Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 UF/IFAS briefs
 Paradise lost?
 Florida first
 Roadmap for research
 Research on the range
 UF/IFAS resources
 Back Cover

Title: Impact
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00044207/00011
 Material Information
Title: Impact
Uniform Title: Impact (Gainesville, Fla.)
Abbreviated Title: Impact (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Institute
Place of Publication: Gainesville FL
Publication Date: [1984-
Frequency: three no. a year
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: IFAS, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Spring 1984-
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 2, no. 2 misnumbered as v. 2, no. 22.
General Note: Title from caption.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00044207
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001107412
oclc - 10908183
notis - AFK3775
lccn - sn 84006294
issn - 0748-2353

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    UF/IFAS briefs
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Paradise lost?
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Florida first
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Roadmap for research
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Research on the range
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    UF/IFAS resources
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Back Cover
        Page 32
Full Text

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T1 0-.RT7U-C aFR

"Pttn Floid FIRST"

sinfcn prvt secto inetmn in agiulua an natra

Vicerc President foreeopet nth iwst hr

Avr lrd' agriculture and Natural reouc setr cannot **

tie dog or ca d ha ede. Resarc at say the Unier

IliosoaSae,. Mihia Stae Pude etc Aoltoni

noog trnfes Ths, IF a a larg an esetal rol

Flaria FIRST" 0

a IMP-ACT 4 46

IMPACT is published by the
University of Florida's Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences
(UF/IFAS). For more informa-
tion about UF/IFAS programs,
contact Donald W. Poucher,
assistant vice president of exter-
nal relations and communica- Volume 15 No. 2 Winter 2000
tions: (352) 392-0437, or e-mail:
IMPACT is produced by
UF/IFAS Educational Media
and Services,
Ashley M. Wood, director.
Cindy Spence
Managing Editor UF/IFAS Briefs
Chuck Woods
Ed Hunter
Eric Lowe
Aaron Hoover
Photo Editor
Milt Putnam
Photographers 10
Thomas S. Wright
Eric Zamora Paradise Lost?
Designer UF/IFAS researchers are battling a green invasion as plants from
Katrina Vitkus other countries threaten to overcome Florida's native plants.
Change of address, requests for
extra copies and requests to be
added to the mailing list should
be addressed to Cindy Spence,
PO Box 110025, University FF
of Florida, Gainesville, FL 15 Florida FIRST
32611-0025, or e-mailed to
crsp@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu. Impact
is available in alternative for-
mats; visit our home page at
http://impact.ifas.ufl.edu 19 Roadm ap for Research
UF/IFAS is putting Florida
FIRST in developing knowledge Research Dean Richard Jones charts the course for UF/IFAS breakthroughs.
in agricultural, human and natu-
ral resources and the life sciences
and making that knowledge
accessible to sustain and enhance
the quality of human life. Visit 30 U F/IFAS Books
the Florida FIRST (Focusing
IFAS Resources on Solutions
for Tomorrow) Web page at:
On the cover: In the Depart- i
ment of Animal Science, Pro-
fessor Mike Fields, right and
undergraduate student Sekoni
Noel examine research findings
to improve reproductive effi-
ciency in Florida cattle. For more 2 4
on UF/IFAS cattle research, see
page 24. Coverphotograph byEric Research on the Range
Ranchers rely on Florida cattle research for the
UNIVERSITY OF latest developments to keep their herds healthy.


NAintpr 2nnO R

Owl provides natural

rodent control for farmers

Cosandra Hochreiter, below, says barn owls
T he ghost owls that haunt the Ever- "Many people in the islands and are using most of the nesting boxes provided for
Sglades Agricultural Area are a wel- Central and South America believe that them in the Everglades Agricultural Area.
come, though eerie, sight in the region's it is bad luck to see a barn owl, particu-
sprawling sugar cane fields, said Univer- larly during the day," said Raid, who of barn owls. But Boynton said he's
sity of Florida researcher Richard Raid. is based at UF's Everglades Research happy to provide testimonials for the
The owls, also known as barn owls and Education Center in Belle Glade. birds' pest control prowess and the
and death owls, perform a valuable Rumor has it that to see one forewarns homemade nesting boxes.
and death owls, perform a valuable
the death of a friend or a relative in the
service, with a nesting pair capable "People ask me what they need to
very near future.
of catching and eating almost 3,000 y near future.do to attract the owls to the boxes and
rodents over the course of a year, said To others, they are known as ghost the answer is nothing," Boynton said.
Raid and research assistant Cosandra owls because of their white feathers and "It's like 'Field of Dreams;' if you build
Hochreiter, of UF's Institute of Food ethereal ability to fly without making it, they will come."
and Agricultural Sciences. Rodents can a sound, despite a wingspan of four or
cause up to $30 million in damage per five feet. he s need the s
as the owls need the farmers. Tradition-
year to the area's 750,000 acres of sugar as the owls need the farmers- Edition-
year to the a s 750,000 acres of sugar Despite their scary reputation, the ally, growers have relied on rodenticides,
cane, rice and vegetablesowls are close to becoming endangered but the chemicals are short-lived and
Superstitions about the birds, how- in some areas, Hochreiter said. Popu- have to be reapplied frequently. Rats
ever, are plentiful. nations in the Everglades Agricultural and mice also can become bait-shy, ren-
Area are far below during the chemicals less effective.
normal because the
abandoned build- By contrast, barn owls are the per-
fect rodent control. Raid calls them
ings the owls love
"nature's mousetraps.
are disappearing, so
people need to pro- Hochreiter said researchers can tell
vide artificial habi- what and how much the owls are eating
tats for nesting and when they examine nesting sites. Barn
roosting, she said. owls swallow their prey whole, digesting
Hochreiter and the flesh and regurgitating the bones
Raid are testing and fur in the form of a pellet. The
models of barn owl owls are not good housekeepers so their
boxes mounted on nest sites are literally rodent graveyards,
littered with the bones and hair of their
posts to see how
receptive the birds victims.
are to such homes. The owls have made Boynton a
Sugar cane grower believer, although they may seem less
Wayne Boynton, than grateful for his efforts on their
who has been using behalf.
various models for
"When I come out to the farm at
several years, said
barn owls have night they swoop down and hiss at me,
he said. "But that's OK. Rats do a lot
moved into all the
of damage to sugar cane, and I see far
boxes he has put up
fewer rats on the farm when we have a
farm. high population of barn owls.

S Boynton's "You can't have too many barn
a Boyntoris
I= '" enthusiasm has Powls," Boynton said.
Enthusiasm has
earned him the Richard Raid, rnr@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
AI. : nickname godfather -Cindy Spence
-Cindy Spence

Health food supplement may

have great value -- for hogs

It's touted for boosting energy and Spirulina and other
helping the immune system. blue-green algae often are
sold in health food stores
But the real value of the faddish n ea d sore
in dried, powdered or
nutritional supplement known as blue- in dried, powdered or
green algae may be as a cheap and nutri- capsule form. Proponents I
tious food for hogs -- one that can be say the algae have numer
grown in part with an ingredient that ous benefits for people,
including easing depres-
commercial swine operations have long sion, b ting energy,
sion, boosting energy,
struggled to get rid of: manure.
even slowing aging.
Ed Lincoln, a UF agricultural and
SLncol, a U ariculturl an Lincoln downplays such claims, Ed Lincolns tests show that green algae can be
biological engineering professor, says a
biological engineering prfesr sas a saying spirulina may be nutritious but a nutritious feed for hogs.
variety of blue-green algae called spiru-
lina is an easily digestible, nutrient-rich s not magic.e Howeer, f h sas, earh mo
than a decade's worth of his research --
food that could largely replace soybeans year, five times the 4-ton annual yield
in hog feed. Farmers in many areas l pig farming operations -- shows from an acre of soybeans. "It's poten-

cheaper than soybeans but also provid- Lincoln says the spirulina in two Lincoln said algae cannot live in
cold temperatures. But it is ideal for
ing an ecologically friendly solution to outdoor lagoons on campus thrives on
the growing problem of hog farm pollu- a diet of sunlight, water, sodium bicar- farmers in southern and tropical areas,
tion, he said. bonate and hog waste collected from including many poor farmers in Third-
"You don't have to use as much land UF's experimental swine facility nearby. World countries who may have diffi-
"You dont have to use as much land Lincoln said he has collected and dried culty paying for soybeans.
as they use in farming soybeans, you
don't have to cultivate it, and it could as much as 100 pounds of algae per Ed Lincoln, elincoln@agen.ufl.edu
day. For each acre of lagoons, he said,
help prevent pollution from runoff," he day For each acre of lagoons, he said, -Aaron Hoover
said. he could collect 20 tons of algae per

Com m unity plays key role "Teen-agers spend a lot of time in
in preventing t n se schools, and schools are a place where
in preventing teen suicide kids become engaged," Perkins said.
In a study of almost 15,000 teens, igan youths, ages 12 to 17, who anony- "Sometimes we find kids who are doing
a University of Florida researcher has mously answered a 152-item survey, The well in difficult situations are drawing
found that community involvement plays Search Institute's Profiles on Student Life: something positive from the environ-
an important role in preventing suicide. Attitude and Behavior Questionnaire. For ment, such as the school environment. If
"U n his study, Perkins used 15 categories of school engages them, they are at less risk."
"Until now, we had never taken a
"community-based look at suicide," said information to assess the groups thoughts Perkins said school-improvement ini-
community-based look at suicide," said
Daniel Perkins, a researcher in UF's Insti- about suicide. Michigan students were tiatives, such as decreasing class size
tute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. used because of the widespread access to and enhancing after-school activities, help
"Previously, we had only used data col- schools there. schools keep teen-agers involved. Weath-
"Previously, we had only used data col-
lected from clinics or gathered on a post- Risk factors that showed up on the ring adolescence and becoming a healthy
mortem basis. Few studies have assessed survey and that were measured by Perkins young adult requires a sense of future,
risk factors related to suicidal behaviors were divided into three categories: indi- which families and schools develop, he
among a 'normal,' or community, sample vidual, family and non-family, said.
of adolescents. Individually, the survey measured reli- "The interesting thing about the
"So this is a different way of looking gious feelings, physical and sexual abuse, research is that it shows there are multiple
at suicide." hopelessness, and use of alcohol, mari- factors, not just one," Perkins said. We
juana and hard drugs. On the family often thought of suicide only in terms of
Adolescence is a time fraught with level, it measured family support, parental the role of the family. Now we know we
danger for teens, Perkins said. Accidents addictions and parental monitoring, need to look at the school community,
and violence are the top two causes of too, to find all the factors."
death for adolescents, but suicide is a Interesting to Perkins, though, was
close third, that one factor outside the family played a Daniel Perkins, dperkins@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Perkins' study involved 14,922 Mich- large role: school climate. -Cindy Spence
IWintpr 23nnn

Sea level rise leads to
tree deaths on
Florida's west coast

W hen University of Florida
W researchers first looked into Flor-
ida west coast residents' complaints of
dying palms, they thought the cause
was a disease.
But in a landmark study published
in the journal Ecology, a team of UF
and U.S. Geological Survey researchers
concluded the coastal trees are victims
of saltwater exposure tied to global sea
level rise. The phenomenon may be
a more immediate threat to coastal for-
ests than commonly recognized, partly
because small increases in sea level
can affect large areas of extremely flat
coastline on the west coast, and partly
because development and farms keep
forests from growing anew on higher
"What this does for me is bring
home the global problem of sea level
rise," said Francis Putz, a professor of
botany and forest resources and conser-
The research team launched the
project seven years ago at Waccasassa
Bay State Preserve, dividing forested
islands with differing elevations into
400-square-meter plots. They tagged
and counted trees and seedlings and
monitored groundwater salinity and
tidal flooding. Over the next three
years, they noted changes to tree popu-
lations and correlated them with mea-
surements of tidal flooding and changes
in groundwater salinity.
"Trees died during the course of
the study in several island plots, chang-
ing community composition ... South-
ern red cedars were lost from two of
the four most frequently flooded stands,
leaving cabbage palms as the only tree
species in three plots," the study said,
noting that cabbage palms were usually
the last to die.
Even when older trees and palms
survived, they often failed to produce
new seedlings, effectively making them
the last generation on the once densely
forested islands.


"Elimination of tree regeneration
may precede the death of established Phosphate waste product
trees by many decades," the study
says. "For cabbage palms ... the stand m a es g fe l er
with fewest surviving trees is estimated
to have suffered complete regeneration ow-cost fertilizer could be the answer ture grasses," said Rechcigl, who has
failure around 80 years ago." Lto dealing with the more than 1 bil- researched the issue for 10 years. "We
Botanist Kimberlyn Williams, a lion tons of waste material accumulated could increase the yield by as much as
Botanist Kimberlyn Williams, a ,
by Floridas phosphate mining industry. 20 to 25 percent. We were also able to
former UF researcher, said rising sea increase the quality of the grass. The
increase the quality of the grass. The
levels may not be the only contributor "We think the best use of the mate- t q o
higher the quality of the grass, the better
to the demise of the coastal forest. rial is to spread it out on pasture land in ight g s e il g i o tt
weight gains we will get in our cattle.
Drought and a reduction in freshwater a very thin layer," said Jack Rechcigl, a We want a high-quality forage for cattle
flow to the coast may have accelerated soil and water science professor with the a
"production, and we also want as much
the process. University of Florida's Institute of Food production, an w ao w
and Agricultural Sciences. forage as we can produce.
Sea levels are rising an average of One potential drawback to using
about 1.5 millimeters a year. On areas Florida is the No. 1 producer of hosphogypsum as fertilizer is that it
of Florida's west coast that have little or phosphate in the world. The byproduct contains low levels of radium-266, a
no slope, this small increase is convert- of the production process, phosphogyp- slightly radioactive compound. Radium
ing as much as 2 meters of forest to salt sum, is potentially an excellent source decays to radon gas, which has been
marsh annually, Williams said. of sulfur and calcium for farmers and linked to lung cancer, so the material is
ranchers, he said.
The forest retreat threatens coastal r r regulated by the Environmental Protec-
parks and nature reserves, Putz said. If "We actually were able to demon- tion Agency.
Florida wants to have coastal forests, state that it was very beneficial for pas- Rechcigl's study indicates there are
it should plan ahead and buy forested '" no environmental concerns with the use
areas now inland of the reserves, he and of phosphogypsum fertilizer. The study
Williams said. was funded by the Florida Institute
Francis Putz, fep@botany.ufl.edu of Phosphate Research, an independent
state agency.
-Aaron Hoover e
Under a special use permit from the
Right, Phosphogypsum, the byproduct of the EPA, the study tested phosphogypsum
phosphate production process, can be used as a Y with radium contents approaching twice
source of sulfur and calcium for farmers and what is allowed for fertilizer
ranchers, Jack Rechcigl says.
"We showed that when we applied
Below, Rising seas are damaging coastal trees agronomic rates of phosphogypsum to
at Waccasassa Bay State Preserve. Photo cour- H the land -- the amount needed to meet
tesy of Francis Putz. the sulfur requirement for the plants --
we could not even detect any increases
in radon gas," Rechcigl said. "We did
% 1not believe there were any environmental
hazards from applying agronomic rates
of phosphogypsum.
Even though the results show that
phosphogypsum has no negative envi-
ronmental impacts when used as a fer-
"tilizer, Rechcigl said one final study is
"We need to actually look at the
intake of the material into the cattle,
"slaughter the cattle and measure it in the

Jack Rechcigl,

--Ed Hunter

WNintpr 200nn 7

Mosquitoes have discriminating tastes

f you think mosquitoes like you better They fly up the plume until they determine whether they
than they like other people, you're arrive, for example, at a backyard cook- attract or repel mosquitoes.
probably right, say University of Florida out. Then they localize on other odors They built an olfactometer,
researchers. in the airstream and then, within yards a machine that measures
In a study to determine whether of a person, use vision and heat sensing mosquitoes' preferences for
In a study to determine whether :
to make a selection, various odors, and con-
the tiny vampires choose their victims to e and con-
nected it to a computer.
or feed indiscriminately, UF entomolo- "Mosquitoes use odor to sort attrac-
gist Jerry Butler and research assistant tive people from the unattractive people Small discs of cattle
Karen McKenzie found that mosquitoes to find those that are most tasty," Butler blood and odorous gel are
do, indeed, choose. said. "They are looking for the highest covered with a membrane to
"Uy, m s he p rates of human attractants." mimic skin, and then mos-
"Undoubtedly, mosquitoes have pref-
erences," Butler said. "People do differ, What are those attractants? That's quitoes are released into the
olfactometer. When a mos-
and in any group of 10, one person will the next challenge for Butler and McK-
, r.d .,re ,,an "thers. A, quito chooses a host' and
be fed on more than others." enzie. Already they know that natural feed, a eectca cha
feeds, an electrical charge
excretions through the skin and skin
Mosquitoes have evolved and sur- is transmitted to the com-
care products affect mosquitoes appe-
vived -- even thrived, Butler points out -- care products affect mosquitoes' app puter, which records the
because of their ability to choose the best feeding. Butler and McK-
hosts for their blood meals, which they Take perspiration. By itself, it enzie can then determine
need to lay eggs. They find their hosts, appears to be neutral, but as it ages bac- which substances the mos-
initially, through a keen sense of smell. teria begin developing, and that makes quitoes found most attractive.
All people have to do to attract perspiration a very strong attractant, Through their research, they hope
All p e he to Butler said. Bathing helps, but some
mosquitoes from even 40 miles away to help people protect themselves from
after-bath products don't. f
is breathe. As they exhale, their carbon after-bath products don'tmosquito-borne diseases.
dioxide and other odors mix to produce "The things you put on your skin to "Peole who think the attract mos-
"People who think they attract mos-
a plume that travels through the air- soften it and make you beautiful can be
,, "quitoes are the ones at largest risk of
stream. The plume acts like a dinner very strong attractants," Butler said. ,quitoer e es at la t rs
mosquito-borne disease," Butler said.
bell to mosquitoes, letting them know a T ,
bell to mosquitoes, letting them know a In their laboratory, Butler and "They'll have a hundred mosquitoes
warm-blooded meal is within range. .
warm-blooded meal is within rangecKenzie are screening materials to feed on them when a normally repellent

Man-made wetlands can help Nordstedt said. "I think other farms
in the Hillsborough County area and
urban farms treat runoff statewide may be able to use this
An environmentally friendly solu- Hillsborough County has at least 10
tion to farm runoff could help dairy- small dairies, and there are as many
men survive in an increasingly urban as 20 others in urban areas statewide.
and regulation-filled world, say Univer- Most of the Hillsborough dairies likely
sity of Florida researchers. could use the artificial wetlands, said
An artificial wetland undergoing a Jemy Hinton, an environmental special-
trial on a small farm in Hillsborough ist and agriculture liaison at the Florida
County showcases a low-cost, effective Department of Environmental Protec-
way to treat runoff for urban dairies, tion in Tampa.
said Roger Nordstedt, a professor of Nordstedt and UF/IFAS extension
agriculturalt and biological engineering agent Mary Sowerby head up the proj-
in UF's Institute of Food and Agricul-


Citrus land values

.. up for first time since 1990

T he value of Florida's citrus groves with supplies down and prices up, the
"' has increased for the first time since value of grapefruit groves increased 23.8
i1990, an annual University of Florida percent in the South region and 6.7 per-
survey of land values shows. cent in the Central region.
The 1999 Florida Land Value The value of citrus land still has
S Survey indicates that the value of agri- not rebounded, however, to its value at
cultural land has increased or remained the beginning of the decade. This years
steady in all regions of the state, said UF increases pushed orange grove land to
agricultural economist John Reynolds, almost $7,000 per acre and grapefruit
who has conducted the annual survey groves to more than $3,500 per acre. By
for UF's Institute of Food and Agricul- contrast, in 1990, most groves were sell-
tural Sciences since 1985. ing for $10,000 to $13,000 per acre.
Improved grapefruit prices are A large supply of citrus and lower
responsible for the increase in value for prices are still keeping citrus land values
Groves, said Reynolds, noting that 1999 down, Reynolds said.
is the first year since 1990 that citrus "Freezes in the 1980s wiped out
Slad has not decle in aue thousands of acres of citrus in Central
"It was encouraging and interesting Florida and pushed fruit prices and land
Jerry Butler watches as mosquitoes choose to see that across all agricultural cat- values higher," Reynolds said. "But grow-
between the arms of volunteers. egories, land values were up this year," ers replanted, and now those groves are
Reynolds said. "That's the first time online and producing; there's a lot more
person might have five. It's that kind of since the late 1980s that all categories citrus to be sold now.
ratio." have improved, and that's a positive The value of irrigated and non-
The value of irrigated and non-
Jerry Butler, jfb@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu note for agriculture." irrigated cropland and improved and
Last year, the survey showed the unimproved pastureland increased in all
value of groves decreasing because of regions of the state, although agricultural
an oversupply of fruit, with grapefruit land values vary widely from region to
growers being hardest hit. This year, region and even within regions.
The survey was compiled from 231
rounded by major roads and an indus- Tampa drinking water. So the owners responses.
trial complex. The wetlands add a layer of the farm decided to try treating the
of treatment to runoff created as part of lagoon water with the wetlands system. John Reynolds, reynolds@fred.ifas.ufl.edu
the farm's routine operations, Nordstedt The system consists of two -Cindy Spnc
and Sowerby said. Thomas right o .
and Sowerby said.separate constructed wetlands ThomasWright
Workers remove much of the farm's of about an acre. Each wetland
solid waste and send it to a company has plants, including pickerel
that turns it into compost. But they weed and arrowheads, that soak
also hose down holding pens and up nutrients. Runoff flows
a milking parlor, and the runoff from one wetland into the
flows into the first of three treat- other, and then across a sloped
ment lagoons. Maple Lane uses the grass field. Any remaining
lagoons, as do most Florida dairies, runoff drains into a ditch and
for storage and treatment of \aste is pumped back into the first 4
\atere. -\etland.
Years ago, runoff fro.o Roger Nordstedi,
the third lagoon floed into J rO i'ogeF uNol du
nearby Six MIile Creek. How- lao SoJerbJ,
ever, construction of the Tampa meso@gm.ifas.utl.edu
Bay Bypass Canal replaced the -Aaron Hoover John Reynolds says he was encouraged to find
.......................................................................................1999 land values up.
lA/intpr 2nnl q


S". 71

I r

16 .16

16 m

r, I.A.


*.O *OS@@@@ .

"Invasive plants are pushing out native Florida vegetation
at an alarming rate
By Cindy Spence

Here are pictures, you've seen them, of the "real" Florida. Black and

white photographs of cypress domes, of oaks dripping with moss
and sawgrass stretching to the horizon in the Everglades.
Today, there are places in Florida where this image can be found only
on a postcard.
At the millennium in Florida, Brazilian pepper is crowding out cypress
stands. Old World climbing fern is not only dripping from South Florida
trees but choking and killing them. And melaleuca is marching on the
Everglades, expanding its domain by 50 acres a day by some estimates.
The endangered Florida native, it seems, is more likely to be a plant
than a person.
University of Florida researchers say the green invaders from other
shores are a costly problem, both financially and ecologically. Bringing just
one of the invasive plants under control costs several hundred dollars per
day. And the list of the worst plant invaders contains 67 species.
"We are facing a Florida where native pfaqts-and animals are a minor-
ity," said Randall Stocker, director of th.-Ce teFt. Aquatic and Invasive
Plants, a part of UF's Institute of Fo ' i ura Sciences.
"When people drive the pinel. a see their precious
"pines completely overcome by vin e problem.
UF/IFAS researchers are po . however. Para-
dise, they say, won't be lost withotdf h i.

Under siege
Stocker says the Center for AqI4e ars ago began
to get referrals from state agen c% t a upland invasive
plants. And who turn { atic t sp have been
on the front linh& invv de yd .cam0hlorida
in the 1950s. M. ,: -" .' -
Imported as an aqua la4.yd t its- t-f4. s .
of Florida waterways as pe nt frdf .7. tl
into lakes and streams. Beforong, hydj i d fis
wildlife use of waterways. .:, ,I
Today, after decades of wor. g ne res tfl2 a, it*ci
area is decreasing. UF/IFAS agro'pmi "' dri t
like other skirmishes with invasiv a m"one -'

"Hydrilla management is n un million,
S"Hydrilla levels go down whe_ ___ .
SWater hyacinth, too, has decrease an aggressive
control strategy aimed at seeking ou g e small popi -
n lations before they can expand. T n thie 1970s,
A .:.:'' "Wir n 11

P71f If ILcrd, h irT .w e hrk~ii rh,: Iri A .7
s Ielp t._ dl._! .-h o

"B. F)\ said. rld cling fern he fern canopy becomes so heavy
_ Iieult e likel 1\011 1Id tlh i Itlieji popd-
ultii:)1 n eXlhi,: ill ,Ani Q Ith 1i0 ,\ i p -

W(ithi a aquatic specialists so well- .
move In to gaps left by hydiilla and ." L Milt Putnam
water hyacinth. r"
"Old World climbing fern isl The fern canopy becomes so heavy
With aquatic specialists so well- of
worst of the worst, said Langeland, that trees collapse. Some of the islands
versed in invasive plants and getting who is'also a member of the Floria|I have become so infested that, from
so many inquiries about upland plants, Exotic Pest Plant Council's Lygodi"1 the air, they look like they have b"ee
Stocker said it made sense to broaden n .
dT. ask force rPeople.-who Have worked to draped with a giant geey cloth. Where
the scope of the center, and its name .. -
e soe of t c a i n eradicate mrelaleuca-and Bryzilian peer, Old World climbing fern becomes estab-.
was changed to the Center for Aquatic .: .
and Invai. two of vrst manit.pests, say Old N listed, nothing else can'sirvive. ..
and Invasive Plants. I .' .' % ". r -*"
"* .voTa c ing rn is mnch wrse. I '. I' .
Research efforts revolve around "I,' "% *' 1 ., Dainty and dtgg rotbi". .-.
..Its thgqwrr e 4 eive seenin e". 3 "r. *
identifying appropriate weapons already Floridas rttQrl areas toid'ae"" .I )Thae "director f vegti..
in the arsenal, herbicides that will kill -. -A manlgmpnt vth Ib Florida
invaders but leave Florida plants alone. O'd World ti febin fn.s l'96 Water enage 'Distri:t'Say Lygc-.
Biological controls, organisms that will researeHers ahd land hlanagets so muAl f ht eyag* io is cllCaked in egen,
feed on the invading species but leave because of how quicf ylt has gotten ".. i rl if.look innocent to the public.
native plants alone, also are part of the out of control. It reireduces via almost .. i.
research equation but they c take a microscopic spores, which can be carried I"s hl'd.to convince people that
decade or more to become fe ive. anywhere by wind or by wildlife.- sormgthin green is ba Thayer said.
Biocontrols require intensive "This is green, it's pretty, it's not a
be sure that they do wsue t d o1 "In the last six years, we ve seen a- smokestack so it looks like it should be
"intend for them to do -- hundred-fold increase in Lygodiumn there. So people don't realize it's one of
intend forthem to do -- ath Florida, said Mark Musaus, man- the worst forms of pollution around.
with.o.t. harming nativ. J r ,..-*e %Whe wsi
without harming natives. r ".. er of the Loxahatchee National Wild-
L .- -I g1,e near West Palm Beach. "Left "The district has purchased land
Green menace '. heed, it will be astronomical in the because we wanted to preserve it,"
Old World climbing fern, ol-.o ae w years." Thayer said, "and this weed is destroying
dium microphyllum, is the newe st .. those lands."
SIn'ox hee, the vlnl has clififble
invader getting attention, says U -^' .* Iri xa hee, the vin has clinqd
invader getting attention, says U ... .. n Flood won't kill the fern, nor will
agronomist Ken Langeland. It already I ith a f cyprds and pines
covers 40,000 acres of South i^Flod uni ue feature of the "drought. And the presence of the
c o v e r s 4 0 ,0 0 0 a c r e s o f S o u t h F lo r id a % % tjr ".i. u i .. .. .
w' ade ottblfllt. With'a single leaf capable vine increases fire risk. Native plants
wilderness and is poised on the brink cprugej W a l t p .
Swildernessanhitg. lentnhtof more than 100 that norsnally would survive naturally
of an expansion that could make it the ... .a J. .
worst weed threat yet to Florida's native f the vi Ni's quickly into a dense occurring fires, die when the vine is
plants. -" .p 't an't penetrate, and present because fires burn hotter. Mas-
Ss ound covers die. sive clumps of the vine also break off
17 IMPACT L" .-. ; _A .

easily, carrying burning vegetation on plants have value because consumers like is mowed.
the wind and putting more acreage at them. To the Florida Exotic Pest Plant l s a i a
". Tropical soda apple is a biological
risk of fire. Council, the plants are invasive weeds. ,
pollutant, and this equipment provides
Old World climbing fern was first "Ardisia is suddenly starting to us with another tool to control this
documented in South Florida near Jupi- appear in dense populations in some thorny beast," Mullahey said.
ter in the late 1950s. It was brought natural areas, and since it's in all our Now, Fox said, tropical soda apple is
Now, Fox said, tropical soda apple is
from its home in Southeast Asia and back yards, it could really take off," Fox u
under control on agricultural lands but
Australia as an ornamental plant because said. "But since it has economic value, ,
spreading in natural areas. In fact, as
of its dainty, lacey look. it will take clear evidence that it is harm- s eac in er crse, nase lant
she teaches in her course, invasive plants
ful before it would be listed. If you say
Because its spores travel on the wind, ful before it would be listed. If you say and animals are second only to habitat
the fern is showing up in some of Flori- something will be a terrible invader, and destruction as threats to natural areas.
das most pristine and remote locations you're wrong, that's a big deal for some-
das most pristine and remote locations. ,
Langeland said the fern recently was dis- one who has made money from it. Stocker says Florida has a good
Langeland said the fern recently was dis-
track record in controlling plants it has
covered in Everglades National Park. With newer problem plants, there ack re i i s a t ho
c i t Som c b chosen to attack. But there is a lot of
... is another debate. Something can be
"Our experience with other invasive is anter deate etin an work -- and a lot of money needed --
clearly invasive and unwanted and still
plants has shown that plant populations ear vave ad w d ad t for the battles ahead, considering that
prompt a debate over how much
tend to hit a critical mass and then begin a eate oe o u one in four plants in Florida is non-
S research and funding to devote to it.
an exponential rate of expansion," Lan- native.
geland said. "Lygodium has reached that "Then we get into the prediction "There is an economic benefit to
critical mass." business," Fox said. "How bad will this p
n paying attention to invasive species
At Loxahatchee, Lygodium already is plant get?" now," Stocker said. "At a minimum,
smothering more than 20,000 acres of That is a difficult question to anything we do today will keep us from
the refuge's tree islands, a habitat crucial answer. Some plants exhibit invasive spending 100 to 1,000 times as much in
to songbirds, characteristics but stay fairly contained, the future just clearing these species out
"If we don't make this our No. 1 On the other hand, a plant that might of endangered species habitat."
"If we don't make this our No. 1
battle now, it won't make a difference eem contained can suddenly start show- The financial savings are not the
n inf up everywhere
what else we're working on, with wet- ing up everywhere only benefit from doing battle with the
lands or wildlife or other needs," Musaus Even when researchers and land plant invaders.
said. "If we're overcome with Lygodium, managers advocate taking precautions, "There's a cost to not doing any-
nothing else will matter." the debate shifts: Which plants get the t L "e nd
"most resources? thing, Langeland said. "We need to
Pritine, at a pri? examine our mindset when we think of
"How do we divide up these very invasive plants. There is a cost to the
Eradicating Old World climbing fern precious dollars? Inevitably there will be natural environment that we can't even
-- and many other invasive plants -- plants that we'll just have to deal with put dollars and cents on.
would "cost more than people want to where they are causing problems," Fox "There's a value of the natural habi-
hear," said Thayer, who recommends said. "And then there are the others.
focusing on preventing its spread. Lygodium is a very good example of tat," Langeland said, just for the sake
of having the natural habitat.
Fox, who teaches a new UF/IFAS something we need to jump on right of having the natural habitat."
course called Biological Invaders, said now." Kenneth Langeland, kal@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
Randall Stocker, aqplants@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
the cost of doing battle with invaders And it is Florida's natural areas that Alison Fox, amfox@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu
prompts a philosophical discussion, are at the most risk. When invaders
When a new invasive is discovered, show up on tilled land or in pastures, Alison Fox has studied wetland nightshade to
the tendency is to ban the plant and their impact becomes clear very quickly. determine its invasive characteristics.
sound an alarm. Before doing so, many In 1993, tropical soda apple, a
questions need to be answered. thorny bush that can reach 6 feet, cost
Does the plant have an economic ranchers an estimated $11 million by
value? With hydrilla that's easy to overtaking cattle-grazing lands and forc-
answer, so it can go on the Noxious ing ranchers to keep fewer cattle per
Weed List of the Florida Department acre, according to range scientist Jeff
of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Mullahey, who is based at the UF/IFAS
Inclusion on the list prohibits introduc- Southwest Florida Research and Educa- -
ing, possessing, moving, growing and tion Center in Immokalee.
selling these species. Recently, Mullahey has tested a
But what about plants like ardisia device that dispenses weed killer along
and nandina? For nursery owners, these the edge of a blade as tropical soda apple f IL
Winter 2tfnn 1

e*agrdadtratndntv ln
Belo arjs a fe of~ th pln naesta atcual ocreerhr
13-- Yos myIe fro trpia A* *

andFloidalan maages. ll re n te sate Noiou ed it

Inrdcdt4lrd eoe1? o

Florida FIRST reaffirms the IFAS mission of
developing knowledge in agricultural, human, and
natural resources and the life sciences and making that
knowledge accessible to people to sustain and enhance the
quality of human life.

Florida FIRST provides IFAS with a broad course and direction
for helping shape Florida's evolution over the next several decades.

Through Florida FIRST, IFAS has a role to harness the forces for
change to help Florida expand domestic and international business,
enhance natural resources, provide consumers with a wide variety of
safe and affordable foods, support community development, provide
enhanced environments for homes, work places and vacations, maintain
a sustainable food and fiber system, and improve the quality of life.

Florida FIRST
Focsing IFAS Res&r on 5olutlons for Tomorrow
http.//floridafirst. ufl. edu

Putting Florida FIRST. lation growth on natural dikeisificatioin, productiv-
resource systems and coastal ity, pest resistance and qual-

Major Program Imperatives resources. ity of plant and animal
Global Competitiveness of products.
Current and Emerging Food Technologies: Safety,
Water Management, Qual- genic microorganisms pose Agricultural and Natural Nutrition and Product
ity and Allocation-Cur- threats to the Florida food Resource Products -The Development -Changing
rently, on a statewide basis, and agricultural industry. future competitiveness and socio-economic factors, in-
the available supply of water Imperatives for addressing survival of Florida's agricul- cluding shifts in urban-
exceeds demand. Still, sev- Florida's pest problems will ture and natural resource ization, aging and ethnic-
eral regions of the state face likely develop the capability industries will be heavily ity, propel IFAS to modify
one or more critical water- to quickly identify poten- influenced by general research and education pro-
related issues. IFAS research tial problem organisms; economic conditions, the grams to meet evolving con-
and education programs improve and implement growth and change of pop- summer needs and farm-to-
must develop and provide early detection, develop pre- ulation, the global nature of table assessment of various
scientific and policy infor- vention and public educa- agriculture and trade, gov- plant and animal systems
mation to the public regard- tion strategies; and develop ernmental policies and reg- to assure wholesomeness of
ing the interaction of land, integrated pest manage- ulations, natural resource foods. Research and educa-
water, air and natural sys- ment protocols for major and environmental issues, tion programs must concen-
tems. plant and animal pests. and technology develop- trate on food safety, nutri-
Plant, Animal and Human Managing Urban, Rural ment. IFAS research and tion and health, particularly
Protection from Pests- and Human Impacts on education programs
A climate extremely favor- Natural and Coastal Eco- must develop the
able to plant, animal and systems and Resources- means for manag-
human pests; a continuous The increasing human pop- ing and conserving
invasion of exotic pests and ulation in Florida is the Florida's soil, water
a loss of some existing pest single most important and air resources for
control agents underscore factor in placing Florida's a stable, productive "
the need for a research and natural resource systems at and globally com-
extension imperative in pro- risk. The infrastructure petitive agriculture
testing plants, animals and needed to support Florida's and for harmonious
humans from existing and increasing human popula- coexistence of ag-
invasive pests (insects, dis- tion will favor a conversion riculture and nat-
eases and weeds). Over of natural and rural areas for ural terrestrial and
the past 20 year period, developmental uses. Such marine ecosystems tin
an average of greater than conversion is often in direct while maximizing
one insect pest per month conflict with the mainte- crop and animal
has successfully established nance of biodiver-
itself in Florida. Several sity and healthy eco-
plant species growing, or systems. IFAS must ..
thought to be, in Florida continue to empha-
are invasive and may prove size research, exten-
to be very disruptive to the sion and teaching
native environment and imperatives that
agricultural crops and to will effectively man-
the health and economic age the urban/rural -
well-being of our citizens. interface and help ,
Likewise, existing and mitigate the impact
potentially invasive patho- of human popu-

the efficacy of ic\\o food through community part-
products and supplements nerships and oluntee ismn
ielati\e to the needs of the to address these problems.

d%. so ad l Producing Society-Ready
all di\else populations. College Graduates in the
Human Resource Devel- Agricultural and Life Sci-
opnent: Families. Chil- ences and Natural and .
dren and Communities Rene \able Resources- r
-Major demographic and Nlajor foi ces that \\ill influ- "
social trends pertaining to ence IFAS academic plo-
families, children and giamis Ielate to funadingl "
youth are deep-rooted in enrollhIentI and admissions
industrialization and urban- police es. c le elopienl of
ization, e.g. smaller family state\ ide teaching p o-
size, increased life expec- gramis at Research and E cu- ail food distribution.
tancies. Recent social and cation Centers (RECs). cis- IFAS miLst advance tie
economic changes, espe- stance education. de -apaci to elp people -
ciallytechnology, have frag- cclu timing. deelopmn\ t of derstand Ithe public pol-
mented the social fabric of professional gladuaate pio-
i(\ en\ ironmInt. Just as
youth, families and com- oranis and the capacity\ foi the\ stri \ to understand
munities. inno\ation anc response to thii natural en\ ironnment in
canoe. IFAS aplcadcsic H
From a labor stand- change. IFAS adlic which the\ li e.
pl'oolamS l c\us t fulthel dce-
point, a number of exter- aPl(\ll lts tire-i de-
nl f s tt c d ar \elo the undeigaduate Special Initiath es
nal factors that could alter
the future of Florida's labor adae o T special iiaties impacts to the people of
market include Florida and RECs and c-\e:lnd teaching ale I critical for achieving Florida.
U.S. economic strengthprograls utilzig mltiple IFAS goals and those of the
Smr peaie nsfordeli\ ering s formal clientele served il the 21' Assessment o State Work
immigration policy, global-
it tion throughout the Celtur\ These initiatives Siuation and Outlook-
ization, the pace at which
state. ale e(conomiic analses and IFAS clientele ha\e a need
new technology is devel-
e l \l\ s o i nfolll tio claKo- fo s infolnatio n on -Iboi.
oped, and the availability Public Polic Issues-IFAS a or fo atin clea- for frtio o abo
i inghoietieon IFAS must de\ elop an ana-
of housing and public ser- iiust liha\e the capacity\ to A lI ical database to dea
ccrical database to include
vices for migrant workers. analyze and cle\ elop the Economic Impact Anal- af labor
an in\entor\ of labor needs
Florida communities information requiCed for sis-IFAS must condli. traiuctning
sotind pjtblic police\ dec i- and ptiblish economic
are challenged to meet the d p\ i- ad needs and levels of inten-
sions based on sc ieince and impact analyses for those
growing and varied needs sits of t0aiilg Iecuiled.
gtruith IFAS must not al\ o- c lientele andi inlldustries
of an increasing and diverse ho\\ to deal \ ith iiunder or
tcate public pohlc\. Hoe\ se t ed thioughiot the state
population. Communities(_' 1CLWI H(\- S\1lL10LlL 4te o eisupplies of labor. and a
are facing a wide range of ekei. IFAS should elp to lescril)e the iipatt o \ariet\ of %o lk-based needs
problems, including afford- decision iakeis utder- food. agj i lttr'e. atld atL- related to the ie\\ point of
able housing; overcrowded stand tie iiplications of ial and rene\\abl- resollce both employers and labor.
schools; care of children, public police\ dec isions or a s\stelis. ihC luding etotlOt -
schools; care of children,
elderly and low-income of areas s as lad isi. on the state of Fo Oigaunizational
elderly and low-income
families, leadership devel- anl \atel Iuse. en\ iion- ida. The econonlic anal- Coiillllllinlents
meopment and envotal qalit\. ull ball I al \sis etfoltt ittludI- I)th IFAS must also be
opment and environmen-
tal protection. Research interlacC. competitiness the de elopimenit of impact committed to making those
and education must de- in trade, human resource information and the internal adjustments that
velop collaborative efforts development, and hunger communication of those can maximize the poten-

Extension Delivery Meth- Institutional Marketing
ods-Instead of exclusively -It is imperative that the
relying on the traditional public be made aware of
model for technology and who IFAS is and the impor-
information delivery, IFAS tance of the people that
should develop and employ IFAS serves. IFAS must
"I '"new models particularly as expand its efforts in public
related to utilization of new awareness, external rela-
-' h technologies. IFAS must tions, and internal and
SI also explore new part- external communications.
tia o a omplisliing nerships and opportunities IFAS must therefore de-
missionI goals and I for collaborating with con- velop and implement an
objecties Those ad- -- ,.h sultants and other agen- analytically sound insti-
justments include re-
ducing adminclude istrative and/or vertical integration, cies in providing informa- tutional marketing plan,
duc d strte losses of market share, con- tion products and services, the objectives of which
costs, developing new pro- summer demands, land use, These consultants and agen- include creating awareness,
ing n ew extension method- and regulatory restrictions cies in turn will repackage developing preferences and
ologies and im ementing have dramatically altered information for final deliv- securing support commit-
an institutional marketing the level of required ser- ery to end users. In moving ments.
an institutional marketing in to new models, IFAS must
plan. vices n many program- Concusion
matic areas. IFAS must develop ways to maintain Fonclusion
Efficiency and Effective- determine the level of ser- its identity as the original Florida FIRST reaf-
nessAdministrative costs vice to be provided and seek source of the information in firms the IFAS land-grant
ness-Administrative costs vice to be provided and seek ce thmandate for serving the
within IFAS generally are programmatic partnerships concert with county part- orida
relatively low, less than 10 with clientele, industry ners.
percent. However, the groups and other regional Accountability Measures- Working with stake-
mission of IFAS is to or national land-grant uni- Local, state and federal holders, IFAS has engaged
develop knowledge and versities. Areas of high funding entities are increas- individuals, groups and
make that knowledge avail- potential for such efforts ingly requiring the devel- organizations to articulate
able to increase the quality include animal research and opment of accountability its vision for the 21st Cen-
of life. Thus, continuous extension programs, engi- measures that demonstrate tury. That vision, com-
efforts must ensure that the neering research programs the value of public expen- bined with the land-grant
maximum amount of that require a minimum ditures. Such efforts are mandate for service, drives
resources are devoted to of site-specific characteris- requiring a revolution in the IFAS research, exten-
the programmatic areas of tics, and distance educa- the management and inte- sion and teaching imper-
teaching, research and tion. USDA funding re- gration of administrative atives for putting Florida
extension in support of this quirements for regionaliza- and programmatic informa- FIRST
mission. These efforts re- tion of programs is also a tion. The efficiency bene- For Florida FIRST
quire that opportunities for driver for developing new fits of such efforts include base papers and summaries
administrative cost-savings collaborative partnerships. evaluation of administrative of trends, visit the Florida
and general increases in effi- In short, IFAS must find requirements, consolidation FIRST web page at http://
ciency, both at central and ways to leverage its re- of databases, more efficient floridafirst.ufl.edu.
unit levels, be continuously sources with other organi- data processing, increased
analyzed, zations, groups, individu- on-line processing at the
Program Partnerships- als, universities and finan- user level, better man- UNIVERSITY OF
Changes in the nature of cial institutions to max- agement and program- i FLORI A
agriculture and natural imize program effective- matic decisions, and
resource industries created ness. savings in reporting A S
by industry consolidations efforts.

Q&A with Research Dean

As dean for research and director of R ich ard Jon es
the Florida Agricultural Experiment by Chuck Woods
Station, RichardJones oversees a The statewide research and education programs of the UF's Institute of Food and
statewide network of research faculty Agricultural Sciences include the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, the
based in Gainesville and 15 Research Florida Cooperative Extension Service and the College of Agricultural and
Life Sciences. What is the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station?
and Education Centers extending
from Homesteadin Sout Florida to The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station (FAES) is the research arm
of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). About 550 IFAS
Jayin West Florida. faculty have FAES appointments ranging from 10 to 100 percent for a total

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UF/IFAS research supports the beef cattle industry in Florida
By Ed Hunter

When you think of Florida tural Sciences (UF/IFAS) are working to and giving birth to a healthy calf annu-
agriculture, what comes provide Florida ranchers with the help ally. The effort encompasses researchers
to mind? they need. Beef cattle research is con- from the departments of Animal Sci-
s ad o ducted on the main campus in Gaines- ence and Dairy and Poultry Science,
ine anr othe ville and at the Range Cattle Research 24 other departments and the colleges
citrus? Of course. Winter vegetables?
cr A O ore te ea and Education Center in Ona, the of Veterinary Medicine, Medicine, Den-
Sure. And don't forget the seafood from
re A tlantic Oean and the afo fro Southwest Florida Research and Educa- tistry and Liberal Arts and Sciences as
the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of
Mexico. tion Center in Immokalee, the North well as two USDA labs.
Florida Research and Education Center r r r
n .t ,t ,)!; .a .,1These researchers are loosely orga-
But what about beef? Florida has in Quincy, which includes the North nized as the Interdisciplinary Reproduc-
nized as the Interdisciplinary Reproduc-
the third largest beef cattle herd east Florida Beef Demonstration Unit, and t B G w
tive Biology Group, which has worked
of the Mississippi and the 12th largest the Subtropical Agricultural Research 30 yes to iroe reprodcie ei
overall in the United States. The state Station in Brooksville, a cooperative cicy in cl e ad oher ive
has more than 8 million acres of range effort with the U.S. Department of Agri-
and improved land for grazing, and culture. Mike Fields, a UF/IFAS animal
the Florida Agricultural Statistics Ser- The Beef Demonstration Unit is reproduction specialist and reproductive
vice estimates the value of the 973,000 biologist, and dairy and poultry science
head of beef cattle and calves at $936 moving to new facilities in Marianna, Graduate Research Professor William
million. where its focus will change from demon- Thatcher said a cow has only about
station to research and it will have the
a 50-50 chance of having a successful
But it takes more than land, cows only public Bull Test Facility in Florida.successful
and feed to run a ranch. Today's ranch- Reproductipregnancy.
ers face challenges ranging from making Fields said problems can occur at
sure cattle reproduce efficiently to man- A major thrust of research focuses two points in the reproductive cycle
aging pastures for grazing. on improving reproductive efficiency -- when the embryo and the mother are
trying to make sure each cow stands interacting on a biological level. The
Researchers with the University of the best chance of becoming pregnant first point is during maternal recogni-
Floridas Institute of Food and Agricul- tion when the embryo sends a biologi-
tion when the embryo sends a biologi-
-- .T it:. cal signal to the mother to let her

S. A significant number of cows just don't
16 ,.h tV ". get the message when junior says, 'Hi
".. ".." "* a *- mom, I'm here!'
"Something is going on in there,
maybe the signals are not strong
enough," Fields said. "We're losing up
to 25 percent of our embryos during
the first 21 days. We think there are a
lot of problems with the signaling con-
tributing to this loss.
"The timing may be off, the embryo
may be growing slowly so the signal
that is produced is coming out slowly
Far left, Ronny Hartzog, coordinator of
research programs, checks two cows in a cattle
chute at the UF/IFAS Beef Demonstration
Unit in Marianna.
Left, animal science Professor Mike Fields
looks over some cattle at IFAS facilities in
Thomas Wright
lA/intlr 20l3l 2S

or the uterus may not be picking up the signal of gestation which is when the placenta starts
"" I properly," he said. to form.
2 Thatcher said one way to make sure the "The embryo develops and starts to con-
Ssignal gets through that seems to work involves nect maternal and fetal systems. We need to
( .the use of growth hormones. find out whether or not that's a loss that

"If you give cows growth hormones at really needs to occur," he said. "It may not
insemination, you increase the pregnancy rate, be a viable embryo or maybe there is some-
Thatcher said. "We think it stimulates develop- thing wrong with embryos developmental
L ment of the embryo." pattern.
And if the embryo grows faster, it increases Fields said the levels of embryonic losses
the chance of maternal recognition occurring as may not be good for the cattle industry, but
it is supposed to. But what cows are eating as far as nature is concerned, they may be
affects the pregnancy, too. necessary if the embryo has chromosomal
abnormalities or other problems.
"Ranchers can have certain plants in pas- Fields said most ranchers see the success-
tures that are high in certain kinds of estrogens, Fields said most ranchers see the success-
called phyto-estrogens," Fields said. "Then what ful pregnancy and don't realize that they may
have lost a calf or two to embryonic loss
can happen is it sensitizes the system and all of a
sudden you've got an embryo under stress. along the way.
"It takes a robust embryo to override all of "This loss is not an obvious loss, it is
this other environmental interference," he said. insidious because what happens is the bull
breeds the cow and the rancher comes up and
The other critical point is at about 30 days says 'ah, look at the beautiful calf,"' Fields
of gestation, when the embryo is supposed to said. "But it's not just the loss of the calf.
implant in the uterus. Fields said some reports
indicate the industry could be losing up to 20 There are things that compound that
percent of pregnancies at this stage. loss down the road, things that add on to it,"
e re ce s Fields said. "It affects management down the
Beef cattle reproductive specialist Joel Yelich road and cattle breeding later. This is research
said researchers aren't sure why embryos are that is going to lead to a productive end."
being lost prior to implantation.
"We are trying to characterize if there is Stocking density
a certain stage where the majority of this loss Once the calves are born and the herd
is occurring," Yelich said. "A lot of the loss is grazing, the next challenge facing ranchers
appears to occur between day 30 and day 60 is trying to find ways of improving their
bottom line. The goal is to be able to raise
Dairy andpoultry science Professor Pete Hansen the large cattle that will produce high quality
checks on the first two calves born at UFas the beef for the lowest cost possible. One way to
result of in vitro fertilization. meet that goal, according to a researcher at
the Southwest Florida Research and Educa-
tion Center, is to put as many cattle in a
pasture as you can without overgrazing the
"The most important thing to a producer
is pounds of beef produced per acre," said
Jeff Mullahey, a range management specialist.
S "What we found is that as you increase the
: ., stocking density you get more beef per acre.
S" ." -Mullahey said that an ongoing UF study
is showing that high stocking densities
S yielded as much as 270 pounds of beef per
Sacre as compared to 122 pounds per acre
"when using low density stocking.
"Even at high stocking density there was
ML' enough forage to feed them and produce
twice the beef per acre as with the low stock-
Sing density," Mullahey said.

He said another important phase of the this bunch of progeny is going to be tender
study will compare the effect on groundwater of so you put them in a specific feeding regi-
high density stocking. men and market this type of product as
strip loin or T-bone," he said. "When we
Beef quality know these other cows aren't going to be
In addition to looking into ways to make as tender, we put them in a different feed-
sure that a cow successfully calves once she ing program and they're going to be ham-
becomes pregnant, Yelich said he and other burger.
researchers are trying to find ways to identify
cows that will produce the best-tasting beef. Heat tolerance
In conjunction with researchers in Brooksville, But while the Brahman cattle might
Yelich is trying to find genetic markers that not produce the most tender beef for the
could be associated with the quality of beef in grill, they do have one attribute that makes
Brahman cattle. them highly suited for the Florida cattle
"industry -- they are much more heat toler-
"We are using some of the genetic markers
ant than their European cousins.
that have already been identified by other
researchers," Yelich said. "We take DNA sam- "They were imported here because
ples from progeny that we've taken through the they're much more heat resistant and para-
feedlots, collect all the quality information on site resistant than European cattle," said
the carcasses and then see if there is an associa- animal physiologist Pete Hansen. "So you
tion with any of these genetic markers with have that added advantage of having the
these quality traits." right genes to be able to regulate its body
The traits include the growth rate of the
cattle and the tenderness and taste of the beef. Hansen said that while the Brahman
Yelich said, the Brahman, originally imported tolerate the Florida heat, they come with
from India, tend to produce beef that is less their own set of problems, including the
tender than the European Angus. beef tenderness issue.
Yelich said the next step is to try to come up UF/IFAS cattle geneticist Tim Olson is
with a way to judge the potential marketability looking at a possible genetic component for
of the beef from specific lines of cattle. heat tolerance in cattle.
"We actually may be able to predict what "There seems to be a single gene in
the quality of that carcass is going to be before some tropically adapted cattle that makes
we even feed the animals," Yelich said. "The them have very short hair," Olson said.
eventual endpoint is, can you take either a sire "This appears to be highly associated with
or a progeny and take a blood sample from the heat tolerance of these cattle."
them and be able to select animals that you Olson said researchers are looking at
know are going to consistently yield a quality breeds like the Senopol, a breed developed
product? in the Virgin Islands using West-African
"Or maybe we can get to the point where and other cattle, which exhibits the short-
you have a bunch of progeny and you know hair trait and is very heat tolerant but does


-". I

not have any Brahman genetics. The R esearcs
goal, he said, is to find a way to take s arcrs
the heat tolerance of the Senopol and
introduce it into other breeds. at ways to feed cattle EdHunter
"Senopol will graze out in the
middle of the day just like Brahman n many ways, Florida isn't one state -- But researchers say there is no one-
cattle will. The heat tolerance of the lit's two, or maybe even three. At least size-fits-all solution to the forage question.
breed seems to be, in my opinion, when it comes to climate and how that "We are always looking for new spe-
entirely related to this gene," Olson climate affects what cattle ranchers need cies," said Robert Kalmbacher, an agron-
said. "What we'd like to do is introduce to do to maintain their calf herds. Grasses omist in Ona. "All of the grasses and
that grow well in South Florida, and sur-
this gene into breeds that don't have it, that grow well in South Florida, and sur- legumes we have all have some problems.
suchive mild winters, are not as beneficial to We're not looking for that perfect one, we
such as Hlstei and A s. ranchers in North Florida. know we'll never find it.
know we 11 never find it.
William Thatcher, thatcher@dps.ufl.edu A ., ,
Pete Hansen, hansen@dps.ufl.edu And similarly, the cool season in "Were looking for one that will be
Pete ansen, hansen s. South Forida is generally too short and haendsuled
Mike Fields, fields@animal.ufl.edu South Florida is generally too short and able to fill some void in the pasture pro-
Joel Yelich, yelich@animal.ufl.edu too mild to grow some of the cool season duction program," he said.
forages like ryegrass and clover that are
used in the northern end of the state. So One grass that might fill that void, at
researchers in Gainesville, at the Range least for South Florida ranchers, is limpo-
Cattle Research and Education Center in grass.
Martin Adjei, assistant professor of Ona and at other sites around the state "Limpograss produces more forage
agronomy examines a mole cricket. are constantly on the lookout for new during the cool season than most of our
Adjei is leading efforts to use a nem- grasses or management strategies that will grasses adapted to Florida," said Lynn Sol-
atode as a biological control for the help ranchers feed their herds cost-effec- lenberger, a tropical forage management
destructive insect. tively throughout the year. specialist in Gainesville. "It is a warm
Season grass that is productive during the
summer. It has enough cold tolerance to
, ..be more productive during the winter than
other forages."
SBut limpograss isn't perfect. Sollen-
"berger said that while it is high in energy,
it is relatively low in protein and is suscep-
tible to insects.
_The problem ranchers face, Sollen-
berger said, is that as the days shorten,
-, bahiagrass goes dormant, allowing it to
"survive the winter months. One solution
used in North Florida is to plant annuals
like ryegrass and clover, which grow
during the winter to provide feed for
cattle. When the weather warms up, the
bahiagrass grows again for summer graz-
"Researchers in Ona and the North
Florida Research and Education Center in
S. Quincy are looking at ways to make bahia-
grass less sensitive to the shortening day.
Ona agronomist Paul Mislevy is using arti-
ficial light to see if he can make bahiagrass
grow longer.
&I "Once we prove the light makes plants
grow in winter, then we need to find a
bahiagrass plant that day length doesn't
influence," said Mislevy.
In Quincy, UF has launched a breed-
S" ing program to look at more than 1,500

varieties of bahiagrass to see if any of them
I are less sensitive to day length.


But until researchers find a grass that
will grow year-round, ranchers will have to i o t o
supplement grazing in order to maintain
cattle herds.
"Get into the cool season and certainly
when you get into the hard winter, you researchers searching for the perfect not sufficient to make them useful in
start getting frost and the crude protein R cow for Florida's beef industry -- modern day agricultural systems," he
content and the digestibility of these one that can tolerate the heat and said. "The cattle have been here for
grasses goes down to very low levels," said insects and reach reproductive maturity over 400 years and are quite adapted to
Findlay Pate, director of the Range REC. at an early age -- need look no further minimal nutrition and all the problems
"So you need nutrient supplements in the then their own backyard. they would have to face before modern
winter. day cattle production systems were
Living essentially wild
"Also, in our production system, we at several locations around incorporated in Florida."
breed our cattle during the winter so they the state, including a herd Olson said the cracker
have a calf and are nursing so they are in
have a calf and are nursing so they are in on Paynes Prairie near the cattle could hold any
great need," he said. "The time of year
when yu need the mst nutrition ito s ny t University of Florida number of desired attri-
when you need the most nutrition, it's not
provided by the grasses or forages." campus, is a breed of butes including heat
cattle that has lived tolerance, disease
The most common supplement, happily in Florida resistance or inter-
according to Pate, is molasses, which is for nearly 400 years. nal parasite resistance.
sometimes fortified with natural proteins The cattle handle Florida's But he said the breed is
such as cotton seed meal and feather meal. heat and insects and are not commercially viable
"We have taken these various byprod- adapted to living on scrub on its own because it just
ucts and put them together to see if we and native vegetation. doesn't get as big as popu-
can feed cattle very economically in the Florida cracker cattle, also known lar cattle like the Angus or the Brah-
winter," Pate said. "This would improve man and doesn't grow fast enough to
as Florida scrub cattle, are related to
reproductive performance as well as wean- meet the needs of the modern rancher.
ing weight of calves." the Texas Longhorn. The cracker has
horns similar to, but not as long as, its But he said there is enough interest
Other researchers are looking at ways Texas cousin and both are related to the that there are a few private herds around
to keep Florida's insects from attacking and "criollo" cattle brought to this country in addition to the semi-wild crackers on
destroying the forage before the cows even from Spain. state land. In fact, Olson owns a few
get a chance to graze. One common pest head himself and will be buying several
is the mole cricket, which, according to Institute of Food and Agricultural head himself and will be buying seer
head from the Paynes Prairie cracker
UF/IFAS forage specialist Martin Adjei, is Sciences animal breeding specialist Tim hed they ae s a a ca
extremely hard to eliminate with pesticides. Olson said the cracker cow is important er e te are so at a oca e
stock market.
"The mole cricket is always hiding in to maintain as a breed specifically
the ground eating roots, you can't just spray because it is so well adapted to the "I need a bull for next year," he said.
for it," Adjei said. "It only occasionally Florida climate. In addition to their potential use in
comes out at night to eat leaves and veg- "It's very important for the state, in research, Olson said cracker bulls are
etable material." the state parks, to maintain these herds also sometimes used in rodeos.
Adjei said the ranchers currently place because of genes that they might have," Tim Olson, olson@animal.ufl.edu
chemical baits on pastures to try and kill Olson said. "It's the justification for -Ed Hunter
the cricket with little or no short-term suc- people trying to preserve these genetic
cess. But Adjei said UF is working to re- resources -- these rare, old breeds.
issue a license for commercial distribution
of a nematode that can be used as a biologi- They may ave genes ta are UF/IFASAssociate Professor of animal science
cal control. useful for current production even Tim Olson checks on the herd of Florida
"Thethough their own production level is Cracker cattle that lives on Paynes Prairie
mole cricket and kills it," Adjei said. "Then
live young nematodes come out and rein-
fest other crickets. It's a self-sustaining
system which is what we need."
Martin Adjei, mba@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu .. .4 i. I.
Paul Mislevy, pmis@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu Ai "
Robert Kalmbacher, grassdr@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu a.- W. q "
Findlay Pate, pate@gnv.ifasufl.edu Afhk. A .
Lynn Sollenberger, les@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu -' 3 *J r F'
Or m. t .
6 :.L.

Citrus Growing in Florida Best Management Vegetable Gardening
Fourth edition Practices for Florida in Florida
Larry K. Jackson Golf Courses Jim Stephens
Frederick S. Davies J. Bryan Unruh University Press of Florida
University Press of Florida Monica Elliott UF/IFAS Publications
This concise, compre- UF/IFAS Publications Savor the joy of picking home-grown
C(iLru. Oivwing hensive guide com- With more than 1,000 golf courses, vegetables and herbs no matter where you
Shines the practical Florida leads the nation in giving residents live in Florida, or how much growing space
aspects of day-to-day and tourists lots of places to indulge in a you have. It's easy when you follow the
citrus production with "good walk spoiled," as the game of golf has advice found in Vegetable Gardening in Flor-
its underlying horti- been described. ida, a new book written by Jim Stephens,
cultural principles in professor of horticultural sciences at the
a clear, easy-to-read But Florida's hot, L'-.'' University of Florida's Institute of Food and
L-r. ,. q style. humid climate and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS).
buggy soils make main-
Citrus Growingin training golf courses just Stephens offers clear explanations of
Florida makes citrus cultivation accessible as challenging as play- useful gardening terms and provides the
to commercial growers, students, and home ing them. reader with a complete primer in color to
gardeners. The book covers planting, pro- grow abundant vegetables and edible herbs
duction, grove management, fertilization, A newly revised -' in Floridas unique climatic conditions.
spraying and harvesting. For students of and updated resource
horticulture, it discusses the history of the published by the Uni- Included in the book are types of gar-
crop, its varieties, propagation and areas versity of Florida's Institute of Food and dens, including hydroponic and organic;
of production. For the homeowner, it pro- Agricultural Sciences helps industry staff site and vegetable variety selection; garden
vides practical advice on growing everything keep courses in Florida and throughout the establishment and care; soil fertilization and
from tart lemons and tangy limes to the South up to par. management; cul-
sweet oranges and thick juicy grapefruit that Best Management Practices for Florida tivaton practices;
define the flavor of Florida. and harvesting and
define the flavor of Florida. Golf Courses helps golf course superinten- storing. Vegetable
storing. Vegetable
Changes in the Florida citrus industry dents and related industry professionals Gardening in Flor- .
since publication of the third edition grow and maintain some of the world's ida is co-published ^ -
in 1990 make this revised work indispens- most prestigious courses in Florida and by the University -'
able. Expanded and updated, this edition the South. It's also an excellent reference Press of Florida and
addresses new regulations, invasions from for regulatory agency staff and students UF/IFAS Publica-
exotic insects and diseases, and increasing enrolled in golf course management classes, tions.
foreign competition. The appendix provides The 240-page resource is written and
detailed information on citrus costs of pro- edited by UF turfgrass experts J. Bryan
duction in various areas of the state. New Unruh and Monica Elliott who, between Identification and Biology
chapters deal with global production, meth- them, cover turf from North to South Flor- of Non-Native Plants in
ods of marketing and selling fruit, and the ida. Unruh works at the UF/IFAS West Florida's Natural Areas
importance of fruit quality for success in Florida Research and Education Center in
local and worldwide markets. Jay, while Elliott's office is at the Fort Lau- Ken Langeland
Larry K. Jackson retired in 1994 as profes- derdale Research and Education Center. K. Craddock Burks, co-editors
sor of horticultural sciences at the Univer- Best Management Practices for Florida UFFASPublications
sity of Florida, where he had taught for Golf Courses covers its topic thoroughly. Over the years, hundreds of species of
32 years. He remains active in the Florida Chapters describe putting green construc- ornamental plants from foreign shores have
citrus industry and currently serves as sci- tion, irrigation water management, fertilizer graced Florida's home landscapes. But some-
entific coordinator for the Florida Citrus and fertilization practices, cultural practices, times, when a species escapes into Florida's
Production Research Advisory Council. and pest management. A section of 106 woods and swamps, it shows a darker, more
Frederick S. Davies is professor of horticul- color photographs helps the reader identify invasive side.
ture at the University of Florida, where he disease, pest and cultural symptoms. Some non-native weeds displace native
has taught for 20 years. He is co-author of Information in the book is suitable for plant communities and cause expensive
the book Citrus. golf courses throughout the entire southern headaches for Florida's land managers, says
coastal plain, making it a valuable reference Ken Langeland, co-editor of Identification
for golf course management professionals in and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida'
Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, Missis- NaturalAreas, and weed scientist from
sippi and Louisiana. the Department of Agronomy, at the Uni-
versity of Florida's Institute of Food and

Agricultural Sciences Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) the families, essential identifying features,
(UF/IFAS), Center and the University Press of Florida. and horticultural information for each
for Aquatic and Inva- f f plant, including origin, cold hardiness
Written for everyone from the hom-
sive Plants. zones, propagation techniques, and soil, fer-
eowner with limited gardening skills to the
tilizer, irrigation and light requirements.
The importance landscape professional or property manager,
The author also discusses identification fea-
of the topic is under- this book guides the reader through the
tures under clearly demarcated headings of
scored by how many practical steps involved in selecting and
growth habit, foliage, stem and bark, flower
agencies worked maintaining healthy and Florida-appropri- a fit. it a m een lo r
and fruit. With a comprehensive glossary
together to publish it, ate shrubs for all landscape uses.
of terms commonly used in plant iden-
Langeland points out.
Illustrations take the reader through the tification and a cross-referenced index of
Co-editor is K. Craddock Burks, a bota- fundamentals of site selection, design plan- common and scientific names, readers will
nist with the Florida Department of Envi- ning, and preparation. The shrub selector be able to find information with minimal
ronmental Protection. The book received guide pictures 172 Florida shrubs in color, effort.
review and content from scientists at the listing hardiness zones, growth habitats and This book is
Florida Department of Environmental Pro- environmental considerations. The final
intended for use
tection, Florida's five water management section focuses on establishing and main- b b d -
districts, the Florida Department of Agri- training shrubs. Both exotic and Florida by backyard gar-
deners and will be
culture and Consumer Services Divisions native plants are included. especially handy
especially handy will b
of Plant Industry and Forestry, the Florida
of Plant Industry and Forestry, the Florida Co-authors Ed Gilman and Robert for newcomers to
Game and Fresh Water rish Commission,
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Black teach environmental horticulture at warm temperate
the Florida Department of Transportation,
the Florida Department of Transportation, UF/IFAS. Gilman develops educational and subtropical
Florida Atlantic University's Environmental
Florida Atlantic University's Environmental materials and conducts programs for the areas who seek a
Sciences Program, the National Park Ser-
e t nursery and landscape industries, and Black reliable resource apu. ,i.
vice, The Nature Conservancy, and the
is the consumer horticulture specialist for for plant selection
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council.
UF. Your Florida Guide to Shrubs is the and care.
"Plants that potentially can change the companion book to Your Florida Guide to
Bijan Dehgan is professor of environ-
natural ecosystems of Florida -- and in some Bedding Plants, also co-authored by Gilman ian ehan i roeor o
mental horticulture at the University of
cases already have -- profoundly affect the and Black.
Florida. He is internationally recognized for
taxpayer's pocketbook as well as the natural Your Florida Guide to Shrubs is available his taxonomic and horticultural research
landscape, displacing native plants and ani-
at bookstores, or directly through UF/IFAS. and major publications on the endangered
mals and interfering with land management
sago palms (cycads) and the physic nuts
goals, says Langeland. atropha).
While the book is complete enough for Landscape Plants for
a land manager, the language is appropriate Subtropical Climates
for the interested homeowner.
Bijan Dehgan
University Press of Florida
Your Florida Guide "In one volume this book seems to
to Shrubs encompass all the plants native and exotic
grown in Florida. No small feat! ..
No other reference work that I know of
Robert Black
University Press of Florida covers the field as comprehensively as this."-
UF/IFASPublications -Edward Golden, horticultural consultant,
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.
No matter where you live in Florida, From Florida to California and on to
your landscape can Hawaii, gardeners who want a current,
feature shrubs that thorough and user-friendly guide to the
are easy to grow and thorough and user-friendly guide to the
maintain. Thats the common indoor foliage and outdoor land-
maintain. That's the
message of Your scape plants for U.S. Department of Agri-
Florida Guide to culture zones 8, 9, 10, and 11 will welcome
Florida Guide to
Shrubs.- Selection, this fully illustrated book.
Establishment and With precise line drawings for nearly
Maintenance, co- 500 plant species, the work presents a
published by the description of cultivated ferns, cone-bearing
University of Flor- plants, and flowering ornamental plants for
idea's Institute of warmer climates. It offers a description of

WA/intpr 2f0l R1

Vice President for Agriculture and Natural Resources NON-PROFIT ORG.
The Uni\ersity of Florida U.S. POSTAGE PAID
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences PERMIT NO. 540
Gainesville, FL 32611-0180


Li' ersin/ of Florida aquaculture specialist Ruth Fimncis-Floid. right, motes Gulf'o .lerico
sturgeon from a transport truck to a pond at L Ts Sam I/rhr/Ill Aquaculture Demonstration
Farm in Blountston n. Earl/ teits bi n-sernchenr a L Ts Instirute ol Food and A.lriulrural
Scienres shown that the Culf smigeon ran he raised sucessfuilli in a controlled en ironment
such as fish larms.

All programs and related activities sponsored for, or assisted b\. the Institute of Food and \griculIural
Sciences are open to all puerons regardless of race. color, age. sex. handicap or national origin
Inii formation from th is pLIb hI at or is ai t dIilable in alti nate folinars Conrirat t the EdLitartional Mile(ia
and Se-ri es Unit. Unirrsits of Florida. PO Box 110810. Gair-s ille. FL 32611-0810
ISSN #07-18-23530

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