• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Advertising
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I: The Ancient Germans
 Chapter II: Valhall
 Chapter III: The Germans and Romans....
 Chapter IV: The Nibelonig...
 Chapter V: The Franks. 796-765
 Chapter VI: Karl the Great....
 Chapter VII: Ludwig I., the Pious....
 Chapter VIII: Konrad I. 912-917,...
 Chapter IX: The Saxon Emperors...
 Chapter X: The Franconian Line...
 Chapter XI: Lothar II. 1125-1137,...
 Chapter XII: Friedrich I., Barbarossa....
 Chapter XIII: Friedrich I., Barbarossa...
 Chapter XIV: Philip. 1198-1208,...
 Chapter XV: Friedrich II. 1218
 Chapter XVI: Friedrich II. (concluded)....
 Chapter XVII: KonradIV. 1250-1254,...
 Chapter XVIII: Rodolf. 1278
 Chapter XIX: Adolf. 1291-1298,...
 Chapter XX: Heinrich VII. 1308-1313,...
 Chapter XXI: Gunther. 1347-1347,...
 Chapter XXII: Wenzel. 1378-140...
 Chapter XXIII: Ruprecht. 1400-1410,...
 Chapter XXIV: Albrecht II. 1438-1440,...
 Chapter XXV: Friedrich III....
 Chapter XXVI: Maximilian II....
 Chapter XXVII: Charles V....
 Chapter XXVIII: Charles V....
 Chapter XXIX: Charles V. 1535
 Chapter XXX: Ferdinand I....
 Chapter XXXI: Maximilian II....
 Chapter XXXII: Rudolf II....
 Chapter XXXIII: Matthias....
 Chapter XXXIV: The Revolt of Bohemia...
 Chapter XXXV: Gustaf Adolf and...
 Chapter XXXVI: Ferdinand II. 1634-1637,...
 Chapter XXXVII: The Siege of Vienna...
 Chapter XXXVIII: War of the Succession...
 Chapter XXXIX: Joseph I. 1705-...
 Chapter XL: Karl VI. 1711-1740
 Chapter XLI: Karl VII. 1740
 Chapter XLII: Franz I. 1745-17...
 Chapter XLIII: Joseph II....
 Chapter XLIV: Leopold II....
 Chapter XLV: Franz II. 1792
 Chapter XLVI: Franz II. 1804-1...
 Chapter XLVII: French Conquests...
 Chapter XLVIII: Interregnum....
 Chapter XLIX: Interregnum....
 Chapter L: Wilhelm I. 1870-187...
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: Aunt Charlotte's stories of German history for the little ones
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00035160/00001
 Material Information
Title: Aunt Charlotte's stories of German history for the little ones
Physical Description: 339 p., 28 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Yonge, Charlotte Mary, 1823-1901
Marcus Ward & Co
Royal Ulster Works
Publisher: Marcus Ward & Co. :
Royal Ulster Works
Place of Publication: London
Belfast
Publication Date: 1881
Edition: 2nd ed.
 Subjects
Subject: Bldn -- 1881
Genre: novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Northern Ireland -- Belfast
 Notes
General Note: Added title page and frontispiece printed in colors.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00035160
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002240174
notis - ALJ0717
oclc - 61442841

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover1
        Cover2
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Advertising
        Page iii
    Frontispiece
        Plate
    Title Page
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Preface
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page 9
        Page 10
    List of Illustrations
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Chapter I: The Ancient Germans
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Plate
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Chapter II: Valhall
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Plate
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Chapter III: The Germans and Romans. B.C. 60-A.D. 400
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Plate
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Chapter IV: The Nibelonig Heroes
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Chapter V: The Franks. 796-765
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Plate
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Plate
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Plate
    Chapter VI: Karl the Great. 768-814
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Plate
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Plate
        Page 51
    Chapter VII: Ludwig I., the Pious. 814-840 to Ludwig IV., the Child. 899-912
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Plate
    Chapter VIII: Konrad I. 912-917, Heinrich I. 917-936, Otto I., the Great. 936-973
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Plate
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Chapter IX: The Saxon Emperors - Otto II., the Red. 973-983, Otto III., the Wonder. 983-1000, St. Heinrich II. 1000-1024
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Plate
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Plate
        Page 71
    Chapter X: The Franconian Line - Konrad II., the Salic. 1024-1039, Heinrich III. 1039-1054, Heinrich IV. 1054-1106, Heinrich V. 1106-1114
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Plate
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Plate
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Chapter XI: Lothar II. 1125-1137, Konrad III. 1137-1152
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Plate
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Chapter XII: Friedrich I., Barbarossa. 1157-1178
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Plate
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Plate
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Chapter XIII: Friedrich I., Barbarossa (continued). 1174-1189, Heinrich VI. 1189-1197
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Plate
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Plate
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Chapter XIV: Philip. 1198-1208, Otto IV. 1209-1218
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Plate
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Plate
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Chapter XV: Friedrich II. 1218
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Chapter XVI: Friedrich II. (concluded). 1250
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Plate
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Chapter XVII: KonradIV. 1250-1254, Wilhelm. 1254-1256, Richard. 1256-1257
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Plate
    Chapter XVIII: Rodolf. 1278
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Plate
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Chapter XIX: Adolf. 1291-1298, Albrecht. 1298
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Plate
    Chapter XX: Heinrich VII. 1308-1313, Ludwig V. 1313-1347
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Chapter XXI: Gunther. 1347-1347, Karl IV. 1347-1378
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Plate
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Chapter XXII: Wenzel. 1378-1400
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Plate
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Chapter XXIII: Ruprecht. 1400-1410, Jobst. 1410-1411, Siegmund. 1411
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Plate
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Chapter XXIV: Albrecht II. 1438-1440, Friedrich III. 1440-1482
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Chapter XXV: Friedrich III. 1482-1493
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Plate
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Chapter XXVI: Maximilian II. 1564
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Plate
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Chapter XXVII: Charles V. 1519-1529
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Plate
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Chapter XXVIII: Charles V. 1530-1535
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Plate
        Page 203
    Chapter XXIX: Charles V. 1535
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Plate
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Plate
        Page 209
    Chapter XXX: Ferdinand I. 1556-1564
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
    Chapter XXXI: Maximilian II. 1564
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
    Chapter XXXII: Rudolf II. 1576-1612
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Plate
        Page 227
    Chapter XXXIII: Matthias. 1612-1619
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    Chapter XXXIV: The Revolt of Bohemia - Ferdinand II. 1619-1621
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Plate
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
    Chapter XXXV: Gustaf Adolf and Wallenstein - Ferdinand II. 1621-1634
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Plate
        Page 247
    Chapter XXXVI: Ferdinand II. 1634-1637, Ferdinand III. 1637
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Plate
        Page 253
        Page 254
    Chapter XXXVII: The Siege of Vienna - Leopold I. 1657-1687
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
    Chapter XXXVIII: War of the Succession - Leopold I. 1635-1705
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Plate
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Plate
        Page 267
    Chapter XXXIX: Joseph I. 1705-1711
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
    Chapter XL: Karl VI. 1711-1740
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
    Chapter XLI: Karl VII. 1740
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Plate
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
    Chapter XLII: Franz I. 1745-1765
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Plate
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Plate
    Chapter XLIII: Joseph II. 1765-1790
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Plate
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Plate
        Page 299
    Chapter XLIV: Leopold II. 1790-1792
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
    Chapter XLV: Franz II. 1792
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
    Chapter XLVI: Franz II. 1804-1806
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Plate
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Plate
        Page 315
    Chapter XLVII: French Conquests - Interregnum. 1807-1815
        Page 316
        Plate
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Plate
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Plate
        Page 321
    Chapter XLVIII: Interregnum. 1815-1835
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
    Chapter XLIX: Interregnum. 1848
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
    Chapter L: Wilhelm I. 1870-1877
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
    Back Cover
        Cover3
        Cover4
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text
















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jmtB of
Ruirvmit



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'AUNT CHARLOTTE'S



GERMAN



HISTORY



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BY THE SAME AUTHOR



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CORONATION OF KARL THE GREAT. (CHARLEMAGNE)



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AUNT CHARLOTTE'S



STORIES OF



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TORY



FOR THE LITTLE ONES



BY



CHARLOTTE M. YONGE
AUTHOR OF "'THE HEIR OF REDCLYFFE," "STORIES OF ENGLISH HISTORY,"
"STORIES OF ROMAN HISTORY," &C.



SECOND



EDITION.



Lonblon:
WARD & CO., CHANDOS STREET, STRAND
AND ROYAL ULSTER WORKS, BELFAST
M.DCCC.LXXXI.



MARCUS




































MARCUS WARD & CO.
ROYAL ULSTER WORKS
38elfast
















PREFACE.



T HERE
outlil



is here



nes



an endeavour



of the history



to sketch



of the German



the main
Empire,



though
history,



The



German



the number



makes



are,



form,



of



states



it difficult



for the



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to trace



most



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with



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English



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clearly.
in their
equiva-



lents.



CHARLOTTE M.



ELDERFIELD,



OTTERBOURN,



Aug. 21, 1877.



names



rather



YONGE.



_ __ ___I


























CONTENTS.



CHAP.
I.-The Ancient Germans
II.-Valhall .
III.-The Germans and Romans. B.C. 60-
IV.-The Nibelonig Heroes
V.-The Franks. 796-765
VI.-Karl the Great. 768-814
VII.-Ludwig I., the Pious. 814-840
Lothar I. 840-855
Ludwig II. 855-875
Karl II., the Bald. 875-876
Karloman. 876-880
Karl III., the Thick. 880-887
Arnulf. 887-899 .
Ludwig IV., the Child. 899-812
VIII.-Konrad I. 912-917
Heinrich I. 917-936
Otto I., the Great. 936-973
IX.-The Saxon Emperors-
Otto II., the Red. 973-983 -
Otto III., the Wonder. 983-100oo
St. Heinrich II. o000-1024.
X.-The Franconian Line-
Konrad II., the Salic. 1024-1039
Heinrich III. 1039-1054
Heinrich IV. 1054-o116
Heinrich V. 1106-1114
XI.-Lothar II. 1125-1137
Konrad III. 1137-1152
XII.-Friedrich I., Barbarossa. 1157-1178



*



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-A.D. 400



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PAGE
* 13
19
. 26
33
* 39
45




S52





59



66




72


80
87



_ _LI--C-



II------------__---ICIY -IP-U--------- -_ ___ _



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Contents.



CHAP.
XIII.-Friedrich I., Barbarossa (continued).
Heinrich VI. I189-1197
XIV.-Philip. 1198-1208 .
Otto IV. 1209-1218 .
XV.-Friedrich II. 218 .
XVI.-Friedrich II. (concluded). 1250
XVII.-Konrad IV. 1250-1254
Wilhelm. 1254-1256
Richard. 1256-1257
XVIII.-Rodolf. 1278
XIX.-Adolf. 1291-1298 .
Albrecht. 1298 .
XX.-Heinrich VII. 1308-1313 .
Ludwig V. 1313-1347 .
XXI.-Gunther. 1347-1347
Karl IV. 1347-1378
XXII.-Wenzel. 1378-1400
XXIII.-Ruprecht. 1400-1410 .
Jobst. 1410-1411 .
Siegmund. 1411.
XXIV.-Albrecht II. 1438-1440 .
Friedrich III. 1440-1482
XXV.-Friedrich III. 1482-1493.
XXVI.-Maximilian. 1493-1519
XXVII.-Charles V. 1519-1529
XXVIII.-Charles V. 1530-1535 .
XXIX.-Charles V. 1335
XXX.-Ferdinand I. 1556-1564
XXXI.-Maximilian II. 1564
XXXII.-Rudolf II. 1576-1612 .
XXXIII.-Matthias. 1612-1619
XXXIV.-The Revolt of Bohemia-
Ferdinand II. 1619-1621
XXXV.-Gustaf Adolf and Wallenstein-
Ferdinand II. 1621-1634
XXXVI.-Ferdinand II. 1634-1637
Ferdinand III. 1637
XXXVII.-The Siege of Vienna-
Leopold I. 1657-1687
XXXVIII.-War of the Succession-
Leopold I. 1635-1705



1174--1189



PAGE

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151

157

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178
. 184
191
. 198
204
. 210
216
. 222
228

0 235

241

248


* 255



262



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__ __ __



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List of Illustrations.



CHAP.
XXXIX.-Joseph I. 1705-1711
XL.-Karl VI. 1711-1740
XLI.-Karl VII. 1740 .
XLII.-Franz I. 1745-1765
XLIII.-Joseph II. 1765-1790 .
XLIV.-Leopold II. 1790-1792
XLV.-Franz II. 1792 .
XLVI.-Franz II. 1804-1806
XLVII.-French Conquests-
Interregnum. 1807-1815
XLVIII.-Interregnum. 1815-1835
XLIX.-Interregnum. 1848
L.-Wilhelm I. 1870-1877



*



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*



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PAGE
S268
274
S281
287
S293
300
S305
311

316
322
S328
334



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

elm we



PAGE
Coronation of Karl the Great
(Charlemagne) p. 47, Frontisfiece.
German Emperors 13
Ancient German Village .15
Sacrifice to Woden 16
Volkyria .. 20
The Elves 23
The Velleda warning Drusus 27
Germanicus burying the Slain 28
Brunhild's Flight 40
Battle of Tours 42
St. Boniface felling the Oak 44
Karl the Great in his School 46
Karl the Great and Witikind 47
Karl the Great entering St.
Peter's 48
Haroun al Raschid's Gifts 50
Ludwig the Pious 53



Odo appealing to Karl the
Fat
The Last Tribute of the Mag-
yars .
Adelheid Hiding in the Corn
Otto's Flight .
Opening the Tomb of Karl
the Great .
St. Henry .
Heinrich IV. carried off
Penance of Heinrich IV.
The Coffin of Heinrich IV.
Lothar II. leading the Pope's
Horse .
The Women of Weinsberg
Friedrich I. refuses the Milan-
ese Submission .
Faithfulness of Sieveneichen



II



PAGE



6o
64
68

70
71
75
77
79

84
85

89
90



_ 11



__



___



_ ____ I










List of Illustrations.



Friedrich I. kneeling to Hein-
rich the Lion
The Diet of Mainz
Richard the Lion Heart and
Heinrich VI. .
Heinrich VI .
Murder of Philip .
Otto IV. finds his Bride dead
Friedrich II. putting on the
Crown of Jerusalem
Friedrich II. and Hermann.
Friedrich II. receiving Isabel of
England .
Execution of Conradin and
Friedrich .
Wildenstein Castle
Death of Albrecht
Mediaeval Costume
Heinrich VII. .
Adolf .
Trier .
Karl IV. .
Arnold von Winkelried
Wenzel .
Siegmund .
Huss at Constance .
Albrecht II. .
Friedrich III. .
Maximilian and Albert Durer
Maximilian .
Luther and his Thesis .
Charles V. .
Luther at Wartburg
Charles V. and Fugger



PAGE

92
96

99
100
Io3
103
104

112
"I14

"II9

130
132
142
146
147
149
153
156
I61
i6i
161
I66
167
172
174
181
185
189
192
195
203



12



I



- I



-



- --- II- -----OI--LU-L^Lllly-I ___



Flight of Charles V.
Charles V. in the Cloister, St. Just
Ferdinand I. .
Maximilian II. .
Rudolf and Tycho Brahe .
Matthias .
Friedrich V. .
Ferdinand II.
St. Vitus' Church at Prague
Gustaf Adolf .
Death of Wallenstein .
Bernhard of Saxe Weimar .
Peace of Westphalia
Leopold I. .
Friedrich I. King of Prussia
(Coronation) .
Marlborough and Eugene
Joseph I. .
Karl VI.. .
Maria Theresa
Karl VII.. .
The Queen of Poland .
Friedrich the Great and Zeithen
Maria Theresa and Kaunitz
Joseph II. holding the Plough.
Leopold II.. .
Napoleon and Franz II. .
The wounded Duke of Bruns-
wick .
Queen Louise pleading with
Napoleon .
Metternich and Napoleon
The Allies entering Paris.
Wilhelm I. .



PAGE
206
209
211
217
226
229
233
236
240
244
247
249
252
256

265
266
269
275
282
284
290
292
296
298
303
312

314

316
319
320
337























CHAP, I.-THE ANCIENT GERMANS.

S..HE history of the German Empire rightly
begins with Karl the Great, but to understand
Sit properly it will be better to go further back,
when the Romans were beginning to know something
about the wild tribes who lived to the north of Italy,
and to the coast of the Gaulish or Keltic lands.
Almost all the nations in Europe seem to have come
out of the north-west of Asia, one tribe after another,
the fiercest driving the others farther and farther to
the westward before them. Tribes of Kelts or Gauls
had come first, but, though they were brave and fierce,
they were not so sturdy as the great people that came
after them, and were thus driven up into the lands
bordering on the Atlantic Ocean; while the tribes that



_ I__ _I___II__ICUIII___IIII___C--------



- __ ---I_








14 Stories of German History.

came behind them spread all over that middle part of
Europe which lies between the Alps and the Baltic Sea.
These tribes all called themselves Deutsck, which meant
the people; indeed, most of them do so still, though we
English only call those Dutch who live in Holland.
Sometimes they were called Ger, War, or Spear-men,
just as the Romans were called Quirites; and this
name, Spear-men or Germans, has come to be the
usual name that is given to them together, instead of
Deutsch as they call themselves, and from which the
fine word Teutonic has been formed.
The country wasfull of marshes and forests, with
ranges of hills in which large rivers rose and straggled,
widening down to their swampy mouths. Bears and
wolves, elks and buffaloes, ran wild, and were hunted
by the men of the German tribes. These men lived
in villages of rude huts, surrounded by lands to which
all had a right in common, and where they grew their
corn and fed their cattle. Their wives were much
more respected than those of other nations; they
were usually strong, brave women, able to advise their
husbands and to aid them in the fight; and the
authority of fathers and mothers over their families
was great. The men were either freemen or nobles,
and they had slaves, generally prisoners or the people
of conquered countries. The villages were formed



i ___________________________ _









Ancient



Germans.



into what



were



called hundreds,



over



which,



meeting



of the



freemen



from



all of them,



a chief



elected from



among



the nobles;



and



many



of the



tribes



descent



had kings,
Aided. it was



who always belonged
thought, from their gre



to



.at



one
god



family,



Woden.



ANCIENT GERMAN VILLAGE.



The German



Woden,



tribes



his brother



all believed in



Frey,



and his



I the great
son Thor,



reigned in



a gorgeous



palace,



and with their children



called the



Asa gods.



Woden was



all-wise, and



two ravens whispered in



his ear all that



passed on the



The



15



at a



was



were



god
who



I



7



4







16 Stories of Germ ana H-istory.

earth. The sun and moon were his eyes. The moon
is so dull because he gave the sight of that eye for one
draught of the well of wisdom at the foot of the great
ash tree of life. He was a fearful god, who had stone
altars on desolate heaths, where sacrifices of men and
women were offered to him, and the fourth day of the
week was sacred to him.
Frey was gentler, and friendship, faith, and freedom
were all sacred to him. There is a little confusion as
to whether Friday is called after him or Frigga, Odin's
wife, to whom all fair things belonged, and who had
priestesses among the German maidens. Thor, or, as
some tribes called him, Thunder, was the bravest and
most awful of the gods, and was armed with a hammer
called Miolner, or the Miller or Crusher. Thunder
was thought to be caused by his swinging it through
the air, and the mark in honour of him was T, meant
to be a likeness of his hammer. It was signed over
boys when they were washed with water immediately
after they were born; and in some tribes they were
laid in their father's shields, and had their first food
from the point of his sword.
These three were always the most honoured of the
Asa gods, though some tribes preferred one and some
the other; but Woden was always held to be the great
father of all, and there were almost as many stories



_ I I
























-



S. i(;



'4



"*7



"/ I



11 Il



A



N'"



N '<,



-, .NS-'\Z



,~-- -'

.~cN



SACRIFICE TO WODEN.



~ Cr4e"`7'F' /



\N NN', ,



^
^
-^'*t








The Ancient Germans. 17

about the Asir as there were about the Greek gods,
though we cannot be sure that all were known to all
the tribes, and they were brought to their chief fulness
in the branch of the race that dwelt in the far North,
and who became Christians much later. Some beliefs,
however, all had in common, and we may understand
hints about the old faith of the other tribes by the more
complete northern stories.
There was a great notion of battle going through
everything. The Asa gods were summer gods, and
their enemies were the forces of cold and darkness,
the giants who lived in Jotenheim, the land of giants.
All that was good was mixed up with light and
summer in the old Deutsch notions; all that was bad
with darkness and cold. Baldur, the son of Woden,
was beautiful, good, and glorious; but Loki, the chief
enemy, longed to kill him. His mother, Frigga, went
round and made every creature and every plant swear
never to hurt Baldur, but she missed one plant, the
mistletoe. So when all his brothers were amusing
themselves by throwing things at Baldur, knowing
they could not hurt him, Loki slyly put in the hand
of his blind brother Hodur a branch of mistletoe which
struck him dead. But Frigga so wept and prayed that
it was decreed that Baldur might live again provided
everything would weep for him; and everything ac-



______________II____________________I I








18 Stories of German History.

cordingly did weep, except one old hag who sat under
a tree, and would shed no tear for Baldur, so he might
not live, only he was given back to his mother for half
the year, and then faded and vanished again for the other
half. But Loki had his punishment, for he was chained
under a crag with a serpent for ever dropping venom
on his brow, though his wife was always catching it in
a bowl, and it could only fall on him when she was
gone to empty the bowl at the stream.
It is plain that Baldur meant the leaves and trees of
summer, and that the weeping of everything was the
melting of the ice; but there was mixed into the
notion something much higher and greater respecting
the struggle between good and evil.



_ __



_ _YI _141 1 __ I ___



















CHAP. II.-VALHALL.

T HE hall of Woden was called Valhall, and thither
were thought to go the souls of the brave. There
were believed to be maidens called Valkyr, or the
choosers of the slain-Hilda, Guda, Truda, Mista, and
others-who floated on swan's wings over the camps of
armies before a battle and chose out who should be
killed. Nor was such a death accounted a disaster, for
to die bravely was the only way to the Hall of Woden,
where the valiant enjoyed, on the other side of the
rainbow bridge, the delights they cared for most in
life-hunting the boar all day, and feasting on him all
night; drinking mead from the skulls of their con-
quered enemies. Shooting stars were held to be the
track of weapons carried to supply the fresh comers
into Valhall. Only by dying gallantly could entrance
be won there; and men would do anything rather than
"* Val meant a brave death in battle.



B



_ ILI








20 Stories of German History.

not die thus, rush on swords, leap from crags, drown
themselves, and the like, for they believed that all who
did not gain an entrance to the Hall of the Slain
became the prisoners of Loki's pale daughter Hel, and
had to live on in her cold, gloomy, sunless lands,
sharing her bondage.
For once Loki and his children, and the other evil
beings of the mist land, had made a fierce attack on
Woden, and had all been beaten and bound. Fenris,
the son of Loki, was a terrible wolf, who was made
prisoner and was to be bound by a chain; but he
would only stand still on condition that Tyr or Tiw,
the son of Woden, should put his right hand into his
mouth in token of good faith. The moment that
Fenris found that he was chained, he closed his jaws
and bit off the hand of Tiw, whose image therefore
only had one hand, and who is the god after whom
Tuesday is named.
Valhall was not, however, to last for ever. There
was to come a terrible time called the Twilight of the
Gods, when Loki and Fenris would burst their chains
and attack the Asa gods; Woden would be slain by
Fenris; Thor would perish in the flood of poison cast
forth by the terrible serpent Midgard; and there
would be a great outburst of fire, which would burn
up Valhall and all within, as well as the powers of



__ __

























I Im









,- ,
IN --
;-~~\ :`~~L~LL~L~~L~L~~L~LL~L~0 OxL~Ln



VOLKYRIA.









Val/hall.



21



evil. Only two of the gods, Vidur and Wali, were
to survive, and these would make again a new heaven
and earth, in which the spirits of gods and men would
lead a new and more glorious life.
How much of all this grew up later and was caught
from Christianity we cannot tell; but there is reason
to think that much of it was believed, and that heartily,
making the German nations brave and true, and help-
ing them to despise death. There were temples to
the gods, where the three figures of Woden, Frey, and
Thor were always together in rude carving, and some-
times with rough jewels for eyes. Woden also had
sacred oaks, and the great stone altars on heaths,
raised probably by an earlier race, were sacred to him.
Sometimes human sacrifices were offered there, but
more often sacred horses, for horses were the most
sacred of their animals: they were kept in honour of
the gods, auguries were drawn from their neighings,
and at the great yearly feasts they were offered in
sacrifice, and their flesh was eaten.
There were gods of the waters, Niord, and Egir,
who raised the great wave as the tide comes in at
the mouth of rivers; and his cruel daughter Rana,
who went about in a sea chariot causing shipwrecks.
Witches called upon her when they wanted to raise
storms and drown their enemies at sea.



_ __ ___ ___ C_








22 Stories of German History.

One old German story held that Tiw* was the father
of Man, and that Man's three sons were Ing, Isk, and
Er, the fathers of the chief Deutsch tribes. Isk (or
Ash) was the father of the Franks and Allemans;
Ing, of the Swedes, Angles, and Saxons; and Er, or
Erman, of a tribe called by the Romans Herminiones.
This same Er or Erman had a temple called Eresburg,
with a marble pillar on which stood an armed warrior
holding in one hand a banner bearing a rose, in the
other a pair of scales; his crest was a cock; he had a
bear on his breast, and on his shield was a lion in a
field of flowers. A college of priests lived around;
and before the army went out to battle, they galloped
round and round the figure in full armour, brandishing
their spears and praying for victory; and on their
return they offered up in sacrifice, sometimes their
prisoners, sometimes cowards who had fled from the
foe.
The image was called Irmansul-sul meaning a
pillar; and two pillars or posts were the great token
of home and settlement to the German nations. They
were planted at the gate of their villages and towns,
where one was called the Ermansaul, the other the
Rolandsaul. And when a family were about to change
their home, they uprooted the two wooden pillars of
"* The same word as the Greek Zeus and Latin Deus,



-









Valhall.



their own house and took them away. If they
by sea, they threw their pillars overboard, and I
themselves wherever these posts were cast up.
Dutch fancy filled the woods, hills, and streams
spirits. There were Elves throughout the woods



23



went
fixed

with
and



THIE ELVES.



plains, shadowy creatures who sported in the night
and watched over human beings for good or harm.
The Bergmen dwelt in the hills, keeping guard over
the metals and jewels hidden there, and forging



- ------11111



--








24 Stories of German History.

wonderful swords that always struck home, and were
sometimes given to lucky mortals, though they gener-
ally served for the fights in Valhall; and the waters
had Necks and other spirits dangerous to those who
loitered by the water-side. A great many of our best
old fairy tales were part of the ancient German
mythology, and have come down to our own times as
stories told by parents to their children.
There were German women who acted as priestesses
to Frigga, or Hertha, the Earth, as she was often
called. She had a great temple in Rugen, an isle in
the Baltic; her image was brought out thence at
certain times, in a chariot drawn by white heifers, to
bless the people and be washed in the Baltic waters.
Orion's belt was called her distaff, and the gossamer
marked her path over the fields when she brought
summer with her.
When one of the northern tribes was going to start
to the south to find new homes, their wives prayed to
Frigga to give them good speed. She bade them
stand forth the next morning in the rising sun with
their long hair let down over their chins. Who are
these long beards ?" asked Woden. "Thou hast
given them a name, so thou must give them the
victory," said Frigga; and henceforth the tribes were
called Longbeards, or Lombards.



_ __ ____. _I_ I __









Valall. 2 5

Before a battle, the matrons used to cast lots to
guess how the fortunes of the day would go, doing
below what the Valkyr did above. Sometimes a more
than commonly wise woman would arise among them,
and she was called the Wala, or Velleda, and looked up
to and obeyed by all.



_



_ ___ __ __-C-U-- -_ -- ------


















CHAP.



III.-THE



GERMANS



AND



ROMANS.



B.C. 6o-A.D. 400.



tUST as it was with the
we know of the Germ



Britons and Gauls,



the first



ans was when the Romans



began to fight with them. When Julius Caesar was
in Gaul, there was a great chief among the tribe called



Schwaben-Suevi,



Ehrfurst, "



as the Romans



or, as in Latin,



made



Ariovistus, who



it-called
had been



invited



into Gaul to settle the quarrels of two tribes of



Gauls in the north.



This



he did by conquering them



both; but they then begged
Ehrfurst was beaten by the
Caesar then crossed the Rh



help from



Caesar, and



Romans and driven back.



line by a bridge



and ravaged the country, staying there for
days. He was so struck with the braver



Germans that he persuaded



of boats
eighteen



"y of



their young men to serve



in his legions, where they were very useful; but



also learned to fight in the



Roman fashion.



"* Honour prince.



the



they



_ _--yll ._-C-



- _



I








,r'r 7 .-_ 7 rI



I tie &ermans anta omans. 27

Germany
was let alone
till the time of ---
the Emperor
Augustus, ,
when his step-
son Drusus
tried to make
it a province
of Rome, and
built fifty for- -
tresses along
the Rhine, be- "
sides cutting a '_
canal between
that river and
the Yssel, and
sailing along 1
the coasts of '
the North Sea.
He three times
entered Ger-
many, and in pp-
the year B.C. 9,
after beating 1%A4
the March- THE VELLEDA WARNING DRUSUS.



II__ ___ _ I



_ __ __ _l








28 Stories of German History.

men, was just going to cross the Elbe, when one of the
Velledas, a woman of great stature, stood before the
army and said, Thou greedy robber! whither wouldst
thou go ? The end of thy misdeeds and of thy life is
at hand." The Romans turned back dismayed; and
thirty days later Drusus was killed by a fall from his
horse.
Drusus' brother Tiberius went on with the attempt,
and gained some land, while other tribes were allies of
Rome, and all seemed likely to be conquered, when
Quinctilius Varus, a Roman who came out to take the
command, began to deal so rudely and harshly with
the Germans that a young chief named Herman, or
Arminius, was roused. He had secret meetings at
night in the woods with other chiefs, and they swore
to be faithful to one another in the name of their gods.
When all was ready, information was given to Varus
that a tribe in the north had revolted. He would not
listen to Siegert or Segestes, the honest German who
advised him to be cautious and to keep Herman as a
hostage, and set out with three legions to put it down;
but his German guides led him into the thickest of the
great Teutoberg forest, and the further they went the
worse this grew. Trunks of trees blocked up the road,
darts were hurled from behind trees, and when at last
an open space was gained after three days' struggling



__ __







-j)1/
Lon;
, U,



N



"Ip



I



-9



GERMANICUS BURYING THE SLAIN.



la{i -"' T1



.
/



, i



I,-



[li
IA



A 1-



- I



('P



e



"g



.
r k



*^l



tZ7-L Z'









The Germans and Romans.



20



through the wood, a huge host of foes was drawn up
there, and in the dreadful fight that followed almost
every Roman was cut off, and Varus threw himself on
his own sword.
Herman married the daughter of Siegert, and was
chief on the Hartz mountains, aided by his uncle
Ingomar; but after five years, A.D. 14, the Emperor
Tiberius sent the son of Drusus-who was called
already, from his father's successes, Germanicus-
against him. Some of the Germans, viewing Siegert
as a friend of Rome, beset his village, and were going
to burn it, when Germanicus came in time to disperse
them and save Siegert. Thusnelda, the wife of



Herman, was with her fa
prisoner to Rome with h
marched into the Teutobe
the army of Varus, and b
making a speech calling
death. But Herman's
defeated him, and if the
eager to plunder they wo



either, and was sent off as a
ler baby; while Germanicus
.rg wood, found the bones of
urnt them on a funeral pile,
on his men to avenge their
horsemen fell on him and
Germans had not been so
uld have made a great many



prisoners. They drove the Romans back across the
Rhine, and the next year were ready for them, and
had a tremendous battle on the banks of the Weser.
In this the Romans prevailed, and Herman himself
was badly wounded, and was only saved by the fleet-



20








30 Stories of German History.

ness of his horse. However, he was not daunted, and
still kept in the woods and harassed the Romans, once
forcing them to take refuge in their ships.
Tiberius grew jealous of the love the army bore to
Germanicus, and sent for him to return to Rome.
Herman thus had saved his country, but he had come
to expect more power than his chiefs thought his due,
and he was slain by his own kinsmen, A.D. 19, when
only thirty-seven years old. His wife and child had
been shown in Germanicus' triumph, and he never
seems to have seen them again. It was during this
war that the great Roman historian Tacitus came to
learn the habits and manners of the Germans, and was
so struck with their simple truth and bravery that he
wrote an account of them, which seems meant as an
example for the fallen and corrupt Romans of his time.
There were no more attempts to conquer Germany
after this; but the Germans, in the year 69, helped in
the rising of a Gaulish chief named Civilis against the
Romans, and a Velleda who lived in a lonely tower in
the forests near the Lippe encouraged him. He pre-
vailed for a time, but then fell.
The Germans remained terrible to the Romans for
many years, and there were fights all along the line of
the empire, which their tribes often broke through;
but nothing very remarkable happened till the sixth



I








The Germans and Romans. 31

century, when there was a movement and change of
place among them. This seems to have been caused
by the Huns, a savage tribe of the great Slavonic or
Tartar stock of nations, who came from the East, and
drove the Deutsch nation, brave as they were, before
them for a time.
Then it was that the Goths came over the Danube,
and, dividing into the Eastern and Western Goths,
sacked Rome, conquered the province of Africa, and
founded two kingdoms in Spain and in Northern Italy.
Their great king Theuderick, who reigned at Verona,
was called by the Germans Dietrich of Berne, and is
greatly praised and honoured in their old songs.
Then Vandals followed the Goths, and took Africa
from them; and the Lombards, or Longbeards, after
the death of Theuderick, took the lands in Northern
Italy which had been held by the Goths, founded a
kingdom, and called it Lombardy. The Burgundians
(or Burg Castle men) gained the south-east part of
Gaul all round the banks of the Rhone, and founded
a kingdom there; and the Sachsen (saex or axe men)
settled themselves on the banks of the Elbe, whence
went out bands of men who conquered the south of
Britain. The Franks (free men) were, in the mean-
time, coming over the Rhine, and first plundering the
north of Gaul, then settling there. All the western
L_________ -_____ -___________ _---








Stories



of



German



History.



half of the Roman



Empire was ove



Deutsch nations from the shores of



spread by these
the Baltic to the



Mediterranean, from



the Atlantic



Ocean to the Car-



pathian



by



the



Mountains; and instead of being conquered
Romans, the Deutsch nations had conquered



them.



chiefly



with the Franks,



Sachsen,



Schwaben,



and Germans that this history is concerned; but before



going any further, there is a great mythological
to be told. which all believed in as truth.



story



32



It is



2_ __



_


















CHAP. IV.-THE NIBELONIG HEROES.

T HHERE are two versions of this strange ancient
story-a northern one made in heathen times, a
German one in Christian days. According to this one,
the three gods, Woden, Loki, and Hamer, came down
to a river in Nibelheim-the land of mist-to fish; and
Loki killed an otter and skinned it. Now this otter was
really a dwarf named Ottur, whose home was on the river
bank, with his father and brothers, Fafner and Reginn,
and who used to take the form of the beast when he
wanted to catch fish. When his brothers saw what
had befallen him, they demanded that Loki should, as
the price of his blood, fill the otter's skin with gold;
and this Loki did, but when he gave it, he laid it under
a curse, that it should do no good to its owner.
The curse soon began to be fulfilled, for Fafner
killed his father to gain the treasure, and then turned
himself into a serpent to keep watch over it and
prevent Reginn from getting it. But Reginn had a



__



_ _._______ _I__



I








Stories



of



German



History.



pupil who was so strong that he used to catch wild
lions and hang them by the tail over the wall of his



castle.



The northern people called him



Sigurd,



the Germans call him Siegfried," and say that his father



was the king of the



Netherlands, and that he was a



hero in the train of Dietrich of Berne. Reginn per-
suaded Siegfried to attack the dragon Fafner and kill



which



he bade



blood and eat the heart.



the champion bathe



The bath made



hard that nothing could hurt him, except



between his



shoulders,



where a leaf had



in the



his skin so
in one spot
stuck as it



was blown down from the trees; and



the heart made



him able to understand the voices of the birds.



their
slay



song Siegfried
him, and he th(



From



found out that Reginn meant to



erefore



killed



Reginn and himself



took the treasure, in which



he found a tarn cap, which



made him invisible when he put it on.
called worms in old Deutsch, and the



Serpents were
Germans said



that their city of Wurms was the place where Siegfried
killed the dragon. They called him Siegfried the
Horny.



Now there was a lady of matchless strength



Brunhild;t but



named



she had offended Woden, who touched



her with his sleep-thorn, so that she fell into a charmed



sleep, surrounded



with



a hedge of flame.



Siegfried



"* Conquering Peace.



t Valkyr of the Breastplate.



34



but



him,



after



I








The Nibelonig Heroes. 35

heard of her, broke through the circle of fire, and woke
the lady, winning her heart and love; but he had then
to leave her in her castle after three days and go back
to the common world, carrying her ring and girdle with
him. But by a magic drink, as one story says, he was
thrown into a sleep in which he lost all remembrance
of Brunhild.
The great song of Germany, the Nibelungen lied,
begins when Chriemhild," the fair daughter of the king
of Burgundy, had a dream in which she saw her
favourite falcon torn to pieces by two eagles. Her
mother told her that this meant her future husband,
upon which she vowed that she would never marry.
Soon after, Siegfried arrived and fell in love with her;
but she feared to accept him because of her dream.
However, the fame of Brunhild's beauty had reached
the court, and Chriemhild's brother Gunther wanted
to wed her. She would, however, marry no one who
could not overcome her in racing and leaping; and as
she was really one of the Valkyr, Gunther would have
had no chance if Siegfried, still forgetful of all con-
cerning Brunhild, had not put on his cap, made himself
invisible, took the leap, holding Gunther in his arms, and
drew him on in the race so as to give him the victory.
Then Gunther married Brunhild, and Siegfried
"* Valkyr of the Helmet.
C



IC __ C_ I _








Stories



of



German



History.



Chriemhild. The first pair
second at Wurms, and all



reigned in Burgundy, the
went well for ten years,



when unhappily there was a great quarrel between the



two ladies.



The northern song



says



it was



about



which



had the



right to swim furthest out



into the



Rhine; the German, that it was which should go



into the Cathedral.



Brunhild



said that Siegfried



only Gunther's vassal; on which Chriemhild returned
that it was to Siegfried, and not to her husband, that
Brunhild had yielded, and in proof showed her the
ring and girdle that he had stolen from her.
Brunhild was furiously enraged, and was determined



to be revenged.



She took council with



Haghen, her



husband's uncle, a wise and far-travelled man, whom
every one thought so prudent that he was the very
person whom poor Chriemhild consulted on her side



as to the way of saving



her husband.



He had never



loved



Siegfried, and when his niece told him there was



only one spot where her husband could be wounded,
he bade her sew a patch on his garment just where it



was, that he



might



be sure to know where to guard



There was a great hunting match soon after,



and Haghen contrived that all the wine should



be left



behind, so that all the hunters growing thirsty,
down to drink at the stream, and thus Siegfried



defenceless the spot marked by his wife.



There he was



36



first
was



him.



lay
left



i



(









The iVibelonzig



Heroes.



instantly stabbed



by



Haighen's
0



contrivance.



37



Accord-



ing to the heathen northern story, Brunhild, viewing
herself as his true wife, burnt herself on a pile with



his corpse in the Nibelung.
late.



She had only repented too



Chriemhild knew HaShen was the murderer, because
the body bled at his touch; but she could not hinder
nhim from taking away the treasure and hiding it in
a cave beneath the waters of the Rhine. She laid up



a vow of vengeance against him,



but she could do



nothing till she was wooed and won by Etzel



or Atli,



king of the Huns, on condition that he would avenge
her on all her enemies. For thirteen years she bided
her time, and then she caused her husband to invite
Gunther and all the other Burogundians to a great feast



at Etzelbur
,c



in Hunrgary.
i~> -'



There she stir



terrilble fight, of which the NiVubch5 zo'cn lied
/ ->


almost every blow.
./



red up a
describes



Dietrich of Berne at once rushed



in and took Kin Etzel and Queen



Chriemhild to a



place of safety, keeping all his own men back while



the fight went on-Folker,



the mighty fiddler of Bur-



gundy, fiddling wildly till he too joined in the fray;
and then Dietrich's men burst in, and were all killed



but old Sir



Hildebrand,



who,



on his side,



slew the



mighty fiddler, so that of all the Burgundians only
Gunther and Hah,-en were left. Dietrich then armed
1 '7!



__ _



I








38 Stories of German History.

himself, made them both prisoners, and gave them up
to Chriemhild; but in her deadly vengeance she killed
them both; whereupon Hildebrand slew her as an
act of justice, and, with Etzel and Dietrich, buried the
dead.
I have told you this story in this place because
two real personages, Attila the Hun and Theuderick
of Verona, come into it, though there is no doubt that
the story was much older than their time, and that they
were worked into it when it was sung later. It shows
what a terrible duty all the Deutsch thought vengeance
was. There are stories in the north going on with the
history of Siegfried's children, and others in Germany
about Dietrich. It seems he had once had to do with
Chriemhild in her youth, for she had a garden of roses
seven miles round, guarded by twelve champions, and
the hero who could conquer them was to receive from
her a chaplet of roses and a kiss. Dietrich, Hildebrand,
and ten more knights beat her champions, and took the
crowns of roses, but would not have the kisses, because
they thought Chriemhild a faithless lady!
In real truth, Attila, king of the Huns, lived fully one
hundred years before the great Theuderick of Verona.



--- -- --



















FRANKS.



796-765.



THE



A



most famous of the



German tribes



Franks, who lived on the banks of the



I



were
Rhine,



were in two divisions, the Salian, so called because
they once came from the river Yssel, and Ripuarians,



so called from ria, the Latin word



for the bank of a



river.
The Franks were terrible enemies to the Romans in



the north-east corner of Gaul, and under their



Chlodio won a great many of the



King



fifty fortresses that



Drusus had built, in especial Trier and Koln, as they



shortened the old name of Colonia,



a colony.



Chlodio



joined



with the



Romans to



fight



against



dreadful enemy of them all, Attila the Hun, who was



beaten in



the battle of Soissons.



After



his death,



those of his
remained on



people who did not go



Sthe banks of



back



to Asia



the Danube, and their



country is still called Hungary.



the
and



only



that



- --------



--



V.-THE



CHAP.








Stories of German



History.



The kings of these Franks were called Meerwings,
from one of their forefathers. The only great man
who rose up among them was Chlodwig,- who pushed
on into Gaul, made Soissons his home, took Paris from
the Gauls, and married Clothilda (famous Valkyr), the
daughter of the Burgundian king, who was a Christian.
The other Deutsch tribes went to war with Chlodwig,
the Allemans especially; and it was in the midst of a
battle with them, fought at Zulpich, that Chlodwig
vowed that if Clotilda's God would give him the
victory, he would worship Him rather than Freya or
Woden. He did gain the victory, and was baptised
by St. Remigius at Rheims, on Christmas Day, 496,
with three thousand of his warriors. Most likely he
thought that, as Gaul was a Christian country, he could
only rule there by accepting the Christian's God; but
he and his sons remained very fierce and wild. He
conquered the Ripuarian Franks and made them one



-II 1L
with his own people, and he also conquered the Goths
in the south of France.
But when he died the kingdom was broken up among
his sons, and they quarrelled and fought, so that the
whole story of these early Franks is full of shocking
deeds. There were generally two kingdoms, called
"* The French call him Clovis, but he shall have his proper name here--
Chlodwig, famous war.



40



__ _11_1_



__ __ -























































































































BRUNHILD'S FLIGHT.



Ar

. lo



-----
.
-I-

-e
--7hr
2--
---



1









The Fra nks.



41



Oster-rik, eastern kingdom, and Ne-oster-rik, not
eastern, or western kingdom, besides Burgundy, more
to the south. The Oster-rik stretched out from the
great rivers to the forests of the Allemans and Saxons,
and was sometimes joined to the Ne-oster-rik. The
chief freemen used to meet and settle their affairs in
the month of March, and this was called a Marchfield;
but the king had great power, and used it very badly.
It was never so badly used as by the widows of two
of the long-haired kings, Hilperik and Siegbert,
brothers who reigned in the West and East kingdoms.
Siegbert's wife, Brunhild, was the daughter of the king
of the Goths in Spain; Fredegond, the wife of Hilperik,
was only a slave girl, and hated Brunhild so much that



she had Siebert murdered.
was guilty of were beyond all
were killed by her messenge
her were poisoned. WVhen
reigned in the name of her sc
son at Soissons, as Brunhild
really tried to do good to her
fine buildings, both churches
was fierce and proud, and dr
Columbanus, when he tried
Theuderick for his crimes.



The murders Fredegond
measure. Her step-sons
rs, and all who offended
her husband died, she
)n and then of her grand-
did at Metz. Brunhild
country, and made some
and convents; but she
ove away the Irish priest
to rebuke her grandson
Theuderick died in 613,



leaving
z



four



sons;



and then Chlotar,



Fredegond's



___ __



_ U








42 Stories of German History.

grandson, attacked the Oster-rik. Brunhild was old,
and was hated by her people; no one would fight
for her, and she tried in vain to escape. One of her
grandsons rode off on horseback and was never heard
of more, and the other three were seized with her.
Fredegond was dead, but she had brought up Chlotar
in bitter hatred of Brunhild, and he accused her of
having caused the death of ten kings. He paraded
her through his camp on a camel, put her great-grand-
children to death before her eyes, and then had her
tied by the body to a tree and by the feet to a wild
horse, so that she died a horrible death.
After this the two kingdoms were joined together;
but this wicked race of kings became so dull and stupid
that they could not manage their own affairs, and they
had, besides, granted away a great many of their lands
in fee, as it was called, to their men, who were bound
in return to do them service in war. These lands
were called fiefs, and the holders of them were called
Heer Zog-that is, army leaders-Duces (Dukes) in
Latin; and Grafen, which properly meant judges, and
whose Latin title was Comites (comrades), commonly
called Counts. A city would have a Graf or Count to
rule it for the king and manage its affairs at his court;
and besides these who were really officers of the king,
there were the Freiherren, or free lords, who held no



_111__



I I _____ I _11 _1_1 I_ _








If
I;



V



ir~



iW7



{b~/fZ



^l/



"ZA~ --tc-



BATTLE OF TOURS.



(-



N. -



- N
N /



2 c



1/- // -
-e -



4'



'vJ-~i~



*



8/



---



- i



0.



r-



""""""""""""""""""""
i
?i"

XT -Y- 1



^
^



i;I
'k



B



l.
,iiiz



lliiiil--



-,- 'f-













The Franks.



office,



and



nation was



were
called



bound only



on.



to come



They came



out when the



to be also termed



Barons, a word meaning man.



The kings lived on



great



farms



near the cities



rough
Z:



sort of



drawn by oxen.



too lazy to le



plenty,



and went about in rude waggons



The lonc-haired
0



ad the people



thing to the chief of th
Mayor of the Palace.
Pippin of Landen
the Palace in the kin



ieir



kings



soon



out to war, and left
officers, who was cal



was a very



.gdom
-b



of the



famous
East



grew
every-



led the



Mayor of



Franks



or



Oster-rik,



him. I
Franks,



and his family had



Sis grandson,



beat the



We.



the same



power



after



Pippin of Herstall, Duke of the
st Franks at Testri in 687, and



ruled over both kingdoms at once,
6



though each had



own Meerwinr king.
His son was Karl t



Martel,
of the



who was
Franks, 1



also Mayc
both East



of the Hammer,



of the



Palace



and West.



or Charles
and Duke



He saved all



Christendom from being over



by



beating them in the great



run by the Saracen Arabs,
battle of Tours in 731.



His son was Pippin the



Short,



who had the



same



power at first, and became a great friend and



the Pop(
kings in



who was much



distressed by the



Northern Italy, who threatened



helper to
Lombard



to take Rome



"* A pet name for father.



t A strong man.



43



in a



its



I ---



---



-----



"-)








44 Stories of German History.

from him. Pope Zacharias rewarded Pippin by con-
senting to his becoming king of the Franks when the
last of the Meerwings gave up his crown and went into
a monastery.
Pippin's own subjects, the Franks, were Christians;
but the tribes in Germany and Friesland still worshipped
Woden and Thor. The English Church sent mission-
aries to them, and Pippin helped them as much as he
could. The greatest was St. Boniface, who converted
so many Germans that he was made Archbishop of
Mainz, and this has always been the chief see in
Germany. At Giesmar, the Hessians honoured a great
oak sacred to Thor, and Boniface found that even the
Christians still feared the tree. He told them that if
Thor was a god he would defend his own; then, at
the head of all his clergy, he cut down the tree, and
the people saw that Thor was no god. When he
baptised them he made them renounce not only the
devil, but Woden and all false gods. At last he was
martyred by the heathen Frisians in 755.







- -_________________






r\



"I,



-..~



r

ify
".7f



J /






""-- -- -.
(II


- jF



ST. BONIFACE FELLING THE OAK.



\l\



>4



(d
z P W1 }
y i / -".w



~'V



-A.



V r' -
\



^



\"7.l



,w.-yr:
uw *



I



(



hr



At- '

















CHAP. VI.-KARL THE GREAT.
768-814.
BECAUSE of the help Pippin gave the Pope, he
was made a patrician of Rome; and when he died
in 768, his son Karl inherited the same rank. Karl
was one of the mightiest and wisest of kings, who well
deserves to be called the Great, for though he was
warlike, he fought as much for his people's good as
for his own power, and tried to make all around him
wise and good. Wherever he heard of a good scholar,
in Italy or in England, or in any part of Gaul, he sent
for him to his court, and thus had a kind of school in
his palace, where he and his sons tried to set the rough,
fierce young Franks the example of learning from the
Romans and their pupils the old Gauls. Karl could
speak and read Latin as naturally as his own native
Deutsch; but he never could learn the art of writing,
though he used to carry about tablets and practise when
he had leisure. However, he had much really deep








46 Stories of C

knowledge, and a great
the best use of all kinds
All the German tribe



,erman



History.



mind that knew how to make
of learning.
:s were under him as kin2 of



the Franks except the Saxons, whose lands reached
from the Elbe to Thuringia and the Rhine. They
were heathens, who refused to listen to St. Boniface
and his missionaries, and still honoured the great idol
at Eresbury called the Irmansaul. Karl invaded the
land, overthrew this image, and hoped he had gained
the submission of the Saxons, sending missionaries
among them to teach them the truth; but they were
still heathens at heart, and rose against him under
their chief Witikind, so that the war altogether lasted
thirty years. The Saxons rose against him again
and again, and once so enraged him that he caused
four thousand five hundred who had been made
prisoners to be put to death; but still Witikind fought
on till his strength was crushed. At last he submitted,
and was brought to see Karl at Atigny, where they



made friends, and Witikind consented to be baptised
and to keep the peace.
When Witikind died, five years later, Karl made
Saxony into eight bishoprics. He made bishops as
powerful as he could, giving them guards of soldiers,
and appointing them, when he could, Counts of the
chief cities of their sees, because he could trust them



__ I_



_ I



__ I ---_ __ __1__1__ _II __11_1__1__1__1_1__



C>





















ov
rL"
3;
IIO:
9



- Ir '



J 71



/A



( .



,d/t



/~
;chj



7/



\



KARL THE GREAT IN HIS SCHOOL.



s



/ i.



T/



4,



/
J,



T



f)



/"



dJI~-



e



2



II



I 1



--e V Ir.



i-^



P4



!"*



----
iS-



"-;



I



*?<;



,1i .l



t ,r



\



--

__
'------------
r
c ---
--
--
----,
I
c
-- ----- r --
-----.
---



j"-s
(^ tf^



L

cll



h
jE



1.
IV








Karl



the Great.



better than the wild, rugged Frank nobles. The great
bishoprics of Metz, Trier, and Koln rose to be princely
states in this way.



While Karl



was gone



the first time to



Saxony,



KARL AND WITIKIND.



Lombard king, Desiderius, began to harass Rome again;
and the Pope, Leo III., again sent to ask aid from Karl,
who crossed the Alps, besieged Pavia, and sent the king
into a monastery, while he was himself crowned with the



47



the








Stories



of German



History.



iron crown that the Lombard



kings



had always worn.



Then he went on to Rome, where he dismounted from



his horse and



Church



step



walked in a grand procession



of St. Peter on the Vatican hill,



of the



staircase



before



he mounted



kissin<
xd it,



to the
g each
in re-



membrance of the holy men who



had trodden there



before him.



In the church



the Pope



received



while the choir chanted Blessed be he that cometh in
the Name of the Lord."
But the Lombards chose the son of their late king
for their leader, and there was another war which ended
in their being quite crushed. Karl also gained great
victories over the Moors in Spain, and won the whole



of the country as far as the Ebro; but the



wild people



of the Pyrenees, though they were Christians,



were



jealous of his power, and rose on his army as it was



returning



in the Pass



of Roncesvalles, cutting off



hindmost of them, especially



Roland,



the warden of



the marches of Brittany, about whom there are almost
as many stories as about the heroes of the Nibelung.



He had



another



great war with



the Avars



Bohemians, people of Slavonic race, who lived to the
eastward of the Deutsch, and had ringforts or castles



consisting



of



rings



of high walls, one within another.



One of the Swabians who fought under



Karl was said,



at the taking of one of these forts, to have run his spear



48



him,



the



and



1________ ____



_ II_









r -,, r

\ i

/i
"i \\x ;l
,/ "^,ii ^
i/t.N" KA



Ai


' l



'I'



A' .
. 2 .



I



"2



I (~ i I



&



~Z



KARL THE GREAT ENTERING ST PETER'S.



t'
\; /



\
* \



0.



IL



, :,t



"rip",
'Iw



---
---



i I
I
I



" I '"







50



Stories of German History.



through seven of the enemy at once! The ringforts
were taken, and Karl appointed all round the border or
marches of his kingdoms March-counts, Mark-grafen,
or Marquesses, who were to guard the people within
from the wild tribes without. One mark was Karnthen
or Carinthia, going from the Adriatic to the Danube;
another was CEsterreich or Austria, the East Mark; and
another was Brandenburg. All the countries in his
dominion were visited four times a-year by officers who
made reports to him, and judged causes; but if people
were not satisfied, they might appeal to the Palace
judge, or Pfalzgraf-Palgraf, as he was called.
His lands stretched from the Baltic Sea to the
Mediterranean and the Ebro, from the Bay of Biscay
to the borders of the Huns and Avars; and when he
held his great court at Paderborn in 729 he had people
there from all the countries round, and even the great
Khalif Haroun al Raschid (the same of whom we hear
so much in the Arabian Nigchs) being likewise an
enemy of the Moors in Spain, sent gifts to the great
king of the Franks-an elephant, a beautiful tent, a set of
costly chessmen, and a water-clock, so arranged that at
every hour a little brazen ball fell into a brass basin,
and little figures of knights, from one to twelve, accord-
ing to the hour, came out and paraded about in front.
Pope Leo X. came likewise to Paderborn, and by



--






,xj== = ::=_- F7-













Ire'.
Mill
















aQ





IS
S i i




Sllgi



HAROUN AL RASCHID'S GIFTS.









Karl the Great. 51

his invitation Karl made a third visit to Rome in the
year 800, and was then made Emperor of the West.
The old Roman Empire was revived in him, the citizens
shouting, Long live Carolus Augustus the Caesar;"
and from that time Caesar, or, as the Germans call it,
Kaisar, has always been the title of Karl's successors
in what he called the Holy Roman Empire, as he held
his power from the Church, and meant to use it for
God's glory. The empire was a gathering of kingdoms
-namely, the old Frank Oster-rik and Ne-oster-rik,
Germany, the kingdom of Aquitaine, the kingdom of
Burgundy, of Lombardy, and Italy. Karl was king of
each of these, but he meant to divide them between his
sons and Bernhard," king of Italy. The little Ludwig,
at three years old, was dressed in royal robes and sent
to take possession of Aquitaine, while Karl himself
reigned at Aachen, where he built a grand palace and
cathedral. His two elder sons died young, and when
the Kaisar fell sick at Aachen, Ludwig was his only
son. He took the youth into the cathedral, made him
swear to fear and love God, defend the Church, love
his people, and keep a conscience void of offence, and
then bade him take the crown off the altar and put it on
his own head. Karl lived a year after this, and died in
814, one of the greatest men who ever lived.
"* Firm Bears.



D



_ ____ _



-- -- --- -------










.C 0

"----'--------------^~ -fc^^---g







CHAPTER VII.

LUDWIG I., THE PIOUS,...... 814-84o0
LOTHAR I.,............................840-855.
LUDW IG II., .........................855-875.
KARL II., THE BALD,...........875-876.
KARLOMAN ...........................876-880.
KARL III., THE THICK, .....880-887.
ARNULF, ............................887-899.
LUDWIG IV., THE CHILD, 899-912.

L UDWIG THE PIOUS is the same emperor as
he whom the French call Louis the debonair, but
it is better to use his real name, which is only a little
softened from Chlodwig. He was a good, gentle man,
but he had not such strength or skill as his father to
rule that great empire, and he was much too easily led.
He was crowned Emperor by Pope Stephen, and then
gave kingdoms to his sons; Lothar* had the Rhineland,
the old home of the Franks, and was joined in the
empire with his father; Pippin had Aquitaine, and
Famous Warrior.



_ ______ _I_ IY-L- I _









Ludwig



I.,



the



Pious.



Ludwig



Bavaria ;



but



none



of them



were



to make



peace or war without consent



of the



Emperor.



Bern-



hard, King of Italy, their cousin, did not choose to reign
on these terms, and marched against the Emperor, but



defeated, made prisoner, condemned by the Franks,



put



to death.



Lothar had



his kingdom, and



LUDWIG THE PIOUS.



suspected of having prevented him from being par-
doned; but the Emperor always grieved over his death
as a great sin.
In 814, Ludwig I. lost his wife, and soon after married



a Bavarian lady



named Judith, who



had



a son



named



Karl.
called



Ludwig
a diet at



wanted
Wurms,



a kindgom



where



for this boy,



a new kingdom



C



53



was
and



was



and
called



_ __



_ __



- --








54 Stories of German History.

Germany was carved out for him; but this greatly
offended his brothers, who rose against their father,
and overcame him. They wanted to drive him into
becoming a monk, but this he would not do, and his
German subjects rose in his favour, and set him on his
throne again.
He forgave his sons, and sent them back to their
kingdoms; but in a few years they were all up in arms
again, and met the Emperor near Colmar. All Ludwig's
men deserted him when the battle was about to begin,
so that the place was afterwards called the Field of
Falsehood. The Emperor fell into his sons' hands,
and Lothar, in the hope of keeping him from reigning
again, persuaded the clergy to tell him it was his duty
to submit to penance of the higher degree, after which
nobody was allowed to command an army. The meek
Emperor, who had always reproached himself for
Bernhard's death, was willing to humble himself, and,
stripped of his robes, he lay on a couch of sackcloth
and read a list of his sins, which had been drawn up by
his foes, and made him confess not only that he had
been unjust to Bernhard, but that he had been a
blasphemer, a perjured wretch, and fomenter of strife.
Then thirty bishops, one after the other, laid their
hands on his head, while the penitential psalms were
sung, and all the time Lothar looked on from a throne



__



C_1__








Ludwig I., the Pious. 55

rejoicing in his father's humiliation. But his pride had
shocked every one, and his two brothers, with a number
of Franks, rose and rescued the Emperor from him,
treating their father with all love and honour, and the
bishops bidding him resume his sword and belt. Even
Lothar was obliged to come to him and say, Father,
I have sinned against heaven and in thy sight," and
the gentle old man kissed him, forgave him, and sent
him to Italy.
When Pippin died there was a fresh war, for the
people of Aquitaine would allow no Franks to come
near his son, from whom therefore Ludwig took the
kingdom, and there was much fighting and many
horrors, all made worse by the ravages of the heathen
Northmen and Danes. At Wurms, a treaty was made
by which Lothar was to have all the eastern half of the
empire, Karl all the western, leaving young Ludwig
only Bavaria. Ludwig, in his anger, took up arms,
and just as the war was beginning, the good gentle old
Empe-or became so ill that he retired to an island in
the Rhine named Ingelheim, and there died. The
priest who attended him asked if he forgave his son.
" Freely do I forgive him," said the old man; "but
fail not to warn him that he has brought down my
grey hairs with sorrow to the grave." Ludwig I. died
in 840, in his sixty-third year.



_ __I_







56 Stories of German History.

Karl then joined Ludwig against Lothar, and at
Fontanet, near Auxerre, there was a desperate battle,
150,000 men on each side, with a front six miles long
to each army. The fight lasted six hours, and Lothar
was beaten; but his brothers seem to have been
shocked at their own victory over a brother and an
emperor, and there was a fast of three days after it.
They soon after made peace at the treaty of Verdun,
in 843, by which Ludwig had the countries between
the Rhine, the North Sea, the Elbe, and the Alps-
what in fact is now called Germany. Lothar had,
besides Italy, all the Rhineland, and the country
between the Scheldt, the Meuse, the Saone, and the
Rhone. This was called Lothar's portion, or Lothar-
ingia, and part is still called Lorraine.
Karl's portion was all to the west of this, and was
then called Karolingia, after his name, but it did'not
keep the title, and after a time came to be known as
France.
Ludwig II., King of Germany, was much tormented,
both by the Northmen and the Slavonic nations to the
east, Avars, Bohemians, or Czechs, as they call them-
selves, and the Magyar, who lived in the country once
settled by Attila's Huns, and therefore called Hungary.
There is a story that, when the Saxons and Thurin-
gians came home defeated from a battle with these








Karl



II.. the Bald.



people, their wives rose up and flogged
their cowardice.



Lothar I., the Emperor, died in
Ludwig is counted as the second K
but he died without children, in 8;
was a war between all his brothers



of Germany; Kar
was commonly c
Karl II., but he



hands than he co



1, of Karolingia, e:



calledd



the Bald,



855,



them well



and his



for



son



.aisar of the name,



75, and then



there



and Ludwig, King
nding in Karl, who



becoming



Kaisar



had many more kingdoms on his
uld manage, and was terribly tor-



mented with the Northmen, besides having quarrels on
his hands with all his nephews. His brother Ludwig



of Germany made matters worse by dividing



his king-



dom into three at his death, in 876, for his three sons.



Karloman, the eldest of these, attacked



the Kaisar,



and drove him to the Alps, where he died at the
of Mount Cenis, in 877, after a miserable reign.



Karloman



then became



Emperor.



He was also



King of Bavaria and of Italy, and



Ludwig was King of



his next brother



Saxony, where an old chronicler



says that his lif
Church, and his



"e was useless alike



kingdom;



to himself,



the



and so, when Karloman



died, the empire was given to the youngest brother,
Karl III., called der Dicke, the Thick, who turned out
" The French call him Charles le Gros, and he is generally termed the
Fat, but Thick seems to express dullness as well as stoutness.



57



foot



I I-r --rpL-3 -*I



--



- -- -- --








58 Stories of German History.

not to be much wiser or more active. In his time the
Northmen made worse inroads than ever; and though
on the death of his cousin, called Louis the Stammerer,
France likewise fell to him, he was quite unable to pro-
tect his people anywhere; and when the Count of Paris
forced his way through the Northern fleet in the Seine,
and came to beg his help, he could do nothing but offer a
sum of money to buy them off. Everybody was weary
of him, and at last an assembly was held at Tribur, on
the Rhine, which declared him unfit to rule, and sent
him into a monastery, where he died in two months, in
888. Arnulf, a son of Karloman, was made Emperor,
but the French took the brave Count of Paris for their
king, and France never formed part of the empire
again. Arnulf was a brave Kaiser, and so beat off the
Northmen that they never greatly molested Germany
again; but he died young, in 899, when his son Lud-
wig III., called the Child, was only six years old. He
had a stormy reign, so tormented by the Magyars, who
were trying to push beyond Hungary, that he died of
grief, quite worn out, in 912.



- -- c







I



ODO APPEALING TO KARL THE FAT.



-^



















CHAPTER



VIII.



KONRAD I.,..........................912-917.
HEINRICH I.,.....................917-936.
OTTO I., THE GREAT,.......936-973.



AS the Karling line was worn out, the German nobles
chose another Frank, Konrad,* Count of Fran-
conia, for their king, and when at the end of six years
he died, he bade them choose in his stead Count
Heinricht of Saxony, who had been his enemy, and
beat him in a great battle, but whom he thought the
only man who had skill enough to defend Germany.
Heinrich was hawking on the Harz Mountains
when the news of this advice was brought to him, and
he is therefore called Heinrich the Fowler. He was
wise and brave, and brought all the great dukedoms of
Germany under his rule. These were, besides Saxony,
Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria, and Lorraine. His great
wars were with the Magyars in Hungary. Though he
Bold Speech. t Home Ruler.



__ __ C








60 Stories of German History.

beat them in one battle, he was forced to make a truce
for nine years, and pay them tribute in gold all the time.
During all that time he was preparing himself and his
people, and training his nobles to fight on horseback,
by games which some people say were the beginning
of tournaments. The men of lower rank were to be
also trained to fight from the time they were thirteen
years old, and to meet near the villages every three
days to practise the use of arms. Besides, he saw that
the great want was of walled cities, where the people
might take shelter from their enemies; so he built
towns and walled them in, and commanded that one
man out of every nine should live in a burg, as these
fortresses were called. Thus began the burghers of
Germany. The public meetings, fairs, markets, and
feasts were to take place within the towns, and justice
was to be dealt out there. Stores were to be kept in
case of a siege, and the country people were to send in
a part of their produce to supply them, and in this way
they were made the great gathering-places of the
country.
When Heinrich thought the country quite ready to
fight against the Magyars, he defied them when next
they sent for tribute, by giving them nothing but a
wretched mangy dog. The next year they entered
Germany to punish him, but he beat them at Keusch-



- -I --



























7



,
I: ii

s
L t



THE LAST TRIBUTE OF THE MAGYARS.



'~
I:
,Ii



T.



-I-----_---

,..Y---- N_



WR T--



-c----








Heinrich I. 61

berg. Then they lighted beacon fires on the hills to
rouse their people, and a great multitude mustered to
overwhelm the Germans; at this same place, Keusch-
berg, Heinrich unfolded the banner of St. Michael, and
rushed on the enemy, all his men crying out the Greek
response, Kyrie eleison," "Lord, have mercy," while
the Magyars answered with wild shouts of Hui! Hui !"
but they were totally defeated, and driven back within
Hungary. After this his troops hailed him as Em-
peror. He also conquered the Duke of Bohemia, and
made him do homage to the kingdom of Germany.
He beat back the Wends, who lived on the marshes of
the Baltic Sea east of the Saxons, and were their great
enemies; and he also tried to drive back the Danes.
He tried to get these nations to become Christians, but
he only succeeded with some of the Bohemians, where
the good Duke Wenceslaf was a Christian already,
thanks to his mother, St. Ludmilla. He is the same of
whom the pretty story is told that we have in the
ballad of "Good King Wenceslas," though he was
not really a king. He was murdered by his wicked
brother Boleslaf, and the Christians were persecuted
for some years. The good King Heinrich meant to
go to Rome to be crowned Kaisar by the Pope, but he
never could be spared long enough from home, and
died in the year 936.



CI_







62 Stories of German History.

His son Otto had been already chosen King of Ger-
many, and was married to Edith, sister to the English
king Athelstan, a gentle lady, who saved and petted a
deer which had taken refuge in her chamber. He was
crowned at Aachen by the archbishop of Mainz, and
the great dukes were present in right of their offices-
the Duke of Franconia, as carver; the Duke of Lor-
raine, as chamberlain; the Duke of Swabia, as cup-
bearer; the Duke of Bavaria, as master of the horse.
Standing in the middle aisle of the cathedral, the arch-
bishop called on all who would have Otto for their
king to hold up their right hands. Then, leading him
to the Altar, he gave him the sword to chastise the
enemies of Christ, the mantle of peace, the sceptre of
power, and then, anointing head, breast, arms, and
hands with oil, crowned him with the golden crown of
Karl the Great; and there was a great feast, when all
the dukes served him according to their offices; but
he had a stormy reign. The Dukes of Franconia and
Lorraine rebelled, and so did his own brothers; but
he was both brave, wise, and forgiving, so he brought
them all to submit, and forced Boleslaf of Bohemia to
leave off persecuting the Christians.
The Karling King of France, Louis IV., had a great
quarrel with his vassals, Hugh, Count of Paris, and
Richard, Duke of Normandy, who called in the help of








Otto I., the Great. 63

Harald Blue-tooth, King of Denmark. Louis had
married another English princess, and Otto came to
help his brother-in-law, thus beginning a war with
Harald which ended in his making Denmark subject
to the empire; and he also subdued the Slavonic
Duchy of Poland. He founded bishoprics, like Karl
the Great, wherever he conquered heathens, and sent
missions with them. Magdeburg was one of his great
bishoprics.
The Karling line of Kings of Italy had come to an
end with King Lothar, who had been married to Adel-
heid, a Karling herself. She was young and beautiful,
and the Lombard duke, Berenger of Ivrea, wanted to
marry her to his son. When she refused, he shut her
up in a castle on the Lago di Garda; but a good
monk named Martin made a hole through the walls of
her dungeon, and led her wandering about, travelling
by night, and hiding by day in the standing corn and
reeds, till she reached a fisherman's hut, where she
remained for some days in the dress of a fisher boy,
while Brother Martin carried news to her friends.
They took her to the castle of Canossa, and sent to
entreat the help of Otto. He had lost his English
wife; so Adelheid offered to marry him, and give him
her claim to the kingdom of Italy. He collected his
troops, and came down on Berenger, who was be-



___








Stories



of



German



History.



sieging Canossa, drove him away, and, ta
Queen in triumph to Pavia, held at once his



Li



ding the
wedding



and his coronation as
He was, however,



King
not at



of the Lombards.



peace,



for his



son Ludolf,



ADELHEID HIDING IN THE CORN.



Duke of Swabia, rebelled against him, out of jealousy
of his brother Heinrich; but he was tamed at last, and



came



barefoot



to kneel at his



father's



feet for pardon,



which the
dom, and



King



gave him, but he forfeited his duke-



was sent into Italy.



After



this he had



64



I_



;h";i;" Cr;.c?jZM51
--y
-p&3rk
Sjl- J"""








Otto I., the Great. 65

another terrible war with the Magyars, ending in a
most horrible battle on the Leeh, when the river ran
red with blood, and out of 60,ooo Magyars only seven
came home to tell the tale, and those with slit noses
and ears. The Germans on the field of battle hailed
Otto as Kaisar; and as he was soon after called into
Italy to set to rights the disorder caused by Ludolf's
bad management, he went to Rome, and was crowned
Emperor, while his son Otto was crowned King of the
Germans, at Aachen, in 961. Things were in a sad
state at Rome. The Popes were now so powerful that
ambitious men wanted to be Popes, and there was
bribery, fighting, and murder to gain the holy office.
So Otto called a council of Bishops, and tried to bring
things into better order, but when he went away they
soon fell back again, and horrid crimes were done.
Otto had nearly as large an empire as Karl the Great,
for if he had less to the west and south, he had more
to the north and east. He was well named the Great,
for he was a good and pious, wise and warlike man.
He spent his last years mostly in Italy, but he died, in
973, at Memleben, while kneeling before the altar in
the church, so peacefully that he was thought to be
only asleep. He was buried at Magdeburg, beside his
first wife, the English Edith.

















CHAP. IX.-THE SAXON EMPERORS.
OTTO II., THE RED,.............. 973- 983-
OTTO III., THE WONDER,.... 983-1000ooo.
ST. HEINRICH II.,................1000-1024.
O TTO II. was called the Red, and was but nineteen
years old when his father died, though he had been
already both crowned and married. His wife was
Theophano, daughter to the Eastern Emperor Nice-
phorus. Bishop Liutprand had been sent to ask her
of her father, but was greatly displeased with Constan-
tinople, where the Emperor told him that the Germans
would only fight when they were drunk, and that their
weapons were too heavy to use. Also, he said that
there were no real Romans save at Constantinople, and
made a sign with his hand to shut Liutprand's mouth
when he began to speak. The Eastern Casars no
doubt greatly despised the attempt of the barbarous
Germans to call themselves Kaisars, while the German
Bishop thought 400 stout Germans could have beaten
their whole army, and called Constantinople a per-



I- -



- --- -- I- --








Otto II., the Red. 67

jured, lying, cheating, rapacious, greedy, avaricious,
nasty town."
Otto was so young that almost all the great dukes
whom his father had forced to do homage hoped to
shake off his yoke, but he reduced them all. Then
Lothar, King of France, went to war with him, and
swore that he would drink up all the rivers in Ger-
many; to which Otto replied that he would cover all
France with straw hats, for the Saxon troops used to
go out to war in summer with straw hats over their
helmets. Charles, the brother of Lothar, marched
through Lorraine and seized Aachen, where he turned
the golden eagle on the roof of the palace of Charles
the Great with his beak towards France; but Otto
met him there, routed him, and hunted him back to
Paris. There, while the Germans besieged the city,
Lothar offered to settle the matter by a single combat
with Otto, but the Germans answered, "We always
heard that the Franks set little store by their King,
and now we see it." They could not take the city, and
concluded a peace, by which the right of the empire to
Lorraine was established.
Otto was the son of the Empress Adelheid, and thus
was half Italian, and he cared very much for the affairs
of Italy. Rome was in a dreadful state, for the people
had hated having Popes thrust on them by German







_ __ _____ I I __








68 Stories of German History.

Emperors, and broke out again and again. One Pope
had just been murdered, and another set up in his place,
and Otto thought it was time to interfere with a high
hand, and also a cruel one; so he came to Rome, and,
inviting the chief citizens to a feast in the open space
before St. Peter's Church, there seized and put to death
all whom he thought dangerous to the authority of
Rome.
The southern provinces of Italy had been promised
him as the portion of his wife Theophano, but as they
were not given up to him, he marched to take posses-
sion of them; but the Greek Emperor had allied him-
self with a body of Saracens who had settled in part of
Sicily, and Otto met with a terrible defeat at Basan-
tello, in Calabria. He had lost his horse in the battle,
and made for the sea-shore on foot. A Jewish rabbi,
coming by, offered him his horse, and on this horse,
with the shouts of the pursuing Saracens still ringing
in his ears, the Emperor dashed into the sea towards a
Greek ship, which took him on board. He spoke
Greek so well that no one found out he was a German;
and though one Slavonic merchant was there who
knew him, he did not betray him, but contrived that
the ship should put in at the city of Rossano, where
Otto escaped unperceived, and swam ashore. There
he found his wife Theophano, but she, as a Greek, was



- I














i-_-- ---
--I--`
._ -__ -- ------;--------
_r---
;-c--
--
----- ------ --------=r---------------
--------

------------
----------------------
=------
------------
---------------
---------_ ___---------_
--=---------_
----
--------

_c----------


----------------------.



--_____________



-----i-----



OTTO'S FLIGHT.



-



7-C



=----;==-r-*


:



---- --------=----=:








Otto III., the Wonder. 69

proud of the victory of her nation, and instead of com-
forting him, scornfully said, How my countrymen
have frightened you!" Otto took this bitterly to heart,
and meant to assemble a fresh army and retrieve his
cause, but his health had been hurt by his campaign,
and he grew so ill that he called a Diet at Verona, and
obtained of his nobles that they should choose his little
three years old son King of Germany and Kaisar, and
that the two Empresses, Theophano and Adelheid,
should govern in his name. He died in the year 983,
when only twenty-nine years old.
Otto III. was carefully brought up by his mother,
and Gerbert, Abbot of Magdeburg, and was so learned
that he was called the Wonder of the World. He was
brave and able, and was only sixteen when he went to
Rome and was crowned Emperor. His vision was to
make Rome his capital, reign there as Western Em-
peror, and render Germany only a province; and he
made his tutor, Gerbert, Pope. But his schemes were
cut short by his death in Iooo, in the city of Paterno,
having spent very little of his short life in Germany,
though he chose to be buried at Aachen, where shortly
before he had opened the tomb of Karl the Great, and
found the robed, crowned, and sceptred corpse sitting
undecayed on its chair of state just as it had been
placed 200 years before.








70 Stories of Germanz History.

This year, Iooo, was that when the end of the world
was expected daily to happen, and it had a great effect
upon the whole world. Heinrich, Duke of Bavaria,
Otto's cousin through a daughter of Otto the Great,
was elected in his place, and was so devout that he and
his wife Kunigund* of Luxemburg are both reckoned
as saints. He endowed the bishopric of Bamberg with
lands of his own, and therefore is generally drawn with
the model of the cathedral in his arms. He was
crowned Emperor at Rome, and as he, like Otto, held
that the Kings of the Germans had the right of
reigning over Rome and Italy, he took the title of
King of the Romans. Thenceforth the German Kings
were so called until they were crowned as Emperors at
Rome. An Emperor was usually crowned four times-
at Aachen, as King of the Romans, which really meant
of Germany; at Pavia, of Italy; at Monza, of Lom-
bardy, with an iron crown, said to be made partly of
one of the nails of the Cross; and at Rome, as Kaisar
or Emperor. It was the choice of the nobles of Ger-
many which gave him all these rights, though he was
never Kaisar till his coronation by the Emperor. St.
Heinrich did all he could to promote the conversion
of the Slavonic nations round him, and was a friend and
helper of the good King Stephen of Hungary. The
"* Bold War.



























I
'4



dl:t/



71/6



/ -



OPENING THE TOMB OF KARL THE GREAT.



r- :
B
""


.



a -s \










St. Heinrich



event



of his life



was going



to make



a visit



Robert, King of France, a man as pious and saintly



himself.



He died on



his way



back, in 1024, the last of



the Saxon



Emperors.



ST. HENRY.



last



1/.



71



to



as



__



I_ __ __I



11



___ _11__ __



_ q

















CHAP. X.---THE FRANCONIAN LINE.
KONRAD II., THE SALIC,......1024-1039.
HEINRICH III.....................1039-1054.
HEINRICH IV. ............. ........ 1054- 1106.
HEINRICH V.,....................... 106- 114.

IT HE German dukes, archbishops, counts, bishops,
and great abbots all met on a plain near Mainz,
on the banks of the Rhine, to choose a new king.
Two Konrads of Franconia, both cousins, and ide-
scended from a daughter of Otto the Great, stood fore-
most, and they agreed that whichever was elected
should receive the ready submission of the other. The
elder one, who was chosen, is known as Konrad the
Salic, because he traced his descent from the old Meer-
wing kings; but neither he nor his family resembled
them in indolence. With the help of his son Heinrich,
he did much to pull down the power of the dukes, and
he favoured the great free cities, which were fast
growing into strength.
Konrad was crowned Emperor in 1027, and had two








Heinrich III.



73



kings present at the ceremony-Rudolf, the last King
of Burgundy, and our own Danish King Knut, whose
daughter Kunhild married Heinrich, the son of the
Kaisar. The Kaisar's own wife was Gisela, niece to
Rudolf, who on his death left the kingdom to him.
This did not mean the duchy of Burgundy, which
belonged to France, but the old kingdom of Arles, or
Provence, Dauphine, Savoy, and part of Switzerland,
over which the Kings of Germany continued to have
rights.
Konrad had wars with the Bohemians and Hun-
garians, but gained the advantage with both, and he
was also a great law-maker. In his time it was settled
that lands should not be freshly granted on the death
of the holder, but should always go on to the next heir;
and that no man should forfeit his fief save by the
judgment of his peers, thus preventing the dukes and
counts from taking away the grants to their vassals at
their own will. He died in 1039, and was buried at
Speyer.
His son Heinrich III. was twenty-two when he



began to reign, and was well able to carry out his
father's policy, so far as spirit and resolution went.
The quarrels at Rome were worse than ever, there
being no less than three Popes, and he marched to
Rome, sent them all into monasteries, and set up one



_ __












S' / /. Z-"r & IF



74 torzes of German Hlzstory.

of his own choosing, namely, Clement II. Indeed,
though his was but a short reign, he was the maker of
no less than four Popes, for each died almost as soon
as he was appointed; but there was a strong feeling
growing up that this was not the right way for the
head of the Western Church to be chosen, and it was
most strongly felt by a young Roman deacon called
Hildebrand, who resolved to make a reformation.
Things grew worse when Heinrich III. died, in the
flower of his age, in 1054, leaving a little son, Heinrich
IV., of five years old, under the charge of his mother,
Agnes, a good woman, but not strong enough to keep
the great dukes in order; and she tried to bribe her
enemies by giving them lands, which only made them
more able to do her mischief. The Church lands, the
great bishoprics and abbeys, were given either by
favour, fear, or money, and some dioceses went from
father to son, like duchies and counties, and the clergy
were getting to be as bad as the laity. To check all
this, Hildebrand led Pope Stephen II. to forbid all
priests, even those who were not monks, to marry;
and also a great council was collected at Rome, at the
Lateran Gate, where it was decreed that henceforth no
clergyman should ever receive any benefice from the
hands of a layman, but the bishops should be chosen
by their clergy, and the Pope himself by the seventy



_ __._ __ _








-' .






Us,
H C

__+ ,.
ii / C .&.N .\
N\





1- c~JZZ~c\rt
















ii
~? i1B




























HEINRICH IV. CARRIED 011.








Heinric IyV. 75

chief clergy of Rome, who were called cardinals, and
wore scarlet robes and hats, in memory of the old
Roman purple. This was in the year 1059.
Three years later the great nobles of Germany re-
solved to be rid of the rule of the Empress Agnes.
Hanno, archbishop of Koln, invited her and her son to
spend the Easter of Io62 at the island of Kaiserswerth,
on the Rhine, and while there the young Heinrich
was invited on board a pleasure-boat, which instantly
pushed off for the mainland. The boy, then thirteen
years old, tried to leap out and swim back to his
mother, but he was held back; and though his mother
stood weeping and begging for help, no one would do
anything but yell at those who were rowing the boat
rapidly to Koln, where Hanno proclaimed himself
Regent, and declared that the affairs of the kingdom
should be managed by the bishop of whatever diocese
the King was in.
Hanno hoped thus to rule the kingdom, but his plan
turned against him, for Adalbert, Bishop of Bremen,
got Heinrich into his power, and kept him amused with
constant feasting and revelry, which did his whole
character much mischief; and he learnt besides to
dislike and distrust all the great dukes and nobles.
When he came of age he kept Adalbert as his chief
adviser, and was very harsh and fierce to his subjects,








76 Stories of German History.

especially the Saxons. There was a rising against
him, and he was forced to send away Adalbert, and
marry Bertha, the daughter of the Margrave of Susa;
but he hated and ill-used her, and his court was a place
of grievous wickedness, while there was constant war
with his people.
In the meantime Hildebrand had been chosen Pope,
in the year 1073, and he at once began to enforce the
decrees of the Lateran Council, of which the Germans
had taken no notice. The decree was read aloud at
Erfurt by the Archbishop of Mainz to a synod of
bishops, and such a roar of fury rose that his life was
in danger, and Heinrich thought his subjects would all
hold with him in resisting it.
But Heinrich's violence and harshness had set his
people against him, and the Saxons appealed to Rome
against his injustice. Gregory VII. summoned him to
Rome to answer their charges, excommunicating at the
same time all the bishops who had obtained their sees
improperly. Upon this Heinrich called together the
German bishops at Wurms, and made them depose the
Pope. Gregory replied by pronouncing the King
deposed, and releasing his subjects from their oath of
allegiance. Germany and Italy were divided between
the Pope and the King, and the Germans agreed that
unless the King were absolved within the year they



___ _










































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PENANCE OF HEINRICH IV.



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:'"
---;-.,i.








Heinrick IV. 77

must regard him as deposed, and choose another in his
stead. Heinrich felt that he must give way, and he
made a most dangerous winter journey across the Alps
by Mont Cenis, with Bertha and her child, blinded by
snow or sliding along in frost. The Queen and her
child were wrapped in an ox-hide, and dragged along
in a sledge.
In Lombardy the bishops and nobles were favour-
able to Heinrich, but he only sought to make his peace
with the Pope, and hastened to Canossa, the castle of
Countess Matilda of Tuscany, Gregory's greatest friend,
where the Pope then was. He came barefooted and
bareheaded, in the hair shirt of a penitent, and was
kept for three days thus doing penance in the court of
the castle before he was admitted to the chapel, where
the Pope absolved him, but only on condition that, till
the affairs of Germany should be settled by the Pope,
he should not assume his place as King. Nor had his
humiliation hindered the Germans, who hated him, from
electing a new king, Rudolf of Swabia, who was called
the Priests' King. All Germany was thus at war, and
Heinrich declared that Swabia was forfeited, and gave
it to Friedrich of Hohenstaufen, who had married his
daughter Agnes. Gregory, after a time, took the part
of Rudolf, and Heinrich, on his side, appointed a Pope
of his own; so that there were two Popes and two



___ __ _~l ~ s __ ___ I I








Stories



of



German



History.



Kings of the Romans, until the battle of Zcitz, where
Rudolf's right hand was cut off by Gottfried of Bouillon,
and he was afterwards killed.



After this Heinrich prevailed, and pushed into



Italy,



where he
three ye
where h,
Calabria.



beat



arc
e



1



Matilda's army, and



while



was prote(



Rome



Gregory
acted by



was taken,



besieged



retreated
the Norma



and Heinrich



Rome for



to Salerno,



Duke



of



crowned



Kaisar
among
loved



*
*m



by



the Antipope.



the Normans,



Gregory



his last words



righteousness, and hated



I die in exile."



His successor,



VII. died while



being,



iniquity ;
Urban II.,



" I have



therefore



do



went on the



same system of keeping the Church above all temporal
power.
For a little while Heinrich triumphed, but his enemies



stirre
died



d



up



his



sons against



him.



at war with him; Heinrich, the



Konrad,



the elder,



second, actually



stripped his



father



of his



robes,



and,



in spite



of his



tears and entreaties, forced



Then



hirr



the old man wandered



Sto sign
about hL



his abdication.



alf-starved,



and



came to the
office about



Bishop of Speyer to entreat for some small
the cathedral, but this could not be, as he



was excommunicate,



and he had even



to sell his boots



to buy bread !



He died at Liege, in I Io6, and his body



was put in a stone coffin in an island on the



watched



day



and night



by



Maas



a hermit till I Iii,



;, and
when



78



---- --- -1-- ------- I ---



I









Heinrich



V.



79



Heinrich V. came to an agreement at Wurms with the
Pope that, though bishops should do homage for the
lands they held of him, the King should not deliver
to them the ring and staff, which betokened spiritual



power.



After this Heinrich IV. was buried. Heinrich



V. died three years
the First's daughter
Maude



later.



He had married our Henry



Matilda, whom we call the Empress



THE COFFIN OF HEINRICH TV.



- ----------` -



I-

















CHAPTER XI.
LOTHAR II.,............................ 1 25-1137.
KONRAD III.,....................... 37-1152.



IW HEN Heinrich V. died, without children, the
"Franconian line of Emperors came to an end, and
ten great nobles from the four chief dukedoms met at
Mainz to choose a new king. Heinrich had left all his
own lands to his sister's sons, Konrad and Friedrich of
Hohenstaufen, and one of these hoped to be elected;
but the Germans feared that they would bring them as
many troubles as had arisen under the last Franconians,
and therefore chose in their stead Lothar, Duke of
Saxony.
He thought he could never do enough to avoid the
evils that Heinrich IV. had brought on the country,
and so he asked Pope Innocent II. to ratify his elec-
tion, and gave up the agreement at Wurms, with all
rights to homage from bishops. This displeased the
Hohenstaufen, and all who held for the power of the
kings, and there was again a great war. The chief



__ 1_1



I---








Loltar II. 81

supporter of the King was Heinrich the Proud, Duke
of Bavaria, who married his daughter Matilda, and was
made Duke of Saxony. Heinrich's family was de-
scended from a forefather named Welf, or Wolf, a
Christian name often used, but of which a very odd
story was told. It was said that the Countess of Alt-
dorf laughed at a poor woman who had three children
born at the same time, and that, as a punishment, she
gave birth to twelve sons in one day. She was so
much shocked that she sent all of them but one to be
drowned in the lake, but on the way the maid, who
was carrying them in her apron, met the count. He
asked what she had there. Whelps," she said; but he
pulled aside her apron, and, seeing his eleven little
sons, had them safely brought up, and they were
known by the name of Welfen. One of the Welfs
married into the Italian house of Este, and both in
Italy and Germany the party of the Pope came to be
known as Welfs, or Guelfs; while the party of the
Kaisar were termed Waiblinger, from the castle of
Waibling belonging to the Hohenstaufen. The Italians
made this word into Ghibellini; and for many years
there were fierce quarrels between the Guelfs and
Ghibellines, the first upholding the power of the Church,
the second that of the State.
These Kings of Germany were much less powerful
c- _b








82 Stories of German History.

than the great Emperors of the houses of Saxony and
Franconia had been; and now that all fiefs had been
made hereditary, the great dukes and margraves were
more independent of them, while the counts and barons
(Grafen and Freiherren, the Germans called them) were
likewise more independent of their dukes. Every one
was building castles and fortifying cities, whence the
nobles made war on each other, and robbed those who
passed on the roads. There is a story of a Bishop who
gave a knight the charge of his castle, and when he was
asked how those within it were to live, pointed down
the four roads that met there, to indicate that the
travellers were to be robbed for the supplies! The
larger cities governed themselves by a council, and
called themselves free Imperial cities, and these were
the most prosperous and peaceful places both in Ger-
many and Italy, for even bishops and abbots did not
always so keep out of the fray as to make themselves
respected. The minne-singers, love-singers, or min-
strels could, however, go about from town to town and
castle to castle singing their ballads, and always safe
and welcome.
The great Countess Matilda had left all her do-
minions to the Pope, and Lothar acknowledged this
right of Innocent II., and crossed the Alps in order
to be crowned Kaisar. There was an Antipope set up



_______ _








Konrad III. 83

by the Ghibellines, who held the Church of St. Peter
and the Castle of St. Angelo, and as Lothar could not
drive him out, the coronation had to be in the Church of
St. John Lateran. He came a second time to Italy to
put down a great disturbance in Lombardy, taking with
him Konrad of Hohenstaufen, to whom he had restored
the dukedom of Franconia, and had made standard-
bearer to the Imperial army. Konrad was a good and
noble man, brave, courteous, and devout, and respectful
to the clergy, especially the Pope, which was the more
remarked as he was the head of the Ghibelline party.
The head of the Guelfs, Heinrich the Proud, was as
much hated as Konrad was loved, for his insolence to
every one from the Pope downwards, and for his
savage cruelties to the prisoners who fell into his
hands; but his father-in-law the Emperor favoured him,
and gave him the Marquisate of Tuscany.
On the way home, Lothar II. was taken ill, and died
in a peasant's hut in the Tyrol, in I137.
Heinrich the Proud fully expected to have been
chosen King of the Romans, but he had offended most
of his party, even the Pope himself, and Konrad was
elected. There was a battle between Konrad and
Heinrich's brother Welf, at the foot of Weinsberg, a
hill crowned with a castle, on the banks of the Neckar,
and in this Welf" and Waibling" were first used as



(~--~--





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