarfe
refined Sugar would then go off in Great Bri-
tain and Ireland, instead of fiuch Clay'd Su-
gars, as may be fent directly to thofe foreign
Ports; and thereby increase, rather than dimi-
nifh the Refining of Sugar, which will add to
the Quantity of Mellaffes Spirits, to the Benefit
of the Excife-Revenue. More Mufcovado Su-
gar will of course be imported into Great Bri-
tain, which will fill be a further Addition to
the Sugar Manufaaury, and employ more Ships
and Seamen in this Refpet alfo; and increase
the Revenue, by adding to the Duty upon Im-
portation, and leffening the Bounty granted upon
We hall thereby become the Carriers of
Goods from the Mediterranean to the Northern
Ports of Europe, as our Sugar Ships will then

w ^<^ ( x6 )
be able to afford to carry as cheap as the zDutch,
who will otherwise have the greatest Share of
that Branch of Trade, especially fince they are
now at Peace with the Algerines.
It is objected, that Refineries may be fet up
in Italy, and in the Plantations, and that there is
exported every Year to Spain, and other Ports
in the Mediterranean, Refin'd Sugar to the Va-
lue of twenty to thirty Thoufand Pounds Ster-
ling, which increases the Balance of Trade fo
much in our Favour. This laft Part of the Ob-
jetion I do not deny; but till I infift, that if
we have fuch a Liberty of Exportation grant-
ed us, there will be more than ten Times as
much gain'd upon the Balance of our Trade,
which muft otherwise center in Old France
as the French have Liberty to carry not only
their Clay'd Sugar, but alfo their Refin'd, di-
redly from their Plantations to any Port to
the Southward of Cape Finifterre, at very cafy
Duties; and then their belt Clay'd Sugar will,
no doubt, interfere with our wort Refin'd, and
they muft certainly be great Gainers thereby.
If it should be thought worth while to fet up
Refineries in Italy or elsewhere in the Streights,
it may as easily be done with French Sugar di-
retly imported, as with Englijh Produce ; and
every one knows, that Refin'd Sugar cannot be
made with fo much Advantage from Clay'd Su-
gar, as from f(rong grain'd Mufcovado : And as
the Plantations, who have their Sugar at the
firft Hand, and clear of Duty, Freight, and all
other Charges, but thofe of making it, do not
find it worth their while to Refine, but have

( 17 )
thcir Refin'd Sugar from Great Britain: So it
is to be prcfumed, that thofe Countries will not
find it for their Advantage to Refine ; more
cfpccially as they put but a fmall Value upon
Spirits that may be made from the Offals ; and
that there is lb considerable a Bounty now
granted upon the Exportation of Refin'd Sugar
from Great Britain.
But should the Obje&ion, as to Refining in
the Plantations, prove immovable, Refin'd Sugar
may be excepted.
Thus much concerning a direct Exporta-
tion of Sugar, and the firft fix Articles of
Charge, contained in the beforc-mention'd Ta-
bles. I hall, in the next place, touch upon the
7th, 8th, and 9th Articles of the faid Tables,
which make up the )Duty of 3 s. 6 d. per C.
paid in Great Britain upon Importation 3 but 5
per Cent. thereout is usually deducted upon
prompt Payment.
Thefe Articles concern more immediately
what Sugar is confumcd in Great Britain, as
the whole Duty by the A& before-mention'd is
now drawn back upon Re-Exportation, whereas
before 9 d. per C. being one half of the Old
Subfidy, was left behind.
The 7th Article being 18 d. per C. is Part of
the Old Subfidy, given by the i zth of Car. 2.
Chap. 4. for Guarding and Defending the Seas
against all Perfons intending, or that hall in-
tend the Difturbance of the Commons in the
Intercourfe of Trade, and Invading the Realm.
The 8th Article is alfo 18 d. per C. which by
the 9th and ioth of William the 3d. Chap. 23.
D was


was given towards the New Subfidies, for the
Support of his Majefly's Houfhold, and of the
H-onour and Dignity of the Crown.
The 9th Article being 6 d. per C. is Part of
the One Third Subfidy, which is a Fund of Cre-
dit, with others, for raising the Sum of
2, 85,761 I 6 s. 2 d. for the Scrvice of the
Year 1706. and alfo Part of a General Fund for
the Payment of I,I55,o000 borrow'd for the
Service of the Year 1707, and were part of the
Fund for the long Annuities for 99 Years.
Thcfe Duties amount, by the Table, to 42
per Cent. to the Planter, when Sugar is worth
in London 20 s. per C. and 14 per Cent. when
it is worth 40 s. per C. there; and fo in Pro-
portion, according to the federal Prices of that
As there Articles are now totally drawn back
on Exportation, they do not fo much affect the
Trade, as to what is Re-Exported, which is
now a very fall Quantity: But the other Char-
ges before treated of arc enough to prevent any
lhe-Exportation at all; as they enhance the
price of our Sigar at foreign Markets to a
grcat 'Degree, as appears by the foregoing Ta-
bles ; and when there is more Sugar imported
from the Sugar Iflands than is wanted in Great
Britain and Ireland, it will fill the Warehoufes,
and l!ut the Markets, and contfquently bring
thit Commodity down to a lower Price than it
can be made for, while thole Duties are paid,
and we are thus reitraincd : So that thcle high
Duties of 14 to 42 per Cent. lie the heavier up-
on the Planter, for want of fuch a direct Ex-

( 19)
portation: As we fee by Experience, thai our
home Markets, as to Sugars, are but little af-
fe&cd upon paying thcfe high Duties, (which is
quite different as to moft other Commoditics)
nor can they rife under fuch Circumftances, un-
til lefs Sugar be made in the Plantations;
whereby the BritifJ Stock and Power, in this
part of the World, muft dwindle and fall away,
to the great Prejudice of the Navigation and
Trade, and consequently of the Revenue and
Strength of Great Britain.
If we could be fo far commiferated as to
become Sharers of the great Benefits that arife
from the Sinking Fund, by having there Dutics,
or two of the Three Articles taken off, it
would greatly encourage the Plantations : That,
together with a direct Exportation, may make
us once more Maflers of the Sugar Trade.
The ioth and laft Article of Charge men-
tion'd in the Table, is that of the Duty offour
and half per Cent. paid only in Barbadoes, and
the Leeward Iflands, but not in jamaica. This
is but an inconfiderable Charge, in Proportion
to others mentioned in the firft Table : And yet
it is a heavy Burthen upon the Producers, con-
fidering the prefcnt Circumffanccs of the Plan-
ters, and the other Inhabitants ; as the Planters
pay it all, and that too upon the Gros Amount
of what they make: So that when the Chir-
ges of making their Produce come to Half
the Grofs Amount (which very often happens)
they pay 9per Cent. upon their yearly Profits:
And when they pay half thole yearly Profits to
D 2 their

S( 20 )
their Creditors, or for Annuities settled by their
Forefathers when thcv had better Times, then
that Duty comes to 18 per Cent. which is near
4 s. in the Pound upon their yearly Income
and the other Charges bcfore-mcntion'd upon
fuch a Producer are to be confidcr'd accord-
However, this Duty or Charge pays the Go-
vernors Salary, and is fubj;ecd to Ioo 1. Ster-
liu per i: to the Heir of the Earl of Car-
Ifle, the firft Proprietor of this Ifland, or to
his Afigns: It alfo pays the Surveyor-General
of his Majelty's Cuftoms in Barbadoes, and all
other Cuftom-houce Officers, who have the Care
of this Duty, and the enumerated Duties, and
of the Acds of Trade: And this Duty may.
morecover be greatly incrcaied by a direct Ex-
polrtalion, and be after afforded than it can be
without iuch a Vent.
I obferrve further, That the BritifJ Parlia-.
ment has favour'd us as to our second 3Stale
Commodity Rum, by imposing a higher Duty
on all brandies, than on that Commodity,
whicl gives us the comfortable Hopes that our
worthy Patriots at H11ome will be of Opinion,
that the Produce of our Su ar Colonies should
be anmeo as tenderly regarded as the Produce
of Gr-at Bretain ; and that Rum should be put
nearly upon the fame Foot with Britij/ Spi-
rits, and in OppoFition to French Brandy. A
pr'pi- Encouragement for the Importation of
r, ,' into Great Britain and Ireland would be
of a very great Help to the Plantations, and
ye rxV

( 21 ) *< 2q
very much difcourage the Confumption of
French Brandy, a Commodity that is as perni-
cious in every Degree as Rum is beneficial:
Such an Encouragement would put the Sugar
Planters upon their Induftry and Endeavours to
make a Spirit that might be wholfomer and
consequently more acceptable than thofe fo-
reign Spirits, for which we are annually at a
great Expence of Bullion. The Produce of
Rum would remain in Great Britain, or would
be returned to the Plantations in. Britihj Pro-
duce and Manufa6tures, and favee fo much Cafh
from being fent out of the Nation : And it is
obfervable, that within thefc few Years this
Ifland has improved in their Rum or Spirit to
a very great Degree; and it is allowed to be al-
ready not only a wholefome Liquor, and what
mixes well with Britipj Malt-Spirits ; but a
fovereign Remedy in many Cafes.
I hall now conclude with an Obfervation
of Sir Francis Bacon's, in treating upon 'Plan-
tations, he fays, Let there be Freedom from
Cultoms till the Plantations be of Strength;
and not only Freedom from Cufloms, but
Freedom to carry their Commodities where
they may make the beft of them, except
there be fome fpccial Caufe of Caution."
Every one knows our Sugar Plantations now
want Strength, or at left fome Remedy ; and
I know of no Caution needful in our Cafe,
except that of pursuing the fame Methods, as
to the Sugar Trade, as are now ufed in refpcce

to the Rice Trade from the Province of Ca-
rolina, and the Fzfh Trade from New-England
and Newfoundland: And I flatter myfelf, from
the Nature and Neceffity of the Thing, that I
may yet live to fee f Sugar an un-enumerated
Commodity, and no longer infected in our
Plantation Bonds.

A.7s relating to the Rice Trade. 3 & 4 Ann. ch. 5.
Seda. i2, 3 Geo. II. ch. 28. relating to the Sugar Trade. z Car. II. ch. 8.
Seat. 18, 19. 15 Car. II. ch. 7. Se6t. 5, 6, 9. 22z & 23
Car. II. ch. 26. Se&. to, ii, I2, 13. 25 Car. II. ch. 7.
Se&. 2. 7 & 8 Gul. III. ch. 2z. Sec. 2, 4, 5, 8, 13.
8 Ann, ch. 13. Sec. 23.



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