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The Syrian Lebanese star ( May 1, 2002 )

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Material Information

Title:
The Syrian Lebanese star
Alternate title:
Syrian-Lebanese star
Alternate Title:
Star
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;
Language:
English
Publisher:
A.M. Coplan
Place of Publication:
Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date:
May 1, 2002
Frequency:
monthly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Syrians -- Newspapers -- United States   ( lcsh )
Lebanese -- Newspapers -- United States   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates:
30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available on microfilm from the University of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began in 1963.
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 16, no. 9 (Sept. 1978).
Funding:
Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000579625
oclc - 05165391
notis - ADA7472
lccn - sn 79007351
issn - 0193-2578
System ID:
UF00028363:00005

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The Syrian Lebanese star
Alternate title:
Syrian-Lebanese star
Alternate Title:
Star
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ;
Language:
English
Publisher:
A.M. Coplan
Place of Publication:
Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date:
May 1, 2002
Frequency:
monthly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Syrians -- Newspapers -- United States   ( lcsh )
Lebanese -- Newspapers -- United States   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Jacksonville (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Duval County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Florida -- Duval -- Jacksonville
Coordinates:
30.31944 x -81.66 ( Place of Publication )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available on microfilm from the University of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began in 1963.
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 16, no. 9 (Sept. 1978).
Funding:
Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 000579625
oclc - 05165391
notis - ADA7472
lccn - sn 79007351
issn - 0193-2578
System ID:
UF00028363:00005

Table of Contents
    Main
        page 1
        page 2
        page 3
        page 4
        page 5
    Florida
        page 6
    Georgia
        page 7
        page 8
    Savannah, GA "The Historic District"
        page 9
        page 10
    Atlanta, GA
        page 11
    North Carolina/South Carolina
        page 12
    North Carolina
        page 13
        page 14
    Virginia/Washington, D.C.
        page 15
    Maryland/Virginia
        page 16
    Maryland
        page 17
    Tennessee
        page 18
        page 19
    Alabama
        page 20
    Alabama/Mississippi
        page 21
    Louisiana
        page 22
    Texas
        page 23
    Arizona/Oklahoma
        page 24
    Michigan
        page 25
    Southern California
        page 26
        page 27
    Central California
        page 28
    Northern California
        page 29
    California
        page 30
        page 31
    Recommended Businesses
        page 32
Full Text






THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR
AN INDEPENDENT MONTHLY


LhCEIVED SERVING AMERICANS OF ARABIC HERITAGE
MAY i t 2m Celebrating 40 Years of Service
MEMBER ARAB-AMERICAN PRESS GUILD
ESTABLISHED IN 1963
$15.00 SUBSCRIPTION www.syrianlebanesestar.com


XXXX. #5


MAY 2002


Marlo Thomas, St. Jude
National Outreach Director
and daughter of hospital
founder Danny Thomas,
was in Memphis Jan. 15-16
to record new segments for
the one-hour television


special Time to Live.
The new program will
begin airing sometime this
spring.
Check your local
listings for broadcast times
or call 1-800-822-6344.


A Little Faith can help


A little girl takes was to go to the beach for
Danny Thomas' some fun in the sand and
water. But Faith had
dream and makes another idea.
it her own "Let's cancel that and
Faith Fulbright, 9, and go to St. Jude," she
her family were planning remembered telling her


a vacation. The intention


(continued on page 6)


Enron in the Middle East

The press, business and
government have treated
the collapse of Enron as if
it had been completely
unforeseeable, like the
iceberg that sank the
Titanic. This may have
(continued on page 7)


Lebanon is
effectively being
reconstituted,
with the State
poised to play a
bigger and
more visual role
in peoples' lives


When the country was
created out of the French
(continued on page 9)

King Fahd
and Crown
Prince
Abdullah
Greet
Muslims on
Occasion of
Eid Al-Adha
The Custodian of the
Two Holy Mosques King
Fahd bin Abdulaziz and
Deputy Prime Minister
and Commander of the
National Guard Crown
Prince Abdullah bin
Abdulaziz on February 2
2 congratulated citizens,
pilgrims and Muslims
worldwide on the
occasion of Eid AI-Adha,
the celebrations marking
the conclusion of Hay, the
pilgrimage to the Holy
Mosque in Makkah. In an
(continued on page 10)


Marlo Thomas works
on TV special


The Salaam Club of Florida


A: '.4" 4, 4
.. ... ...
'^fy. ^it-S-? Z0,


Texas with a
Twist
Corpus Christi Some
200 Federation family
and friends gathered for
the 56th Mid-Winter
Conference of the
Southern Federation in
Corpus Christi the
weekend of February 14-
17, 2002. The conference
was held at the Omni
Marina Hotel. On
Thursday, a Welcoming
Hafli was held. A
delicious Mexican dinner
(continued on page 11)

Sununu Leads New
Hampshire PqIL
Rep. John Sununu (R)
continues to lead New
Hampshire Governor Jeanne
Shaheen (D) in polls of a
possible US Senate match up,
while incumbent Senator Bob
Smith (R) trailed both
candidates, according a recent
poll by the American
Research Group.
The poll, taken at the end
of shows Sununu holding a
40% to 36% lead over
(continued on page 12)

,, R-,


Salaam Club of Florida
cordially invites all of our
Federation family and
friends to "Ride the Wave
into Jacksonville".
It all begins at the
newly built Adams Mark
Hotel on the Riverfront in
downtown Jacksonville.
The $89.00 room rate is
for 1-4 people and can be
obtained three days prior
and after the convention
for those who would like
to spend some extra time
(continued on page 13)


Arab Banks: Tracing the
Funds for Terror


Hazouri decides
he'll seek another
term as mayor
Former Mayor Tommy
Hazouri will take another stab
at his old office after he opened
an account yesterday to raise
money for the 2003 race.
Hazouri, a Democrat who
(continued on page 12)


The US has been
putting great pressure on
Arab banks to adopt
stringent monitoring and
reporting standards to
track money used to
finance terror groups.
Josh Martin reports from
New York
The theory is nice: if
you mandate banks to
report all significant or
suspicious financial
transactions, you can
track funds used to
finance terror
organizations. If you can
track those funds, you can
also block them. If you


can block tho,
then terrorism
(continued a


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The Salaam Club of
Florida, Inc. Host The
Southern Federation of
Syrian Lebanese
American Clubs 71st
Annual Convention
Jacksonville, Florida July
3-7, 2002"Ride the Wave
into Jacksonville "
Much is happening in
Jacksonville, Florida as
the local club prepares to
host the 71st Annual
Convention of the
Southern Federation on
July 3-7 th, 2002. The


I--- 1






- Page 2 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002


Jacksonville News
- High School and attended
the University of Florida.
2 He is employed by Full
Moon Barbeque.
Angela DeSalvo was
the maid of honor, and
Chase Ajlouny was best
man. The couple will live
in Birmingham.


Ajlouny-DeSalvo
Tena DeSalvo,
Jacksonville, and Naseem
Ajlouny, Birmingham,
Ala., were married at 2
p.m. yesterday in
Immaculate Conception
Catholic Church. The
bride, daughter of Mary
and Vincent DeSalvo Jr.,
Jacksonville, graduated
from Bishop Kenny High
School and Valencia
Community College, and
is attending the
University of North
Florida.
The bridegroom, son of
Norma and Naseem
Ajlouny, Birmingham,
graduated from Pelham


Heritage Club Cooking Class: Mary Mowad Howell, Amale
Harb, Sara Busada, Norman Nolan, Ruth Harb, Elizabeth
Nolan, Jeanna Harb, Margo Brault, & Mary Karam


Rukab-Salem
Lena J. Salem and
Victor P. Rukab Jr. were
married at. 4:30 p.m.
yesterday in Immaculate
Conception Catholic
church.
The bride, daughter of
Nabila and Zacky Salem,
graduated from

(continued on page 16)-


Heritage Club
Cooking Class
The Heritage Club of
Baton Rouge held a
cooking class last fall at
the home of will Ruth and
Charbel Harb. This was the
first of a series of classes
the club host. Amale Harb
taught the "students" the


art of making grape leaves
and baklava. Everyone got
hands-on experience and
enjoyed working together.
The food prepared during
the class was used at a
reception following the
annual St. Sharbel
Maronite Mass held in
Baton Rouge.
(continued on page 17)


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Bus.: (904) 296-9474 Fax: (904) 296-9848


ALBERTSONS






iPage 3 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002


The
Resurrection
of Christ
I Corinthians 15:14,
"Moreover, brethren, I
declare unto you the
gospel which I preached
unto you, which also ye
have received, and
wherein ye stand; By
which also ye are saved, if
ye keep in memory what I
preached unto you, unless
ye have believed in vain.
For I delivered unto you
first of all that which I
also received, how that
Christ died for our sins
according to the
scriptures; And that he
was buried, and that he
rose again the third day
according to the
scriptures."
I Corinthians 15:12-20,
"Now if Christ be
preached that he rose
from the dead, how say
some among you that
there is no resurrection of
the dead? But if there be
no resurrection of the
dead, then is Christ not


"F.


Rev. Fred Massabni
risen: And if Christ be not
risen, then is our
preaching vain, and your
faith is also vain. Yea, and
we are found :false
witnesses of God;
because we have testified
of God that be raised up
Christ: whom he raised
not up, if so that the dead
rise not For if the dead
rise not then is not Christ
raised: And if Christ be
not raised, your faith is
vain; ye are yet in your
sins. Then they also
which are asleep in Christ
are perished. If in this life
only we have hope in
Christ, we are of all men
most miserable. But now
is Christ risen from the
(continued on page 17)


Mariology in
Context 2002
As change accelerates
in our cyber age, we
realize the urgency of
placing Mariology in our
own historical context. A
digest of some cogent
reflections on this
question by the respected
Servite Mariologist and
President of Rome's
Marianum, Father Ignacio
Calabuig, sheds light on
this challenge.
A Mariology detached
from history and couched
only in metaphysical
terms is too abstract to be
interesting or meaningful.
We need a Mariology
based on revelation and
viewed through the
magisterium; a Mariology
that has something
worthwhile to say about
the great ecclesial and
socialquestions of our
day. Such a Mariology
touches the centrality of
the Paschal Mystery, the
primacy of the Word, the
context of salivation


history,


new


By Brother John
Samaha, S.M.
evangelization, Mary's
importance as the model
for a disciple, ecumenism,
the role of women in the
Church, the conflict
between a culture of death
and a culture of life,.-the
assaults on the integrity of
creation, the struggle
against hunger and
oppression, the pursuit of
peace and many other
questions of consequence.
our today is fast
becoming tomorrow. The
future seeks
enlightenment, and wants
to avoid disorientation. It
seeks a guide whose reins
are in the hands of God.
The eternal Word became
j-man and entered history.
(continued on page 18)


Meekness (2)
The Arabic word
'Haun' or 'Hudna' is
translated in English as
'Meekness.' It simply
means 'not to inflict any
sort of injury or pain upon
other person Also, to live
in peace and harmony
together'. The injunctions
in the Holy Quran are:
And live in peace with
one another" (8:2)
Another translation:
"And keep straight the
relations between
yourselves." (8:2) 23D
The Verse of the Holy
Quran 8:2 signifies that
the Muslims should
always live amicably and
peacefully with one
another. The Muslims
should be God- fearing
and promote accord
between themselves. By
definition, Muslims are
submissive to Allah and,
thus peaceful.Their
relations should be
cordial and they should
live at peace and amity
with one another.
(Eng. Com. No. 1092-
A Vol. 2 P. 869.) The gist


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Best wishes to our many Syrian and Lebanese
friend and clients



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Attorney and Counselor at Law



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By Dr. Qazi Muhammad
Barkatullah
of the Verse 8:2 is that the
Muslims must stay in
'peace' with one another.
The internal relations of
the Muslims must be kept
straight. The muslims
must not be disturbed by
cupidity or wordly
considerations of gain .
For any windfall of this
kind should be outside the
calculations any way.
(Eng. Tr. Yusuf Ali No.
1179 P. 415.
Again the Holy Quran
stresses:
And reconciliation And
Living in Peace is the
best." (4:129)
The Muslims are
enjoined to live amicably
and avoid disagreements
Because living in
'peace' is in their own
interest in all respects.

(continued on page 18)





- .- ~ -s',. -
-


THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR


I. II


Cedar Club of
Atlanta's Annual
Christmas Party
Atlanta On Sunday,
December 9" the Cedar
Club of Atlanta hosted its
second annual Christmas
Party, not only to
celebrate Christmas but
also for the second year in
a row to collect donations
of toys for the
underprivileged.
President Louis Abdou
once again organized the
event held at the Roasted
Garlic Restaurant. This is
one of the most
anticipated events of the
Cedar Club's year and
was very well attended.
Cedar Club members,
Michael and Charlene
Hiffa, own the Roasted
Garlic Restaurant. The
restaurant has been
hugely successful and
Michael and Charlene
have just opened another.
The Cedar Club elected
a new slate of officers at
the meeting. Nassif
Mahfoud is the new
President. Mitchell Domit
is VP. Michele Chesley is
Secretary and Gary
Solomon is the Treasurer.
Michael Shikany and
Louis Abdou are the
assistant secretary and


treasurer. The Board is
Mark Haddad, David
Nasser, Richard Lauth,
Wayne Hale, Alan Jacobs,
Evelyn Azar, and Karen
Kassouf.
After the toys were
collected, they were taken
to the collection point,
which, this year, was
Manuel's Tavern.

(continued on page 18)


Alabama News


Lebanese
American Club
Mobile The Lebanese
American Club held its 53
rd Installation Banquet on
January 13, 2002 at the
newly remodeled Marriott
Hotel in Mobile. Reggie
Copeland President of the
Mobile City Council was
the guest speaker. Mr.
Copeland presented a Key
to the City to Federation
President Sharon Benson
and Federation Vice
President Mary Jo
Mansour who was in
attendance. President
Benson installed the new
officers. The new officers
are Rosalie Zoghby,
President; Eugenie
Constantine, Vice
President; Edmund
Naman, Recording
Secretary; Ruby T.
Moore,. Corresponding


Secretary; Joseph Davis,
Treasurer; and Sameh
Dalati, Sergeant at Arms.
What a great blessing
in the life of Mr. and Mrs.
Michael Jalkh. Their two
sons married two sisters
who had two babies
within two and half
weeks. The two babies
were baptized on the
same day, January 6, 2002
at Corpus Christi Church.
Josephine is the daughter
of Chucri and Marlene
Jalkh. Matthew is the son
of Bechara and Dany
Jalkh. Josephine and
Matthew's other
grandparents, Mr. Toufie
and Mrs. Violette, came
from Mayrouba for the
special celebration and
also attended the Annual
Installation Banquet.
(continued on page 19)


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Georgia News


II rage 4


Pictured left to right: Michael Shikany, Greg Maloof,
Manuel Maloof and Brian Maloof.


May 2002 |I


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Page 5 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002 -


The Star is published once per month by A.M. Coplan. The Star is an independent
monthly serving Americans of Syrian and Lebanese heritage for over 35 years.
MEMBER ARAB-AMERICAN PRESS GUILD
The Syrian-Lebanese Star
Publisher and Editor...A. M. Coplan
For Advertising Information Write P.O.Box 5545
Jacksonville, Florida 32247 Phone (904) 737-6996
Postmaster-send change of address to the above address
Please send your letters, news stories, pictures and club activities to
The Editor's Desk.
4251 University Blvd. S., Suite 201, Jacksonville, Florida 32216
Subscription Rate: $15.00 per year
-l


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d on page 20)


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(continued on page 21)


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Page 6 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

FLORIDA


A Little Faith
(continued from page 1)
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St. Jude Children's
Research Hospital has
been on Faith's mind
since she was 6 years old.
She has taken on the
dream of the hospital's
founder, Danny Thomas,
with almost the same
vigor that Thomas himself
had when he traveled
from town to town across
America, looking for
supporters for a little
hospital that would offer
hope to those without it.
It was just a few days
after she had turned 6 that


Faith participated in her
very first Saddle Up for
St. Jude, an event where
participants ride horses on
a I 10-mile trail ride and
raise sponsorship money
that goes to St. Jude. She
raised about $175 in
pledges that year.
Since then, Faith has
been more and more
determined to raise funds
for the hospital's work.
"Everyone ... knows
how we feel about St.
Jude," said Faith's mom,
Karen. "When they see us
coming toward them in
the fall, they either get
their wallet out, get their
checkbook out or they


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For the 2001 Saddle


Up, Faith herself raised
approximately $5,000.
The national average for


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Page 7 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

GEORGIA


A Little Faith
(continued from page 6)
Saddle Up events is
$1,724.
"I like to help out in a
big way," Faith said. "It's
something that's fun to do
and its for a good cause."
Her brother does too.
Lane, 6, raised $510 for
the hospital $275 of it
raised talking with people
at a horse sale two days
before the ride. He hopes
to raise $1,000 next year.
"I'd be really happy for
him if he did," Faith said.
The Fulbrights were
worried about this year's
event. With the Sept. 11
attacks on the World
Trade Center and a


Enron
(continued from page 1)
been the case for those
who chose to believe the
endless sycophantic
Enron features in the US
business press, even, it
appears, for a number of
auditors and Wall Street
analysts. But for those
lacking such 'privileged'
insight into the company's
Byzantine financial
structures, there were
plenty of clear signs of
instability, gross
dishonesty and corruption
to be seen in Enron's
global operations. This
was particularly true in
the Middle East.


recession
pummeled
in the


that has
the economy
Fulbrights'


hometown, they thought
their fund raiser might
take a hit.
Instead, 189 riders
came out-about 100 more
than the previous year.
And a whopping $18,000
was raised.'
Karen said Faith
ensconces herself in St.
Jude information. She
memorizes the one-hour
television show that St.
Jude produces and is aired
around the country; she
gets on the Internet and
researches some of the
diseases like Wilms tumor
and neuroblastoma.


Enron's interests in the
Middle East served its
main aim in the region,
the development of the
emerging Indian energy
and power market. In
1992 Enron started a $2.2
billion project to build the
world's largest gas fired
power station at Dabhol,
south of Bombay. It was
the first foreign direct
investment in the Indian
power sector, and was
concluded without a
tender. The power
purchase agreement
(PPA), the contract
between Enron and
Maharashtra State
Electricity Board


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It was always her hope
to get to visit St. Jude and
see the hospital. So when
Faith asked her family if
they could come to
Memphis for their
vacation this year, her
parents agreed.
Faith was unable to
tour the hospital itself.
Due to concerns about
communicable diseases,
children under 16 are not
allowed within the
hospital, unless they are
patients or siblings.
But her mother and
father, Greg, each did.
Faith and her family did
tour the Danny
Thomas/ALSAC Pavilion
together, watching the


(MSEB), was
extremely favourable to
Enron and almost
completely non-
transparent, but observers
such as Abhay Metha,
author of Powerplay, an
investigation of the Enron
affair, predicted that when
Dabhol came online it
would almost
immediately go bankrupt.
This duly happened in


videos (Faith's favorite)
and admiring the
numerous awards and city
keys that Danny Thomas
had received.
"I didn't even know
that there where that
many cities!" Faith said.
Faith, of course, is
already looking forward
to her Saddle Up next
year.
"When you really stick
your heart into something,
its hard to get out of... and
I don't want to," Faith
said.
Faith Fulbright with
her horse. Faith raised
more than $5,000 in her
2001 Saddle Up for St.
Jude.


2001, when the full
capacity came online.
Facing non-payment,
Enron simply pulled out
of Dabhol. Further
indictment of Enron's
conduct in India came
from the Human Rights
Watch report, 'The Enron
Corporation: Corporate
Complicity in Human
Rights Violations'.
(continued on page 8)


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Page 8 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

GEORGIA


Enron
(continued from page 7)
Enron's India policy
was probably to use
Dabhol as a bridgehead to
help it conquer the rapidly
expanding Indian energy
market. A central part of
this was the supply of
LNG. In this, Qatar,
situated on India's
dcinrten and with the.


world's second-largest
reserves of natural gas,
was crucial to Enron's
scheme. Enron would buy
into rigid LNG sale-and-
purchase agreements with
Qatar, and sell the gas into
India through its own
import terminals, the first
of which was in Dabhol.
The Texans assumed that
if they turned up in Doha
with sufficient dollars, the
Qataris would come
running to sell them 3-5
million tonnes a year of
LNG that, in American
eyes, is how
capitalism works. But
to their astonishment,
Enron found the Qataris at
first unwilling to sell them
as much gas as they


demanded, and finally
refused to sell them any.
The emir and his
ministers simply disliked
Enron's abrasive attitude,
and were cagey about
doing business with them.
After the immense debt-
funded investment Qatar
has made in Rasgas and
Qatargas, they did not
want to let in any dodgy
dealers.
Qatar's long-time
partner Exxon Mobil
shared the government's
views and did its best to
limit Enron's involvement
in Qatar. In the end, Enron
settled for less reliable,
more fragmented and
(reputedly) far more
expensive supply deals
with Oman LNG, Abu
Dhabi's ADGAS, and
Petronas of Malaysia. The
Emir of Qatar had shown
greater business insight
than the Harvard MBAs
of Goldman Sachs and
their ilk.
Enron's next foul-up
was the Dolphin project, a
scheme to build the
world's largest gas
pipeline to carry Qatari
gas to Abu Dhabi and
Dubai, possibly Oman
and then Pakistan. Enron,
with its 'proven
midstream experience'
was the strategic
midstream partner,
charged with building the
pipeline itself. For the
UAE in particular, much
rests on the successful
completion of the Dolphin
project. So it was a


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surprise in 2001 when
Enron simply pulled out,
giving no excuses. The
UAE Offsets Group,
which is behind the
project, also said very
little, perhaps fearing a
loss of credibility in the
wake of Enron's actions.
At the time Enron
officials declared that the
pull-out from Dolphin
was about changing
strategy to become more
of a 'new economy'
company. According to
one Enron executive who
spoke anonymously, "we
can make easy money


.-


S -i ::i I l
through automated energy
trading, with thousands of
transactions per minute,
so why have these


physical assets sitting on
the balance sheet?"
Certainly projects such as
Dolphin and Dabhol were
at odds with Enron's
profile of a company
involved in electronic
trading in energy, with
few upstream assets, and a
decreasing number of
pipelines and other
physical assets.
In retrospect it could be
that Enron was already
panicking about the
(heavily concealed) state
of its balance sheet, and
trying'desperately to dump
both assets and liabilities.
Dabhol was a dubious
project from the outset, at
least in the way Enron
handled it, but Dolphin is a
(continued on page 9)


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Page 9 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

SAVANNAH, GA "THE HISTORIC DISTRICT"


Enron
(continued from page 8)
huge, well-funded pipeline
project. The inexplicable
withdrawal from Dolphin
may turn out to have been
one of the first outward
signs that 'the house of
cards was close to
collapse.
Enron had a couple of
other smaller projects in
the Middle East. Its
appetite for risk and


Lebanon
(continued from page 1)
colonial mandate in the
1940s, the state was
deliberately constructed
as weak and unobtrusive
in an attempt to hold the
country's delicate
patchwork of confessional
communities together.


return, and its
determination to forge
ahead in the toughest
markets, were
demonstrated by its
investment in the
Palestinian Authority, not
previously a favourite of
US energy companies.
The company operates a
136 MW power plant in
Gaza City, which cost
$140 million, mostly in
debt-financing. Its final


In the aftermath of the
15-year civil war,
Lebanon is effectively
being reconstituted, with
the State poised to play a
bigger and more visual
role in peoples' lives.
Many Lebanese resent
this, associating it with'
Syrian influence in


Middle East interest is the
development of the local
gas grid in Muscat to
supply homes and
businesses.
Enron's activities in the
Middle East gave a clue to
its cowboyish tendencies
and its fundamental
weakness, as indeed did a
series of well-publicised
scandals from Croatia to
Britain to Colombia to the
Philippines. The activities


Lebanese affairs.
But the government
claims to be expanding
the State's role in order to
put the economy back on
track.
Nevertheless, the
country is baulking at the
consequences of this
'interference', as the


of multinationals in
developing countries have
for some time now been the
subject of moral scrutiny
by a wide range of groups.
Perhaps those same foreign
activities ought to be
watched by regulators and
analysts from the City of
London and Wall Street, if
they truly seek the full
picture of a company's
health and character, rather
than just the PR spin.


ruckus over a 10 per cent
VAT introduced for the
first time in early 2002
proved. At less than 20 per
cent, Lebanon's tax base is
very low, but complaints

(continued on page 10)


Best wishes to all our Syrian and
Lebanese friends and customers
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Page 10 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

SAVANNAH, GA "THE HISTORIC DISTRICT"


Lebanon
(continued from page 9)
about the VAT as a new
tax imposed by an
increasingly controlling
State are many and
widespread. Historically,
the Lebanese have an


King Fahd
(continued from page 1)
address broadcast on
radio and television, they
expressed happiness at
observing more than two
million pilgrims from
across Saudi Arabia and
the world perform their
rituals in ease and
comfort, reiterated the
Saudi government's
commitment to exert
every effort to ensure this,
called for unity among
Muslims, denounced
terrorism and urged a
peaceful resolution of the
Arab-Israeli crisis.
"From the blessed
vicinity of.... the
inviolable house of God,
we extend to you a warm
welcome and convey to
you our cordial
greetings," the message
stated, describing the
gathering of more than
two million Muslims on
the Plain of Arafat as part
of the Hajj rituals as "a
majestic sight" and said
the pilgrims performed
the rites in an
"atmosphere of perfect
amity and harmony. An
aura of serenity, calm and
other-worldliness
dominates the scene. The
unity of Muslims is
projected in its most ideal












I l, iii '
5S ,Bi


ambivalent relationship
with taxes and levies, one
financial analyst observed.
An estimated 50 per cent
of Lebanon's electricity
bills are not paid and tax
collection is similarly lax.
"The VAT is an attempt


form, and human equality
is at its best."
King Fahd and Crown
Prince Abdullah noted
that Saudi Arabia "feels
greatly honored by the
responsibility for the
proper maintenance of the
Muslim holy places in
Makkah and Madinah. It
has devoted itself to the
performance of this duty,
and also to seeking ways
by which pilgrims are
provided with whatever
facilities are deemed
helpful to them in
completing their rituals.
"God has restrained
[mankind] from doing
mischief and wreaking
destruction. God has
made of the Muslims an
ummah (community) that
is justly balanced ...
enjoining what is right,
forbidding what is wrong,
and believing in God.
Each Muslim has a
positive role to play in
this world, and should do
everything in his or her
power to perform this
role, which aims at
promoting the welfare of
mankind, achieving
stability, discharging
rights, averting evil,
eliminating injustice and
making others happy.
Islam is indeed a religion


at a modem approach to
taxation but perceived by
the people simply as
additional tax. All we
have is individual
entrepreneurial flair; there
is a lack of trust in the
State," one local


of mercy for all mankind.
"Muslims should be
fully aware that Islam
forbids aggression. it
addresses itself to man's
rational thinking. It
opposes backwardness
and calls for the adoption
of measures conducive to
development ... And
finally, justice should be
allowed to run its course
in handling all matters
and dealing with all
people wherever they may
be."
King Fahd and Crown
Prince Abdullah observed
(continued on page 11)






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Lebanese will agree on a maybe not the whole story decision could still be
vision of what kind of but a major factor another decade or more
country we want. I believe nonetheless." But in the down the line.

Best wishes to all our Syrian and Lebanese friends and customers




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Page 11 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

ATLANTA, GA


King Fahd
(continued from page 10)
that support for the
Palestinians is a central
element of Saudi policy.
"We have been calling for
the enforcement of what is
right and implementation
of the relevant United
Nations resolutions. The
issue of Palestine has gone
through several phases
and in each phase Israel
has shown itself more
adamant and more
overbearing than before. it
has been subjecting our
brothers there to various
kinds of tyranny and
persecution in full view of
the entire world. it has
made a mockery of United
Nations resolutions and of
human rights.
"From this great place,


Texas Twist
(continued from page 1)
was served consisting of
tamales, rice, and beans
and of course tortillas.
The Executive Board
conducted its business on
Thursday afternoon so
that members could enjoy
the wonderful events
planned for the weekend.
*Friday started with two
parties, a pizza party for
the Young Adults and the
other was a Singles Mixer.
At four o'clock,
conference goers were
taken on a cruise of
Corpus Christi Harbor to
see the sites and sounds of
the Corpus Christi Bay
and the Gulf Coast. One
of the sites was
the USS Lexington, an


we call on the world to
accept its responsibilities
and call a halt to Israeli
aggression for the benefit
of the entire comity of
nations; and to work
toward implementation of
the United Nations
resolutions as a starting
point toward the
establishment of world
peace based on justice and
equality."
The message added:
"Our relations with non-
Muslims are governed by
Islamic teachings and
principles. ... Our religion
commands us to be kind
and just to non-Muslims."
In this respect, "The
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
stands against terror. This
is the starting point of all
our international


aircraft carrier that now
resides at her permanent
berth in Corpus. After the
cruise, a joke telling
contest was held with
everyone busting a gut at
the funny jokes being
told. The highlight of the
evening was the
wonderful Cultural
Presentation given by our
very own Richard J.
Karam and Michel
Laham, both of San
Antonio.
These two men have for
several years presented to
conference and convention
goers many interesting
facts and stories of our
Lebanese and Syrian
heritage. This time
however, these two men
took a slightly different


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relations. ... It has been
the basic element in the
stability of these relations
over the years, and it was
instrumental in helping us
maintain an unchanged
attitude toward world
issues as time passed by.
"Our constant attitude
toward terrorism is
therefore clear. As we see
it, terror is doing mischief
in the land and seeking to
bring about its ruin
[actions explicitly
condemned in the Holy
Qur'an ]. ... Terrorism is
spreading mischief in the
land, and its perpetrators
should be punished, no
matter who they are or
where they may be."
In this respect, the
message called for a
"clear-cut definition of


approach to their
presentations due to the
attacks on September I It".
Instead of demonstrating
what Syrians and
Lebanese have contributed
to the world, they gave us
a long list -of men and
women of our heritage
who have contributed


terrorism worldwide,"
and stressed the need to
"take into consideration
the right of peoples who
are under occupation to
liberate their lands
through legitimate
resistance."
King Fahd and Crown
Prince Abdullah urged all
people to observe God's
command to respect their
fellow human beings.
Doing so "would put an
end to all forms of
violence, tyranny and
despotism. The world
would then move from the
phase of conflict and the
logic of aggression and
revenge to a phase
marked by stability and
dominated by justice and
equality under the slogan
of meaningful dialogue."


significantly to American
society for the past three
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and included many
surprises to those in
attendance. Two particular
people of note were Joseph
(continued on page 12)


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Page 12 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

NORTH CAROLINA/SOUTH CAROLINA


Texas Twist
(continued from page 11)
D. Jamail, Jr. Houston
attorney and member of
the United Jamail Club
and Brian Zwan, son of
Federation Past Presidents,
Alphonse and Rose
Zwan. The list consisted
of people from all walks of
life such as politics, public,
entertainment and sports and
is truly inspirational. Friday
night ended with a Sahria,
which included a


Sununu
(continued from page 1)
Shaheen holds a 40% to 31%
lead over Senator Smith,
revealing Sununu as a
stronger opponent to the
Hazouri
(continued from page 1)
was mayor from 1987 to 1991,
joins four Republicans who
have already raised hundreds
of thousands of dollars since
last fall. He becomes the first
major Democrat to launch, a
bid, though others are
measuring their chances.
"It's a decade later, but
it's a decade later of having


performance by the Mystic
Dancers. These lovely ladies
entertained us with their
wonderful belly dancing.
Saturday morning the
Past Presidents and the
State Vice Presidents/Club
Presidents each held their
own workshops. These
meetings are designed to
help boast communication
between the clubs and the
Federation and to improve
both groups locally and
Federation wide. A tour of


Democrat in the November
general election.. Rep.
Sununu and Senator Smith
are set to square off in
Republican primary for the
state on September 10.
learned and matured about
how to build the quality of
life you want in the
community," said Hazouri,
57, who also suggested
education will be a top issue.
Hazouri has an $87,000
lobbying contract this year
with City Hall, primarilyto
help its cause with the
Legislature. Hazouri said he
will not lobby for the city
next spring.


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Corpus Christi with a trip
to a local flea market where
shoppers could fill their
bags with wonderful gifts
and trinkets of the area. The
Grand Banquet and
President's Ball capped off
the evening. The Banquet
attendees were honored to
have as our color guard a
group of young sailors
from the Corpus Christi US
Naval Station. Thank you


sailors for your service.
A' delicious breakfast
was enjoyed on Sunday
morning as conference
attendees went to church
and got ready for the trip
home. Everyone in
attendance had a wonderful
time. We really did, just ask
us. If you weren't there, see
pictures of what you missed
on pages 6 & 7. That folks
is Texas with a Twist.


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Syrian & Lebanese Friends & Customers

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Page 13 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

NORTH CAROLINA


Ride the Wave
(continued from page 1)
visiting Florida. The
scheduled activities fill the
four days during the
convention and will
appeal to all ages. Make
sure you arrive early to be


Arab Banks
(continued from page 1)
because it will go
bankrupt.
Acting on this theory,
the US has put great
pressure on Arab
governments, particularly
those in the Gulf, to adopt
stringent new bank
monitoring and reporting
standards.
While many have done
so, the highhanded
manner in which pressure
was brought to bear has
drawn an angry response
from bankers and some
government officials.
They argue that
Washington is using its I
anti-terror' campaign to
mask a major expansion
of its economic and
political power in the
region.
"There has been no


part of our 4th of July
cookout followed by a
spectacular viewing of the
city's fireworks show.
Special age related
activities will keep us all
busy throughout the
weekend including a city


definition of terrorism to
reinforce the targets set by
the US and its allies," said
one Dubai-based
commentator. "Is there
any difference between
terrorist acts and
economic wars?"
Saudi government
officials were less public
with their displeasure.
Part of the reason for this
may be that the US
already has the means to
track Saudi funds. It has
maintained treasury
agents in Riyadh since the
BCCI collapse in 1992.
Ironically, the US
pressure comes at a time
when Arab banks are keen
to clean up their image -
as well as their balance
sheets and go global.
Most major financial
institutions in the Gulf,
for example, have long


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tour, child events, youth
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married couples party. Of
course there are daily food
functions and an Arabic
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Keep an eye out for
special mailings with


since adopted Generally
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Practices (GAAP)
standards or their
equivalent. Governments
throughout the region
have also been mandating
greater financial
discipline and disclosure,
both of banks and
financial markHts, as'part
of a policy trend designed
to halt, if not reverse,
capital flight.
Arab bankers are


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determined to present
their institutions as sound
and legitimate players.
"Keeping a clean
reputation is important to
banks, says Nofal Barbar,
executive Vice President
of Arab Bank. "Nobody
wants to be used as a
channel for money
laundering." The
punishment is, once
you've been tainted,
you're cut off from the
(continued on page 14)


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Page 14 May 2002 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR


THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR

NORTH CAROLINA


Arab Banks
(continued from page 13)
international banking
community."
Others retorted that the
loud US demands for


tracking Arab
linked to
organizations
hollow ring.
In efforts
back over
Washington


cash flows
terrorist
have a

stretching
30 years,
has been


unable to successfully
monitor and halt the much
larger sums of illegal drug
money that flow through
Miami, New York and
other major US banking
centres.
Many experts agree the
recent US effort will have
little impact on the
finances of terror groups,
which have always been
'lowbudget' operations.
For example, the Al
Qaeda operation, which
led to the destruction of
New York's World Trade
Centre last September,
cost less than $500,000.
And most of that was
raised through common
credit cards.
"Banks are not the
favoured mechanism for
moving funds," says
Sarkis Joseph Khoury,
professor of International
Finance at the University
of California. "Terrorism
lives off opaqueness."


Nevertheless, pressure
to effectively monitor and
report large fund
transactions has scored
success, because
governments and banks
have their own internal
reasons to support such
moves.
Even before US
pressure, many Arab
banks and bank regulators
were beginning to adopt
stricter reporting
standards. In Lebanon,
Saudi Arabia, the UAE
and other countries, new
banking laws or stricter
have enforcement of
existing regulations have
reflected a determination
by banks as well as
governments to meet
global standards.
Banks throughout the
region have begun
instituting new internal
monitoring systems, to
alert them to any unusual
cash flows within
accounts. John Daly,
president of Americas
Software Corp., a
Miamibased firm which
provides banks with
transaction monitoring
systems, says Arab banks
started approaching his
company a year ago.
"Monitoring is all very-
new for them," he'says.
"It's all driven by
regulations."


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Governments
throughout the region
have increased
monitoring authority, not
only as an anti-terror
measure, but as part of
their on-going efforts to
discourage capital flight.
The powers of the central
banks, including the Saudi
Arabian Monetary
Authority, the Bahrain
Monetary Authority, and
the UAE Monetary
Authority, have been
increased to meet this
challenge.
But the latest round of
US-inspired reporting
regulations has prompted
some Arab financiers and
legal experts to warn that
there is a danger of over-
regulating a system,
driving legitimate
transactions into the
hands of non-bank
bankers.
"When most money is
moving underground, you
don't turn around and.
over-regulate the
overground economy,"
says Professor Khoury.
"The reporting
regulations are a form of
taxation on the banks."
Khoury points out that


terrorism and money
laundering will thrive
despite such regulations.
He pointedly notes that
the US government has
tried and failed in a
similar effort to control
the flow of funds from
cocaine and opium drug
lords.
"These are valiant
efforts, but the effects will
be minimal," he says.
Other informed sources
in the Arab financial
community warn that
Washington's anti-terror
zeal may have unfortunate
side effects, hurting a
wide range of legitimate
transactions.
"Demands for
reporting have put a chill

(continued on page 15)


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NARI


Page 14


May 2002






Page 15 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

VIRGINIA/WASHINGTON, D.C.


Arab Banks
(continued from page 14)
on investment flows,"
says David Wohabe,
partner in the New York-
based Wohabe Law
Offices, and an influential
member of the Arab
Bankers' Association of
North America. "There
are fears of Arab investor
harassment here in the
US. There is very serious
concern about the safety
of their assets here."
Gulf Arabs have over
$500 billion invested in
the US, largely in real
estate, Treasury
instruments and equities.
In the UAE, the
response has been to
renew calls for creating a
pan-Arab market. Despite
the emirate's dependence
on international trade, the
UAE has been
particularly stung by
Washington's anti-terror
zeal, and has responded
with much diplomatic
noise. The motives are not
difficult to find: the UAE
had close ties to the now-
deposed Taliban regime,
and it is the major entrepot
for goods heading from
Western countries into Iran


(one of the countries
President George Bush
lumped into. an 'axis of
evil'). A recent issue of the
widely read monthly
journal of the Dubai
Chamber of Commerce
and Industry even went so
far as to define US-led
globalisation as
"economic terrorism
adopted by wealthy
nations against poor ones."
Dubai has been
particularly outspoken,
because of allegations that
much of the Taliban and Al
Qaeda funds moved
through local banks and
financial institutions. In a
rare interview, General
Dhahi Khalfan Tamim,
chief of the Dubai Police,
countered: "All of us know..
the biggest money
laundering operations take
place [in] the US and some
western European
countries, let alone the well-
known European capitals in
which terrorists have been
sheltered for years."
Dubai finds itself in a
position similar to that of
Cyprus in the early 1990s
(following the collapse of
Yugoslavia), in that each
country has fostered a


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large international
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been tainted by handling
illegal or questionable
fund transfers.
In the Middle East itself,
new reporting regulations
will add to the time and
cost of carrying on banking
operations. But experts are
sceptical about whether
they will be effective in
fighting terrorism, or even
ensuring the soundness of
individual banks.
"Reporting requirements


will only have a minimal
impact on the safety of the
banking system," says
Professor Khoury. "Bank
failures cannot be
prevented."
And, given the record of
Osama bin Laden and his
Al Qaeda cohorts, the
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efforts are unlikely to halt a
determined terrorist group
from moving funds around
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Page 16 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2001

MARYLAND/VIRGINIA


Jacksonville News
(continued from page 2)
Sandalwood High School
and the University of
North Florida. She is
employed by the State
Attorney's Office. I The
bridegroom, son of Kathy
and Victor Rukab,
graduated from
Englewood High School
and is self-employed.
The brides sister, Linda
Salem, was the matron of
honor, and the groom's
brother, Mark Rukab, was
the best man. I Following
a trip to Mayan Riviera,
Mexico, the couple will
live in Jacksonville.
Holcomb-Rady
Melissa Helene Rady
and Thomas Christopher
Holcomb, both of
Orlando, were married at
5 pm. yesterday in St.
Johns Cathedral.
The bride, daughter of
Julia and Sam Rady.
Jacksonville, graduated
from Florida State
University and Suncoast


School of Massage
Therapy. She is employed
as a massage therapist.
The bridegroom, son of
Julianna and Larry
Holcomb, Hot Springs,
Ark, graduated magna.
cum laude from Arkansas
State University, where he
was a member of Sigma
Pi. He is employed by the
Orange County Board of
Public Education as a
special education teacher.
Judy McClure was the
matron of honor, and
Samuel McClure was the
best man.
Following a trip to San
Francisco, the couple will
live in Orlando.


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three sons, Charlie Bakkar
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Page 17 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

MARYLAND


Louisiana News
(continued from page 2)
Baton Rouge
Holiday Party
The Heritage Club and
the Cedars Club of Baton
Rouge joined together to


Resurrection
(continued from page 3)
dead, and become the first
fruits of them that slept."
Joshua 1:8. "This book
of the law shall not depart
out of thy mouth; but thou
shalt meditate therein day
and night that thou mayest
observe to do according to
all that is written therein:
for then thou shalt make
thy way prosperous, and
then thou shalt have good
success!,
Romans 1:1-5. "Paul, a
servant of Jesus Christ,
called to be an apostle,
separated unto the gospel
of God. (Which he
promised afore by his
prophets in the holy
scriptures) Concerning his
Son Jesus Christ our Lord,
which was made of the
seed of David according
to the flesh; and declared
to be the Son of God with
power, according to the
spirit of holiness, by the
resurrection from the
dead: By whom we have
received grace and
apostleship, for obedience
to the faith among all
nations, for his name:"


host a holiday party in
December at the
Sherwood Forest Country
Club. Over 100 members
attended and enjoyed a
full Middle Eastern
dinner,- live music, and


Romans 1:14-18:1 am
debtor both to the Greeks,
and to the Barbarians;
both to the wise and to the
unwise. So, as much as in
me is, I am ready to
preach the gospel to you
that are at Rome also. For
I am not ashamed of the
gospel of Christ: for it is
the power of God unto
salvation to every one that
believeth; to the Jew first,
and also to the Greek. For
therein is the
righteousness of God
revealed from heaven
against all ungodliness of
men, who hold the truth in
unrighteousness;"
Romans 1:26-27, "For
this cause God gave them
up unto vile affections: for
even their women did
change the natural use
into that which is against
nature: And likewise also
the man, leaving the
natural use of the woman,
burned in their lust one
toward another; men with
men working that which
is unseemly, and receiving
in themselves that
recompense of their error
which was meet."


dancing. Magid Assaleh, a
new member of the
Cedars Club and manager
of the Sherwood Forest
Country Club, graciously
offered to provide the
location for the joint party,


Romans 1:32-2:1,
"Who knowing the
judgment of God, that
they which commit such
things are worthy of
death, not only do the
same, but have pleasure in
them that do them.
Therefore thou art
inexcusable, 0 man,
whosoever thou art that
judges: for wherein thou
judges another, thou
condemnest thyself, for
thou that judges doest the
same things." Romans
2:11, "For there is no
respect of persons with
God."
Romans 8:31-39, What
shall we then say to these
things? If God be for us,
who can be against us? He
that spared 'not his own
Son, but delivered him up


and also set the tasty
menu. The Cedars Club
and the Heritage Club are
looking forward to co-
hosting the SFSLAC 2003
Mid-Winter Conference in
Baton Rouge!


for us all, how shall he not
with him also freely give
us all things? Who shall
lay any thing to the charge
of God's elect? It is God
that justifieth. Who is he
that condemneth? It is
Christ that died, yea
rather, that is risen again,
who is even at the right
hand of God, who also
maketh intercession for
us. Who shall separate us
from the love of Christ?
shall tribulation, or
distress, or persecution, or
famine, or nakedness, or
peril, or sword? As it is
written, For thy sake we
are killed all the day long;
we are accounted as sheep
for the slaughter. Nay, in
all these things we are

(continued on page 18)


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Page 18 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

TENNESSEE


Resurrection
(continued from page-17)
more than conquerors
through him that loved us.
For I am persuaded, that
neither death, not life, nor
angels, nor principalities,
nor powers, nor things
present, nor things to
come, Nor height, nor


Mariology
(continued from page 3)
He permeated history
with his presence and
directed it irreversibly
toward the eschaton. Our
future will be dominated
by Christ.
To assert Christ's
presence is to affirm the
simultaneous presence of
Mary, the woman who is
indissolubly united to
Christ, in his birth and in
his death, in history and in
glory, The Mother's role
is absolutely subordinate


Meekness
(continued from page 3)
(Eng. Com. No.594 Vol. 2
P.568
As such, the Muslims
should avoid to inflict
pain on others. And live in
peace and harmony
together. 'Peace' in one
place will breed 'peace' at
another place And
eventually, 'peace' every
where on earth. Further:
And if they incline
towards peace incline
thou towards it, and put
thy Trust in Allah. Surely


Georgia News
(continued from page 4)
Manuel's is sponsoring
several children for the
Fulton County Dept. of
Family and Children


depth, nor any other
creature, shall be able to
separate us from the love
of God, which is in Christ
Jesus our Lord."
I warn you, before it is
too late. Turn to the Lord
Jesus. Believe that Jesus
died for your sins and He
was raised from the dead.


to that of the Son. There is
an infinite distance
between the Divine
Person of the Incarnate
Word and the human
person of Diary of
Nazareth. But this union
is nonetheless real,
unbreakable, and
ordained by-God. Who
dares oppose God's plan?
In the future Mariology
will cultivate doctrinal
and, existential insights
into Mary's manifold
presence in the life of the
Church. The indissolubule


it is He Who is AllHearing
All-Knowing ." (Holy
Quran .8:62.)
The Verse 8:62
incorporates an important
principle to live amicably
in every day life. That is
'turn to peace', if the
other side is inclined
towards peace. A Muslim
should always be ready to
enter into a contract of
peace if the other side is
inclined to do so. There is
no merit in disagreements
and fighting. All in all the
Muslims should always


Services. Brian Maloof,
manager of Manuel's,
said that even though they
are sponsoring five
children, there are many
(continued on page 19)


Ask Him to forgive your
sins, enter your heart, and
take control of your life.
He is happy to adopt you
as His child and He will
never leave you. Pray this
prayer: Lord Jesus, I have
done wrong things and I
am sorry. Please forgive
me. I believe that you died


union between Christ and
his Mother, and Mary's
vital relationship to the
other members of the
Mystical Body reveal the
unfounded nature of
attempts to detach
Mariology from, other
branches of-. theology. To
belittle, demean, or
underestimate the
importance of
Mariological study is to
betray a gross
misunderstanding not
only of Mariology, but
also of Christology -and


be looking for bringing
peace to their own lives ,
as well as establishing
peace on earth. The Verse
8:62 signifies that the
Muslims should always
be ready for a good fight


to pay for my sins. Please
Lord Jesus come into my
heart and save me. Help
me to live to please God.
Thank you, Lord Jesus,
for forgiving me and
saving me. Amen. Read
the Bible, the Gospel of
John, and go to a good
church.


ecclesiology,
Many continue to view
Mariology as peripheral to
the study of theology.
Rigorous academic
research will demonstrate
the groundless nature of,
this persistent prejudice.
The delicacy of any
question connected to
Mariology will require that
extra effort we often speak
of. Do not separate the
Mother from the Son. Jesus
and Mary are inextricably
bound. Mariology is alive
and well.


to establish 'peace', if the
other side expressed
willingness to do so. It
should be a joyful duty to
establish the 'reign of
peace on this earth'.


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Page 19 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

TENNESSEE

ZN~ 7 I 1 C* 1-' .1 1 1 I .


Georgia News
(continued from page 18)
with no sponsors. The
three garbage bags full of
toys from The Cedar Club
is a big help.
For those in the
Federation outside of
Atlanta, Cedar Club
member Manuel Maloof
and his tavern are a very
interesting story. The
tavern was opened in
1956. It quickly became a


Alabama News
(continued from page 4)


Bobby T. Tanory


hangout for Emory
University professors,
newspaper reporters and
politicians. Many came to
match wits and have
timely discussions with
Manuel. It continued to
grow and is now one of
the most popular and
largest taverns in the
entire country.
Manuel Maloof is the
son of a Lebanese
immigrant who came to
this country at the turn of


Award Winning
Show!
Birmingham Bobby T.
Tanory host and producer
of the Bobby T Show was
the winner of two 2001
Billboard Music Video
Awards. Bobby accepted
the awards presented by
celebrity performer B. B.
Mak at the Billboard
Music Video Conference
in Los Angeles, CA
November 2, 200 1. The
Birmingham, AL based
television show captured
awards for the Best


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the last century. Ashis
tavern's popularity
increased, Manuel
became more and more
interested in politics and
eventually ran for public
office. He was elected to
the Dekalb County
Commission and served
for 16 years-. He ran the
county government for 8
of those years as its CEO.
The Dekalb County
administration building as
well as a wing of the


Local/Regional Show -in
the Pop & Dance
categories. You can find
out more about him and
his show at
www.thebobbytshow.com.


largest hospital in the state
is named for him.
National politicians
running for public office
must come to Manuel's
when traveling through
the State. Those seeking
his approval have been
Jimmy, Carter, Bill
Clinton, Al Gore and Paul
Tsongas to name a few.
The Cedar Club is very
proud to count Manuel
Maloof as one of its
members.


Bobby has spent the
last 22 years on television.
Bobby is married to
Michelle Nassar of
Atlanta, Georgia. They
(continued on page 20)


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Alabama News
(continued from page 19)
have been married for 3

Mary Fisher
(continued from page 5)
Mary as the cowinner of
the Ida Fair's Internal
Customer Service Award.
In her 20th year with
the State of Texas
Comptroller's Office,
Mary began her days with
the original Bingo Tax
Division. It wasn't long
before Mary. was a
member of the team that
converted the .bingo tax
from a non-automated to
an automated system.
This would start two
trends that have stayed
with Mary to this very
day. The first: if there is
any kind of system
conversion that's needed,
Mary always seems to get
"picked." The other (and
more noteworthy), Mary
always refers to herself as
being part of a team.
A keen understanding
of accomplishment
through teamwork has
landed Mary on some
very noteworthy projects.
She worked with the
group that brought over


years and are expecting
their first child in June of
this year. Bobby credits
Michelle with her support


the licensing and
collection of the coin-
operated machine tax
when the Amusement
Machine Commission
was abolished. She was
part of the team with the
transfer of Insurance Tax
duties from the Texas
Department of Insurance,
and worked on the team
that merged the former
State Treasury's cigarette
& tobacco related
functions into the
Comptroller's office.
The. list of projects and
accomplishments could
continue for several
pages. However, Mary
will always be the first to
tell you they are not "her"
accomplishments. She has
always worked as part of
a team and is proud to say
so. She gives equal credit
for this award to every
person with whom she has
worked.
As her keys to success,
Mary proudly states she
could not have made.it to
where she is today
without her faith in God,


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and help even though she
works full-time as an
Anesthetist for a local
Birmingham hospital.


the love of a wonderful
family, and the leadership
of a greet management
team.
Mary's family has been
in 'the Austin area since
her grandparents
emigrated from Lebanon
in 1909. Her grandparents
owned some small
grocery stores and Mary
can remember times when
her grandparents would
open up the tore late at
night for a person in need
- accepting only their


Bobby and Michelle are
members of the Cedars
Club of Birmingham.


word as their credit.
Mary's father had his own
business and bought and
sold real estate and her
mother was a registered
nurse.. Indeed, Mary
comes from a long line of
people dedicated to
customer service and
caring for others.
Mary has, in her words,
" a loving and dedicated
husband,. an extraordinary
sister, wonderful brothers,
sister-in-laws, brother-in-
(continued on page 21)


/y [D)


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Page 21 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

ALABAMA/MISSISSIPPI-


Mary Fisher
(continued from page 20)
laws, nieces and nephews."
She enjoys spending time
with her family and
sharing in "their big


Florida News
(continued from page 5)
enjoyed a delicious meal
and great entertainment.
Adding to the
significance of the
evening was a visit by
Sharon Benson, President
of the Southern
Federation. Everyone
warmly greeted her and
she graciously moved
from one table to the next,
making each person feel


events." Mary's brother
Joe, Jr. is a past president
of the Southern Federation
and her nephew Joe III is
the current Chairman of
the Board.


important to and
appreciated by the
Federation.
This elegant annual
event is at no cost to
members in good
standing. The only
obligation of members in
attendance is to bring a
gift, in the minimum
value of $10 to benefit a
child or senior citizen. In
view of this year's appeal
from the Federation,
benefiting victims of the


She also enjoys helping
her husband, Jerry, build
or repair things around the
house or the ranch they
have in Brownwood.
Mary jokes that it's a farm


events of September I I",
members were asked to
contribute to this fund, in
lieu of their usual gift.
Most members responded
in amounts that greatly
exceeded the minimum
required of them.
Club President Albert
J. Shaheen was pleased to
present President Benson
with a check, payable to
the Foundation's Charity
Committee in the amount
of $2100. This money was


if they've planted
something, but it's a ranch
if they haven't. This year,
it's a ranch.
Congratulations Mary
we are all proud of you.


not from the club's
treasury, but rather
represented the charitable
nature of our members.
While in Miami,
President Benson was the
houseguest of Past
President Fayes F.
Thomas, Jr. and his wife,
June. Club president,
Albert Shaheen and his
wife, Frances and the
Salam Club of Miami,
which was honored by her
visit, entertained her.


Best Wishes To Our Many
Syrian & Lebanese Friends and Customers


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2002 Officers
Installed
Jackson At the
monthly luncheon
meeting of the Cedars of
Lebanon Club of Jackson,
held on January 13, 2002
Mississippi State Vice
President and club
member, Dr. Jean Dabit,.
installed the club's newly
elected officers for the
year 2002.
The new officers are
Pat Moore, President;
Warren Strain, Vice
President; Gina Koury
Jackson, Secretary; Alfred
Katool, Sr., Treasurer; and
Peter Buttrous, Sergeant
at Arms. Board members
are Anthony Thomas,
Chairman; Jim Walker,
Vice Chairman; Mariam
Buttrous; Mary Tonos


Bishop; : Kitty Khalaf,
Ralph Wakeam; and Joe
Rice, Immediate Past
President.
The Cedars of Lebanon
Club of Jackson was
chartered and became
affiliated' with the
Southern Federation in
1934. From a small group
of young Americans of
Syrian and Lebanese
decent, sixty-eight years
ago, the Jackson club has
grown to a present day
membership of 113 proud
members. These present
day members will be
forever- grateful to those
who kept the tradition of
family and good
citizenship alive
throughout those sixty-
eight years and kept us
bonded to our heritage and
grateful to be Americans.


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Key and St. Jude bike-a-
thon, featured a bike ride
in the tropics and gourmet
offerings from this
Gulfcoast island resort's
top-notch restaurants: The
event raised $30,000 for
the hospital.
Annual Roadway
Golf Tournament
A Success
The third annual
Roadway/St. Jude Golf
Classic teed off Oct. 22 at
Celebration Golf Club in
Orlando, FL. Ninety-five
participants walked the
links and helped raise
more than $11,000 for St.
Jude. Golfers competed
for prizes such as a Buick
Regal, two round-trip
tickets via business class


to Germany, a 4 day/3
night golf vacation in St.
Augustine and a three-year
supply of Strata golf balls.
Don Sutton Celebrity
Invitational Helps
St. Jude
Celebrities Don Sutton,
Frank Howard, Chipper
Jones, and Tom Glavin
came out for the Don
Sutton Celebrity
Invitational Golf
Tournament on Nov. 10-
11 at the Regatta Bay
Golf and Country Club in
Destin, FL. The
tournament featured two
days of golf and a
Celebrity Gala which
featured over 100 auction
items. This year's
tournament was
highlighted with a one-
hour TV special on the
Sunshine Network.


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Texas News
- L'Entasar Installs who pa
Officers year. "
claimed
Houston 43 Members m
of the L'Entasar Club of
were so
Houston gathered at the ro sa
Rock sai
Braeburn Country Club Afe
for a luncheon meeting at
announce
noon on Saturday January meeting
26, 2002. Highlight of the andim
and me
meeting, which was club talking a
sponsored, was the each otl
installation of officers for beautiful
the New Year by Texas beautiful
State Vice President in Janua
David A. Buttross of L
Austin. David's lovely AI
wife, Blaine, Won
accompanied him to
Houston for the occasion.
The 2002 officers are
Dolores Rock, President;
Bill Frank, Vice
President; Widad Rizk,
Secretary; and Louis Left to ri,
Abercia, Treasurer. Secretary
The luncheon took the Presider
place of the club's annual Madeline
Christmas party that was El Pas
canceled in tribute to our Americai
dedicated member Lorise of El Pa
Mansur who passed away installati
in December 2001. Lorise past Ja
dearly loved the L'Entasar Verde Rt
Club and the Southern Wolf, out
Federation and was an did th
active member of both perform
organizations. She will be installation
- missed. the new
President Rock also candle
paid tribute to a number shinning
of other friends and that wo
members of the L'Entasar


ssed away last
The year 2001
the lives of a
of people who
lear to all of us,"
d.
a few
ements, the
was adjourned,
mbers enjoyed
nd visiting with
her enjoying a
spring-like day
y in Houston.
ebanese
merican
nen's Club


ght: Mary Wardy,
; Rosie Daw, Vice
zt/Treasurer; and
Jabor, President.
o The Lebanese
i Women's Club
iso, TX held its
on of officers this
iuary at Casa
restaurant. Myrna
Going president,
e honors of
ng the
on. She presented
officers with a
symbolizing a
beam of light
uld guide them


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and lead them through the
year illuminating so that
others could follow. The
newly installed officers
are Madeline D. Jabor,
President; Rosalie Daw,
Vice President/Treasurer;
and Mary Wardy,
Secretary.
Madeline Jabor
presided over the meeting,
presenting a full outline of
scheduled activities for
the year. The out going
officers, Myrna Wolf,
Mary K. Davis and Essie
Ayoub, were thanked for
serving and doing such a
good job. The
membership presented
Myrna Wolf with a gift
certificate to show their
appreciation for a great
year. At the February
meeting a report will be
given by Essie Ayoub who
is chairperson for the
March function.
The Good
Fellowship Club of
Dallas


Dallas-The Good
Fellowship Club of
Dallas, founded in 1980,
is still going strong and
celebrated their heritage
in many ways in 2001.
The club had several
Lebanese potluck dinners,
a bingo night, Dabke
dancing lessons and
ended the year with their
annual Christmas Dinner.
Over 30 families
comprise -the club,
including several families
with 4 generations
attending. Last fall, the
Club decided to give back
to our community on both
the local and international
level. A committee,
consisting of Garland
Cohlmia, Al Salem and
Sameera Murad,
chairperson, researched
various charities and
made recommendations to
the club. After much
thought and discussion,
the club decided to donate
(continued on page 23)


2001 Officers are: Jill Spurlin, Secretary; Buddy Maloof Treasurer;
Patrick Kimber, President; & Joan Kimber, Vice President.
Best Wishes To Our Many Syrian & Lebanese Friends & Customers

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Page 23 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

TEXAS


recipients are: Southern
Federation Scholarship
Fund, American
University of Beirut
Department of


Gone but not Forgotten
Lorise Lewis
Mansur 1929-2001
"She told it
like it was" -


Houston Lorise Lewis
Mansur who was born on
April 28, 1929, passed
away Saturday December
1, 2001 at Southwest
Memorial Hospital in
Houston, Texas. Her son
Michael and daughter
Charise of Houston, TX;
twin sister Lorine Kannon
of Belmont, NC; sister
Mable Deraney of


l.


Barnesville GA; and
many nieces and nephews
and other loving relatives
survive her. Her husband


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Neonatology, North
Dallas Shared Ministries,
Genesis Women's Shelter,
My Guardian Angel,
Habitat for Humanity and


Woodrow Mansur
preceded her in death.
Lorise was an active
member of the Southern
Federation for 45 years.
She served as a member
and/or chairman of many
Federation committees
and was named Woman of
the Year in 1977. She
served as Executive
Board Member and State
Vice President of North
Carolina, which led to her
organization of various
clubs in Charlotte,


St. Phillips Neighborhood
Development. The Good
Fellowship Club has
reached out to those in
need.


Fayetteville, Goldsboro
and Smithville. Lorise
was a member of the
L'Entasar Club of
Houston for more than 35
years and worked with the
Houston Affiliates on all
the Federation
conventions and other
local events.
Her leadership as State
VP for the Federation led
to her involvement in the
early years of ALSAC
where she served as Danny
(continued on page 24)


JAMES U. ROSS


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Texas News
(continued from page 22)
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Page 24 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

ARIZONA/OKLAHOMA


Lorise Mansur
(continued from page 23)
Thomas' city director and
fundraiser in North
Carolina as mentioned by
Federation Past


President At Zwan at
her rosary. Federation Past
President Bill Frank gave
the eloquent eulogy where
he mentioned her love for
her children, the


Federation and the
telephone. Most of us will
miss her voice on the other
end of the telephone. She
loved to talk and she told
us how she felt no matter if


we wanted to hear it or not.
She was a loving
mother and friend to all
who knew her and will be
sorely missed by all that
loved her.


Tucson
MED Club
Taken from the
Zurouna, newsletter of the
Tuscon MED Club
Volume I No. 4
Tucson Louise
Thomas became the first
Tucsonian to receive the
Horace Steele Child
Advocacy Award at the
Children's Action Alliance
gala this past fall. The


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commitment, and resolve
in improving the lives of
Arizona's children and
families. Through
personal leadership, Ms.


Louise Thomas


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(continued on page 25)


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Page 25 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

MICHIGAN


Arizona News
(continued from page 24)
her personal grief and her
empathy for parents to
make a huge difference in
the lives of thousands of
children and families,"
said Carol Kamin,
executive director of
Children's Action
Alliance. "She


Once a year, the
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force behind the
University of Arizona's
Children's .Research
Center. In 1987, Louise
became the first chair of


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the CRC Advisory Board
and served in this capacity
till 1993. She has since
been appointed Life
Member of the Advisory
Board. She has also
founded Angel Charity for
Children and the local
Ronald McDonald House.
Louise has received
several awards for her


Well, maybe not just
another day. In
November, the duo were
two of 6,000 members of
the National Auctioneers
Association (NAA) who


work including 1994's
Distinguished Citizen
Award from the
University of Arizona
College of Medicine and
the Arizona Alumni
Association and the. 1993
Woman of the Year Award
from the Tucson
Metropolitan Chamber of
Commerce.


shared their special gift
for gab with the children
at St. Jude Children's
Research Hospital as part
of the group's sixth
(continued on page 26)


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Going, Going, Gone!





Page 26 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA


St. Jude Auction
(continued from page 25)
annual toy auction for the
children at the hospital.
Not only were the kids
treated to the remarkable
banter of the auctioneers,
they got to bid
themselves, with play
money of course, on the
toys being auctioned. And
they got to keep the toys.
Wiles and Musser were
in Memphis as part of
their duties as the 2001
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Page 27 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA


Every picture tells a story


Marjane Satrapi is no
ordinary young woman,
she is a full fledged
princess. And not only a
princess, but what some
people might call a 'Red
princess'; born into a
progressive family, she
was reading cartoons
about Marxism when
other children were
reading fairy tales..- Her
maternal grandfather was
the son of Nasreddine
Shah, the last Qadjar
emperor of Iran.
Growing up, she was
surrounded by relatives
and family friends
regularly thrown into jail
for being communists.
Today, she holds no brief
for either the Islamic
regime or the monarchy it
displaced.
The child of
intellectual parents, she
was sent to Europe in the
mid-1980s, at the age of
14, .to be spared the
oppression of an Islamic
regime then at its worst.
Running away from the
prejudices of the Iranian
mullahs, she was faced
with the preconceived
ideas held by Europeans
on Iran and Islam. Her
observations have
resulted in a wonderful
series of comic strips
published under the name
Persepolis, the first two
volumes of which have
sold more than 20,000
copies in their French
version.
"I wanted to put a few


things straight," explains
Marjane from her studio
at Place des Vosges, one
of the oldest districts of
Paris. "When I arrived in
France, I met many
people who expected me
to speak Arabic.'So many
Europeans do not know
the difference between
Arabs and Iranians. They
don't know anything of
our centuries-old culture.
"They seem to think


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That's me when I was 10. That was
in 1980

Iran has always been a.
country of religious
fundamentalists, that
Iranian women either
have no place in the
society or that they are
hysterical black crows. In
fact, Iranian women are
not downtrodden weeds:
my mother's maid has-
kicked out her husband,
and I myself have slapped
several men who behaved
inappropriately in the
street. And even during
the worst period of the
Iranian Revolution,
women were carrying
weapons," Marjane


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declares with conviction.
While no fan of the
revolution or the current
ruling regime, Marjane
stresses that neither was
she a supporter of the
exiled Shah. "Many
people in Europe venerate
the Shah; I personally do
not ... True, we had some
luxury Hilton hotels and a
few kilometres of
highways, but when he
left, half the Iranian
population was illiterate


and living in utter poverty,
which was unacceptable
in a country with so much
oil."
What gives Persepolis
credibility is the
convincing way specific
events are interpreted
through the eyes of a 10
year-old girl. For
example, the young
Marjane of the comic strip
- the heroine of these very
autobiographical books -
(continued on page 28)


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Page 28 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

CENTRAL CALIFORNIA


Marjane
(continued from page 27)
explains how she did not
know what to think about
the veil when it became
compulsory after the
revolution.
Her cartoons portray
young. girls in the
schoolyard sharing the
same dilemma. Her
drawings are simple but
stylised and effective;
they carry a message
everybody understands
and usually evoke a smile
of pleasure. This is what
gives her work its unique
flavour, while they can be
didactic and political,
still, both the text and the
drawings provide the
reader with a wry
pleasure.
How can Marjane
Satrapi re-create with
accuracy and authenticity
the feelings and behaviour
of the little girl she long
ago ceased to be? "Don't
forget I left my parents
when I was 14. 1 was in a
foreign country, alone. I
spent a lot of time
thinking about what my
parents used to tell me; I
suppose I am immersed in
my past." Marjane Satrapi


could never be considered
'politically correct',
which is probably what
makes her work so
convincing: she is not
another exile denigrating
the Islamic revolution and
glorifying the Shahs
regime.
In the first volume of
Persepolis she tells the
story of her family and
how they lived through
the revolution which


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sparing her readers the
pleasure of a few scathing
drawings and gibes about
the Shah's father, Reza
Khan, an 'illiterate petty
officer' who wanted to
establish a republic and
was convinced by his
British mentors to found
an. empire. Marjane's


schoolmistress tells her
that the emperor was
chosen by God, but her
father tells, the little girl
that when he came to
power 'the emperor'
confiscated all the
belongings of her
forefathers, the Qadjars.
Her grandmother tells the
(continued on page 29)


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SPage 29 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA


Marjane
(continued from page 28)
small heroine of the
comic strip how the
family were so poor they
had nothing to eat, but
how in order that the
neighbours would not
guess how bad things
were, she would boil
water to make them
believe she was cooking.
Through her cartoons,
the young heroine also
introduces us to the
champions of her
childhood. The young
Marjane overheard
conversations between
her parents about the
torture in the Shah's
jails. Among all the
heroes discussed, one
fascinated the small girl
more than any other:
Uncle Anouche, who was
involved with Great
Uncle Fereydoune in
establishing the short-
lived independent
republic of (Iranian, pro-
Soviet) Azerbaijan in
.1946..
None of her school
friends could boast such
heroes in their families.
But only a few months
after the Islamic


revolution, a new wave of
repression swept away all
these militant heroes.
Some chose exile, others
were murdered, while
Uncle Anouche, who
always believed. the
situation would improve,
was sent back to prison -
this time by the Islamists -
and later executed as a
'Russian spy.' The last
person to visit Anouche in
jail was Marjane, a
tragically memorable
experience for a 10 year-
old girl...
The second volume of
Persepolis records details
of Marjane's life during
Iran's war with Iraq,
which coincided with the
harshest years of the
Islamic Republic. The air
raids, the refugees, the
Bassijis (volunteers for
the front), and the patrols
of the pasdars, checking
women were wearing the
veil and searching homes
for illegal cassettes and,
alcohol, all provide
material for her work.
During those troubled
years, slowly but surely,
the small Marjane
becomes a teenager and
a rebel. Her parents


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decide it will be safer to
send her to Europe, to
Austria, claiming they
will follow her after a
while. They did not.
Marjane became a
lonely exile which, she
says, she will discuss in
the third volume of
Persepolis the subject of
her fourth volume has
been earmarked for her
return home to Iran.
"How does one
manage to live in exile?"
she asks rhetorically and
answers herself, "To
become integrated, one
must forget entirely where
one comes from. I had
hard times my parents
had no more money to
support me. My friends at
the French lyc6e in


Vienna were rich kids; I
could not stand their
expressions when I told
them I was Iranian. Ah ...
Khomeini, 06 ... the
ayatollahs, the veil... I
could read it in their faces.
I even went as far as
denying my nationality,"
Marjane admits. "For a
while I said that I was
French but I was young
and stupid," she excuses
herself with a self-
deprecatory shrug. Today
Marjane Satrapi is
proudly' Iranian and she
can also be proud for
having written and drawn
a series of comic strips
that reveal more about
contemporary Iran than
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Page 30 THE SYRIAN-LEBANESE STAR May 2002

CALIFORNIA


Contributions of Syria and Lebanon to Western Civilization


The Alphabet
Third, it was the
Phoenicians, those intrepid
mariners of the coast of Syria
and Lebanon, who, in the 13
th century BC, invented the
alphabet that they passed on
to the Greeks, and that was
subsequently adopted, in
modified form, by the
Romans, becoming the basis
of all Western alphabets.
Pictograms
Two forms of writing had
existed until then: the
hieroglyphics of Egypt and
the cuneiform or
wedgeshaped inscriptions of
Mesopotamia. Both started
out as picture-like
representations of objects or
events. For the Egyptian
scribes who were drawing
their figures on papyrus, it
was easy enough to portray
them as they were: a drawing
of a bull represented a bull, a
house, a house etc. But the
Mesopotamian scribes, who
were inscribing theirs with a
stylus on clay tablets, had to
represent the objects with
symbols: a wedge of a
certain shape represented a
bull; one of a different shape
represented a house.
As these drawings evolved,
they became more stylized
and standardized, and each
one came to represent a


specific word or idea. Since
spoken language contains
thousands of words, this
system of writing was very
cumbersome and complicated.
Syllables
It took centuries before
the ancient scribes realized
that only a 'few hundred
syllables were required to
form all these thousands of
words. In time, each drawing
came to represent only the
first syllable of the word it
stood for: in the examples we
used earlier, a drawing of a
bull now represented the
sound "buu," .and a drawing
of a house now represented
the sound "how." And now
that these drawings
represented a spoken syllable
rather than a specific object,.
they could be simplified to
make writing easier.
Letters
It took another thousand
years before someone realized
that the syllables themselves
were made up of 30 or so
individual sounds or letters,
which we now classify as
consonants and vowels. Why
did it take so long? Because
what seems so simple to us
after the fact required a giant
mental leap, and the invention
of the alphabet ranks as one of
the greatest achievements of
the human mind.


The alphabet
The Phoenician alphabet
from which all Western
alphabets are descended
appeared around 1250 BC. It
consists of 22 letters, of which
the first three were Aleph, Bet,
and Dalet, which passed into
the Greek alphabet as Alpha,
Beta, and Delta. But while
these names have no meaning
in Greek, in Phoenician,
Aleph meant bull, Bet meant
house, and Dalet meant door.
And the original symbols
represented an ox, a house,
and a door. So the shape of the
letter A derives from the
stylized head of a bull, the
letter B from a rectangular
house with an indentation on
one side representing an entry
way, and the letter D from the
diagrammatic representation
of a door! So when we say the
word alphabet in English we
are saying "ox house" in
Phoenician.
Spread of the
alphabet
According to the Greek
historian Herodotus, known
as the "father of history", it
was the Phoenicians


themselves who introduced
the alphabet into Greece:
"Those Phoenicians who
came with Cadmus at their
settlement in this country,
among many other kinds of
,learning, introduced letters
into Greece, which as it
seems to me, were formerly
unknown to the Greeks."
Notice Herodotus doesn't
say that the Greeks went to
Phoenicia where they picked
up the alphabet, but rather
that it was the Phoenicians
themselves who settled in
Greece, bringing with
them many kinds of learning,
including the alphabet.
Had the peoples of Syria
and Lebanon contributed
nothing else to civilization,
the invention of the alphabet,
in the words of the Lebanese-
American historian Phillip
Hitti, would have "singled
them out as the originators of
written history and
benefactors of humanity."
The spread of civi-
lization to Europe
Fourth, it was the
Phoenicians who spread
(continued on page 31)


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Contributions
(continued from page 30)
civilization from its birthplace
in the Middle East across the
Mediterranean to Western
Europe. Around the time of
the invention of the alphabet,
an era of unprecedented
maritime exploration began
for the Phoenicians. The
establishment of their colonies
in Europe before any- other
people is well documented in
the ancient literature and by
archeological findings.
The earliest
settlements
The first colony established
by the Phoenicians was
Cyprus in the 13th Century
BC, which lies less than 100
kilometers off the Phoenician
coast. This island was known
to the Phoenicians as the
"Copper Island" because of
the large amount of Copper
extracted from there.
According to the Roman
historian Paterculus, Cadiz
on the Atlantic coast of Spain
was founded around I I 10
BC. According to another
Roman historian, Pliny, the
Phoenician settlement at
Lixos on the western coast of
Africa in Mauritania, is even
older than the one at Cadiz.
In the 1st Chapter of
Kings, the bible states that
Tarshish, presumably
Tartessos in Spain, was


already colonized by the
Phoenicians under the reign
of Solomon, in the middle of
the 10th century BC.
By the beginning of the
9th century BC, the
Phoenicians had trading
posts and anchorages in
Sicily, Sardinia, and all along
the coast of North Africa. -
And in 814 BC, the city of
Carthage was founded at the
site of present-day Tunis: it
was to dominate the western
Mediterranean for nearly 400
years and to challenge Rome
for world supremacy in the 3
d century BC. According to
the Greek historian
Thucydides, the Phoenicians
held the entire island of Sicily
when the Greeks first arrived
there in the 7th century BC.
Trading posts
In the beginning, and for
two centuries or so, most of
the Phoenician settlements in
the western Mediterranean
were factories or commercial
agencies having trading and
industrial functions. With the
notable exception of Carthage,
which was clearly a colonial
enterprise from day one, these
early settlements were not
colonies in the traditional
sense. They were merely
trading facilities set up
primarily for the acquisition of
important ores and the
exchange, of various raw
materials for the products of


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Phoenician industries. For
example, the British Isles were
known to the Phoenicians as
the "Tin Islands": they went
there primarily for the purpose
of acquiring tin. As discussed
earlier, this tin, in turn, was
alloyed with copper from
Cyprus, the "Copper Island",
to yield the Bronze that they
used in their bronze industries.
Permanent
settlements
The Greek westward
expansion, which began in the
middle of the 8th century BC,
brought the era of Phoenician
pre-colonization to an end.
The aggressiveness of the
Greek colonial expansion
forced the Phoenicians to
establish permanent
settlements in order to secure
and consolidate their trade
relationships. For example,
Thucydides says that when the
Greeks arrived in Sicily
toward the end of the 8"
century BC, the Phoenicians
who were already settled there
retreated west to Palen-no.
There, they dug in and built
defensive walls to prevent


further encroachment by the
Greeks. That would explain
why the city of Motya on the
north coast of the island was
not permanently settled until
the 8th century BC, when the
Phoenicians had already been
trading there for two centuries.
The first cities of
Western Europe
Be that as it may, there can
be no question but that the
Phoenicians were the first
contacts of Western Europe,
and they were the first to
introduced Western Europe to
the great civilizations of the
East. There can be no
question that the first cities of
Western Europe were
Phoenician cities.
The word civilization
itself comes from the Latin
root civitas, meaning "city".
Civilization therefore, may
be properly defined as the
advent of city life, and a
civilized society as one that
lives in cities. In that sense, it
can be said that the
Phoenicians introduced
civilization into Western
Europe.


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