Group Title: guide to Hayti
Title: A guide to Hayti
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 Material Information
Title: A guide to Hayti
Physical Description: 180 p. : front. (fold. map) ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Redpath, James, 1833-1891 ( ed )
Publisher: Haytian bureau of emigration
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1861
Subject: Haiti   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00028652
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000588405
notis - ADB7156
lccn - 02012900

Full Text








[Tenth Thousand.] 1861.

S i

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, by


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Mmasschssetts.















H AYTI will soon regain her ancient splendor. This marvel-
lous soil that our fathers, blefled by God, conquered for
us, will soon yield to us the wealth now hidden in its bosom. Let
our black and yellow brethren, scattered through the Antilles,
,and North and South America, hasten to co-operate with us in
restoring the glory of the Republic. Hayti is the common coun-
try of the black race. Our ancestors, in taking poflession of it,
were careful to announce in the Conflitution that they published,
that all the descendants of Africans, and of the inhabitants of the
Weft Indies, belong by right to the Haytian family. The idea
was grand and generous.
Liften, then, all ye negroes and mulattoes who, in the vaft
Continent of America, suffer from the prejudices of cafte. The
Republic calls you; she invites you to bring to her your arms
and your minds. The regenerating work that she undertakes
interests all colored people and their descendants, no matter what
their origin, or where their place of birth.
Hayti, regaining her former position, retaking her ancient
sceptre as Queen of the Antilles, will be a formal denial, most
eloquent and peremptory, against those detractors of our race
who contest our desire and ability to attain a high degree of






INDEX .. 177-180

^ook mitt <%me Queen of ftle gtnfilles.
I. -History of Hayti, by Auguste Elie 15-24
II. Geography of Hayti, by B. Ardouin 25-38
II. -The Animal Kingdom, by the Editor 39-42
IV.--The Vegetable Kingdom, by the Editor 43-49
V.- The Mineral Kingdom, by Dr. W. G. Smith 50-52
VI.- Soil of Hayti, by W. S. Courtney 53-55
VII.- Climate, Seasons, and Temperature, by Dr. W. G. Smith, 56-59

gook Saeon tge republic asnb migratiorr.
I.-Editorial Introduction .. 63-64
II.- Constitution of the Republic of Hayti, with the Legisla-
tive Modifications in full .. 65-92
I.- -Letter of A. Jean Simon, Secretary of State, to James
Redpath 93-96
IV. Call for Emigration, by F. E. Dubois, Secretary of State, 97-99
V.-Letter of Ten. Fs. Jn. Joseph, Secretary of State, to
Rev. Wm. P. Newman, 100-103

8 Contents.

VI. -Vacant Lands: Report of the Secretary of the Interior
to His Excellency the President of Hayti, on Emigra-
tion and the Vacant Lands, with the Decree of the
President in relation thereto 104-120
VII.-Laws on Emigration, with the Legislative Proceedings
thereon 121-125

|ook fjirtb- louti ^ofes an 6ssags.

I. -The People of Hayti, their Character, Origin, Language,
Industry, and Numbers 129-137
II.- Religion and Education : Notes on the Catholic Church,
Protestantism, Religious Toleration, and Education 138-143
II.-Notes on Navigation and Commerce 144-150
IV.-Political Notes: Territorial Divisions, Revenue and
Debts, Army, Navy, Laws, Currency, Weights and
Measures, Rights of Whites, and the Haytian Em-
blems 151-158
V.-Diseases of Hayti and their Remedies, by Dr. W. G.
Smith 159-163
VI.-The Seaports of Hayti 164-167
VII.-How to go, and what to take to Hayti. 168-170
VIIL-A Parting Word 171-175



THERE is only one country in the Western World where the Black
and the man of color are undisputed lords; where the White is in-
debted for the liberty to live to the race which with us is enslaved; where
neither laws, nor prejudices, nor historical memories, press cruelly on
persons of African descent; where the people whom America degrades
and drives from her are rulers, judges, and generals; men of extended
commercial relations, authors, artists, and legislators; where the insolent
question, so often asked with us, "What would become of the Negro
if Blavery were abolished ?" is answered by the fact of an independent
Nationality of immovable stability, and a Government inspired with the
spirit of progress. The name of this country is HAYTI. To Americans
it presents an important and interesting .study in whatever light regarded,
-whether viewed, as the publicists of Europe regard the Union, as a new
political experiment; or historically, as the home of a coming race, to be
composed, like the English, by the mingling f various bloods; or philo-
sophically, for the purpose of learning lessons for our own national
guidance and instruction from the sanguinary chronicles of its wars of
Independence. But it is to the friend of the Black, and, above all, to
the enslaved and persecuted races in America, that Hayti presents the
most important problem; to both it has a higher than a merely specula-
tive interest; for to the philanthropist it suggests the thought of duty
to be performed, and to the proscribed it offers a home and a distinctive
First interested in Hayti by the rare eloquence of Wendell Phillips,
I sailed for Cape Haytian in January, 1859, for the purpose
of describing the country and its people. During my voyage to the
Island, a Revolution was successfully accomplished; an Emperor was
banished, and a President installed. A new historical era had opened.

10 Introduction.

I remained in the Island two months, travelling on foot from Cape Hay-
tian to Gonaives; in an open boat from that town to Port-an-Prince, and
on horseback from the capital to Jacmel. I occupied myself exclusively
in gathering information, -geographical, political, and historical. I re-
turned to Boston in April; but, finding that my Notes were incomplete,
and in many instances contradictory, and desirous of correcting my first
impressions by more extended studies, I again sailed for Hayti in June,
-disembarking at Gonaives; from which, in July, I made a pedestrian
tour to the American colored settlement at L'Areahaie. From that fertile
district, I sailed to Port-au-Prince, where I resided until my departure in
My third visit was made in July of this year, for the purpose of explor-
ing Tortuga and the other insular dependencies of Hayti.
In the mean time, among other patriotic projects of progress, material
and moral, which the Government of President Geffrard had devised, was
the plan of inviting an immigration into Hayti of all the enlightened and
industrious men of African descent, in the States and the Provinces of
North America. As an Abolitionist and a Republican, I felt a
double interest in this project, -for not only will it be an agency of
strengthening a colored Nation, by developing its resources, introducing
new inventions, and bringing to it also moral sources of power, and thus
demonstrating the capacity of the race for self-government, but it will
carry out the programme of the ablest intellects of the Republican Party,
-of surrounding the Southern States with a cordon of free labor, within
which, like a scorpion girded by fire, Slavery must inevitably die.
There is no country in the world better adapted for the culture of cotton,
sugar, rice, and other Southern staples, than Hayti. All that it needs is
laborers, intelligent and industrious, to devote themselves to the work.
Thus, with the lever of aneenlightened immigration in Hayti, the colored
men of America could greatly aid in overturning the system of chattel
Slavery in the South.
Brought into correspondence with the Government of Hayti, I sug-
gested a number of guarantees to immigrants that should be officially an-
nounced; all of them, and many others subsequently asked for, (which
will 4 found in the following pages) were immediately and publicly
conceded. It will be found, also, that, in its desire for an enlightened
immigration, the Government has transcended, not the demands only,
but the expectations of the friends and representatives of the colored
people in America. Requested to indicate the measures that should be
employed to inform the class of immigrants invited of the nature of the
country, the offers and intentions of the Government, and all the facts
which men, seeking a new home, are naturally desirous of learning, I

Introduction. 11

suggested, among other measures, the publication of a Guide Book, the
establishment of a corresponding office in the States, and the appoint-
ment of Agents to visit the various localities in the Union and Canada
in which there are settlements of men of African descent. This pro-
gramme was adopted, and I was asked to take charge of its execution.
I accepted the position, and prepared this book. The experience that I
gained in the Kansas work had taught me that it is neither possible
nor desirable to put into a Guide Book-for I once attempted to do so
-all'that intending emigrants will ask. Hence, in this volume, the
reader will find the essential facts only; for further information, he must
apply, personally or by letter, to the office in Boston, where certified
copies of the Governmental guarantees, the journals of Hayti, books of
reference, maps, specimens of the ores, and of the staple cultures of the
Island, will be found.
All that section of this volume entitled "Official Part," is authorized
by the Government of Hayti, having been submitted to the Minister of
Exterior Relations, and other members of the Cabinet of President
Geffrard. The original Documents bear the Seals of the respective De-
partments from which they emanated, or to which they were submitted
for confirmation. For the rest, I have given my authorities, or write from
my personal knowledge.
The Island of Hayti, originally divided between the French and
Spanish, but reunited under President Boyer, in 1822, returned to its
colonial political divisions in 1843, from causes which it would be entering
into the domain of politics to enumerate. Since that time the Domini-
can Republic has held a large portion of the ancient Eastern or Spanish
Part, and the Governments of Hayti the Western, or old French Part,
with considerable annexations. As both Parts are nearly similar in
their natural features, while writing in detail respecting Hayti, I have, at
the same time, inserted a general geographical view of both of these
The translations are by various hands; all of them are extremely
"literal. The Map accompanying the Geffrard Edition is the most ac-
curate hitherto published.
No. 8 Washington Building, Boston.
December 3, 1860.



I. 1.
On a bald peak Northern On the hills of Hayti,
Stands the Pine-tree lonely: Wave the Palm-trees gladly:
Sleeping,-his white mantle Never in their slumbers
Ice and snow-flakes only. Sigh the Pine-trees sadly.


Dreaming that a Palm-tree, Verdant are their branches,
Morning land adorning, Never winter-blighted;
Lonely, on heights sultry, Married,-see the loving
Silently is mourning. Pines and Palms united.







4fistorV of tnfi.*

IT was the 6th of December, 1492, that Christopher Colum-
bus discovered the Island of Iayti. For this Caribbee
name, the great navigator substituted that of Hispaniola, in
honor of Spain, his adopted country.
It was the first land in America on which Europeans were to
settle, and it was the first where the peaceful abigines who
inhabited it were to fall beneath the devouring activity of their
new masters. The five caciques, who divided the authority,
were subdued, some by the flattering manners of the Spaniards,
and the rest by the force of their arms.
The brevity of this sketch forbids us to relate the many
changes of the long drama which transformed this happy and,
populous island into a blood-stained desert. We refer those
who are curious to learn this lamentable story, to the Life of
Columbus, by Washington Irving. Suffice it to say, that the
conquerors, having found quantities of gold in the country,
abandoned themselves with eagerness to the research of this
metal; and the aborigines, men little accustomed to labor,
forced by their masters to the fatiguing work of the mines, quickly
The discovery of the richer mines of Mexico caused those of

Translated from the original sketch of Mr. Auguste Elie, of Port-au-
Prince, which was written expressly for this volume.


16 History of Hayti.

H-ayti to be abandoned, their working having become difficult
on account of an insufficient population.
Another cause of decay was being developed at the same
time. This was the war sustained by the Dutch, English, and
French against the Spanish navigators, who designed to exclude
every other flag from these new seas. These adventurers, who
sailed in light vessels, and who afterwards became celebrated
under the name of Buccaneers, settled at several points, and
especially at Tortuga, a small island situated on the northern
coast of Iayti. From thence, they spread by degrees over the
main land, where they founded, under the protection of Cardi-
nal Richelieu, the French colony of St. Domingo.
The Spaniards, from the commencement of their settlement,
introduced slaves of African origin into Santo Domingo, the
name of the capital, which, instead of Hispaniola, was soon ap-
plied to the whole island. The two oppressed races lived in the
same tortures; but when, three centuries later, came the hour
of deliveilce, the public4aw of the new nationality recognized
their common right to the exclusive property of the soil.
Under the Spanish dominion, the colony remained stationary.
Three hundred years of possession had only produced a popula-
tion varying from 100,000 to 150,000 souls.
The French had much greater success. In 1789, the por-
tion which they possessed numbered a population of about
600,000, and five sixths of this population, compelled to labor
in merciless bondage, had brought the property of the masters
to the highest degree of prosperity.
The French Revolution now added another danger to that
which had already shown itself in partial revolts amongst the
slaves. The white colonists, and the free men of color* formed
antagonistic parties, who discussed their privileges in presence
of the trembling slave. The logical conclusion of such a state

In Hayti, the phrase 1'men of color is use 1. 1 to lo inqfto
persons of mixed blood, black being applied and ... .z I t.. hose ..! i[.,
African descent.

History of Hayti. 17

of things was necessarily the assertion of more general rights;
and the insurrection of the slaves soon swept away all the insti-
tutions of the past. Slavery disappeared forever from the face
of the country, and a decree of the National Convention legalized
that universal liberty which had already become triumphant.
The colonists, from the commencement of the crisis, had par-
tially pronounced in favor of deserting the cause of the Mother
A few of the principal insurgent chiefs, especially Toussaint
Louverture, soon began to think of independence. Their hatred
of a past which they held in abhorrence prevented their alliance
with any of the new parties. They passed from one flag to
the very opposite one. Others, like Rigaud, devoted them-
selves to republican France; but the majority of them fought
vigorously against the English, at that time the supporters of
the slaveholders. In" vain did Spain and England maintain
the cause of the old regime. The newly freed, seconded by the
energy of Sonthonax, member of the Convention, triumphed in
the cause of liberty. In order to baffle the designs of
independence entertained by Toussaint Louverture, and to
establish the former state of things, Napoleon, First Consul,
sent to St. Domingo an army composed of the soldiers of the
Pyramids, Marengo, and IIohenlindon. One hundred and fifty
millions of francs, and twenty thousand men of his best troops
were swallowed up in this expedition, one of the most terri-
ble lessons ever read to this great man. The only gain accruing
to him from this enterprise was the capture of Toussaint Louver-
ture, (who was taken by treachery,) and the shame of the death
of this celebrated chief, who perished of misery and cold in the
Castle of Joux.
At the head of the valiant soldiers who had been fighting for
ten years for their liberty, the most distinguished chiefs were
Dessalines, P6tion, and Christopho. This time, it was no longer
against servitude only that they unfurled their banner, it was

18 History of Hayti.

in the name of a higher principle, that of National Indepen-
The capitulation of the Cape, signed on the 28th of Novem-
ber, 1803, by General Rochambeau, was followed shortly after
by the proclamation of independence. This act, which is the
starting-point of Haytian nationality, was signed at Gonaives on
the 1st of January, 1804.
By the treaty of Bale, Spain had abandoned to France the
Spanish part of St. Domingo. Toussaint Louverture, in his
capacity of governor-general, had gone to take possession of
the country, and was there even at the time of the arrival of
the French expedition. In the name of this right, in 1804, the
Empire of Hayti was created, comprising the entire mainland,
and the adjacent islands. Dessalines, named Emperor, sought
to occupy Santo Domingo; but in this enterprise he failed, being
baffled by the resistance of the inhabitants of the Eastern Part,
who were supported by General Ferrand, commanding, in the
name of France, a small remnant of the expedition of Napo-
The Constitution of 1804 was liberal. Its decrees have no
longer any other than an historical interest. Nevertheless,
one of its articles has survived its wreck, that, namely, on which
is based the exceptional nationality of IIayti. It recognizes the
right of property in the country to belong exclusively to men
of the African or Indian races, and has been maintained in
every subsequent Constitution.
Dessalines, on his accession as Emperor, was placed in a very
embarrassing position, in a country entirely disorganized, and in
which compulsory labor had always existed, even under Tous-
saint. In order to continue the traditions received from the
past, he believed that, armed with dictatorial power, it was his
duty to crush every obstacle that opposed his course. His
cruelty arrayed against him his ancient companions in arms.
Powerful enmities arose against him on all sides, and he was
assassinated near Port-au-Prince, on his return from a journey

History of Hayti. 19
----- ^ -----------
to the Cape. This time a more liberal compact was adoptd, in
imitation of the Constitution of the United States. Christophe
was called to the presidency of the Republic of Hayti, but
* the form of the new government being contrary to hiowishes,
he refused to accept its conditions, and began a fratricidal war,
which lasted till his death.
Having failed in his attempt to seize Port-au-Prince, he with-
drew to the Cape, which became the capital of the State of
Hayti, and on the 2d of June, 1811, he caused himself to be
crowned King. Endowed with talent for organization, but of a
nature both despotic and cruel, he was unsuccessful in founding
anything durable, for his artificial creations were unsupported
by the aspirations of a free people. His attempts against the
Republic, less powerful than his own State, failed on account of
the secret support that Petion found amongst the subjects of the
King At length, being unable, in consequence of an attack
of paralysis, to mount his horse, when on the point of starting
to repress a sedition, he blew out his brains on the 8th of Octo-
ber, 1820, in his palace of Sans Souci.
After the refusal of the presidency by Christophe in 1806.
Potion was named in his stead. An able statesman and a
"sincere republican, he had, during the whole course of his life,
to struggle against men infinitely inferior to him in talent.
Betrayed by his companions in arms, little understood even by
men of note, he overcame by his address all the obstacles which
appeared ready to crush him. His war against Christophe was
his principal difficulty, but the secession of the Department of
the South, which was, for a time, erected into an independent
State under Rigaud, added, also, greatly to his embarrassments.
This famous chief of the first wars of the Revolution, compro-
mised his past glory in lending himself, at Cayes, to a division
which might have proved fatal to the Republic.
After having reannexed the South, at the dea of Rigaud,
and repulsed an attack he sustained from Christophe, Petion
put into execution an idea which he had long before conceived.

20 History of Hayti.

He had understood, with his great sagacity, that, in order to
settle the new society, it was necessary to.attach to the soil, by
ties of a nature agreeable to the existing institutions, those men
who, fostwenty years, as soldiers and civil officers, had served
their country with devotion. He gave them, gratuitously, large
quantities of land, and nearly all the territorial grants are dated
from his time.
One of the objects of Petion's attention was the Revision of
the Constitution. In Hayti, the same fault had been committed
as at Philadelphia ; in presence of the Executive there had been
created a Senate, invested with all the legislative power, as well
as with some executive privileges. But with men less enlight-
ened and less disciplined, the inconveniences of the system
were still more disastrous. Profiting by acquired experience,
Potion demanded the Revision of the Constitution of 1806,
and this was done at Grand Goave, with all the legal forms, in
the year 1816. This act, in its principal outline, was the result
of an amalgamation of the American Constitution with the
Constitution of the Year 3 of the French Republic.
Pktion died shortly after, worn out by twenty-five years
of continual struggles. Posterity has been more just towards
him than his contemporaries, and has placed him with reason at
the head of the statesmen of his country.
General Boyer succeeded to the Presidency. He had the
glory of repressing in the South the insurrection of a partisan
chief, whom P6tion had never succeeded in subduing; of unit-
ing, at the death of Christophe, the north of the Island to the
Republic, and of effecting the annexation of the old Spanish
Part to his dominions. Under his government of twenty-five
years, the administration was put upon a better footing in all
its branches, and the independence of the country recognized
by the principal European Powers. But from the date of his
treaty with France, in 1825, his vigor and activity were seen to
diminish.* f kind of general languor spread over the Govern-
Mr. Elie here refers to the Treaty, by which President Boyer agreed to pay

History of Hayti. 21

ment and the country, and this long peace was in no way
utilized to the interest of the future. Boyer introduced
paper money into the country. If he did not make a wrong
use of this financial expedient, he was none the less its inventor;
and the rate of the Spanish dollar fell sixty per cent. during
his administration.
He was overthrown by a revolution set on foot by men of
abilities much inferior to his own. He fell, struck down by a
reaction of public opinion against him, provoked by an excess
of vanity which blinded him to the fact that, though a man be
superior in intellect to others, such superiority must be mani-
fested in his actions. He believed that the power at his com-
mand would be sufficient to crush the pretensions of the oppo-
sition; but he was deceived.
He died in exile, which he bore with dignity, avoiding every
step that might havebeen productive of agitation in his country.
And the comparisons which have been made between his gov-
ernment and those that have succeeded it, have been wholly to
his advantage.
Under the Provisional Government that succeeded him, a
Constitution, resembling still more those of the United States
than the preceding ones, was voted in due form. Only one of
its articles was put into execution, viz: that which treated of
the nomination of the President. General Ierard Rivdre, the
leader of the last revolution, and a man of no note, sank, after
a few months, overwhelmed by the reprobation of the public.
This period is signalized by two important facts: the separation
of the old Spanish Part from the Republic, and the insurrection
of the mountaineers of the South. Fortunately the nomination
of Guerier to the Presidency happened in time to extricate the
country from the perilous position in which it was placed. *Be-
fore this respected name, all parties laid down their arms. He
France one hundred and fifty millions of francs, for the recognition of Hay.
tian Independence, and as an indemnity for the losses of the colonial proprie-
tors. This treaty first created a national debt, and was very unpopular with
the people.-En.

22 History of Hayti.

took no further steps towards regaining possession of the old
Spanish Part than the placing a corps of observation on the
frontier, and the rest of the country was pacified.
Guerier died at the expiration of a year, after having restored
to the country that tranquill::y which had been disturbed during
the last two years. His name is always mentioned, to this day,
with expressions of national gratitude.
He was succeeded in power by General Pierrot, the brother-
in-law of (.'Il. .t.., a man utterly insignificant, and under
whom the whole of the administration fell into great disorder.
A military insurrection overthrew him, and called to the Presi-
dency General Richd, a distinguished soldier.
The administration of Mich6 was short, but active and vigor-
ous. A reform in several branches of the general administra-
tion was undertaken, and it is probable that if his early death
had not arrested his progress he would have completely re-
organized the public service. Having been one of I .... i. il...'s
generals, he introduced into his government a severity which
sometimes bordered on tyranny, but which was always in con-
formity with the principles of a strict discipline. Jealous of his
power, like all the men of his school, he was pitiless towards
the insurgents of the South, who reappeared at his accession.
The Constitution of 1844 had fallen during the events which
separated the Spanish Part from the Republic, and threw, for a
moment, (May, 1844,) the country into a state of complete
anarchy. Guericr, possessing Dictatorial power, created a
council of state invc-ted with legislative powers and intrusted
with the nomination of the President in case of vacancy. Pierrot
governed the Republic in the same forms. On his accession to
power, Richd adopted the Cunstitution of 181G, and instituted a
senate which was to draw up a new fundamental pact. This
was the origin of the constitutional law, which, with the except
tion of a few modifications introduced in 1859, still rules the
country. It bears date the 15th November, 1846.
Riche died at the expiration of a year. General Faustin

History of Hayti. 23

Soulouque was elected by the Senate in his stead. He suc-
ceeded to power with the reputation of being a virtuous man,
straightforward and well-disposed; but all parties soon dis-
covered how greatly they had been deceived in him. Egotism
and superstition were the springs of his actions, and the pro-
longation of his power tended to a complete disorganization of
dl administrative and social order. The revenue was publicly
and unblushingly plundered, and the country was considered
by the whole world as fast receding toward barbarism. Under
the name of Faustin I., he caused himself to be crowned Em-
peror of Hayti; he had a court, a nobility, and all the ridiculous
pageantry of the old monarchies. His cruelty rendered him
odious, and his disrespect of individual rights made him utterly
regardless of the feelings of persons of every class. The con-
suls of foreign Powers took toward his government a contemptu-
ous attitude, which aided greatly in bringing it into disrepute.
This despotic power, which seemed so solid, fell at length,
without resistance, by the breath of a man of courage,-the Pres-
ident of to-day. Accumulated hatred and ardent revenge
clamored for the death of the Emperor, but the Government
had the merit of protecting his embarkation. He withdrew to
Jamaica, to fall again into the obscurity from which, for the
happiness of mankind, he should never have issued.
The present Government, which has held for nearly two
years the reins of administration, has above allapplied itself
to the healing of the wounds inflicted on the country by ten
years of a fatal reign. It has touched on all questions of
general interest, has succeeded in solving some, and is engaged
Sn studying others. It understands that industry and agricul-
ture are the first wants of a people settled on one of the
richest soils in the world, and it goes forward with moderation,
but with firmness, in the road of continuous improvement.
It has granted to the inhabitants of the Eastern Part a truce
of five years, resolved to avoid a war which it is not for its in-

24 History of Hayti.

terest to recommence; for it has enough to do to reorganize the
interior and develop the resources it possesses. By persevering
in these wise designs, it already occupies an honorable position
among the Republics of the New World.



t ograpl)p of 1avti.*

THE Island of Hayti, situated between 170 55' and 200
North latitude, and between the 68th and 75th degrees of
West longitude from the meridian of Greenwich, is about 338
miles in length from East to West, whilst its breadth, from North
to South, varies from 145 miles to 17; and its circumference,
without including the bays, measures 848 miles. Its surface,
exclusive of the adjacent islands, is estimated at 30,528 square
The Island is situated at the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico,
in the Atlantic Ocean. Itself one of the four great Antilles, it
holds the next rank after Cuba, which is situated at a distance
of 53 miles to the North-West. To the West South-West is
situated Jamaica, at a distance of 109 miles; and 48 miles
East South-East is the Island of Porto Rico. To the North,
stretch Turk's Island and other headlands. To the South,
Columbia is found at about 605 miles, and at a less distance
are situated the Windward Islands. It may be said, therefore,
that, of all the West India Islands, Hayti is the most advan-
tageously situated with reference to the intercourse she may
maintain with the surrounding isles and with Columbia, besides

'Translated from "La Gdographie de 1'Isle d'Haiti, par B. Ardouin: Port-
u-l'lince, rcim nprimne par T. Bouchercau, 1856." This is the volume in use in
the schools ofthie LRepublic.
t That is to Ly: Hayti is about the size of Ireland.-ED.

26 Geography of Hayti.

which, her communications with Europe and the United State
only enhance this geographical position.
The adjacent islands belonging to Hayti are Gonave
Cai'ites, Ile-A-Vaches, Bgate, Alta Vela, Sa6ne, St. Catha
rine, Mona, Monica, and La Tortue or Tortuga. We sha
treat of each separately.
Ilayti presents the appearance of a vast territory composed o
mountains and plain.
From the conformation of the surface of the Island," say
M. de St. M1ry, which alternates in mountains and plains,
arises a great variation in its climate and temperature. This is
specially produced by the situation of the Island in the region
of the trade winds, since the prevailing East wind, to the
influence of which St. Domingo offers the whole of its length,
makes for itself between the mountain chains many current
of air which refresh and temper these same mountains, -an
advantage of which the plains do not partake, inasmuch as the
mountains sometimes arrest the course of the wind, or change
its direction. "Moreover, a host of local circumstances, such as
the elevation of the land, the quantity, more or less consider-
able, of water which irrigates the plains, the scarcity or abund-
ance of forests, have a sensible influence on the character of the
"If a powerful cause did not counterbalance the action of a
scorching sun under the torrid zone, a sun which darts down its
rays almost perpendicularly, during about three months of the
year, upon St. Domings, the temperature of this Island would
be insupportable for man, or at least for such as were not
designed by nature expressly as inhabitants of this climate.
But this cause does exist in the wind of which we have just
spoken, and whose salutary effects weaken those of the sun.
To the protecting influence of the wind must be added the
nearly equal length of the days arid nights, and the abundant
rains which produce constantly in the air a humidity at all times
desirable, and which, bathing profusely the surface of the

Geography of Hayti. 27

Island, occasion, through the evaporation caused by the heat
itself, a kind of cooling effect.
"Thus, by an immutable order, the contemplation of which
enraptures the philosopher, nature has ordained that everything
should aid in maintaining a sort of equilibrium in the climate of
St. Dominga.
The two seasons (summer and winter) are more marked
in the mountains than in the plains, and in general the atmos-
pheric changes are more frequent in the former. Iere it is
that the temperature is mildest, and here are never felt either
the sultry heat or those winds which, when they become violent,
are more apt to dry the air than to refresh and renew it.
In fact, residence in the mountains is more pleasant than
in the plains. Country life seems here to have a more simple
character, and to be more independent of all those restraints
which etiquette imposes as a law upon the towns, and even
upon the neighboring country. It is seldom that the thermome-
ter rises above 18 or 20 degrees,* whilst in the plains it reaches
the mean rate of the towns, and consequently marks as high as
30 degrees.t The nights here are sometimes so cool that the
use of a blanket is almost a necessity. There are even some
mountains in St. Domingo where, at certain seasons, fire is a
real enjoyment in the evening. This is not on account of any
extreme cold, since the thermometer never sinks lower than
about 12 or 14 degrees; but the contrast of this temperature to
that of the day is so acutely felt that the words cold and heat
are not to be understood in the same sense as in a cold climate."
Like the other West India Islands, IIayti is subject to the
tempests which happen so often in this part of America, and
which still bear the name given to them by the Indians. But
it is the South part of the Island, including the country lying
between Cape England and Iron Point, which suffers more

Rdaumur, equal to 72t or 77 degrees, Filhrenheit.
t Equal t.. Tn ..... ;i,renheit
1 Equal ti .' .. .,.., '-< Fihrenheit.

28 Geography of Hayti.

frequently than any other place from this destructive scourge.
Nevertheless, M. de St. &ry has said, upon this subject:
" The man who refers everything to himself, and who is
exposed to the numberless evils which hurricanes may occasion,
cannot easily discern their utility. But the philosopher, whom
observation has convinced of the admirable order that governs
the universe, takes for granted that they are useful, though he
may not understand how, and rather than blaspheme against a
cause so disastrous in appearance, he is willing to believe that
these extraordinary movements of nature are necessary crises,
in harmony with the principles whoso workings secure the pre-
servation of the globe, and that without them, perhaps, the
Antilles would have been uninhabitable, on account of the
incredible number of insects which cover the earth or flutter in
the air."
Whatever may be the dangers of hurricanes, they cannot be
compared in this respect to the earthquake. This dreadful
phenomenon destroyed, in 1564, the town of Conception de la
"Vega, and has been felt more recently at Port-au-Prince, which
was overthrown in 1770. Since this last epoch, shocks have
taken place every year, but with much less intenseness. They
are generally preceded by a deep noise, called in Hayti govfre,
which is often heard without the shock being felt, and which is
produced by a cause unknown as yet, but which appears to
exist in the neighborhood of the lakes of Xaragua and Azuei,
between Neybe and Port-au-Prince.
Several of these reach to a considerable elevation above the
level of the sea. The principal range is that of Cibao, which
forms a considerable group, almost in the centre of the Island,
and from which diverge several chains in different directions.
It rises to at least 7,673 feet perpendicular height, and is
situated in the department of the North-East.
The Selle, the Mcxique, and the Bahoruco or Maniel form
the same chain which, after stretching from West to East,

Geography of Hayti. 29

terminates in the South at the Point of B6ate. The Selle, rising
to the same height as the range of the Cibao, is situated about
South East from Port-au-Prince, in the department of the West.
The Hotte comprises the chain which commences at the
Platons, in the arrondissement of Cayes, crosses that of Grande
Anse in the direction of East and West, and ends at Cap-a
Foux, near Tiburon. Its height is also 7,673 English feet
above the level of the sea.
The Monte Christi forms a chain which commences at
Grange Point and ends at the Peninsula of Samana.
The mountains Noire and of Cahos begin near Marmelade,
and terminate in the arrondissement of St. Jean.
Los Miuertos form the chain which terminates at Cape
Engaiio, in the department of the South-East.
These last-named mountains, together with others less con-
siderable, rise to an average height of about 2,400 feet.
"The number of mountains," says M. de St. M6ry, "and
their height, notwithstanding the vast extent of the several
plains, give to the Island, when seen at a distance, a moun-
tainous appearance, and is the reason why it is far from giving
the favorable opinion it deserves. But the observer who con-
templates the mountain chains with all their branches, which
stretch their sinuous ramifications over the entire surface of the
Island, sees in this the cause of its fertility, the immense
reservoir where are accumulated the waters which numberless
rivers afterwards distribute on all sides; a means destined by
nature to temper the effects of a burning sun, to arrest the fury
of the winds, to vary the temperature, and even to multiply the
resources and combinations of human industry; in short, the
soil destined to bear for centuries the bounteous forests which,
since the creation, perhaps, received the fertilizing waters which
the clouds secrete within their bosom, and which, by their pro-
tective position, are saved from the touch of man, whose genius
is not always conservative."

. m.

30 Geography of Hayti.
To these philosophic considerations, we may add the equally
important observation which is naturally impressed upon the
mind on viewing the mountains of Hayti, that these wild soli-
tudes have been, and will ever be, the bulwarks of liberty and
national independence.
The most extensive plain in the Island, according to the
same author, is that of Vega Real, situated in the depart-
ment of the North-East. It extends over the arrondissements
of Vega, San Yago, and Monte Christo. Its length is about
194 miles. It is remarkable for its fertility, and is watered by
numerous rivers. Its principal production consists in tobacco,
which is of excellent quality. Sugarcanes, cocoa, etc., are cul-
tivated, and cattle are raised there, but its small population,
scattered over so vast an extent of territory, is able to draw
from this fruitful land only a small portion of these valued
products. The river Grand Y Yque, which discharges itself
into the bays of Monte Christi, Mancenilla, and the Youna,
which empties itself into the beautiful bay of Samana, will
greatly facilitate the raising of these products, and will give to
this superb plain a real importance when it possesses a larger
and more active population.
From the left hand of the Ozama to the Cape Engaio, there
stretches an extent-of land about 145 miles long, measuring
4096 square miles, of which more than 3,500 are plains; this is
also watered by several rivers. The produce raised- comprises
sugar, coffee, tobacco, mahogany, horned cattle, and other
animals. Its soil is very fertile.
The plain of Azua, which includes the space between the
river Neybe and the bay of Caldera, covers a surface of 879
square miles. It has a soil of astonishing fertility, notwith-
standing the drought which usually prevails. Here very fine
sugar is made, and the rearing of cattle and the cutting of
mahogany fornf also branches of industry, as throughout the
whole of the Eastern part of the Island.

Geography of Hayti. 31

The plain of Neybe measures 469 square miles, and yields
the same kind of produce as that of Azua.
The lowlands, situated at the foot of the Bahoruco, to the
East and West, comprise an extent of surface measuring 820
square miles. They would offer the same advantages if
The plains of St Jean, of Banica, and of Hinche, called
the valleys of St, Thomas and Goave, cover a surface of 1172
square miles. The cattle raised in these rich pasture lands
form the principal branch of industry for the inhabitants of
these parts, who have much increased since 1822. All the
other products of the country are also easily obtained.
The plains of the North, starting from the river of Massacre
as far as the limits of Port Margot, may be estimated as covering,
all together, a superficies of 1055 square miles. The sugar-
cane is here advantageously cultivated.
The plain of Cul de Sac, near Port-au-Prince, measures 20
miles from East to West, while its breadth, from North to
South, varies from 6 miles to 10. It was not until 1724
that the sugarcane was here planted. The usual aridity of this
plain forced the inhabitants to resort to the irrigation of this
precious plant in 1730; and the effects of this powerful natural
agent were such that before the Revolution, about fifty million
pounds of this article were produced. This immense result is
no longer obtained. 0
The plain of Gonai'ves may be estimated at 141 square
miles in extent. It yields principally a cotton which is highly
That of the Artibonite, which is watered by the river of this
name, and by many other smaller ones, appears to have been
formed by deposits from these rivers, since, at a depth of 30
feet, there have been found different beds, in which have been
discovered leaves and branches of trees. Sugar and cotton are
grown here. Its surface is supposed to cover about 263 square

32 Geography of Hayti.
That of Arcatale, situated like an amphitheatre along the
seaboard, extends about 12 miles from East to West, by about
1800 feet in its greatest breadth, from North to South. The
sugar here produced is of excellent quality, though the
quantity is small.
The plain of L6ogane measures about 17 miles in its great-
est length from East to West, and Lcarcdlx 7 miles in breadth
from North to South. It yields sugar of great beauty.
Finally, that of Cayes offers a surface of about 117 square
miles. Hert, as in the plain of Cul de Sac, the different
streams are usefully employed in watering the sugarcane,-
a production which offers such considerable reward to the
laborious workmen.
Few countries are as well watered as Hayti. This advan-
tage is owing, as we have already seen, to the mountains
which feed the numerous rivers that nature has spread over
all this fortunate Island. But the departments of the East
are much more favored, in this respect, than the others, and
other rivers are also much more considerable.
The longest river is the Artibonite, which the Indians called
Ha'ibonico. Its entire length is 145 miles. It flows in a
straight line from the Cibao, where it rises. Before it reaches
this sea, its volume is increased by a multitude of other
rivers, such as the G*amuco, the Rio Canas, the Fer-a-
Cheval, etc. It frequently inundates the plain which bears
its name, and by this means produces the same effect as the
Nile in Egypt.
The other principal rivers are the Yuna and the great
Yaque, in the department of the North-East; the Ozama, the
Lsabela, the Macoris, the Soco, the Quiabon, the Romana,
the Jiyna, the little haque, and the Nyba, in the depart-
ment of the South-East; the rivers of Cayes, Cavcailon,
Jcrdmlee, and Nippes, in the department of the South; those
of Jacmel, Leogane, and Cul de Sac, in the department of

Geography of Hayti. 33

the West; and the Massacre, the Grande Riviere, and the
Trois-Rivieres, in the department of the North.
The numb'%r of mineral springs which exist over all the
surface of Hayti is another of its many riches.
The principal one is that of Port-d-Piment, in the department
of the Artibonite, formerly called Eaux de Boynes, (waters of
Boynes,) but which at present might be more properly styled
Eaux de Capoix, (waters of Capoix,) in order to make
amends for the injustice committed towards their discoverer, -
an injustice against which M. de St. 31Mry has so loudly
exclaimed, attributing to flattery the denomination these waters
obtained. Before the Revolution, considerable establishments
were here made, but they do not now exist. It would be
highly desirable to see them again established, and under the
direction of a skilful physician, who might superintend the
treatment of the sick persons who have often recourse to these
springs. Many diseases which the faculty have pronounced
incurable, have here met with a complete cure. Seven springs
are here grouped together in the same spot.
The same properties have been discovered in the springs of
Banica, situated five miles distant from the town, and in the
same department. There are four in this place, which is
equally deprived of suitable establishments.
Other minor springs exist in the communes of Dalmarie,
Irois, Tiburon, Jacmel, Mirebalais, etc.
The largest is the Etang Sale, (salt lake,) called, also,
the lake of Xaragua and Henriquille, because the Cacique
Henri, with his followers, took refuge here upon a small island
situated in the centre of the lake, and measuring 5 miles in
length by 21 in breadth. This Island is peopled with wild
goats. The Etang Sal6, situated in the department of the
West, is about 22 miles long and 81 broad; and is about 53
miles in circumference. It is deep, and swarms with alliga-

34 Geography of Hayti.
tors. The water is clear, but bitter salt, and has a disagreeable
odor, and ebbs and flows like the sea.
About five miles North-West from this lake is found
another, running in the same direction, but measuring only 12
miles long, and in breadth varying from 2' to 7 mile,. It
is called the Etang Saumatre, on account of the acrid taste of
its waters, or Laguna de Azuei. This lake also has its tides.
To the South of the Etang Sal, at 21 miles' distance,
lies the Etang Doux, (sweet lake,) named also Laguna Icotea,
(the lake of turtles,) which is nearly 5 miles long by 1T
miles broad. This lake has no communication with the
other two, and its extent depends upon the rains and the floods
which maintain it. It abounds in turtle, good fish, and sea-
The lake of Miragoane, in the department of the South, is 7
miles long by 12,000 feet broad. Its circuit, counting
the indentations, is supposed to measure 17 miles. Its depth
averages 180 feet. Its waters flow into the sea at the Acul
du Carnage, near the town of Miragoane, and are used by the
inhabitants. This lake is crossed by a wooden bridge, with
stone abutments, on the road from Petit-Goave to Miragoane.
The intention was formerly entertained of constructing a canal
between the Acul du Petit-Goave and this lake for the
Transport of provisions and produce.
The project was also formed of digging a canal between the
Etang Saumatre and the embarcadcre du fossil, near the town
of Port-au-Prince. This canal would thus have traversed the
plain of Cul de Sac in all its length, and would have served tJ
convey the immense quantity of sugar here made. In 1'222,
government caused to be built upon this lake, and upon the
Etang SalI, a barge and lights, in order to facilitate the conm-
munications of the capital with the department of the South-
East, and to spare travellers a painful journey by a road cut
through the rocks on the north bank of the Etang Saumatre.
But the force of habit prevents people profiting by these

Geography of Hayti. *35

facilities. It is true that the service of these boats is much
neglected by the sailors appointed to them, and that a great
and often insurmountable difficulty prevails almost always in
these lakes ; this is the violence with which the Fast and West
winds blow between the mountains that surround the lakes.
This difficulty might be removed by the establishment of
steamboats, which would possess the twofold advantage of
facilitating intercourse and of helping in the conveyance
of cattle from Neybe and Azua to the plain of the Cul-de-
Sac. But these ameliorations can only be the work of time;
they will no doubt come with the increase of the population,
which serves in all countries to develop industry.
The largest and the most beautiful bay of Hayti is that
of Samana. It is situated between capes Samana and
Raphael. Christopher Columbus called it Baie des FlPches, (bay
of arrows,) because he found on its shores large nlpbers of
Indians armed with arrows. The distance between its two
extreme capes is 17 miles. It has an average breadth of 12
miles, and is about 50 miles in depth. The most powerful
squadrons could find in it a sure asylum; but the channel by
which it is entered is difficult and narrow. A vessel must
pass under the cannon of the fort Cacao, built since 1822.
The extent of this magnificent bay, its position on the windward
side of the Island, together with the immense quantity of wood
found in the peninsula, fit for naval purposes, and the mines
of iron and copper concealed within its bosom, all these
advantages tend to make the point the most important of all in a
maritime point of view. Whale-fishery might here be carried on.
The other bays, whose importance and extent differ more or
less, are those of MJle St. Nicolas, Ocoa, Higuey, Neybe,
Jacmel, Bainet, Flamands, Me.le, St. Lcuis, Caimites,
Baradrrcs, lMiragodne, Petit-Godve, Port-au-Prince, St.
Marc, Gona'ves, Henne, Acul du iYord, Caracol, Fort Liberti,
Afancenille, Monte Christi, and the Bale Ecossaise.

36. Geography of Hayti.
The coasts of the Island present the following promontories,
namely :
The former Cape Francais, Cape Cabron, Cape Samana, in
the department of the North-East; the capes Raphael. Engailo,
Espada, in the department of the South-East; the Faux Cape,
Capes Mongon, Jacmel, Bainet, and St. Marc, in the depart-
ment of the West; Cape Tiburon, Cap-a-Foux, and Cape
Dalmarie, in the department of the South; and Cap-a-Fous and
Cape St. Nicolas in the department of the Artibonite.
Hayti contains three : that of Samana, which is the most
important ; that of Mole St. Nicolas, and that of Bara-
Sdres. The first is 36 miles long from East to West, with a
breadth which varies from 12 miles to 5. It is covered
almost entirely with mountains, and is watered by more than
twenty rivers. The second extends, in a straight line, a dis-
tance o 19,200 feet by 7,800 in breadth. That of Bara-
ddres, called more frequently Bec du Jlarsouin, is 5 miles
long South-West and North-East, by a breadth which varies
from 2,250 to 9,000 feet. It abounds in fine wood, suitable
for building, and, at the commencement of the year, fishermen
here assemble for the great fisheries, which supply salted fish
for home consumption, similar to that found on the shores of
Gonave. The Bec du Jlarsouit is 18 331 4;" latitude
North, and 730 35' 5" longitude West, at the eastern point.
S Gonave. This Island, situated at the entrance of the
small gulf which fills up the space between Cape St.
Nicolas and Cape Dalmarie, is 35 miles in length, and
S8} in its greatest breadth. It is the largest of all the islands
which border on IIayti and are under its dependence. There
is at the centre of the Gonave a lake of considerable size,
and the springs found here appear to be infiltrations. The
air is healthy. It contains wood fit for building purposes.

Geography of Hayti. 37

At the time of the murder of the court of the Queen
Anacoana, many Indians took refuge here. They named it
Gaanabo or Guanavaux, which has been corrupted to Gonave.
The eastern point of this Island is 18 42' 30" North latitude,
and 72' 53' 11" West longitude; the western point, 18 52'
40" latitude, and 73 24' 11" longitude.
La Tortue, [ Tortuga,] situated at a short distance from the
Northern coast, opposite Port de Paix, is 22 miles long and
18,000 feet in average breadth. Its superficies is of 11,734
carreaux, (3 acres make a carreau.) This is the spot where
the Buccaneers first settled in 1630; and in 1694, it was
abandoned for the establishments which had been made on the
main land. This Island also abounds in very fine timber; here
is found a kind of red crab, highly prized by amateurs, who do
not appear to dread its effects, although the manchineel tree is
known to grow at La Tortue. The centre of this Island is in
latitude 20" 4'.
La Samne. This Island, situated to the windward of Santo
Domingo, quite near the Bay of Higuey, is about 19 miles
long from East to West, and 5 broad.from North to South, and
nearly 62 miles in circumference. It is very fertile ; the In-
dians called it Adamanoy. A cacique lived here, who was
sovereign of the Island, and independent of those who reigned
in Hayti. The Spaniards had this cacique devoured by a dog;
this atrocious act brought on a war between them and the In-
dians, in which the latter were all sacrificed. After the perpe-
tration of these cruelties, sugarcane was grown there by the
Africans, whom the Spaniards had introduced; but from a
remote period, it has not been inhabited.
St. Catharine. This Island, so called after the name of its
proprietor, (a lady,) is situated to the leeward of the Sadne,
opposite the River Romana. Its extent is small, but it is
covered with abundance of game; it was formerly cultivated.
La B6ate is situated at a distance of about 18,000 feet to

38 Geography of Hayti.
the S. W. of the point of Beate or Bahoruco. It is 6 miles
in length from East to West, and scarcely 5 miles in average
breadth. Formerly it contained plantations and cattle peni ; it
abounds in game. ('I ....rl..i Columbus landed here in 1504.
A few years ago it was used as a place of refuge by the pirates
who infested that Caribbean Sea. Its centre is in latitude 17
51' and longitude 710 40' 38".
Alta- Vela, thus named by Columbus in 1494, is 5 miles
S. S. W. of La Beate. It is 90,000 feet in its greatest
length, and as much in its broadest part. It contains excellent
L'zle-a- Vaches. This Island is situated about 7 miles
S. S. E. of the town of Cayes, and measures 10 miles in
length, and rather more than 21 in breadth. It derives its
name, which it received from the Buccaneers, from the large
number of cows found there. It has often been used by pirates
as a harbor of refuge. The East Point is 1S 3' latitude, and
730 29' 58" longitude, and the Northwesterly Point 180 G'
1Q" latitude, and 730 47' 43" longitude.
The Caimites. These are small islands, the largest of
which covers a surface of about two square leagues; they are
situated to the N. W. of the Peninsula of Baradires, opposite
Corail and Pestel. They yield very fine timber.
MAona and Monica are two small islands, situated to the East
of Sa6ne, between Hayti and Porto Rico. Mona is fully two
leagues from East to West, and rather more from North to
South. It has two harbors capable of holding moderate-sized ves-
sels, and everything necessary to cultivation and cattle rearing.
In 1512 it was given to Bartholomew Columbus by the king of
Spain. It was then highly cultivated and yielded a large
revenue to its proprietors. But it appears to have been de-
sorted long ago.
.Mlonica is smaller than the preceding island.
NVavazo, a small guano island, situated between Hayti and
Jamaica, is the only other dependency.


The Animal Kingdom.

HAYTI, when discovered, contained very few animals, and
of these one species only remains, the agouti, a rare and
inoffensive creature about the size of a rabbit.
All of our domestic animals are abundant. The horses are
small, but of great endurance; resembling, in both of these
respects, our Indian ponies. They are never shod. They are
of the Andalusian breed, spirited, swift, require little care, and
have a fine gait. Those belonging to the lower class are lean,
shaggy, and never groomed. From $700 to $1,000, Ifaytian,
is the average price for a good horse in the country ; but in
the towns they ask much higher; sometimes, but rarely, very
fine horses sell at from $4,000 to $5,000. Emigrants should
bring out their own harness, as the Haytians generally use
ropes only, made out of the bark of the cocoa-tree and other
vegetables substances. If the emigrant buys saddles, he should
remember that they must be fit for ponies, not large horses.
Asses and mules, which are the chief carriers in the country, are
very common and cheap. Asses, from $100 to $400, Haytian;
mules from $500 to $2,000, Haytian. Hogs are lean, and
active; their flesh is said to be good; it is never cured, but
sometimes dried in the sun; the race requires to be crossed with
fatter breeds. Wild hogs abound in certain districts. Oxen,
also, are small, and lean; they are much used in the interior

40 The Animal Kingdom.

for drawing ; their flesh, in consequence of poor feed and bad
slaughtering, is often dry and tough, as compared with Ameri-
can boef. Emigrants should bring yokes with them; as the
"habitans of Hayti use ropes, tied to the horns or to a
-ska:ght stick, the usual method of the West Indies, which
requires ten oxen to do what one could easily perform. The
cows give good milk; but very little cheese and butter is made.
"1 ... are imported from the States. Emigrants should stop this
trade by bringing churns with them. Calves are rarely killed.
It requires an order from the police officers to kill beef-cattle,
sheep, or hogs. This law prevents theft. Sheep flourish, and
their flesh is delicious when properly slaughtered. They are
never sheared, although their wool, when they are young,,is of
fine quality. In consequence of this negligence a lucrative
commerce is lost; the creature suffers; and the fine wool gives
place to a long, coarse hair, as soon as the animal attains its full
growth. Goats prosper, and. their milk is generally used, and
their flesh eaten. At Furcy,* about 20 miles from Port-au-
Prince,- where there are forests of pine trees and other woods
and vegetables of the temperate zones, a friend of the editor
recently purchased a goat for a Spanish dollar. Dogs and cats
would socn become extinct, if not kept up by the introduction
of foreign breeds. Rats and mice are found; hares and rab-
bits are rare. It is probable that emigrants might profitably
introduce various breeds of the different domestic animals with
advantage to themselves and the country.
All kinds of poultry known in the States are common in
Hayti; the flesh of the turkey is particularly delicious. As
it costs nothing in the country to keep poultry, and as they
n,_ only do not injure any of the staples, but destroy the mis-
chievous cockroach and other obnoxious insects, it would le

At this place the Government have established a model farm. The other
mometer there ranges thus 58 degrees (Fahrenhit) at early morning; 78 degrees noon; 61 degrees in
the evening, in the hot months of July and August.

The Animal Kingdom. 41

well for the emigrant to establish a poultry yard at once. Birds
are numerous, but singers are rare. Among the more common
of the feathered creation in Hayti, are green parrots, parroquets,
nightingales, mocking-birds, humming-birds, tropic-birds, musi-
cians, swallows, turtle doves, woodpeckers, pelicans, king-
fishers, flamingoes, cardinals, partridges, wild geese, wild
pigeons, wild ducks, ortolans, boobies, snipes, man-of-war birds,
crab-eaters, bullfinches, aigrets, gris-gris, white owls, brown
owls, collier, and hawks.
Fish abound in the rivers and lakes and along the coasts of
Hayti. There is a great variety of excellent fish for con-
sumption. Sharks frequent the harbors. Among the more
common fish are mullets, gray and red sardans, sardines, dol-
phins, carps, bonitoes, pikes, doradoes, gurnets, hammer-heads,
garfish, porpoises, brills, eels, bull-heads, sea-cows, tunny-fish,
sword-fish, flying-fish, sun-fish, caranque, vivanneau, becune,
cayeux, barbarin, tasard, souffleur, pisquet, sea-anemones.
Common crabs, Moorish crabs, gallo-crabs, lobsters, and
shrimps are plentiful. Oysters are found in great numbers
along the coasts, clinging to the mango bushes, that grow in
large groves in every part of the sea-shore. They are of small
size, and are said to be of good flavor. There are various varieties
of shell-fish, including conches, periwinkles, pearl-oysters, bur-
gan, lambi, sea-urchins, murex, helmet-shell, vis, ducal, music,
soudon, and palourde. There are many reefs where coral of
exquisite beauty may be gathered, as also polypi and sponges.
Insects are plentiful in all tropical climates, and Hayti
forms no exception to the rule. We can notice a very few
only. Among the poisonous insects are the scorpion, centipedes,
and three kind of spiders. The bite of none of them is mortal,
or even dangerous, if the ordinary remedy is taken in due time.
The bite of these insects causes inflammation; the remedy is)

42 The Animal Kingdom.
alkali, in fluid form, applied to the wound, and five drops dis-
solved in water to be drunk. Wild bees are numerous, and
their wax and honey are sometimes exported. Before using the
honey, however, the emigrants should first learn from the natives
how to distinguish that which is made from the poisonous plants.
There is a great variety of butterflies. The fireflies are ex-
ceedingly brilliant. Cockroaches, ants, caterpillars, grass.
hoppers, mosquitoes, wasps, locusts, moths, sand-flies, fleas,
bugs, lice, weevils, chiques, and ticks, and other members of
the same family, will also be found in every part of the Island.
Mosquitoes are as noisy, but not so annoying as their American
compatriots. Cockroaches and ants are the greatest pests to
housekeepers; they eat clothing and books with an extraordinary
Of the reptiles, the lizard is the most common; there is every
variety of them, but all of them are innoxious. Alligators
and caymans are occasionally seen in the rivers. Frogs and
toads are numerous. Turtles are counted by the million. The
serpent family is rarely met with; there are but very few snakes,
and they are not venomous. The most beautiful of the native
snakes is the magdalena.



The Vegetable Kingdom.

AN inhabitant of the temperate zones can hardly conceive
how rich Hayti is in every species of vegetable wealth.
She has every tree and fruit and flower of the tropics in her
plains; and there is nothing that grows in the States or in
Canada, that cannot be successfully cultivated on her high-
lands. Land alike of the pine and the palm, of the bread-fruit
and the strawberry, of the gigantic cactus and the lowly violet,
for richness of verdure and variety of vegetable products, Hayti
is not excelled-- perhaps not equalled -by any other country
in the world. Folio volumes have been written on her flora;
but the briefest notes must suffice us here.
Cotton grows with extraordinary facility, requiring no cul-
ture whatever. It is of a fine and silky quality. It does
not grow on bushes, but trees, which produce two crops an-
nually and last several years. Its culture might be made
exceedingly profitable, as no country is better adapted for its
Coffee flourishes on the highlands. The principal crop is
gathered in December and January; but in May there is a
second crop called "grapillage." If properly cultivated,-
one plant for every ten feet, or 1,225 bushes per carreau,-reck-
oning four pounds from each tree annually, (the minimum
result,) every carreau would thus produce 4,900 pounds of

44 The Vegetable Kingdom.
coffee. This crop, sold at the annual average rate of 125
gourdes per 100 lbs., would produce a revenue of 6,125 gourdes,
or $471 per annum. As the Republic will give five carreaux
of land to each family of emigrants, the revenue thus placed
within the reach of every industrious man, of African descent,
after a residence of two or three years, may easily be estimated
by them.
Sugarcane is a native of the plains, where the traveller often
sees, with astonishment, gigantic specimens of it, varying froth
18 to 24 feet in height. Mr. Devimeux, a planter of Port-
au-Prince, three years ago, exhibited a cane five inches in
diameter. Once planted, this staple requires no further care,
excepting to be cut down when it reaches maturity. As soon
as cut, it begins to sprout again; and for at least ten years no
replanting is necessary. A carreau of land, planted with cane,
will produce, on an average, 9,000 lbs. of raw sugar.
Cocoa grows in the valleys, on trees, and requires little at-
tention. It is a profitable and important article of export.
Rice, of good quality, is cultivated with success, but hitherto
on a limited scale.
Tobacco, with similar advantages of production, is treated
with a similar neglect. Hayti, in times past, has produced
tobacco equal in quality to that of Cuba; and it is to be hoped
that she will soon again enter into competition with her slave-
holding neighbor in this culture.
Indian corn grows everywhere, and brings good prices in the
markets. Emigrants would do well in introducing the seeds of
the finest varieties.
Ginger is produced in great abundance, and might be made
an important export.
Indigo grows everywhere spontaneously, and was largely ex-
ported in the time of the French. It gives two crops a year.
No produce, for an equal volume, returns so great a profit.
Without intrenching on the other staples, the Republic could
furnish two millions of dollars' worth of indigo per annum.

The Vegetable Kingdom. 45

Manioc is exceeding productive; and, rightly cultivated,
would yield an immense revenue. It is easily raised, even on
the mountains, but it flourishes best on the plains. Cassava
bread is manufactured from its root; but a more lucrative use
of it would be to make starch.
The Palmi-Christi, (from the berries of which castor-oil is
drawn,) pepper and pimentum, need rather more care to gather
than to plant; for immense quantities are annually lost for the
want of hands to collect their products.
Oranges, citrons, mangoes, bananas, plantains, pineapples,
and other fruits must suffer the same fate, until a line of steam-
ships is started between the Republic and the United States,-
a measure which is in contemplation by the Government of
Arrowroot could be cultivated with great profit and success;
but at present it is almost entirely neglected.
We have said that everything that grows in the States and
the Canadas can be raised in Iayti; but not necessarily in
every part of it.
Clover, cabbages, and potatoes, for example, do not flourish
in the plains, although they are abundantly productive in the
highlands. The plains bear the fruits and trees of the tropics;
while the mountains yield coffee and all the productions of the
temperate zones. Among the vegetables and fruits that are
used for home consumption only, are plantains, bananas, cocoa-
nuts, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, yams, artichokes, egg-plants,
mangoes, oranges, asparagus, bread-fruit, vegetable-butter,
(laurus persea, in Creole, advocate ) vegetable-soap, (sapin-
dus sapponaria,) apples, pineapples, strawberries, blackberries,
mulberries, peaches, grapes, carrots, cabbages, radishes, pump-
kins, beets, onions, celery, mint, parsley, and turnips.
Sugar refineries once more reestablished, a large trade would
necessarily arise in preserved fruits for exportation. The high

46 The Vegetable Kingdom.

price paid for white sugar at present prevents this branch of
commerce from flourishing. Oranges, lemons, figs, guavas,
apricots of the Antilles, (class x .ii. Polyandrie monogymie,
LIN.,) pineapples of every variety, pomegranates, shaddocks,
mangoes, rose-apples, custard-apples, cachimants, calmites,
(COlrysophyllun cairmit, LIN.,) papaws, sapodillas, dates,
advocates, and the other luscious fruits of the tropics, -all of
which are to be found in Hayti,-would furnish unfailing and
abundant sources of wealth in this department of industry.
Another lucrative commerce, awaiting development, is that
of extracting perfumes from flowers. Thousands of frangy-
panni, jasmines, vervaines,--all the innumerable flowers of the
tropics,-now literally waste their sweet perfumes on the
desert air, for the want of a proper knowledge of the methods
of saving them. There are no fine essences and perfumes sold
in the civilized world that could not be manufactured in Hayti.
It is asserted by scientific men, that the flora of Hayti -only
partly explored by Tussac, Deseourtilz, and others-contains
still many secrets which, if known, would render invaluable
aid to the medical art. For, medicinal plants abound every-
where; and everything that is brought, for pharmaceutic pur-
poses, from Africa and South America, is to be found on this
Island. Our space permits only a verbal enumeration of some
of the principal medicinal plants. There are :
Aloes, balsam copaiva, wild-cinnamon tree, tannin, mint,
sage, wild sage, quinquina, all the kinds of acacias, ricinoides,
cascarillas, vanilla, myrth, absinth, val6rianc, melisse, rosemary,
camphor-tree, cloves, nutmegs, shrub trefoil, quassias, jesuits-
powder, gentian century, menyanthes, indian arbro-boot, wood-
sorrel, swallow apple, false sycamore, purstane, jerusalem oak,
fern-polypody, cactus grandiflorus, divaricatus, flarelliformis,
laurel-tree, cinomorium, coccineum, ipecacuanha, euphorbia myr-
tifolia, ticassia, tamarin royoc, rhubarb, senna, hop-bryony, jalap,
marchantia chenopoda, dodder, negro conlayc, costs, indian cane,

The Vegetable Kingdom. 47

long-rooted birthwort, cuete, winter-cherry, yellow-iris, passion-
flower,wall-pellitory, cookia-wampi, sapindus sapotia, sesamum
orientale, jujube-tree, sebesten, gerard, pittes, squil, venus-hair,
peresky lautana camera, black nightshade, vitis labrusca, inga,
gomphroena globosa, euphoria punicea, monbin, couroupita guya-
nensis, spanish-plum, begonia litida, theophrasta arericana
minat., laurus camphora, capparis cynophallophora, misseltoe,
locust-tree, peruvian balsam-tree, lime-tree, croton corylifolium,
monarda coccinea, passiflora footida, pitton, solanum quitoense,
argemona mexicana, purslane, hilacus trilobus, semson, loran-
thus americanus, vervain, lecythis grandiflora, pharus lappula-
ceus sida americaa%, isora, elais guineensis, cedrela odorata,
boar-tree, fagara guianensis, spetted navel estail, cactus fimbri-
atus, euphorbium, areca, piper aromaticum, piper discolor,
uvaria arom. zeylanica, cubebs-shrub, mustard, fustic-wood,
myristica sebifera, urtica baccifera, crotalaria sagittalis, stoechas
amer. lato serratogne folio, iron wood, epidendrum obtusifol.,
epidendrum candatum, cordia collococca, cassia alata, vateirca
guian., maple-leaved liquidamber, ballot odorata, sago-tree,
palma humilis coccifera latifolia mayor, holly, india-rubber tree,
juglans, fraxinifolia, ferolia variegata, smilax salsaparilla, guy-
*acum, Chinese smilax, sassafras-tree, lobea syphilitica, ovieda
spinosa, toluifera balsamum, copaiba-tree offic., croton origani-
fol., cissus sisyoides, heliotropium indicum, hemp agrimony,
aspalatus ebenus, pistia stratiotes fol. obcord., cinchona nitida,
caryota urens, cactus monoliformis, cactus nobilis, cactus coch-
enillefer, cactus triangul., bread-nuts, artocarpus incisa, indian
arrowroot, theyreat bean, cinnamon-tree, panax quiquefol.,
tubera candida, henbane, white water-lily, laurus persea, anagy-
ris, welted frajeles, common feverfew, hypoxis seorzonera,
broad-leaved-egyptian privet, nymphma lotus, nelumbo indica,
All tropical countries produce poisonous plants; but as they
are easily recognized they seldom injure. Emigrants should


48 The Vegetable Kingdom.

eat no fruits until they know what they are. In Hayti, there
Share three kits of fruits, all poisonous, of the mancinella-tree,
which somewhat resemble the citron, and thereTTy-e e-ec eicll-
dren. But, as the tree is always destroyed as soon as it is dis-
covered, it is extremely rare. The chief poisonous plants of
Hayti are : -
Poisoned hog-meat, (aristolochia arboresccens,) snake-nut,
gouar6, cestrum nocturnum, tree arum, (three different kinds.)
trefoil-leaved dragon, cissus caustica, dolichos obtusifolius, doli-
chos minimus, thorn-ap4* deadly nightshade, goats-rue,
amaryllis punicea, black nightshade, milky dogsbane, and
Comparatively -considering its extent and fertility--un-
peopled, Hayti has vast tracts of forest lands, many of which
have never been exploited for sixty years, and abound there-
fore in every variety of wood for building, cabinet-making, ship-
architecture, dyeing, and tanning. The chief woods exploited
are mahogany and logwood; and these, too, are taken from the
most easily accessible places only, and without any aid from the
appliances of modem art. The coasts, the banks of the Arti-
bonite and other rivers furnish all the woods at present exported;
but the exhaustless forests elsewhere, which it would not be
difficult to work, remain still in their primitive condition. For
house-building the Island furnishes magnificent pines, and a
species of an oak (Bignonia guercus) as firm as that of Eu-
rope, and impervious to worms. For frame and joint work,
anacardium occidental furnishes a good white wood; and for
pile-work, there is the acacia mimom. tenuifolia, which lasts for a
century. For ship-building, the oak, iron-woods, auzuba fructu
glutinosa and the "comas, (which furnish masts G) feet long
and 18 inches in diameter,) as well as the pines, already men-
tioned, and other hard woods. For cabinet-making, mahogany
of every variety, (the best in all the world,) ebony, lancewood,
ferolia variegato, red and yellow satinwood, abound and are

The Vegetable Kingdom. 49

capable of receiving a high polish; as also, are the zanthoxylum
caribaeum, which is likewise a dye-wood, the erithalis fruticosa,
which preserves its fine odor, orange-wood, rose-wood, guyacum,
laurus, sassafras, and different kinds of the walnut. Among
the dye-woods are, logwood, in quantities inexhaustible, fustic,
and satin-wood, (yellow;) Brazilwood, (carmine;) myrthus
cotenifolia, (yellow and brown;) laurus sassafras, (yellow;)
colocoba uvifera, (red;) Braziliastrum americanum, (brownish
red;) malphigia urens, (red and black;) morus tinctoria,
(yellow;) and the roots of laurus jasmini folio, a sort of iron-
wood, which give a violet dye. There are hundreds of others
which it is impossible to enumerate. For tanning purposes
there are many trees whose bark is invaluable, such as the
guava, corossol, anona squamosa, cupana americana, malphigia
specata, and innumerable hosts of others. For paper manu-
Sfacturing, now that there is so great a demand for materials,
Hayti might export an inexhaustible supply of aloes, perfoliata,
and other plants which serve to make good common paper. Of
resinous woods there is a great variety.


The Mineral Kingdom.*

THE existence of immense mineral riches in the Island of
Hayti is too well substantiated to require any argument to
prove it. Its possessions of metallic ores were the first that
stimulated European cupidity soon after the discovery of the
Western World. Several of these mines, in the Eastern sec-
tion of the Island, have been imperfectly worked in times past,
but the age was not then sufficiently advanced in scientific
knowledge, to have been acquainted with the means and appli-
ances necessary for their successful exploration. In Iayti,
proper, the mineral wealth of the country has been yet still
more neglected. Their exploration has hitherto been discounte-
nanced. Until very recently, these mineral resources, from
political motives, were little referred to ; or it was imagined by
all the governments that have preceded the present one, that by
allowing their exploration, it would tend to prostrate and annul
the agricultural spirit and industry of the people. We have no
opinion to offer for or against the soundness of this idea; we
only affirm that this is not the principle of the present adminis-
tration of Hayti, which invites laborers of the African race to
come over and participate in the exploration and the riches to
be obtained from these mines, which henceforth are no longer
This chapter is contributed by Dr. Smith, of Port-au-Prince. It is not a

The' Mineral Kingdom. 51

Few countries are more highly favored in the variety and
value of metallic ores, and none can boast of so general or
natural distribution of them, as IIayti. On the present occa-
sion, little more is required than a summary note of certain
known localities in these parts of the country. In the North
St. Michel, the parishes of Lemonade, Dondon, Plaisance, and
Port de Paix, are mineral districts; the neighborhood of
Jacmel; the Mirebalais, Lascahobas, and Banica, in the West
and East Northeast, are among the most interesting mineral
sections of the Republic. The South has also its portion of
this species of natural wealth. Iron is everywhere profusely
distributed under the form of the Peroxide,-hoematite, the
carburet, pyrites, or the sulphuret. Detached pieces of mag-
netic iron are often met with. The country abounding every-
where in wood, smelting establishments and founderies would
quickly realize the hopes of the most sanguine and ambitious.
Extensive mines of coal (Lignite) are about being utilized by
the Government; those already known are located, one at a
short distance from the town of Aux Cayes, at Camp-Perin,"
and the other, in the Northeastern section of the Republic, in
the vicinity of the Artibonite River. There are other natural
depots of this invaluable mineral, situated in other parts, but
the above ones, in extent, appear to be inexhaustible, and are
still more valuable from the facility of transport offered by their
Gold quartz and copper, antimony and silver, the jasper and
marble, talc, jet, and the agate, are among the providential
donations that are most abundantly and generally diffused in
and about the mountain ranges of Hayti. Copper is seen
under different forms and in different places. The most com-
mon are the blue and green pyrites, mixed often with the sul-
phuret of iron, at other times separate. The red, blue, and
green oxyd, or malachite, under the blowpipe will yield from
35 to 45 per cent. of copper, but these are not the richest in
Hayti. Salines are numerous. Rock, or gem salt, is a

52 The Mineral Kingdom.

natural production. Sulphur and saltpetre are to be procured
by a little manipulation and industry, and, in fact, to terminate,
it may be said, without fear of contradiction, that Hayti, up to
this time, has been known only as an agricultural State, and
remains yet to be known in reference to its great and varied
mineral advantages.


Soil. *

W S. COURTNEY, Esq., in a recent volume on The
SGold Fields of St. Domingo," written with the object
of inducing a white emigration to the Dominican Republic,-
a purpose which it is impossible to accomplish peacefully,
-describes accurately the nature of the soil of the Eastern
part; and, as what he says of it applies equally to Hayti, I
herewith transcribe and subjoin it: The soil of the Island of
St. Domingo is constituted of the debris of the mountains and
hills and the decayed vegetation of past ages. When we reflect
that these prodigious mountains differ remarkably and essentially
in their geological constituents, and that the contrast is truly
striking, sometimes between mountains and even hills in jux-
taposition, it will appear how endless would be the task of
speaking definitely and particularly of all the various kinds of
soil that are to be found on the Island. The soil of the valleys,
slopes, and plains, partaking of the characteristics of the hills
and mountains on, beneath, beside, and betwixt which they are
found, varies as they vary. In one place we find a rich vege-
table mould; in another, a mixture of this mould with pebbles
and sand; in another, a light, loose, spongy loam; in another, a
loose marl; in another, a clayey marl; in another, a soil formed
of dissolved or pulverized coral and shells; and in another, of
pure clay or sand. It differs, also, in color and depth as much
as it differs in constitution and quality. Sometimes it is yellow,

54 Soil.
though still retaining its productive qualities; sometimes it is
red, sometimes of a bluish cast, sometimes of a dark, muddy,
or lava color; but most generally it is black, and its depth
varies from ten feat to six inches. In the valleys and slopes,
in and on the mountains, and on the savannahs and plains, it is
generally a rich, black loam, varying in depth from three to ten
feet. In the lowlands, on some of the coasts, it is a salt meadow
or quagmire, without any solid bottom, except where the roots
of the mangrove ramify and interlace so as to retain the vege-
table portion of it carried there by the streams, while further
back it is formed into a solid earth, bearing abundance of
marine-figs, flags, sea-rushes, and tall grass. The deepest and
richest soil is found in the valleys, at and near the mouths of
the principal rivers, and is made up of the alluvial deposits
brought down by these streams. So variable are the nature
and characteristics of the soil, that it often radically changes in
passing from one side of a valley to another, or crossing a stream,
and sometimes differs essentially on the opposite banks of the
rivers; and often, in passing along the road, it will be observed
to change in the course of a few rods, or even feet. In the
larger valleys and plains, especially some distance from the
mountains, it is more uniform; and more uniform on the South
side of the Island than in the interior and on the North side.
.... On some of the mountains and their elevated slopes the
soil is good, and the grass and other similar undergrowth grow
dense and rank to their very tops, while the elevated portions of
others sustain only broken and ragged forests of pitch pine, in-
terspersed with palm and many hard and durable woods.
Others of these mountains are again bald and sterile on their
tops and around their summits, peering up through the green
and heavy foliage below like naked cones. An analysis of the
soil, at different places, attests the fact that it is highly impreg-
nated with the minerals peculiar to the mountains, which prob-
ably accounts for its variety in color in different localities. It
has been found to contain iron, sulphur, copper, antimony,

Soil. 55

mercury, gold, cobalt, manganese, salt, and other minerals in
various combinations and conditions at different points. The
gold is of course found pure and diffused in the soil almost all
over the Island, in some places being only very slightly trace-
able, and in others palpably so. In regard to the productive-.
ness of the soil, suffice it to say that, notwithstanding its
diversity and variety, it is prolific beyond anything found in
the Antilles, and not excelled by that of the Italian peninsula
or Sicily, to which it bears a strong resemblance. The sugar-
cane grows the year round, and so fast and thick, that by the
time the laborer has cut over and exhausted a ten-acre field, it
is ready again to cut where he began. The corn, which is cul-
tivated now by simply making a hole in the ground and drop-
ping in the seed, with no further care or labor, grows to the
height of from eight to fifteen feet, bearing three to five ears to
the stalk. The tobacco, which is cultivated with as little scien-
tific skill and care, spreads out the broadest and sappiest leaves
found anywhere in the Antilles. Other crops indigenous to the
climate grow with equal rapidity and strength. It is said that
in some districts the melon, the pumpkin, and the squash ripen
in six weeks from the seed. [At Port-au-Prince radishes ripen
in three weeks from the time of planting the seed. J. R.] .
Such a thing as a fertilizer,-an article of such extended traffic
and so necessary to the agriculturist here, is not known nor
thought of there, nor will it, I apprehend, ever be required.
The fertility and strength of the soil, containing all the ele-
mentary constituents required to produce and mature the various
vegetable growths, could not be exhausted even without any
return to it for generations. Besides, the mountains themselves
are the great fertilizers of St. Domingo, and will remain so
until they are devoured by the tooth of time and sink away
in distant ages. The debris of these mountains, together with
the decaying vegetation on their sides and tops, brought down
*by frequent rains, supply the soil in the valleys, plains, and
savannahs, with abundant and incessant recruits. Its fecundity
is a marvel to the husbandman of these latitudes



climate, Seasons, and Temperature.

FROM the geographical position of Hayti, and its proximity
to Cuba and Jamaica, a non-resident might infer that the
climate and atmospheric range of temperature which prevail in
either one of the Antilles were common to all, and strictly alike
and similar in reference to this Island.
This is not exactly the case. Its peculiar situation in re-
spect to the other Antilles and to the influence of the trade
winds, and many other natural circumstances besides, operating
propitiously, have given to Hayti much advantage in these
respects over her sister isles of the same group. We affirm,
from experience, that the climate of Hayti is more healthful,
that the range of temperature is less ardent, than in the neigh-
boring islands; that the reasons as to why this should be so
appear too various, too multiplied, to admit our specifying any
one in particular. The fact, however, cannot be contested; so
that, whether from the altitude of its several chains of moun-
tains, the one out-topping the other, and on the lofty heads of
"which the surcharged clouds are condensed or dissolved into
rain; the extent and fertility of its plains and valleys, every-
where most liberally intersected by rivers, streams, mountain
torrents settled into placid rills, which, under the solar influence,
undergo constant evaporation, that refreshes and tempers the air;
whether these combined, together with its topography, its physi- *
cal configuration, and its ever-green, exuberant forests, which

Climate, Seasons, and Temperature. 57

are everywhere spread out, and which reach up to the very tops
of the mountains, the foliaceous undulations of which exercise
perpetually a cooling influence on the surrounding torrid atmos-
phere; whether there be other causes or reasons beside these,
we do not assert; but we think it rational to conclude that
all these circumstances, operating incessantly, are the real
agencies that modify and soften the climate of Hayti, and have
rendered its temperature milder, less sultry, and more salubrious
than it is found to be in Cuba or Jamaica during'parallel
A country blessed with all these natural advantages must
enjoy also great variety of climate and varied degrees of tem-
Verature, as regards a residence in the plains and a more or less
proximity to the seaboard, or a graduated approach to the more
elevated parts, upwards, towards the higher mountain range.
Its capacity to produce every kind of vegetable substance that
an contribute to the comfort of its inhabitants and to the pros-
perity of the state, must be equal to the fecundity and diversity
of its soil.
Hayti, rich in all the variety of tropical productions, is well
adapted, in its elevated situations, to the growth of most all
those grains and plants that thrive in other latitudes and cooler
regions. The peach, the apple, strawberries, the raspberry,
the cauliflower, potatoes, the carrot, the beetrave, the broccoli,
parsnip, and the asparagus, and other like legume and esculents,
have all been long ago naturalized in this country, and they
flourish as vigorously as in Europe or America.
Besides the multitude of floral families, species, and their
varieties common to the tropics, the rose, the violet, the pink,
(l'willet,) geraniums, diversify and decorate our alpine valleys,
which are likewise carpeted spontaneously with the clover and
the daisy, while the oak, the common fir, and exalted pine-tree,
(pinus sylvestris,) are multiplied into forests whose extent are
estimated by the leagues of country they cover, and which are

58 Climate, Seasons, and Temperature.

only within a few leagues' distance from several points on the
Four seasons are distinctly sketched, but thr, e only annually
can be said to be well marked, persistent, and immutable in
these parts, that is to say, the Western, the Northern, and the
Southern Departments or sections of the Island, which all
who immigrate are destined to inhabit. These comprehend two
wet or rainy seasons and one dry season, which, in relation to
each Department and particular localities, vary as to the time
when they commence, but occur most always about the period of
the equinoxes and solstices. In the Western Department,
SPort-au-Prince, the seat of government, is located. There, the
rainy season is in February, March, and April. During these
months more or less rain falls irregularly through the day. The
latter part of May, June, and July, to about the middle of
August, with certain rare exceptions, comprehends the dry sea-
son, and is the hottest part of the year. The rainy period
returns towards the end of August, and continues through
September to about the middle of October, and is then suc-
ceeded by what is called by the European resident, the'cool,
delicious season.
Thermometer, hottest season, from 10 A. M. to 4 P. M., in the
shade, maximum, 980 Fahrenheit; same time, in the sun, 1200
to 1210. Out of town, in the plains, several degrees lower.
At Grand-fond, situated E. S. E., distant but three or four
hours' ride from the capital, in July, the thermometer at
6 A. M. will mark 590 to 600, and from 12 M. to 2 p. n., 72 to
780 maximum. From the end of October during the rest of
the year, and up to the following month of April, the thermo-
metrical range, in the shade, from 10 A. M. to 3 P. 31.,is 85 to
900 maximum; in the sun, 1100 to 115 Fahrenheit.
The Northern Department, with Cape Haytian as its prin-
cipal town, has two seasons, strictly speaking. December,
January, March, and April, are rainy months. What is de-
nominated the dry season commences in May and is prolonged

Climate, Seasons, and Temperature. 59

through August and September. The highest range of tem-
perature is in August, when the North wind is not dominant.
Thermometer, in the shade, froni 11 A. M. to 2 P. M., 850 to
920. In the plains it is never so high as in the town at the
same period of the year. On the more elevated parts, as in
Lemonade, etc., for example, the thermometrical range is seldom
over 720 to 850 maximum.
The Southern Department, principal town Aux-Cayes, is
usually under the influence of rains during the months of May,
June, and July. August and September mark the dry season
in that section of the island. From November to March the
air is cool and 'salubrious at Aux-Cayes, and still more so in
the plains and rural districts, where the temperature is always
sAeral degrees less than it is in situations near the seacoast.
The thermometrical range is referred to that of Port-au-Prince
and the West.
The reader of this imperfect exposition of the climate, sea-
sons, and temperature of Hayti will be convinced at once of the
causes of the extraordinary fertility of its soil, and will perceive
the advantages which must result from industry and agricul-
tural enterprise properly conducted in such a country.
"W. G. SMIH, of Port-au-Prince.




1846 j


00 0






Editorial Introbiction.

INSTRUCTED by the Government to publish in full all its
laws and other documents in relation to emigration, I here-
with subjoin them without abridgment; although, necessarily,
there are occasional repetitions of facts and of guarantees in
them, made in reply to similar questions, or in reviewing the
action that has been taken with a view of carrying out the
grand and generous project of the Chief of the Republic and
his enlightened counsellors, -that of making Hayti to the
black race what England is and has been to the proscribed and
persecuted classes of Europe, a safe place of refuge, not only,
but a free and a powerful fatherland.
I prefix a translation of the Constitution of 1846, which
Soulouque abolished, but the Republic revived, with certain
Modifications rendered necessary by the altered circumstances
of the times. The Modifications, also, are appended. It will
repay a careful study to the general reader; to the emigrant it
will be invaluable for reference.
The documents are arranged in the order of their dates, and
it will be observed that the terms become more liberal as these
One word of explanation is rendered necessary in view of
the editor's appointment as the General Agent of Emigration
in America, and the passage of the Homestead Bill in Hayti.
No emigrants will be entitled to a free passage, or have

64 Editorial Introduction.

the right of drawing $15.00 from the treasury on their arri-
val in the Island, unless furnished with the certificate of the
Bureau of Boston. Those, also, who accept a free farm,
will be expected to pay their passages; but if unable, for the
,moment, to do so, the necessary means will be provided for
them, and abundant time be allowed them, after their arrival in
the Island, to refund the advance. In order to prevent an
emigration to Hayti of persons who would leave this country
for the country's good, it will also be demanded from applicants
for a homestead, that, if from the Northern States or the
Canadas, they shall produce the certificate of the Bureau of
Boston. Of course, this rule will not be enforced in the case
of emigrants from that barbarous and blood-stained section of
the Union where black men are enslaved, and white men who
sympathize with them so often suffer death at the hands of the
mob, -even, as recently in Texas, the fearful torture of the
It is not the design of the Bureau of Boston to send emi-
grants, except in peculiar cases, by transient vessels; but to
charter ships expressly adapted for the purpose of conveying
them comfortably and speedily. In these vessels, those who
desire to pay their own expenses will be accommodated at the
lowest rates, both as regards board and passage money; while
the others will receive equal consideration and attention. All
emigrants, unless special provision be made for large companies,
will sail from the port of Boston.


Constitution of Hayti.*

THE Haytian people proclaims, in presence of the Supreme
Being, the present Constitution of the Republic of Hayti,
in order to consecrate for ever its rights, its civil and political
guarantees, its sovereignty, and its national independence.

ARTICLE 1. The Island of Hayti and the adjacent Islands
which are dependent thereon, form the territory of the Re-
2. The Territory of the Republic is divided into depart-
ments. Their limits will be established by law.
3. Each department is subdivided into arrondissements, each
arrondissement into communes. The number and boundaries of
these subdivisions shall also be defined by law.
4. The Republic of Hayti is one and indivisible, essentially
free, sovereign, and independent.
Its Territory is inviolable, and cannot be alienated by any

Commonly called the Constitution of 1846, or the Constitution of Riche.

66 Constitution of Hayti.

Of the Haytians.
5. Are Haytians, all individuals born in Hayti and descended
from Africans and Indians, and all those born in foreign coun-
tries of Haytian parents.
Are also Haytians, all those who, up to the present time,
have been recognized as such.
6. All Africans or Indians and their descendants, are able
to become Haytians.
The law settles the formalities of naturalization.
7. No white man, whatever be his nationality, shall be per-
mitted to land on the Haytian territory, with the title of master
or proprietor, nor shall he be able, in future, to acquire there
either real estate or the rights of a Haytian.

Of Civil and Political Rights.

8. No slave can be held on the Territory of the Republic;
slavery is forever abolished.
9. All debts contracted through traffic in men, are annulled
10. The right of asylum is sacred and inviolable in the Re-
public, except in the exceptional cases foreseen by law.
11. The union of civil with political rights constitutes the
quality of citizen.
The exercise of civil rights is independent of the exercise of
12. The exercise of civil rights is regulated by law.
13. Every citizen, above the age of 21 years, exercises
political rights, if he has, besides, the other necessary con-
ditions determined by the Constitution.

Constitution of Hayti. 67

Nevertheless, naturalized Haytians are not admitted to this
exercise, till after one year's residence in the Republic.
14. The exercise of political rights is forfeited;
(1.) By naturalization in a foreign country;
(2.) By forsaking the country in a moment of imminent
(3.) By accepting, without authorization, public functions or
pensions conferred by a foreign government;
(4.) By serving, without authorization, either in the army or
the navy of a foreign power;
(5.) By all settlement made in a foreign country without
intention of returning.
Commercial establishments can never be considered as having
been made without intention of returning.
(6.) By peremptory and final condemnation to perpetual
punishment, at the same time both corporal and ignominious.
15. The exercise of political rights is suspended.
(1.) By the condition of hired servants;
(2.) By the condition of simple or fraudulent bankrupt;
(3.) By the condition of judicial interdict, of accusation, or
of contumacy;
(4.) In consequence of a judicial sentence, carrying with it
the suspension of civil rights;
(5.) In consequence of a judgment, decreed for a refusal
to serve in the National Guard.
The suspension ceases with the causes which occasioned it.
16. The exercise of political rights can only be'forfeited or
suspended, in the cases mentioned in the preceding articles.
17. The law regulates the cases in which political rights may
be recovered, also the means to be made use of and the condi-
tions to be fulfilled to attain this object.

Of Public Rights.
18. All Haytians are equal before the law.


68 Constitution of Hayti.

They are all equally eligible to the civil and military ser-
19. There exist in the State no distinction of orders, no dis-
tinction of birth, no hereditary powers.
20. Individual liberty is guaranteed. No one can be
arrested or detained, except in the cases determined by law,
and according to the manner by it established.
21. In order to the execution of an act, which decrees the
arrest of any person, it must, 1st, set forth formally the motive
of the arrest, and the law in execution of which it is decreed;
2d, emanate from a functionary to whom the law has formally
given this power; 3d, be notified to the person arrested, and a
copy left him.
All arrests that the law has not prescribed, or made without
the required forms, all violence or rigor employed in the execu-
tion of a mandate, are arbitrary acts which every one has a
right to resist.
22. No one can be forced to appear before any other judges
than those that the-Constitution or the law assigns him.
23. The house of every person, resident on Haytian Terri-
tory, is an inviolable asylum.
No domiciliary visit, no seizure of papers can take place, ex-
cept by virtue of the law and in the forms prescribed.
24. No law can have a retroactive effect.
25. No punishment can be instituted except by law, nor im-
posed, except in the cases determined by law.
26. The Constitution guarantees the inviolability of property.
27. The Constitution also guarantees the alienation of the
national domains, as also the grants of land made by the
Government, either as a national gratuity or otherwise.
28. No one can be deprived of his property, except on
account of public utility, in the cases and manner established
by law, and in consideration of a just and previous indemnity.
29. The punishment of confiscation cannot be established.
30. Every citizen owes his services to the country for the


Constitution of Hayti. 69

maintenance of liberty, equality, and property, whenever the
laws summon him to defend them.
31. The punishment of death shall be confined to certain
causes which the law shall determine.
32. Every man has the right of expressing his opinions on
every subject; he may write, print, and publish his thoughts.
No control before publication can be exercised upon any
writing whatever.
The abuse of this right is defined and repressed by law,
without, however, affecting the liberty of the press.
33. All kinds of worship are equally free.
Every one has the right of professing his religion and of
exercising freely his worship, provided he does not disturb the
public order.
34. The establishment of a church or chapel, and the public
exercise of worship, may be regulated by law.
35. The ministers of the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman
religion, professed by the majority of Haytians, will receive a
stipend fixed by law. They shall be specially protected.
Government determines the territorial extent of the parishes to
which they minister.
36. Instruction is free, and schools will gradually be estab-
lished to meet the wants of the people.
37. Trial by jury is established in all criminal matters.
From its decision there is no appeal.
38. The Haytians have the right of association; this right
cannot be submitted to any precautionary measure; the right
belonging to the public authorities, of watching and prosecuting
any association which may propose ends contrary to public
order, is nevertheless maintained.
39. The right of petition is exercised personally, by one or
several individuals, never in the name of a body.
Petitions can be addressed either to the executive or to either
of the two legislative chambers.
40. The secrecy of letters is inviolable. j

70 Constitution of Hayti.
The law determines who are the agents responsible for the
violation of the secrecy of letters confided to the post.
41. The use of languages used in IIayti, is optional; it can
be regulated only by law, and only for the acts of public
authority, and for judicial matters.
42. Public debts contracted either at home or abroad, are
guaranteed. The Constitution places them under the safeguard
and loyalty of the nation.


43. National sovereignty resides in the total number of
the citizens.
44. The exercise of this sovereignty is delegated to three
Those three powers are: the legislative, the executive, and
the judicial.
45. Each power is independent of the other two in its
attributes, which it exercises separately. None of them can
delegate its authority or overstep the boundaries assigned to it.
Each of the three powers is responsible for its own acts.
46. The legislative authority is exercised collectively by the
chief of the executive and by two representative chambers, the
chamber of deputies and the senate.
47. The executive authority is delegated to one citizen, who
assumes the title of President of I-Iayti.
48. The judicial authority is exercised by a court of appeal,
and other civil tribunals.
49. Each public functionary is personally responsible for his
own acts.
A law will be passed to regulate the mode of proceeding
against public functionaries for misconduct during their

Constitution of Hayti. 71


Of the Chamber of -Representatives.
50. The chamber of deputies is composed of representatives
from the arrondissements of the Republic.
The number of the representatives shall be fixed by law.
Each arrondissement shall have at least two representatives.
51. Until the law shall have fixed the number of representa-
tives to be elected by the arrondissements, this number is
settled as follows:
Five for the arrondisseinent of Port-au-Prince, three for each
of the arrondissements which have chief towns of departments,
and for those of Jacmel and J4remie, and two for each of the
other arrondissements of the Republic.
52. The representatives are elected as follows:
Every five years, from the 10th to 20th January, the
primary assemblies of the communes meet, in conformity with
the electoral law, and name each three electors.
53. Fromnthe 1st to 10th February, the electors of the com-
munes of each arrondissement meet in th6 chief town, and form
an electoral college.
The college names, by ballot, and by absolute majority of
votes, the number of representatives to be supplied by the
It names as many substitutes as representatives.
54. These substitutes, by order of nomination, succeed the
representatives of the arrondissement in case of death, resigna-
tion, forfeiture, or in the case provided by the article 60.
55. The half at least of the representatives and substitutes
shall be chosen among the citizens who have their political
domicile in the arrondissement.

72 Constitution of Hayti.

56. To be elected representative or substitute, it is necessary
to be -
(1.) Above the age of 25 years.
(2.) In the enjoyment of civil and political rights.
(3.) Possessed of real estate in Hayti.
57. The naturalized Haytian must, besides the conditions
prescribed in the preceding article, prove a residence of three
years in the Republic in order to obtain election as representa-
tive or substitute.
58. The functions of representative are incompatible with
those of the administration of the finances.
A representative who exercises at the same time another
function paid by the State, cannot draw two salaries during the
session; he must choose between the two.
59. The judges, etc. of the civil courts, and the public
officers attached to these courts, cannot be elected as representa-
tives within the jurisdiction of the court to which they belong.
The members of the court of appeal, and the public officers
attached to this tribunal, cannot be elected representatives with-
in the jurisdiction of the civil court of Port-au-Prince.
The commanders of arrondissements and their assistants, the
commanders of communes and their adjutants, cannot be elected
representatives within the extent of their arrondissement.
60. Any representative who accepts, during his term of
service, an office paid by the State, other than that occupied by
him before his election, ceases thenceforth to be a member of
the chamber.
61. The representatives are elected for five years.
The re-election is general.
They are indefinitely eligible to re-election.
62. During the whole time of the legislative session, every
representative will receive from the public treasury a salary of
two hundred gourdes a month.
He is besides allowed one gourde per league, for travelling
expenses, from his commune to the seat of government.

Constitution of Hayti. 73

Of the Senate.
63. The Senate is composed of thirty-six members. They
are elected for nine years.
64. The Senators are elected by the chamber of representa-
tives on the proposition of the President of IIayti, as follows:
At the session which precedes the time of the renewal of the
Senators, the President of Hayti makes a general list of three
candidates for each Senator to be elected, which he forwards to
the Chamber. Three candidates are taken from amongst the
whole of the citizens.
65. The Chamber of Representatives elects, from the candi-
dates proposed on the general list, a number of Senators equal
to that of the Senators to be replaced.
This 'election is made by ballot, and by absolute majoriy of
66. The Chamber of Representatives forwards to the Senate
a report declaring the nomination of the Senators, and at the
same time informs the President of Hayti of this nomination.
67. The Senate make known their nomination to the elected
Senators, and invites them to appear and take the oath. This
formality finished, the Senate reports it to the President of
In case of death, resignation, forfeiture, etc., the Senate like-
wise informs the President of Hayti and the Chamber of Rep-
resentatives of the vacancies to be filled up.
68. In no case can the sitting representatives be included in
the lists addressed to the Chamber by the President of Hayti.
69. In order to be elected Senator, it is necessary to be -
(1.) Above 30 years of age.
(2.) In the enjoyment of civil and political rights.
(3.) Possessed of real estate in Hayti.
70. The naturalized Haytian must, besides the conditions pre-

74 Constitution of Hayti.
scribed in the preceding article, prove a residence of four years
in the Republic, in order to obtain election as Senator.
71. The functions of Senator are incompatible with all other
public functions, except those of Secretary of State, and of
Agents of the Republic abroad.
Nevertheless, a soldier may be appointed Senator; but if he
accept the office, he ceases to exercise every military function,
and must choose between the emolument of Senator and that of
his rank.
72. Any Senator who accepts, during his term of service,
the office of Secretary of State, ceases thenceforth to be a
member of the Senate, unless, offered again as candidate by the
executive, he be re-elected by the Chamber of Representatives.
S73. Every Senator receives from the public treasury a salary
of two hundred gourdes a month.
74. The sessions of the Senate are permanent. They may,
however, be adjourned at any time except during the legislative
75. On the adjournment of the Senate, a permanent com-
mittee shall be left in its place. This committee shall be unable
to pass any resolution except for the convocation of the Senate.

Of the Exercise of Legislative Power.
76. The seat of the legislative power is the Capitol of the
Each Chamber has its own place of meeting.
77. The Chamber of Representatives meets every year on
the first Monday in April.
The opening of its session may be made by the President of
Iayti in person.
78. The legislative session lasts three months. In case of
need, it can be prolonged to four, either by the legislative body
or by the executive.
79. In the interval of the sessions, and in case of emergency,

Constitution of Hayti. 75

the executive can convoke the Chambers to any extraordinary
P It gives them a reason for this measure by a message.
It can also, as the case may require, convoke the Senate
alone, during its adjournment.
80. The President of Hayti can also prorogue the legislative
session, provided it takes place at another period, in the same year.
S81. The Chamber of Representatives can be dissolved by the
President of Hayti; but, in this case, he is bound to convoke a
new one within a delay of three months at the utmost; and then
the elections must take place according to the requirements of
*Articles 52 and 53.
82. The Legislative Chambers represent the entire nation.
83. The Chamber of Representatives verifies the commis-
sions of its members and decides all controversies which may
arise on the subject.
The Senate likewise examines and decides whether the elec-
tion of the Senators has taken place in conformity to the Con-
84. The members of each Chamber take individually the
oath to maintain the rights of the people, and to be faithful to
the Constitution.
85. The sittings of the Chambers are public; nevertheless,
each forms itself into a secret committee whenever it thinks
The deliberation which arises in a secret committee is made
public, if the Chamber so decides.
86. No one can be at the same time a member of both
87. The Legislature makes laws on all objects of public
The initiative belongs to each of the two Chambers and to
the Executive. Nevertheless, every law relating to public re-
ceipts and expenses must first be voted by the Chamber of Rep-

76 Constitution of Hayti.

88. The authoritative interpretation of the laws is given in
the ordinary form of laws.
89. Neither of the two Chambers can pass any resolution,
unless an absolute majority of its members be assembled.
90. Every resolution is passed by the absolute majority of
votes, except in cases defined by the Constitution.
91. The votes are taken by the Senators rising or remaining
seated. In case of doubt, the roll is called, and the votes are
then recorded by Yes or No.
92. Each Chamber has the right of inquiry into all things
appertaining to it.
93. No project of law can be adopted by one of the Cham-"
bers, until each separate article of it has been passed.
94. Each Chamber has the right to amend and divide the
articles and amendments proposed.
An amendment voted by one Chamber can be included in the
articles of the law, only when it shall have been adopted by the
other Chamber.
The organs of the Executive have the power to propose
amendments to projects under discussion by virtue of the initia-
tive possessed by the Chambers.
95. Every law passed by the two Chambers is immediately
forwarded to the Executive, which has the right to object thereto.
When objections are made, the law is sent back to the Cham-
ber in which it was first voted, and the objections notified. If
they are approved, the law is amended by the two Chambers,
and promulgated by the Executive.
96. If the Executive makes objections to a law adopted by
the two Chambers, and if these objections are not approved by
these Chambers, or by one of them, the Executive has a right to
refuse its sanction to the law. 4
Nevertheless, if a dissolution of the Chamber of Representa-
tives should happen thereon, and if the same law were again
voted by the two Chambers, the Executive would be bound to
promulgate it.

Constitution of Hayti. 77

97. The approval of objections, and the amendments to which
they may give rise, are passed by the absolute majority, in
conformity with the Article 90.
98. The right of objection must be exercised within the fol-
lowing delay, namely: -
(1.) Within eight days, for laws of emergency, without the
objection being in any case grounded on the emergency.
(2.) Within fifteen days for other laws.
But, if the session be closed before the expiration of this
latter delay, the law remains adjourned.
99. If, within the delay prescribed by the preceding article,
the Executive make no objection, the law must be immediately
100. A project of law, rejected by one of the Chambers, or
by the Executive, cannot be reproduced in the same session.
101. The laws and other acts of the legislative body are
rendered official by means of a bulletin printed and numbered,
entitled bulletin of laws.
102. The law dates from the day of its promulgation.
103. The Chambers correspond with the President of Hayti,
in all matters concerning the administration of public affairs;
but they cannot, in any case, call him to their bar, to account
for any act of his administration.
S104. The Chambers correspond likewise with the Secretaries of
State, and with each other in the cases prescribed by the Con-
105. To the Senate alone appertains the right of Iaming the
President of Hayti. This nomination is made by election by
Ballot, and by a majority of two thirds of the members present
in the assembly.
106. In ease the office of President of Hayti should be-
come vacant, during the adjournment of the Senate, its perma-
nent committee shall summon it to meet without delay.

78 Constitution of Hayti.

107. The Senate has the right of approving or rejecting
treaties of peace, alliance, neutrality, commerce, and other in-
ternational conventions agreed to by the Executive.
Nevertheless, all treaties stipulating sums chargeable to the
Republic, must be likewise submitted to the sanction of the
Chamber of Representatives.
108. The Senate gives or refuses its approbation to projects
of declaration of war submitted to it by the Executive.
It can, under serious circumstances, and upon the proposal
of the Executive, authorize the momentary removal of the seat
of government to another place than the capital.
109. No one can present petitions in person to the Cham-
Each Chamber has the right to refer to the Secretaries of
State the petitions addressed to it. The Secretaries of State.
may be invited to explain their contents, if the Chamber think
fit, and if the Secretaries of State, being called upon, do not
consider such publicity likely to compromise the interest of the
110. The members of the legislative body cannot be excluded
from the Chamber to which they belong, or at any time called
to account, accused, or tried, for opinions or votes pronounced
by them in the exercise of their functions.
111. No member of the Chamber of Representatives can be
arrested, during the session, or within the six weeks which shall
precede or follow it.
Within'the same delay, no member of the Chamber of Rep-
resentatives can be prosecuted or arrested for matters criminal,
correctional, or of police, (except in case of notorious criminal
offence,) until the Chamber shall have permitted his prosecu-
112. No Senator is liable to apprehension during his con-
tinuance in office.
A Senator cannot be prosecuted or arrested for matters crimi-
nal, correctional, or of police, while in office, (except in case

Constitution of Hayti. 79

of notorious criminal offence,) until the authorization of the
Senate be obtained.
"113. If a member of the legislative body be apprehended,
(in a case of notorious criminal offence,) the opinion of the
Chamber to which he belongs is taken without delay.
114. In criminal cases, inducing punishment both corporal
and ignominious, every member of the legislative body is placed
under accusation by the Chamber to which he belongs.
115. The Senate forms itself into a high court of justice to
decide on accusations made against members of the legislative
body, against Secretaries of State, or any other great public
The form of procedure before the high court of justice, will
be determined by a law.
116. Each Chamber, by its by-laws, settles its own disci-
pline, and defines the manner according to which it discharges
its duties and exercises its privileges.


Of the President of Hayti.

117. The President of Hayti is elected for life.
118. In order to be elected President of Hayti, it is neces-
sary -
(1.) To be born in Hayti.
(2.) To have attained the age of 35 years.
(3.) To be possessed of real estate in Hayti.
119. In case of vacancy through the death, resignation, or
forfeiture of the President of Hayti, the Secretaries of State,
assembled in council, exercise, on their own responsibility, the
executive power.
If the President happen to be unable to exercise his func-

80 Constitution of Hayti.

tions, the Council of Secretaries of State is charged with the
executive authority so long as the hindrance shall last.
120. Before entering on his duties, the President of Hayti
takes before the Senate the following oath:
"I swear to the nation to discharge faithfully the duties of
President of Hayti; to maintain with all my might the Con-
stitution and the laws of the Haytiant people; to enforce the
respect due to the national independence and the integrity of
the territory."
121. The President causes to be attached to the laws and
other acts of the legislative body, the seal of the Republic, and
sees that they be promulgated after the delays fixed by Articles
95, 96, 98, and 99.
122. The promulgation of the laws, and other acts of the
legislative body, is in these terms:
"In the name of the Republic, -
The President of Hayti directs that the above (law or act)
of the legislative body be stamped with the seal of the Repub-
lic, published, and executed."
123. The President causes to be enacted the laws or other
acts of the legislative body promulgated by him.
He makes all the regulations, decrees, and proclamations
necessary to this effect.
124. The President names and dismisses the Secretaries of
He names and dismisses, also, the agents representing the
Republic to foreign powers and governments.
125. He names all civil and military functionaries, and fixes
their places of residence, if not already done so by law.
He dismisses removable functionaries.
126. The President of Hayti commands and directs the
forces by land and sea, and confers rank in the army, according
to the law.
127. He makes treaties of peaca, alliance, neutrality, com-
merce, and other international conventions, with the sanction of

Constitution of Hayti. 81

the Senate, and that of the Chamber of Representatives in the
cases fixed by the Constitution.
"He proposes to the Senate declarations of war when circum-
stances appear to demand it. If the Senate approve these pro-
jects, the President of Hayti declares war.
128. The President of Hayti provides, according to law, for
the exterior and interior security of the State.
Every measure taken by the President is previously discussed
in the council of Secretaries of State.
129. The President of Hayti has the right to pardon and to
commute sentences. The exercise of this right shall be fixed by
He can also exercise the right of amnesty, but for political
offences only.
130. No act of the President can have effect unless counter-
signed by one Secretary of State, who, by this alone, makes
himself responsible.
131. At the opening of each session, the President, through
the Secretaries of State, presents to the Senate and the Chamber
of Representatives the general situation of the Republic, as well
exterior as interior.
132. The President of Hayti receives from the public
treasury an annual salary of forty thousand gourdes.
He resides at the national palace of the capital.

Of the Secretaries of State.
133. There are four Secretaries of State, whose departments
are fixed by the decree calling them to office.
The attributes of each department are determined by law.
134. The Secretaries of State compose a council under the
presidency of the President of Hayti, or of one of their number
delegated to that office by the President.
Every deliberation is recorded on a register, and signed by
the members of the council.


82 Constitution of Hayti.

135. They have right of entrance in both the Chambers to
support projects of laws and objections from the Executive, or to
make any other communication from Government.
136. The Chambers can require the presence of the Secreta-
ries of State, and can summon them to answer for every act of
their administration.
The Secretaries of State thus summoned, are bound to enter
into explanations, unless they consider such a course liable to
compromise the interest of the State.
137. The Secretaries of State are respectively responsible, as
much for the acts of the President which they countersign, as
for those of their department, as also for the non-execution of
the laws.
In no case can the verbal or written order of the President,
received by a Secretary of State, relieve this latter from respon-
138. The Chamber of Representatives has the right of accus-
ing the Secretaries of State. If the accusation is admitted by
two thirds of the votes, they are cited before the Senate, which
then forms itself into a high court of justice.
139. Each Secretary of State enjoys an annual salary of five
thousand gourdes.
Travelling expenses are allowed them by law.

Of the Institutions of Arrondissements and Communes.
140. A council for each arrondissement, and a council for
each commune, are hereby established.
These institutions are regulated by law.

141. Litigations which have for their object some civil right
are exclusively within the jurisdiction of the tribunals.

Constitution of Hayti. 83

142. Litigations which havy for their object political rights
are within the jurisdiction of the tribunals, save the exceptions
established by law.
143. No tribunal, nor other court for the settlement of dis-
putes, can be established but by virtue of a law.
*;No extraordinary commission or tribunal can be created
under any denomination whatsoever.
144. There is, for all 'the Republic, a Court of Appeal, the
organization and attributes of which are determined by law.
The Court of Appeal has its sittings in the capital.
145. The law determines, likewise, the organization and
attributes of the other tribunals.
146. The judges cannot be dismissed except f% offence of
bribery legally tried, nor suspended except on account of an
approved accusation.
Nevertheless, the justices of the peace are liable to be dis-
147. Every judge may be called upon to urge his claims to
superannuation, if he be in the conditions stipulated by law on
the matter.
148. No one can be named judge or judicial officer unless
he have attained the age of thirty years for the Court of Appeal,
and of twenty-five years for the other tribunals.
149. The President of Hayti appoints and dismisses the judi-
cial officers attached to the Court of Appeal and the other tri-
150. The functions of judge are incompatible with any other
public function, except those of representative.
Incompatibility, by reason of relationship, is settled by law.
151. 'The salaries of the members of the judicial body are
fixed by law.
152. Tribunals ef commerce can be established. The law
regulates their organization, their attributes, and the time of ser-
vice for their members.
153. Special laws regulate the organization of the military

84 Constitution of Hayti.

tribunals, their attributes, the rights and obligations of the mem-
bers of these tribunals, and their length of service.
154. The sittings of the tribunals are public, unless such
publicity endangers public order and good morals; in this case,
the tribunal declare this by a decree.
155. The law regulates the mode of proceeding against tl*
judges, in case of crimes or offences by them committed, either
in the exercise of their functions or otherwise.


156. Every citizen above the age of twenty-one years has the
right of vote in the primary assemblies, if he be moreover a
landed proprietor, if he have the cultivation of a farm, or if he
practise a profession, fill a public office, or follow any business
defined by the electoral laws.
157. To be a member of the electoral colleges, it is neces-
sary to be twenty-five years of age, and be, besides, in one of
the other positions mentioned in the preceding article.
158. The primary assemblies have the right of meeting, by
virtue of Article 52 of the Constitution, or on the convocation
of the President of Hayti, in the case mentioned in Article 81.
Their object is to appoint electors.
159. The electoral colleges meet likewise in their own right,
by virtue of Article 53 of the Constitution, or on the convoca-
tion of the President of Hayti, in the case laid down in Article
Their object is to name the representatives and their substi-
160. The meeting of two thirds of the electors of an arrcn-
dissement constitute an electoral college, and all elections are
decided by the absolute majority of the votes of the members
present and by ballot.

Constitution of Hayti. 85

161. The primary assemblies and the electoral colleges cam
have no other object but the elections respectively assigned to
them by the Constitution.
They are bound to dissolve when this is accomplished.

162. No tax for the benefit of the State can be established,
but by law.
Taxes for the use of communes and arrondissements are
established by special laws.
163. No privileges can be granted in the matter of taxes.
No exception or abatement of taxes can be established, except
by a law.
164. Except in cases formally eaepted by law, no contribu-
tion can be levied from the citizens, unless as a tax for the use
of the State, of the arrondissement, or of the commune.
165. No pension, no gratuity, chargeable to the public treas-
ury, can be granted, except in accordawpe with a law.
166. The budget of each Secretary of State is divided into
chapters. No sum allowed for one chapter can be carried to the
credit of another, and employed for other expenses, without a
167. Every year, the Chambers decree, 1st. The account of
receipts and expenses during the year or preceding years, for
each department separate; 2d. The general budget of the State
containing details of the receipts, and the funds assigned for the
year to each Secretary of State.
Nevertheless, no motion, no amendment, can be introduced
into the budget, to the end of reducing or augmenting the sala-
ries of the public functionaries, and the pay of the soldiers,
already paid by special laws.
168. The Chamber of Accounts is composed of a certain
number of members &xed by law.

86 Constitution of Hayti.

They are named by the President of Hayti, and hold office
at his will. The organization and attributes of the Chamber
of Accounts, are fixed by law.
169. The law settles the standard, the weight, the value, the
stamp, the effigy, and the denomination of the currencies.

170. The public force is raised to defend the State against
exterior enemies, and to insure at home the maintenance of
order and the execution of the laws.
171. The army is essentially obedient, -no armed body can
172. The army is placed on peace or war footing, as occasion
requires. a
No one can receive soldier's pay unless he serve in the army.
173. The mode of recruiting for the army is fixed by law.
It regulates, likewise, the promotion, the rights and obliga-
tions of the soldiers.
174. No privileged corps can ever be created; but the Presi-
dent of Hayti has a special guard, subject to the same military
rules as the other corps of the army.
175. The national guard is organized by law.
It can be mobilized, entirely or in part, only in the case men-
tioned in the law or its organization.
176. Soldiers cannot be deprived of their rank, honors, and
pensions, but in the manner fixed by law.

177. The national colors are blue and red, placed
The arms of the Republic are the Palm-tree, crowned with
the cap of Liberty, and ornamented with a trophy of arms, with
the motto, l'unionfait laforce, (union is strength.)

1. *

ConStitution of Hayti. 87

178. The town of Port-au-Prince is the capital of the
Republic and the seat of government.
179. No oath can be administered except by virtue of the
law. The form thereof is fixed by law.
180. Every foreigner who happens to be on the territory of
the Republic, enjoys the protection given to persons and goods,
save the exceptions established by law.
181. The law establishes a uniform system of weights and
182. The national holidays are, that of the Independence,
the 1st January; that of Alexander Petion, the 2d April;
that of Agriculture, the 1st May; that of Philip Guerrier, the
30th June.
The legal festivals are fixed by law.
183. No law, no decree, or regulation of public administra-
tion is binding, until published in the form prescribed by law.
184. No place, no part of the Territory, can be declared in
a state of siege, except in case of civil troubles, or of invasion
impending, or effected, on the part of a foreign force.
This declaration is to be made by the President of Hayti,
and must be countersigned by all the Secretaries of State.
185. The Constitution cannot be suspended, either in whole
or in part.
186. If experience demonstrate the inconvenience of some
of the measures of the Constitution, the proposal of a revision
of these measures can be made in the usual form of the laws.
187. If the Executive and the two Chambers agree upon the
changes proposed in one session, the discussion of them shall
be deferred to the session of the following year. And if, in
this second session, the two Chambers again agree with the
Executive upon the proposed changes, the new decrees adopted

88 Constitution of Hayti.

shall be published in the usual form of the laws, as articles of
the Constitution.
188. No motion of revision can be carried out, no change in
the Constitution can be adopted by the two Chambers, unless
on a majority of two thirds of the votes.

189. The existing members of the Senate are maintained in
office, as follows : -
One third for three years; one third for six years; one third
for nine years.
This decree shall be executed by the Senate, by the drawing
of lots at a public sitting.
190. In future, every Senator shall be elected by the Chamber
of Representatives, for nine years, in accordance with Article
63 of the Constitution.
191. The formation of the Chamber of Representatives shall
take place, for the first time only, as follows : -
The President of Hayti shall forward to the Senate a general
list of three candidates for each Representative, and each sub-
stitute to be elected for each arrondissement.
The Senate shall elect, from among the candidates named in
the general list, the numbers of Representatives and substitutes
fixed by Articles 51 and 53 of the Constitution. *
192. In the session of 1847, there shall be proposed to the
legislature: -
(1.) A law regulating the mode of proceeding against pub-
lic functionaries, for misdeeds committed by them during their
(2.) A law regulating the form of proceeding before the
high court of justice.
(3.) A law regulating the exercise of the right of pardon
and of commutation of sentences.

Constitution of Hayti. 89

(4.) A law regulating the retirement of judges.
(5.) A law fixing the attributes of the Secretaries of State.
193. The present Constitution shall be published and exe-
cuted throughout all the extent of the Republic.
The codes of laws, civil, commercial, penal, and of criminal
prosecution, together with all other laws thereto relating, are
maintained in force until they be legally repealed.
All measures of laws, decrees, resolution? regulations, and
other acts, which are contrary to the present Constitution, are
hereby annulled.
Given at the National House of Port-au-Prince, the 14th
day of November, 1846, in the 43d year of the Independence
of Hayti.

The legislative body, availing itself of the "initiative con-
ferred by Article 87 of the Constitution,
Seeing the decree of the Committee of Gonaives, dated the
23d December, 1858, which revives, with modifications, the
Constitution of 1846,
Considering the importance of making these modifications
without delay, has passed unanimously the following laws: -
ARTICLE 1. The Articles 62, 71, 73, 111, 132, 133, 139,
167, and 182, are modified in the following manner:
ART. 62. During the legislative session, each Representative
receives from the public treasury, a monthly salary, the amount
of which will be fixed by law.
Another law shall likewise fix the amount to be allowed to
each Representative for travelling expenses, from his commune
to the seat of government.
ART. 71. The duties of Senator cannot be discharged by any
one who may have other public duties devolving upon him.

90 Constitution of Hayti.

Nevertheless, a soldier may be elected Senator, but thence-
forth he ceases to exercise any military duty.
ART. 73. Each Senator receives from the public treasury a
salary, the amount of which is fixed by law. *
AnT. 111. No Representative of the people can be imprisoned
during the time that he holds his commission.
Nevertheless, if a Representative discharge any public duty
after the session, A can be prosecuted for acts of which he may
be guilty, and that before the ordinary tribunals.
ART. 132. The President of Hayti receives from the public
treasury a salary, the amount of which is fixed by law.
He resides at the National Palace at the capital.
ART. 133. There will be from four to seven Secretaries of
State, as the President of Hayti may judge necessary. Their
departments will be fixed by the decree containing their nomi-
The duties of each department are determined by law.
AnT. 139. Each Secretary of State will receive an annual
salary, the amount of which will be fixed by law.
The amount of travelling expenses to be allowed to the
Secretaries of State shall likewise be determined.
ART. 167. Each year the Chambers pass : 1. The account of
receipts and expenses, accompanied by vouchers of the preced-
ing year for each department separately; 2. The general budget
of the State, containing the statement of income, and the
moneys proposed to be allotted for the year to each Secretary of
State, for the business of his department.
Nevertheless, no proposal, no amendment can be introduced
into the budget to the end of reducing, or augmenting the
salaries of the public functionaries, and the pay of the soldiers,
already fixed by law.
ART. 182. The National holidays are: that of the Inde-
pendence of Hayti, the 1st January; that of T. T. Dessalines,
the 2d January; that of Alexander .Ption, the 2d April; that
of Agriculture, the 1st May; that of Philip Guerrier, the

Constitution of Hayti. 91

30th June; that of the Restoration of the Republic, the 22d
ART. 2. The Articles 189, 190, and 191, of the same Con-
stitution, are suppressed; the Article 192, which by this deci-
sion becomes 189, is modified as follows 9-
ART. 189. In the session of 1860, if not before, there shall
be proposed to the legislative body:
(1.) A law regulatg the mode of proceeding against pub-
lic functionaries for acts of their administration.
(2.) A law regulating the form of procedure before the high
court of justice.
(3.) A law regulating the exercise of the right of pardon
and the commutation of sentences.
(4.) A law regulating the retirement of the judges.
ART. 3. The Article 193, which now takes the No. 190,
shall be drawn up as follows:
ART. 190. The present law shall be published and executed
throughout the whole extent of the Republic.
The codes of civil, commercial, and penal laws, those of
criminal prosecution, and all laws relating thereto, are main-
tained in force until legally repealed.
All the provisions of lawsdecrees, resolutions, regulations,
and other acts which are contrary to the present Constitution are
hereby annulled.
Given at the National House, at Port-au-Prince, the 14th
day of July, 1859, in the 50th year of the Independence.

The President of the Senate..... HILAIRE JEAN--P RE.
The Secretaries .............. S. ToussAINT, B. INGINAC.
Given at the Chamber of Representatives, at Port-au-Prince,
he 15th of July, 1859, year 56th of Independence.

The President of the Chamber.. PANAYOTY.
The Secretaries. .............. J. THEBATD, B. GUILLAUME.

92 Constitution of Hayti.

The President of Hayti ordains that the law subjoined, of
the Legislative Corps, be sealed with the seal of the Republic,
published, and executed.
Given at the National Palace of Port-au-Prince the 18th of
July, 1856, year 56th of Independence.
The Secretary of State, President of the Council........ J. PAUL.
The Secretary of State, of Justice, and of TWorships,
charged with the portfolio of the Interior, and of
Agriculture ................................. F. E. DmBOIs.
The Secretary of State, of TVar, and of the Marine.... T. DEJOIE.
The Secretary of State of the General Police.......... J LAMOTHE.
The Secretary of State of Finances, and of Commerce.. YN. PBisA.NCw


Letter to the Editor.


PoRT-AU-PRINCE, AUG. 4, 1859.

In behalf of certain blacks, and persons of color in the United States
and the Canadas, who are desirous of emigrating to Hayti, I respectfully
ask replies to the following questions:
I. Would Emigrants be subject to military duty i If so, for how long,
and what manner of duty ?
II. Would you grant such Emigrants perfect liberty to leave the
country whenever they desired to do so ?
III. Would they be required, directly or indirectly, to support the
Roman Catholic Religion if they are not members of the Catholic
IV. How long ere they would be invested with all the rights, civil and
political, of native-born Haytians ?
V. Do you guarantee to such Emigrants as efficient governmental
protection as is given to the native Haytians i
VI. Is the Government willing that such Emigrants should settle in
neighborhoods ? Is the Government prepared to sell such tracts, on easy
terms, to be paid in instalments, or within a reasonable number of years,
and what other facilities and encouragements will the Government give
to introduce such an emigration, and such settlements of communities ?
I ask your particular attention to this head, as, unless it is satisfactorily
answered, it will be impossible to induce an emigration of wealthy and
intelligent men from America.
VII. Provided such settlements were formed, what educational facili-
ties would be extended them ?
I have the honor to be, &c.,


94 Letter to the Editor.
Sir : I have the privilege of transmitting to you the replies
to the questions contained in your letter of the 4th instant, to
His Excellency the President of Hayti, relative to emigration.
It is chiefly to the development of Agriculture in Hayti, that
the Government wishes to make this enterprise subservient.
To that end it is disposed to accord special favors to persons
of that profession who shall decide to emigrate. To agricultur-
ists, and to those who shall come here with the intention of
devoting themselves to cultivation, it will accord the following
First, It will pay their passage at the rate of fifteen piastres
(Spanish or American dollars) for each able-bodied man or
woman; and at that of eight piastres for children of twelve and
under, and old persons beyond sixty years.
Second, It will board and lodge them for eight days, while
they are seeking other accommodations.
It may be proper to explain here the usage respecting con-
tracts which are ordinarily formed between agriculturists and
proprietors in the country. The proprietors advance the lands
and works, (usines,) the agriculturists undertake the cultivation
and improvements; the produce is equally divided between the
proprietor and agriculturist. The emigrants may each make
contracts if they see fit. The emigrants will find land to buy
from private individuals. They may also obtain it from the
Government, and at a reasonable price, on easy terms of pay-
ment, if the State possesses land in the districts where the emi-
grants shall establish themselves.
The Government will extend to them the same protection as
to Haytians themselves. For the rest, shortly after their arrival
in the country, they can have the same civil and political rights
as the Haytians; for, according to the civil code of Hayti,
every person descended from African or Indian blood, can,

Letter to the Editor. 95

certain formalities fulfilled, become a Haytian after a residence
of one year in the country. The religious belief of the emi-
grants, to whate*r Christian sect they may belong, shall always
be respected. They shall freely exercise their worship. There
shall never be occasion to call them to defend the Roman
Catholic religion, whether they believe it or not.
A recent law fixes the term of obligatory military service for
every Haytian at nine years. The citizens required for this
service are designated by lot. The Government, as an evidence
of its good intentions in favor of emigration, has resolved to
exempt the emigrants from military service. But this exemp-
tion shall not extend to their children when they shall have
attained the prescribed age of drawing lots.
The emigrants shall make a part of the National Guard,
(militia.) The National Guard meets only on the first Sunday
of each month, and has no exercises to make on that day. In
case of extraordinary events, a more active service may be
exactedgf it. But then it will be a duty to fulfil for the guar-
anty of the general interests, and consequently of their own.
The emigrants will be permitted to settle together, in each
locality, as much as it shall be a practicable thing; but they
shall not, therefore, cease to be subject to the laws and author-
ities of the Republic.
The present Government, which is devoting itself seriously
to spreading light, has founded, and will continue to found,
numerous primary schools. In these institutions instruction is
given cheaply, and even gratuitously, to certain children.
The children of the emigrants shall enjoy in this respect the
/ same advantages as those of Haytians.
Our laws deprive no one of the privilege of leaving the
country if they please; nevertheless, the Haytian who abandons
his country in the moment of imminent danger loses forever
the quality of citizen. The emigrants who do not wish to
"remain in Hayti are free to re-embark; yet those whose intro-

96 Letter to the Editor.

duction into the country shall be at Government expense, can
leave only after a residence of three years.
This, sir, is the communication that I have been charged to
make to you. Accept the assurance of my distinguished con-
The Secretary of State of Foreign Relations:


Call for Emigration.

M EN of our race dispersed m the United States! Your fate,
your social position, instead of ameliorating, daily becomes
worse. The chains of those who are slaves are riveted; and
prejudice, more implacable, perhaps, than servitude, pursues
and crushes down the free. Everything is contested with us in
that country in which, nevertheless, they boast of liberty; they
have invented a new slavery for the free, who believed that they
had now no masters; it is this humiliating patronage which is
revolting to your hearts. Philanthropy, in spite of its noble
efforts, seems more powerless than ever to lead your cause to
victory. Contempt and hatred increase against you, and the
people of the United States desire to eject you from its bosom.
Come, then, to us the doors of Hayti are open to you. By
a happy coincidence, which Providence seems to have brought
about in your behalf, Hayti has risen from the long debasement
in which a tyrannical government had held her; liberty is re-
stored there. Come and join us; come and bring to us a con-
tingent of power, of light, of labor; come, and together with
us, advance our own common country in prosperity. We will
come by this means to the aid of the philanthropists who make
such generous efforts to break the chains of those of our breth-
ren who are still in slavery.
Our institutions are liberal. The government is mild and

98 Call for Emigration.

moderate. Our soil is virgin and rich, -we have large tracts
of good land, nearly all uncultivated, which only need intelli-
gent workmen to till them. Everything assures you in this
country of a happy future. For those among you who possess
capital, it will be easy to find at once a place among us. The
country offers them immediate resources. They can count on
the solicitude of the Government, and on its special protection.
Our society is ready to adopt them, and prepares for them a
fraternal welcome. They will enjoy here all the considerations
that they merit; they will occupy the rank that their respecta-
bility assigns them,- all the things that a blind and barbarous
prejudice refuses to them in countries inhospitable to our race.
The poorer emigrants shall have the right to all that their sit-
uation demands. The Government will provide for their first
necessities, and will take the proper measures to secure to them
a quiet and honorable asylum, as well as to facilitate for them
the means of obtaining employment.
It is very natural that you should ask, before coming to an
unknown country, what are the facilities that will be afforded
to you, as well for the satisfaction of your first needs, as for
your definitive settlement. This thought has seriously occupied
the Chief of the Republic and his Government.
I proceed to state the determination to which it has come:-
To such of you as are not able to pay the expenses of your
passage, aid will be given from the public treasury.
Agents, whom I shall presently appoint in the United States,
will be charged to make the necessary arrangements in this
On their arrival here, the emigrants will find lodging gratui-
tously, where, during the first few days, their needs will be
provided for.
Government will occupy itself from this time with providing
means to offer to each person, on arrival, either on private
estates or the public domains, sufficiently remunerative work.
Every individual, the issue of African blood, may, imnmedi-

Call for Emigration. 99

ately on arrival, declare his wish to be naturalized: and after
one year's residence, he can become a citizen of Hayti, enjoying
all his civil and political rights.
The emigrants will be exempt from military service, but their
children, when they are of the requisite age, shall be held to
perform the service conformably to the laws of the country; that
is to say, for a limited time, and by the result of conscription.
[Par suite du tirage au sort.] This exception does not con-
stitute, in their favor, a modification of the law*a the National
Guard, of which every citizen must form a part.
You will have power, also, freely to exercise your religion.
I have spoken here only of the members of the African race,
who groan in the United States more than elsewhere, by reason
of the ignoble prejudice of color; but our sympathies are
equally extended to all those of our origin who, throughout the
world, are bowed down under the weight of the same sufferings.
Let them come to us The bosom of the country is open to
them also. I repeat it, they will be able to acquire, either on
the public or private estates, fertile lands, where, by the aid of
assiduous labor, they will find that happiness which, in their
actual condition, they cannot hope to find.
The man whom God has pointed out with his finger to elevate
the dignity of his race, is found.
The hour of the reunion of all the children of Hayti is
sounded Let them be well convinced that Hayti is the bul-
wark of their liberty!
Given at the office of the Secretary of State of the Interior, at
Port-au-Prince, the 22d August, 1859, Fifty-Sixth year of
The Secretary of State, of Justice, and of Worship, charged
par interim, with the portfolio of the Interior and of Agri-
culture. F. E. Dunois.


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