Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Organic farming opportunities
 Building a better peanut
 A+ peanut production
 Exceptional ag expos
 Helping the hungry in Haiti
 25 years and counting
 Wings for Florida 4-H
 DVD dispels orchid myth
 Fire ants meet their match
 New partnerships for growth management...
 Toward a sustainable Florida
 Designer genes for grass
 Stopping scale on sagos
 IFAS development news
 Back Cover

Title: Impact
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00044207/00017
 Material Information
Title: Impact
Uniform Title: Impact (Gainesville, Fla.)
Abbreviated Title: Impact (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Institute
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: [1984-
Frequency: three no. a year
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: IFAS, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Spring 1984-
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 2, no. 2 misnumbered as v. 2, no. 22.
General Note: Title from caption.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00044207
Volume ID: VID00017
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001107412
oclc - 10908183
notis - AFK3775
lccn - sn 84006294
issn - 0748-2353


This item has the following downloads:

00001 ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Organic farming opportunities
        Page 4
    Building a better peanut
        Page 5
        Page 6
    A+ peanut production
        Page 7
    Exceptional ag expos
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Helping the hungry in Haiti
        Page 10
    25 years and counting
        Page 11
    Wings for Florida 4-H
        Page 12
    DVD dispels orchid myth
        Page 13
    Fire ants meet their match
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    New partnerships for growth management issues
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Toward a sustainable Florida
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Designer genes for grass
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Stopping scale on sagos
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    IFAS development news
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Back Cover
        Page 44
Full Text

I' -




Many of the qualities that make Florida the
world's No. 1 tourist destination also make the
state ideal for some unwelcome visitors. Our
warm climate, thriving tourist industry and global
trade ports make Florida increasingly susceptible
to invasive plants, animals, pests and diseases. In
fact, Florida is probably more susceptible than any
other state in the nation.
Hundreds of invasive species-ranging from
Africanized bees, fire ants and Formosan termites
to diseases such as citrus canker and greening-
threaten Florida's economy, agriculture and envi-
ronment. In many cases, these biological invaders
also threaten the health and welfare of people.
The invasive species puzzle is big and complicat-
ed. For example, almost 2 million acres of Florida's
natural areas have become infested with nonna-
tive plants. Aggressive weeds cover pastures and
tree canopies while hydrilla clogs waterways and
destroys native biodiversity. Florida has more non-
native fish than any other state, and the intentional
or accidental release of iguanas, pythons and other
exotic creatures affects native species and alters
the natural environment. Mosquito-borne diseases
such as West Nile and Eastern Equine Encepha-
litis viruses threaten human and animal health.
Lurking offshore in Africa and the Caribbean are
diseases such as tick-borne heartwater that would
devastate the state's cattle and livestock industries.
Two bacterial diseases-citrus canker and citrus
greening-are major threats to Florida's $9.3 bil-
lion citrus industry, and the pathogens that cause
these diseases also have worldwide implications.
Scientists with UF's Institute of Food and Agricul-
tural Sciences (IFAS) are working with the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
and other citrus-producing countries to develop
technologies to manage these diseases, and we are
making progress in developing disease-resistant
citrus varieties.
IFAS is also performing a critical role in the bat-
tle against soybean rust, a destructive fungus that
threatens the nation's soybean industry. Florida's
warm winters provide an ideal environment for the
rust to survive on various weeds before the fungus
moves north into major soybean production areas.
Therefore, Florida is an important sentinel state
for predicting outbreaks elsewhere in the country,
and IFAS scientists are partnering with scientists
in major soybean-producing states to monitor
movement of the disease.
In another example of how invasive species can
disrupt the natural environment, the melaleuca

tree has infested more than a million acres in
South Florida, replacing native vegetation, de-
stroying wildlife habitat, affecting water flow and
creating fire hazards. IFAS research and extension
scientists have partnered with state and federal
agencies and private landowners to develop and
demonstrate effective biological controls for the
tree. The TAME Melaleuca project-short for The
Areawide Management and Evaluation of melaleu-
ca-is helping control this invasive tree that was
introduced from Australia about 100 years ago.
When it comes to insect pests, more than a
thousand have invaded the state, and one of the
most troublesome is the red imported fire ant,
which is the subject of the cover story in this issue
These stinging ants came from South America
to the United States in the 1930s and have spread
rapidly because their natural enemies were left
behind. Until recently, insecticides and baits were
the only way to manage the ant, but the pest is
now being controlled more effectively thanks to a
successful biological control research and demon-
stration project developed by USDA in cooperation
with the Florida agriculture department's Division
of Plant Industry and IFAS. The project is a prime
example of how IFAS is working with other state
and federal agencies to manage an onslaught of
invasive pests and emerging pathogens.
In addition to these efforts, IFAS faculty and
staff are working on other interdisciplinary re-
search and education programs to stop or manage
invasive species. Many graduate and undergradu-
ate courses offered by IFAS faculty address issues
related to biological invaders; information on these
issues is also available on the UF Extension Service
Web site: SolutionsForYourLife.com
IFAS is one of three main components in UF's
new Emerging Pathogens Institute, which received
funding from the 2006 Florida Legislature. By
fusing key disciplines, the Emerging Pathogens
Institute will develop research and educational
outreach capabilities to predict and control inva-
sive diseases, and preserve the health and economy
of the state.
As always, we hope you find interesting and
useful information in this issue of IMPACT. We
welcome your comments and suggestions for im-
proving the magazine.

Senior Vice President for
Agriculture and Natural Resources
at the University of Florida


IMPACT is published by the University
of Florida's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences and is pro-
duced by IFAS Communication
Services (Ashley M. Wood, director)
and IFAS External and Media
Relations (Jack Battenfield,

Senior Vice President
Agriculture and Natural Resources
Executive Associate Vice President
Dean for Extension
Dean for Research
Dean of the College of
Agricultural and Life Sciences
To change an address, request extra
copies of IMPACT, or to be added to
the mailing list, e-mail Chuck Woods
at cwoods@ufl.edu or write Chuck
Woods at PO Box 110275, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
IMPACT is available in alternative
formats. Visit our Web site:



















On the Cover
Accidentally introduced from South America in the 1930s, the red imported fire
ant (Solenopsis invicta) has spread across the southern United States, infesting
more than 320 million acres. New biological control measures are helping reduce
populations of these small and aggressive, stinging ants. FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE


Organic Farming


As organic food goes mass market
and revenues climb by almost 20 per-
cent each year, the demand for trained
professionals is also growing, prompt-
ing UF's College of Agricultural and
Life Sciences to launch a new academic
program that will help meet the needs
of producers and consumers.
The fall 2006 semester marked
the official launch of a science-based
organic agriculture undergraduate pro-
gram at UF, making it one of the first
three U.S. institutions to offer this
major. Colorado State University and
Washington State University started
similar programs last fall.
UF has offered a minor in organic
agriculture for the past year. Both the
major and minor programs are admin-
istered by the horticultural sciences

department, part of UF's Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Florida has a growing organic food
industry, but producers must look
beyond the state to find highly trained
personnel to manage their operations,
said Dan Cantliffe, chairman of the
horticultural sciences department.
"This (program) is something that's
been long overdue, especially for UF
and the United States," Cantliffe said.
"There's a big industry, a big demand
and a lack of people who are qualified
to do the work employers need:'
Organic agriculture is an approach
to food production that involves lit-
tle or no use of synthetic chemi-
cal fertilizer and pesticide. The U.S.
Department of Agriculture has estab-
lished strict guidelines for certifying
organic farmers.

In 2005, organic foods accounted for
$13.8 billion in U.S. consumer sales,
about 2.5 percent of total U.S. food
sales, according to a manufacturers'
survey commissioned by the Organic
Trade Association, a leading indus-
try organization. Since 1998, revenues
from U.S. consumer sales of organic
foods have risen by an average of more
than 18 percent per year.
And it's not just consumers who are
interested in organic food, Cantliffe
said. The UF major and minor pro-
grams were developed partly in
response to ongoing student demand.
"Another big factor was that we have
faculty and facilities that are suitable
for teaching this material," he said.
"As the demand and the curriculum
develop, we may expand the program.
Five students have enrolled in the
undergraduate program, and many
others have expressed interest, said
Melissa Webb, academic support ser-
vices coordinator for the horticultural
sciences department.
"We think a lot more (students) will
come out of the woodwork," Webb said.
"There's no set cap on enrollment, so
the more, the merrier."
About one dozen students are
enrolled in the minor program,
she said.
The undergraduate program will
focus on training students to manage
an organic farming unit, said Mickie
Swisher, director of UF's Center for
Organic Agriculture.
"This gives you the skills and tech-
nical knowledge where if you needed
to put 2,000 acres of organic crops
into production, you could do it," said

Rachel Ben-Avraham, left, a student in UF's College of Agricultural and
Life Sciences, examines an organically grown bell pepperwith Dan
Cantliffe. Ben-Avraham, a Tampa resident, is enrolled in UF's new organic
agriculture undergraduate program. PHOTO BYTHOMAS WRIGHT

Swisher, a UF associate professor of
family, youth and community sciences.
The program requires 120 credit
hours, most of them in science courses
including chemistry, botany, genetics,
entomology and soil science, capped
off by several production agriculture
One required class, Principles of
Organic and Sustainable Production,
was devised specifically for the pro-
gram; another, Alternative Cropping

Systems, was modified to put greater
emphasis on organic agriculture.
The minor program requires the sus-
tainable production and alternative
cropping classes, plus at least three
credits of electives on each of three
subjects-crop production, pest man-
agement and resource management.
Swisher helped organize a com-
mittee that developed the minor pro-
gram over a six-month period in 2004.
Launched in fall 2005, the minor is

considered interdisciplinary and is also
headquartered in the horticultural sci-
ences department. E TOM NORDLIE
DAN CANTLIFFE (352) 392-1928
REBECCA DARNELL (352) 392-1928
MICKIE SWISHER (352) 392-2201
MELISSAWEBB (352) 392-4711



Peanut allergies are the most common and often the most
severe of all food allergies, but now researchers from UF's
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences have taken an
important first step toward creating a nonallergenic peanut.
They have found that one of the allergenic proteins in
peanuts is sometimes produced with a portion missing-
resulting in a form that apparently doesn't trigger a bad
reaction by human immune systems.
"If we can breed or create a peanut where all the aller-
genic proteins are in forms that are as benign as this one,
that would be a big step for making life much easier for the
millions of people who are sensitive-sometimes deathly
so-to a substance that the rest of us like to eat so much that
it's virtually everywhere," said Maria Gallo, a plant molecu-
lar biologist who conducted the research with her graduate
student, Il-Ho Kang. Their work has been published online
by the journal Plant Science and will appear in an upcoming
print issue of the publication.
Peanuts are known for being loaded with protein, but
over the years scientists have reported about 20 types of pro-
tein molecules that seem to trigger an overblown immune
response in those with peanut sensitivities. The three that
cause the most problems are dubbed Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and
Ara h 3.
The latter, however, sometimes shows up in a form
that's slightly different than that found in most peanuts.
This altered protein has been named Ara h 3-im. The UF

Maria Gallo, left, examines a test tube-grown peanut seed ling held by
postdoctoral research associate Victoria James. Gallo is investigating a
naturally occurringvariation in a peanut protein that may bea first step
toward an allergy-free peanut. PHOTO BY SALLY LANIGAN

researchers extracted peanut proteins and exposed them to
blood drawn from two people who are allergic to peanuts
and one who isn't.
The normal form of the protein triggered a severe reaction
in the samples from the allergenic patients, but Ara h 3-im
produced no reaction-showing that the patients' immune
defenses didn't recognize this altered protein.
As promising as this sounds, the future of an allergen-free
peanut is far from certain.
"This seems great, but we need to go through and try this
out with samples from a lot more than just three people to
see that this lack of response is true for everyone," Gallo
said. "Some might just have less of a response, and-who
knows?-there is a possibility that sometimes this might just
get the same response as the normal allergen."
The next step would be trying to find or create other
stand-ins for the usual suspects of peanut allergens. If that
were accomplished, then they would all have to be put
together to produce a peanut plant that would replace those
used by peanut farmers today.
"Don't look for this to be something that you'll see in
the next 20 years or so," said Peggy Ozias-Akins, a peanut

genome researcher at the University of Georgia. "There's a
lot of genetics groundwork that we still have to lay before we
even know if something like this can be done.
"However, it opens up an opportunity. And, more impor-
tantly, it tells us a lot about food allergies," she said. And
that knowledge is not limited to peanuts. "Similar structures
could be found in soybeans-which would be the most likely
plant-but also in tree nuts and a lot of other foods."
In the end, building a better peanut might not need to be
the ultimate goal. Understanding why the human immune
system doesn't overreact to this particular form of protein
could play a vital role in other efforts to protect those with
peanut sensitivities, such as efforts to create a peanut
allergy vaccine.
"There are many dedicated scientists out there work-
ing on this, and technology is making our jobs easier," Gallo
said. "We'll figure out how to produce an even healthier
peanut." U STU HUTSON


(352) 273-8124

A+ Peanut Production

Thrpp npwr ppanuit varieties have
1rr i -. l 1 I1.. IF Institute of
F..... I .1.. I i.. ,. l 1 Sciences, and
i- -.II I.- I... ri will give the
S.1 I........ i .._ .- .)rgia Green pea-
nut some hearty competition.
The new peanuts, including two
named for former university admin-
istrators, were introduced in August
2006 at UF's annual Peanut Field Day
in Marianna. Created through tradi-
tional breeding, the new varieties have
been in the works about a decade, said
Dan Gorbet, a professor of agronomy
at UF's North Florida Research and
Education Center in Marianna.
The York variety, named for former
State University System Chancellor
E.T. York, has strong resistance to
tomato spotted wilt virus-the No. 1
peanut disease facing growers in the
Southeast during the past 10 years.
The peanut is also high in healthy oils
and has a long shelf life. The McCloud
variety, named for the late UF agron-
omy department chairman Darrell
McCloud, shares similar traits.
The third new variety, Florida-07,
also has strong resistance to the dis-
ease, is high in healthy oils and has a
long shelf life, said Gorbet, who has
been breeding new peanut varieties
since 1970.
"It's the first peanut ever produced
by Florida that made 7,000 pounds
an acre in tests in both Marianna and
Gainesville," he said. "We've never had
the same peanut make 7,000 pounds

an acre-we've had it happen here and
there, but never twice in (the) same
season at two sites."
UF breeders released high oleic
acid peanuts-the healthy kind that
help lower cholesterol-in 1995 and
1997, Gorbet said. But those variet-
ies couldn't stand up to tomato spotted
wilt virus like the new ones.
"We're just now getting plant mate-
rial out that has good resistance to that
virus," he said. "Compared with the
many peanut varieties UF has issued
over the years, these stack up really
well-they should give the market-
dominant Georgia Green peanut a run
for its money because the new ones
are higher in heart-healthy oils with
better pod/seed yields:'
The Florunner, introduced in 1969
by Al Norden, a UF professor of agron-
omy, dominated the market for two
decades before it became susceptible to
tomato spotted wilt virus, Gorbet said.
The peanut breeders named the two
varieties for the former UF administra-
tors because of their work to advance
agriculture, he said, and because they
both had focused on improving peanut
York, chancellor emeritus of
Florida's public university system, was
UF's provost for agriculture, vice pres-
ident for agricultural affairs, executive
vice president and interim president.
In 1964, he organized UF's Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
bringing the College of Agricultural

and Life Sciences, the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station and
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
under one umbrella.
He's been an adviser to six U.S.
presidents and traveled the globe to
lend agricultural assistance in Latin
America, Asia and Africa.
But lesser known is that York began
his career as a North Carolina State
University agronomist, and his first
assignment: figuring out how to boost
what were then stagnant peanut-
crop yields.
He did so, and eventually penned a
chapter for the textbook The Peanut:
The Unpredictable Legume. And while
the title seemed apt at the time, after
exhaustive research on peanut produc-
tion, he realized that farmers who fol-
lowed a complete package of recom-
mended techniques enjoyed much
higher crop yields than those who
York said having a peanut named for
him is "quite an honor," though he said
it's sure to earn him some ribbing.
"I'll be kidded a lot about it, but
that's all right," he said, before grin-
ning and making a joke of his own. "It
makes sense, since I've been working
for peanuts for all these years." U
DAN GORBET (850) 482-9956

(Opposite) Dan Gorbet, who has been breeding new peanutvarieties at UF's North Florida Research and Education Center in Marianna since 1970, holds the
new Florida-07 peanut,which has strong resistance to tomato spotted wiltvirus, is high in healthy oils and has a long shelf life. PHOTO BYJOSH WICKHAM

IMPACT I Spring2007



More than 800 people attended the first-ever Florida Ag Expo at
UF's Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in December 2006,
and UF now has a permanent exhibit building at the Sunbelt Ag
Expo in Georgia-billed as the world's largest farm show.

"At the first-ever Florida Ag Expo, the turnout far ex-
ceeded our expectations, and we received many positive
comments from growers and vendors who participated in
the vegetable production seminar, field demonstration and
trade show event," said Jack Rechcigl, director of UF's Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center in Balm. "Based upon
this response, we plan to host the event annually."
The Dec. 8-9 exposition was presented under the aegis
of UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences in
cooperation with the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Associa-
tion (FFVA), the Florida Tomato Committee, the Florida
Strawberry Growers Association and Florida Grower
Rechcigl, who coordinated the event, said educational
programs at the expo focused on a wide range of issues fac-
ing the state's fruit and vegetable industry, including food
safety, changing state and federal regulations, and exemp-
tions from the Environmental Protection Agency for the

continued use of the effective methyl bromide soil fumigant.
Best management practices for vegetable production, irri-
gation, fertilizer, and pest and disease control were also dis-
cussed in seminars.
Craig Chandler, a professor of horticultural sciences at
the Gulf Coast center, presented results from field trials of
new strawberry varieties, and Jay Scott, a professor of hor-
ticultural sciences, showed results from field trials of new
tomato varieties.
Rechcigl said one of the highlights of the expo was the
demonstration of new, affordable housing for migrant farm
workers. "The prototype housing, commissioned by the U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development, is the
result of two years of work by Florida producers and others
to develop quality, cost-effective housing that can withstand
Category 4 hurricanes," he said.
He said the idea for the expo came from FFVA Chairman
Jay Taylor and former FFVA Chairman Tony DiMare, who
both serve on the UF center's advisory committee. "After
discussing the idea with Jimmy Cheek, UF's senior vice pres-
ident for agriculture and natural resources, we decided it
would be a useful event to have at the center-something
that would be different from a traditional field day, incorpo-
rating a variety of educational programs as well as field dem-
onstrations and vendor booths."
The 2007 Florida Ag Expo will be held December 6-7 at
the Gulf Coast center.

One of the highlights of the Florida Ag Expo was the
demonstration of affordable housing for migrant farm
workers. Among those who inspected the housingwere,
from left, Jack Rechcigl; Charles Bronson, commissioner
ofthe Florida DepartmentofAgricultureand Consumer
Services; Inez Banks-DuBose, directorof the U.S.
Department of Housingand Urban Development; Jimmy
Cheek and Jay Taylor. PHOTO BY IAN MAGUIRE

Sunbelt Ag Expo
The annual Sunbelt Agricultural Exposition in Moultrie,
Ga. now includes a new exhibit building for the UF's
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Featuring more
than 20 displays highlighting research and education pro-
grams, the building was dedicated during the October
2006 event.
Cheek said the Sunbelt Ag Expo is the premier farm show
in the world, and UF will have a permanent presence at the
annual event. The three-day show features more than 1,200
exhibits and attracts more than 200,000 visitors.
"The Sunbelt Ag Expo emphasizes information, education
and implementation of the latest agricultural technology,
research and equipment-providing an important venue for
showcasing our teaching, research and extension programs,"
Cheek said.
Wayne Smith, Pete Vergot, Liz Felter, Charlotte Emerson
and a team of other UF faculty and staff coordinated the
installation of the IFAS displays at the facility in Moultrie.
Smith is a professor and director emeritus of the School of
Forest Resources and Conservation in Gainesville; Vergot is
an extension district director at the North Florida Research
and Education Center in Quincy; Felter is an extension
agent with statewide marketing responsibilities at Mid-
Florida Research and Education Center in Apopka; and
Emerson is director of recruitment and alumni services for
the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS)
in Gainesville.
Smith, who leads the team, said the Sunbelt Ag Expo dis-
plays-which focus on managing and protecting water
resources-include information on programs to improve
water quality in the 505,000-acre Everglades Agricultural
Area, implement best management practices (BMPs) in the
Suwannee River Basin, maintain forests as healthy water-
sheds, use reclaimed water from urban areas on agricultural
crops, control irrigation systems with soil moisture sensors,
grow crops with computer-controlled hydroponic systems
and control aquatic weeds.
Other displays provide information on UF's state-
wide Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) and
AgClimate, a climate information system for the southeast-
ern United States. Smith said both services are important for
today's precision agriculture.

UF's new exhibit buildingat the SunbeltAg Expo
was opened Oct. 17, 2006 in ceremonies led by
Jimmy Cheek, far right. Others participating in the
ceremonies were, from left, Dale Bennett, UFWakulla
County extension director; PeteVergot; Chip Blalock,
executive director of the SunbeltAg Expo; Charlotte
Emerson and Wayne Smith. PHOTO BYJOSH WICKHAM

Felter said an important feature of the display is the UF
Extension Service's new Web site-SolutionsForYourLife.
com-that provides instant access to the vast array of use-
ful information from statewide IFAS teaching, research
and extension programs. The consumer-oriented Web site
includes information on UF's Master Gardener Program,
Florida Yards and Neighborhoods, BMPs for nurser-
ies and turf, small farms and alternative enterprises, 4-
H youth development, and the "Family Album Radio" and
"Gardening in a Minute" radio programs.
Emerson said the CALS display showcases the college as a
national educational leader in the areas of pre-professional
training, food, agriculture, natural resources and the life
sciences. "The display also shows how the many curricula
available to CALS students are taught and advised by a dis-
tinguished faculty who are recognized nationally and inter-
nationally for their teaching, research and extension exper-
tise," she said. "As a college known for its student-centered
focus, CALS prides itself on educating society-ready
graduates." CHUCK WOODS
JIMMY CHEEK (352) 392-1971






(352) 392-1963
(407) 884-2034
(813) 633-4111
(352) 846-0867
(850) 875-7137

In Haiti, where malnutrition is com-
mon, the diets of many young children
are now healthier thanks to a low-
cost source of protein developed by a
University of Florida animal scientist.
Sally Williams, an associate profes-
sor with UF's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, has created a
turkey sausage that's being used in a
charity feeding program for infants
and toddlers in villages near Jeremie,
a city of almost 100,000 in the south-
west area of the Caribbean nation.
"Children in Jeremie get very little
protein in their diets, and what they
get comes mainly from rice and beans
and polenta," Williams said. "They
don't get a meat source."
Animal protein helps children avoid
a malnutrition-linked illness called
kwashiorkor and other health prob-
lems common in Haiti, she said.

Children under 5 years of age com-
prise about 15 percent of Jeremie's
population; malnutrition affects 30
percent of them.
Every three months, Williams over-
sees production of about 200 to 300
pounds of the sausage at UF's animal
sciences department; the sausage is
canned in Jacksonville at the Duval
County Extension Canning Center.
UF personnel began sending the ship-
ments in July 2005; funding comes
from a three-year U.S. Department of
Agriculture grant.
When the sausage arrives, it's sliced
into 2-ounce portions and used to feed
children ages 6 months to 3 years, as
part of a feeding program operated by
the Haitian Health Foundation, a
volunteer organization based in
Norwich, Conn.
Comprised of 83 percent mechan-
ically separated tur-
key and 17 percent soy
protein and season-
ings, the sausage offers
a nutritional profile that
includes 15 percent pro-
tein and 18.5 percent fat,
Williams said. The ingre-
dients are put into cas-
ings about 3 inches in
diameter and cooked.
The finished product
is cut into 1.5 pound
portions before being
packed in water and
canned. Sliced, the
sausage resembles bolo-
gna and has a mild tur-
key flavor.

Noufoh Djeri, left, a graduate
student in UF's animal sciences
department, checks the quality
ofa turkey sausage with Sally

This spring, the program will take a
giant step forward as production of the
sausage moves from Florida to a meat
processing facility in West Virginia.
The plant, owned by UF Putnam
County Extension Director Edsel
Redden and his brother, will manu-
facture and can the sausage free of
charge. The goal is to boost output to
about 4 tons per month to feed 2,700
children. Redden has been involved in
Haitian relief efforts since 1989 and
visits the country about six times per
UF is pursuing related projects to
improve nutrition, agriculture and
education in Haiti, said St. Johns
County Extension Director David
Dinkins, who helps Redden oversee
the program. North Carolina State
University is also involved in the work.
"The turkey sausage is an immedi-
ate measure where we can go in and
feed people," said Dinkins, based in St.
Augustine. "It's very important, but it's
an interim solution. Ideally, we'd like
to get Haitian farmers producing more
of their own protein foods."
In addition to developing turkey
sausage, UF faculty are assisting with
an aquaculture project that produces
tilapia fish to feed children in Gressier,
a community in southern Haiti. With
local assistance, Dinkins and Redden
have established 16 concrete ponds
that yield a total of 1,100 to 1,200 fish
per week. Each fish contains 4.5 to 5
ounces of edible product.




(904) 209-0430
(386) 329-0318
(352) 392-2993

25 Years and Counting

The University of Florida and The Nature Conservancy
recently celebrated 25 years of research and education at
the Katharine Ordway Preserve and Carl Swisher Memorial
Sanctuary in Putnam County.
The November 4, 2006 event also marked the upcom-
ing gift of the 3,000-acre sanctuary from The Nature
Conservancy to the University of Florida Foundation and
naming the combined facilities as the Ordway-Swisher
Biological Station.
Approximately 100 guests attended the event by invitation
of UF President Bernie Machen and Victoria Tschinkel, state
director of the conservation organization in Orlando.
Machen said UF research, education and conservation pro-
grams at the sanctuary have benefited from a long relation-
ship with The Nature Conservancy, which he described as
one of the world's leading conservation organizations work-
ing to protect ecologically important lands and water.
He said the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station, which is
managed by the wildlife ecology and conservation depart-
ment in UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, is a
biological field station established for the study and conserva-
tion of unique ecosystems.
"The celebration turns a new page in the relationship
between UF and The Nature Conservancy," Machen said. "We
are looking forward to a close partnership that pairs environ-
mental conservation with education, research and outreach."
Tschinkel said, "We see this as an enhancement to our
partnership that will bolster the Ordway-Swisher Biological
Station as a research area and tool for the University of
Florida science program. This will also allow us all to manage
this beautiful and important place more efficiently
and effectively."
John Hayes, chairman of UF's wildlife ecology and con-
servation department, said the property is a mosaic of wet-
lands and uplands that includes sandhills, hammocks, upland
mixed forests, swamps, marshes and lakes. A variety of fauna
inhabit the station, including a number of state and federally
listed species.
"The station's research program focuses primarily on sup-
porting research and education activities for UF students
and faculty," Hayes said. "The station's education program
includes workshops on environmental stewardship and train-
ing in conducting prescribed fires. Other universities and col-
leges, along with state and federal agencies, also utilize the
station for research and education.
The Swisher family of Jacksonville bought the land in
the 1930s and used the tract for 50 years as a private hunt-

John Hayes takes notes on someof the unique
environmental features atthe Ordway-Swisher
Biological Station near Melrose in Putnam County.

ing and fishing preserve. In 1979, the Swisher Foundation
approached The Nature Conservancy for assistance in estab-
lishing a wildlife sanctuary as a monument to the late tobacco
industrialist, Carl Swisher. Two tracts of land, totaling 3,000
acres of wetlands and prairies, were donated to The Nature
Conservancy, and the acreage was named the Carl Swisher
Memorial Sanctuary.
In early 1980, the Goodhill Foundation awarded a grant
to the UF Foundation to purchase 6,100 acres of upland
high-pine sandhills from the Swisher Foundation. The acre-
age was preserved in the name of Katharine Ordway, the 3M
Corporation heiress who founded Goodhill. At the same time,
The Nature Conservancy agreed to lease the Carl Swisher
Memorial Sanctuary to the UF Foundation, and both orga-
nizations signed a joint stewardship agreement for the com-
bined properties.
The Goodhill Foundation also established an endowment
administered by the UF Foundation for the management and
protection of both the Katharine Ordway Preserve and Carl
Swisher Memorial Sanctuary. UF was designated as the man-
aging body for both properties. In order to more clearly iden-
tify the use and management of the properties, the UF Board
of Trustees named them the Ordway-Swisher Biological
Station earlier this year. E CHUCK WOODS
JOHN HAYES (352) 846-0552


While some people may associate
the 4-H Youth Development Program
with agriculture and livestock, the pro-
gram also includes other exciting
projects such as communications,
leadership, citizenship, and science
and technology.
And when it comes to science and
technology, one of the most interest-
ing and popular programs is Project
Butterfly WINGS-an interactive
project that helps young people
engage in the scientific method of
data collection.
WINGS-short for Winning
Investigative Network for Great
Science-allows 4-H youth in fourth
through eighth grades to design proj-
ects to collect information about but-
terflies in their areas and share it
online, said Marilyn Martin, direc-
tor of Project Butterfly WINGS at the
Florida Museum of Natural History
on the UF campus. The project inte-
grates 4-H life skills, such as decision
making and problem solving, through
experiential and cooperative science
"The youth don't need to have pre-
vious knowledge about butterflies to
participate, they just need to have an

interest in them," she said. "The fun
and easy activities provide a quick way
to transform them from a beginner to
an engaged citizen scientist. Citizen
science means that the youth par-
ticipants contribute to the scientific
knowledge base during the program."
After they observe the butter-
flies, the youth enter their data into
an interactive WINGS Web site.
Scientists and the public will be able
to use this information to further sci-
entific knowledge and view trends in
butterfly populations.
"Young people come away from this
project feeling like they are truly con-
tributing to science," Martin said.
The program's main goals include:
involving adolescents in the genera-
tion of knowledge about science, par-
ticularly scientific insights into but-
terfly distributions provided by data
collected; helping youth partici-
pants gain knowledge and life skills
in decision making, problem solv-
ing and critical thinking; and collect-
ing butterfly data that will be used by
research scientists to increase scien-
tific knowledge.
"We have developed a great part-
nership with the Florida Museum of
Natural History to
offer the WINGS
project to our
4-H'ers," said
Marilyn Norman,
state 4-H leader
and associate dean
of UF's statewide
Extension Service.
"It makes sci-
ence a fun experi-
ence for youth

and gives them skills that they will use
into adulthood"'
Martin said the WINGS project is
delivered through leaders to youth in
4-H clubs and groups. "The WINGS
program follows a train-the-trainer
model," she said. "4-H agents and lead-
ers participate in workshops designed
to help guide youth through the expe-
riential science learning, and then
they are able to go out and train the
youth themselves."
In Miami-Dade County, workshops
were conducted recently with 19 par-
ticipants for the second WINGS proj-
ect. "All of the participants stated
that they increased their scientific
inquiry skills by working on this proj-
ect," Martin said. "Youth even took
their interest in WINGS outside of
the workshops for 54 butterfly-related
fair projects this year, including the
creation of a butterfly quilt that was
donated to the Florida museum.
WINGS began in the summer of
2004, and it is expanding its pilot
testing to other 4-H groups in the
state and the southeastern United
States. Funded in part by the National
Science Foundation, WINGS is being
developed collaboratively by UF's
Florida Museum of Natural History
and the wildlife ecology and conser-
vation department. The Florida 4-H
Youth Development program is admin-
istered by the Extension Service,
which is part of UF's Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences. U LAURA LOK
MARILYN NORMAN (352) 846-0996
MARILYN MARTIN (352) 846-2000

Youth from Alachua County support programs such as theWINGS project
and become "citizen scientists" as they monitor butterflies and enter their
sighting data on the WINGS Web site: www.flmnh.ufl.edu/
education/cise/wings.htm PHOTO BY JOSH WICKHAM


Growing orchids just got easier, thanks to a new University
of Florida DVD that provides a complete guide to producing
"the world's most beautiful flowers."
"Growing Orchids: Easier Than You Think," featuring two
orchid experts at UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, includes interviews and hands-on demonstrations.
The disk also has information on selecting appropriate con-
tainers, plant media, fertilizers, watering requirements and
other tips. Total running time of the DVD is 54 minutes,
with a 21-minute segment on easy-to-grow orchid varieties
and a 33-minute guide for growers.
The DVD, which dispels the myth that orchids are difficult
to grow, was recorded on location at the American Orchid
Society Visitors Center and Botanical Garden in Delray
Beach, Fla.
"Once just a hobby for those with the time, money and
patience to care for exotic plants, orchids are now the fast-
est growing segment of the nation's $13 billion floricul-
ture industry, and Florida's warm, humid climate is ideal for
these flowering plants," said Tom Sheehan, a professor emer-
itus in UF's environmental horticulture department and one
of the nation's leading orchid experts.
When a few basic cultural requirements are met, growing
orchids in the home environment can be a rewarding expe-
rience, he said. The species and hybrids of six orchid gen-
era are the most popular because they're easy to grow and
produce beautiful flowers: Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium, Vanda,
Cattleya, Oncidium and Epidendrum.
When it comes to habitat, orchids can be terrestrial, epi-
phytic (those that grow on other plants) or lithophytic
(those that grow on rocks). The habitat dictates the type of
growing medium to be used, Sheehan said.
Over the past few decades, the popularity of orchids has
increased dramatically, thanks to new and improved culti-
vation and propagation techniques that allow commercial
growers to produce large numbers of plants at affordable
prices for the consumer, he said.
No longer a luxury item, orchids can be purchased at
prices comparable to other potted flowering plants, Sheehan
said. With more than 25,000 identified species and 120,000
registered hybrids, they are the largest group of flower-
ing plants.
While orchids are common in the tropics, they also grow
wild under different climatic conditions on every conti-
nent except Antarctica. In the United States, orchid species
are native to every state-including Alaska, where "arctic
orchids" have been identified.

Tom Sheehan, left, and Bob Black examine
vandaceous orchids in Black's greenhouse near
Gainesville. Sheehan and Blackare active in the
Gainesville Orchid Society and the American

"Often described as the most beautiful flowers in the
world, orchids have a distinct and undeniable mystique,"
Sheehan said. "Beauty alone cannot explain our fascination
with these flowers. When it comes to variety, complexity and
elegance, orchid plants are unlike any other."
Sheehan, who appears on the DVD with Bob Black,
another professor emeritus in the UF environmental horti-
culture department, said orchids-next to poinsettias-are
now the leading potted flowering plant produced in Florida,
generating more than $23 million in annual farm sales.
UF orchid research dates back to 1957 when Sheehan
began studying proper fertilization methods for using bark
as an orchid growing medium. He also began using tissue
culture to multiply clonal varieties and tested foliar applica-
tion of fertilizer on orchids. He remains active in national
and international organizations and orchid societies.
"Orchid mania" has spawned hundreds of orchid societ-
ies across the nation. In South Florida alone, more than 20
societies meet every month, Sheehan said. The American
Orchid Society has nearly 20,000 members nationwide, and
there are orchid shows throughout the year, including the
world famous Miami International Orchid Show sponsored
by the South Florida Orchid Society.
The DVD can be purchased for $25.00 (plus tax, shipping
and handling) from the IFAS Extension Bookstore at
ifasbooks.com. For more information, call (352) 392-1764 or
(800) 226-1764.
Sheehan and Black are also the authors of a new book,
Orchids to Know and Grow, that will be released later this year
by the University of Florida Press. E CHUCK WOODS
BOB BLACK (352) 335-7152
TOM SHEEHAN (352) 376-9673



S.,by Chuck Woods

With damage and control costs exceeding $6 billion a year, the red imported
fire ant is one of the most troublesome pests in the southern United States. The
aggressive, stinging ants-accidentally introduced from South America to the U.S.
in the 1930s-have spread rapidly because their natural enemies were left behind.
Until recently, insecticides and baits were the only way to manage the ant, but
the pest is now being controlled more effectively thanks to a successful biological
control research and demonstration project developed by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service in cooperation with the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and UF's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences. The project, which received a top USDA national award in
March 2007, is a prime example of how UF is working with other state and federal
agencies to manage an onslaught of invasive pests and emerging pathogens.

it -..r -ih. r onor a scene
frjii, 1 I ........I [n this real-life
drji, I ii llI.. ...t r.i yflies that decap-
itat- rl-. ,r,-l-r.. IM- being released
I1. F .... II., .., I,-i to help stop an
invasion of fire ants across the south-
ern United States.
The decapitating flies-along with
pathogens that infect fire ants-
are some of the biological control
tools being used to help win the fight
against a costly pest that now infests
more than 320 million acres in 12
southeastern states and Puerto Rico.
The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis
invicta), which has spread to New

Mexico and California, is also invad-
ing Australia, China and New Zealand.
Florida's balmy climate, like that of
other southern states, is ideal for the
South American invader that entered
the port of Mobile, Ala., more than 70
years ago.
"In South America, the fire ant pop-
ulation is only about 20 percent of
what it is in the U.S. because their
natural enemies are not here," said
Phil Koehler, a professor of entomol-
ogy with UF's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences. "Over the past
30 years, fire ants have become very
troublesome because of their large

(Opposite) Robert Vander Meer, left, and Phil Koehler examine activity in a fire ant colony in Gainesville.
Vander Meer said the fire ant research and demonstration project is an excellent example of cooperation
and technology transfer between the USDAand the State of Florida that benefits all 12 fire ant-infested
(Right) When disturbed, fire ants viciously defend their nests, crawlingon intruders and repeatedly
stinging them. White pustule forms on the site ofthe sting, which usually heals in abouttwoweeks.
The sting can be fatal for people allergicto fire antvenom. USDA PHOTO

IMPACT I Spring 2007 15



(Left) A decapitating phorid fly-less than one-sixteenth of an inch in size (about 1 millimeter)-hovers above a fire ant before diving in and injecting an egg
into the ant. (Middle) After several weeks, the fire ant is decapitated by the developing fly larva, which then consumes all tissue inside the fire ant head.
(Right) The decapitating phorid fly uses the fire ant's head as a pupal case, and then a new fly emerges several weeks later. PHOTOS BYSANFORD PORTER

numbers and painful sting-about
40 percent of the people in heavily
infested areas get stung every year."
When disturbed, fire ants viciously
defend their nests, crawling on intrud-
ers and repeatedly stinging them, he
said. A white pustule forms on the site
of the sting, which usually heals in
about two weeks. But the sting can be
fatal for people allergic to fire
ant venom.
Koehler, who leads the extension
education program in Florida and
other cooperating states for the multi-
agency fire ant suppression team, said
the invasive pest harms the natural
environment-reducing the number
of native ants and other insects, kill-
ing ground-nesting wildlife such as the
northern bobwhite quail and newly
hatched sea turtles. The ants kill live-
stock and feed on crops such as cit-
rus, peanuts and strawberries. Heavy
infestations also damage electrical
Until recently, insecticides and baits
have been the primary methods of
controlling fire ants, but these mate-
rials must be applied several times a
year, which can be expensive when
large areas are being treated, he said.
Insecticides are not effective unless
the chemical reaches the queen,

which may be deep inside the fire ant
nest. Baits are more effective because
worker ants feed the bait to the queen
and brood, thereby controlling the
"Treating all infested land with
insecticides or baits in the 12-state
area would cost about $10 per acre, or
about $6 to $12 billion a year," Koehler
said. "Because of the expense and per-
ceived hazard of using insecticides
or baits, most landowners do noth-
ing, underscoring the need for sustain-
able, biological controls that have been
developed in this integrated fire ant
management demonstration program."
Robert Vander Meer, leader for
the USDA Agricultural Research
Service's (ARS) Imported Fire Ant and
Household Insects Research Unit in
Gainesville, said the project was ini-
tiated about six years ago by the ARS
to develop and demonstrate the use
of sustainable biological controls that
complement existing insecticide and
bait treatments.
"The overall goal of the demonstra-
tion project is to maintain greater than
80 percent reduction of fire ants over
several years using an integrated man-
agement approach with biological con-
trol agents and toxic baits," Vander
Meer said. "The effort is the result of

a temporary ARS-funded program-
Area-Wide Suppression of Fire Ant
Populations in Pastures-that has been
under way for about six years and will
end in 2008."
He said the long-term goals of the
ARS are to develop biologically based
methods of fire ant control, including
self-sustaining fire ant biological con-
trol agents to at least partially restore
the ecological balance observed in the
fire ant's homeland in South America.
This could ultimately reduce damage
and control costs by billions of dollars
a year.
In tests in Florida and other par-
ticipating states, 300-acre plots were
treated with insecticides that reduced
fire ant populations up to 90 per-
cent. However, within a few months,
fire ants reinvaded the sites from sur-
rounding areas.
"In Florida, fire ant reduction has
averaged 88 percent where the inte-
grated pest management approach
was used compared to only 71 percent
where fire ants were controlled only
by chemical pesticides," Vander
Meer said.
The area-wide project, head-
quartered at the ARS Center for
Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary
Entomology (CMAVE) in Gainesville,

16 IMPACT I Spring 2007

includes entomologists at UF and the
Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services in Gainesville. In
addition to scientists in Gainesville,
the $6 million project includes state
and federal researchers in Mississippi,
Oklahoma, South Carolina and Texas.
Vander Meer, who also is a courtesy
assistant professor in UF's entomology
and nematology department, said the
natural predators and pathogens being
released in Florida and other states
were found in Brazil and Argentina
where they help control fire ant pop-
ulations. Before the biocontrols are
released in the U.S., they are carefully
tested in quarantined facilities oper-
ated by CMAVE in Gainesville to make
sure they will not harm native plants
and animals. In other words, he said,
they must be specific for fire ants.
Sanford Porter, an ARS entomol-
ogist, began his efforts to find natu-
ral enemies of fire ants in 1991 when
he visited Argentina and Brazil. Since
then, he has returned with four differ-
ent species of phorid flies that attack
and decapitate fire ants, and each spe-
cies attacks a specific size fire ant and
is active only during certain times of
the day. Three different phorid flies
have been released in Florida and
other sites throughout the southern
U.S., and they are spreading at the rate
of 10 to 30 miles per year. A fourth fly
is expected to be released in 2007. He
estimates there are about 20 different
types of phorid flies that attack
fire ants.
"When the female phorid flies are
released near fire ant mounds, they
quickly attack-or dive bomb-the
ants and lay eggs inside them," Porter

said. "The egg hatches into a tiny mag-
got that burrows into the ant's head
and grows there for several weeks.
Then the maggot causes the fire ant's
head to fall off, killing the ant and
using the ant's head for a protective
case in which to complete develop-
ment. Two weeks later, the adult fly
squeezes out of the ant's mouth. Each
newly emerged female fly can attack
and kill several hundred more fire

He said the decapitating flies also
weaken the fire ant colonies because
workers stop looking for food out-
side the nest and hide in the mound to
avoid being attacked by the flies.
Porter, who also is a courtesy assis-
tant professor in UF's entomology and
nematology department, said species
of the phorid flies have become estab-
lished on more than 60 million acres
in Florida and in the nine other
southern states. In North Florida, the

Sanford Porter, left, and David Oi examine fire
ants in a laboratory colony. PHOTO BY SALLY

two flies are established on more than
15 million acres.
One fly species (Pseudacteon tricus-
pis), released in 1997 and 1998, attacks
medium-size and large-size fire ants
from late morning to late afternoon.
Another species (P. curvatus), released
in 2003, attacks small fire ants during
the middle of the day. A third species
(P. litoralis), released over the past four
years, attacks large fire ants, mainly
during the early morning and early
evening. A fourth fly species (P. obtu-
sus), scheduled for release this year,
attacks medium- to large-size fire ants
during the day.
Once the decapitating flies are
approved for release by the USDA,
the job of rearing millions of flies for
release in Florida and other states
is being coordinated by George
Schneider, a biological adminis-
trator at the Florida Department

of Agriculture and Consumer
Services Division of Plant Industry
in Gainesville. He said the fly-rear-
ing program is funded through a coop-
erative agreement with the USDA's
Animal and Plant Health Inspection
Service (APHIS) and his state agency.
During 2006, more than 2 million P.
tricuspis and P. curvatus phorid flies
were reared at the facility.
In addition to the decapitating flies,
researchers are relying upon another
biological control that weakens the
entire fire ant colony. A fire ant
disease-caused by a single-celled pro-
tozoan parasite (Thelohania solenop-
sae)-infects ant colonies when work-
ers transmit the disease to the queen,
probably through food exchange. It
reduces the queen's weight, and she
produces 90 percent fewer eggs,
causing the colony to die within
18 months.

"While this disease is effective, it
spreads more slowly than the phorid
flies," said David Oi, an ARS entomol-
ogist in Gainesville who oversees this
phase of the project.
He said some fire ant colonies have
only one queen while others have
many. A single-queen colony may
have 250,000 workers, and a multi-
ple-queen colony can have twice
that number.
"It's easier to infect multiple-queen
colonies with the disease because they
will adopt and raise infected brood
from other colonies," Oi said. "On the
other hand, they are harder to control
because large populations limit the dis-
ease's impact."
Oi, a courtesy assistant profes-
sor in UF's entomology and nematol-
ogy department, said the single-queen
colonies are more difficult to infect

Steven Valles loads a gel to separate and characterize viral genes. His laboratory has completed sequencingthe entire genome of the firstvirus (Solenopsis
invicta virus-i) that infects the red imported fire ant. He found thevirus by screening more than 2,000 fire ant genes. PHOTO BY SALLY LANIGAN

I .
Two worker fire ants tend [arvae in a colony.

because they are suspicious of, or fight
with neighboring fire ant colonies.
He said the research team is also
studying another protozoan pathogen
(Vairimorpha invictae) from Argentina
that is more potent, but it's more diffi-
cult to rear in the laboratory.
Viruses can also be an effective bio-
logical control agent, said Steven

Valles, an ARS entomologist in
Gainesville who has discovered the
first virus (Solenopsis invicta virus-1)
that infects the red imported fire ant.
He found the virus by screening more
than 2,000 fire ant genes.
He said the virus infects all fire ant
developmental stages, including eggs,
indicating that the infection is passed
from parents to offspring. The virus,
which appears to be easily transmitted,
is already present in fire ant popula-
tions in Florida and other areas.
"The average infection rate is about
20 percent, and its presence is sea-
sonal," Valles said. "Infected individ-
uals or colonies do not exhibit any
immediate, discernable symptoms in
the field. However, under stress caused
by moving the colony from the field
to laboratory, massive brood death is
often observed among infected colo-
nies, often leading to the death of the
entire colony."
Valles, a courtesy assistant profes-
sor in UF's entomology and nematol-
ogy department, said these charac-

teristics are consistent with similar
insect-infecting viruses. "They often
persist as unapparent, asymptomatic
infections that, under certain condi-
tions, grow in the host, resulting in
observable symptoms and often death,"
he said. "We are currently studying the
factors necessary to induce the lethal
phase of the virus in fire ants to bet-
ter assess its effect on the population
and use as a potential biological con-
trol method." :
PHIL KOEHLER (352) 392-2484
DAVID 01 (352) 374-5987
SANFORD PORTER (352) 374-5914
GEORGE SCHNEIDER (352) 372-3505
STEVEN VALLES (352) 374-5834

Map shows the distribution or range of fire ants across the southern United States. USDA MAP

S Entire County Quarantined

=I Portion of County Quarantined

IMPACT I Spring 2007 19

; ;.B,,

With Florida's population expected to double in 50 years, growth
management will continue be one of the most urgent, difficult and
potentially contentious issues facing the state. Finding realistic
and equitable legal solutions to a wide range of important
environmental and land use issues-especially those that affect
agriculture, green space, water resources and energy-is easier
thanks to a new partnership between the University of Florida's
Levin College of Law and UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences (IFAS). The Conservation Clinic, housed in the law
college's Center for Governmental Responsibility, is working
closely with the statewide IFAS Extension Service to help educate
the public about growth management and sustainability issues
throughout the state.

(Opposite) Some new residential developments such as this one near Pompano Beach border the Florida Everglades. More than 200,000
new single-family detached homes were constructed in Florida during 2005, and the state has led the country in new home construction
for 13 out of the past 15 years. In the next 50 years, more than 11 million new homes-alongwith millions of square feet of commercial
space and thousands of miles of new roadways-will be needed to accommodate an influxof new residents. PHOTO BY PATRICK LYNCH

IMPACT I Spring 2007 21

Tom Ankersen, left, and Pierce Jones are workingwith Marion County officials to protect water quality in Silver Springs. UF's Conservation Clinic and the
Program for Resource Efficient Communities in IFAS have been assisting Marion County with policy and practice tools to integrate low impact development
practices into new planned communities within springsheds. PHOTO BY SALLY LANIGAN

Amidst a population boom that adds almost 1,000 new
residents daily, Florida is poised to become the nation's third
largest state in the next two years-behind California and
Texas--underscoring the need for realistic growth manage-
ment practices to protect the state's environment.
More than 200,000 new single-family detached homes
were constructed in Florida during 2005, and the state has
led the country in new home construction for 13 out of the
past 15 years. In the next 50 years, more than 11 million
new homes-along with millions of square feet of commer-
cial space and thousands of miles of new roadways-will
be needed to accommodate the influx of residents, accord-
ing to Pierce Jones, director of the Program for Resource
Efficient Communities at the University of Florida's state-
wide Extension Service, which is part of UF's Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences.
"In order to achieve the kind of resource-efficient growth
we need, our community planning efforts require cross dis-
ciplinary collaboration with building professionals, local
governments, water management districts and other agen-
cies," Jones said. "The Program for Resource Efficient
Communities, which was established in 2005, works with
these and other collaborators to promote the adoption of

best design, construction and management practices in
new residential community developments that measurably
reduce energy and water consumption and environmental
Jones said the goal of building resource efficient commu-
nities has been strengthened by a new partnership with the
Conservation Clinic at UF's Levin College of Law.
The Conservation Clinic provides environmental and land
use law services to Florida communities and nongovern-
ment organizations and university programs such as the UF
Extension Service and Florida Sea Grant College Program,
said Tom Ankersen, director of the clinic. Among other proj-
ects, the clinic has consulted with local governments on
ordinances and comprehensive plan policies, drafted lan-
guage for state statutes and worked with landowners on con-
servation easements.
"Demand for clinic legal services has been growing,
and much of this has come through requests generated by
our expanding relationship with UF's Extension Service,
which has offices in every county," Ankersen said. "The
Conservation Clinic already has an ongoing relationship
with the Florida Sea Grant program to support its coastal
and marine education programs.

22 IMPACT I Spring 200

According to Larry Arrington, dean for the Extension
Service, "UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
has faced increased pressure" to play a greater role in Florida
growth management issues.
"Agricultural producers in the state have emphasized
the need for science-based solutions to issues surrounding
growth, and county government officials are also request-
ing more support on growth issues," Arrington said. "The
partnership with the College of Law positions IFAS to better
respond to these needs"'
Jones said the Conservation Clinic recently helped draft
the language for Gainesville's Green Building Program,
which is being used as a model by Sarasota and other Florida
communities. Working with the Program for Resource
Efficient Communities, Carter Construction and other local
builders are participating in the Gainesville Green Building
Program. The incentive-based program incorporates a vari-
ety of energy efficient construction and landscape criteria
that builders must follow in order to build homes that are
certified by the Florida Green Building Coalition.
Another extension educational effort benefiting from the
clinic's legal services is the Florida Yards and Neighborhoods
(FYN) program, which encourages builders and developers
to protect natural resources by incorporating environmen-
tally friendly landscaping into their new construction.
Ondine Wells, statewide builder and developer coordina-
tor for FYN, said the Conservation Clinic provides model
language for various covenants, conditions and restrictions
to help homeowner's associations do their part to protect
and conserve Florida's water resources using science based
information generated by IFAS.
"The health of Florida's estuaries, rivers, lakes, springs and
aquifers depends partly on how yards are landscaped and
maintained," she said. "Thanks to the efforts of the Florida
Yards and Neighborhoods program, many developers and
builders are opting to protect Florida's natural resources by
incorporating Florida-friendly landscaping into their new
However, ensuring that these landscapes are maintained
properly and not replaced with more energy- and water-
intensive landscapes by the homeowner is a constant chal-
lenge, Wells said.

"One way to ensure that homeowners maintain the land-
scape is to incorporate the principles of a Florida-friendly
landscape into the community covenants, conditions and
restrictions (CCRs)," she said. "CCRs developed by the
Conservation Clinic provide a binding set of community
regulations that can be used by developers and homeowner
Wells said Willowbend in Osprey, Fla., is the first develop-
ment to incorporate Florida-friendly landscaping through-
out the project, and the community association requires that
the landscaping be maintained according to environmentally
friendly principles.
Lee Wetherington, president and founder of the project,
said landscaping was developed on a community-wide rather
than house-by-house basis. Each homeowner was allowed to
select individual plants from a list of Florida native plants.
"To cut down on the amount of water required for irriga-
tion, we installed a drip irrigation system and also regulated
what plants could be placed under overhanging eaves," he
said. "We also placed native plants around lakes to avoid fer-
tilizer runoff."
Jim Cato, director of the Florida Sea Grant College
Program, said the Conservation Clinic has been working
with Sea Grant's boating and waterways management pro-
gram for a number of years.
Bob Swett, a waterways specialist who directs the pro-
gram for Florida Sea Grant, said the laws of Florida regard-
ing boating, anchoring and mooring fields have been in a
state of flux over the last few years. Many local communi-
ties and counties are confused as to the options available to
them with regard to regulating their waterways and provid-
ing public access. The Conservation Clinic has been instru-
mental in providing guidance to county governments as well
as cities such as Bradenton Beach, Ft. Myers Beach, Punta
Gorda, Sarasota, St. Augustine and Venice.
"The Conservation Clinic is currently helping develop
a harbor management plan for the City of St. Augustine,"
Swett said. "They have also developed policy toolkits and
guidelines that have been valuable to communities strug-
gling with the issue of public access to Florida's waterways."

IMPACT I Spring 2007 23

Angela Polo Maraj, left, and Ondine Wells, right, talkwith developer Lee Wetherington about his decision to incorporate Florida-friendly landscapes in the
community of Willowbend in Osprey, Fla. Polo Maraj is the Florida Yards and Neighborhoods regional builderand developer coordinator for the Southwest
Florida Water Management District. PHOTO BY THOMAS WRIGHT

Using geographical information systems, the University of Florida's GeoPlan Center has developed these maps showing current land use in Florida and
projected land use by 2060. Graphics courtesy of GlattingJackson KercherAnglin, Orlando.

24 IMPACT I Spring 200

The toolkits and guidelines are available on the
Conservation Clinic's Web site: http://www.law.ufl.edu/
Robert Jerry, dean of the Levin College of Law, said smart
growth and sustainability are key issues in Florida, and
have long been a focus of the college's environmental and
land use law program as well as a number of units in UF's
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
"An interdisciplinary approach is vital to successfully man-
aging these areas, and this partnership with the Extension
Service will greatly amplify available intellectual and physi-
cal resources," Jerry said. "Conservation Clinic projects also
leverage taxpayer dollars by utilizing the time and talents of
law students under faculty guidance. The students benefit,
too, by gaining hands-on, real world experience:'"








(352) 273-0835
(352) 392-1761
(352) 392-5870
(352) 392-9238
(352) 392-8074
(352) 392-6233
(352) 392-1831

RobertJerry, left, and LarryArrington discuss the new partnership between UF's Levin College of Lawand the UF Extension Service to address various growth
management issues around the state. Arrington said Florida's population is expected to double in 50 years, and growth management will continue be one of
the most urgent, difficultand potentially contentious issues facingthe state. PHOTO BY THOMAS WRIGHT

. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. ..........

Restoration and protection of the
Florida Everglades is enhancing
sustainability in South Florida.
Experts with UF's Institute
of Food and Agricultural are
helping educate the public
about the benefits associated
with green space, the need of
conservingwater and energy,
and the importance of community
participation in the development
decision-making process. PHOTO BY

- -E ;-;


At a time when managing
Florida's breakneck urban growth
is one of the biggest challenges fac-
ing the state, Jeffrey Gellermann
and Devesh Nirmul are leading
the way as the first extension
agents hired by UF's Institute
of Food and Agricultural
Sciences to help edu-
cate residents about
growth management and
urban environmental
Gellermann, who
joined the St. Lucie County
Extension Service in June 2005,
is developing educational pro-
grams for smart growth manage-
ment practices on the Treasure
Coast, while Nirmul, who began
working for the Pinellas County
Extension Service in September
2006, is developing outreach
programs for urban environ-
mental sustainability in the
Tampa Bay area.
Nirmul, a regional agent
based at the Extension

IMPACT I Spring 2007 27

Devesh Nirmul, left, Thomas Roberts, Bert Henderson (foreground) and Carl
Lucchi check the energy efficiency ratingofa heat pump in Pinellas County.
Nirmulsaid one of the first steps that organizations can take to improve
theirsustainability is to eliminatewaste and improve efficiency. Roberts
is a curator of education with the UF Pinellas County Extension Service;
Henderson is an extension energy agent, and Lucchi is a special project

Service's Bushnell Center for Urban
Sustainability in Largo, is working
with county residents, local govern-
ment agencies, community organi-
zations and corporate institutions to
improve environmental, economic and
social sustainability in the daily lives of
individuals at home, work and play.
"Sustainability is a process that
can lead to conservation of natural
resources, increased economic pros-
perity and better lives today and in the
future," Nirmul said. "It can be as sim-
ple as changing to fluorescent light
bulbs or as bold as redesigning cities."
Before coming to the UF Extension
Service, Nirmul was an environmen-
tal services coordinator and urban
planner in Tampa. His previous work
includes climate change and sus-
tainable development consulting for
the U.S. Agency for International

Development as well as environmental
finance work for the National Wildlife
Federation in Washington, D.C., where
he also founded a sustainable business
network. His current position and the
establishment of the Bushnell Center
for Urban Sustainability in Pinellas
County is supported by UF's William
P. and Janet F. Bushnell Professorship
in Urban Environmental Sustainability
Nirmul will lead the Bushnell center
in its first operational year, focusing on
a tripartite strategy-sustainability in
county departments, community out-
reach to promote adoption of sustain-
able practices, and developing partner-
ships with UF and other institutions
for applied research, learning and
analysis on urban sustainability.
Gellermann, who has been working
on growth management issues for the

past two years, said forecasts indicate
the state's population will reach nearly
34 million by 2050. Partly because of
this growth, Florida is making impres-
sive economic gains beyond traditional
mainstay industries such as agricul-
ture, natural resources and tourism,
he said. The state is quickly becoming
known for its growing biotechnology
industry, evolving from a tourist desti-
nation to a diverse economic magnet.
"But we are paying a price for that
growth and prosperity," Gellermann
said. "There are many redevelop-
ment projects across the state, but a
large portion of the land cleared to
make room for all of the new res-
idents migrating to Florida is
undeveloped. This has resulted in
a large portion of Florida's native hab-
itats being destroyed. Rapid devel-
opment has begun to take a toll on
the quality of life; key economic sec-
tors such as agriculture and natural
resources are also feeling the impact.
"The good news is that we are learn-
ing from our past mistakes, and we
can take steps to prevent detrimental
development patterns in the future,"
he said.
Growth management-balancing
economic and ecological sustainabil-
ity while maintaining individual prop-
erty rights-is the primary instrument
that will shape the future, he said. "A
sustainable Florida can be achieved
through educating the public to the
benefits associated with green space,
the need of conserving water and
energy, and the importance of commu-
nity participation in the development
decision-making process":
Gellermann said rapid growth on
the Treasure Coast is similar to that
occurring elsewhere in the state.
According to the regional planning
council, there are approximately

28 IMPACT I Spring2007

Jeff Gellermann says rapid growth on the Treasure Coast is similar to that
occurring elsewhere in the state. According to the regional planning council,
there are approximately 118,585 homes pendingorapproved in the region.
In St. Lucie County, there are 80,228 pendingor approved homes alone.


118,585 homes pending or approved
in the region. In St. Lucie County,
there are 80,228 pending or approved
homes alone.
"By working with the develop-
ment community in St. Lucie County,
we can help promote the adoption of
more sustainable development prac-
tices by the industry across the entire
region," Gellermann said. "With the
large number of new homes planned,
even a small change in practices for
the better can have immense benefits
Gellermann is also looking at issues
such as affordable housing, which is
one of the hottest topics currently in
growth management. He said St. Lucie
County currently has a tremendous
demand for affordable housing, and it
is projected that 50 percent of the total
number of homes needed in Florida in
2050 have not yet been built.
Another important growth man-
agement issue involves urban ser-
vice boundaries, designed to limit
urban services such as water and
sewer. "In many counties and cities
across Florida, development pressures
to build past these boundaries are
increasing," Gellermann said. "In some
instances, the county may approve
development on one side of the road
but will not approve the same develop-
ment on the other side without those
He said some developers have solved
this problem by establishing wells for
drinking water and package plants to
handle their own sewer and wastewa-
ter discharge. So far, their last major
hurdle seems to be schools that are not
allowed to be constructed beyond the
urban service boundary.
Florida's construction activity for
2005 was valued at approximately $69
billion-nearly $12 billion more than

the tourism industry and $18 billion
less than the agricultural and natural
resource industries, he said.
"If we have learned anything, the
speed of our development is as much
of an issue as the amount," Gellermann
said. "The techniques used to solve the
challenges we are facing today may
have dire consequences for tomorrow.
In the 1970s and 80s, issues surround-
ing leapfrog developments and sprawl-
ing residential neighborhoods in South
Florida were not taken as seriously as
today. Growth management profes-
sionals are still trying to undo those
mistakes. Unfortunately, with devel-
opment, the consequences may be
unknown for many years or decades,
and by that time we may have very
well replicated those mistakes across
the state many thousands of times."

For more information, visit the
following Web site:
SolutionsForYourLife.com to access
publications under community devel-
opment (urban and rural growth),
including Towards a Sustainable Florida.
The 102-page publication, released
in September 2005 for The Century
Commission for a Sustainable Florida,
provides a comprehensive review of
environmental, social and economic
concepts for sustainable development
in the state. Many of the reports in the
document were prepared by faculty
and staff in UF's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences. I
DEVESH NIRMUL (727) 582-2508

IMPACT I Spring 2007 29


7 -








il ;r




In Florida's largest biotechnology program for

F commercially important species of grasses,

I%. researchers in UF's Institute of Food and

."0 Agricultural Sciences are improving forage

4 I" grasses, turfgrasses, cereal crops and grasses
that can be used for bioenergy. The molecular

4 plant physiology laboratory in the agronomy

.. department is developing advanced technologies

..." that enhance the productivity of these grasses,

h improve the use of natural resources and protect
." the environment.

(Opposite) Fredy Altpeter displays transgenic bahiagrass
prior to exposing it to freezing temperatures in a
computer-controlled environmental growth chamber.

S When it comes
to the world's
S most important
grass crops, there's
room for improvement.
I 'n average, these crops
attain only about 25 per-
cent of their potential yield
because of problems associ-
ated with insect pests, patho-
gens, weeds, cold or drought, but
these and other limiting factors
can be addressed by enhancing the
genetic tolerance of grass crops
to stress.

That's the goal of Fredy Altpeter, an assistant professor of
molecular biology in the agronomy department, who leads
a team of researchers using genetic engineering to improve
economically important pasture grasses, turfgrasses
and cereals.
Residential and commercial turfgrass covers about 4.4
million cultivated acres of land in Florida, and consumers in
the state spend about $6.5 billion a year on turfgrass main-
tenance and products. Bahiagrass, one of the most popu-
lar perennial pasture grasses in the southern United States,
covers 5 million acres in Florida and supports the state's
$1.1 billion cattle and dairy industries. Cereal crops include
grasses such as wheat and rye cultivated for their edible
grains. Worldwide, cereal grains are grown in greater

IMPACT I Spring 2007 31


quantities and provide more food energy for people than any
other crop.
Altpeter said the targets for improving grasses include
better insect resistance, cold and drought tolerance, disease
and herbicide resistance, and conversion to biofuels. While
many of these improvements have been the target of con-
ventional plant breeding programs for decades, genetic engi-
neering opens new doors for plant improvement.
"Our research team is identifying critical genes for crop
stress tolerance and quality, redesigning these genes, intro-
ducing them into grasses and studying the performance of
these genetically enhanced grasses under controlled envi-
ronmental and field conditions," Altpeter said.
He said research has shown that plant response to stress
is very complex at the molecular level, with approximately
2,000 genes responding to each stress episode. However,
only a small fraction of these genes seem to be crucial-
some of them act like a master switch and turn on multiple
stress-protecting genes at the same time.
More importantly, Altpeter said, plants have most of the
right stress-tolerance genes they need, but they don't switch
them on appropriately to deal with adverse conditions. "The
hardware is all there, but it's the wiring-or the regulatory
master switch genes-that's mucked up," he said.

Fredy Altpeter measures stress tolerance of
transgenic bahiagrass plants using pulse
amplitude modulation fluorometer.

Altpeter says that understanding
this "wiring" and identifying the most
important regulatory genes is the key
to designing better crops. "We are
beginning to understand how plants
sense stress and which genes are activated or turned on in
response. But translating this knowledge into improved
turfgrass, forage, cereal grain or bioenergy plant biomass
requires knowledge of how these pathways can be cranked
up without lowering yield or compromising the plant's
Working in cooperation with Ken Boote, a professor in
the agronomy department, and Hartwell Allen, an agrono-
mist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural
Research Service (USDA/ARS) in Gainesville, Altpeter is
evaluating the extent to which individual genes help protect
plants from stress.
"Identifying genes that help plants respond to stress,
designing better versions of these genes and reintroducing
them by genetic engineering may allow plants to survive and
produce biomass with less water or with lower water qual-
ity," he said. "One of our studies shows that a regulatory
master switch gene-isolated from a drought-tolerant desert
grass-enhanced drought tolerance and biomass production
of turf and forage grass," Altpeter said.
His work in collaboration with Ann Blount, a professor
of agronomy at UF's North Florida Research and Education
Center in Marianna, showed that transgenic grass shows
an improvement in biomass production on an annual basis.
"By introducing stress-tolerant genes from wild plants into
domesticated crops, we can add desirable characteristics

32 IMPACT I Spring 200

Ann Blount checks a patch of healthy, green iir
transgenic bahiagrass (inner circle) that is
highly resistant to glufosinate herbicide.
Non-transgenic grass (outer circle) was
eliminated by the herbicide. PHOTO BY

that allowed their ancestors to
survive in a harsh environment,"
Altpeter said.
In another study with Blount,
Altpeter confirmed the generation
of bahiagrass that is highly resis-
tant to glufosinate herbicide compared to regular grasses
and weeds that are eliminated by the herbicide. The herbi-
cide is marketed commercially as Liberty.
Altpeter's research with Blount is also addressing con-
cerns about the potential environmental impact of geneti-
cally modified grasses. "With the availability of new molec-
ular and existing reproductive containment systems, we
can minimize the dispersal of transgenic plants into natural
areas," he said.
Field research with Kevin Kenworthy and Tom Sinclair,
professors in the agronomy department, demonstrated
improved turf quality in transgenic bahiagrass. "Plants dis-
played a denser turf and delayed seed-head production fol-
lowing redesign of a master switch gene that affects plant
development," Altpeter said.
In cooperation with Maria Gallo, Paul Mislevy (based at
UF's Range Cattle Research and Education Center in Ona)
and David Wofford, professors in the agronomy depart-
ment, and Robert Meagher, an entomologist with USDA/
ARS, Altpeter is introducing synthetic Bacillus thuringen-
sis (BT) genes in grasses to control insect pests. He said
research shows that transgenic bahiagrass with a synthetic
BT gene is more resistant to fall armyworm pests than regu-
lar bahiagrass.
To enhance the process of converting grass biomass into
low-cost ethanol, Altpeter is working with James Preston, a

professor in UF's microbiology and cell science department.
"Our research is currently focused on developing plant-based
technologies for high-level expression of cell wall degrading
enzymes-a promising technology for reducing the cost of
producing ethanol from biomass," Altpeter said.
He said that energy derived from grass biomass is one
of the ways that Florida and the nation can move towards
energy security. "The state has plenty of unused or underuti-
lized agricultural land, and perennial grasses are grown on
large areas of these lands," he said.
Altpeter is also the senior author of two journal articles
describing work that should help improve bread making
quality and disease resistance in cereals. The articles were
published in the April 2004 and January 2005 issues of Plant
Molecular Biology.
His research is supported by grants from the USDA,
the Southwest Florida Water Management District, the
Consortium of Plant Biotechnology Research, and private
industry leaders in turfgrass biotechnology such as The
Scotts Company and forage grass genomics such as Vialactia
Biosciences. E -CHUCK WOODS
FREDY ALTPETER (352) 392-1823

IMPACT I Spring 2007 33





ii, .1I, .i irr example of how an exotic
-i..... -reak havoc on valuable
I I. i plants and cause millions of
Ld .11 I.I .image to the state's nurs-
.... In r,. the Asian cycad scale
has invaded South Florida and quickly
spread throughout the state.
The tiny insect's only host is the
cycad-also called a sago palm-and
experts say the scale is probably the
single most important threat to wild
cycad populations and conservation
collections around the world.
Its rapid spread throughout the state
suggests that the insect has few effec-
tive natural enemies established in
Florida, said Catharine Mannion, an
assistant professor of ornamental ento-
mology at UF's Tropical Research and
Education Center in Homestead.
"The insect began attacking the
plants in South Florida in the mid-
1990s, when the pest was accidentally
introduced to the Miami area from
Southeast Asia," she said. "Within a
few years, 80 percent of the king and
queen sago palms in South Florida
were killed, and the pest has killed
almost half of the king and queen sago
palms in Central Florida. The cycad
nursery industry has been devastated,
with economic losses in the millions."
She said two commonly grown
cycads-king and queen sagos (Cycas
revoluta and Cycas rumphii)-are very
susceptible to attack by the Asian
cycad scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui).
At its worst, an infestation can com-
pletely coat a medium-sized sago
within months and kill it within a year.
Like other armored scales, the Asian
cycad scale produces a waxy covering
on the plant, under which the insect
lives, Mannion said.
"The covering is most visible on
an infested plant," she said. "In gen-
eral, scale insects hatch into a crawler

Kingand queen sagos arevery susceptible to
attack by the Asian cycad scale. At its worst, an
infestation can completely coata medium-sized
sago within months and kill it within a year. PHOTO

or mobile stage-small enough to be
spread to other plants by wind. When
they find a suitable spot on the plant,
they insert their mouthparts and
start feeding.
The scale completes its life cycle in
about one month, but dead scale stay
on the plant for weeks, especially if
the infestation is heavy, she said. The
Asian cycad scale is unusual in that it
can also infest plant roots.
She said management of the scale is
difficult because early infestations are
hard to see, populations can grow very
quickly and they are very good at hid-
ing in protected areas of the plant's
trunk and crown. Until now, cycads
have been considered relatively "low-
maintenance" for pests, but this insect
has changed that.
"In areas with high infestations,
management of the pest will be a
continuous and long-term effort,"
Mannion said. "If infested cycads go
unmanaged, the scale will not only kill
the cycad but can be spread to other
cycads. Management of the pest can
also be deceiving because it is not obvi-
ous when the scale insects are dead,
and the scales remain on the plant for
long periods of time."
Researchers with UF's Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences have
introduced two natural enemies to
help combat this pest, but they are not
completely effective. The insects were
imported from Thailand and released
in South Florida in 1997 and 1998 by
Richard Baranowski, a professor of
entomology at the Homestead center.
The natural enemies are a preda-
ceous beetle (Cybocephalus nipponicus)
and a parasitic wasp (Coccobius fulvus).
The adult beetle feeds primarily on
adult female scale. The beetle lays her
eggs among the scale eggs underneath
the scale armor covering. After hatch-
ing, the beetle larva feeds on all stages
of the scale. The parasitic wasp attacks
and kills female scale by laying its
egg inside the female scale where the
developing wasp larva feeds and grows.
"Both of these natural enemies have
become established in many areas in

Catharine Mannion examines the
severity of an Asian cycad scale
infestation on a sago palm at UF's
Tropical Research and Education
Center in Homestead. PHOTO BYJOSH

southern Florida and con-
tribute to the control of
the scale," Mannion said.
"However, because of the
explosive nature of the scale
insect, neither one of these
natural enemies can provide
complete control."
Ronald Cave, an assistant
professor of entomology at
UF's Indian River Research
and Education Center in Fort
Pierce, is conducting research
on the scale's natural ene-
mies to learn more about
their population dynam-
ics and interactions with the
scale pest.
Cave recently traveled to
China and Vietnam to iden-
tify parasitoids that could be imported
and released in Florida. Two para-
sitic wasps (Aprostocetus purpureus
and Arrhenophagus sp.) were collected
and brought to quarantine facilities
in Gainesville and Fort Pierce, where
methods are being developed to rear
the wasps for research purposes.
Mannion is also evaluating another
potential predatory beetle (Rhyzobius
lophanthae) that was introduced into
Hawaii many years ago for control
of other armored-scale insects and
reportedly provides some control of
the Asian cycad scale. This predatory
beetle was released on the island of
Guam and in south Texas, where it is
spreading rapidly. Small, isolated pop-
ulations have been found in Florida,
but Mannion says this localized dis-
tribution is not understood, and early
indications are that it may not be con-
tributing much to the control of
this pest.

At this time, horticultural oils and/
or insecticides can be used to manage
Asian cycad scale, she said. Thorough
coverage of the plant is extremely
important when applying a foliar spray.
Depending on the product, repeat
applications may be necessary.
"If plants are heavily infested with
the scale, removal of the leaves may
help reduce the pest population,"
Mannion said. "Monitoring the plant
and application of an oil or insecticide
are still necessary after the leaves have
been removed. No product will kill all
the insects on the plants forever, so
maintenance of a clean, healthy plant
will likely be a continuing effort." U
RONALD CAVE (772) 468-3922

IMPACT I Spring2007 35

Chinese Collaboration

He Kang, a former Chinese minis-
ter of agriculture and one of the found-
ers of the South China University
of Tropical Agriculture (SCUTA) in
Hainan Province, visited with faculty,
staff and students at the UF's Tropical
Research and Education Center in
Homestead and the Fort Lauderdale
Research and Education Center in
December 2006.
Kang was invited to visit the UF
facilities by Mark McLellan, dean for
research at UF's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences in Gainesville,
who met the Chinese scientist at
the World Food Prize Awards in Des
Moines, Iowa last fall. Mary Duryea,
associate dean for research, and Van
Waddill, director of the Homestead and
Fort Lauderdale centers, also accompa-
nied Kang on his tour of UF facilities.
During his visit, Kang called for
increasing collaboration between the
Chinese university and UF because the
two institutions have much in com-
mon. He said SCUTA is the largest
Chinese university dedicated to tropical
and subtropical agriculture.

"Minister Kang has opened up
an extraordinary door for UF-all
we need to do is to walk through
it," McLellan said. "This collabo-
ration with agriculturists in the
world's most populated country is
rich in benefits and opportunities
for our faculty and our Chinese j
counterparts. Virtually every dis-
He K~
cipline in our program has poten- nema
tial for unique study, strong nem
collaboration and excellent
exchange. These opportunities do
not come every day, and we are pleased
that our faculty is in a position to take
advantage of this new relationship."
Waddill said Kang was surprised by
the number of Chinese scientists and
students working at the two UF centers,
and he enjoyed interacting with them.
"He extended a warm invitation to our
faculty to visit China and develop coop-
erative research projects," Waddill said.
The Chinese minister discussed
research projects with faculty at the UF
centers, including Yuncong Li, an asso-
ciate professor of soil and water science
at the Homestead center, and Nan-Yao

ang, left, learns about research projection
atodes from Robin Giblin-Davis, a professorof
atologyat UF's Fort Lauderdale Research and

Su, a professor of entomology at the
Fort Lauderdale center and one of the
world's leading termite experts.
Prior to Kang's visit, Jonathan Crane,
a professor and associate director of the
Homestead center, traveled to China in
December to consult with researchers
and learn more about tropical agricul-
tural research and education there. E
MARK MCLELLAN (352) 392-1784
VAN WADDILL (305) 246-7001

Distance Education for Honduras

For more than 20 years, UF's College
of Agricultural and Life Sciences
has developed a close working rela-
tionship with the Escuela Agricola
Panamericana in Honduras, and
now that relationship is being fur-
ther enhanced by a distance educa-
tion course presented by faculty at UF's
Indian River Research and Education
Center in Fort Pierce.
P.J. van Blokland, a professor of food
and resource economics at the Ft.
Pierce center, and Ron Cave, an assis-
tant professor of entomology at the cen-
ter, recently initiated a distance educa-
tion class in English for seniors at the
Honduran college (now a four-year col-
lege called Zamorano University).
Van Blokland, who also directs the
center's education programs, said the
class lasted 10 weeks and ran from 90
minutes to two hours on Wednesday
"The idea was to present a vari-
ety of subjects to the students to help

them attain the required proficiency
in English before their graduation," he
said. "The class included insect identi-
fication, computer skills, ornamental
cultivation, marketing, sales, investing,
bonsai production and invasive species.
Despite some bandwidth problems
between Florida and Honduras, which
occasionally hindered reception, the
class was surprisingly well received, he
said. As a result, the course will be con-
tinued in the future.
In October 2006, van Blokland and
Cave, along with Ferdinand Wirth, an
associate professor of food and resource
economics at the UF center, and Sandra
Wilson, an associate professor of orna-
mental horticulture at the center, vis-
ited Zamorano University to meet many
of their students as well as faculty and
administrators at the university.
The trip strengthened the recipro-
cal program between UF and Zamorano
University and will result in more stu-
dent exchange programs, van Blokland


said. Usually, he added, there are sev-
eral exchange students from Zamorano
University studying at the Fort Pierce
center, which is part of UF's Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences. U
P.J. VAN BLO KLAND (772) 468-3922

36 IMPACT I Spring 200

UF Research Foundation Professors




Six faculty members with UF's Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences have
been named UF Research Foundation
Professors for 2006, in recognition of their
past research accomplishments and strong
current research agendas.
The honorees are Janaki Alavalapati,
Lawrence Datnoff, Jude Grosser, Curt
Hannah, George O'Connor and K.T.
Campuswide, 33 UF faculty mem-
bers were named Research Foundation
Professors. The three-year award provides
each honoree with a $5,000 annual salary
supplement and a $3,000 grant.
Janaki Alavalapati, an associate profes-
sor in the School of Forest Resources and
Conservation, studies economics and pol-
icy related to sustainable forestry, environ-
mental services, wildland-urban interface,
biomass and bioenergy, climate change and
protected areas management.
Lawrence Datnoff, a professor in the
plant pathology department, focuses on
the biology, etiology, epidemiology and
control of foliar and soilborne diseases of
rice, turfgrass and, most recently, orna-
mentals. He is perhaps best known for
studying how silicon, used as a fertilizer,
can help rice and turfgrass resist disease,
and has been investigating the mechanisms
responsible for this effect.
Jude Grosser, a professor of horticul-
tural sciences at the Citrus Research and
Education Center in Lake Alfred, spe-
cializes in genetics and biotechnology
research related to citrus variety improve-
ment. His work has addressed all major cit-
rus production problems in Florida and
the development of new citrus varieties to
provide growers with greater marketing
Curt Hannah, a professor in the horti-
cultural sciences department, researches
the molecular genetics of starch produc-
tion in corn. He is particularly interested
in genetic mutations that change the size,
shape and texture of corn seed. Recent
studies have also investigated the effects
of introns, DNA sequences in plant genes


IMPACT I Spring 2007 37

that are not copied by messenger RNA
during protein synthesis.
George O'Connor, a professor in the
soil and water science department,
focuses on the application of basic soil
chemistry to issues associated with
the land application of nonhazardous
wastes, primarily biosolids. His inter-
ests include determining how chem-
icals in the wastes move through the
soil and developing methods to control
the impact of these chemicals on the
K.T. Shanmugam, a professor in the
microbiology and cell science depart-
ment, researches the physiological pro-
cesses involved when bacterial cells
synthesize enzymes containing the
element molybdenum. His current
research focuses on engineering bac-
teria as biocatalysts for cost-effective
conversion of biomass-derived sug-
ars to fuel ethanol, hydrogen and com-
modity chemicals, such as lactic acid, a
bioplastics precursor.
All UF Research Foundation
Professors are selected based on rec-
ommendations from the deans of their
respective colleges. The research pro-
fessorships are funded from UF's share
of royalty and licensing income from
technologies developed by faculty, staff
and students.
Founded in 1986, the UF Research
Foundation is a nonprofit organiza-
tion that supports research by faculty
members and facilitates transfer of UF-
developed innovations to the public. U
LAWRENCE DATNOFF (352) 392-3631
JUDE GROSSER (863) 956-1151
CURT HANNAH (352) 392-1928
GEORGE O'CONNOR (352) 392-7181
K.T. SHANMUGAM (352) 392-2490


New Associate Deans

Elaine Turner, interim associate
dean of UF's College of Agricultural
and Life Sciences, and Mark Rieger,
a professor of horticulture with the
University of Georgia, have been
named associate deans of the UF col-
lege, according to an announcement
by Dean Kirby Barrick.
Turner's appointment became
effective in June 2006, and Rieger's
appointment became effective in
September. Rieger also serves as a hor-
ticultural sciences professor.
Although their responsibilities over-
lap somewhat, each associate dean
has specific assignments, Barrick said.
Turner will provide leadership for
undergraduate education and teaching
enhancement programs. Rieger will
provide leadership for graduate educa-
tion, distance education programs and
the upper-division undergraduate hon-
ors programs.
The addition of a second associate
dean will greatly benefit the college,
said Turner, who is also an associate
professor of food science and human

A member of the UF faculty since
1996, Turner taught at Clemson
University from 1986 to 1996. She
earned a bachelor's degree in dietetics
from Kansas State University, and mas-
ter's and doctoral degrees in nutrition
from Purdue University.
Rieger has been with UGA's horti-
culture department since 1987, where
his research focused on environmental
stress physiology of fruit crops. He has
three horticultural science degrees-
a bachelor's degree from Pennsylvania
State University, a master's degree
from the University of Georgia and a
doctoral degree from UF.
"I'm delighted to be coming back to
Gainesville after 20 years," said Rieger.
"I've been preparing for a career in col-
lege administration, and this is a great
opportunity for me." : TOM NORDLIE
KIRBY BARRICK (352) 392-1961
ELAI N E TURN ER (352) 392-1963
MARK RIEGER (352) 392-1963

Three New Department Chairs

New chairpersons were recently
named for three departments in UF's
Institute of Food and Agricultural
Raghavan Charudattan is the new
chair of the plant pathology depart-
ment; Geoffrey Dahl is the new chair
of the animal sciences department,
and Dorota Haman is the new chair
of the agricultural and biological engi-
neering department. The appoint-
ments were announced by Jimmy
Cheek, UF senior vice president for
agriculture and natural resources,
following nationwide searches for

Charudattan, who joined the UF
plant pathology faculty in 1970,
assumed leadership of the department
Feb. 13. Cheek said Charudattan is rec-
ognized nationally and internationally
as a leader in the biological control of
weeds, using plant pathogens as a sup-
plement to conventional weed man-
agement methods.
"Dr. Charudattan has built a unique,
strong and productive program of
research, graduate education and
international cooperation in biologi-
cal control," Cheek said. "He is known
for his pioneering studies on weeds

and aquatic plant diseases, and he has
served as editor of Biological Control, a
highly respected scientific journal."
The author of numerous publica-
tions, Charudattan earned his bache-
lor's, master's and doctoral degrees in
plant pathology at the University of
Madras in India. He also was a post-
doctoral research plant pathologist
at the University of California, Davis,
from 1968 to 1970.
In announcing Dorota Haman's
appointment, which becomes effec-
tive May 1, Cheek said, "We are fortu-
nate to have a faculty member with the

38 IMPACT I Spring 200



expertise and range of experience that
Dr. Haman brings to the department,
which is consistently ranked among
the nation's top programs by U.S. News
and World Report magazine."
Haman began her career in the
department as an assistant profes-
sor in 1985, rising to the rank of pro-
fessor in 1998, and has most recently
served as the department's graduate
coordinator. Specializing in irrigation
and water management, Haman has a
strong interest in irrigation education
in developing countries. Her recent
research projects have focused on irri-
gation efficiency in ornamental plant
Haman received her bachelor's
degree in mathematics from the
University of Warsaw in 1973, and
completed her master's and doctoral
degrees in agricultural engineering at
Michigan State University in 1980 and
1983, respectively. She has received
numerous professional awards and is
a member of many professional soci-
eties, including serving a second term
on the board of directors of the U.S.
Committee on Irrigation and Drainage.
She is the second woman to lead
the department, replacing Wendy
Graham who became director of UF's
new Water Institute in 2006. Ken
Campbell, a professor in the depart-
ment, has served as interim chairman
of the department since May 2006.
Geoffrey Dahl, a professor of animal
sciences at the University of Illinois,
succeeds Glen Hembry, a UF animal
sciences professor who became chair-
man in 2000 when the department
was created by merging the animal,

poultry and dairy science programs.
Hembry also led the animal sciences
program from 1990 to 2000.
Cheek said Dahl will focus on
enhancing the department's teaching,
research and extension programs in
beef cattle, dairy cattle and equine sci-
ences. His appointment became effec-
tive in September 2006.
"We believe that through his leader-
ship we will build on our strengths and
achieve even greater successes in the
future," Cheek said. "Dr. Dahl will help
this become one of the best depart-
ments of its kind in the world."
Prior to his UF appointment, Dahl
was a faculty member in the animal
sciences department at UI at Urbana-
Champaign from 2000 to mid-2006.
From 1994 to 2000, he was a fac-
ulty member with the University of
Maryland's animal and avian sciences
department. He began his professional
career as a research fellow with the
University of Michigan's reproductive
sciences program from 1991 to 1994.
Dahl received a bachelor's degree
in animal science from the University
of Massachusetts in 1985, a master's
degree in dairy science from Virginia
Polytechnic Institute in 1987 and
a doctorate in animal science from
Michigan State University in 1991. U
GEOFFREY DAHL (352) 392-1981
DO ROTA HAMAN (352) 392-1864

IMPACT I Spring2007 39




New Biotech Director

Following an international search
for outstanding candidates, Robert
Ferl has been named director of
the UF's Interdisciplinary Center
for Biotechnology (ICBR), which is
expanding its mission in the new $85
million Cancer and Genetics Research
Complex in Gainesville.
In announcing the appointment,
Win Phillips, UF senior vice presi-
dent for research, said Ferl's record of
research accomplishments made him
the ideal choice. "He is well known for
his outstanding dedication to research,
but he's also admired for his ability
to work with others and coordinate
efforts effectively," Phillips said.
Ferl, a professor of molecular biol-
ogy in UF's Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, joined the UF
faculty in 1980 as an assistant pro-
fessor in the botany department. He
became an associate professor in the

horticultural sciences department in
1987 and a professor in 1990. In 1994,
he was named assistant director of the
Phillips said the primary mission
of the ICBR is to provide UF's bio-
technology community with central-
ized research facilities, state-of-the-
art equipment and staff trained in the
latest technologies, such as high-end
genomics, informatics and proteomics.
These are technologies that are usu-
ally too expensive or unwieldy for indi-
vidual researchers.
Ferl received a bachelor's degree in
biology from Hiram College in 1976
and completed his master's and doc-
toral degrees in genetics at Indiana
University in 1980. E STU HUTSON
ROBERT FERL (352) 392-1928

International Fellow

Dan Cantliffe, professor and chair-
man of UF's horticultural sciences
department, has been named a fel-
low by the International Society for
Horticultural Science. Cantliffe is one
of only six individuals to receive the
highest honor from the 6,300-mem-
ber society.
The ceremonies took place at the
27th International Horticultural
Congress and Exhibition in Seoul,
South Korea, in August 2006.
During the conference, Cantliffe
also received a second honor-the
ISHS Medal-for his work as chair-
man of the organization's vegetable
section over the past eight years.
The fellowship selection process
requires letters of support from at least
five colleagues in three nations and
approval by the organization's council,
which includes representatives from
each of ISHS's more than 140 mem-
ber nations.

Cantliffe's international work
includes research and outreach on pro-
tected agriculture, a high-tech, high-
yield approach to growing fruits and
vegetables in greenhouses. Popular
in Europe, the Middle East, Canada,
Mexico, China, Korea and Japan, pro-
tected agriculture enables year-round
production while conserving resources
and reducing pesticide use.
Cantliffe has developed collab-
orative relationships with institu-
tions in Brazil, Israel, Italy and Korea.
While promoting protected agricul-
ture in Florida, he has also intro-
duced growers to two crops developed
in Israel: Galia muskmelons and Beit
Alpha cucumbers. He was named an
International Fellow by UF's Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences in


DAN CANTLIFFE (352) 392-1928

40 IMPACT I Spring 200;


Soil and Water Engineering Award

Kenneth Campbell, a professor and
interim chair of UF's agricultural and
biological engineering department,
has been recognized by the American
Society of Agricultural and Biological
Engineers (ASABE) for his creation
of sophisticated computer models
that provide a highly accurate view of
waterway dynamics. His work reveals
the ebb and flow of essential nutrients
and pollutants through waterways.
The Hancor Soil and Water
Engineering Award was presented to
Campbell at the 2006 ASABE Annual
International Meeting in Portland,
Ore. The award, first given in 1966, is
one of the group's most prestigious rec-
ognitions of engineering achievement.
Campbell was among eleven nomi-
nees from national and international
According to the ASABE, Campbell
was chosen in large part for his two-
decade-long endeavor to model phos-
phorous levels in South Florida. In
the early 1980s it was recognized that

excess phosphorous in runoff was a
major factor behind damaging algal
blooms that were clogging the area's
water systems. Campbell's work pro-
vides a clear illustration of this effect
and helped to develop regulations to
rein in the damaging effects.
In 2000, Campbell began a year's
Fulbright sabbatical in South Africa
at the University of Natal. He helped
develop a new computer model using
the object-oriented computer lan-
guage called Java to help land manag-
ers in the near-desert region make the
best use of their resources. The sys-
tem proved to be so adaptable that he
brought it back to UF, where he uses
it to predict runoff from ranches and
However, the model isn't the only
connection Campbell still holds with
South Africa. Since his time there,
Campbell has helped four students
from the region come to UF to pursue
graduate academic degrees. U


KENNETH CAMPBELL (352) 392-1864

Distinguished Alumni Award

Larry Arrington, UF dean for exten-
sion, received the 2007 Distinguished
Alumni Award on March 3 from The
Ohio State University's College of
Food, Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences Alumni Society.
Arrington, who completed his doc-
toral degree in agricultural and exten-
sion education at Ohio State, joined
the faculty of the UF's Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences in 1981. He
was appointed interim dean for exten-
sion in 2003 and has served as dean
for extension since 2004.

His professional affiliations include
the Florida Farm Bureau, American
Association for Agricultural Education
and the Florida Association of
Extension 4-H agents. In 2004, he
served as a member of the Board of
Directors with the National Extension
Virtual Diversity Center. E
LARRY ARRINGTON (352) 392-1761

IMPACT I Spring2007 41



Jimmy Cheek, left, UF seniorvice president for
agriculture and natural resources, receives a
$100,000 check from Florida Cattlemen's As-
sociation President Hal Phillips atthe FCAAllied

The Florida Cattlemen's Association
Foundation has given a $100,000 gift
designated for the construction of
a new multipurpose facility at UF's
Range Cattle Research and Education
Center in Ona. The foundation's con-
tribution may be matched dollar for
dollar through the Alec P. Courtelis
Facilities Enhancement Challenge
Grant Program.
"The range cattle center is an out-
standing facility for training students
interested in pursuing career oppor-
tunities in livestock and forage pro-
duction, as well as the enhancement
of natural resources that are linked to
our range and grazing landscapes," said
center director John Arthington. "This
gift will be a tremendous asset for the
enhancement of our facilities."

New multipurpose facility to be constructed at
the Range Cattle Research and Education Center
in Ona.


In recognition of his 23 years of
service to the Florida Farm Bureau
Federation, the federation hon-
ored Carl B. Loop Jr., former presi-
dent, with a gift to establish The Carl
Loop Legislative Internship Endowment.
The gift will support undergradu-
ate and graduate students participat-
ing in either the state or federal leg-
islative internship program through
UF's College of Agricultural and Life
Sciences. The $100,000 gift also qual-
ifies for a 50 percent match from
Florida's Major Gifts Trust Fund.


The National Foliage Foundation
Inc. (NFF) recently funded a new
$350,000 permanent endowment
through the University of Florida
Foundation to support graduate stu-
dent assistantships in the environ-
mental horticulture department.
Administered by the Florida Nursery,
Growers and Landscape Association,
the NFF is dedicated to funding
research projects that have the poten-
tial for enhancing the development
of the foliage industry and increasing
the enjoyment of indoor plants. The

Muncyand Herb Chapman

endowment qualifies for a 50 percent
match from Florida's Major Gifts
Trust Fund.

Herb and Muncy Chapman of Vero
Beach recently funded joint life chari-
table gift annuities with a gift of appre-
ciated securities to the University of
Florida Foundation.
"Fifteen of my 28 years with UF's
Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences were spent as director of the
Range Cattle Research and Education
Center, which served over half of the
cattle industry in Florida," Chapman
said. "Since retirement, Muncy and
I have written The Wiregrass Trilogy,
three historical fiction novels based on
the cattle industry prior to the Florida
Territory becoming a state. The Ona
center continues to provide vital infor-
mation for cattlemen in subtropical
and tropical environments, and we
wanted to help support their efforts."
The remaining principal value of the
annuities will one day establish The
Herb and Muncy Chapman Endowment
Fund that will support research and
academic programs at the Range
Cattle Research and Education Center
in Ona.

42 IMPACT I Spring 200


"Private Gifts Providing the Margin of Excellence"

The IFAS Development program serves as the cen-
tral fundraising effort to secure private support for the
University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences in partnership with the SHARE Council direct sup-
port organization and the University of Florida Foundation.
Charitable gifts provide the "margin of excellence" for state-
wide IFAS academic programs, research, extension and

There are several ways to support IFAS:
Charitable Bequests (wills and trusts)
Real Estate (residential or farmland)
Life Income Gifts (charitable remainder trusts, annuities,
retained life estates and retirement planning)
Stocks (especially appreciated stocks)
Life Insurance (new or existing policy)

Endowments are named permanent funds that pro-
vide annual renewable support for donor-designated IFAS
programs. Endowments are managed and invested by the
University of Florida Foundation. As of December 31, 2006,
there are 234 UF/IFAS endowments valued at more than
$78 million established by individual College of Agricultural
and Life Sciences alumni, businesses, associations and
friends of UF/IFAS. A new endowment requires an initial
minimum gift of $30,000.

U IFAS FiscalYear Endowment Values
80,000,000 -78,
70,000,000 -63.430,102
60,000,000- 53,449,791 58,014,236
49,560,111 49,226,101
0 -- -. -

All gifts designated for IFAS are payable to the
University of Florida Foundation and are generally
tax-deductible. Your gift may support IFAS academic,
research or extension programs, faculty initiatives, stu-
dent scholarships, enhanced facilities or equipment.
Permanent named endowed funds may also be estab-
lished to ensure long-term stable funding for any proj-
ect or program.

The state of Florida currently provides generous
matching funds for endowed gifts of $100,000 or more
through its Major Gifts Trust Fund according to the fol-
lowing state matching gift levels:

$100,000 to $599,999............................... ....... 50%
$600,000 to $1,000,000................................ 70%
$1,000,001 to $1,500,000............................... 75%
$1,500,001 to $2,000,000 ............................ 80%
$2,000,001 or more...................................... 100%

The Alec P. Courtelis Facilities Enhancement Challenge Grant
Program provides 100 percent matches for gifts to construct
or renovate UF/IFAS academic buildings.
Employers may also match employee contributions. Check
with your employer's benefits office, and see if they will pro-
vide a matching gift form for you to complete and return
with your gift.

For more information contact:

IFAS Development Office
Ken De\ ies. Assistant \ike President
for IFAS Detelopiment
13521 392-5424
osli NLCOC\. Dietcto of Deelopmnent
13521 392-5427
Joe NMander natli. Di re to of Developmnent
1352i1 392-5457

Office: (352) 392-1975
Fax: (352) 392-5115
Web site: http://share.ifas.ufl.edu

IMPACT I Spring2007 43



The University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
PO Box 110180
Gainesville, FL 32611-0180


Tom Wichman, an extension agent in UF's environmental horticul-
ture department, provides thousands of listeners with timely informa-
tion on the new "Gardening in a Minute" radio series.
Designed for Floridians with a passion for home horticulture and
-nrl-^-irl hu r T TUP' Tnct-i-lt onf F Pnnrl


Master Gardener Program, said broadcast coverage will be increased
as other stations are added. The program can also be heard online at
GardeningInAMinute.com. The interactive Web site provides garden-
ers with an opportunity to ask questions of a state horticulture expert,
icitra ate in horticulture contests and find more information on

and Agricultural Sciences, the one- gardening topics.
minute program airs on WUFT-FM in Listeners can also subscribe to Podcasts of the program at
Gainesville and WJUF-FM in GardeningInAMinute.ifas.ufl.edu/shows/podcasts/
Inverness during the 2 p.m. index.html.
hour and again at 6:18 "We're very excited about the impact this program can have
p.m., Monday through in bringing practical gardening information to the public,"
Friday. These 2 pub- Wichman said. "Although the series is for gardeners throughout
lic radio stations the state, more localized information can be obtained from UF
cover 19 counties in Cooperative Extension Service offices located in every county."
North Central and Visit SolutionsForYourLife.com for more information.
Mid-Florida. H e said "Gardening in a Minute" provides a chance for IFAS fac-
Wichman, who also ulty to become involved in an interdisciplinary effort. While the
coordinates the show is a gardening program, script content is reviewed by state spe-
popular cialists in many fields.
The program is produced at WUFT-FM in UF's College of
Journalism and Communications; UF's Center for Landscape
Ecology and Conservation funds production costs and underwrites
expenses for the series.
TOM WICHMAN (352) 392-1831
EMILY EUBANKS (352) 392-1831

S *6 66g. g(I~ .6i .S*66CT: S .6 S* :6TT6 .*I* S S

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