Stories of England and her forty counties


Material Information

Stories of England and her forty counties
Physical Description:
197, 6 p., 7 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 17 cm.
Geldart, Thomas, 1819 or 20-1861
Jarrold and Sons
Jarrold & Sons
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:
9th ed.


Subjects / Keywords:
Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- England   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1877   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1877
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London


Statement of Responsibility:
by Mrs. T. Geldart.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisement follows text.
General Note:
Illustrations engraved by Measom.
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002230199
notis - ALH0547
oclc - 61287546
System ID:

Full Text

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"When he went from home. he was always attended like a
king."-Page 142.


Author of
"Truth is I:. I ." "Stories of Scotland',"
"Stories of Ireland," "Daughters from Home,"
etc., etc.



THE aim of the writer of this little work has been
to impress on the mind of the child, by means of as-
sociation, the name and peculiarities of each division
of his own country. Many of us may recal the
difficulties which beset us in our early geographical
studies. Those long uninteresting names were but as
so many letters without meaning; but these names
must be learned first, we were told--their history
Now, the writer believes that the name and history
may be learned, and best learned, together. The
name of Newcastle will not be soon forgotten when
associated with a coal mine, nor that of Carlisle when
the child has heard the story of Mary, Queen of Scots.
How far she has succeeded, must be left to the expe-
rience of teachers to decide. That there is no royal


road to learning, that nothing worth knowing can be
attained without effort, the writer gladly concedes, but
that there may be a pleasant road, the Stories of
England" will, she trusts, prove both to teachers' and
pupils' content.
The use of a map will be found very important;
indeed, as an efficient means of instruction, this little
volume will greatly fail without its assistance.


Introductory ..................... ......................... 13


Divisions of Great Britain-Northumberland-
Newcastle-Mr. Grainger-Harry's Visit to a
Coal Mine-Castles ................................... 19


Cumberland-Its Capital, Carlisle-The Castle-
Story of Queen Mary-Walk amongst the Cum-
berland Mountains-Mountain Tarns ......... 31


-Mustard-A Battle Field-Glory-Stockton
-Flax and Hemp .................................. 42


The largest County in England-York Minster-
Martin-Woollen Cloth-Pomfret Castle-Lan-
cashire-Cotton Spinning-A Port ............. 49


The four Counties adjoining Wales-Cheshire-
Cheesemaking-The old Town of Chester-
Shropshire-Coalbrook Dale-Iron, its uses-
The King's Oak-Story of Charles the Second 59


shire-Chepstow-Tintern Abbey-Monasteries
-Life of Monks .................................... 71


North Midland Counties-Derbyshire-Derby-
Silk Worms-Matlock--Caverns and Petrifac-
tions-A Visit to an Old Hall-Habits of our
Forefathers-Tapestry.............................. 8


Staffordshire-Potteries-N ewcastle-under-Line-
Warwickshire-Birmingham-Manufactures ... 92


Worcestershire-Battle of Worcester-Hunting-
donshire-Huntingdon-Cromwell's Birth-place
-Northamptonshire-Fotheringay Castle-Rut-
landshire-the smallest County-Leicestershire
-Story of Richard I I I.-Cambridgeshire- Uni-
versity-Newmarket Races ..................... oo

South Midland Counties-Gloucestershire-Ed-
ward II.-Somersetshire-Bath-Hot Springs
-Bristol-Sugar Refining-Rum-Distillation
-Glass Houses-Wiltshire-Salisbury-Druids
-Berkshire-Windsor Castle-Surrey ......... 113


Middlesex-London-Its great River-Bridges
-Custom House-St. Paul's-The Plague-
Monument-Great Fire-Tower-Westminster
Hall and Abbey-Regent Street-Parks-Zoo-
logical Gardens-British Museum-Hampton
Court-Story of Wolsey-Greenwich Hospital 131


Hertfordshire- Malting- Bedfordshire- Straw
Plaiting-John Bunyan--Buckinghamshire -
Lace Making-Olney-Cowper-Eastern Coun-
ties-Lincolnshire-King John--Norfolk-Nor-
wich Castle-Suffolk-Ipswich-Wolsey's Birth-
place-Essex-Epping Forest-Dick Turpin... 150


The Six Southern Counties-Kent-Hop Picking
-Story of Thomas h Becket-Canterbury Cathe-
dral-Paper-making-Dover-Visit of the Ro-
mans-Sussex-Hastings-William I.-Battle
Abbey- Brighton- Hampshire-Winchester-

Story of William Rufus-George III.-South-
ampton, etc.-Isle of Wight--Dorsetshire-
Weymouth -Portland Stone Devonshire-
Eddystone Lighthouse, etc.-Cornwall--Copper
and Tin Mines-Remains of a Saxon Church
Conclusion ........................................... 167


Concluding Chapter...................................... 19


Cardinal Wolsey ............................ Frontispiece
Collier at Work ...................................... 19
Norwich Castle .......................................... 30
Keswick and Derwentwater .......................... 39
Boscobel House .......................................... 59
The Salt Mine ............................................ 60
Tintern Abbey ........................ ................. 71
Monk at his Devotions .............................. 77
Haddon Hall...................................... ....... 8o
The River Avon, near Bristol......................... 116
Stonehenge................................................... 125
Windsor Castle ........................................... 127
Horse Armoury in the Tower.......................... 13
Instruments of Torture ................................ 140
Nelson's Pillar ........................................... 150
Norwich Cathedral ..................................... 16
Yarmouth Cart ............................................ 162
Hop Picking .............................................. 67
King Charles's Window ............................... 181
Eddystone Lighthouse................................. 185




N this wide earth of ours, the wisest
man may find every day some new
wonder, something to learn, and to
discover; and the little child who comes into
the world ignorant of everything, will, as he
begins to think, be astonished to find how
much there is for him to learn. There are
countries and cities and towns in this great
world, the names of which he has never even
heard; things which he uses every day, of
which as yet he has no knowledge. By the
winter fire-side, in the quiet parlour at home,
he can scarcely turn his eye on any object
which would not, if it could speak, tell him a
story of some far-off place from which it was
brought. Now the knowledge of these far-off
places is a very useful and a very pleasant
knowledge. Few little children can take long

14 Stories of England.

journeys to see the wonders even of their own
country; but to read in our homes of that
which others have seen, is certainly the next
pleasantest thing to seeing them for ourselves.
The country in which you live is but a very
small part of the great earth, and yet it is
about this country alone that I am going to
write a little book, in the hope that it may
lead you to desire to learn yet more, not only
of your own but of other countries also.
If you look at a picture, or, as it is called, a
map of the world, for the first time, it will
give you no idea of its real shape, for the
world is not flat like the map, but is solid
and nearly round. An orange will perhaps
give you a better idea of the shape or form of
the earth than anything else. You see that it
is not quite round, but a little squeezed or
compressed at each end. The earth not only
resembles the orange in being nearly round,
but like the orange is full in the inside also;
and in no place that man has discovered is it
hollow. Within the orange is pulp and juice;
within the earth (that is beneath the ground)
are found stones, water, and many useful
things which you see every day in different
forms, such as iron, of which the stoves are
made-coal, so useful for making fires-tin
and copper, which are used for kettles and

Islands. 15

saucepans, besides many other things-silver,
of which spoons, and the half-crowns, shil-
lings, and sixpences are made. If we divide
a globe or ball, the half of that globe or ball
is called a hemisphere; and if you cut an
orange exactly in halves through the eyes,
you may call each half a hemisphere. One
side of the round world or globe on which
we live is called the Eastern, and the other
side the Western Hemisphere. The meaning
of East and West I will tell you presently.
In the Western Hemisphere is a great coun-
try or continent called America, and many
large islands. On the other side of the globe
or Eastern Hemisphere are three other great
continents, whose names are Europe, Asia,
and Africa, besides islands, amongst which is
that on which you live. I have spoken of
islands; now as we are to talk a great deal
about an island, you must first learn what an
island is. It is a piece of land with water all
round it. There are some large and some
small islands. There is one island called
Australia, which is larger than the whole of
Europe; but the island you inhabit is small
compared with many.
I must tell you the meaning of the words
North, South, East, and West, for they are
words which you will often hear When you

16 Stories of England.

are looking at a map, the top part is called
the North, the bottom the South, the right
hand, or the side nearest to your right hand;
the East, and the side to your left hand, the
West. But you would like to know out-of-
doors which is the North and South, East
and West. I will tell you. The sun always
rises, or at least you always see it first, in the
East. He does not really rise-for he never
moves-it is the earth that moves; but the
place in which the sun first appears in the
morning is called the East, and the place
where he seems to sink or disappear at night,
is called the West. If you stand then with
your right hand towards the place where the
sun first appears in the morning, and your
left towards the place where you saw him
disappear at night, the North will be before
you, and the South behind you. I hope that
this is clear to you, for it is very important
that you should know it. How the earth
moves, and how day and night are caused,
and the seasons as they come, making Spring,
Summer, Autumn, and Winter, you must ask
some kind papa or mamma or teacher to
show you by candle-light one evening with
an orange, (which you must fancy to be the
world), and the lamp or candle, (which will

Seas.-R ives.-lMiountains. 17

do for the sun). It can be then shewn to you
much better than I can describe it.
There is one thing more I must name be-
fore I tell you about the island on which you
live. The earth is not, as I think you know,
made up of dry land, but a great part of it is
water. There are large pieces of water called
Seas-deep salt water; the larger seas are
called Oceans. These oceans and seas which
surround the great countries of which I have
told you, have all names given to them.
There are, too, within these countries, por-
tions of water called Lakes. A piece of water
surrounded by land is called a lake; and in
our own island there are many lakes. There
are Rivers also, or running streams of water,
which come out of the ground. All rivers,
even the largest in the world, have but small
beginnings. They begin as little streams or
rivulets, and run some way perhaps without
being noticed or scarcely seen. Then some
other stream joins them, and then another
and another, until at last they spread and
grow into deep wide waters which we call
rivers, and which never stop till they join
some large river, or reach the sea.
Our island has mountains too; not so high
indeed as many mountains in other countries,
but still I think that the lowest of our moun-

18 Stories of England.

tains would surprise and delight a child who
had never seen one. You have, all of you, I
have no doubt, seen a hill of some kind, and
from a hill you may form an idea of a moun-
tain; but a mountain is as much higher than
a common hill, as the hill is higher than the
little heaps thrown up by the ants, which we
call ant-hills.
Mountains are generally in ranges, and
some of these ranges extend for many miles:
and now I think that I have told you enough
for the present. There are many things
which I can only explain as I come to them;
and if I make use of any word that you do
not understand, do not think it is of no con-
sequence, but ask some one older and wiser
than yourself to tell you its meaning.


Divisions of Great Britain-Northumberland-New-
castle-Mr. Grainger-Harry's Visit to a Coal Mine

Collier at work.

N the last chapter you were told the
meaning of the word Island, but the
name of the island in which you live
you have yet to learn. You live in the island
of Great Britain. Great Britain is the name
given to the three countries called England,
Wales, and Scotland, which form parts of one
large island. They were not always governed
by the same king, nor under the same laws as
they are at present; each country having its

20 Stories of England.

own king or queen, and managing its affairs in
its own way. If you look at a map of Great
Britain, you will see that these countries are
close together; and the English, Scotch, and
Welsh, instead of agreeing as good neighbours
should do, were continually envying and dis-
turbing one another. To live in peace was a
lesson which in those early days people had
yet to learn. Now look again at the map, and
you will find that Scotland is the most North-
erly of the three countries. It is divided from
England only by a chain of hills called the
Cheviot Hills, and by the River Tweed. The
country of Wales lies to the West and rather
to the South of England, and has no division
except at the lower part, where a piece of
water called the Bristol Channel flows some
little way inland. A Channel is the name
given to a place where the sea is contracted
or made narrow by two opposite lands, and
the water thus caused to flow for a time in a
narrow passage. If you look at the Bristol
Channel on the map, you will see what I
mean, also in what way it divides part of the
South of England from the South of Wales.
To the West of England and Wales, and
divided from it by a narrow sea, is an island,
the name of which is Ireland, which belongs to
the king or queen of Great Britain. England,

Forty Counties. 21

Wales, and Scotland, bear the name of Great
Britain; and England, Wales, Scotland, and
Ireland, together with a few very small islands,
are called the British Isles.
The oceans and seas which surround the
British Isles, are the Atlantic Ocean on the
North and West-the Irish Sea or the St.
George's Channel between England and Ire-
land-the North Sea or the German Ocean
to the East-the Bristol Channel to the West
-and the British Channel to the South of
I have mentioned the name of each part of
the British Islands, but I shall not be able to
give you any of the history of Scotland, Wales,
or Ireland in my present little book. It is of
England alone that I shall speak.
England is divided into forty parts called
Counties-not countries, remember, but coun-
ties. Of the first of these counties I will tell
you at once. We have been a long time
coming to it, but I hope that no child will
have been so unwise as to skip the last few
pages as dry or dull. In everything worth
learning there are many things very needful
to know that are not very amusing to learn.
NORTHUMBERLAND is the name of that
county of England that lies nearest to the
North. It has a long name, but easy to

22 Stories of England.

remember if you know that it is the most
Northerly county of England. The Northern
part of Northumberland is divided from Scot-
land by the river Tweed and the Cheviot
Hills; to the East flows the German Ocean,
and to the South and West are other counties,
the names of which you will hear in time.
There are several towns and villages in
Northumberland-I shall tell you the names
of but a few. Each county has its capital, or
more properly, its county town-which is
generally, but not always, the largest town in
the county. The capital of Northumberland
is Newcastle. A few years ago, Newcastle
was a dirty, ill-built place; its narrow hilly
streets were badly paved, and parts of the
town were very unhealthy. In time, however,
old houses were pulled down-rough streets
levelled and well-paved-grand buildings ap-
peared, built of beautiful white stone-tall
spires of several pretty churches were seen-
columns and pillars in fine open squares-a
new post-office-and one of the handsomest
market-places in England was built, which is
covered with an elegant roof. Here the mar-
ket-women may sit dry and warm on cold
rainy days without any need for their ugly
sheds, or worse still, great patched cotton
umbrellas. I have seen a shower of rain

Newcastle.--Mr Grainger. 23

throw an open market-place into droll confu-
sion: old women covering up their goods in a
hurry; the opening of their umbrellas, and
the pulling on their great caped cloaks, with
the noise of many tongues, make bustle
enough. With the exception of the noise of
tongues, all is very different in Newcastle
market-place. These great improvements in
Newcastle were the work of one man, who
once was a little child, as young and ignorant
as any of you. A person of the name of
Grainger built the new parts of the town: I
do not, of course, mean that Mr. Grainger
built the houses and churches with his own
hands; but he drew the plans, and taught
other persons how to build them. And the
man that has done all this was once a little
boy in a charity school, without any rich
friends to help him on in the world. He
learned the trade of a carpenter and builder,
and he was taught little besides. His father
was a porter, and his mother used to make
gloves and mend stockings. They could not
afford to send their boy to a good school, and
how he gained all his knowledge, I cannot
tell you; but I suppose that whatever he
learned he learned well; and it is wonderful
what a boy may do by taking pains, and not
minding trouble. He was, no doubt, a clever

24 Stories of England.

boy; but had he been an idle one, he would
never have been the great and useful man
that he was, nor had the pleasure of knowing
that the changes in his native town were
owing to his perseverance and labour.
Newcastle is built on the sides and at the
foot of a high hill; and the river Tyne, which
runs through the town, gives it the name of
Newcastle-;ipon-Tyne. You must remember
this, as there is another town in England
called Newcastle The river Tyne is crowded
with ships constantly employed in taking
away the coal which is dug out of the mines
at Newcastle, and the country around.
Have you ever thought where coal comes
from ? Perhaps not, so I will tell you. Coal
is found in deep places of the earth, called
mines or pits, or collieries. As we come near
Newcastle, we see large engine houses, and
great beams moving up and down, for the
purpose of pumping the water out of the coal
pits. For you know that when we dig to
some depth in the ground, we come to water.
The water which was found in the coal mines
was for some time a great hindrance to work-
ing in them ; and until the steam engine was
brought into use, it took the hard labour and
time of many men to do that which this use-
ful engine does quickly and easily in a few

Harry and the Coal Pit. 25

I have never been down a coal mine, but I
think that you may like to hear of the visit
which a little boy, called Harry, once paid to
a coal mine, when he was travelling with his
papa. The story of Harry is one of the most
amusing, as well as instructive, which a child
can read.
I should be sorry that amongst the many
new books that are written for children, some
of the good old ones should be forgotten: but
perhaps some of you have already read the
book to which I allude-"The Story of Harry
and Lucy, by Miss Edgeworth." For those
who may not have seen the account of Harry's
journey, I will write a little of his visit to the
coal pit. When Harry came to the entrance
of the pit, he felt rather afraid, for on looking
down the shaft, or entrance to the mine, it
appeared to him like a dark deep well. The
gentleman who went with Harry and his papa,
saw that Harry's face looked rather red and
frightened, so he said, I think you are afraid
to go. Harry." But Harry said, "No, not if
papa goes."
His papa then got into a sort of bucket,
which was hooked to a rope, and let down the
shaft by means of the steam-engine. Soon
the bucket was out of sight; and, after having
placed Harry's papa safely on the ground,

26 Stories of England.

appeared again, drawn up by the same useful,
busy engine, that was always at work-" Ser-
vant of all work," Harry called it, and he was
nearly right. Now it was Harry's turn, and
he boldly entered the bucket. One of the
colliers (for so the workmen in the mine are
called) went down in the bucket with him.
"Now sir," said the collier to Harry, "keep
quite still, and lay fast hold of the rope."
Harry did as he was told, and before he had
much time to feel afraid, or to think how dark
it was, he was safe on his feet, and glad
enough to take hold of his papa's hand. They
had to go still further in the same manner,
and great was Harry's wonder to see this busy
little world underground. Men at work hew-
ing down lumps of coal from the sides of the
mine with large axes, and other men and
some boys loading little waggons with the
coal already hewn down, and about to be
taken up the shaft. Harry was much amused
with watching the trains of waggons running
along a kind of railroad, and drawn up the
shaft by the engine. Happy and busy as the
colliers seemed, Harry was sorry to hear that
sometimes sad accidents occurred to the men.
Now and then the mine falls in, owing to the
workmen having hewn away too much coal;
large pillars of which should be left for the

Fire Damp.-Safety Lamp. 27

support of the roof. When an accident like
this happens, all the poor colliers at work
there are crushed with the weight of the
roof, and are killed. In consequence of this,
the mine itself is sometimes lost. A few
years ago, at the town of Whitehaven, in
Cumberland, the roof of a mine worked some
way under the sea, fell in, owing to the weight
of the water which broke in, and thus many
lives were destroyed. The bodies of the men
were never found; and by the wish of the
friends the burial service was read at the shaft
of the mine. This sad accident arose from
taking away too many of the coal pillars.
Sometimes, in opening a new part of the
mine, they meet with bad air, which, if a
lighted torch or candle is brought near, takes
fire, and the whole mine is blown up, or ex-
plodes, and the loss of life is great. This bad
air is called "fire-damp." Some accidents
also occur from the effects of a vapour called
"choke-damp;" and although there have been
great precautions taken, and some clever in-
ventions made to prevent them, they continue
to occur, though not so frequently as in former
years. A very clever man, who was called
Sir Humphrey Davy, invented a lamp, by
which the mines are lighted. It is called a
Safety Lamp, and is a kind of lantern covered

28 Stories of England.

with fine gauze wire, through which the flame
will not pass; and thus one cause of explosion
in mines is greatly prevented. Accidents,
however, still take place at times from care-
lessness, either in allowing the lamp to get
out of order, or in neglecting to observe the
way in which it burns when danger is at hand.
I have not told you all the wonders that
Harry saw in the coal mine, but you can read
them for yourselves one day in that and in
other books. Now I think that you have
heard enough about Newcastle to make you
remember that it is the capital town of North-
umberland, the most northerly county in
England. There are several towns and villa-
ges in Northumberland as famous for their
coal mines as Newcastle; but the coal trade
is carried on at this town on account of the
river, which enables the ships to come and
carry the coal away to other towns and coun-
ties. There are many ruins of old castles in
this county, or at least, on the divisions of the
the two countries of England and Scotland.
They are remains of the strong Border cas-
tles. The divisions of the two countries
are called the Borders. I must tell you in
this place a little about castles; for although
the name of castle is known by most chil-
dren, from the time that they can build what

Castles. 29

they call castles with wooden bricks upon
the nursery floor, I think it very likely that
they have but few of them seen a real castle,
or if they have seen one, have never thought
of the use which was made of it, or the pur-
pose for which it was built.
In the early history of our island, when
wars with neighboring countries were fre-
quent, and when the rich and powerful op-
pressed the poor, castle-building was very
common. Each castle had a lord, who reigned
over a set of dependants; and besides the
castles which private persons built, royal cas-
tles were frequently erected for the defence
of the country. The materials of which they
were built varied, but the manner of building
seems to have been pretty much the same.
The first outwork was the barbican or watch-
tower, for the purpose of observing the ap-
proach of any visitors from a distance, and
adjoined the draw-bridge, which, as you may
suppose from its name, was a moveable bridge.
The next work was the castle ditch or moat,
which was wet or dry, according to the situa-
tion of the castle. Over the moat, by means
of the draw-bridge, you passed to the ballium,
a space within the outer wall. The entrance
into this space was by a strong gate between
two towers, secured by a portcullis or falling

30 Stories of England.

door, armed with iron spikes like a harrow,
which could be let fall at pleasure. Over the
gate were rooms for the porter or gate-keeper.
On a height, and generally in the centre, was
the keep, called sometimes the tower. This
was often surrounded by another moat and
draw-bridge, and more walls and towers. In
large castles, it was usually a high tower, of
four or five stories, having turrets at each
corner. The walls of the keep were of great
thickness; and this part is all that remains
of many of the old English castles. The
rooms were gloomy enough; glass was not
used for windows in private houses, and would
have been of little use in castles. Small
openings in the wall served to admit light,
and to enable those within to discharge their
arrows. Dull indeed must have been the life
in such dwellings, even to the lord of the
castle and his family; but too often there
were prisoners confined in gloomy vaults and
dungeons below, who could hear no sound
but the rattling of the chains and fetters that
bound them, and who dragged out their mis-
erable lives, ended perhaps, by starvation,
or in some violent manner. The accompany-
ing view of a castle will perhaps give you an
idea of the general style of such buildings.



Cumberland-Its capital, Carlisle-The Castle--Story
of Queen Mary-Walk amongst the Cumberland
Mountains-Mountain Tarns.

HE next county to Northumberland
is CUMBERLAND. The north of Cum-
berland, as well as Northumberland,
borders on Scotland. To the north-west of
Cumberland flows a piece of water, called the
Solway Frith; to the east are the counties of
Northumberland and Durham; and to the
south, Westmoreland and Lancashire.
Cumberland is in many parts a beautiful
county. Carlisle, the capital, is a fine old city,
which stands pleasantly on the river Eden. I
went to Carlisle some years ago, on my way
to Scotland; and although I only stayed two
or three hours, I saw a great deal which in-
terested me very much, and perhaps it may
please you to hear about it.
It was early one Saturday morning that we
drove into Carlisle. The railroad was not
finished at that time, but Carlisle was a great
place for the meeting of coaches from different
places. It is now noted for being the point
where many important railroad lines join, and

32 Stories of England.

no stage or mail coaches are to be seen. It
was a market day, and a very busy market it
seemed. I think that a market is a very
pretty sight, even if it is not a covered market,
as at Newcastle, The rosy farmers' wives and
daughters behind their stalls, inviting the vis-
itors to try their fine fruit, or. to buy the white
plump fowls-the many busy hands and eager
faces-form .an amusing picture. On this
summer's morning of which I speak, the mar-
ket was quite gay with strawberries and cher-
ries, which were sold in pretty baskets, and
tempted us to buy some to eat on our journey.
But we had not much time to spend in the
Market-place, which we left to visit the Ca-
thedral, a very ancient building; and I must
not forget that you may not know what a
cathedral is, unless you may happen to live
in a place where there is one. A cathedral is
the principal church in a city, and often hand-
somer, larger, and more ornamented than the
other churches. Most of our cathedrals have
been built many years. A place where one
of these large churches or cathedrals is built
is called a city. You must remember this.
A town, however large, is never called a city,
unless it has a cathedral in it.
We did not go inside that of Carlisle, for
we \ er; anxious to visit the Castle, in which

Carlisle Castle. 33

we felt great interest. This castle is just such
an one as I described to you in the last chap-
ter, having its keep, moat, and portcullis in
good preservation. There is a fine view from
the castle walls, and in the distance we could
see some of the hills of Scotland: they re-
minded me then of the sad story of the queen
of that country, of which I will tell you a
little. You may remember I told you that
Scotland had not always been governed by
the same king or queen as England. The
English and Scotch never could agree; and as
they lived so near together, the people in
Northumberland and Cumberland were often
quarrelling with those who lived in the south
of Scotland. Many of the English kings were
very envious of Scotland, and a great many
battles were fought, to get possession of it.
But after all, it was not gained by fighting;
and you shall soon learn how it was that
Scotland became united to England. At the
same time that there was a Queen of Eng-
land there was also a young Queen of Scot-
land. They were cousins, but they had not
much love to one another. The name of the
English Queen was Elizabeth; she is called
by many persons a great and wise queen, but
I think, more because of the great men that
lived in her reign, than on account of her own

34 Sorics of Englanmd.

wisdom and greatness. However that may
be, she was certainly a very vain and jealous
woman, particularly jealous of her cousin
Mary, Queen of Scotland, who was young
and beautiful, and whose sorrows at least
might" have moved her to pity. Mary mar-
ried Francis, King of France, when she was
very young, and before she was eighteen he
died. She then came back to Scotland, where
she found the people unruly, and full of quar-
rels amongst themselves. She does not ap-
pear to have managed them very wisely; but
it is hard to lay all her mistakes to her own
account, for she had bad advisers; and perhaps
her greatest mistake was in choosing such
men for her counsellors. Soon after her re-
turn to Scotland, she married again, and chose
a foolish bad man for her husband, so that
they had very little happiness together. She
was foolish and light, and loved music and
dress much better than grave and more useful
things. She had one little boy, whose name
was James, who, when he grew to be a man,
became King over England as well as Scot-
land, because he was the nearest relation of
the English Queen, Elizabeth. It is thus
that at her death England and Scotland be-
came one kingdom. It would take me too
long to tell you of all Queen Mary's quarrels

2nary, Queen of Scotland. 35

with her own people. They certainly treated
her very cruelly, and after accusing her of
doing many bad things, they imprisoned her
in her own country, in the castle of Loch
Leven. She managed one night to escape;
and gathering her friends together, a battle
was fought, in which she was defeated, and
obliged to flee from Scotland. She did not at
first know where to go: she thought of France,
where the happiest part of her life had been
spent; but England was near, and she re-
membered too that England's Queen was her
own cousin; so she wrote a letter to Eliza-
beth, to tell her how full of trouble she was--
that she was driven from her own country,
and begged her to let her come and live in
England a short time. Elizabeth was a de-
ceitful woman, or else a very changeable one,
for in her reply she led Mary to think that
she might come to England in safety. She
came from Scotland by water, and landed at
Workington, a town in Cumberland, with a
very few of the people who yet loved her, and
then proceeded to Carlisle. When she arrived
at Carlisle, she was received by some of Queen
Elizabeth's friends, but was soon informed
that she must dismiss her followers, with the
exception of a few ladies. She found that
Carlisle Castle was to be her residence for the

36 Stories of England.

present, and soon discovered that instead of
finding a home in England, she had found a
prison; for Elizabeth seemed suddenly to
think that Mary had done many of the wrong
things of which her enemies had accused her,
and therefore made her a prisoner. But the
true reason for her conduct was her fear of
the anger of the Scottish people, if they found
her taking the side of their weak and injured
Queen. She did not thinkof the rule-" Do
unto others as you would that they should do
unto you." It made me very sad when I saw
the green terrace where Mary was allowed to
walk, for I remembered the story of her life
in England. 'She never returned to Scotland.
Carlisle was her first, but not her last prison
Queen Elizabeth sent her from one place of
confinetnent to another, still refusing to see
her, and still writing deceitful promises to her
cousin. Years went on, and Mary's fine brown
hair turned white with sorrow, more than with
age: her beautiful face grew full of lines and
wrinkles, and her light and merry temper was
soured and gloomy. At length, after eighteen
years spent in imprisonment, and many at-
tempts on Mary's part to gain her freedom,
Elizabeth sent a messenger to Fotheringay
Castle, in Northamptonshire, Mary's last
prison, to tell her that she must die. Mary

Lakcs of Cumberlanil. 37

was not very sorry to hear this. She had
had no pleasure in her life for many years;
and from some of her letters and conversa-
tions, it is to be hoped that she repented of
the follies of her youth. In those days it was
the custom, when any great persons were
condemned to death, to behead them. The
way in which this was done I will tell you.
The poor creature was made to kneel down
before a block of wood, on which his head
was placed: his eyes were bound, and a man,
called an executioner, then cut off the head
with a sharp axe. If this was skilfully done,
the head was severed at one blow ; but some-
times the sufferings of the victim were great,
three or four blows being required to put an
end to his life. After Mary had been be-
headed, when her body was removed by her
ladies, her favourite dog was found hidden
beneath the rich folds of her velvet dress.
This is all I can tell you of Mary's history
now, but I think you have heard sufficient to
make you remember the city of Carlisle and
its old castle.
The mountains and lakes of Cumberland
are very beautiful. The mountain of Skiddaw
rises 3300 feet above the lake Bassenthwaite.
In summer time a great many persons from
all parts of England visit Cumberland, to see

38 Stories of England.

the beauties of the lake and mountain scenery.
Near the town of Keswick is the lake of Der-
wentwater, on which one rainy day I went in
a little boat many years ago, to see the beau-
ties of the country and mountains around.
The rain, though it fell fast, did not take
away from our pleasure, for we were most of
us young and gay; but we saw but little of
Skiddaw, which seemed to have put on a
thick veil, so many clouds hung over it. The
little waterfall of Lodore, however, was very
lovely, and quite repaid us for our wet walk
to see it. We had one great disappointment
on this day, for we had long counted on see-
ing the black lead mine at Borrowdale; but
as the rain was so very heavy, We were obliged
to give up that pleasure. You know one of
the uses of black lead I have no doubt, but
you have not perhaps thought whence the
lead of your pencils is brought. The best
lead we have comes from the mines at Bor-
rowdale, in Cumberland. The next time you
draw with one of your cedar pencils, you must
think of this. Plumbago is the proper name
of this substance, there being in reality no
lead in its composition. It consists of 90
parts of charcoal, and to of iron. On the
spot it is called wad by the miners. It is not
found in veins, as most minerals are, but in

---- :! -___-_-+- : _;- -. :-' '_ ? :. ...-. .
^ _-- ,- =. ,' J .? -


Mountain Tarn. 39

irregular masses. In order to make pencils,
the black lead is sawed into square slips, and
fitted into a groove made in a piece of wood,
and another piece of wood is glued over.
Cedar is generally used for the purpose.
There are many curious and beautiful things
to be seen in Cumberland, of which I should
like to tell you, but it would take more room
and time than I have at present.
The smaller mountain lakes, or tarns, as
they are called in the north of England, are
sometimes more beautiful than the larger
lakes. I once went a pleasant walk up a
very wild and hilly path, to see one of these
tarns, which was far above the lakes I had
just seen. After a long and weary walk,
when I turned round, I saw villages and lakes
lying far below; and, hilly as the path had
seemed, I had no idea that I had climbed so
high. The little view of Keswick and Der-
wentwater will give you a good notion of the
view I saw.
There was a neat but poor house among
these mountains, and I was inclined to pity
the poor people who lived there; but they
looked so contented and happy, that my pity
was wasted on them. The man was a merry-
looking rake maker, and lived with a cheerful
rosy-faced sister, who was busy milking her

40 Stories of England.

cow, and looked clean and healthy. She said
that this quiet country life and lone house
was very well in summer time, and when
they had health and strength, but there were
many long days in winter when she should be
glad to hear the voice of a visitor. Some-
times for weeks together, when the snow was
thick and untracked, they could not go to
church, nor to the village for what they need-
ed. She said too, that once when her mother
was ill, and they were far from the doctor,
she had many sad, anxious hours, and she
gave a very mournful account of the sad
funeral journey, when she died, down the
mountain path which we had climbed so mer-
rily. The man amused us by showing us
some lucifer matches as something quite new
and very wonderful. IIe had not even heard
of the death of King William, which had
taken place many weeks before, and asked us
as a favour to send him a newspaper now and
then, which, he said, would be a great plea-
sure to him.
The town of Whitehaven, in Cumberland, is
famous for its collieries and ship-building. It
has a new and handsome pier, but there is
not much that is very interesting in the town
or the country around.
I think that I have now told you as much

Beautiful Scenery. 41

of the county of Cumberland as you will re-
member. You must really see a lake with
its wooded and sloping banks, and a moun-
tain with its rugged sides, to have an idea of
the -beauty of the country in this part of


Westmoreland- Kendal- Manufactures- Durham-
Mustard-A Battle Field-Glory-Stockton-Flax
and Hemp.

HE county to the south of Cumber-
land is WESTMORELAND, a small
county, but full of beauty and inter-
est. It is something the shape of a vine leaf.
It has Cumberland on the north and north-
west, Yorkshire on the east, Lancashire and
the Irish Channel on the south and south-
west. -The largest lake in England is Win-
dermere; it lies between this county and
Lancashire. Although the largest, I cannot
say that I think it the most beautiful of the
English lakes. It has more the appearance
of a fine river than a lake, and the banks are
planted almost entirely with larch trees, which
though pretty when mixed with other trees,
have not a very nice appearance alone.
The capital of Westmoreland is Appleby, a
small and ill-built place, of which I can tell
you nothing that will interest you. Kendal
is a much more important town, and very
pleasantly situated. It is noted for its manu-
facture of woollen goods and knitted stock-

"Mfanufactures. 43

ings. I shall have a great deal to tell you of
manufactures, so I think you had better be
quite sure of the meaning of the word, which
I will explain to you.
Some articles which you use every day
.pass through many changes before they be-
come fit'for use. When you look at the wool
on a sheep's back, you would be puzzled to
* find any resemblance between it and the cloth
Sof which your papa's coat is made. That
"-which appears to you common earth or clay,
is very unlike the pretty mugs and tea-cups
on the tea-table. But it is true that the cloth
,.of a coat is made from the wool on a sheep's
:*back, and the beautiful china which you ad-
:. mire was once a kind of clay. The changes
wrought in these things are the result of man's
labour and skill. God has given him a mind
f capable of constant improvement, so that we
: can see no end to his invention, no bounds to
his discoveries. To prove to you how much
he has improved within the last five or six
hundred years, you should read the early his-
tory of your country, and you would find that
the .manufactures of Britain then were but
few. There was no china, no cloth, no cotton
goods, no weaving of any kind; and now
there are very few towns in England which
have not some manufacture or other.
"":', 7 "

44 Stories of Englana.

Such towns are called manufacturing towns,
and the large houses or workshops where
these manufactories are carried on are called
Factories. I will soon tell you a little about
the manufacture of cloth, which I think will
be very interesting to you.
Kendal has been noted for its cloth manu-
factures for nearly four hundred years. It
was then that some. Flemish weavers, from
the country called Flanders, in Europe, came
and settled at Kendal, and carried on the
weaving, at which they were very expert.
The next county of which I shall have to
tell you is DURHAM. It lies to the south of
Northumberland, and to the north of York-
shire. The county of Cumberland lies to its
west, and to the east is the German Ocean.
The western part of Durham is very bleak
and barren, but there are some pretty parts
towards the middle of the county. It is noted
for its breed of cattle. The ancient city of
Durham, the capital of the county, has a fine
cathedral. The river Wear runs through the
city, but'there is not much to tell you about
There are large quantities of mustard grown
in the neighbourhood. I think it is very
likely that some of you- that have gardens
have watched the mustard springing up there

Durham Mustard. 45

With great pleasure, and I suppose most of
"you have eaten mustard and cress in the
spring. The mustard which comes to table
and is, eaten with meat, is made from the seed
of this plant when ground; the Durham mus-
tard is thought the best in England. A few
miles from Durham is a stone called Nevill's
Cross, built on a spot where, many years ago,
a great battle was fought between the English
and'the Scotch. At the time of this battle,
Edward the Third, then King of England,
was in France, engaged in a war with the
King of that country. France is a country
on the Continent of Europe. If you look at
a map you will see that parts of France are
not far from England. At a town called
Dover, in the south of England, I have seen
the coast of France very plainly o'n a clear
day. Edward the Third left his queen, whose
name was Philippa, to govern the kingdom in
his absence. It must have been disagreeable
work for a woman to manage the quarrelsome
"people of those times, but very likely it was
less so to Philippa than it would be to a
"queen now. The battle at Nevill's Cross
ended in the defeat of the Scotch, and the
English took king David and made him pris-
oner. Philippa has been called a very brave
"woman for her actions at this time, but I

46 Stories of England.

think she appears to much more advantage
soon after this battle, when she joined King
Edwardin France, where, at her earnest re-
quest, the lives of six men were spared, whom
her husband was about to put to death, after
one of his victories over the French. There
is a great deal written and said of the glory
of war. You must take care not to be misled
by this word, which belongs less to those
commonly called glorious than to many of
whose acts and sufferings the world has never,
heard. It often requires more courage to do
a just and good action, to speak the truth, to
deny one's self, or to master a bad passion,
than to enter the battle field, and meet the
sword and the cannon. A little child, believe
me, may be braver than a soldier; and many
a man who has died fighting for his king and
country, may have been a coward in bearing
trials with patience. I do not mean to deny
that there have been great and good men who
have fought in battle; and in old times it
seemed to be the only way that people knew
of settling their differences and quarrels. Too
often, however, if a king fancied a neighbour-
ing country richer or better than his own, he
would call together his'people to help him to
obtain it. The people had very little choice
in the matter; tje reaper was taken from the

No Glory in War. 47

harvest field, the countryman from the plough,
the father from his family; all were forced to
take up arms, because their king would not
keep the commandment, "Thou shalt not
covet." This, you will say, takes no little
from the glory of war, and the skill and cou-
rage with which men use their swords and
lances does not make the cause in which they
fight either just or glorious. What a scene
must a battle field have been! On the day
of battle two armies were drawn up in oppo-
site lines in an open space. At the sound of
a trumpet they rushed upon one another,
either to kill, or to be killed. The clash of
their heavy weapons, the groans of the dying,
youth cut down in health and vigour, the
trampling of horses, the noise of the cannon,
and the shouts of thousands-this is what
some people call GLORY! but may you never
think it so; and whilst you should feel pity
and charity for those who knew no better, be
thankful that there is no war in your own
happy country at present, and that the corn
now waves, and the grass grows over the
battle fields in a day of blessed peace.
The town of Stockton, in Durham, is noted
for making sail-cloth and ropes, both so useful
for ships and fishing boats. Although you
"may have been to the sea-side, and seen the

48 Stories of England.

large coarse sails, and the strong ropes of the
vessels, I dare say you have not thought that
the material of which sails and ropes are
made, was once a little plant called hemp,
growing to the height of about six or eight
feet. Hemp is grown in some parts of Eng-
land, but it is not thought so good or durable
as that which is brought from Russia, a coun-
try in the north of Europe. Hemp is gathered
when ripe; and the first thing to be done to
the plant is' to steep the stalks in water, in
order that the outer rind may crack, and the
fibres or thread-like portions within, may be
taken away more easily. It is this fibrous
part which is used for weaving; but there is
a great deal to be done to it before it can be
woven. The finer hemp is used for many
things beside sail-cloth and-ropes. Flax is
also manufactured at Stockton, into damask,
of which table linen, such as dinner cloths
and napkins, is made. Flax is a pretty grass-
like plant, bearing a pale blue flower; and a
field of flax in blossom has a beautiful appear-
ance. It is grown in some parts of England
and Ireland, and is also brought in large
quantities from Germany and other countries.


The largest Countyin England-York Minster-Martin
-Woollen Cloth-Pomfret Castle-Lancashire-
Cotton Spinning-A Port.

HERE is a county to the south of
Westmoreland and Durham, called
YORKSHIRE, which is the largest in
England. It is divided into three parts called.
Ridings, one to the north, a second to the
east, and a third to the west The capital is
York, a curious and very old city. It was
once like many other ancient towns, surround-
ed by strong walls, and a great part of these
walls remain, though they are, of course, de-
caying from age. It was the custom to build
walls round large towns in early times; the
strong gates of which were locked at a certain
hour every night, after which time it was diffi-
cult to leave the town, and impossible to enter
without the leave of the gate-keeper or porter.
This was needful for the safety of the citizens
in the unsettled state of the country, for it
was seldom that it was quite free from ene-
mies, and the soldiers would often have enter-
ed by night and attacked the inhabitants, had
it not been for these strong walls. Those of

50 Stories of England.

York would be of little use now; but the
ruins are still beautiful, and York, with its
narrow streets and old-fashioned houses, is an
interesting place. It stands upon the river
Ouse. Its beautiful Cathedral qr Minster, as
it is called, is worth taking, a journey to see,
for any lover of fine buildings. To describe
it to you would not, I fear, be interesting,
but some of you may one day see it. You
may be sure the York people are very proud
of it, but they have nearly lost it more than
once. Part of it was once struck by lightning;
but its greatest misfortune was a terrible fire
in the year 1829, which destroyed some of its
finest ornaments. A man, named Martin, hid
himself till service was over one afternoon, and
set fire to the building. How he escaped from
the flames I do not know, but I suppose that
he found it easy to do so amidst the crowd,
which the flames and smoke soon drew toge-
ther. There was scarcely a man in York who
was not anxious to assist in saving this beau-
tiful Minster. Martin, the author of the fire,
was discovered; and though he was proved
to be mad, some of the York people were so
angry with him, that they would have killed
him if he had been within their reach. He was
saved from their fury and placed in an asylum
near York, where insane people are kept,

Manufacture of Cloth. 5

Yorkshire has ^a great many manufacturing
towns; indeed, almost every town in it of any
size is noted for some manufacture.
Leeds is the name of a large town, celebrated
for its cloth manufactures. Three hundred
years ago, Leeds was a poor little place with
one parish church and a few narrow streets.
The person who wrote its history then spoke
of it as "a pretty quiet little market town." I
think if he could now be set down in one of the
busy streets of Leeds, and could see the tall
smoking chimneys of'the great factories, he
would not believe he was in Leeds at all-that
"pretty little market town" of which he wrote.
Wool is the article that is principally manufac-
tured at Leeds. You know, of course, that
wool comes from the backs of sheep, and it is
used in making cloths and stuffs. The wool of
the German sheep is thought to nrake the best
cloth. Germany is a country in Europe; but a
very large quantity of the wool that is used is
brought from Australia, the largest island in
the world, belonging to Asia. You must have
noticed how tangled and rough the wool of
the sheep is. The first thing to be done is to
divide these locks of wool, to comb and make
them smooth. It must also be well washed, to
free it from its dust and dirt. It is next spun
or twisted into what is called yarn, an article

52 Stories of England.

something like worsted. It is then generally
dyed, but for some purposes it is thought best
not to dye till after it is woven. It would
take me too long to tell you the whole process
of cloth-making, for there is a great deal to be
done to it before it looks like the cloth with
which you are acquainted. It has to be woven,
then washed, beaten or milled, combed, oiled,
and clipped with great care, before it is fit for
use: but to understand the whole process of
weaving and finishing the cloth, you must
know a little of machinery, or the words that
I should be obliged to use in describing it,
would puzzle without instructing you.
Halifax, Huddersfield, and Bradford, have
also large manufactories for spinning yarn, and
weaving different kinds of stuffs: Sheffield is
famous for making knives and scissors.
The town of Pontefract, or as it is called,
Pomfret, is noted for its large fields or planta-
tions of liquorice, which is grown at this place
because of the richness and great depth of the
soil, the roots of the plant going down into it
one or two yards at least. You have, no doubt,
tasted liquorice ; but the black sticks in which
you buy it in shops, will give you no idea of it
in its first natural state. It isthe juice extracted
from the roots of a plant, or low shrub of that
name. At Pontefract it is prepared in little

Pomfret Castle. 53

cakes or lozenges called Pomfret Cakes, and
on the back of each is a picture stamped of the
old castle of the town of Pontefract. I will tell
you a story about this castle. Many years ago
there was a King of England, whose name was
Richard. He was the second king of that
name, and called Richard the Second. He was
the only son of Edward the Black Prince, who
obtained that title from the black armour he
wore. As this prince died when a young man,
Richard came to the throne at the death of his
grandfather, Edward the Third, of whom I have
told you already. Richard was at this time but
eleven years of age. It was a sad thing for
Richard that he came to the throne so young.
Instead of having his wrong tempers and dispo-
sitions corrected, he was flattered and spoiled,
and grew up a vain and wicked man. His
reign was a miserable one; and at last his people,
tired of his misrule and many acts of cruelty,
took his crown from him. After this the poor
king suffered such poverty, that he often knew
the want of food. He was confined in Pomfret
Castle for some time, and in that place he was
murdered, in a manner too cruel to relate. You
may still see this old castle if ever you go to
Pontefract. At a place called Knaresborough,
in Yorkshire, is a wonderful well, known by the
name of the Dropping Well of Knaresborough.

54 Stories of England.

It rises at the foot of a rock composed of lime-
stone, near the banks of the river Nid. After
running about 20 yards towards the river, it
spreads over the top of a crag 30 feet high, from
whence it falls in a shower. The water is very
cold, and incrusts everything on which it falls,
with some of the earth collected in its course.
LANCASHIRE lies to the west of Yorkshire,
and has Westmoreland on the north, and
Cheshire on the south, whilst it is bordered on
the west by the Irish Sea. The capital or
county town of Lancashire, though by no
means its most important town, is Lancaster.
Lancaster stands in a very pretty situation.
It has a fine old castle, the views from which
are beautiful. This castle is now used for a
prison. I went over it when I was at Lancas-
ter, but it was a mournful sight; and though
I was very young, I did not forget the sad
looks of the prisoners for many days, par-
ticularly of some of the younger ones. Some
looked hardened and not ashamed of being
there, whilst others appeared as though they
could not bear us to look upon them. A
prison contains a sad picture of man, showing
to what wretched consequences his ungoverned
passions will lead. The thief, the drunkard,
or the murderer, confined within the gloomy
walls of a prison, was once a little child. He

lMancZhester.-Cotton. 55

did not begin with great sins, but with small
ones; or, at least, with such as you commit.
Perhaps with disobedience, or with an untruth,
and then how easy was his path downwards.
Beware of small beginnings!
The city of Manchester is a large and busy
place, and has more inhabitants than any town
in England, except London. It stands on the
river Irwell, and is noted for its large cotton
manufactories. Manufacturing towns are sel-
dom pleasant; and although Manchester has
many fine buildings and streets, it is not a
handsome place. The tall factories and their
lofty chimneys, from which the smoke is ever
pouring, have not a pretty effect.
I told you that Manchester is noted for its
cotton manufactures. Do you know what
cotton is? Perhaps not; for the gay print-
dresses that you see, and the reels of cotton in
mamma's workbox, will not give you any help
in guessing the appearance of cotton before it
is manufactured. Cotton is the down taken
from the pod or seed-vessel of the cotton tree,
which does not grow in England, but is brought
from America, and some parts of Asia. The
blossom of the cotton-plant is of a pale yellow.
You know very well the appearanceof the seed-
vessels of some plants. Those of beans and
peas are familiar to every child.

56 Stories of England.

The pod of the cotton plant is about the size
of a small apple. When ripe, it is gathered
and dried in the sun. The husk is then taken
off, and the seeds separated from the down or
cotton by a mill. It is then picked from the
crushed seeds. Thus prepared, it is packed,
and sent to England and other countries.
After it arrives it has to undergo a great many
When you are old enough, I think it will be
a pleasure to you to go into a cotton factory;
but until you know a little more than most
children do of the uses of the great wheels,
little wheels, and spindles, you would find that
it would only be confusing to you.
In one room you would see large bales of
cotton which have been brought from other
countries, and men busy unpacking them. It
looks dirty stuff, very unlike the cotton wool
you may have observed at home. But if you
go into another room, you will see how the
dirty wool becomes white. It has to be carded
or pulled to pieces, and then squeezed between
two great rollers, from which it comes white
and soft, like wreaths of snow.
In another room you will see this cotton wool
twisted into threads, not as in old times by
wheels turned by the hand, but by many
spindles, all turned by the great wheel of a

L ivcrpool.- Sea-ort. 57

steam engine. You would wonder the reason
that in this room so many children are walking
backwards and forwards, appearing to do very
little. The fact is they have but little to dc
in spinning the cotton, they have only to
supply the machines with it, to keep every
part of each machine well oiled and free from
dirt and dust, to join broken threads, and to
remove the cotton that is spun to another part
of the factory. After this, it is wound off
from the spindles and made up into skeins,
and in this state is fit to be woven into differ-
ent kinds of cloth. There are also the print-
works in Manchester, for printing the cloth
after it is woven.
I must leave room in this chapter to tell you
a little about Liverpool, which is 32 miles from
Manchester, and connected with it by a rail-
way. This railway was made nearly 40 years
ago, in the year 1830, and was the first great
railway ever made for carrying passengers
from one place to another. Liverpool is, next
to London, the greatest port in England; but
I must tell you something about a port.
Those towns are called ports, which are either
at the mouth of some river, thus connecting
them with the sea, or on the sea-coast itself.
Liverpool stands on the river Mersey, which
flows into the sea near the town. This river,

58 Stories of England.

at Liverpool, is of great width, and is always
crowded with ships from nearly all parts of
the world, bringing to England the various
productions of other countries, and taking
back to those countries many of our manufac-
tures in exchange. Those things which are
sent from England to other countries are
called exports, because they go out from our
sea-port towns; and those things brought from
other places into our various ports, are called
imports. Some of the ships on the Mersey are
laden with cotton-some with rice-and others
with spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, nutmegs,
and ginger, for which in exchange they take
our calicoes and prints to those places where
they have no manufactures. Liverpool is a
fine place, and many of its buildings are very
There is a curious cemetery or burying-
ground near the town, made in what was
formerly a deep quarry. A quarry is a place
dug, or rather blasted with gunpowder, out of
a hill, for the purpose of getting stone for
pavements or for building houses. The ground
of this cemetery is nicely laid out, and many
of the graves cut in the sides of the quarry
made me think of the caves or sepulchres in
rocks, of which we read in the Bible, and in
one of which Abraham buried his wife Sarah.


The four Counties adjoining Wales-Cheshire-Cheese-
making-The old town of Chester-Shropshire-
Coalbrook Dale-Iron-Its uses-The King's Oak-
Story of Charles II.

*- r- :_ .
-' - ~ f ..


Boscobel House.

HERE are four counties adjoining
Wales, which, as you know, is not
divided from England by the sea.
The name of the most northerly of these
counties is CIIESHIRE, which has Lancashire
to the north, Shropshire and a part of the
Welsh county of Flintshire to the south,
Derbyshire and Staffordshire to the east, and
Denbighshire and Flintshire to the west.
Cheshire is noted for its cheese and salt

60 Stories of England.

trade. The principal salt works are at
Namptwich or Nantwich, Middlewich, and
Northwich. Salt is found in mines, but is
usually obtained from salt springs; that which
is found in mines being coarse and dark-
coloured. At Northwich are large pits of
rock-salt, from which the salt is taken in
masses. The mode of procuring salt either
from springs or sea-water is by evaporation.
The process of evaporation is carried on by
exposing the liquid or salt water to the air, or
by boiling it over a fire. In countries where
the heat of the sun is sufficient to cause the
needful evaporation, salt is obtained often
from the sea without the aid of fire-heat. The
sea-water is put into salt pans or shallow pits
lined with clay, and as the evaporation goes
on, the salt falls to the bottom, and the brine
is pumped off, leaving a crust of salt two or
three inches thick. This is the means of pro-
curing the salt called bay-salt, so much used
in preserving meat. In countries where the
sun's heat is too weak to effect this, the liquor
is boiled. The boiling is repeated several
times, the boiler being each time filled up
with fresh brine. When the liquor is suffi-
ciently evaporated, the salt is left in crystals
at the bottom of the pan. It is then taken
out and placed in a shed to dry.





Cheshire.-Cheese. 61

The uses of salt are many; it is a very
important addition to food-in bread alone a
great deal is used. In bleaching, in glazing
earthenware, and as manure, it is also useful.
All the places in England in which salt is
found, end with the word "wichk;" Northwich,
Nantwich, Middlewich in Cheshire, and Droit-
wich in Worcestershire-" which in the old
Saxon language, signifying a salt spring.
There is a great deal of cheese made in
many parts of Cheshire. Cheese is milk or
cream curdled. This is a change which takes
place in milk when warmed and mixed with
rennet. Rennet is obtained by dipping the
stomach of a calf into water, and the water so
prepared curds the milk that is poured into
it. The milk is thus divided into two parts-
the curd or thick part, and the whey or watery
part. The curd is pressed as dry as possible,
salted, and formed into large lumps, which
are put into moulds or vats, and tightly press-
ed. The yellow colour of cheese is given by
adding to the milk a preparation of the pulp
covering the seeds of a South American plant
called Annatto.
There are some other things for which
Cheshire is famous. It has many large man-
ufacturing towns; Stockport (part of which
is in Lancashire), and Macclesfield are the

62 Stories of England.

The capital of Cheshire is Chester, a curious
old city. The houses in the oldest streets are
built in a very strange way, and at a distance
look as though they were made of black-edged
cards; the outer walls being divided with
cross beams of black wood, and the spaces
filled with very white plaster. There is a
foot-path in some of the streets, raised far
above the streets themselves, so that from the
carriage-road you go up a staircase to most
of the best shops. This long gallery is very
ancient, and was originally meant for a differ-
ent use from that to which it is now put. In
times of war, the people of Chester could
attack their enemies unseen from these high
places, and pour melted lead or throw stones
on the heads of those below. Happily, the
gallery has no such use now-a-days, and the
good people of Chester may walk underneath
during rain without umbrellas. Chester has
an old Cathedral; but the stone of which it
is built is so soft, that it is crumbling away.
The city of Chester was first built by the
Romans, a people who conquered England,
and lived in our country many years. The
city walls are more entire than any in Eng-
land, and on the top is a fine broad walk,
extending more than two miles; you may,
indeed, walk nearly all round Chester on this

Coalbrook Dale. 63

We now come to SHROPSHIRE, sometimes
called Salop, which has the county of Cheshire
on the north; Worcestershire, Herefordshire,
and part of Radnorshire, on the south; Den-
bigh and Montgomeryshire on the west; and
Staffordshire on the east. There is a great
deal of cheese made in Shropshire, and there
are mines of coal, lead, and iron, in different
parts. The iron-works at Coalbrook Dale in
this county, are the largest in England. Coal-
brook Dale is in a winding glen or valley,
between two high hills. To tell you every
process that iron undergoes, would not be in-
teresting to you at present. You know very
well the appearance of iron in the plough-
share, spade, and other garden tools; also in
stoves, ovens, and many saucepans, as well as
the rails on which the steam-engines and the
trains run. But iron, as it appears when first
dug out of the mine, is very different from any
of the things that I have named. It is found
in its natural state in huge lumps like dark
stone, and great labour is needed before it is
fit even for the commonest uses. The work
of making the iron, or melting this iron stone
into pure metal, is called snmlting, and this
smelting is carried on at Coalbrook Dale.
Now I will tell you a story about an oak
tree. There was an old oak in Shropshire,

64 Stories of England.

near the village of Tong, which in its time has
had more visitors than any other oak in the
Many years ago, a king, whose name you
may have heard, had some sad and bloody
wars with his own people. Wars, like quar-
rels, are never excusable, or certainly do not
appear so to us, who can read the Bible in
our own tongue, and find there that Jesus
Christ brought peace on earth, and good-will
to men; yet some of the men in King Charles'
time appear to have gone to battle under a
sense of duty; and difficult as it may seem to
reconcile it with our ideas of the duty of peace
and love, we may hope that good, though mis-
taken men, on both sides took up arms in
these sad and turbulent times. Wars amongst
people of the same country are, like quarrels
in a family, the worst of all. These wars were
called civil wars, and the wars in Charles the
First's time were fought between him and his
You should know what is the meaning of
the word Parliament, and I cannot tell you
perhaps in a better place. Great Britain is
governed by a king or queen, but the power
of that king or queen is limited. The Queen
may put the laws of the country in force;
but the Lords or Peers of the land, and the

Charles I.-Oliver Cromwell. 65

Commons, a number of men chosen by the
people to represent them or act for them,
really assist in governing the country. These
persons meet in two grand houses in London,
called Houses of Parliament, to carry on the
great business of the nation-to propose new
laws, or acts (which, however, are useless until
the Queen gives her consent to them), and to
raise the needful taxes. It was Charles the
First's misfortune not to agree with his parlia-
ment, and many a battle they had before the
sad close of their King's life. Oliver Crom-
well, one of the members of Parliament, who
was at one .time a quiet gentleman in the
county of Huntingdonshire, was the chief
leader of the parliamentary army; and from
some cause he gained great power over the
people. I will give you a short account of
this extraordinary man in another part of this
book. His is a very interesting history, and
one which you will read with pleasure, when
you are able to form a correct judgment of
his character.
Charles I. was defeated in battle, taken
prisoner, and at last beheaded at Whitehall
Palace, in London. He left several children;
the eldest son was a young man, and at the
time of his father's death was in Holland; but
he came over soon after, and gathering an

66 Stories of England.

army together, promised pardon to all his
people who would peacefully give up their
rebellion, excepting Cromwell, and those who
condemned his father to death. But the par-
liament were not tired of the contest, and
would not yield, so there was more war and
more bloodshed; and at the battle of Worces-
ter, Charles was forced to flee from the field,
and hide himself from those who threatened
to take his life as well as his crown.
With a few faithful friends the poor young
king came to Boscobel House, near Tong in
Shropshire. I have an old book giving an
account of Charles 2nd's stay here, of which I
will tell you in a few words. He had not
been at Boscobel many hours before notice
was given by those who watched, that the
enemies were near, and would certainly search
Boscobel, so Mr. Gifford, to whom it belonged,
took the king to another of his houses, called
Whiteladies, and here he was put under the
care of three brothers, whose names were
Pendrel: Here," said the earl of Derby, one
of the king's followers, to the Pendrels, "is
the king, take care of him." They promised
to do so, and kept their word. Then the king
was advised to rub his hands on the back of
the chimney, and so smear his face; his long
hair was cut close, his buff coat and all his

Charles II.-Richard Pendrel. 67

kingly armour and ornaments were taken
from him, and he was clad in a coarse shirt
and green suit, to disguise him like a country-
man; but whilst they were thus busy, Richard
Pendrel ran in to tell them that a troop of
rebels was near; so the king, weary as he was
after the battle, was led out by a back door,
bade farewell to his faithful lords, lest their
number should excite the suspicion of the
soldiers; and in the thickest part of the wood
Charles had to pass the night, the three faith-
ful Pendrels keeping watch. But before sun-
rise, such heavy rain came on, that not the
largest and most leafy tree in the wood could
keep the poor king dry, nor had he any seat
but the cold damp earth. Richard Pendrel,
pitying his state, went into a cottage close by
and brought the king a blanket, which he
folded and placed on the ground for Charles
to sit down upon, and the woman of the house
followed him with butter, milk, and eggs, for
the king was faint. Then the king, thinking,
I suppose, that the good woman might betray
him, said, "Can you be faithful to a poor
cavalier ?" (for this was the name given to
the king's party) and she said "Yes, sir, I will
die rather than discover you." In the wood
the king remained all day, and at night, wish-
inj to set out towards Wales, whence he knew

68 Stolrics of England.

that he could escape by sea, from the country,
he took a hatchet, and telling his companion
Pendrel to call him "Will Jones," set out on
his way to Madely. He hoped to be able to
cross the river Severn there, but hearing that
the rebels were watching on its banks, he went
back to Boscobel House. Here, as it was
night-time, it was thought safe for him to go
in-doors, and glad must the weary king have
been of the kind offices of William Pendrel's
wife, who washed his blistered feet, and pre-
pared him a supper. When he was a little
refreshed, they entreated him to return to the
wood, and tired as the king was, he was
obliged to comply. And now for the "Oak;"
we have been a long time travelling there.
Into the thickest leafed oak in the wood, king
Charles was assisted by Richard and William
Pendrel; and Colonel Carlis, a follower of the
king, got up to bear him company. Here
they sat all that night and the next day, and
Charles, worn out with his dangers and tra-
vels, rested his weary head on the faithful
colonel's knee, and slept soundly. At last
the king was permitted to go into the house,
where he was shown into a secret chamber.
Every old house had a room of this kind,
sometimes in a thick part of the wall, some-
times in the roof. Here there was rest at

Charles II.-Sheep Stealing. 69

least, if not safety, for the king, whilst his
kind servant watched continually. On the
Sunday, king Charles, still in his secret room,
said he wished for some meat. Now, as the
Pendrels were poor country men, I suppose
they seldom had meat, and they had fot
dared to go and buy any at market on the
Saturday, for fear of suspicion, as it was well
known that they could not want meat for
themselves; but the clever fellow William
was determined to gratify the king if possible,
so he went out and stuck his knife into the
finest sheep he could find in a gentleman's
sheep-cote. Great was the king's amusement
in cooking mutton collops for himself in the
secret chamber; and years afterwards, when
the wanderer was safe on his father's throne,
he and Colonel Carlis used to dispute in joke
as to who was the master cook at Boscobel.
The brothers Pendrel nobly kept their faith,
in spite of the offers of large sums of money
which Cromwell constantly made to any who
would bring him Charles Stuart dead or alive;
and after some more narrow escapes, Charles
got safely away from England. At Crom-
well's death, when Charles returned to his
country as king, he did not forget the three
brothers, but sent for them to London, and
with grateful thanks, handsomely rewarded

70 Stories of England.

their services. I wish I could tell you that the
reign of king Charles II. was either good or
useful. He did not by acts show his grati-
tude to God for His kind care of him, but
lived a gay and sinful life. I have told you a
long story about an oak tree, which however,
I hope you will recollect, and when you are
older, you will read many things in history as
interesting as the story of Charles in the oak.
The oak is not now standing, for so eager
were the Royalists to obtain portions of the
tree that sheltered their king, that they quite
destroyed it in their zeal, but it is said that
an oak now grows there which sprung from
one of its acorns. There are still remains of
Boscobel Cottage, where William Pendrel


--Chepstow-Tintern Abbey-Monasteries-Life of

SInnernt A oey.

HE next county I shall speak of is
HEREFORDSHIRE. It has the county,
of Shropshire on the north; Mon-
mouthshire and Gloucestershire on the south;
Worcestershire on the east; and the two
Welsh Counties of Radnorshire and Breck-
nockshire on the west. The county of Here-
fordshire is very pretty, and the corn and fruit
which it produces are thought the finest in
England. The apple grows in great abun-

72 Stories of England.

dance, and from its juice a large quantity of
cider is made. There is no mixture of water
or any other ingredient with the best cider.
When the juice is first drawn from the fruit
jt is sweet, but in a few hours it loses a great
deal of its sweet flavour. The manner in
which cider is made I will tell you. The
apples when gathered are laid in heaps, and
allowed to become mellow; they are then
crushed and broken in a mill. The fruit is
placed in piles with layers of clean straw
between them, and the whole mass is then
pressed down, and the juice received into
large tubs. In these tubs it is left to ferment,
and the scum removed as it rises. I think
that I had better explain to you the meaning
of fermentation. You know the names of
many 'liquors which are called fermented;
wine, ale, and porter are of this kind. Fer-
mentation is a state into which vegetables or
fruit pass after they become quite ripe. Fruit
that is allowed to hang too long on the tree
soon begins to ferment. You must have no-
ticed the strange taste of an over-ripe goose-
berry. This is but the beginning of ferment-
ation, of which there are three stages, the
vinous, the acetous, and the putrid-the first,
that is the vinous, is that which produces the
wine, beer, porter, or cider, in that state in

Monmouthskire. 73

which it is fit to drink; the second, the ace-
tous, describes that state which turns wine
into vinegar, and makes the beer, porter, or
cider quite sour; and the third, or putrid,
renders it bad and disagreeable to the smell
or taste. The capital town of Herefordshire
is Hereford, and stands on the river Wye.
This city has a great trade in cider, but it has
very few manufactures or other objects of
The last of the four counties adjoining
Wales is MONMOUTHSHIRE, which has Here-
fordshire and Brecknockshire on the north,
Brecknockshire and Glamorganshire on the
west, and the Bristol Channel on the south.
Some parts of the county of Monmouthshire
are beautiful. The eastern part is very much
wooded, and the western mountainous. A
large number of goats and sheep are fed upon
the hills, and there is a great deal of limestone
found in different parts of the county, which
is burnt in the kilns on the spot.
The chief towns are Monmouth and Chep-
stow. At Monmouth are the remains of a
fine old castle, in which one of our most war-
like kings (Henry V.) was born.
Chepstow is a neat town, at the mouth of
the river Wye, and near this place is Pierce-
field, where a very remarkable and clever

74 Stories of Englanld.

woman, whose name was Elizabeth Smith,
once lived. I should like you very much to
read her life. There is a great deal in it
which would interest you when you are a
little older. You will find that although
Elizabeth Smith was a learned woman, and
could speak and understand several languages,
she did not think the little things of life of no
importance, and could mend a stocking, or
make a shirt, as well as if she had never
learned Latin or Greek. The grounds at
Piercefield are beautifully laid out, and the
country round is very pretty. On the banks
of the river Wye, and not many miles from
the town of Monmouth, are the remains of
Tintern Abbey, some of the finest ruins in
England. Now I will tell you something
about abbeys which it will be useful for you
to know, particularly if you ever travel. It is
surprising how much pleasure we lose in life
by our ignorance of common things. It would
not be very interesting to you to see the fine
arches and grey walls of Tintern, unless you
knew something of its history, and the pur-
pose for which it was built by hands, long ago
mouldered in the grave.
An abbey or monastery contained a number
of buildings for different uses, and I will de-
scribe some of them to you, in order that you

A bbeys.-Monks. 75

may have an idea of the system which had so
great an effect on the people of England a
few hundred years ago. I will first tell you a
little of the people who lived in these places.
Abbeys or monasteries were buildings set
apart for the use of the monks, the teachers of
religion in our country. There are many dif-
ferent orders and degrees among the monks,
some being much higher and more important
than others. The principal person in the
monastery was called the abbot, and a very
lazy and sometimes wicked life the abbots
lived. The monks were not allowed to marry,
as it was supposed that in their retired life
they would have more time to give themselves
up to prayer and the service of God, as well
as the study of His Word, which for many
years in the history of our country was written
in the Latin tongue. Copies of the Bible,
even in that language, were scarce, so that the
knowledge of the Scriptures was, as you may
suppose, confined to very few; and those few
too often abused the privilege they had, and
gave instruction to the poor very different
from the truths of the Gospel. This ignorance
in the people will, I hope, explain to you
many of the bad acts of persons whose history
you read, and account to you for the wars and
disturbances of old times. As the knowledge

76 Stories of England.

of Jesus the Prince of Peace yet further ex-
tends, so it is to be hoped will the love of
peace, in all at least who profess to love Him.
It was a great mistake in the monks to
suppose that they could serve God better in a
building apart from the world, than they could
have done in their families or in the active
scenes of life. It is the state of the heart, not
the place of the body that matters, and a man
may be very wicked in a monk's cell, as well
as in the busy streets. There have been some
good monks, however, and though the bad
and deceitful have done much harm, we must
not forget that to the labours of the good we
owe a great deal. Before printing was in-
vented, all books were written, and the monks
used to copy a great many on parchment.
Thus they have done much to preserve many
books that would otherwise have been de-
Abbeys were usually built on low spots,
very often near rivers or places which yielded
plenty of fish, as fish formed the principal
food of the poorer monks. You will generally
find the ruius of monasteries near streams or
rivers on this account. There was always a
church or chapel in a Monastery, in which it
was ordered that seven services should be
performed daily, but these services were often

Abbeys.-The Refectory. 77

made very short, and anything but solemn by
the monks. There was a large hall called
the Refectory, used for meals, where they all
dined. The abbot's table was raised above
the rest of the hall. At an abbey in a town
called St. Alban's in Hertfordshire, there are
fifteen steps up to the abbot's seat.
Then there was the dormitory, a long room,
divided by a number of partitions into small
chambers, each chamber being just large
enough to hold a bed and a desk

M onk at his Devotions.

The cloister was the principal part of the
monastery, formed generally by four paved
walks, covered, and built round a green, where
the monks used to walk. The great hall was
a separate part of the building. In times

78 Stories of England.

when there were few inns, travellers often
asked for a night's lodging at a monastery,
which was given without charge; and glad
enough must the poor old monks have been
to see these travellers, and to hear news of a
world which they professed to have left.
There was a prison also in most monaste-
ries; remains of these dismal places may be
seen in several ruins. Many were confined in
these dungeons for real faults, but many, too,
for the sake of true religion.
But I must not write any more about ab-
beys. It would be pleasant to you to visit
that at Tintern, and I think you would be
greatly amused (as I have been in monaste-
ries) in tracing the uses of the different parts
of the building. You would walk with plea-
sure through its long winding galleries, re-
mains of kitchens, and other offices-over the
ground now covered with weeds, where the
monks loved to walk, and sometimes to labour
-and in the ruined chapels, where, amongst
many thoughtless and hypocritical worship-
pers, there were some sincere prayers offered,
which God deigned to hear and answer.
The situation of Tintern Abbey is particu-
larly beautiful; and when the walls and
arches were entire, and the roof perfect, the
building must have been a fine sight indeed.

End of Counties adjoining Wales. 79

We have now come to the end of the four
counties that adjoin Wales. I hope that you
will not forget their names, and the little of
their history that I have been able to give



North Midland Counties-Derbyshire-Derby-Silk
Worms-Matlock-Caverns and Petrifactions-A
Visit to an Old Hall-Habits of our Forefathers-

xjaaauon Hall.

HERE are ten counties in England
which are called the North Midland,
but I will not tell you all their names
at one time. We will begin with DERBYSHIRE.
Derbyshire has a small part of Cheshire and
Yorkshire on the north; Nottinghamshire on
the east; Leicestershire and Staffordshire on
the south; and part of Stafford and Cheshire

Silk Worms.-Derby. 81

on the west. There are a great many beauti-
ful and curious productions in Derbyshire.
Some fine marble is found in the hills, and
there is plenty of lead in many parts. The
capital town is Derby, and is neither a large
nor handsome place; but it is noted for its
china manufactory and silk mills. Silk is the
production of a little insect, much like a com-
mon worm. When first it comes from the
egg, it is very small; but after it has lived a
few weeks, and changed its skin several times,
it becomes a large white worm. It then
leaves off eating, and begins to form a silken
ball. Places are made for the worm, of paper,
on which it may fasten its silk. In ten days
the worm spins, and it is then best to wind
off the silk, as the insect sometimes works its
way through the ball. Silk worms always
spin the best silk, when they are fed entirely
on the leaves of the mulberry tree. Most of
the silk which we use comes from China, or
from the town of Milan in Italy, a country on
the continent of Europe. There are many
silk manufactories in this town. Silk is man-
ufactured by us into dresses, shawls, and
other articles.
The process of china-making I will tell you
in another place. A few miles from Derby is
the town of Matlock, and the ride to it before

8 2 Stories of England.

the railroad was made I remember to have
been a very pleasant one. The river Derwent,
though not wide, is pretty, and flowed by the
side of the road along which I passed, at the
foot of high rocky hills, covered with light and
feathery fir trees, and thick green brushwood.
There is a range of high hills in this part of
Derbyshire, called the Peak, which I used to
fancy was only one high hill, but this is not
the case. The Peak gives name to a large
tract of country in the county of Derbyshire,
between the rivers Derwent and Dove, and is
separated from the county of Staffordshire by
the last-named river. At the base of a huge
rock, at the little town of Castleton, is a noted
cavern, the entrance to which is between two
ranges of high rocks. A little stream issues
from the cave, and foams over crags and
masses of limestone. At Castleton is found
the celebrated Fluor Spar, better known by
the name of "Blue Jolin." Some very pretty
ornaments are made of this spar, and it is one
of the most beautiful of the productions of
the county. It consists of lime united with
an acid, which has obtained the name of
fluoric acid.
When I was at Matlock, I went into a
cavern to see some of the stalactites, for which
the county is so famous. Stalactites, by itself

Stalactites.-Matlock. 83

is a hard word; but if you were to see a
stalactite in a Derbyshire cavern, you would,
I think, always recollect the name. In this
cavern, or deep place in the side of the hill, I
noticed that which looked like long earthy
icicles of different sizes. You have seen
icicles hanging from the roofs of houses in
winter time. It is in this manner that the
stalactites hang from the roof and sides of the
cavern; but their colour is unlike that of an
icicle, being of a yellowish hue, and not so
clear. They are formed by the stream which
flows down the hill, and oozes through the
cavern's roof, having gathered and dissolved
in its course a particular kind of earth, called
calcarcous. In course of time, this earth and
water hardens. The stalactites just formed, I
noticed were soft, and easily crumbled in the
hand; but those which had hung for some
time were extremely hard, and difficult to
break off the sides and roof of the cave.
Matlock is a famous place for curiosities.
We peeped into one of its petrifying wells, in
which we observed a strange collection of
eggs, wigs, shoes, and many other things,
which the Matlock people say will one day be
converted into stone. So it seems, as nothing
remains after a time, but the form of the egg,
wig, or shoe; which after they are quite

84 Stories of England.

covered over with the water and earth, decay,
and leave nothing but the petrifaction.
A few miles from Matlock is the Hall of
Haddon, built many hundred years ago. If
you ever see this curious old place, you will
have some idea of the kind of dwellings in
which the English people lived in former
times, as well as of the life they led. Many
of the houses of the great people of the land
were built in a similar way to the castles of
which I wrote in the early part of this book.
They were generally built round one or more
courts, while their high turrets, garden walls,
and frequently moats, rendered them as safe
as castles. Haddon Hall was built in the
time of William the Conqueror, so called
because he conquered England. He was a
duke of Normandy, and you will hear a little
of his history in another chapter. Haddon
has been very much added to and altered
since his time, but a hall has stood on the
spot ever since.
I went to Haddon Hall one fine evening in
summer, and was much struck with the ap-
pearance of the old grey towers and walls as
I came near the place. The ancient gateway
is standing; and after toiling up a steep hill,
we rang the bell, which is cracked with age,
and waited till the heavy door 'vas opened.

Haddon Dining Hal. 85

No white-headed old porter, but a young and
cheerful man came out, and was very well
pleased to show us the house and gardens
We entered the square court around which
the apartments are built. The stone with
which the court is paved is so slippery with
moss, that we could scarcely stand. We first
went into a small room, a kind of butler's
pantry, where we saw the hunting horn, huge
jack boots, and spurs of one of the old earls
of Haddon. The dinner service too was
shown us, which was used for a long time by
the grand people of the house. These plates,
and dishes, and drinking mugs, were not made
either of gold or silver-no, nor of china, nor
even of the coarse white ware which you may
now see on any poor man's table. China or
earthenware was not made in England in
those days, and the people ate off pewter,
which I think was much more suitable than
china would have been, for they were apt at
their great dinners and suppers to drink so
much strong ale, that there would often have
been a great deal of china broken. The
dining hall is very large, and has a curious
wooden roof, with a carved gallery at one end,
where the musicians used to sit and play
during meal times. The floor is made of
stone, which in olden times was daily strewed

86 Stories of England.

with rushes, or clean straw; and there is one
part called the dais, raised from the rest of
the hall, which you ascend by steps, just in
the same manner as the abbot's table, of
which I told you in the last chapter. A long
and well-worn table stands in the hall, longer
than most dining tables now-a-days, but not
so handsome.
It was the custom for the whole family to
dine together at one board. Master, mistress,
guests, and children at the upper end; and at
the lower end, the servants of the house, and
the farming men and labourers belonging to
the master. They were divided by a salt-
cellar, and it was always thought a great
affront if any visitor was placed below the
salt. The dinner hour of the old families of
Haddon was much earlier than that of great
folks now, being as early as twelve at noon.
They breakfasted at seven in the morning,
and supped at six in the evening. Their
hours for meals did not differ from ours more
than the meals themselves. There was no
tea and coffee brought over to England till a
much later period, and ale was drank at
breakfast instead.
I wonder what you would think of a break-
fast and dinner such as the Haddon families
used to enjoy. There was bread of different

Haddon Hall.-Yesters. 87

kinds in plenty, but the other dishes were
cooked in a very strange way. Pork, with
eggs, sugar, and raisins, mixed up with white
grease, ginger, small birds, salt, prunes, and
saffron, all in one dish. They ate a great
deal of salt fish, and a roasted peacock was
thought very good. Cider, spiced wine, and
beer was drank both at breakfast and supper.
Now you have some idea of the meals of
your forefathers, I will tell you of a very
foolish amusement they had.
Most great lords or gentlemen kept fools or
jesters in their families to make them merry
when they were dull. The fool was often
more sensible than his master, and many of
the jesters affected their oddities and follies.
The fool wore a high cap and bells. These
tinkling bells, ringing whenever he moved,
were enough to turn his brain, I should think.
The dining hall at Haddon could not have
been very comfortable, for the doors did not
close well, and there were no chimneys where
the smoke might escape. The fire was made
on a hearth, and the smoke found its way out
where it could, through a hole in the roof or
the cracks left in the windows and doors.
There was an old saying that "no house was
healthy in which a dog could not creep under
the door, and a bird fly through the window-

88 Stories of England.

The bed rooms at Haddon are gloomy and
comfortless. There is but little furniture left
in any of them, excepting a few old chairs, on
which you are requested not to sit down.
There is one bed room, however, in which is
a bed with smart satin hangings, which was
used by Queen Elizabeth, during one of her
visits to Haddon. She was very fond of
visiting her subjects, but it must have been
an expensive honour for any one to entertain
her and her attendants. Her looking-glass
still hangs in the room, and the bed looks as
if she had lately slept in it, for it is in good
repair, though the embroidered quilt is faded.
The walls of her bed chamber and some
others are hung with tattered tapestry. Paper
for walls was not made in England till after
Queen Elizabeth's time; and the ladies, having
many hours to spare, used to amuse them-
selves with spinning and needlework. Their
lords were often absent, either at court or at
war, and the days would have seemed long
and dull in these gloomy houses, but for such
employment; for there were but few books
then to read, excepting those kept in monas-
teries. The tapestry which the ladies worked
was done on canvas, and some that I have
seen must have been really beautiful when
the colours were fresh. The cleverer ladies

E. Woodville's Journal. 89

used to trace battle scenes and copy old pic-
tures on the canvas, I suppose to suit the
taste of their warlike lords; and if you had
paid a visit to the lady of Haddon Hall after
the early dinner and the kitchen duties were
over, you would have seen her busy with her
maids, not only sewing and spinning herself,
but keeping them close to work.
The employment of an earl's lady differed
not a little from that of a lady of the present
day. She was generally well instructed in
the arts of cooking, pickling, and preserving:
and perhaps you have never heard that it was
the custom for brides of all ranks to make
their own wedding cakes, in order to test their
skill in confectionery and baking. I am afraid
but few brides could make a wedding cake
now, which their husbands would like to eat.
The journal of Elizabeth Woodville, after-
wards Queen of Edward IV., will give you an
idea of the kind of life the young ladies of
England led some hundred years ago.
Monday. Rose at 4 o'clock, helped Catherine to
milk the cows; Rachel, the other dairy maid, having
scalded her hand. Made a poultice for Rachel.
Six o'clock. The beef too much boiled; must talk
to cook about it.
Eight o'clock. Went into the paddock and caught
Thump, the little pony; rode nearly six miles without
saddle or bridle.

90 Stories of England.

Ten o'clock. Went to dinner.
Four o'clock. Went to prayers.
Six o'clock. Fed the hogs and poultry.
Seven o'clock. Supper on the table : goose-pie
baked too much.
Nine o'clock. The company fast asleep; these late
hours very disagreeable. Fell asleep.
Hawking was likewise a great amusement,
both of English ladies and gentlemen, in early
times. This was the art of training hawks
for the purpose of catching and killing other
birds, and was chiefly pursued by persons
of high rank. King Henry VIII. and his
daughter, Queen Elizabeth, were very fond of
There is a fine old chapel at Haddon Hall;
and in the pew used by the lady of the house
is a hole connected with the kitchen, through
which she could peep at her cook now and
then, during the time of service. Altogether
I felt very glad I did not live five or six
hundred years ago ; and greatly as I enjoyed
going through the curious rooms, and walking
in the ancient terraced gardens, it made me
sad to remember how all signs of life had
passed away from this deserted house: but
we must now take leave of Haddon Hall, and
I hope some of you may one day have the
pleasure of seeing it for yourselves. The day

Chatsworth. 91

after visiting Haddon, I went to Chatsworth,
the splendid mansion of the Duke of Devon-
shire. The contrast between the two would,
I think, strike even a child. Haddon, a de-
caying relic of old times-Chatsworth, in all
its glory and modern beauty. I have taken
up so much room with my account of Had-
don, that I have but little left for the wonders
of Chatsworth; its picture galleries, its fine
rooms, its park, waterfalls, and conservatories
with rare plants from almost every part of the
world. There you may see the tea plant, the
Indian rubber tree, and many others which
would interest and delight you. I suppose
that the new conservatory is the finest in the



Staffordshire Potteries Newcastle-under-Lyne-

TAFFORDSHIRE is a long, narrow
county, ending almost in a point,
having Cheshire on the north and
north-west, Shropshire on the west, Derby-
shire and Warwickshire on the east, and
Worcestershire on the south. The county of
Staffordshire abounds in coal, and is particu-
larly noted for its china factories. The capi-
tal town is Stafford, which has manufactures
of boots and shoes. Lichfield is an ancient
city, and has a fine cathedral, in which are
marble monuments to two celebrated men,
who were born in this city-one to Dr. John-
son, who wrote an English Dictionary and
many other books, and the other to David
Garrick, a great theatrical performer.
I must tell you a little about the Stafford-
shire potteries, where so much earthenware is
made. The clay in some parts of Stafford-
shire, many hundred years ago, was found to
be suitable for the making of earthenware;
but the plates and basins made by the Eng-
lish even two hundred years since, were very

Staffordshire.-Potteries. 93

different from those that are manufactured at
present, and the early attempts at pottery
were rather disappointing. It was found by
the potters that clay alone would not work
thin enough for cups or drinking vessels, and
was liable to crack in the baking, so that it
was needful to mix some other substance with
the clay. After many trials, it was discovered
that flint, ground very fine, answered best,
and made the clay much stronger. The clay
and flints are well mixed and strained; and
when the mixture is about as thick as dough,
it is ready for the potter's wheel, on which
plates, cups, and bowls are formed. I can
scarcely give you an idea of the process of
turning these different articles, so quickly is
it done upon the wheel or table, which is
turned round by a steam engine. Cup han-
dles are made separately, and joined to the
cups after they are made; and there are some
things, such as jugs, tea-pots, and dishes,
which are not round, that cannot be made
upon the wheel at all, but are formed by
squeezing the soft clay into moulds.
The next thing to be done to the article is
to bake it in order to make it hard. After it
has been once baked, it is called biscuit, and
in this state it is ready to be painted. The
colours which you see painted on china, are

94 Stories of England.

not made bright until they have been again
baked or fired; and then there is still some-
thing to be done to the earthenware, or it
would not hold water, the biscuit being por-
ous, or full of small holes. It was a long time
before the means of remedying this defect
was discovered, and on this account the
earthenware was of no use for anything liquid.
At last, the method of glazing china came
into use. Common ware is glazed by throw-
ing salt into the oven. The salt thus thrown
in makes a kind of vapour, which, fixing on
the biscuit, gives it a sort of glassy polish.
The finer china is glazed by being dipped
into a mixture of white lead and other ingre-
dients, when half baked. It is then put into
the oven, and the baking is completed.
A person of the name of Wedgewood made
great improvements in the potteries some
years since, and a particular ware called
Wedgewood ware is named after him. Al-
though there have been so many improve-
ments in china-making in our own country,
you must remember that the process was
known at a very early period in the history
of the world. The Egyptians and Romans
seemed to have been acquainted with the art
for many ages; and in the British Museum,

Newcastle-under-Lyne. 95

in London, you may see some beautiful speci-
mens of very early pottery.
The Etruscan vases which are preserved
there are very elegant, both in their form and
the designs with which they are ornamented.
There is but very little known of the ancient
people who formed these vases, and it is much
to be regretted that this is the case. They
lived in Etruria, in Italy. This was a name
given by the ancient Romans to the region
extending from the river Tiber to the Macra,
and from the Appenine Mountains to the
Tyrrhenian Sea.
At Newcastle-under-Lyne, in the county of
Staffordshire, are large manufactories of hats.
You must try to recollect that there are two
Newcastles in England : that in Staffordshire
is called Newcastle-under-Lyne. I remember
when I was travelling to Manchester with my
mamma, when I was a little girl, that the
coach in which we were stopped at Newcastle
to change horses; and hearing a man say that
we were at Newcastle, I was quite frightened,
knowing that if we were in Newcastle in
Northumberland, we were a long way from
Manchester. If I had known a little more of
geography I should have been quite easy
about it.
WARWICKSHIRE is the name of the next