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WEST CIRCULATION LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF FL
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FLORIDA' b kIR S 1 COAST QUALITY
62% drop in mortgage approvals
to minorities since housing crisis
Since the housing market collapsed, mortgage lending to African-
Americans and Hispanics has plunged by more than 60 percent, accord-
ing to a new study of loan information that banks submit to the federal
Together, African-Americans and Hispanics were able to borrow 62 per-
cent less to buy or refinance homes in 2009 than in 2004, before the mar-
ket crashed, the computerized analysis finds. With lenders imposing
tighter credit standards, mortgage dollars going to non-Hispanic white
borrowers also declined, though by considerably less, 17 percent. Asians
fared best, obtaining nearly an equal amount in mortgages.
Whites were about twice as likely as African-Americans and Hispanics
to be approved for prime mortgages with the lowest interest rates, while
members of the two largest minority groups were two to four times more
likely to receive subprime loans, which have higher rates. By contrast,
the disparities were much narrower for loans insured by the government's
Federal Housing Administration, which has attracted a growing number
of borrowers during the credit crunch.
The study concluded that a "dual mortgage market" has emerged, with
white and Asian borrowers having better access to lower-cost mortgages
than African-Americans and Hispanics, who on average pay more to own
or refinance a home-if they can obtain a mortgage.
No more Chocolate City: DC won't
be majority minority after 2014
MSNBC is reporting that by 2014, blacks will no longer be the major-
ity in Washington, D.C. The city dubbed the "Chocolate City" because of
its teeming black population will not even be the milk chocolate city,
according to Benjamin Orr, a research analyst at the Brookings
Institution's Metropolitan Policy Program. Orr told the Washington Post,
"I forecast that by 2014, African Americans would no longer be the
majority in the District."
The reason for this shift has been the influx of affluent whites, the cre-
ation of new high-skilled, high-paying jobs and the decimation of lower-
skilled, lower-paying jobs. Brookings found that from 2000 to 2009, the
District gained 39,000 households with incomes of $75,000 or higher.
During that same period, the city lost 37,600 households with incomes of
$50,000 or less.
Mississippi may have a new
license tag honoring KKK leader
A fight is brewing in Mississippi over a proposal to issue specialty
license plates honoring Confederate Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, who
was an early leader of the Ku Klux Klan.
The Mississippi Division
of Sons of Confederate
Veterans wants to sponsor
a series of state-issued
W license plates to mark the
l 150th anniversary of the
Civil War, which it calls
Sthe "War Between the
S States." The group pro-
poses a different design each year between now and
2015, with Forrest slated for 2014, reports the Associated Press.
Forrest, a Tennessee native, is revered by some as a military genius and
reviled by others for leading the 1864 massacre of black Union troops at
Fort Pillow, Tenn. He was also a Klan grand wizard in Tennessee after the
Democratic Rep. Willie Bailey, who handles license plate requests in
the House, said he has no problem with SCV seeking any design it wants.
"If they want a tag commemorating veterans of the Confederacy, I don't
have a problem with it," said Bailey, who is black. "They have that right.
We'll look at it. As long as it's not offensive to anybody, then they have
the same rights as anybody else has."
Locally, a Jacksonville, Fl high school is named in Forrest's honor.
Minnesota landlord who refused
Black tenant must pay $25K
Detroit Lakes, Minn Ranesha Halliburton, a 25-year-old Black col-
lege student, was recently awarded $25,500 in settlement funds for being
turned away as a tenant by two white landlords because of her race. For
refusing to rent one of their properties to "these kinds of people," Pearl
Beck, 92, and her son, Gregory Beck, 51, were ordered to pay the sum by
a federal court in Minneapolis. Authorities concluded, the Becks violat-
ed the federal Fair Housing Act by refusing in 2007 to rent a dwelling to
Halliburton because of her race. A month after turning her down, the
Becks rented the same home to a white man, according to federal offi-
After viewing the property and being told it was no longer for rent, a
white woman and acquaintance of Halliburton's posed as a prospective
renter and met Pearl Beck at the same property the next day. The acquain-
tance asked Pearl Beck whether she rented to blacks or American
Indians. The landlord responded, "A carload of them came by the other
day, but I will keep that unit vacant or move in myself before renting to
Halliburton found a place elsewhere in Detroit Lakes and filed a com-
plaint with the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development.
The U.S. attorney's office sued the Becks in May 2009.
Volume 24 No. 18 Jacksonville, Florida February 17-23, 2011
Nat Glover officially
named EWC President
made history as
sheriff of color,
ran for Mayor
and is a noted
Nat Glover has
Nat Glover accepted the
appointment to be the 29th
President of his alma mater,
Edward Waters College. He has
been serving as the interim
President since last year.
Since Glover's arrival at the
College in May 2010, he balanced
the budget, improved organization-
al culture, solidified and imple-
mented programs that will assist in
boosting retention and graduation
rates, and helped to inspire the
recruitment of one of the largest
freshman classes in school history.
"This is one of my biggest hon-
ors," says Glover. "It is my intent to
take advantage of this time in the
history of the College to try to give
back just some of what it gave to
Pictured above is Norma Sawyer, Robert (Bob) Flowers,
Jacksonville's Chairman of the Gullah/Geechee Community
Development Corp and Susan Murphy. Andr'eXphoto
Gullah Geechee Commission meets,
raises funds for culture on First Coast
The four-state Gullah Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor Commission
held its first 2011 quarterly meeting at EWC last week and culminated the
full day with a fundraiser at the Clara White Mission.
The meeting highlights include updates of the developing Preferred
Alternative, which will focus on empowering Gullah Geechee people and
sustaining the culture. The fundraiser, attended by local politicians and
notables, included an address by the National Chairman of the
Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor Commission Emory
Campbell. Campbell spoke on how he and a team of commissioners have
fought to get funding to preserve, protect and defend the rich
Gullah/Geechee language and heritage.
President Obama reflects with Dr. Maya Angelou after presenting
her with the Medal of Freedom.
Angelou, Lewis and Russell among
2011 Medal of Freedom recipients
President Obama honored the mer President George H.W. Bush.
2010 Medal of Freedom recipients One of our country's most cele-
this week. brated poets, Dr. Maya Angelou,
The very special group, 15 in all, was honored for her work, as was t
gathered at the White House to cellist, musician Yo Yo Ma.
receive our nation's highest civilian Sports legends, baseball great Stan
award. "The Man" Nusial and basketball
"This is one of the things that I star Bill Russell received the medal
most look forward to every year, for their efforts both during compe-
the chance to meet with, and more tition and outside the games.
importantly honor some of the most Another giant of the civil rights
extraordinary people in America," movement, Congressman John
President Obama said. Lewis, was also a member of this
Heading the list of those receiving distinguished group, along with
the Medal of Freedom, a man who's investor and philanthropist Warren
actually given the award, was for- Buffett.
New Black Panther Party
chairman encourages city to unite
National Chairman of the New
Black Panther Party treated
Jacksonville attendees to a recent
lecture entitled, "Can These Dry
Bones be Raised to Produce Life".
Focusing on issues beleaguering
the city ranging from police brutal-
ity to unity, Dr. Shabazz encour-
aged attendees to unite regardless
of religious, economical and social
status to build working, active
"Working together in harmony,
unity and trust combined with the
right spirit and mind set, we can
Dr. Malik Zulu Shabazz resolve all of our problems," he
Attorney Malik Zulu Shabazz, said.
by William Jackson
Young Black males in our com-
munity are thirsty for role models.
They really aren't hard to find we
just take the time to look. Many are
willing to share their story.
These positive men are doing
their jobs, taking care of their fami-
lies, and working quietly to make a
difference in and around the city.
As a teacher, William Jackson takes
the opportunity to reach out to ask
for help to reach some of his stu-
dents. "Sometimes even my words
of wisdom, knowledge, experience
and caring do not penetrate the
senses of my students," said
Jackson. "So I take advantage of
having access to men who do care
and are working to provide positive
morals and ethics to young people".
He recently reached into his con-
nections bag to bring three such
diverse role models into the Duval
County public school system.
al role models to inspire
Councilman Johnny Gaffney, Atty. (ARE) at Jackson's invitation. ARE
Kevin Cobbin and JSO Officer is unique in that it is a magnet, Title
Cummings donated their time to One and neighborhood school in
visit Andrew Robinson Elementary one diverse community.
~i M -s A "n. mmM.i A a I
Story author William Jackson spends time with students in and out
of the classroom as well as being a mentoring advocate.
In their own respective ways,
they shared wisdom, knowledge
and personal experiences about
their youth while growing up in
Jacksonville. Included in their pre-
sentations were their athletic
involvement, effects of peer pres-
sure, dangers of drugs and alcohol,
value of respect, and why education
"Spending valuable time with
young men who will soon be transi-
tioning to middle school is impor-
tant to providing a foundation for
success academically and in the
community" said Jackson. When
others lay verbal claim to trying to
make a difference, these men
walked the talk to make positive
changes. All three role models are
Jacksonville natives and products
of the public school system. In
addition, they stayed after pursuing
higher education to raise their fam-
ilies here. Continued on page 12
THE POWER OF ONE: Elementary teacher
' e i a
February 17-23, 2011.
Page 2 Ms. Perry's Free Press
Social Security provides benefits retirement
to 52.5 million Americans. Nearly later. Wii
14 percent of people 65 and older children,
rely on Social Security for 100 per- of the di
cent of their family income. About earlier.
50 percent of the people in this age based on
group count on benefits for 50 per- How
cent of their income. The important Security
r o 1 e Social Se
played your loc
Security is simple to understand,
but the program itself can be com-
plicated. If you're approaching
retirement, or even if you're already
there, here are 10 things you need to
know about Social Security.
Is Social Security just for
retired workers? No. In December
2009, 15 percent of Social Security
beneficiaries were disabled work-
ers; 8 percent were children; 8 per-
cent were widows, widowers and
parents; and 5 percent were spous-
es. The remaining 64 percent of
beneficiaries were retired workers.
At what age can I start collect-
ing Social Security benefits?
Workers can begin receiving bene-
fits at age 62, but your benefit will
be greater if you wait until your full
ige (currently 66) or your monthly benefits will be tem-
s, widowers, surviving porarily reduced. Once you reach
disabled and children full retirement age, however, your
led can start collecting benefits will be increased to make
retirement ages are up for what was lost.
year of your birth. If you're turning 66 in 2010, the
I sign up for Social amount you can earn without a
benefits ? Apply for reduction in benefits is $37,680. If
rity benefits online, at you're younger than 66 for all of
officee or by phone at 2010, the amount you can earn
800-772-1213. To collect your full
retirement benefits, apply to the
Social Security Administration
(SSA) three months before you
wish to receive your first payment.
How long do I need to work to
become eligible for benefits? If
you were bom in 1929 or later, you
need to work at least 10 years to
become eligible for Social Security.
The SSA determines eligibility with
a system of credits. Basically, you
earn up to four credits for every
year worked, and you need a total
of 40 credits to qualify for Social
Must I stop working to collect
Social Security benefits? No, you
can receive benefits while working.
But, if you are younger than the full
retirement age (currently 66) and
earn more than a certain amount,
Debit or Credit?
Q. When is it better to use a debit card versus a credit card?
A. Debit cards are fine for everyday purchases. Since the money
comes instantly out of your bank account, you may be less inclined to
overspend. And you can't run up balances the way you can with a cred-
But credit cards are often a better choice for big-ticket and online pur-
chases. You avoid instantly draining your bank account of large
amounts, and you can get better protection if there's a problem with the
For example, you can withhold payment or more easily dis-
pute a charge. In addition, credit cards often offer
better rewards than debit cards, and
benefits is $14,160. After you reach
your full retirement age, you keep
all of your benefits no matter how
much you earn.
What's the maximum monthly
Social Security benefit? For a
worker retiring in 2010 at the full
retirement age of 66, the highest
monthly amount is $2,346. In
December 2009, the average
monthly Social Security benefit for
a retired worker was about $1,168.
Can I receive Social Security
benefits based on the earnings of
a former spouse? Yes, as long as
you were married for 10 years and
you aren't remarried. If so, you're
eligible to claim Social Security
benefits under your ex-spouse's
earnings if they turn out to be high-
er than your own.
How can I boost the amount of
my Social Security check? Bottom
line: The longer you wait to start
collecting after you become eligible
at 62, the higher the amount you'll
receive. For each year you delay,
your Social Security benefits will
increase between 7 percent and 8
percent annually up to age 70.
How should I receive my Social
Security payments? Your best bet is
to sign up for direct deposit into
your bank account. Paper checks
can get lost in the mail. The SSA
plans to do away with paper checks
altogether by 2013 in favor of direct
deposit and debit cards.
When someone dies, how does
the Social Security Administration
know? The SSA receives reports of
beneficiary deaths from family
members, funeral homes and other
government agencies. You should
inform the SSA within a month of
YOINURI EY AMTITEIR$
Obama's wackiest budget cuts
by C.Riley, CNNMoney
The funding grants nobody
wants. The "mobile" policing unit
that doesn't get around much. How
about the big fancy telescope that
has been mismanaged?
President Obama's 2012 proposal
lists more than 200 programs that
he wants to cancel or cut, for bil-
lions in savings.
And it offers a bewildering tour
of government projects that don't
work, are hopelessly outdated or
There's the $10 million
Department of Agriculture program
-- named after former Sens.
McGovern and Dole -- that funds
the study ofmicronutrients. Obama
wants it eliminated because only
one person applied for a
grant last year.
Obama also wants to Payments
eliminate a mobile drug
investigation team the James WI
government found to be
"not mobile." It's sup- Departme
posed to help local cops
in rural areas but instead Alaska lar
is being "operated pri- ID
marily in metropolitan Inter-cityl
areas near DEA offices." M
That would save $31 McGoverr
The budget would cut Harry S. 1
$17 million from a pro- 1s1
gram that is trying to B.J. Stup
transfer 150 million Isl
acres of land from the
federal government to
the state of Alaska or its
citizens. The program was launched
in the 1960s; five decades later, it is
only 58% done. The administration
says it is time to "streamline" the
program and focus resources on
completing the task.
Painful cuts in
$3.7 trillion budget
Of course, these cuts will have to
make it through an arduous budget
process before becoming law. But
hey, it's a start.
Also on the chopping block are
well-intentioned programs that
have become mismanaged or are no
The James Webb Space
Telescope, the successor to the
Hubble, is among those programs.
Obama wants to cut $64 million
from the program, which an inde-
pendent group of experts found to
have a "fundamentally broken esti-
mate of cost and schedule."
Savings of $12 million would
result from canceling a Department
of Homeland Security program that
provides federal funds to bus oper-
ators to beef up their security oper-
ations. The budget notes that the
program awards are "not based on
S. Truman Foundation scholarship
fund, which received $1 million in
2010 even though it operated with-
out public help since the 1970s.
The Obama budget would also
knock out a $1 million scholarship
for Olympic hopefuls who are pur-
suing postsecondary education and
That program is administered
through the Department of
Education, which "lacks evidence"
as to the program's effectiveness,
according to Obama's budget. The
budget notes that athletes with
financial needs may still receive
grant, work-study and loan assis-
tance through other programs.
In the context of Obama's $3.7
trillion budget plan, these programs
The government pays for it!
s to wealthy farmers*
ebb space telescope
ent of Justice mobile enforcement team
bus security grant program
n-Dole micronutrient grant
ruman Foundation scholarship fund
ak Olympic Scholarship
*SH INGES WOULD NOT BE REALIZED UNTIL 2013
SOURCE; PRESIDENT OBRAM'S Z 01S BUDGET PROPOSfL
Wealthy farmers could also face a
steep reduction in federal govern-
ment subsidies. Currently, farmers
with up to $750,000 in income are
eligible for federal payments of
$40,000. Obama's proposal would
cap the benefit at $30,000 and
reduce the maximum income for
eligible farmers to $500,000.
A bevy of small scholarships also
face an elimination of funding. One
on the chopping block is the Harry
are small-fry. The budget, which is
likely to face stiff resistance in
Congress, takes a big bite out of
domestic spending and would slash
deficits by $1.1 trillion over the
Two-thirds of those deficit cuts
would result from spending reduc-
tions, while a third would come
from an increase in tax revenue,
according to senior administration
and theft insurance for things
S you buy.
Credit cards are also a wiser choice for transactions in
which the final bill is uncertain-hotels, for instance, where you might
run up a room-service tab. When you present a debit card on check-in,
the clerk is allowed to put a hold on your account for your room rate
plus the hotel's guess at your incidentals.
When the transaction finally clears-it could take up to two days after
checkout-you're debited only for what you actually spent, but in the
meantime you've been at higher risk for bounced checks and overdrafts.
Rental car agencies also put holds on your accounts, as do self-service
gas stations-they put a hold on $50, even if you only buy $10 of gas.
The Federal Fair Housing Act protects your right to live where you
want. in fact, in any decision regarding rental, sales, or lending, it is
against the law to consider race, color, national origin, religion, sex,
disability, or family status. If you think you've been denied housing,
please call us. Fair Housing. It's not an option. It's the law.
y. ^ .. -, ,: -- .
1 ii liC'
0 (*** c 7' ..?
L^ .i .*GL-
Vulnerable citizens at stake in
Gov. Scott's proposed budget
Rachelle Ferrell sells out the Ritz Contermporary jazz
artist Rachelle Ferrell rocked the Ritz Theater for a sold out show last
weekend. Rachelle Ferrell began singing at the age of six, which con-
tributed to the "development of her startling six plus change octave range.
Her range also includes the ability to sing in the whistle register, as stated
in an editorial review in which she references her highest notes in "It only
took a minute" as "Minnie Riperton-like wailing".
In addition to cutting the home-
lessness office which received $7
million last year assisting 74,000
people, Scott's budget calls for
moving trust funds that pay for
indigent criminal defense and
domestic violence and rape crisis
programs into general revenue cof-
fers. He also wants to end programs
that encourage state contracting
with minority businesses and sui-
cide prevention in public schools.
Not only does Scott's proposal
call for not funding the Office of
Homelessness, it's been suggested
he proposes repealing the legisla-
tion that created it.
Throughout his campaign, Scott
has said he expected it to ruffle
feathers. He stuck to his message
that the best way to turn around the
state's economy is to create a busi-
ness-friendly environment that
includes cutting corporate taxes. He
also wants control of $800 million
over the next two years to attract
businesses to the state.
Scott also wants to eliminate the
State's Office of Supplier Diversity,
which in 2010 had a $421,000
budget and oversees the State's
minority contracting efforts.
Rick Scott's campaign helped
make Jacksonville's own Jennifer
Carroll the highest ranking elected
official of color as the Lt. Governor.
However, so far she is a lone wolf.
Though he has not finished, Gov.
Scott has yet to name any African-
American agency heads
Sen. Arthenia Joyner, D-Tampa,
expressed a general concern about
Scott's seeming lack of interest in
diversity to the St. Petersburg
"He hasn't finished, but at this
point it doesn't bode well for the
future with none having been
appointed or suggested to my
knowledge," Joyner said. "I asked
this question back when he met
with the legislative delegation in
Tampa Bay. I at -that point told him
I was interested in diversity and he
said that would be a part of his pro-
gram. But I've yet to see it."
CNN It's the hotel where many
guests have lived all their lives and
some may never check out.
Once one of the most luxurious
hotels in southern Africa, the
Grande Hotel, in Beira,
Mozambique, was abandoned by its
original owners five decades ago.
It's now home to between 2,000
and 3,000 people who live in
squalid conditions, without running
water or electricity. Yet for these
people the crumbling building is a
self-contained community where
they sleep, eat and work.
The once-luxurious lodging is the
subject of a movie by Belgian film-
maker Lotte Stoops, which has just
had its world premiere at the
Rotterdam Film Festival.
Stoops stayed near the Grande
Hotel during a month-long trip to
Mozambique six years ago and was
fascinated by what she saw.
"It was like a village within a vil-
lage," she said. "It looked like the
perfect social housing project."
Stoops returned to Beira two
years ago to begin making her first
documentary-length film, titled
Officially opened in 1955, when
Mozambique was still a Portuguese
colony, the Grande closed its doors
as a working hotel in the mid 60s.
By 1992, when the country's 16-
year civil war ended, the building
was accommodating refugees from
all over Mozambique.
There were originally 110 guest
rooms, but Stoops says every bit of
space in the building is now used as
a living area.
"The telephone booths have been
cut off and made into a room, the
corridor is a room," said Stoops,
who estimates there are currently
about 350 families living there.
There is little inside the hotel to
hint at its former splendor. Glass
has been taken from its windows
and sold, while wood from the inte-
rior has been used to build fires,
Farisai Gamariel is an English
teacher in Beira, but at weekends he
works as a tour guide, showing
cruise ship passengers around the
city. One of the stops on his tour is
the Grande Hotel.
"Tourists come from England,
Germany, Austria," he said. "They
are quite curious to go and see what
"Some actually refuse, they think
it's not a good place to go, they are
scared. But it's not really scary, it's
just like a community."
Like any community, it is organ-
ized. It is headed by a "secretary"
whose job it is to resolve residents'
problems, and some residents act as
security, said Gamariel.
Some of the building's original
squatters have claimed rooms as
their own and now act as landlords,
letting them to others.
Although there is no electricity,
running water or sewage system,
the residents are expert improvis-
ers. Some access electricity by con-
necting to external cables, while
one or two have solar panels, said
Gamariel. The hotel's outdoor
swimming pool is now used to
wash laundry, while the pool chang-
ing room is used as a mosque.
Despite the best efforts of its res-
idents, it's a difficult place to live.
Piles of rubbish fill the building
with a pungent smell and attract
rats, said Gamariel. Trees grow
from the roof of the hotel, their
roots penetrating the top floors,
causing alarming cracks to develop
in the walls. And while Gamariel
said it was safe to visit during the
day, he advised against going at
Gamariel said a local Muslim
The Grande Hotel, in Beira, Mozambique, was once one of the most
luxurious hotels in southern Africa. It is now a permanent home to
community group has successfully
re-housed some residents in new
homes on the outskirts of the city.
But he added that for every family
that moves out, another replaces it.
Nevertheless, some residents
don't want to leave. For some, as
well as being their home, the
Grande Hotel provides their liveli-
hoods. Its corridors act as market
places, with traders selling every-
thing from sugar to toiletries.
Others sell fruit and vegetables in
front of the hotel entrance.
"If you remove them to outside of
Beira they won't get their income,"
said Gamariel. "People aren't very
rich -- they can't pay for transport to
get into the city of Beira, so some
people resist moving out of there."
During her month-long filming,
Stoops, 35, met two generations of
the same family living at the
"There are people who have lived
their whole life there," she said.
Stoops has said that the movie is
her "attempt at understanding the
inner life of a proud shell," and that
she wanted to tell the stories of the
"There were stories of murders,"
she said. "But I also wanted to show
the positive parts and focus on the
FSCJ awarded $122K grant
for Minority Male Program
Florida State College at Jacksonville was awarded $122,873.00 by the
public, nonprofit organization TG to design and implement a program to
facilitate retention and success of minority male students at the
College's Downtown Campus. TG promotes educational access so stu-
dents can realize their college and career dreams; learn the basics of
money management; and repay their federal student loans. The
Minority Male Success Initiative provides specialized assistance for
qualified minority male students, with the help of faculty, staff, mentors,
presenters, and community and business leaders.
According to the College's 2008-2009 Annual Equity Update Report,
the minority population in Jacksonville is approximately 36 percent. Of
that number, nearly 49 percent are males. The retention rate for full-time
minority male students is only 48 percent. Since the implementation of
the Minority Male Success Initiative, over 80 percent of its participants
have been retained and have maintained a grade point average of 2.0 or
"To me MMSI is a cohort of like-minded young men seeking to
achieve success through education, career and leadership development,"
said Sheldon Brown, a participant in the program. "As we interact with
each other we gain a greater awareness of our purpose and the determi-
nation it takes to achieve our goals...simply put, we are a team."
For more information contact Kenneth Reddick, program facilitator at
(904) 632-3324 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Community Action Agency
Northeast Florida Community Action
Agency (NFCAA), a non-profit organiza-
tion-board of directors meeting Thursday,
February 24, 2011, at 4:00 pm. 4070
Boulevard Center Drive, 4500 Building,
Suite 200, Jacksonville, Florida 32207.
For information call 398-7472 ext. 224.
Libya protesters pour into the streets of Benghazi.
Thirsty for democracy,
protesters take to Libyan streets
Benghazi, Libya International news reporting agencies are showing
that the pro-democracy movement has swept into Libya, where protest-
ers clashed with police and government supporters overnight. Hundreds
of protesters poured into the streets of Benghazi on Tuesday protesting
the arrest of a rights campaigner. Protesters threw stones at police, who
pelted them with rubber bullets. Protesters called for the removal of Col.
Muammar Gaddafi, who has ruled Libya since seizing power in a coup
in 1969. Online anti-government demonstrations have been planned for
later this week.
Former luxury hotel in Africa
home to thousands of squatters
Need an Attorney?
Contact Law Office of
Reese Marshall, P.A.
214 East Ashley Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32203
Over 30 years experience of professional
and courteous service to our clients
February 17- 23, 2011
Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 3
Pae M.PerysFrePrssFbray 7-3 21
Glover Takes Over as Permanent President
A few weeks ago I sat down and
talked with Nat Glover about
Edward Waters College and his
plans for the future. At some point
in the conversation he smiled and
mentioned that a big announcement
I didn't ask what it was because
I figured that it was a mere matter
of time before the interim tag
would be taken off of Glover's
presidency at EWC and made a
permanent position. Glover is a
great choice for a number of rea-
son, but first and foremost is his
passion for the university, its stu-
dents and storied history.
It's easy to take a job a do pret-
ty good at it, but when you are pas-
sionate about your job and love
going to work everyday those are
the people who excel. It is my
belief that Glover is exactly what
the college needs. Sometimes we
have to press the reset button and
do something different.
Who was that who said some-
thing like, "If you always do what
you've always done, you'll always
get what you always got?"
And not to put any of the col-
lege's past presidents down, but it's
clearly time to move in the direc-
tion of someone who has business,
community and political relation-
ships to pull the college out of the
hole it's been trying to climb out of
And I am a firm believer that it
starts at the top. There is an old
Arab proverb that rings true even to
this day. "An army of sheep led by
a lion could easily defeat an army
of lions led by a sheep."
And strong leadership is what
many of our historic black colleges
and universities (HBCUs) have
been missing. Many HBCUs have
struggled to find their way and
some have even closed.
And strong well-positioned
leadership is critical in this eco-
nomic climate. Someone said a
long time ago that when white
America catches a cold, black
America catches the flu. Same sce-
nario with our colleges with state,
private and federal resources in
high demand and limited it's
become extremely hard for HBCUs
Strong and stable leadership is
often what separates a good school
from an average and nonperform-
ing school. Glover is no stranger to
public service and leadership hav-
ing served in the Jacksonville
Sheriff's Office for over 30 years,
and leading the city as Sheriff from
1995 to 2003.
The Sheriff, as many of us like
to call him, is a 1966 Edward
Waters College graduate, and in
many ways is uniquely qualified to
help stabilize the college after the
surprise departure of its last presi-
Former EWC President,
Claudette Williams, resigned a few
months back and took a job with
the Southern Association of
Colleges and Schools. Williams
was only at the school for less than
three years, and to be honest she
didn't really accomplish much.
Glover's hands will be full, but
again the right leadership and man-
agement will be the determining
factor for the school's success.
For example, Under Bill
Harvey's leadership, Hampton
University has used the school's
endowment to build hotels, a shop-
ping center and office buildings on
the Virginia coast.
Black colleges have historically
struggled financially because they
depend so heavily on tuition.
Finding new sources of funds,
including investment opportunities
and aggressive fundraising cam-
paigns are critical.
That's where Glover comes into
play. He is well respected in both
the African American community
and the corporate and philanthropic
world, which will be significant as
the college starts recruiting new
students and fundraising for the fall
Glover was not only
Jacksonville's first black sheriff,
but was the first black sheriff elect-
ed in Florida since Reconstruction.
There are certain institutions in
Jacksonville that are critical to the
black community in this city and it
is my opinion that Edward Waters
College is at the top of that totem
pole. So when EWC is hurting so is
the African American community.
What should Glover do first
now that he's officially the 29th
President? Well, I am no scholar,
but President Glover has to aggres-
sively reach out to the business and
philanthropic community and raise
the funds and resources the college
needs. Yes, I know what you are
thinking: easier said than done
Well, I didn't say that it would
be easy, but Glover can get it done.
Congratulations to EWC for select-
ing an exceptional new president
and kudos to Sheriff/President
Glover for being up for the chal-
lenge. I know that he will do a great
job of restoring EWC to its past
prestige and stability.
Signing off from EWC,
The Obama Budget: Valentine Day Massacre
on Valentine Day and it immediate-
ly became the object of a
Valentine's Day Massacre by
Republicans in the House and
Senate who want deeper budget
Lost amid the GOP criticism was
that President Obama proposed $61
billion in cuts. His plan includes a
50 percent cut ($2.5 billion) in the
government's program to help low-
income people pay their heating
bills and slicing $300 million in
community development block
grants. At a time Obama is high-
lighting the need for infrastructure
spending and a clean environment,
he is proposing eliminating almost
$1 billion from grants that go to
states for water treatment plants
and infrastructure programs.
Republican leaders say that
Obama's budget was dead on
arrival. GOP leaders have pro-
posed returning federal spending to
20.6 percent of gross domestic
product (GDP), the average of fed-
eral spending from 1970 to 2008.
"Limiting spending to a histori-
cal average of some kind has been
a longstanding goal of very conser-
vative organizations such as the
Heritage Foundation," noted a
report by Paul N. Van de Water of
the Center on Budget and Policy
Priorities, a non-partisan think tank
in Washington, D.C. "The reality
is, however, that policymakers will
find it virtually impossible to main-
tain federal spending at its average
level back to 1970 without making
draconian cuts in Social Security,
Medicare, and an array of other
vital federal activities."
Trying to peg federal spending to
an arbitrary figure from the past
ignores the enormous changes in
American society that ranges from
increased federal responsibility in
the post 9/11 environment to a
flood of baby boomers reaching
retirement age. There are three key
reasons why trying to roll back fed-
eral spending to 1970 or even 2000
levels ignores today's reality,
according to the Center on Budget
and Policy Priorities report:
The aging of the population -
the percentage of Americans aged
65 and older will grow by more
than half during the next 25 years -
and that growth will increase the
cost of the three largest domestic
programs: Medicare, Medicaid,
and Social Security.
Federal responsibilities have
grown. Since 2000, for example,
federal responsibilities have
expanded in the aftermath of the
September 11, 2002 terrorist
attacks; aid to veterans has
increased as a result of the Iraq and
Afghanistan wars; the Medicare
prescription drug benefit added by
Congress in 2003 along with health
care reform will also expand feder-
al spending, even though health
care will eventually lower the
Spending on federal debt will be
substantially higher than it has been
the past 40 years. The combination
of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars,
the Bush-era tax cuts and their
extensions and a severe recession
have contributed to the public debt
being almost twice as large (as a
percentage of GDP) as it was in
2001. Higher interest costs have
accompanied the rising debt.
The budget debate isn't just a
matter of numbers. The budget also
defines us as a country.
"There are limits to how much
Social Security can be cut without
undermining its crucial role in
reducing poverty and replacing
income lost when a wage earner
retires, dies, or becomes disabled,"
the Center on Budget and Policy
Priorities report states. "Social
Security benefits are quite modest,
averaging only $1,175 a month (or
$14,105) a year) for a retired work-
er. Social Security checks now
replace about 37 percent of an aver-
age worker's pre-retirement earn-
ings -one of the lowest of any
western industrialized country
-and that figure will gradually fall
to about 32 percent over the next
two decades, largely because of the
scheduled increase in the full retire-
ment age to 67."
Obama's pledge to freeze the pay
of federal employees and any tam-
pering with Social Security would
have a disproportionate impact on
people of color. According to the
latest "State of the Dream" report
by United for a Fair Economy, 59.1
percent of Blacks and 64.8 percent
of Latinos depend on Social
Security for more than 80 percent
of their family income. And,
African-Americans are 70 percent
more likely than Whites to work for
the federal government.
In his budget, Obama proposed
allowing the Bush tax cuts to expire
in 2012, ending subsidies to oil and
gas companies and eliminating tax
breaks for companies that do busi-
ness overseas. Unfortunately,
Obama provided no details or spe-
cific proposals. GOP leaders who
insisted on extending the Bush era
tax breaks for the wealthy are
unlikely to favor curbing corporate
welfare. Eliminating $125 billion a
year in corporate welfare would be
more than enough to offset the pro-
posed cuts in domestic spending.
It is clear than neither Obama nor
Republicans will on their own voli-
tion protect the interests of the truly
needy in the budget debate. That's
why Americans need to mobilize to
force them to make more sensible
decisions. It's easy to admire how
protesters in Egypt and Tunisia
have rallied in recent weeks to
force a change in their government.
It's time to raise our voices in the
U.S. We have social media and
technology at our disposal. Let's
use it to now let our elected offi-
cials know we want them to protect
average Americans, not big busi-
ness and the wealthy.
The Man from Sudan
His country is known among many Americans as
one of the most vile, hateful, misogynistic, terror sup-
porting, genocidal hell-holes on the planet. But, the
man from Khartoum was hardly as demonic as many
have depicted when he came to Washington and called
for "turning a new page" in Sudan/U.S. relationships.
The man from Sudan came to Washington following a
referendum that he knows likely leads to half his country's land area going
to the new and independent State of Southern Sudan.
In talks with Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and his speech
at the Washington Woodrow Center Sudanese Foreign Minister Ali Ahmed
Karti put United States' foreign policy makers in question by asking "what
next"? Ali Karti says the United States should build on the progress from
its successful referendum ahd quickly move on in normalizing ties with
Sudan. "The Sudanese have fulfilled an essential obligation. As far as
world expectations go, we have delivered and thus our commitment to
peace should never be in question," Karti told Woodrow Wilson
International Center for Scholars.
After decades of U.S. operatives' involvement to topple Khartoum's
government they succeeded in cutting Karti's country in half with the
South's January vote to succeed. Two decades of Sudan campaigns that
labeled people from Khartoum as perpetrators of slavery, "genocidal", "ter-
ror supporting" and "woman mutilating" brought the parties to here. The
final results of the referendum are due in early February2011. For letting
it take away from the land, the U.S. has offered Sudan a range of incentives
if it peacefully accepts the results. Karti believes that improved relations
should result from his government's concessions after experiencing years
of disinformation and discord. Karti wants the Obama administration to
drop Sudan from a list of state sponsors of terrorism.
When Karti says: "It's time to turn a new page" he is going against years
of American opposition to his regime. While some Washington officials
have praised Sudan for the January vote, some of the old-line opposition
are set on moving the goalposts, saying they are "still concerned about the
situation in Darfur". Karti considers "Darfur", where violence from
rebelling forces continues, the canard in this deck and says: "Rather than
moving the goals, let us stick to the goals now and work together to get to
those goals". Scott Gration, the Obama administration's special envoy for
Sudan was in the audience.
Sudan (land of the Blacks) received its "bad rap" from a coalition of
Jewish Lobby organizations and most Black Members of Congress. Led
by Africa Subcommittee Ranking Member Donald Payne, theirs were the
voices that spoke for two decades about "unspeakable atrocities" they
claimed were being committed by Arabs in Khartoum against 1) the
"Christians" of South Sudan and 2) "Africans" in Darfur.
Isn't it high time we turn a new page in U.S.-Sudan relations? That
begins with removal of the Khartoum government from the list of state
sponsors of terrorism and lifting of sanctions which have wreaked havoc
on the Sudanese people and their economy for nearly two decades.
Khartoum and Washington still have issues have issues left unresolved by
the independence vote to discuss. These important items include borders,
citizenship, and the division of oil revenues and the future of the oil-rich
The Land of the Blacks probably holds good investment opportunities
for African Americans. Washington will permit an exchange of ambassa-
dors if both North and South Sudan agree on the key principles for co-exis-
tence. With full implementation of Sudan's 2005 peace deal and commit-
ments put in place to resolve the Darfur conflict, the U.S. government
would work with Congress to lift economic sanctions, rescind the state
sponsor of terrorism designation and support international assistance and
relief of Sudan's $35 billion external debt.
Within weeks after referendum results are finalized, the Obama admin-
istration should move ahead to normalize relations with Khartoum. There
should be no wavering in U.S. commitments in these matters. State
Department spokespeople say Clinton "reaffirmed U.S. willingness to take
steps toward normalization of relations, as Sudan meets its commitments."
rs l w1 i ria
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MAIL TO: JACKSONVILLE FREE PRESS
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February 17-23, 201i
Page 4 Ms. Perry's Free Press
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February 17-23, 201
Cook up some history tonight.
Winn-Dixie is proud
to celebrate the flavors
of African American heritage during
Black History Month and throughout the year.
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February 17-23, 201.1
Poep 6 Ms Perrv's Free Press
St. Simon Baptist Church of Orange Park
Celebrating Church and Pastor's Anniversary
The St. Simon Baptist Church Family of Orange Park, FL of which the
Rev. W.H. Randall, is the Founding Pastor, invites the public and sur-
rounding communities to their 20th year Church and Pastor's Anniversary
Celebration. Continuing special services include 3rd Sunday, Feb. 20th -
Grand Celebration Day at 4 p.m., 20th Year Church, Pastor and First Lady's
Anniversary Celebration Worship Service; 4th Sunday, Feb. 27th Youth
Day and Black History Celebration dress in African Heritage Attire.
The Church is located at 1331 Miller Street, Orange Park, FL. For fur-
ther details or directions call (904) 215-3300 or visit the Church website at
African Brunch at Mt. Lebanon
Mt Lebanon Missionary Baptist Church will present its Annual African
Brunch on Saturday, February 20th from 10 a.m. noon. The luncheon will
include fun, fellowship. Poetry, music, theatre and authentic African cui-
sine. The church is located at 9319 Ridge Blvd., 32208 (off Soutel).
For more information call 226-1610.
Black History Month
Poetry Contest for Youth
The Jacksonville African American Genealogy Society will present it
Fifth Annual Black History Month Poetry Competition for elementary-
high school students. The theme for the contest is "Remembering the Past
for Future Generation Longevity". All entries submitted must be original
and include the student's name birthdate, address, grade, school, homeroom
teacher, and parental permission to participate. Submitted poems will
become the property of JAAGS and emailed / postmarked before 12:00 AM
February 20. 2011. Entries should be mailed to JAAGS 3730 Soutel Drive
#2201, Jacksonville, FL 32208 or emailed to email@example.com. Cash
prizes and a 1 year family membership to all participants.
Refreshing Women Push TV Ministry
Refreshing Women is looking for Christian Talent, soloist, speakers,
praise dancers and poem readers for a free service that is free to the pub-
lic. The show will be air Saturday mornings at 8A.M. on Comcast 29.
Any Pastor wishing to come on the show in the near future are welcome,
and can have their church name and worship service added to the
Community Shout or Roll, by sending their, church name, address and time
of service to P.O. Box 350117 Jacksonville, Fl. 32235-0117. For more
information, call Rev. Mattie W. Freeman at 220-6400 or email CFIGC-
Prayer Brunch at Abundant Life
Abundant Life Christian Center I, located at 2121 Kings Road, will pres-
ent a Prayer Brunch on Saturday, February 26, 2011 at 10 a.m. On February
24th and 25th, there will be nightly 7 p.m. services focusing on a "Prayer
for Our Nation". Pastors Benjamin and Joann Clark.Door prizes will be
awarded. For more information, call 207-1850.
West St. Mark Anniversary
and Retirement Celebration
West St. Mark Baptist Church invite the community to share in their
church's 53rd and Pastor's 17th anniversary and retirement celebration. It
will be held on Sundays February 20th and 27th at 4 p.m. nightly. The
church is located at 1435 West State Street. The public is invited to attend.
Stanton Gala Committee Meeting
Mighty Church of the Redeemed to
Connect Youth with Area Leaders
The Mighty Church of the Redeemed will present their annual Black
History Month event under the theme "Building Your Success Team
through Black History". It will be held on Sunday, February 20th at 5 p.m.
The church is located at 2311 West 12th Street.
This program will offer inspiration through song, dance, oratory speech-
es, and visual art displays with information provided by Community Youth
Empowerment Organization along with guest speaker Coach Welton
Coffey of William M. Raines 1998 State Champions. Both young and old
alike are invited to participate in this empowering program. Refreshments
will be served. For more information, call 607-3314.
Free workshops on credit and banking
The War on Poverty Florida is offering a workshop series on credit, bank-
ing and budgeting with MoneySmart every Tuesday throughout February at
5:30 p.m. Their offices are located inside the Gateway Mall at 5196-A
Norwood Ave. Jacksonville, Florida 32208. Budget Boot Camp will be
held on February 18, and 22 If you have any questions please call 904-766-
7275 or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
**** NOTICE *****
Church news is published free of charge. Information must be
received in the Free Press offices no later than Monday, at 5 p.m. of the
week you want it to run. Information received prior to the event date
will be printed on a space available basis until the date. Fax e-mail to
765-3803 or e-mail to JFreePress@aol.com.
Potter's House to host
The Potter's House ; 5119 Normandy Blvd., will host the 2011
International Praise and Worship Conference February 17 & 18, 2011, at
the Potter's House Christian Fellowship, 5119 Normandy Blvd,
The conference is part of the mission of Teresa Hariston, editor of Gospel
Today magazine, and founder of the Christian Heritage Foundation, which
is designed "to inspire, educate, and inform the world about gospel music.
It is a gathering where people of all faith lift their voices and join in soli-
darity to celebrate black history and culture.
Disciples of Christ Celebrating
Church and Pastor Anniversaries
Pastor Robert Le Count and the Disciples of Christ church family
extend an open invitation to the community to worship with them during
their 8th Church and Pastor Anniversary services. These services will be
held Thursday, March 3 Friday March 4, 2011 at 7 p.m. nightly. A Musical
Celebration will be held on Saturday March 5, 2011 at 6 p.m. and festivi-
ties will culminate on Sunday March 6, 2011 at 5 p.m., The Anniversary
theme is Listening to God Voice. For more information please call (904)
Alpha Phi Alpha 3rd Annual MLK
Oratorical Breakfast & Competition
Jacksonville's local alumni chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity,
Incorporated, Upsilon Lambda, will hold the 3rd Annual MLK Oratorical
Breakfast and Competition on Saturday, February 19, 2011 at 9 a.m.in the
University of North Florida's University Center. This event will showcase
young men in the Jacksonville community competing in a speech contest
for scholarship money. Call Charles Gilette at 982-7487 for more info.
Black History Program at El Beth El
The Annual Black History Day celebration will be held on February 27th
at 11:00 a.m. & 3 p.m. 11 a.m.guest speaker is State Attorney Angela
Corey and 3 p.m. speaker will be Pastor Anthony Mincey. of Fisher of Men
International Harvest Center. Music will be rendered by New Creation
Gospel Singers. If you have any questions please contact our pastor Bishop
Dr. Lorenzo Hall Sr. at 904-710-1586 or the office manager Miguel Zapata
at 904-374-3940. Dinner will be serving after each service.
Seeking the lost for Christ
Matthew 28:19 20
Pastor Landon Williams
8:00 A.M. Early Morning Worship
9:30 a.m. Sunday School
11:00 a.m. Morning Worship
Tuesday Evening 7 p.m. Prayer Service
Wednesday Bible Study 6:30 7 p.m.
Mid-Week Worship 7 p.m.
Radio Weekly Broadcast WCGL 1360 AM
Sunday 2 PM 3 PM
**FREE TUTORING FOR YOUTH IN ENGLISH, SCIENCE,
HISTORY AND MATH EVERY TUESDAY 6:30 8 P.M.
Former Jacksonville businesswoman succumbs
Harriett C. Graham was an honor
student in the 1933 graduating
class of Old Stanton Sr. High
School, where she typed the
"Segregated News Page" of the
Florida Times Union, which actu-
ally began her literary career. After
high school, she worked at The
Afro American Life Insurance
Company and was a faithful mem-
ber of St. Paul Lutheran Church,
She married John R. Graham Sr.
and the couple owned and operated
Graham's Grocery Store on 45th
Street, which was located on five
acres where Mrs. Graham also
operated a Plant Nursery. The raw
virgin land was turned into a mag-
nificent landscaped nature pre-
serve. Her 4 children and their
friends enjoyed many "Spend the
Day Parties" there. However, her
interest in the literary arts prevailed.
She took a course in Writing for
Children and Teens, at the age of 65,
and used her writing skills to self-
publish more than five books for
children. At the age of 81, Mrs.
Graham completed and published a
book of historical Facts, Stones,
Grit, Bricks, Mortar-Black
Heritage, which revealed many con-
tributions of blacks that have helped
to shape our lives. This informative
book should be in every home and
Mrs, Graham's energy and active
mind allowed her to continue her
writing and service as a Literacy
Volunteer at the Dunleith
Elementary School in Marietta,
Georgia until the age of 89, A col-
lection of many volumes of articles
have been contributed to The
Slaughter Library In Mississippi;
and The Bentley Rare Book
Gallery at Kennesaw State
Mrs. Graham, a long time
Jacksonville resident has made
her "Heavenly Transition". Her
daughter, Joyce Moore misses her
mother, but says: "Her inspiring
legacy shall live on in the hearts
and lives of all who knew her. May
you be inspired to give each day
your very best, and remember that
age is just a number and you too,
may fulfill your passions for many
precious years to come, with Peace,
Love, and Blessings.
EDITOR'S NOTE: Mrs.
Graham contacted the Free Press
approximately fifteen years ago,
after one of her hometown friends
sent her a copy of the paper, she
immediately called and ordered
her subscription and continued to
read the Free Press until her pass-
* *A Full Gospel Baptist Church *
Every 3rd & 4th
4 :00 p.m.
that's on the
Pastor Robert Lecount, Jr
School of Ministry Tuesday at 7:00 p.m.
Thursday High Praise Worship 7:00 p.m.
2061 Edgewood Avenue West, Jacksonville, Florida 32208
(904) 765-5683 Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
Bethel Baptist Institutional Church
215 Bethel Baptist Street, Jacksonville, FL 32202 (904) 354-1464
Sunday Morning Worship
7:40 a.m. and 10:45 a.m.
The Word from the Sons
and Daughters of Bethel
3rd Sunday 3:30 p.m.
Wednesday Noon Service
"Miracle at Midday"
12 noon-1 p.m.
Dinner and Bible Study
at 5:00 p.m. 6:30 p.m.
Come share In Holy Communionn 1st Sunday at 4:50 .m.
WCGL 1360 AM Thursday 8:15 -8:45 a.m.
AM 1400 Thursday 7:00 8:00 p.m.
WTLV Channel 12 Sunday's at 6:30 a.m.
Grace and Peace
C,". D r''
I "6' '~'' J
Bc Iwe Ae 4. il n
riage should be allowed.
Cott's report, an excerpt
of which was published in
Sthe Boston Review, exam-
ined the history of marriage
Sin the U.S. and how it was
determined who would be
allowed to marry and why.
Looking at the treat-
married, compared with ment of black Americans,
taer be e s e ind reason b to cel- Cott pointed out, it was
ent of black au any couples Sti d ears, even clear the privilege of mar-
l le American adUtS asYe m e cou lens s tl, married s lo
Forty present oerf a r Richard o al tsY e hon abo mRichardson credits God riage could be granted
raust 26 pece n Bar Ricardson ceremon.i haron and taken away arbitrari-
rebnewed their vows in 2007 in a formaoy teir marriage.
and trust of each other to the success What "Where slaveholders permitted,
by was once considered a badge of slave couples often wed informally,
J. Jones, BAW honor among the enslaved and for- creating family units of consoling
The statistics are dreary, and the merely enslaved who looked for value to themselves. But slavehold-
message is staggering: Black peo- ways around laws that prohibited ers could break up those unions
ple and marriage don't mix. them from establishing formal fam- with impunity. Slave marriages
Forty-two percent of black adults ily ties, marriage has become an received no defense from state gov-
have never been married, compared option that many African ernments," Cott wrote.
with just 26 percent of all American Americans have decided to pass up. After emancipation, she said, for-
adults. By the time most black For generations, marriage was a mer slaves rushed to get married
Americans reach their early 30s, privilege. because they saw marriage as an
half have never married, compared "Because free consent the expression of rights long denied
with 31 percent or less for other mark of a free person was at the them, and being legally married
racial and ethnic groups. core of the matrimonial contract, affirmed their right to consent to
The news is especially depressing slaves could not enter into valid their living arrangements.
for black women. marriages. Considered property by Still, the right to marry wasn't
Black women ages 35 to 44 are law, slaves lacked basic civil rights, always guaranteed. After the
the only group of American women including the essential capacity to Freedman's Bureau went away,
of child-bearing age with lower consent. Furthermore, marriage some Southern white officials
rates of marriage than men of the obliged those undertaking it to ful- refused to grant African-Americans
same race or ethnicity, according fill certain duties defined by the marriage licenses or charged pro-
the U.S. Census Bureau. By their state, and a slave's prior and over- hibitive fees for them.
early 40s, 31 percent of black riding obligation of service to the Worse still, some authorities
women have never been married, master made carrying out the duties parsed marriage law to find minor
compared to 9 percent of white of marriage impossible," Nancy F. infractions under which they could
women, 11 percent of Asian women Cott wrote in a report for a lawsuit prosecute African-Americans.
and 12 percent of Hispanic women. that addressed whether gay mar- By 1963, 70 percent of black
families were headed by married
couples. By 2002, it was 48 per-
What's behind it? Is it economic
issues, incarceration rates, the
increasing number of black women
getting college degrees compared
to black men? Does any of that
mean black marriage is
usually comes from
the race," said
tor of The Black
which focuses on
issues affecting the
People are swayed by a
number of things, she said,
including the media, into thinking
their perfect mate will look a cer-
tain way, have a certain type ofjob,
make a certain amount of money
and anything short of that is not
"I had a woman tell me, 'I don't
want to marry a laborer. I'm an edu-
cated woman. I think I should
marry a man who carries a brief-
case.' And I told her, 'He may carry
a briefcase, but it may not have
anything in it but a peanut butter
sandwich,'" Hare said.
"Black women have been led to
believe there are no peers for them,
6 tips to steal from people who don't get sick
SAre you secretly envious of your of cortisol, a hormone that triggers 4. Cold showers. A small body of bowel syndrome or so researchers
co-workers and friends who never stress. Sleep is one of the best ways scientific literature indicates expo- think.
seem to get sick? to stay healthy. People who get a sure to cold water may increase the 6. Lifting Weights. Regular
Here are a few easy-to-follow solid eight hours per night absolute- body's natural antioxidants. weight training may reduce the risk
tips to steal from them: ly do better. Those who get into bed 5. Stress reduction. If you're of heart disease, high blood pres-
1. Wash Your Hands Over and and fall asleep right away and stay constantly frazzled, you're at high- sure, high cholesterol, colon and
Over. Hand washing may sound asleep are more protected against er risk for everything from a heart breast cancer, depression and dia-
like obvious advice for combating colds than those who wake up attack to diabetes and irritable betes.
germs, but surveys suggest that repeatedly through the night. A
most of us are not vigilant about good night's sleep will restore the Applicant process open for city's
washing our hands after using the immune system because when you
restroom. In order to prevent ill- get a good night's sleep, melatonin Generation Next Competition
ness, it's important to wash your levels rise and that improves immu-
hands frequently. During cold and nity. And best of all, there are no The City of Jacksonville is proud to announce the third annual
flu season, wash your hands with side effects.The best time for a Generation Next Youth Talent Competition. The competition is a live
soap many times during the day short snooze: Between the hours of talent showcase during the 2010 Jacksonville Jazz Festival. All appli-
because you're in contact with all one and three in the afternoon, cants must be between the ages of 7 and 21 and previous winners of the
kinds of pathogens -- door knobs, 3. Friends. You might not think competition may not apply. Only individual entrants will be accepted,
stair railings, other people. You having a social network would no group submissions. The winner will receive a savings bond to
really want to have clean hands. count a much as diet and exercise encourage further musical education.
According to the CDC, proper hand when it comes to good health. But All applications must be submitted by Friday, April 8. Auditions will
washing for 20 seconds is the most studies have found good buddies take place on Saturday, April 16 at Keyboard Connection from 2-5 p.m.
effective way to avoid the 1 billion can protect against everything from Applicants who pre-register will be contacted with an audition time the
colds that Americans catch each memory loss to heart attacks to week of April 11. Selected contestants must be available to participate
year, not to mention other infec- infectious diseases. Sociability, in the Jacksonville Jazz Festival on May 27, 28 and 29. They will be
tious diseases. increases self-esteem, which in judged by a panel of music industry adjudicators who are specialists in
2. Napping. It's been shown that turn, supports the immune system. the fields of traditional contemporary jazz and blues art forms.
lack of sleep causes weight gain, Among the other ways that will For applications and more information on the Generation Next Youth
leads to a compromised immune help you to stay well and live Talent Competition, visit www.JaxJazzFest.com or call the Office of
system and increases the production longer: Special Events at (904) 630-3690.
and I would like to know where
they get that from."
By assuming and projecting the
worst attributes on black men, Hare
said, black women "become willing
pawns in the destruction of their
Still, other women, Hare said, tol-
erate just about anything
because of their fear
of being alone.
tion, she said,
ommends that black couples dis-
cuss their expectations and needs
with one another and make sure
they are on the same page and to
not be afraid to engage the services
of a therapist, if necessary, to help
move the conversation forward.
She also would like to see a
national conference "where black
men and black women come
together and cast off all societal
taboos and insidious class divi-
sions," largely driven by media,
which produce false images and
expectations of what relationships
and married life should be.
"We are successful people
because we have big dreams and
never stop dreaming of more" in
terms of learning more about the
world, being of service to our fel-
low man and contributing to socie-
ty, said Hare.
"You have to have goals one-
year, five-year, 10-year plans and
leave nothing to chance," Hare said.
"That's why we have to have social
networks to find support, prosperity
thinkers. That's developing a men-
tal attitude that will drive you to
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Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 9
February 17-23 2011
What to do from social, volunteer, political and sports
' T WN
activities to self enrichment and the civic scene
The Ritz Theatre will be hosting
its' final showing in the Black Film
Series on February 19th The
movie will be shown FREE. For
more info on film times/film show-
The 13th Annual Kingsley
Heritage Celebration will be held
on February 19th and 26th featur-
ing a series of events free to the
public. The annual celebration
explores the cultural traditions
which originated during the planta-
tion period. The lineup includes his-
torian Rodney Hurst, Auntie Roz
and the Afro-Caribbean Dance
Theatre and a master storyteller.
The plantation is located off
Heckscher Drive/A1A, Call 251-
3537 for more detailed information.
Jacksonville Local Organizing
Committee Inc. for the Millions
More Movement will give away
free clothes on Saturday, February
19, 2011.The location is 916
N.Myrtle Avenue between Kings
Road and Beaver Street from
1 a.m. til 4:30 p.m. For more infor-
mation, visit their website:
www.jaxloc.org., or call 240-9133.
Financial donations and other dona-
tions are accepted.
The Jacksonville Genealogical
Society's 2011 Spring seminar will
be held on Saturday, February
19th from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. It will be
held at St. Paul's Church Hall, 2609
Park Street, Jacksonville, Fl.,
32204. Registration begins at 8:30
a.m. Among the topics will be
"Understanding Your Ancestors'
Probate Files". For more info call
Jim Laird, (904) 264-0743.
Michael Eric Dyson
to speak at UNF
Author and renowned scholar
Michael Eric Dyson will speak at 7
p.m. Wednesday, Feb. 23, in the
University of North Florida's
Andrew A. Robinson Jr. Theater,
Building 14A, next to the Fine Arts
Center. He will discuss race and
culture. This event, which is free
and open to the public, is in cele-
bration of Black History Month.
Through Our Eyes
The Ritz Theater and LaVilla
Museum will have an Opening
Reception for the annual Through
Our Eyes exhibit. This year's theme
is "For Women and Men of Color:
The Art of Relationships".
Festivities will kick off on
Thursday, February 24th from
5:30-7:30 p.m. For more informa-
tion on the free opening call 632-
Hip Hop Tour
Legends of the 80s hip hop scenes
will be in Jacksonville for one night
only for the Legends of Hip Hop
tour. At the Veterans Memorial
Arena will be Salt-N-Pepa, Dougie
Fresh, M.C. Lyte, Whodini, Kurtis
Blow, and more. The concert will
be on Friday, February 25th at 8
p.m. For tickets call 1-800-745-
black tie event
"Social Graces" is hosting the 1st
Annual Jacksonville Community
Awards Gala with the red carpet
theme of "A Night at The Oscars".
It will be held on Saturday
February 26th at 3390 Kori Drive
Jacksonville, Florida 32257. Social
Graces is a non-profit organization
that supports, develops and trains
individuals with disabilities. For
more information call 402-1351.
The Art of Hip Hop
This one-day event features
exhibits and panel discussions in
using Hip Hop as a lens to educate.
It will be held on Saturday,
February 26th from 10 a.m. 3
p.m. at the Museum of
Contemporary Art, 333 North Laura
Street. Call 366-6911.
Whale of a Sale
The Annual Junior League Whale
of a Sale will take place on
Saturday, February 26th from
8:30 a.m. to 2 p.m. at the Greater
Jacksonville Fair and Expo Center.
For just $2 admission and $5 for
parking, shoppers can buy great
gently used merchandise at low
prices. For more information, call
Day at MOSH
Celebrate black history at the
Museum of Science and History by
hands-on activities, presentations
and live performances. It will be
held on Thursday, February 26th,
2011 from 10 a.m. 2 p.m. Call
at the Ritz
Experience the classic Broadway
show Ain't Misbehavin' at the Ritz
Theater on Saturday, February
26th. Chase the blues away with
Fats Waller's buoyant music, per-
formed by a Broadway cast of
singers, dancers and actors.
Showtime is 8 p.m. Call 632-5555.
husband doesn't know"
David E. Talberts hit urban stage-
play "What My Husband Doesn't
Know" will be at the Florida
Theatre on Saturday, February
26th for two shows at 3 p.m. and 7
p.m. For tickets call 355-2787.
Urban League hosts
The Jacksonville Urban League
and a coalition of African-
American organizations will host a
Mayoral Forum on Monday,
February 28th at the LaVilla
School of the Arts. It will be held
from 6-8 p.m., 501 N. Davis Street.
Call 366-3461 for more info.
at the Ritz
Join the Ritz Theatre for a free
evening of Spoken Word, Thursday,
March 3rd at 7 p.m. Call 632-
Diana Ross in concert
Music icon Diana Ross will be in
Jacksonville for her "More Today
Then Yesterday" greatest hits tour.
It will be held on Friday, March 4,
2011 at 8 p.m. in the Times-Union
Center Moran Theater. Tickets start
at $58. Call ticketmaster for tickets.
at the Ritz
Come visit the best local talent out
there at Amateur Night at the Ritz
on Friday, March 4th at 7:30 p.m.
The monthly event always sells out.
For more info call 632-5555 or visit
Jazz Jamm at the Ritz
This month's Ritz Jazz Jamm will
feature Rene Marie. It will be held
on Saturday, March 5th for two
shows at 7 and 10 p.m. at the Ritz.
For more info visit www.ritzjack-
sonville.com or call 632-5555.
The Jacksonville Bar Association
will be offering an "Ask-A-
Lawyer" event on Saturday, March
5th from 9 a.m.- noon, at the
Gateway Town Center, 5000
Norwood Avenue. The service is
free-of-charge. Attorneys will con-
duct individual, 10-to-15-minute
consultations regarding family law
matters, employment, landlord/ten-
ant, wills and estates, criminal law,
bankruptcy, and foreclosures
among other items. For more infor-
mation, call 356-8371, ext. 363
The world famous Harlem
Globetrotters will be doing an expe-
dition game in Jacksonville on at 7
p.m. on March 11th. It will be held
in the Veterans Memorial Arena.
For tickets or more information,
The Jacksonville Blues Festival
featuring Mel Waiters, Sir Charles
Jones and more will take place on
Friday, March 11th at the Times
Union Center. Contact Ticketmaster
for tickets and showtimes.
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like your information to be printed. Information can be
sent via email, fax, brought into our office, e-mailed or
mailed in. Please be sure to include the 5W's who, what,
when, where, why and you must include a contact number.
Email JFreePress@aol.com Fax (904) 765-3803
Mail: Coming Events, Jacksonville Free Press
903 W. Edgewood Ave. Jacksonville, FL 32208
=, I r. 32 1 1"a :
Page 10 Ms. Perry's Free Press
February 17-23, 2011
Feray 172.21 s er'sFe rs ae1
Meet Grammv winning "Best New Artist"
El DeBarge cancels tour, checks
back into rehab
Shortly after releasing his first new album
in 16 years, R&B star El DeBarge (former
lead singer of the sibling group DeBarge)
has cancelled what was to be his big come-
back tour and went the other way instead -
- by checking himself into rehab for sub-
stance abuse. In a statement released to the
press, DeBarge said, "I hate to disappoint
my fans, but it is necessary for me to take
the time to work on me, so that I may con-
tinue to share my music and my story with
DeBarge, 49, cancelled all scheduled per-
formances, including a major tour with Kem and Ledisi that was supposed
to kick off this Thursday in Texas. Prior to his latest comeback effort,
DeBarge served time in prison for violating probation. Ironically, his latest
album, released this past November, is entitled 'Second Chance.'
Reggae star Buju Banton faces life in prison
Fresh off a Grammy win, Jamaican reggae star Buju
SBanton is set to stand trial again in federal court in
Jury selection begins this week in Tampa. Banton is
accused of conspiring to buy cocaine from an undercov-
4I er officer and faces up to life in prison.
The jury deadlocked in his first trial in September.
Banton's attorney, David Markus, says the singer is not guilty.
Banton was arrested in December 2009 and held in Tampa-area jails until
November, when he was released on house arrest. He was allowed to per-
form a concert in Miami last month to raise money for his court-ordered
security and other expenses.
His 2010 album "Before the Dawn" won the Grammy award for best reg-
Tyra Banks enrolls in Harvard
Former supermodel turned TV producer and talk
show host Tyra Banks is stepping up her game once L
again. The Boston Herald is reporting that she is
enrolled in an executive education class at Harvard
Business School specifically for entrepreneurs.
Banks has turned her successful modeling career .
into a $90 million brand with the creation of her
entertainment company, Bankable Productions.
The Southern California native graduated from
high school in 1991 before relocating to Paris to become a runway model.
Banks, 37, and a Daytime Emmy award winner and author, has also
signed with Random House to publish three novels this year. In addition,
she produces The CW's "America's Next Top Model," ABC's "True
Beauty" and her daytime talk show.
Oprah Winfrey books Michael Vick
Last month, Michael Vick said he'd prefer an interview with Oprah
Winfrey over CNN's Piers Morgan.
This week, Oprah will make it happen.
The NFL star whose name became synonymous with dogfighting is
scheduled to visit the "The Oprah Winfrey Show" for an episode to air
Officials with Chicago-based Harpo Productions say the interview will
cover Vick's time in prison, his work with the Humane Society and his
return to the NFL.
The Philadelphia Eagles quarterback served 18 months in prison over a
dogfighting operation based on his property in Surry County, Va. In 2007,
several dogs were seized from his property.
He was reinstated to the NFL for the 2009 season and has been doing
public-service work, including with the Humane Society.
O.J. Simpson brutally beaten
t 1 The National Enquirer is reporting that O.J. Simpson
P was the victim of a racially-charged prison beatdown
Sby a white inmate all because he bragged about
sleeping with white women.
The Enquirer story, which quoted OJ Simpson asso-
ciate Bruce Fromong, claims that The Juice was beat-
en unconscious by a skinhead.
"Inmates cheered as a muscular young skinhead knocked him to the
ground, punching and kicking him to a bloody pulp and inflicting injuries
so severe he secretly spent nearly three weeks in the infirmary before he
recovered," the Enquirer stated.
According to the report, prison authorities have "done their best" to keep
the beating a secret and Simpson is now afraid to leave his cell.
The 63-year-old former running back is serving a 33-year sentence in
Nevada for the armed robbery of a sports memorabilia dealer who
Simpson claimed had stolen his belongings. He'll be eligible for parole in
about 7 years.
NEW YORK From the time
Esperanza Spalding appeared on
the scene in 2005, the dynamic
singer, bassist, composer and
arranger has been heralded as jazz's
next big thing. Her impressive
musicianship has won her White
House recital dates, praise from the
likes of Stevie Wonder and Herbie
Hancock, and critical acclaim.
But last year, as she prepared to
perform in front of a huge main-
stream audience at a tribute to
musical mentor Prince at the BET
Awards, she started to think about
how the moment could catapult her
into pop stardom.
"I was really on this mission, kind
of in my mind, to figure out how I
was going to take my music and
make it accessible to the pop world.
'How am I going to turn this into
like an Alicia Keys thing?"' she
But when she got to rehearsals
with her famous counterparts -
including her idol Keys she
decided fame had somehow warped
the purity of their artistry, and she
didn't want that happening to her.
"Every person looked like a
California raisin this incredibly
delicious, tasty, captivating artist,
who has a magnificent magnetism
and a unique flavor about what they
do and who they are, but all of that
has just been sucked out in every
direction. ... The industry has sur-
rounded them with all of these
superficial pyrotechnics and I think
it's really sucked the life out of their
creative spirit, and I find that really
sad," she said in an interview a few
weeks after the ceremony.
"I decided that I was just happy to
be a visitor from the liberated realm
of jazz, and I decided then, whatev-
er happens, I always want to be sur-
veyor of the territory," said
Spalding, who grew up studying
classical music in Portland, Ore.,
before switching to jazz in her
teens. "I want to be the one deciding
what my art means, how it's pre-
sented, even if that means not
becoming a pop superstar."
It turns out that being a surveyor
has brought her closer to her dis-
Spalding, who released her third
album, "Chamber Music Society,"
last summer, is a surprise contender
for best new artist at Sunday's
Grammy Awards in Los Angeles.
She's competing against a field that
includes Mumford & Sons,
Florence & The Machine, Drake
and perhaps the most pop of pop
sensations, Justin Bieber. She's also
set to perform on the show and host
the Recording Academy's pre-tele-
cast ceremony with Bobby
"It's exciting, I think it's inspiring
for me. I guess I didn't realize that
on a broader scale people were
aware of my music," the 26-year-
old said last month.
While popular audiences may
just be getting to know Spalding,
she's a star in the world ofjazz. Her
previous albums have been strong
sellers and established her as the
genre's bright future, and for good
reason: She's a multifaceted per-
former. When she's not wowing
audiences with a heavenly sounding
soprano and scatting like the vets of
old, she's impressing them with her
bass playing (she also plays other
instruments). So impressive were
her musical gifts that after finishing
the renowned Berklee College of
Music in Boston at an accelerated
pace, she became an instructor there
when she was 20, making her the
college's youngest faculty member.
Spalding expected less main-
stream attention for "Chamber
Music Society," which blends her
classical roots with her jazz world.
"It was really focused on compo-
sition and the intimacy of classical
music and jazz-improvised music,
and to me, that seems like it would
be received by a smaller audience,
yet there it is with a nomination on
such a broad field," she said.
Spalding is perceived as a long
shot to win best new artist, but Gil
Goldstein, who co-produced
"Chamber Music Society," is hope-
ful voters will recognize her unique
"I've been kind of joking, saying
it would be nice that if once in a
while, the best new artist would be
someone who reads and writes
(music)," he said, laughing.
"It would be like a real break-
through victory if she would win,
sort of like when Herbie won album
of the year," he said, referring to
Hancock's surprise win in 2008 for
the album "River: The Joni
If the upset does happen, don't
expect Spalding to alter her musical
path. After her brief flirtation with
wanting bigger stardom, she's more
determined than ever that the most
important thing she can do is make
"The music that I make is pretty
sincere; it's from my heart and I
love it, and what just happened is
more people have started to connect
with my heart, and I haven't fol-
lowed some kind of marketing
scheme," she said.
And she hasn't let her Grammy
nomination change her life, either.
"I'm going to buy a dress that I
wouldn't have normally bought to
go to the awards ceremony," she
said, "(but) I still take the subway ...
things are pretty much as they were
Esperanza Spalding will be
inconcert on Saturday, March
12th at theRitz Theater. Tickets
are on sale now.
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Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 11
February 17-23, 2011
February 17-23, 2011.
Page 12 Ms. Perry's Free Press
Each one teach one
Continued from front page
While engaging the students, the "role models" set things "straight"
with the young Black males. They used encouraging words, personal
involvement, and openness to support smart choices and positive behav-
iors from the students. Jackson also encourages his students to value and
participate in volunteering in the community.
More men and women are needed to provide wisdom, knowledge, and
working experiences to the students of local schools." Jackson says. "The
Sp. payoff is immeasurable."
Among the objects missing are a gilded wood statue of King
Tutankhamun being carried by a goddess.
Priceless treasures missing
in Egyptian Rebellion
At least 17 artifacts from the
Egyptian Museum of Cairo are
missing following a break-in during
the country's recent revolution.
The missing objects include a gild-
ed wood statue of King
Tutankhamun being carried by a
goddess; parts of a gilded wood
statue of Tutankhamun harpooning;
a limestone statue ofAkhenaten; a
statue of Nefertiti making offer-
ings; a sandstone head of an
Amara princess; a stone statuette
of a scribe from Amarna; 11 wood-
en shabti statuettes of Yuya; and a
heart scarab ofYuya.
The discovery that the ancient
treasures are missing came after
museum staff took an inventory.
The intruders had vandalized stat-
ues and display cases and stolen
jewelry from the museum gift shop.
An expert said that given the
widespread poverty in a country
home to so many priceless treas-
ures, it was little surprise that there
was some looting.
"With 80 million people in a
country that suffers from poverty
and rising food prices ... you have
to expect that some people are
going to be desperate and look for
any means necessary to try to
improve their lot," said Kara
Cooney, host of the Discovery
Channel's "Out of Egypt."
Ribault Middle takes top trophy at TEAM UP
Extravaganza The After School Division of Communities In
Schools of Jacksonville, presented it's annual TEAM UP Step/Dance
Extravaganza, Saturday, February 12, 2011. The extravaganza featured
unique step and dance performances from more than 11 TEAM UP Middle
School sites. This event was held on the campus of Edward Waters College
in the Adams/Jenkins Music and Sports Complex. Ribault Middle School,
shown above, won top honors for the step show. T Austin, photo.
Tiger Hunt exposes EWC students to
local transportation industry
It started with 36 teams and 125
students, but in the end team Raider
Chest took home the top prize in
the 2011 Tiger Team Hunt at
Edward Waters College (EWC). '
The Tiger Team Hunt teaches stu-
dents how to use public transporta- ""r C
tion through a transit-based scav- ,
enger hunt. Z
"The scavenger hunt is design to :
encourage students to expand their '
college experience beyond the
classroom and learn that JTA can
take them all over Jacksonville,"
said Endya Freeman, Tiger Team
"I can't think of a better way for
us to show our support of college
students and transportation," added Endya Freeman, JTA; Dr. James Ewers, EWC; Harold Humphries,
Herold Humphrey, First Transit First Transit; "Raider Chest" members the 2011 EWC Tiger Team
neral mager. Hunt winners; Marguerite Williams and James Warren, COMTO.
general managers were honored dur- halftime festivities of a recent EWC men's basketball game.
The winners were honored dur- ing halftime festivities of a recent EWC men's basketball game.
Homosexual Jamaicans gain
political asylum victory in the U.S.
In an unprecedented victory, 28
homosexual Jamaicans, who were
persecuted due to their sexual ori-
entation, have gained political asy-
lum in the United States. The suc-
cess of their claims reflects the
degree of persecution suffered by
gays in Jamaica.
Since 2007, Great Britain, the for-
mer colonial power that introduced
the island's sodomy laws, has grant-
ed asylum to at least five Jamaicans
on the grounds that their lives were
in danger due to their sexual orien-
The individuals were assisted by
Immigration Equality, a network of
pro bono attorneys which strives to
secure asylum for lesbians, gays,
bisexuals and transgenders.
"By offering them a safe haven,
the United States is not only saving
their lives, but benefiting from the
talent, skills and service these
asylees bring to our country," a
spokesperson from Immigration
Equality said. "We are proud and
honored to help them begin life
anew here in their adopted home-
The organization is reported to
have 97 additional cases filed in
2010 and several filed previously
that are awaiting review.
Renowned largely for its music,
culture and reputation as one of the
most favored Caribbean travel des-
tinations, Jamaica is also infamous
for its intolerance and unbridled
violence against homosexuals.
Homosexuality, known throughout
the Caribbean as "buggering,"
remains a criminal offense in
Jamaica and is punishable by up to
10 years in jail.
Jamaica's general anti-gay stance
is mostly due to its deeply conser-
vative and Christian foundation.
Consequently, openly gay individu-
als -- and even those simply sus-
pected of homosexuality -- have
been beaten, shot, burned, harassed,
chased, disowned by their families
and vilified. When it escalates on
the streets or in a community, mob
violence has lead to brutal beatings
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HBCU's Have Paved the Way for Educating Black America
By James Anderson
There are more than 100 historically
Black colleges and universities in the United
States today. These institutions of higher
learning, whose principal mission is to edu-
cate African Americans, have evolved since
their beginning in 1837 when their primary
responsibility was to educate freed slaves to
read and write. At the dawn of the 21st cen-
tury, along with graduate and post-graduate
degrees, historically Black colleges and uni-
versities offer African American students a
place to earn a sense of identity, heritage and
Before the Civil War (1861-1865) the
majority of Blacks in the United States were
enslaved. Although a few free Blacks at-
tended primarily White colleges in the North
in the years before the war, such opportuni-
ties were very rare and nonexistent in the
slave states of the South. In response to the
Institute for Colored Youth Building
lack of opportunity, a few institutions of
secondary and higher education for Blacks
were organized in the antebellum years
Cheyney University in Pennsylvania,
founded in 1837 as the Institute for Colored
Youth, has the earliest founding date of an
HBCU, although for most of its early history
it offered only elementary and high school
level instruction. The first great expansion in
Black higher education came after the war,
however, during the widening opportunities
of Reconstruction (1865-1877).
The years between the Civil War and
World War I (1914-1918) were an era of
tremendous growth for American colleges
and universities. Higher education spread
primarily through institutions financed by
public taxes, particularly the rapidly expand-
ing land-grant colleges established by U.S.
Congress in the Morrill Act of 1862. These
land-grant institutions, coupled with a grow-
ing system of state colleges, marked the
emergence of a distinctive style of American
higher education: publicly supported institu-
tions of higher learning serving a broad
range of students as well as the cultural,
economic, and political interests of various
local and state constituencies.
African American higher education took a
different path. From the Reconstruction era
through World War II (1939-1945) the ma-
jority of Black students were enrolled in
private colleges. Northern religious mission
societies were primarily responsible for es-
tablishing and maintaining the leading Black
colleges and universities. African American
religious philanthropy also established a
Given the virtual nonexistence of public
education for Blacks in the South, these in-
stitutions had to provide preparatory courses
at the elementary and high school levels for
their students. Often they did not offer col-
lege-level courses for years until their stu-
dents were prepared for them. Nonetheless,
the missionary aims of these early schools
reflected the ideals of classical liberal educa-
tion that dominated American higher educa-
tion in general in that period, with its em-
phasis on ancient languages, natural sci-
ences, and humanities. Blacks were trained
for literacy, but also for teaching and the
With the end of Reconstruction and the
return of White rule in the South, however,
opportunities for African American profes-
sionals became scarcer. Consequently many
Black and White leaders turned toward in-
dustrial training. The proponents of indus-
trial training, whose most public spokesman
was Booker T. Washington of the Tuskegee
Institute (now Tuskegee University) in Ala-
bama, argued that African Americans should
concentrate on the more practical arts of
manual labor to better suit them for the work
that was available.
Meanwhile, Harvard-trained scholar W. E.
B. Du Bois was charting another path. Du
Bois paired the liberal and scientific ideals
of the missionaries with a conviction that
Black life and culture should be a primary
topic of Black thought and investigation. Du
Bois criticized Washington and his allies for
downplaying intellectual ambition and for
appeasing Southern White leaders. Du Bois's
criticisms gained influence in the following
decades, and by the end of World War I,
Black leaders had largely turned against
Washington's educational theories. The in-
creased militancy of Du Bois and others led
to student protests in the 1920s against the
4, MO M
White administrations at Fisk, Hampton, and
Howard. As a result of such protest, Morde-
cai Johnson was named the first Black presi-
dent of Howard in 1926.
During Jim Crow
Private missionary colleges figured so
heavily in the overall scheme of higher edu-
cation for African Americans because vari-
ous states virtually excluded Blacks from
publicly supported higher education. Of the
17 Southern states that mandated racially
segregated education during the Jim Crow
era, 14 simply refused to establish land-grant
colleges for African American students until
Congress required them to do so in the 1890.
But the institutions they established were
colleges in name only. Not one met the land-
grant requirement to teach agriculture, me-
chanical arts and liberal education on a col-
With the founding of the United Negro
College Fund (UNCF) in 1944, Black col-
leges and universities enlisted the support of
corporate philanthropy and the donations of
thousands of individuals. African Americans
also continued to press for equality in public
higher education their efforts encouraged by
the Supreme Court decision in Missouri ex
rel. Gaines v. Canada in 1938, which forced
Southern state governments to concede more
resources for the improvement of African
American higher education than at any time
since the Reconstruction era.
During the early 1950s, the National As-
sociation for the Advancement of Colored
People (NAACP) turned its efforts from
educational equality to school desegregation.
Its work culminated successfully in the
Sweatt v. Painter (1950) and Brown v.
Board of Education (1954) desegregation
decisions, although these decisions had little
direct effect on Black colleges.
This success in the courts sparked a new
optimism about the future of African Ameri-
can higher education. But during the last
four decades of the 20th century, that opti-
mism was tempered by the endurance of old
problems. Private colleges and universities
had not built up a solid financial base. At the
start of new millennium, raising money re-
mains the major challenge for a Black col-
lege president or chancellor. Private Black
colleges are struggling to keep their funding
sources viable and to fight off financial star-
vation in an increasingly competitive envi-
ronment. Public Black colleges are fighting
to obtain their fair share of state support, and
this struggle is greatly compromised by in-
action and resistance from state legislatures.
In 1992 the Supreme Court ruled in United
States v. Fordice that patterns of racial seg-
regation still remained in Mississippi's pub-
lic university system, nearly 40 years after
Brown v. Board of Education The slow
elimination of segregation has in general had
mixed blessings for Black colleges and uni-
versities, as integrated White institutions
have drawn Black students and support
away from the traditional Black schools. But
after stagnating enrollments in the 1970s and
1980s, the student population at HBCUs
rose 25 percent between 1986 and 1994, an
increase greater than the average for U.S.
colleges and universities.
America Makes Legal Strides
Towards Leveling the Playing Field
In its tumul-
President Lyndon Johnson to racial
inequality. The policy was introduced in
1965 by President Johnson as a method
of redressing discrimination that had
persisted in spite of civil rights laws and
constitutional guarantees. "This is the
next and more profound stage of the bat-
tle for civil rights," Johnson asserted.
"We seek... not just equality as a right
and a theory, but equality as a fact and as
A Temporary Measure to
Level the Playing Field
Focusing in particular on education
and jobs, affirmative action policies re-
quired that active measures be taken to
ensure that blacks and other minorities
enjoyed the same opportunities for pro-
motions, salary increases, career ad-
vancement, school admissions, scholar-
ships, and financial aid that had been the
nearly exclusive province of whites.
From the outset, affirmative action was
envisioned as a temporary remedy that
would end once there was a "level play-
ing field" for all Americans.
Bakke and Reverse
By the late '70s, however, flaws in the
policy began to show up amid its good
intentions. Reverse discrimination be-
came an issue, epitomized by the famous
Bakke Case in 1978. Allan Bakke, a
white male, had been rejected two years
in a row by a medical school that had
accepted less qualified minority appli-
cants-the school had a separate admis-
sions policy for minorities and reserved
16 out of 100 places for minority stu-
dents. The Supreme Court outlawed in-
flexible quota systems in affirmative
action programs, which in this case had
unfairly discriminated against a white
applicant. In the same ruling, however,
the Court upheld the legality of affirma-
tive action per se.
Game for Conservatives
Fueled by "angry white men," a back-
lash against affirmative action began to
mount. To conservatives, the system was
a zero-sum game that opened the door for
jobs, promotions, or education to minori-
ties while it shut the door on whites. In a
country that prized the values of self-
reliance and pulling oneself up by one's
bootstraps, conservatives resented the
idea that some unqualified minorities
were getting a free ride on the American
system. "Preferential treatment" and
"quotas" became expressions of con-
tempt. Even more contentious was the
accusation that some minorities enjoyed
playing the role of professional victim.
Why could some minorities who had also
experienced terrible adversity and ra-
cism-Jews and Asians, in particular-
manage to make the American way work
for them without government handouts?
"Justice and Freedom for All"
Still in Its Infancy
Liberals countered that "the land of
opportunity" was a very different place
for the European immigrants who landed
on its shores than it was for those who
arrived in the chains of slavery. As histo-
rian Roger Wilkins pointed out, "blacks
have a 375-year history on this continent:
245 involving slavery, 100 involving
legalized discrimination, and only 30
involving anything else."
Considering that the laws of Jim
Crow and lynching existed well into the
'60s, and that myriad subtler forms of
racism in housing, employment, and edu-
cation persisted well beyond the civil
rights movement, conservatives impa-
tient for blacks to "get over" the legacy
of slavery needed to realize that slavery
was just the beginning of racism in
America. Liberals also pointed out that
another popular conservative argument-
that because of affirmative action, mi-
norities were threatening the jobs of
whites-belied the reality that white men
were still the undisputed rulers of the
roost when it came to salaries, positions,
Polemics Turn Gray
The debate about affirmative action
has also grown more murky and difficult
as the public has come to appreciate its
complexity. Many liberals, for example,
can understand the injustice of affirma-
tive action in a case like Wygant (1986):
black employees kept their jobs while
white employees with seniority were laid
off. And many conservatives would be
hard pressed to come up with a better
alternative to the imposition of a strict
quota system in Paradise (1987), in
which the defiantly racist Alabama De-
partment of Public Safety refused to pro-
mote any black above entry level even
after a full 12 years of court orders de-
manded they did.
The Supreme Court: Wary of
"Abstractions Going Wrong"
The Supreme Court justices have been
divided in their opinions in affirmative
action cases, partially because of oppos-
ing political ideologies but also because
the issue is simply so complex. The
Court has approached most of the cases
in a piecemeal fashion, focusing on nar-
row aspects of policy rather than grap-
pling with the whole.
Even in Bakke-the closest thing to a
landmark affirmative action case-the
Court was split 5-4, and the judges' vari-
ous opinions were far more nuanced than
most glosses of the case indicate. Sandra
Day O'Connor often characterized as the
pivotal judge in such cases because she
straddles conservative and liberal views
about affirmative action, has been de-
scribed by University of Chicago law
professor Cass Sunstein as "nervous
about rules and abstractions going
wrong. She's very alert to the need for
the Court to depend on the details of each
Landmark Ruling Buttresses
But in a landmark 2003 case involving
the University of Michigan's affirmative
action policies-one of the most impor-
tant rulings on the issue in twenty-five
years-the Supreme Court decisively
upheld the right of affirmative action in
In the Michigan cases, the Supreme
Court ruled that although affirmative
action was no longer justified as a way of
redressing past oppression and injustice,
it promoted a "compelling state interest"
in diversity at all levels of society. A
record number of "friend-of-court" briefs
were filed in support of Michigan's af-
firmative action case by hundreds of or-
ganizations representing academia, busi-
ness, labor unions, and the military, argu-
ing the benefits of broad racial represen-
tation. As Sandra Day O'Connor wrote
for the majority, "In order to cultivate a
set of leaders with legitimacy in the eyes
of the citizenry, it is necessary that the
path to leadership be visibly open to tal-
ented and qualified individuals of every
race and ethnicity."
Laws Applying to Affirmative Action in Educational Institutions
Affirmative action programs are governed by a num- drawal of federal funds or suits by private individuals. IX's affirmative action provisions apply to both
ber of overlapping laws. A common principle is that Cases brought under Title VI, such as University of ployment and admission of students. Violations
whether for admissions or employment, affirmative California Board of Regents v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 result in withdrawal of federal funds or suits by pr
action programs such as targeted recruitment and goals (1978), establish that in an affirmative action context, individuals. Regulations promulgated under Title
are encouraged to remedy past effects of discrimina- race can be one of several factors used in admissions 34 C.F.R. 106.3,. authorize affirmative or rem
tion; quotas are disfavored. decisions. action in instances in which members of one sex
14 Amendment of the United States Constitution Title Vii of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 be treated differently to overcome the specific effect
The "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth U.S.C.A. 2000e et seq., and regu rations at 29 past discrimination.
Amendment, which applies only to public institutions, C.F.R. 1604-1606, 1608.1 et seq. Executive Order 11246, Sept. 24, 1965,
prohibits discrimination based on race or sex. Accord- Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based amended by Executive Order 11375, Oct. 13, 1
ing to recent U.S. Supreme Court cases decided under on race, color, religion, sex. or national origin by any 41 C.F.R. 60-1 et seq.
this provision, such as City of Richmond v. J-A. Croson employer with 15 or more employees; as amended in Executive Order 11246 requires federal conrracto
Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989). public employers' affirmative 1972 it applies to public and private educational institu- adopt and implement "affirmative action program
action programs must be justified by and narrowly tai- rions. Cases decided under Title VI I authorize affirma- promote attainment of equal employment objective
lored to remedy specific evidence of past discrimina- tive action programs that are "narrowly tailored" to authorizes use of goals but prohibits quotas, and ap
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C.
2000d, and regulations at 45 C.F.R. 80.1 et seq.
Title VI prohibits race discrimination in any program
receiving federal funds. This law applies to both admis-
sions and employees. Violations can result in with-
remedy past discrimination based on race, sex, etc.
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. 20
U.S.C. 1681 et seq., and regulations at 34 C.F.R.
106.1 et seq., 45 C.F.R. 86.1 et seq.
Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in all educa-
tional institutions that receive federal funding. Title
to race, religion, color, national origin, and sex.
Many states have laws that are similar to Title VII or
Title LX. In some instances, state laws provide broader
remedies or more expansive coverage to protected
he History of African-
African age (300-1619)
Back i a. most African men
were farmers, raisers and fisherman.
Planting, sowing and harvesting crops were
considered women's work. Cooking was one
of the most important skills a young girl
needed to learn. One traditional dish called
fufu was made of pounded yams. Fufu was
served with soup, stew, roasted meat and
different sauces. During this time in history,
cooking was done over open pits. Africans
were very skilled in roasting, frying, stew-
ing, boiling and steaming their foods. Their
native foods were yams, okra, watermelon,
cassava, groundnuts, black-eyed peas and
and Slavery 1619
In August, 1619, the first group of Af-
ricans landed in America at Jamestown, Vir-
ginia. These Africans were indentured ser-
vants. They gave up four to seven years of
labor just to pay for transportation to Amer-
ica. Southern plantations consisted of Afri-
cans from many different tribal nations.
These Africans made up the slave popula-
tion in southern America. Verbal exchanges
of recipes on these Southern plantations led
to the development of an international Afri-
can cooking style in America. The slaves
enjoyed cooking pork, yams, sweet potatoes,
hominy, corn, ashcakes, cabbage, hoecakes,
collards and cowpeas. On these plantations,
cooking was done on an open fireplace with
large swing black pots and big skillets.
African American cooking techniques
and recipes were also influenced by Native
American Indians all across the United
States. When Africans were first brought to
America in 1619, they lived on farms. In
many areas, local Indians taught them how
to hunt and cook with native plants. Indian
cooking techniques were later introduced
into the southern society by black American
cooks. Dishes such as corn pudding, succo-
tash, pumpkin pie, Brunswick Stew and
hominy grits are a few examples of Native
American dishes found in African American
American Revolution 1776
Between 1773 and 1785 thousands of
Africans were brought to America. They
were brought ashore in Virginia, Georgia
and the Carolinas (Sea Island). In America,
slaves were cooks, servants and gardeners.
They worked in the colonial kitchens and on
the plantations as field hands. At the Big
House, slaves cooked such foods as greens,
succotash, corn pudding, spoon bread, corn
pone and crab cakes. These foods were
cooked on an open pit or fireplace. On the
plantation, breakfast was an important and
an early meal. Hoecakes and molasses were
eaten as the slaves worked from sunup to
Both the northern and the southern armies
hired black Americans as cooks. Most of the
cooking throughout the South was done by
black cooks. Slaves created their own reci-
pes and made the best of hard times and
scarce supplies. Cajun and Creole cooking
developed during this period. These foods
included jambalaya, bread pudding, dirty
rice, gumbo and red beans and rice. Cooking
was done on a great big old fireplace with
I .... ,. .,
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Both the northern and the southern armies hired black Americans as cooks. Many
Black Americans thought they were joining the war as enlisted man but just entered
into another form of servitude.
swing pots and skillets with legs.
Post Reconstruction Westward
At the end of the Civil War, black
Americans began to move westward. They
migrated to Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma
and Texas. Black Americans became cow-
boys and cooks on the cattle drives. Many
black Americans were also pioneers and as
farmers they survived off the land. They
adapted their cooking habits and formed
new ones when necessary. It was a great
GREAT TRADITIONAL RECIPES
Fried Okra- 8 pods okra, I cup yellow cornmeal, I tablespoon and cook until
flour, I teaspoon salt. V2 teaspoon pepper, !A, vegetable oil. Slice s A (maybe half an
okra into '/4 inch slices. Wash okra in cold water. Mix cornmeal from heat and (
flour, salt and pepper together. Roll okra in cornmeal mix. Fry in ning water. Dr
hot skillet for 10 minutes until golden brown. Drain on paper towel. from yams. Adc
(Serves 6) a .bowl (or bac
Fufu 1 large yam. I egg, 5 teaspoons evaporated milk, I small and mash with a
onion grated, 3 tablespoons butter or margarine, pinch of garlic beat and stir with a wooden spoon until comr
salt Peel and cut yam into small pieces. Boil pieces until tender in might take two people: one to hold the bowl an
% cup water for 20 minutes. Drain off the water and mash until Shape the fufu into balls and serve immediate
smooth. Add the egg, milk, onion and garlic salt. Beat and roll into any dish with a sauce or gravy. To eat it, tear
2 inch balls. If the mixture is too wet, add a httle flour. Fry in butter with your fingers and use it to scoop up your m
or margarine until brown. (Serves 2-3) Cajun Dirty Rice
l Hominy Grits- 1 cup grits, 1 teaspoon salt, 4 cups of water, 3 Yield: 8 Servings
tablespoons butter or margarine. Bring water to a boil. Add salt. I Ib Chicken Gizzards finely chopped, 1 I
Slowly stir in grits. Stir constantly to prevent lumping. Reduce heat finely chopped, V4 cup squeeze margarine, I 1
and cover for 10 minutes. Serve hot with butter. (Serves 4) chopped, 1/2 c Celery -- finely chopped. 1/
Fufu Fufu (Foo-foo, Foufou, Foulou, fifu) is to Western and chopped, 2 Garlic Cloves minced, 2 tsp. Sa
Central Africa cooking what mashed potatoes are to traditional tsp ground red pepper, 3 cups freshly cooked r
European-American cooking. parsley.
2 4 Ibs. pounds of yams (use large, white or yellow yams; not Brown meat in margarine in large skillet.
sweet potatoes, not "Louisiana yams"); or equal parts yams and green pepper, garlic and seasonings, mix wel
Splantain bananas and 1 tsp. butter (optional). ring occasionaUy, over medium heat intil ve
Place yams in large pot and cover with cold water. Bring to a boil Add rice and parsley, mix lightly. Serve immed
the yams are soft
hour). Remove pot
:ool yams with run-.
ain. Remove peels
I butter. Put yams in
k in the empty pdt)
potato masher, then
pletely smooth. This
d the other to stir.
ly with meat stew or
off a small handful
eat and sauce.
b Chicken Livers --
/2 c Onion -- finely
4 c Green Pepper .
It. 1 tsp. pepper. 1/8
ice, 1/2 cup chopped
Add onion, celery,:
I. Cover. Cook, stii-
:getables. are tender.-
challenge to create good food with primitive
tools and very limited ingredients. They
cooked such foods as: biscuits, stew, baked
beans and barbecued meat.
The Great Migration 1900-1945
During this period, a large number of
black Americans worked as cooks in private
homes, shops restaurants, schools, hotels
and colleges. Many moved to such large
cities as Chicago, New York, Ohio, Detroit
and Pennsylvania to work. Black cooks,
chefs and waiters also worked in Pullman
cars of the old railroads and on the steam-
boats. Many black Americans also started
small businesses such as fish markets, barbe-
que and soul food restaurants throughout the
United States. These establishments special-
ized in fried fish, homemade rolls, potato
salad, turkey and dressing, fried pork chops,
rice and gravy and southern fried chicken.
Cooking was done on wood burning and gas
Civil Rights Movement
In the early 60s and 70s, soul food, the
traditional food of black Americans, was
very popular. Soul foods were candied
yams, okra, fried chicken, pig's feet,
chitlin's, corbread, collard greens with ham
hocks and black-eyed peas. Today in the
90s, soul food preparation has changed.
Black Americans are becoming increasingly
health conscious, thus, they are avoiding
foods with high levels of fat and cholesterol,
and increasing their intake of fruit, vegeta-
bles and fiber. Black Americans are still in
the kitchen cooking, but now they are own-
ers and managers of restaurants. Today is
cooking is done on electric, gas and micro-