II A A- A I'* L
F 'I \77
-=.~th Future... :,,--
In this issue of IMPACT magazine, we celebrate the University of Florida's
150th anniversary. Today, the UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
(UF/IFAS) is among the top 10 comprehensive, deep science, full-service
educational institutions in the United States. We serve not only Florida, but also
the nation and indeed the world with cutting-edge programs.
Like many other land-grant institutions, UF/IFAS faces several major
challenges for achieving and maintaining world-class status. As we seek to shape
our future, we must do so in the context of these challenges.
Core, underpinning values: We must maintain access to our programs for all
those we serve or need to serve, and we must also be accessible to them in order
to understand their needs. We must strive to remain the peoples university and
develop the sort of research and education programs that will truly benefit the
people. We must sustain a commitment to excellence in all our research, teaching
and extension programs. We must also maintain an integrated approach in these
three areas along with an appropriate international focus.
n Na l We must also be committed to diversity. Strength and progress is the product
of inclusion. We must strive to widen the circle of those who participate in our
programs and benefit from them.
Balance: As we seek to be the peoples university, we must strike the appropriate balance
between short-term needs fulfillment and long-term solutions, basic and applied research,
public and private partnerships, production of science versus the production of scientists,
technical vs. general undergraduate education and proactive vs. reactive programs.
Holistic approach: We must not narrow our vision. We understand and confront complex
issues from a systems point of view. In this regard, we will seek to eliminate or at least minimize
barriers to interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary program development and implementation.
Public awareness and support: We must demonstrate to all Floridians that UF/IFAS
programs do make a difference in their lives. It must be an ongoing activity that continues day
in and day out, year after year. The public does want to know who we are and what we are
about. We have an obligation to demonstrate our commitment to them so they can understand
how both applied problem-solving work and basic science research touch their lives.
Accountability: The numbers part of the accountability equation is important, but so are
outcomes. What our programs have accomplished in all of our mission areas is an important
piece of any accountability model. We must continue to document outcomes and how our
programs continue to enhance the quality of human life.
Future planning: We must plan our programs in a way that makes sense. Forces that shape
our future are external, and many are out of our control. While we must focus on our
priorities, we must also be flexible and able to adjust to the rapid change that inevitably will
UF/IFAS is committed to maintaining its profile as a truly outstanding full-service
teaching, research and extension enterprise. The tradition of quality, excellence, responsiveness
and access that has gone before us deserves our maximum effort. We will continue that
IMPACT is published by the
University of Florida's Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences
(UF/IFAS) and is produced by
IFAS Communication Services,
Ashley M. Wood, director.
huckoods Volume 19, No. 1 Winter 2003
ChanaJ. Bird 4 150 Years and $54 billion for the state's economy,
Carol Churh Counting and UF/IFAS research is key to the
future success of these and other
Patrick Hughes Tracing its roots to 1853, the industries. Page 17
Chris Penko University of Florida celebrates its 2 te i
Ami Neiberger-Miller 1 SOth anniversary in 2 24 Extension
DorothyZimmerman Coordinating Teaching, Research Christine \addill dean Cor
Photo Editor and Extension extension, describes how extension
Thomas S.Wright E.T. York, chancellor emeritus of education programs help sole
the Stare Unixersir S\stem ree ie. some of the many challenges facing
Photographers the need for organizing UF Florida residents during a period of
Eric Zaora Institute of Food and Agricultural rapid urban growth.
Sciences IUF/IFAS). Page 10 In Every County
Designers 11 Teachin \W'ith education programs in all 6-
Audrey S. Wynne acLllg Florida counties, the Florida
TracyD. Zwillinger immn Cheek, dean of UF's College Cooperative Extension Service is
Michele S. Lminette .
f lAgricultural and Life Sciences, the historic gateway" or "front
For more information about provides an overview of the college- door" to research-based
UF/IFAS programs, contact past, present and future. information from UF/IFAS.
Donald W. Poucher, assistant vice Statewide Programs Page 25
president of marketing and uth
communications: (352) 392-0437, By offering degree programs inout Deve
or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. many areas of the state, UF's Now serving more than 250.,0.00
ofaddress, requests for College of Agricultural and Life .outh across the state, the 4-H
Change of address, requests for o
extra copies and requests to be Sciences has a unique coaching Youth De\elopment Program has a
added to the mailing list should be million. Page 1 long and rich history of helping
addressed to Chuck Woods, PO Res meet the needs of youth in Florida.
Box 110025, 16 Research Pae 32
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-0025, Richard lone', dean for research. Florida Sea Grant
or e-mailed to outlines the importance of effective Modeled after the land-grant
email@example.com research programs for Florida" concept, the Florida Sea Grant is
Impact is available in alternative growing economy
formats; visit our home page atrowing economy the only program of its kind to
impact.ifas.ufl.edu $54 Billion Economic Impact address marine and coastal needs in
Florida agriculture and natural the state. Page
re-ource industries generate
Copyright 2003 by the University of Florida. All rights reserved.
On the cover: The facade of Griffin-Floyd Hall on the University of Florida campus includes a decorative frieze and the
College ofAgriculture name set in stone. The photo insert in the window provides a more complete view of the building,
which was constructed in 1912. Originally named after Wilbur Floyd, an assistant dean of the college, the building' name
was changed in 1989 when Florida citrus grower Ben Hill Griffin contributed funds for renovation of the structure. The
building is now used by UF's College ofArts and Sciences, and the College of the Agricultural and Life Sciences is located
in new facilities. (Photo by Thomas Wright)
Photos of historic buildings: top, Tropical Experiment Station in Homestead; middle, Newell Hall at UF in Gainesville;
bottom left, Rolf Hall at UF; bottom center, Dairy barn at UF; bottom right, Floyd Hall.
Historicphotosfrom UFDepartment ofSpecial Collections, GeorgeA. Smathers Libraries and UF/IFAS photo archives.
WINTER 2003 3
TRACING ITS ROOTS TO 1853 WHEN MOST OF THE STATE WAS
AN UNINHABITED WILDERNESS THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
CELEBRATES 150 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN EDUCATION AND
RESEARCH IN 2003. IT'S ALL PART OF A YEARLONG
CELEBRATION "HONORING THE PAST, SHAPING THE FUTURE."
From -0 students 150 vears ago to more than In addition to the experiment station and other
-i.000 students today. the history of the Unikersity of programs started at the Florida Agricultural College.
Florida is impressive bi any standard. Peter Henry Rolfs began collecting plants and
S o t exchanging specimens %ith herbariums in 1891. The
The seeds of one of the nation, largest and most herbarium he started is now a unit of the Florida
comprehensive state uniersities were planted in 1853 Mueum of Natural Hl.torv at UF in Gainesville.
when Florida Governor Thomas Brow\n signed the first
bill providing public funds for the support of higher \Vith growing competition between the Florida
education. establishing the East Florida Seminary in Agricultural College and other state schools for limited
Ocala. public funds, it soon became apparent that Florida had
more schools than it could afford. Without change,
In IS66. the seminan- %%as mo\ed to Gainmeille. I
SIn s'66. the leminan a moved to Gamesville. none would have been able to achieve a national
But it w\n't Florida first college-level institution. That reputation for excellence, said UF Archivist Carl Van
distinction belongs to the Florida Agricultural College. Ness.
which opened its doors in Lake Cirn in 1884.
"That's when Henry Buckman. a political ally of
Probably no federal act has contributed more to the nor Napoleon Bonaparte Brovard, proposed
Governor Napoleon Bonaparre Bro\tard, proposed
development of higher education in the nation than the consolidating the insirutions under a single governing
Mlorrill Act of 1862. Also knm% n a, the Land-G;rant L,
Morrill Act of 1862. AMlo kno n ap the Land-Grant board." Van Ness said. "Au a result, the Buckman Act
College Act, the Mlorrill Act provided funding for a pated b th Flida egilMature in Spring 1905.
institution of higher learning in each state "t teach creating a Board of Control that later became the Board
such branches of learning as are related to agriculture of Regent. members \vere appointed by the governor
and the mechanical arts."
to oversee consolidation of the state's public institutions
The Florida Agricultural College was the of higher education.
first land-grant college in the state and theaid the aized ur school: one
Van Nes said the act authorized four schools: one
first :chool to offer a Cour-Year, post- C[or men Ino\ the Uni\ersirv of Floridal. one for
secondary education. \hen the Lake Cin
co aOeen omen Ino\ Florida State Ulni\ersi'n), one for African-
college as opened to women in 189-'i Americans I now Florida A&NI Univeririv and one for
I enrolled many more than the deaf and blind Ino\% the Florida School for the Deaf
expected. and Blind at St. Augusinel.
The Hatch Act of 188- provided When all Florida communities were invited to
federal funds to establish agricultural submit proposal for hoping an institution. Gainesville
experiment ration at each of the and Lake City emerged as the top contenders for the
Morrill Act colleges. The Florida
ll colleges. The Florida men school. Both communities made generous offers
Agricultural Experiment Station, the ocah, land, afterr and other concesions. In JulV
states oldest research center, \as 1905. the board selected Gainesville as the new home
established at the college in 1888. for the University of the State of Florida. In 1909. the
name was shortened to Universin of Florida. The first
Foiugomd: Cules. ioa rthe EL.r xoman enrolled in summer seions at LIF in 1 09, and
Fl/orid Sca, in Gn ',le gender segregation officially ended in 194-. Integration
S 880. came to UF in 1958.
thll,'g the 1,8'80i.
Bacwkroun plodpro: Blueprint Beginning in 1899. traveling exhibitions and
o'rhe reside'lce ha/I offthe lectures known as Farmers' Institutes facilitated the
SFlorida Airi -liurual College
in Lake Ctrj:
.VILitr.i'.-nfle b.'oa,-'ic hi/,ot, i tlets at ru/e' Ent Floida D 'ing the eadr'I 1900, \'eell// HaIl/ became home ro
Senomii ind G(infe.e'r/le din ig the 1880s. the F/otd.i Agi/drnm.i/ Expc.'rmeut SMftao' at r/'e
L nl'ir\''rif F/rFnih;, in t G!iestilt.
extension of information from the experiment station to Glade followed in 1925. and by the 19-10s there were
Farmers. \'ith the passage of the federal Smith-Lever more than 13 stations throughout the state. In 1939.
Act in 191-. the third component of the university's the legislature authorized creation of the School of
agricultural program. the Florida Agricultural Extension Forestry I now the School of Forest Resources and
Service (now the Florida Cooperative Extension Conservation as part of UF s College of Agriculture
Service), was established as the outreach component of Inow the College ot Agricultural and Life Sciences).
the land-grant university.
In 196-. under the leadership of Provost for
By the mid-1920s, virtually all Florida counties Agriculture E.T. York. creation of UF's Institute of Food
supported a county extension agent. Women and Agricultural Sciences IUF/IFASJ l as approved by
participated in extension work through the home the Florida Board oE Control. York also served as
demonstration program. Florida 4-H. extension's youth interim UF president from 19-3 to 19-- and
development program. began in 1909. chancellor of the State Universiry System from 19-5 to
Among all ULF programs, extension is unique
because of its relationship with the boards of county The action consolidated into one overall program
commissioners in Florida's 6- counties. In many four previously separate units: the College of
respects, the extension service is the "historic gateway" Agricultural and Life Sciences, the Florida Agricultural
or "front door" to the vast resources of LF. Experiment Station, the Florida Cooperative Extension
R z Service and the School of Forest Resources and
Recognizing the need for statewide agricultural Conservation. Today, the UF/IFAS administrative
research and education centers, the legislature umbrella also includes the Florida Sea Grant Extension
established the Citrus Experiment Station Inow thegram and programs in the College oreterinar
Citrus Research and Education Center; at Lake .Afred Medicine.
in 191". The Everglades Experiment Station (now the
Everglades Research and Education Center) at Belle
In 1884, rlt/ Florid 1.-!gricnitw/ Collie ,'1 Like C'i as' rl-. thi.r /ied-grnmt co/Age ;, tlC shrift' and r/'- /t rsR i / ro
offer a foutr-'iear posr .stconid., edlcatrio. Pi'rtred abi't'e is t'he Sclence Builting of'tle Flo idlt .-l itcldrital Co/lgce'.
WINTER 2003 5
In 1985, UF was added to the ..sociation of In the 1920s, citrus growers \cre fortunate to get
American Universities, a prestigious higher-education 84 boxes of fruit from each acre of grove land. Today.
organization comprising the top 63 public and private thanks largely to UF research and education programs,
institutions in North America. UF's placement Florida citrus groves produce 294 boxes oranges per
recognized outstanding recarch and education acre. and citrus industry\ contributes $9 billion o, the
programs in agriculture and natural resources, stateC' cconomn.
engineering, medicine, business and la%.
Row crops and toragc, L o\er almor a third ol
"The growth and development ot Florida Florida's total land area, generaung about .S billion in
agriculture into a $54 billion indutry has been due in farm income. In the 1 20., farmers harvested a fe\
large part to the success of statewide IF/IF teaching, hundred pounds of peanuts per acre. Today average
research and extension programs over many dcades," ildd is 2,500 pounds per acre.
said Mike Martin, UF vice president for agriculture and ,
natural resources. "The progress has been truly Developed in the 1920s, the 505,000-acre
impressive, and the challenges of the future range from Everglades Agricultural Area now produces vegetables as
feeding a growing world population to growing plants well as rice, sugarcane and sod in one of the nation'
on a ma n ned mission to the planet Mars." most unique and productive regions.
Nl.irrn said Florida h.i not always been a prolific Revenue from Florida tomato productLion no\
agricultural producer. In 182 I. at the end of some 250 exceeds $400 million annually, and strawberry
\ear. of Spanish rule. the colony was still importing production generates $167 million in farm income.
food from Cuba. Even in 1 880, 376 years after the first Spanish range cattle, imported more than 400 years
permanent settlement and ",S years after statehood ago, formed the genetic base for today's cattle industry
Florida \va-s till onlv a frontier state, with 23,000 farms in Florida. Modern breeds developed by UF researchers
and more than 2 1.000 square miles of wildcrness. The have dramatically improved carcass quality and beef
tateC's subtropical climate, rratic r.iinfall. poor soil and production efficiency. Florida's livestock production -
nuimrous pest problems combined to defeat all but the beef cattle, dairy cows and poultry now generates
hardiest farm families more than $1.3 billion annually.
From the 1800s to the early 1900s, Florida forests
"were hea\ ily exploited for construction, shipbuilding
and railroad e,:p.nsion. le Ic.a ing th r-e i. ith the
challenge of rest ring tirctr. hlodcrn production and
coner, ation practices are key to sustaliIng.i forest-
iproduc, t industry c ith an annual economic impact of
more than $8 billion.
The histor\ of Florida:s en' ironmentral horticulture
industr\ dares back to 1881. % hen the first ornamental
plant nurer\ \%as established in N lanatce Counrul
Toda 's s ctate ide industry. % which has gro% n rapidly
O.s sincee the laC includes landscape plants. flo\.ers.
foliage and turfgrass. Florida's environmental
horticulture industry is now the nation's second largest.
Tropical fruit production in the Homestead area
dates back to the 1800,. and the industry now covers
16.000 acres in nine South Florida counties. Avocado.
banana, carambola. mamey sapore. lime. longan. I\chee.
mango and papa\'a production has a 513- million
ith' I19-O.. (cPo h C,'hk 'boo:. I
'/',*gpond plcoro: E.\aci,' ,(c'n L .5. L),fi'Plilt, ,
oq/:-Ig ,'ic /."I ,'m C ; (,ij /, /cj,' I iIfta, tl,. ;,,c 't fpr, ,t,'d,' oji
/Ive ',tc,,'/ to lIelp ,' [/It tc "'t ,/, h, ,eh ),, '01, 1 ,01 j;, 0 t. ,'
_-- i 'A 9,'
Aquaculture, a relatively new industry, is another UF's new strategic plan, unveiled by UF President
fast-growing segment of Florida agriculture. Production Charles Young in August 2002, is to become one of the
of alligators, aquatic plant,. .atctih. clams. crawfish. m.p 10 public recarch uni\ ersitic and one of tih top
eel. ,[turgcon. tilapia and tropical fibh annually 20 universities overall in the nation. This %ill be
generalc more than -43 million in farm income. Other accomplished by strengthening ULF's core programs.
new enterpriscs uch as hydroponic arming grow In including the Institute of Food and Agricultural
plan in oil mcdia generate about $20 million in Siences.
"This is clearly a time % hen the Universi\ ot
In 2I.11.12. agricultural and natur.il rci ourcc iIndultrles Florida llmL devel p incre.ied capabilir to iccEt tie
LonrribuLtcd more than $-4 billion to Florida', cconom\. changing ndccd of the state it serves." the plan states.
One out o[ e eerN four iob in dCte clatc i: related to 'To do so. it must realize its potential a- a malor plavcr
agriculturL and 1natlural rcTouIrces Florida's second in American and international higher education ind
largest[ later tourimni and most economical-ly sable research."
industric". -C ,licl'h 0,//
FOR MORE INFORMATION ON UF'S 150TH ANNIVERSARY. PLEASE VISIT
THE FOLLOWING WEB SITE: WWW.UFL.EDU/150
T., tr' If. ThI i T opical E.\p.'iinilt; Station in HonI e rt:'.u/ as establisl'c,,/ /,I 1929:; Top iglr: Fl/oralt; fne' plod, cts I'es'
ioet' t ,iM 'll,> .. // t 'lfa.ilal etit ling d'f In 1800: ,ta t ,ca/t 1900, becal.se of te lah of o.u/s: Bortoni /'fr: D iting the
18006 ,opt, l t op its sI/, fi .1 Sot' do, in/d it > I' a /.c C'I t'c'cd and packed htv /.;'/,od fo d/ /ic'er to iotrl'crii ma rket in
ioi-ic', V.i If'/ 11a/,i1' l is noat. B tonorin i-i'!t: D i,,,i, rtle 1950s. -4-H ,gi'ets .at C.n/p C/ot-i'crl itpioaz',' d letisso s l
h'o fi /th,,i'E tOiI -i-H t Eithbr, filou thc .Scemiio/e T ibce.
Norrhi. et Ordinanec 1890
i p' cd. iuh ri[ n ig The. ,: nd N..rrill .Ac ;
th, ,, .,f p. blic land paswCd. pr,,% idng furtuhcr
for support of ndJ..r -,r.nt Kir c.,Iks, Pir
education, thus ,I i., Fl.uildilg 1 b, u cd
ci .tLab. 1ihing t[he l nd- tIr inirIu[lIi.ni t.'.r blacd
1853 grani p irielple ,cudcnc,, Ic ldn-i ti, che
crica[i'n fi I him oricl.li
The '[ ire-funded East .H bcl, hd-L ic :ntl!gee
Fl.. r d Seminary was
Lltablished in Ocala
where classes were 1888
held until 1861 and
Prelands to the seveAbraham
inoln, .donating public rh
866 1 62 _. i-iti, rc,.ch
support, and gned b
maintenance of at least
The Lai[ Fl ..... one college where the The first classes oF chc Fl. rld
Scminrnn m icdr I..mi leading object shall be, Agricultural College mn on
Srlands to the severacludinf lclc lH ir c1pnilndi in October
states, the ,-,I,,tIc hh r n h ,.,, t, ,r, ...t
Il i... ih is for the ",, rld,J., ma lgr-cu S[udn[ .pcrml [31. The
1866 support,I and f,,r i,:ncfc 1884
t-iincurillc .\cadcmi cud, & ird including inw .[u[,.n v. 1[e rl..fh in [hI
rh-r had beai norlirc', [, [iit c, ccach .c rc c. he c;Jlcd s .:ullepc.
rablred in mainna br nch at lest
.. t leading object shall bericulturd College
18'O igricu]iurc and ch 1883
mccchala t ic in urdh
rI..ridi -g ,lr .c p.- -c J h c.. pr..n,,., rId lib ril nter I ir -alt de e. he1. The
an act establishing the Iud p,,r Crl l iuiidudins.n ,ruces cIclcd Lkl. CiC i, h
Florida Agricultural n.,taI a i L cr I i. h nhe \. r 1d d r the i L eIIc ..'
College and appointed a in the 'i c, pursuits
Board ofTrustees. and professions in life.'
Inca'. r d.
i ICalnlllg 1. arC related I., i
State legislature amend.i, rh cc ^ .. ,h the ,uch,,ri rc,
act of 1870 and stipuld e
that the State Superintcn n r ,,
of Public Instruction r".uid
virtue of the office" wa-
2 president of the college
Jonathan Gibbs, an Aftrican I he ti'rs buildirr a' boici in
Aa.II .it n 'd irmir o 1nd8. Falu aij l lic hich mrlcd
; en an I o e a '; cii lk .:' F. c-I .unrie mn
app..icd uprendthat the State Superint1 bu ,.] i .lic dd
public ;nrrl;'r I Tn u II hnstru n "c tur r uden.
death ..mi i nr,.h.. Iacer. virtue of the office" wa a h
Gibbi S ri- idcnn of he I.: i.i th Icollege ic
Floridnathan Gibulu bs, an Atrican I li ,r. ,ipc[ .1 cr i. bLuc
which had not been built. and never opened for classes.
8 IM PACT
2003 and Beyond
UF/IFAS initiatives for shaping
S* Water quality and
Managing human impacts on 2000
The Florida Agricultural natural and coastal ecosystems
College opened to female Global competitiveness Legislative oversight group
students. Human resource development conducts another study of
and management IFAS. Concludes that IFAS
Society-ready graduates mission serves the state.
Public policy analysis UF/IFAS develops
Plant, animal and human knowledge in agricultural,
1903 protection from pests and human and natural
diseases resources and the life
Florida Legislature approved Food technology: safety, sciences and makes that
the name change of the college nutrition and new product knowledge accessible to
in Lake City to the University development sustain and enhance the
of Fl..rida qialitrv f hi.lmn life
FI.rida [ I E u. app... \ if S c,.p ]' [. *rm I teaching
rhe Buck nrr. cr t .. rbl. ., r .. ar. J grcc o IF. A undergc, th.u.
the LUnivc in it-t Fl. rid., i. pl ,cc-boun.d lrudcnri in Norih. IcL Ja ell mandated
ai., il nd remic hc nir and suti h FI..rdi. re, ic,.. t u i ...rginl in
^ Wiun. l fro -in -.. C -i .c 4F N irii ,i RL.,Iur-., and .uren ide pl.: rarni.
1id d1i El.. .r.nrncnr forImd I c.:d ir.c .ullnlucc and
and adnmni rcrcd thruueh the Bo rd ot Rcgcmn ,..n[lu.c
\i.c [rl.. J. ni t...r .Aer..ulrure IL-AS i ei tec ,e i. in r nig
1906 -- ad Narural Rc.rcc. I F.S i c n d Fl rd 1,at1 .."d
Ibcgin ic c.crch crancr i grli.Lulturc. d human
The ...II .. m c J ,.I n and natural reziurce
a lcl. II I .. i bc,,r 1 p1rr it Indu [tric,.
dhc nc,. Lni' cr, FI._rid- ---
Agr.ulure l, lcdr ,r. th. 1970's 1964
'rc7lr *c C 1J -.,. ch. 1964
Planning and c4tabli;hmcnt Ii FS i .. cd a [hc
rhc _lc \ Ir a app,., he
dir,! unhin a ]- niJ ra!'.E
umbrella ftr LiF progi ims
190- In aricul[ur, ftircarn and
rcl ird pr,.gr m,
N,lo Nmi-.dmenc the
h ill A.. ,' ,,st !i n. and1946
1908 !s,"i i. ,'"c
rurrh-r im rc.,.cd Th. Ln-.crln .c o Fl ida
I ... .r ,f Iiond Nhrrdl Act -ppr..priauF._.n. r. Iand-gr.in bec-ame ieidui arianl.!l
and rhc Ncl,..n A mrcndmeni uI...r*rr,,',
L .u_!,,kd D,) Pu,.H ., R11...
The School of.Agrituure 6 1939
bc e ni lc Ct .,ll e ge ,_,f r .Frid i _l. YIl l(W t I r i[Ld
Agr,,!mr" ihe sch.,il of Forc ki a[
1914e incr.i .4' Fh.,rida
The Smith-l ccr .A,:ct pa.Cd Ifl
pr,.. .-.Iint cJcr il 'uppvri Cu.r
Iand-c ran[ Ir.l u[inll; r of.rt r
ctduc ilon ,al pr[.igrarm n_ 19t1
Lnh in.e th appli..ltiif.n if
Llueul and practical Florida 1 C urplurc cFabhhcd
int,.rnm htion bc, ..nd thcir hc firt e agr,uliurd rc, ir l.
.a.n'pu' c d-,i,.,Lugi ..llIC.. rand educauiirhn cer.ntpr
c.rcnilean c ttrt i h at Lakc Alred
arid ,cal Culmrnunilicl
WINTER 2003 9
1'ople ad% iscd mi nor \\e spent J lot o [t tim aimining Org.n7laMtonl i:lSes
1o lcae c he U.S. and invited input rom many people, both % within and
k Dcpartmient of Agricultuirc out1lid the uti crin. Fvtniitallv we came up with a
a 1 a.1idmiiltrator oli the proposed organiz.iltlonal lructure in which the College of
Efdceral cxtiensionl serI ice to Agricul[ure, t[h Ag.riultural Fxperiment Station and the
become pro os[ tor Cooperative F extension Scrice Mould become integral
Sagrkulturc at pat of a single. ,larger _rg.inl?Jaon. which we proposed to
UVn u criln- of Florida. The\ call [lh Insiute of Food and Agricultural Sciences i IFAS).
pointed otur that the The head, or director, of each of the three maior
ti0 lcrTr"I .agriculltiral inlicons in I FA\s o:Ild be given the title ofdean. These
program. were poorlI three deans w would report [o t[e proTot I no\\ \ ice
organized and badl\ president for agriculture and natural resources. \\ho
hrac.rdrd. Coordinatoi n among the teaching. research and ,otuld be the chief administraor of the integrated
\tcnUol 011 h:ilnc011o \sa poor. Instead of ha\ ing a single organization.
dcparrmcni in a gi\ en discipline, for example, there \iere ,
dcparrnnt i a gin discipline, for example, there ere There % would be a single department for each discipline
separate departments for teaching in the College ofe l o a c
or commodin under the leadership of a chairperson or
."ricilrurel and research lin the Ag-rKuliural hxperimen
gri ure and research in the grcuural Experiment head. \here there had been separate appropriations in the
Stanon \ith extension personnel organized
S.aioni. ih e emion pter sonel orga ized past for the experiment station, extension and the college,
independent o either. Furthermore, there as a lar it wa ropoed at tllee old be conoidated. The
network of research centers throughout the state that w\cre
plan greatl\ simplilfd the e\is[in1 Ir[icruire and mode of
part of the Agricultural Experimern Station, biut here a V\as moe
little relationship between the work of these centers and operation.
the department, on campus. The Board of Control. w which was then governing
T e ue o e ws e o board for the states uni\ersiues, readily approved the plan.
Te isse .- ih on nT lt o he legislature, in turn, provided its approval by changing
priorities after arriving in Gainesville. I found thati te the arori ties in accord the an.
the appropnuIaon e'iniies in accord ilith the plan.
provos[t was responsible for the College of Agricultuire, the
AgricultuLral Experiment Station and the Cooperam e Additional steps \%ere taken to achieve better
Extenion Senrice. Each of these entities had separate coordination ot agricultural programs withinn the
budgets and appropriations from the legislature. and the unilersir. The personnel at the research centers across the
head of each organization pretty much worked state [ ere gi en academic appointments in their respective
independently. The provost had no responsibility. for the disciplinary departments. Department chairs \ere given
budgets ot each organization and could exert influence on the responsibility to help hire such personnel as well as
the direction of these programs only by po\\er ot evaluate them for tenure and promotion. N l-reo-,er, many
persutasion. of the research centers became "research and education"
found many able centers. with extension specialists and faculty teaching
1 found many able people killing g to consider ideas for
College of Agriculrure courses located there.
modih-ing our organizational structure and operating
procedures. I shall alwaays be grateful to the faculn and There seemed to be genuine enthusiasm for the IFAS
administrators for their \willingness to consider change and concept among most uninersinr faculn and staif. This
for their support in implementing such change. enthusiasm appeared to radiate out to the people
ne o the great f land-grant throughout the state. Because of this, making these
Une of the great strengths of land-grant uIFIersiry .
adjustments c\as not nearly as difficult as man\ thought it
agricultural programs has been that, in one organization. mite. t that most p eopl rlie te was a
I- 1 might be. I think char most people realized there was a
there are the three complementary functions of teaching, ig. hd t
significant need for change and supported effortr to
research and extension. If the maximum advantage from i nt n o ed ro ut
implement it. IFAS soon became recognized throughout
this is to be realized, there is the need to organize them soon b i e onizti
i ithe stare and nation for its etffec[i\e organizational
they can truly complement one another. The obvious. i e a
S. structure. A number of other state land-grant universities
administratie structuLire would place personnel concerned _ri i
i have also developed organizational structures for their
with all three fuimncons in a single department, facilitating
Agricultural programs, modeled in large measure after
interaction. Indeed, a single faculor member might be m i
involved in carrying out all three functions. Many oould IFS.
contend that the better teachers or extension specialists are E. T }brk. l,.c/ tu,. St ..'sitySystem
those \who also have some research responsibilities.
Background photo: E. T )i k s[pagk to .; groip of t/.,'i/n' itd stluent. ct/' A1 C.'ic .ir tle L /t'ietl. of Floid..
HE DEAN Teaching
In 188-. Florida and continuing to emphasize the quality of the
Agricultural C(ollege. the undergraduate teaching and advising. We also will increase
state's first land-grant graduate enrollment from 882 to 1,200 in the next few
college, opened in Lake years.
City and served a scare
with an agrarian society The 21st century will be characterized by major
San in sociey discoveries in the life sciences including fundamental
and eco discoveries in molecular and cellular biology and genetics.
Today, more than a These discoveries will revolutionize our understanding of
century later, nearly 4,000 plants, animals, microorganisms and ecosystems, and
students are enrolled in the enrich the core knowledge base of the college for both
UF's College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. The faculty and students. These discoveries also will continue
college, carrying out the teaching mission of UF's Institute to cause significant curricula modifications within the
of Food and Agricultural Sciences, is dedicated to college. As a part of these discoveries, our faculty and
developing society-ready graduates equipped to meet the students will continue to share knowledge and technology
demands of today's increasingly complex job markets and that will improve various aspects of our lives and the
changing societal needs. The curricula are designed to environment.
prepare students for entry into careers or to continue their As Latin American, African, Asian and other countries
education through graduate or professional education. .As Latin American, African, Asian and other countries
education through graduate or professional educationwith soils and climates similar to those in Florida take on
Students in the college now the fourth largest at UF greater political and economic importance, our college and
and the nation's sixth largest agricultural and life sciences its graduates will be leaders in providing the talent,
college are receiving an education that prepares them for technology and leadership critical to our global well-being.
their last job as well as their first. Today's academic
programs represent diverse aspects of natural resources and A growing, comprehensive distance education
the agricultural and life sciences. Participation in program will continue to play an increasingly important
international programs helps broaden and prepare role in the future. Courses are delivered by a variety of
students to be leaders in international issues. Employment technologies, including interactive video and the Internet.
opportunities are plentiful in most fields, and graduate Master's degrees currently being offered via distance-
and professional school opportunities are exceptional. education technology include agribusiness management,
soil and water science and agricultural education and
We \\ill maintain our commitment to undergraduate communications. Bachelor's degrees are offered at off-
education, slightly expanding undergraduate enrollment campus locations in Fort Lauderdale, Fort Pierce,
Pensacola, Homestead, Apopka and Plant City. These
Srndetr'i, im UF'. College ofAgriculturaland Life Sciences courses are taught by IFAS faculty located at th, areas'
come from increasingly diverse backgrounds. (Photo by research and education centers or delivered by distance
Thomas Wright) Background photo: Dean Cheek stands in education.
front of the UF Century Tower.
Our college is one of the leading colleges of its kind in
I the country. We are known for excellence in academic
programs, and we have nationally and internationally
recognized professors %who are dedicated to in nv ati -
teaching and advising.
\\ will minaintin our commirtmen to quality in
teaching and ad rising and continue to hire superior new
faculty As the q uality of our students and faculty
continue t, gro%,\. \c. \\will Improv and updatei [he
initastrui turL [t, support [eCahing and advising.
Incernships and practical, cxpericntial and clinical learning
S ill bei-:conm mor. fully integrated into the curricula. I am
clOnhdnr rhat \e ill continue .t m ccE ach nw\
chlllengev and opportunirv wihl our l.ollcci\. w\donm.
e ncrgv and die.rniiiiaii.n.
WINTEF 2003 I 1
UF's COLLEGE oTeaching
A GRICULTURAL Agricultural College in Lake Cirt, the first proposal to
o establish an agricultural institution in the state was
and LIFE SCI ENC made in the earl\ 18820s, before the United Statrs had
SLI SCIEN completed the purchase of Florida. In 1821. an expert
SSTATI in tropical crops addressed Congress on the potential
Goes STATEW IDE for agriculture in Florida.
The foundation for \what became the College of
The Universint of Florida's College of Agricultural Agricultural and Lire Sciences was established in 1862.
and I ife Sciences i- unlike any other teaching program \ hen President Abraham Lincoln signed the Morrill
in the stare. The college, the only one of its kind in Act. often referred to as the land-grant act.
Florida, ha- a unique statc ide mission that extends
coast to coast. It pro\ ides [students with the In 1905. the FIhrlda Legislature passed the
knowledge and expertise ecentul tor Buckman Act. consolidating higher learning in the
regarding careers in agriculture, natural state by establishing the Florida Female College
resource, and food and life sciences as "ell as later Florida Stat Universin in Tallahassee and
productive citizenship. the Universitr of the State of Florida (shortened
to University of Florida in 1909) in
Although the college's roots can be -Gainesville. In 1906. the Florida Agricultural
traced to the 188-1 opening of the Florida College "as mu ed to Gainesville to provide
the foundation [or the new university.
"Research and instruction were separated
d at the universir. which h included a school
.. of agriculture with ur"o faculrv members. In
1909. the school became the College of
Agriculture and the number of
faculty had doubled to
four. A departmental
*[ructure alo was, d
established in 1909.
S.I 'The first departments
S. ' ,,were agronomy,
S.Agriculhural and Life
: Science, enroll, nearly
-t,0)0 students who
accuLirately reflect the
Scale population mix.
said Jimmy Cheek. dean
for academic program,
and the College of
Agricultural and Life
Sciences. \Women outnumber men. and
minorities constitute 22 percent of the
student body. More than -0 percent of
I, tl, 1950'. r .'1 ,r ,, ,'.I ,;,
h 'sitin. /' t ,/ I 1 'l itl
C,"/. .,i iucqg r/c 1880).
. par.,.7.are ltoraolok w., /, bop eltlg rhe 1960,.
tudentm are from Urban areaj and b percent are
.., international studenri adding a global perpectcrie and
enriching the college ; cultural a1 nd intellectual
A.-s Florida gre\\ and agriculture became increaring,
important to the state c' economy and lifesivle. demand
"for agricultural instruction increased and the college \%as
expanded. The Department of Foreccrv Wdl; credced in
19-, and in 193j' the Florida Legislarure made it the
I school -t Fore, trv. Harold Ne%\in, \%as appointed its
6t11t director. In 19-2. it \Nas renamed the School orf
Fr st- Resources and Conseration.
SBy 1-)40. there \%ere nine departments and 30
profesors a %ell ads additional instructors and graduate
Sassitants. B\ 1989 the college included the School of
Foret Resources and ConserNation. 16 department.
more than 20Ul faculr\ and 1,250 students. From 199-t
.5r irt,.'al, d. 1,,t. Bob MGove n, Geigc.grmos awd
I: a'.l, . /.;,ga/ di,,',e. .Stiicklmeland Brion are stutlewt iu
ol/,..ei m ,.l ,,, t,,r OfP],ur :thdi,,"e program.
.,11, to, n 'I, l ,, electol (i rh ', Pl pogmin, awd
7Iu. p0.1r ,, [/ t ll .il, ,, I t'/ ic ro i'Ph,, iA v Eritc Zim'tII
\VINTER 2003 13
Environmental horticulture Professor Dave
Clark teaches students in the UF/IFAS distance
Education classroom at McCarty Hall while 26
other students in Fort Lauderdale, Fort Pierce
and Milton view the class over the interactive
television network. (Photo by Thomas Wright)
4.% Background photo: Faculty demonstrate
"grafting techniques on young citrus trees during
to 2001, the college's undergraduate program Continued development of additional professional
experienced rapid growth and majors swelled from 49 master's degrees, certificate programs, minors at the
to 230 a 369 percent increase, graduate level and other innovations including
combined bachelor's and master's degree programs -
In fall 2001, more than 3,700 undergraduate and will continue to be developed.
graduate students were enrolled in the UF college. The
teaching has expanded enrollment beyond the main College of Agricultural and Life Sciences
campus through its Academic Partnership Program, interdisciplinary programs are becoming increasingly
which offers courses to students at locations throughout important. Curricula now include interdisciplinary
the state. The college uses on-site instruction, programs in plant molecular and cellular biology,
interactive video conferencing, videotape and the animal molecular and cell biology and turfgrass science.
Internet to offer courses leading to bachelor's degrees, There is also a doctorate degree in plant medicine,
professional master's degrees and teacher certification, which is the first professional doctorate in the college.
Through the college, the University of Florida also has
joint academic programs with Florida Agricultural and "While enhancing the quality of graduate-student
Mechanical University in Tallahassee. experiences is a priority, the college will maintain its
commitment to undergraduate education, slightly
The College of Agricultural and Life Sciences also expanding undergraduate enrollment," Cheek said.
provides many of the courses taken by undergraduates "The college's tradition of individual attention helps
in other colleges throughout the university to meet their ensure the success of students and the future of the
degree requirements. These include classes in human college."
nutrition, wildlife ecology and microbiology and cell
science. The Department of Microbiology and Cell Junior and senior students with a 3.5 grade point
Science has the largest undergraduate microbiology average or higher may participate in the college's Upper
program in the country. It is the third largest major Division Honors Program. The program was
at UF overall and is the largest science major at the
Graduate enrollment has grown from 658 in the
fall of 1989 to 882 in the fall of 2002, a 34 percent "
increase. In the next few years, the college will
increase graduate enrollment to 1,200 students. J
University ofFlorida students Sharyl Brantley,
left, and Lindsay Burnette check their net for a
dragonfly during an insect field biology class at
the Natural Area Teaching Laboratory in
Gainesville. (Photo by Milt Putnam)
althoughh iti not always evident at the time you are
teaching, you can have an impact on these students for the
rest of their lives" says Gail Kauwell, professor in the food
science and human nutrition department. (Photo by Milt
teaching and advising excellence. Faculty members are
encouraged to continually develop and improve
teaching and advising abilities through professional
development. The college takes great pride in the fact
that tenure-accruing faculty teach almost all courses and
many of the laboratories.
The college has an active alumni and friends
association that sponsors TailGator, hosts events
implemented in fall 1998, complementing the UF throughout the state, provides an annual scholarship
honors program for freshmen and sophomores. The and serves as a support group for the college and IFAS.
program challenges high-achieving students to Alumni and friends provide approximately $10 million
strengthen their education by going beyond the regular a year to IFAS.
requirements of their major. Students completing the ll ll
program are awarded a medal and named College of "The college will continue its mission into the 21
Agricultural and Life Sciences Honors Scholars. century, working to improve agriculture and the
environment as well as embracing the challenges of an
Each major within the college sponsors a increasingly international society," Cheek said. "As
professional society or club. The societies provide Floridians seek to find new and innovative ways to deal
significant professional and leadership development with the pressures and issues pertaining to our
experiences for students as well as the opportunity to environment and natural resources, students and faculty
volunteer and serve the community, university, college in the college will provide the leadership necessary to
and academic unit. College of Agricultural and Life ensure the state remains at the forefront of agricultural
Sciences Ambassadors, a select group of students who practice and conservation."
represents the college, IFAS and UF at various events, Patrick Hughes
are annually selected via a
Faculty members have
been recognized nationally,
regionally and at UF for
Rick Weldon, associate
professor in the food and
department, advises student
Lei Smith on career choices.
(Photo by Milt Putnam)
S H DEAN Research
"To invent, demonstrated the economic return of orest fertilization
d,'hcoverand develop and increased tree gro%\th 2' percent with genetic
;applicarioiu of improvement, as well as developed pest-reistant trees.
kuonit.lede. site quality indices and best management practices .
h da e Researchers also demonstrated the relationship cnrween
Each day, the landscape design and biodi\ersirto which underpin
Florida Agricultural current natural resource management in Florida and the
Experiment Station Linited States.
component of the UF /IFAS researchers also-, hae made a major impact
University of in human sciences. Studying the role of folic acid in
Florida's Institute of metal development led to ne\ recommendations for
Food and higher levels in the diet of pregnant women, which has
Agricultural resulted in decreased fetal abnormalities. Studying the
Sciences strives to fulfill that mission. Since its role of the environment in child development has
inception % ith the passage of the Hatch Act in 188. prio-duced important information about conditions
the experiment station has contributed enormouhly to needed for our young people to succeed.
Florida's economic and sociall welfaree .
Foodborne illness is a serious issue that costs the
Most of Florida's agricultural indurtn in some %%aY Linited States an estimated $1 billion to $111 billion
owes its success to research conducted through the annually. Through their research on produce and
experiment station. This is significant because Florida's aquatic food safet, LUF/IFAS scientists are working
agricultural industry is huge a $6 billion to $- billion toward achieving safer food supplies and improving
enterprise that generates more than $'50) billion for the food-handling practices. They conduct surveillance
state's economy. More than 30 commodities generate studies to better understand mechanisms of
over $10 million in farm-gate receipts annually. This contamination and improve food-handling to reduce
leads to a demand for problem-sol% ing through incidence of foodborne illnesses.
research. In the end, citizens starewide gain from iUF/IFAS
LiF/IFAS researchers have developed new crop research. Results consistently show a 30 to 60 percent
arierieie for citrus. stra.iberrn tomato, blueberry, annual return to the taxpayer from funds invested in
sugarcane, tropical fruit, peanut and more with traits agricultural research. This is realized in higher quality
enhanced for productiviry or quality. Researchers also products that cost less. For example, the cost of food
have discovered more efficient production techniques, has steadil) declined to the point that the consumer
better protection from pesti and more ens ironmentally now spends less than 12' our of each dollar for food,
friendly processes. and half of that is spent in restaurant.
In addition. iF/IFAS scientists ha\e identified Four hundred fifty LF/IFAS research faculty
essential plant micronutrienrs and the causes of many members %%ork with industry. nonprofit organizations
plant diseases, and found that microsprinklers can be and ig,\einment agencies to solve many of Florida's
used for cold protection. They ha\e developed critical agricultural, human and natural resource
technologies such as drip irrigation and plastic mulch challenges. In 20ll2, our research faculrY received more
for vegetable production, as well as mathematical plant than $66( million in grants and contracts the highest
growth models. amount ever. Each 'ear they publish more than 500
Srefereed scientific journal articles, present their research
Floridas cattle industry has benefited from UF/IF>- \
locally, nationallI and internationally, and participate in
research. The introduction of Brahman genetics into extension p-grams, including field day s. to share their
Florida cattle relieved heat stress and led to a 50 percent r s ith the
increase in productivity. Today more than 901 percent of
Florida cattle contain Brahman genetics. In addition. In the future. UF/IFAS will continue to invest
the development of new grasses adapted to Florida over significantly in research, and Florida citizens will
the past 5ii ears has increased the carrt ing capacity of continue to benefit from higher quality food, an
Florida's pastures more than tenfold, enhanced natural resource system and an increased
The natural resource industry has reaped rewards quality of life all at a lower cost.
from the work of UF/IFAS scientists who first Dean Richard Jones
U F/IFA S n l'act it oiuld be difficult t o innd a.n area of the
U F/IFAS RESEARCH satae that has not benefited tronm UF/IFAS research
Supports FLORIDA S UF aculn and staff. whichh include some of the
$54 nation's top scienctiP[i, hae an impressive track record
$5 million in research on important issues, including agriculture.
biotechnology. food safen, global competiriceness,
A GRIC LTURAL an medical enromolog., pese management and after r
iqualin. as ell as inasive plants and animals, plant
TA RESOU diseases and natural resources," said Richard lones,
N ATURAL OURCES dean for research and director for the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Sation.
INDUSTRIES Currencl, UF/IF.AS has more than -00 research
proiecrt on UF's main campus as \-ell as at 1 c research
In ,oy's knowledge-based eonm research is and education centers throughout the state. Research is
In o s ke r e c i conducted by the Florida Agricultural Experimen t
more important than ever, and the University of Sonducted by the l orida Agricultural Eperi
Fl oridas, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
performs a vital role in solving a variety of social, Today, more than $100 million a year from state,
economic and environmental problems in one of the federal and private sources fund UF/IFAS research
country's fastest growing states. programs, generating knov. ledge in agriculture, human
The Citrus Experiment Station (now rlh C,'`:r;i Rri.ieal, anid Edi,,ar o, Center) was established at Lake Alfred in 1917.
It was the first permanent branch experimei r rt.auio. B.ikg iit pulor: E /i, research I.dbo,.im, r at the Citrus
S. 4' 7
--s -' .'
... ..... ^^^^^^^^^^^^
Bey',ii ,iIg ,i 1923 t,, / W H,,tiqi,, / f.i[ ,, it ;,i, tliio ,, [' ,, It,'e '/o t A,!, di f fot It,,rt< ),It.i/ .I,,i c .d.c i0op
o:iie floi, pflrl .1/. ,//ri,''.i. Backg.; Oiitel,,i iro,: Lab ro, i 't- roi ) i- hO L,'// ,v'; C ,t' c iiiIc.ild i /ll7 ; l iaj ?7t i fl ,r//'. I/t'.
and natural rc:oturc:.. and life sciences. Result, help The foundation for L1F/IFAS rretarch i. found in
sustain and enhance the quality of life for million: otf the tCdra] Hatch Act of 18S-. which c:rabli-hcd
people throughout Florida and beyond. agricultural experiment station: at land-granEc ollege:.
is r Lnd-grant colleges \\ere established b\ lte Morrill Act
This reeari h i. kundamennal to the p\F/IFA _ided pubc laud fir the
mission: to help Florida realize its maximum poueni al esabli hmc ar ulural college. inJlrding a
[or agricultural and natural resource development and n :t ail ru llii
o find solution, tor social. economic. en\ ironmnental r
and cultural problem, inI Florida. Research
accomplishe- this b\ apple\ ing biological. physical, It x\\an't until after the Civil \ar that manr
economic and social science, to i.sues associated \ ich southern rtarte could take adv antage of the Morrill Act.
Florida's agricultural and natural-resource-based In 18S4. Florida, then :till c-cntiallY a frontier state.
industries. establihhcd the Florida Agricultural College in Lake
,-in-. B\ 1888. the college included the ne\\
Florida AgricUlCural l-xperiment Station.
Ru,,olSch, ffz,.u,., /,,, /. po ,,t
.: lIg .,. of oba To mi,;ac- Coo" art,,,"a C o .,,,
"ga beiv ,ed toffionigat .a 1o,,,. I,; t.,t, ar
G'nteth',, t inb i lt, t hat ll o,,.,t' ,I
..-" :<. .. .. l& ..,,Lid!Li j
During this early period, researchers at the Florida tomato research at Bradenton and tropical and
Agricultural College sought to improve dairy cows by vegetable research at Homestead. By 1950, 19 branch
breeding native cows with a purebred Jersey bull. stations were established and working closely with
In 1906, the experiment station was relocated to the county extension agents.
new University of Florida campus in Gainesville. From 1915 until 1938, the dean of the College of
Reea rrh cook place on a 40-acre farm and farms Agriculture also served as director of the experiment
belonging to cooperating farmers in the region. station and extension. In 1938, the post of provost for
S- t agriculture was created to administer both research and
In 1917, the first permanent branch station the \tnci,,n. From 1906 through 1943, Peter Rolfs and
Citrus experiment Station at Lake Alfred was \Vl Ne ll serd a .taion directors. Newell
authorized. By 1920 the first experimental orange helped expand the experiment station's staff and
groves were planted. By the end of the century, the programs into the 1920si and throughout the Great
station was the world's s larger and most respecctd citrus Depresion. After Ne eell's 1 )43 retirement, the station
research center r.
director and pro\ ost Ifor agricilture positions \\ere
In 1924, the E\erglades Experiment Station vas separatcd. and Harold Nlos\r\% became director.
established in Belle Glade amid challenges. The center The I')20: :a- man-, notable achieemecn, .i a
had to be rebuilt three rimic in its first decade bcuie ar prin ton eerinarans
ot damage from c\trmic weather conditions. B\ tlhe i:icd rccmoncndauon: for control of coccidioeis. a
1930s, it became a Ieading research center for vegetables *rit dlee tti baby chll. Sienrits alTo
crious disease areting bab i-hicks. Nienkists also
and sugar. began sud-ing salt sickness in cattle. After eight )ear.
\ork at other earl\ stations included potato ot research. IF's agronomy department made the Ifirst
research at Hastings. vege.tblc research at Sanford. sulceis: l ro- bemeen m\o different peanut varieties.
L_ io.1 Bailev, i,/'rt. pt"'tso' ., rB'a kti, t ,', 'c .1 /l i,. r o d ,[ai, I p.., ,l t. re iu/cT t i lli ,ii r/,c .,.wi ) i ,,.r o"
folate needed in dht. rt ptge'ga.ir iaollc i 'm /,i 1.n niiiigp proper, wan irin,: ir/i Kiarh./ Hairson, 1,1, at/i', srldr
participants. (PhAr,> hr THwi,,i,.s \\1 i./f
Sally Williams, left, associate professor in the animal
Sciences department, and doctoral student Mohamed Shafit
Hussain apply sodium-lactate and sodium-diacetate
"treatments to turkey fillets to extend their shelf fe.
Williams says the poultry industry is keenly interested in
their research findings. (UF/IFAS file photo)
p. technologist initiated research on milk processing and
identified the need for mineral supplements in the
cattle diets outlining a program for the control of the
most serious cattle disease at that time.
At the same time, the impact of UF research was felt
in Florida's citrus industry; in the 1930s, acreage
Though the issue would become more prominent in devoted to citrus production doubled and orange
lar decades, as c arl, as ther 1I20s, researchers
recommended that inscincides should be used as a produce n
remporary- "a to control insect pests. They said use of In the 1940s, researchers, working in conjunction
natural predators could b an effective alternative to with the Florida Citrus Commission and the U.S.
pesiticidet. Department of Agriculrture. dechlopcd a process for
s producing orange concentrate that retained 90 percent
In the 1930s, researchers discovered typhoid and of its vitamin C. The army requested 25,U0rl gallons of
paratyphoid t-r cn leukemia in chickens. The cncnrate, and a pilot plant for frozen orangr-juic
disease had bailed cic-ntits since 1845. A dairy concentrate was 1-stablihed at UE
Rest.',/, ,..;e. ,,-, I,.i, a./o'd F/t,,d., .,,,, ,s to ptoic, i, ..ru,' that thrive in t,, ,,ttr'; ,.'s, c, .,,.. Today, some of
these, .I,: i.'i, I /a'.u' ,c Ia'ed in r,/', pio.iitwuon' o;f ait'ld-i iitlJg wines. Background pht/ ro: F/eo id,'a environmental
H I' t.',, /ri,/ je i i 'tit i r. ,' i'.,,,, gh otn pidlr .'// rt, 1 9-t,. includes s in/,.t.c pli't teIs. .foCt'e1 tiliage and turfgrass. The
ind ,,t I .' lot' the" /.i.'ii. s d c /.r,,' l'oto ,a I. 19- 0<.
i (S47 I P. f
.t ... ."..r
Nan-Yao Su, professor ofentomology at UFh Ft.
Lauderdale Research and Education Center, holds apiece
of wood used in a new electronic iu*uwroiig sijti! that
detects termitefeeding activity by tibreiimcanc termites.
When termitesfeed on the wood and break the circuit, the
electronic sensor warns pest control operators about the pest
before it invades homes and other structures. He said tests
on the sensor have been more than 98 percent accurate. Su
also helped develop the Sentricon Termite Colony
Elimination System which is marketed worldwide by
Dow AgroSciences. (Photo by Eric Zamora)
Also in the 1940s, research at the Austin Cary
Memorial Forest near Gainesville and the Welaka State
Preserve, now called the Welaka State Forest, used
fertilizer treatments to enhance productivity of
nutrient-deficient forests. UF/IFAS faculty built upon
the rewtarch. making forest fertilization a common
practice on million, o4 acres in Florida and thc South.
Atter World \\.itr 11. thEi inporuance of re carch grew
along v, ith Florida\ population .ind economic. Research
on pic\ Jci %a' a kcs part of tb agricultural
rcol1ution. Research aols hlilpcd .igribuiineso improu c
other aspctc of proddLkI On and marketing.
In thc cl)k, retarchcrs dI,,o crcd a cure for the
\criot' citro' dieawt called NcIlo% 'pot. Work abo
bcan Uon cro, breeding cattle a. rrccarchers developed
th[ practical concepE ot hybrid igor and established the
alue of crobrecdJiing. Scientikr alo -ho-,%ed poultry
prodIucer hok to immproc fecd. reducing the amount
needed to produce v.eight gain. Egg production %as
improved b% control Ing the a moun1 r ot prolein and
important mineral, in ked.
Researcher' dhoed that rulips refrigerated for 60
days at -40 dcgrces Fahrenheit wouldd flower in Florida.
Preiouslv. tulips in Florida did nor tlowe r.
In the I )L;i'). researchers %- worked %%ich USDA to
perform the tfirct ild tEct of srrile malc crcw%%orms. A
pilot teer of cEcrile mnale crewkmorm the, was released on
Gjo'ver Siont lefr, 1 p ft rI' ,
fluI i iortorloigy /t'pi/tb.cIr :,u/ Al to i li 'c..
ib.'staUt ploteh.or o't ar," c.'hh at tli' .erei
CAi We Resale rild/ E'ecariopi j' q.* u O
toul/tb'coine .tg ;cu fin /pt >, .* ti 7', .','itI'c.'f
(!F scied'ti imported tie ".'/1 L .
nenhitodel p .uila'ie tom Sinrai' '.r r.;l ,t
couutrolb vin/c'in cricket. Tl'e paic~r* ifL 'I JI
could end t& 30-Yea, barrie .Taht ii p.i.r.
(Photo bY Tuia Piasio)
WINTER 2003 21
... .. .'-r. B p o t // H // i .
tiL'c'"vt/ --inr Ar' I. -tO
2,000 -qu mle near Orlando. The p which Adin pper improved plant appearance and
s5C\rely aFtki[d Floridas cattle indusr\r, was eradicated markeCbhilir).
- -in th ll i bi M \.i [hi *iril-recle- pr",rim.
S ghen some citrus growers lost as much as 70 percent
Studies initiat[cd on irrigacion in the 11)50s of their crops because of a mysterious condition kno\ n as
dcnmonsrrared thaj nu\w irrigation strategies increased spreading decline, researchers discovered a burrowing
yields. Thi1 rw.iarch led to the diI c\ lopment of mic.ro>- nematode was the cause and developed a control program
sprinkler r or microirrigarion syst nems, the mosc that had in Ienormous impact. linimuni tillage research
economical and ifticient irrigation ;vstems used today. hegan in the l')6 i;, helping tarmers reduce energy_1 costs
and preserv"L th- environment b\ reducing run-cof, erosion
In the 1950s. forest\ rescarchcr, examined soil-sirae a p
and pestcide r, 1.
rel.aionships, allowing forrester' Te predict tree growth
on diffeireLn r\ cp' of Florida land. I h w r rcs.aitrch
de' I-lopd inde\e, that ha-e guiLd-d gr pn. th a; \%ell
yield projections in iorest mannag mente 7 i
In d [h-o I n 1r research on conta iner-rrov wn nursery
plants atrributed the problems oF poor gro\ wth and a
crinkling of luise to a lack of copper in the n oil. ir
cini r.l an/t ti.n ^'irr.'!.tm sltt' ue ftoc ay, began inf the l, U -,. helping tr
In 1950s.ij dilr netrv rescarchin d dehil- petcd -low
l ip l ,a ow j, i (Tfi_ 1 r-t toe \, p 1-ic;t tre g hi E
thn eir td' tpf w di t" tlo tida O l ftnd I t'/ .r? d on'-
22 If IP.CT C-
Research on food irradiation in the late 1960s and
early 1970s established its effects on the quality and
shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables.
In 1979, results from a study indicated that most
pumping systems in Florida were operating at 70
percent efficiency, which meant substantial energy
savings could be achieved through improvements in
equipment, timing systems and related hardware.
Rst each abo showed that reducing the amount of i .'
phosphorus in the diet of hens improved eggshell d o ri i Y
Another study led to the use of a small Wi
programmable computer to monitor soil moisture
conditions and control irrigation systems in citrus
With the growth of the state and UF, IFAS ica.irch
and education programs were evaluated and improved
throughout the 1970s and 1980s. No new experiment
stations were established, but many existing ac ilric Lat-r in the de a&., researchers also began
were renamed as area research and education center,. demonstrating how% highly treated waste'\ater could be
used to irrigate on citrus groves. Research and extension
While heaters and wind machines were earl\ faculrv became a key part of the Consere II project
techniques used to protect citrus trees from freezing, in near Orlando, the largest reclaimed water agricultural
the 1980s UF/IFAS recarchcr, demonstrated that irrigation prolcct of its t\pe in the % orld.
micro-sprinkler irrigation pro% ided effective freeze
protection. Since then, it has become the most common
freeze protection :Yrtcnm in Florida.
During the decade. scientists developed dn.a _on tho Eli .
reldaionhip bct.cen perticide co cragc and prayerr ,e .
rype, no7nle arrangement, ground speed and volume s. "-
rate. The information helped the cirus mndutrr
improve pra\- corage % hile reducing application o.,
In thr mid 1980:,. IUF/IFAS ,cientritr deve lopeld -he
first prototrpe robot Iltru h.lr\ cter. The protorvpC has
been the basis for se\ ral mulmilnlion-doll.ir robot
har eating projects x\norldwside. It' a.lo th1 toutIndation
for a current research project with Florida Department
In the I 98s. \ Iddlih ecology and con'crlation
rwcearcher dc\veloped designs used in many
management area 1 hroMughout the United States.
"In the 10c)10:. U F'I FAS scientists developed nc\.
environmentally friendly methods for aquatic wccd
control," .loncs aid. "Urban pest control was
re\olutionicd v. ich the ,eclopnment of ne method, to
control termInc,. inJuding the highly aIggr\ive
Formosan termite now spreading throughout the
Cawto" ,'lcr, e' t.,e ', e,' C- 99k pf,,.r ,,!riva, L '
,. ,',r ,,/ F o /r -/ A' ., ,..,1 I,,,- 1 e' ,,, ,
Marianna. (Photo by Eric Zano.a)
Before rha/'c' /ic oflode a intg1airt' pert i'MinageIntf /I 196-<. L 'F at'.,I" -ig. rot'.?C/ a.d e'.v\ts0io proTl:iits
i/PI1 proiis .; /ls d other bet ii1.hagec'i rif p/,Idti,'c s were bronught rogebc'r i;n, .t ; 'i .iitiitiilh:i.irt
I B.1 I /1- le 'clfpe/l b/ T IE S rV'St't ,/'c;r,. gjioitr, ,Ned IIintiibie//ll kjnow'iin tla i.,tl r., n Fo,, d/ .;.
ic /'liiiiWal iic'f/lOf tO trll it'ite S .iHd ist'-3i i' 1 ,i f 1i' i iai/tiir./ Sen /'s. h w I Pioto rc. 1950-. J B5ackp1o l
t c'. Ph iii e.trl\ 1900i. photo: Lt',m/ :ti'er fc',:s ,n d/'. /l.a 1980si foritacd t rin
g-'I'rci f' i mIrin t pi ol/dh olf i to sourb/icr ii ,lc. ofr/'c'
n,Y. rihe 1ih of'cd imirl Florida wer'c ,orrc'd !ir h'
"7-OIt''., a s fi/i bt' c'i't ,o/11/ see.
In the 1O990. UF/IFAS and Florida Department of
Citrus reCearcher, continued to make ad\' ancemcnts in UF/IFAS RESEARCH
the storage. handling, packaging and dccav control of
freh Fruit. and EDUCATION CENTERS
Rccar, hcrs also dc\clopcd a procc,: that ue:
prCSIurizcd carbon dioxide gad to produce orange juice Citrus Research and Education Center -
that tatce- fresh-squeezed but has the shelf life of Lake Alfred
pasteurized orange juice. Everglades Research and Education
UFIIFAS researchers haxe etabli.hed the Center Belle Glade
importance of zinc in the diet. Using molecular biology Fort Lauderdale Research and
techniques the site- of zinc action on specific gene's Education Center
espcciallv those that regulate elements of the immune Florida Medical Entomology
sY\stem have been identified and evaluated. The Laboratory \Vro Beach
mineral i most abundant in beef and seafood, tmo Gulf Coast Research and Education
important Florida commodities. Center Bradenton. Dover
"Scicntits also are international\ recognized leaders Indian River Research and Education
in research on folate. a vutamin that reduce, the risk of Center Fort Pierce
birth defects and chronic disease. lJones said. Mid-Florida Research and Education
Based on LF/IF/AS studics. the National Academy Center Apopka
of Sciences has increased the intake recommendations North Florida Research and Education
for folate in hopes of reducing \ascular disease and birth Center Mlarianna. Quincy,
defects. Research findingg in food science and human Live Oak
nutrition have also led to the establishment of nc\ Range Cattle Research and Education
post-harlest treatments for hellish to reduce Center Ona
dangerous bacteria. Ruskin Research and Education
Finally research in the School of Forest Resources Center Ruskin
and Conservation is identih ing commercially Southwest Florida Research and
important tree gene, and utilizing other biotechnologies Education Center Immokalee
to improve e the growth of trees in managed forests. Subtropical Agricultural Research
Higher producivit y on Fe\ er acres will make it possible Station -Brooksville
to meet the needs for renewable and recyclable *
S* Tropical Research and Education
products. The research will alo allow forest lands to
meet other forest-based needs and senrices. Center Homestead
SW'est Florida Research and Education
24 IMPACT H Center Ja;. Milton
FROM DEAN Extension
The Florida grassroots leels to identify and prioritize critical issues.
( ooper.tive \e ill continue to work with our agricultural, natural
Exten'ion Service has resources and rural and urban community clientele to
a long and rich identify ne- neds and to meet our traditional goals.
Shitory. After passage Extension us-s a long-range planning process every four
of tihe Federal Smith- years that relies on thesc stakeholders to identify current
Lecer Act in 1914, and emerging issues. Currently we are conducting a
the Florida planning process that will drive extension for the next
LegilatIUre made fie years and many \cars th-r-after.
cx[cn'io n an
important part of the Technolos ha; made the world a much smaller
LlUni ersiry of Florida place. Problems arc becoming more global in nature.
and Florida A&M Many new issues that are arising will require us to forge
University. The extension system is unique because of nes partnership \tich other colleges. universities and
its relationship, w\irh the Cooperati e State Research, organizations to gain access to science-basd research
Education, and Exension Service of the U.S. necessary or providing new information. Our faculty
Deparcment oF Agriculture at the ederal level, the state ill continue to be trained in using technology to
of Florida. the boards of county commissioners in each provide information locally regionally, nationally and,
ot our 6- counties and the Seminole Tribe. in some cases, international.
A. we celebrate our rich history and As \we have in the past. ,e will mo\e toward the
accomplishment,, we look to the future. Our vision for k[u re providing iencifically sound information and
.,luticnS rhat make rhc Florida coopcrati\e Ex\-nsic, n
the 21 century builds upon our past successes as weon a make he Florida ooperae ns
expand and explore ways to meet the future needs of Service an important resource for the state, as well as
Florida' ciiuzen'. Our vision addresses contemporary the integral outreach area of the Institute of Food and
issues that are relevant to constituents residing within Agricultural Sciences and the University of Florida.
and beyond our traditional rural and agricultural -Dean Ci/',itiu lWaddill
heritage. Globalization, consolidation, integration and
mergers have made an impact all o socicrt.
Technological brc.kthroughs will continue to open new Florida Extension
horizons and crc.uc new challenges. Demographic data
forecast a new and much different Florida. \ce will Adm inistrative Districts
continue to develop our educational programs, based
on science and research, that enable people to make
practical decisions to sustain and improve their quality *
of life. %
As we look to the future, we are mindful of the
many challenges facing Florida citizens: an increasing *
population that is multilingual and multicultural; access
to safe and affordable food; the ability to maintain a ator ,tVergoi
sustainable food and fiber system; changing lifestyles; Northeast
Director: Rod Clauser
improved health well-being and quality of life for all Central
citizens from the oldest to the youngest; increased Srectr Fde Johnson
pressure on natural and renewable resources from urban Direcior: Mitch Flinciem
and rural interests; water quality, quantity and South e
allocation; shifting consumer preferences; heightened County Extension Offices
environmental, health and safety concerns; alternative
1 Research and Education Centers
crops: global competition: new processing tcchnologies: R
biotechnology : and integrity of our coaMi l area, and
natural rcource areas.
As wc face these ne\w challenges we depend on our ; I ,'i,,. ,i 'lrl ,ir n Jii\./'1 :. ,; i\; :'.ir
unique interaction with the people ot Florida at the
WINTER 2003 25
U F/IFA S EX TENS ON demonstrations sought to "teach by showing" and
Ur/IFAS EXTEN SI ON encourage "learning by doing."
YOUR H ISTO C las media has been used by extension to provide
is Y OUR ISTORIC necessary information to Florida residents. In 1917, the
eGATEW Y tension ser\ ice began publishing the weekly
G ATEW AY to the Agricultural News Service. Today, extension
information is distributed in many formats, including
|U NIVERSITY of publications, television and radio as well as the Internet
Sand computer technology. Extension's Electronic Data
IA information Source (EDIS), for example, provides more
FLORIDA than 6,11000 educational fact sheets via the Internet for
use \ orld\ ide.
With programs in all 67 Florida's counties, the
Florida Cooperative Extension Service provides vital "In the 1920s, almost all Florida counties benefited
services to residents in both rural and urban settings, from thie presence o extension agents," said Christine
The statewide educational program is a prime example \\addill, dean for extension. Their work typically
of how residents receive useful research-based involved identifying plant and livestock diseases and
information from the University of Florida's Institute of promoting agricultural techniques developed by
Food and Agricultural Sciences. research, as well more challenging tasks, such as
capturing and vaccinating wild hogs against hog
As early as 1888, courses were offered to Florida cholera. Family and consumer science agents focused on
farmers to promote more efficient and productive education and home-economic skilk. offering
agricultural techniques based upon research. From 1906 techniques crucial to sunr i aIl during the Great
to 1914, under the leadership of Peter Henry Rolf:. Depression.'
who was dean of Florida Agricultural College, Farmers
Institutes contributed to a sharp increase in Florida. Timpoochee on Choctav. hatchee Ba\ in \est
agricultural production. Today, the strong connection Florida became e te first permanent -4-H camp in the
between extension and research continues. 1920s. Today, Florida 4-H has -our camps that otfer
summer acriviries [o more than 4,11,11 annuall.
Extension officials\ began after pa.s.ige of the 19h 1 4
Smith-Lever Act. In 1915. the Florida Agricultural In the 102s. the frrst school lunches in ruial
Extension Service \as established. After the Smith- schools of the stare \\ere oigani.ed and implemented by
Lever Act passed. extension [unctionncd Ehrough land- extension home demonstration agents in Orange and
grant universities established b\ the Morrill Acts. Osceola counties.
bringing the iresarch and kno\. ledge otf he.s Like socierl at large Florida agriculture changed
institutions to the public. During this period. counr!i ih he d\n o \\rd r II. Advance in
% 1ich the adient ot worldd War 11. Acldancts in
agents and local Icaders also began organizing 4-H d o t g aii
"I Cjr 1cchnology contributed to the grm\\hili oT agribusiness.
youth development clubs.
youth dee t club. \ which became an increasingly important part ot the
In 1916, the Florida Extension Homemaker state's knowledge-based economy Although extension
Council \wa established to promote n\e scientific continued to provide important ser\ ices to family
information. Emphasis was placed on the practical farms, field specialists were hired to address he needs of
larger grow ers and distributors. And, as the
.-,- United States emerged as a key international
force after the war, Florida extension agents
provided training for both individuals and
S groups from other countries.
Extension programs have always relied on the
mass media to deliver information to Florida
residents. The first television program produced
by extension aired in the 1950s on Jacksonville's
WMBR-TV (now WJXT).
Background photo: Florida extension work with
X African-American youth began in 1917 u /,, i
more than 1,200 young men and women
enrolled in farm and homemaking clubs.
T I' Of/ iC'V1,7 fw il i' 'a ia ',: i:'t S i'i i 7
SS~ri 4 ,ni 0 PIC;ii ;11th fi.i'i.iiiC,' ;^io f/ l )Ia L.,kc P' I'i I.- Fojt
U.S. Department of.Agriculure eradicated cattle tick in same time, e\rtension began offering business analysis to
Florida. The eradication program involved quarantining Florida's agricultural producers to help individual
cows in areas of infestation and immersing hem in a farmers and ranchers improve management operations.
solution of arsenic. With eXseinion inpuc. the [lorida
Legislature passed the "li\ecokening I ii On the 50,h anniversary of the Smith-Lever Act in
Legislature passed the ''evrockl,,,'tr .' L F IFFencg 1,mc p" l\,ih
required cattle to be in feenin sria. T e lan I 1964, the Florida Board of Control approved the
rU.S. Department or bAgrinulre erfdicaed cattle tick in same tionme, exteof US Institutegn offering business angriculturalysis to
helped improve cattle breeding and pastures as well as creation of UF's Institute of Food and Agricultural
pest and disease management. Sciences (UF/IFAS), consolidating extension, research
and teaching under one administrative umbrella.
After years of releasing sterile screwworms, the pest "As Florida's population grew in the 1960s, the need
was eradicated in 1959, a crucial development for theAs Florida's population gre asn theWad0sthe need
s[a[e ca[le indLiur. Extension played a key role in the for extension programs also increased," Waddill said.
eft-,r[ ottering education 0to ounties in cooperation "In addition to supporting agribusinesses such as
lop pl'ir',': D,' ; r',i i.;r/i 1900, Extrnsion /I',a. de,,/c',.I'i.,.'.: agents and clubs such as the Florida Canning Club
l',Iti f,,,//,., ,it,.' a,'/d p ,i'1. fi eno,,gl, lto l /Ir a ti.r '/\ ,'t t"',i for one year.
Bur,,. p/tI,,: .-lti,,.n-. nte'ri,'an exte'nioi agnti t di 2,1, t.iu ,' .pbrovements i .ir/*a ,\A rrtI Fl,-rl., farmer during the
1/ 950. C[A,, i,,/ et.t'',', p;o lnm helped crab/lishetn ,.,.eu /al 'tI l i ,i ,,*.'i* ,old S/ll ilt i 'i, '.
_~~~ ^-^ j |^&t /J
Phi/ G o... M./tr ,,... .. C, Lr
b riat t/' ii Etucauou (1 u
.lre, t',, h 1 ita rtlon -iiet / ,.itc,, i
r, t,"",isn',burlon C'01 1 aot
-.'l q (l'/,oro bp Erio" Z m .ti
Ba/d.go id p/oro: Durig thle
fl'i oustition troiogr.,ins slo'dc
,oic.. ,lesrtleus t oi' p0o 0/t n'si- bOtg
Floridia cirrus industry, extension began to address -i-H agent-. Today, there are more than 250,000 -4-H
home ners ith sen ices related to ornamental Vouth in schools and individual clubs. There are 1 -.360
horticulture. The er ices also benefited Florildas i-H adult and teen volunteers working g % ith these
grossing %%holesale nurseries. \'ith the help ot ;tates ide children statewide.
extension programs, Florida horticulture crops ranked
second in the nation in 20(02." During this period, extension entomologists
establishedd the Chemical Information Center to keep
n he etenioner,. packers and processors updated on federal
administration requested regulations on chemicals and food additives.
that 4-H Clubs be organized
on the communir\ lesel. In the 1960s, Florida's cash farm income exceeded
Before that time, most 4-H $1 billion for the first time. Florida ranked first in the
programs %ere conducted by nation i, cirrus production, secondd in vegetable crops.
the public school s.stem. third in greenhouse and nursery crop, and 'ixth in
NMlost of the direct income from all crops. Abott. 3-.ii000 producer,
leadership was managed more than 2 million cattle and hogs in
done bN county Florida.
"Thanks in part to extension program,. Florida 'till
rank' first in the nation in cirrus production., second in
vegetable crops and I 2" in the nation in beef cattle.'"
Vaddill said. "Florida farm cah receipts in 2001( had
reached 6.Q5 billion dollar."
In 1969, USDA initiated Florida's Expanded Food
and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)
through extension to educate limited-income
families on diet and nutritional issues. In the
early 1970s, the Family Nutrition Program
IF NP) was launched nationwide to help families
and youth with limited incomes. The primary
objective of the program was to improve the
S| quality and adequacy of the diets of low-income
families and to provide assistance in managing
S*-; their available resources. Today this program
reaches more than 7,000 needy families in
Florida each year.
A change in funding permitted the
extension program to be broadened to include
food science and technology programs in
S' i,"d, 'i!, i.titioni agents
SA I't/ped F/loPl.i residents
S.- learil vtab skills in
""a:iitg. ,i,, as quilting,
weaving and caning to
supplement their income
9,-during the 1930s.
addition to the pe-sticid rc-idue and food and feed Extension Energy Information Centers in every county
additive program. 'rogramn \ycre initiartd with Florida helped Florida residents reduce their use of energy,
vegetable processor_ to improve proce-ing proccdtire> thereby decreasing their household expenses. The effort
and quality of :pecific vegetable products. wIas in cooperation with the Governor's Energy Office.
In the I Ql-0. the Marine Advikorv Progranm v.a: In the I 'l9. extension education programs helped
cstablicd ad a component of the Florida Co-operative policy makers, agricultural business leaders and the
Extension Service. It officially wa designated the general public understand how the North American
Florida Sea Grant Extension Program in the 1'80:-. Free Trade Agreement INAFTAI would d affect Floridas
economy Extension also pro\ ided information to
During this period, extension began to address UnDA and the Florida Farm Bureau on the potential
other important agricultural and environmental issues, consequences of resuming trade with Cuba.
adding new specialists in areas :uch .i3 rural
development, foliage and lethal \c I hlwing of palms. From 1995 to the present, extension has been
conducting nutrition education through the Family
Since 1979, the Extension Florida N laIrr Gardener Nutrition Program for food stamp recipients in
Program has provided instruction along which the latest approximately Florida counties. Currently, Florida's
scitntfic research to trach Florida residents about 200,000 welfare recipients are also eligible to receive
horticulture in exchange for their volunteer hours. In free job training through extension' \\ellare-to-\Xork
2(001, more than 3.6.00. master gard- ne rs ; ntributcd Initiative.
309,825 hours to county horticulturI progrimn..
In 19)L. w ildfires burned a halt billion acres of
Effort, t-o educate Florida's limitcd-incom amilics Florida forests. destroyed or damaged more than Iii
conrinucd i ih thi establishment oF' a
personal ind lmily resource...
management program and the firsc
"Food and Fun Camps" designed for
During the energy crisis of the
1970s, the establishment of
Franklin Percival, specialist i, rhu
wildlife ecology and conser .i a-ro "
department, examines a miin r,,
transmitter attached to an appi l, .il
Percival and Flaii,:,, It .Er
ma 'uage'iu t d/bti.'t 1.,.,v J te'i 11J t/ ^ i/l '
d/ctcc- t to itack id/ o101 ini, t' ia l
"(Phote a PiTo I
SE te..ion ihtrirt..,i ,iM I'.kr/.,
w.'sident, mrdk'T little "ca/"
pOO1 1ot ', l/ d i i/- e l ire, ic' ris' of
d.':,/,cae. (Photo bi Timn ',aiol
-, 4 .B, t ckgroiln phoro: Fio,, r/,' 18000 to
rlhe e.d/I' 1900., Florida teits it',ret
i heI ,, 'tvt exploiteth foter i i,'o.r, ittioi.
Sip,9,iiit/BiSg ,.td ,i,/roa /- c.\op.i ,,on.
h .,1, ig the Ostae 'wit' t/l. challcv' e of
,, IStoii g foest/ Etcttoin pir/ot'iHl
,10/// co Iitse'l lt',oi,,u, r tw'[,Ciivle k, to
raW *4 .'r//Utr
buildings and hurt tourism, resulting in a loss of more diseases to be identifid and diagnosed in minutes or
than $600 million. In response, extension faculty in hours instead of da\s.
LiF'- School of Forest Resources, and Conservation
de\ eloped educational programs on proper landscaping Extension facuin continue to fight mastitis in dairy
to reduce the threat of wildfires to foress and homes. cattle. providing multilingual educational programs on
equipment maintenance and milking procedure.. And
"Extenion's highly successful Florida Automated extension has responded to an increasing public concern
weather r Network (FA\VN) also was established in over pesticides by developing an integrated pest
1908." \aVddill said. The nernork uise automated management program for schools, which relies on
monitors located throughout the state to collect weather inspection instead of route spravmg.
data and pro ides important services to Florida
agriculture especially during \inter freezes.
The current $-.8 billion federal plan to restore the
Florida Everglades hinges on the participation of
numerous LUF/IFAS faculty and staff. Extension agents
are currently working \\ith producers in the 505.000
acre Fverglades Agricultural Arca to reduce the amount
of phosphorus in drainage water.
More than 350 clam growers in Brevard. Dixie.
Indian Rixer and Levv counties were the first
aquaculture producers in the nation to be eligible for
federal crop insurance. This was the result of extension
working with the USDA Risk Management Agencyv,
reinsurance companies and the clam farming industry
to develop a pilot crop insurance program.
Extension'; new Distance Diagnostic Information
System (DDIS). which uses the Internet to transfer
derailed information, has enabled pests and plant .':. .
Pete l'iiingati'. left, loci.te prote'or otf plur patrologi'. I,
,idiljst' equiiipilen't o I aI FAW-1' (Flhtoritd latriel t r t It-, w...t
Aert'orik I sta tiont i St. ./o/.o Cotuiit ,-.A,,'stIjg I/,i ,"c'A l Autin
Tiltonl. PIr'iinn Cortlin't:\'.,ii diir'cti;r .anld BRil Corron,
ie'cttive' /tiector oftlit A'oii t Fl/orl.a Gion ,s E\,'1,Tg.
(PhoMro Tho.ma \ ,Wi;h/'tr _
Working with the federal SHIP Special developed to help Florida residents
Housing Initiative Program) and other protect well water and control
affordable housing program., extension invasi\e plants and pests. New
helped more than 2.000 people in 21 facilities. such as the bull-testing
counties become certified for home program at Mlarianna. Fla.. w ill
ownership during 2001. continue to ensure that Florida
livetock and crops are among the
With the 2005 federal ban on methyl world cro are among thebet.
bromide soil fumigant. extension
continues to develop alternative methods 'An survey of extension
of pest control and study soilless accomplishments is going to be
medium tfor growing crops. New incomplete," \addill said. "The impact
programs in Spanish as well of extension on qualirv of life in Florida
as English are being can't be overstated. As Florida meets its
\}" i future, extension % ill be there to info-rm,
'.. educate and support.
Phoe righri: D Jing /' '
|brld W~Jr ll,
a agents hdlpe
// H'o lt fisei .-- ""
pr t e 1 oll'
A v'ier fiood I Bottom rigr: .,mnoug .n. L T IF4-IS
t/he tab/hanld stell so frit'.e dete'flotp,'. bIelpet ,oeismlit
prodnite toi .Al E.xtension; inei, Distnrt' Di)noic,,'<,is
hi/tl'nc. lad lIentification S'stern IDDISI.
Sc.. i '' irDim t'i'tii g e Atcl.on .gtlts
Borom k14f.-'r u'tisear's via a .b-
,,.ijt, /,lilv. DDIS enable ,
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i'eW mi/v co diu'ito .t'ii' "F/,,.,ie/I,. Photo '
Ronne H.im I
test sale. (L F
IF S file photo
MEETING the FLORIDA 4-H
The 4-H Youth Development Program began in now Florida State University) and Florida A&M
1902 at the national level. 2002 marks 4-H's centennial University.
year. In 1916, UF's College of Agriculture hosted the first
4-H was first established in Florida in 1909 under weeklong "short course" for boys, providing
the Farm Demonstration Program, with J.J. Vernon opportunities for participants to learn new agricultural
distributing seed corn to boys in Alachua, Bradford and techniques and get a taste of campus life. A similar
Marion counties. By 1914 there were 935 boys enrolled course for girls was held at FSCW beginning in 1912,
in 4-H clubs. In 1912, Agnes Ellen Harris founded where participants learned more about project work and
tomato clubs for 500 girls in 11 counties. By 1916 a opportunities for women. Another course for African-
new project was added, with 652 boys enrolled in American children was first held at Florida A&M
raising swine. Additional projects soon followed in University in 1928.
cotton, sweet potatoes, wildlife conservation, forestry,
farm animals and home beautification. Over time, the In 4-H's early years, programs were segregated by
race and sex. Extension work with African-American
focus shifted from farm production to the development race and sex. Extension work with African-American
of young people, youth began in 1917, with reports listing 1,250 youth
enrolled in farm and homemaking clubs. By 1921,
Leadership for 4-H could be found in three poultry, dairy, home improvement, swine, marketing
universities, with agents housed at the University of and savings clubs were part of the 4-H program for
Florida, the Florida State College for Women (FSCW, African-American youth.
Florida 4-H short courses offered a wide range of educational opportunities for Florida youth, including this 1960s course in
beef cattle judging.
Miami-Dade County 4-Hers enjoy the "
waterfront at Camp Cloverleafnear Lake .'
Placid. Camp Cloverleafis one offour 4-H
camps that offer weeklong summerprograms. .
(Photo by Chuck Woods) .
in the 1920's,
4-H programs at
Camp Timpoochee service representative for Gainesville Regional Utilities
and other Florida learned to swim while at the camp and still chuckles at
4-H camps have recalling the big softball game every summer. "I can still
provided youth see us in those cabins today. 4-H was where I got life
with valuable lessons and role models. They emphasized patriotism,
skills in water family and citizenship," he said.
safety, team 4-H club work with the Seminole tribe began in
building and South Florida in 1955. Native American youth
citizenship. attended 4-H Camp Cloverleaf with children from
surrounding counties, and extension work on the
reservations continued from the late 1950s through the
4-H clubs met in schools until the 1960s, and early 1970s. Extension returned to five south Florida
extension agents conducted educational programs at reservations in the 1990s with the Extension Indian
these meetings. School-based clubs also took part in Reservation Program.
extracurricular events like county and regional fairs. Major changes in 4-H's organizational structure
Judging teams participated in regional, state and occurred in 1964, when E.T York established the
national agricultural contests. The first state 4-H Insitute of od Aricltural iees. Agnt
p so an judn. ce in1 Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Agents
poultry show and judging contest was held in 1931. from UF and FSU were combined into the Department
from UF and FSU were combined into the Department
Camping was part of 4-H programs from their of 4-H and Other Youth Programs at UF and placed
beginning. 4-H club members throughout Florida under one state leader, Woodrow Brown. To comply
donated chickens, eggs and produce to sell to establish with new federal integration rules, school-based 4-H
the first camp. Opened in 1926 in the panhandle, clubs were abandoned in 1965 and replaced with
Camp Timpoochee was one of the first 4-H residential volunteer-led community and project clubs.
camps in the country. Camp Cherry Lake in North In their annual report to the U.S. Department of
Florida opened in 1937. Both remain in operation Agriculture, 4-H staff called the departure from school-
today. based clubs "the most drastic change in the history of 4-
Going to 4-H summer camp became a valued H club work in Florida." The role of the extension
learning experience for thousands of children every agent altered dramatically, and the change empowered
summer. "My brother and I looked forward to going to 4-H club leaders to take more active mentoring and
4-H camp every year," said Albert White, who attended teaching roles. By 1967, nearly 3,000 club leaders were
4-H Camp Doe Lake in the 1950s. The customer recruited from community volunteers.
WINTER 2003 33
i4 ,,,tubersv erl,.t13 aa land ,r te i ,Hl/ bou r
E ill ,ssues i o, rh-e }b" /, 1,t .cijol --H
Dtrr, I Ten ReneaA it '"irihig Field ,.a/ .Sit, itio.
S.11/ron. (P/oto bj' liAwrt '
A drop occurred in -4-H enrollment \\hen the
'chool-based clubs ended. and the number of member,
plunged again in the early 1I -0s during integration. "It
Mwa, horrible. \e required them to show% that a club \vas
integrated if it \sas in a mixed communin-. \ lost
"black and hire clubs in the process." said Damon
Miller. a retired scare -1-H leader %%ho began his career in
19-I as an extension agent in Leon County.
Wiet the 1960s and 19"0s gave -i-H lthe opportunity.
to ,olidifk valuedd traditions like leadership de elopment
a, \%ell a, etablih nex\ avenues for support The
Florida -t-H Foundation %as founded in li-03 to
provide pri\ ate resource, for the organization. A ne\%
State 4-H C(ounc.il a, formed in 196-4. v ith Eddie
Taylor of Clay (Iot unr1 erringg as its president. The
council. \I which included boys and girls. \%a, open to all
young people. In 196-i. separate short course ere
combined into one annual State 4-H Congre,, held on
the UF campus, dra\\ ing together youth from
One succesfulI program established during this time
"\a. Florida -4-H Legislature. Begun in 19-2. it enabled
participants to conduct a mock legislature and draft
their o\vn legislation. E\ entually the program began
Living the starehou'e chambers in Tallahasee. and today
B.c/kg on,/ (i'ci 1930) .tl/ fiortfl f'l/' s iicca, 1960s): -i-H chibs are, plice f/, F/Io, a' idl ra', /, ,a /,t ,a/,e o"
pamionm. toi/' and ,Ctizesl,' P ,,,wn on ouk,u. crafi aund beektep.ig lI/p outtl, de,',/,p 1.l, ['.r iLI bictrr
A .. __
it annually draws hundreds of youth from throughout
Florida to debate contemporary issues and learn how
Lgo c rnlm1 nt operates.
School enrichment eftorts also began in the earl
l9'I:, when --H returned to public, school' % i\th ne\v
program likc cmbr\ology and n\ ironmental
education. Urban c\tcnsion program targeted Florida
group ing ciir populations. -i-H rEpanded Food and
Nutrition Fducation Program: became ke\ methods tor
reaching inncr-,.in \outh about good nutrition.
In the 1980(, the 4--H volunteerr system grc\ to
nearly 20.000 adult and teen leaders. Fundraising
during this period icused on --H camp facilities. and
private funds \were instrumental in making maior
improvement rt. Strategic planning in 1991 and 1992
inolked moret d1ian l1.IQ \outlh aind adult from across
the t.i3 C in dicuLim! intg [1he u[tliirCe (che **[a 4--H
4--H .o1u1ntic:- to grow. In Florida. it now annually
serves more than si2Oi.O) participant. ages 5 to 1S.
Toda\'s 4-iH members pa.rticip. in some of the same
projects completed b\ those in carlicr deca.ds.
including public 'peaking.
I .1tua i ic) # .jjn "i, -t
t iC bt),, .i, t li/c te ,
F/o ,Id. Phro ilb
The Flagler County 4-H
Forestry Club was thefirst of
its kind in Florida, educating
$"youth about ecology and
conservation. (Circa 1920s)
ONSTR IO Background photo: Florida
APLOUNTY 4-H youth volunteers are
L4AGL H learning how to become more
FORESTY CLUB involved in community
activities such as annual
beach clean-ups. (Photo by
railing animal and ookAing. Project Iht ha-e alo According to N laril yn Norman, assistant dean for 4-
expanded to include computers, rocketry and H youth development at UF, the program has enjoyed
community service. tremendous staying power because of its philosophy
about learning. "We believe that young people learn
Today, the stare 4-uH ofice pros idc: L curriculum best by learning with their hands," she said. "Whether
development and use. communications and marketing, that is applied to learning about computers or cows or
accountability reporting. ,aculty in-seri ice training. corn, it i all learning by doing."
publications, public and private resource dc\vlopnmecni
and leadership programs. It also manages four -Ami Neiberger-Miller
residential 4-H camping facilities.
o lH dlPT ,
hult D, c ,,, ,,r
Pro(Ttaw. (Ci,.z 1960i
FLORIDA'S SEA GRANT
C OASTAL was formed to apply university expertise to develop the
CONNECN country's marine and coastal resources through research,
C ONNECTION education and advisory services.
Today, there is a Sea Grant program in every coastal
Tinker, tailor, soldier and spy. Athelstan Spilhaus state, including those that border the Great Lakes.
needed little introduction as he prepared to address Funding comes from the U.S. Department of
colleagues gathered for the 1963 American Fisheries Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Society annual meeting. Administration (NOAA).
As a pre-eminent scientist at Woods Hole Florida Sea Grant began in 1971 as a joint effort
Oceanographic Institution and Massachusetts Institute between the University of Florida and Florida State
of Technology, his research and inventions had played a University. Four years later, the minimum required in
major role in Allied bombing raids and U-boat defense the federal act, the U.S. secretary of commerce awarded
systems during World War II. college status to the Florida Sea Grant program for
sustained excellence in research, teaching and public
Yet for all his achievements, Spilhaus stood before service.
the society's members and expressed his fundamental
puzzlement over the United States' basic inability to The program's headquarters were consolidated on
capitalize on the strength of its oceans. the UF campus, and the Sea Grant Marine Advisory
Service merged with extension. Sea Grant extension
"Why can't we do to the oceans what they did a agents work for Florida Sea Grant, but through the
hundred years ago in land-grant institutions devoted to state's cooperative extension framework.
agriculture and mechanical engineering?" he said.
"Florida Sea Grant thus became and remains the
Calling the establishment of land-grant colleges only statewide, university-based research, education and
"one of the best investments this nation ever made," extension partnership of its kind in the state to address
Spilhaus wanted the U.S. to apply that "same kind of marine and coastal needs," said Florida Sea Grant
imagination and foresight" to exploitation of the sea. Director James Cato. Among the program's 16
"Why not have sea-grant colleges?" he wondered aloud, collaborating partners are all 11 state universities, plus
.s i t rt an r. ri P three private universities and three privately funded
His idea took root and grew. Florida Rep. Paul r r *H
Rogers and Rhode Island Sen. Claiborne Pell eventually
introduced legislation that President Lyndon Johnson Depending on the particular research need, Sea
signed into law in 1966, creating the National Sea Grant efforts routinely involve state and federal
Grant College and Program Act. agencies, professionals from business and industry, trade
S associations and citizen groups, he said.
Patterned after the land-grant college partnership
between the federal government and universities, the act
Marine extension agent Frank Lawlor
vents the gut cavity of an undersize iii
grouper caught near Sarasota before he :
throws the fish into the water. Venting
undersize fish allows them to descend
back into deep water and spawn. (Photo
by Thomas Wright) "
Background photo: SeaGrant programs
help protect Florida'sfragile ecosystems, I. .. -- :
including seagrass beds around Florida ,.'-
Bay and the Florida Keys.
Photo by Eric Zamora -
Christine Verlinde, left, is part of the Sea Grant marine extension network that provides technical assistance to marina
owners and operators who wish to earn Clean Marina status. She is holding a Clean Marina flag with Keith Bellflower,
shipyard supervisor at Pensacola Shipyard Marine Complex, the state's first Clean Marina. (Photo by Eric Zamora)
From its earliest days to the present, Florida Sea opportunity and a mandate to focus university resources
Grant has been able to set itself apart by focusing on applied research, said Cato.
research on problems in the coastal zone and the marine
environment. Traditionally, government support and "Every Florida Sea Grant activity must satisfy three
research investment at the university level has been simple but tough criteria," he said. "It must be based on
directed toward scientific study of marine organisms a strong rationale, demonstrate scientific or educational
through disciplines such as marine biology and merit and produce results that are clearly applicable in
limnology. But Florida Sea Grant provides both an industry, management or science.
For instance, following the 1995
.. state referendum that banned near-
.... shore gill net t thing. Florida Sea
rant faculiy worked \\ith I tare
I t,," A&N' No1 t, Ft i/' .i R ,,,'1 i .',/1 t1.',,r:o,;
lo/c't, 'r ,'. jti ,',,' /,. t
B f^ B~ Ci l't-. %,Otlel /Iotl.t ..n'.Oil i/,/tr, bi ic
.. l- ^ &|I tnf,,, i'd.ii -ll 'lotir ,'\ El,," PZ, ih on.Z .
Patterned after the highly successful land-grant
college partnership between the federal
government and universities, Florida Sea Grant J
applies university expertise to develop and protect .. "'-- .
the state' marine and coastal resources. '
agencies and community organizations to a
address the economic fallout.
Through workshops, demonstrations, w1e ge
projects and publications, the Sea Grant -0'
Extension Program urimulated the FIId cJ ,
development of a soft-crab fishery, now a
Florida industry with the potential for an ,S
annual dockside value in excess of $1 million.
Florida Sea Grant agents and specialists
have also stimulated the state's hard-clam
aquaculture industry to a $34 million annual
business. Cooperation with the U.S.
Department of Agriculture's Risk
Management Agency, reinsurance agencies and the Since 1972, more than 900 graduate students have
clam-farming industry has resulted in crop insurance received at least partial support for degree research in
for the enterprise a first in the United States. Florida universities through assistantships, internships,
scholarships and fellowships administered by Sea Grant,
To establish Sea Grant's priorities, Cato said the according to Caro.
program uses input from hundreds of Floridians
representing academic institutions, government, In addition, Sea Grant funds research in marine
industry and citizens. Its strategic plan focuses all biotechnology, sustainable fisheries, marine aquaculture,
research and extension programs in 10 goal areas. These the economic viability of water-dependent businesses,
include the advancement of coastal-habitat restoration restoration of coastal water quality and the mitigation
using artificial reefs, seafood safety and graduate of coastal hazards and storms. The program's
education. overarching goal, educating the state's population in
"marine and aquatic sciences, helps communities balance
"Florida has more artificial reefs than any other state the development of coastal resources with the need to
in the country, and Sea Grant has led the way in steward the natural environment.
helping this important component of recreational
fishing grow," Cato said. This strategy brings Florida Sea Grant closer to the
goals envisioned by its founders nearly four decades ago.
From regional and statewide conferences, to They new university expertise made little difference if it
construction, permitting, maintenance and monitoring, could not be pulled from the campus and applied to
Florida Sea Grant faculty have x% worked with anglers to important marine issues of the day. Through research,
improve this resource and build on a body of scientific education and outreach, Sea Grant has helped position
knowledge for habitat management and operations of Florida as a leader in marine research and the
marine protected areas and to better understand st[tainable development ot coastal resources.
Jlust as land-grant college deal \with production
"Seafod has never been safer to e, not only in rom the land. Sea Grant i concerned with production
Florida but also [hroughoutI the country and Florida Sea from the ocean. Driven b\ a mandate that solves real-
Grant has had a lot to do with it." said Cato. world problems. Florida Sea Grant faculty and
Florida Sea Grant fa.Clrn helped create and now researchers have helped maintain the value and strength
manage the Federal Hazard Analysis Critical Control of [he sates seafood commerce with programs to ensure
Point guidelines for seafood, Cato said. which has seafood safety and stimulate the sustainable harvest of
resulted in the training of more than 16.000 seafood commercial thiheries.
processors and regulators from the United States and Doorlr,' Zinieriiw,,
abroad since 19 5.
WINTER 2003 39
FLORIDA NON-PROFIT ORG.
FLORIDA U.S. POSTAGE PAID
IFAS PERMIT NO. 94
Vice President for Agriculture and Natural Resources
The University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
PO Box 110180
Gainesville, FL 32611-0180
"Ain progrse of Food and 'gricu Sciences are en
V I.... .. II ..
regardless s ace ag. sex, disa ir or national origin. Information From this publication is a\ilable in
reporter. .fn ."ectasage g i t
"tecno Ig wi .f on futr iml to
.' ': 1. ,
All prog a% m Z sponsored for. or assisted k. the Institute of Food and Agricultural Si encn are open tiy-0 P s
cotacr, comm .l *s. Liniker,voF FI P0 Boof FltI.-Gaines-ille. FL 1_611- 1.0.
A ., ': ".