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emerges following his
return to the NFL
Saluting Black Love
with out and about
Tax Write-off for Haiti donations
WASHINGTON (NNPA) United States residents who donated to the
relief effort in Haiti will be rewarded this spring when they file their
A measure recently approved by Congress and signed by President
Obama will allow them to write off those charitable donations on their
2009 taxes. Under current law, those donations would have had to be
filed under the 2010 return. Since the Jan. 12 quake, Americans have
donated millions to the humanitarian effort, including $203 million col-
lected so far by the American Red Cross.
Specifically, the Haiti Assistance Income Tax Incentive Act allows tax-
payers to count cash donations to Haitian relief efforts made between Jan.
11 and March 1 as if they made by Dec. 31 of last year.
The Act is among a suite of measures meant to ease the nation's suffer-
ing. And California Democrat Rep. Maxine Waters would add one more-
complete forgiveness of Haiti's international debt. Waters, like many of
her Congressional Black Caucus colleagues, has been a leader of efforts
to help Haiti both before the earthquake and since.
"What has really resonated with me since returning home is the need for
the international community to engage in robust and sustained recovery
and rebuilding efforts for Haiti," said Congresswoman Waters in a recent
statement following a trip to Haiti.
New Orleans elects first
white mayor in three decades
Mitch Landrieu was elected mayor of New
Orleans last weekend, the first time in over 30
years that voters of the majority-black city have
chosen a white candidate
Landrieu, a Democrat and Louisiana's lieutenant
governor, won more than 50 percent of the vote,
defeating a field of 10 other competitors and
avoiding a run-off election. Democrat Troy Henry,
a black businessman, came in second.
Landrieu, 49, the son of New Orleans' last white
mayor, Moon Landrieu, rode a wave of discontent over the slow pace of
the city's recovery from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and rampant crime.
In his victory speech, Landrieu said his election showed that voters
wanted a city that was "unified rather than divided."
About two-thirds of New Orleans' population is black and Landrieu was
helped by his father's legacy of desegregating the city. Moon Landrieu
left office in 1978.
The Landrieu family is a political force in Louisiana. Mitch Landrieu's
sister Mary is a U.S. senator.
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell" dispropor-
tionately affecting Black Women
Besides Afghanistan and Iraq, there is no other military policy that rais-
es as much controversy as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" (DADT.)
Robert M. Gates, the defense secretary, and Adm. Mike Mullen, chair-
man of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, told a panel of Senators this week that
they supported President Obama's proposal to repeal the 1993 Clinton era
law forbidding gay men and women to be open about their sexuality
while serving in uniform.
This story has made headline news across the world. But what we
haven't heard is, who's really being affected by this?
From The Task Force study, Black same-sex households in the United
States: A report from the 2000 Census:
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell" has been used to kick Black women out of the
military at a much higher rate than other groups. In fact, Black women
are discharged under "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" at three times the rate that
they serve in the military. Although Black women make up less than one
percent of servicemembers, they comprise 3.3% of those discharged
under the policy.
But wait, it gets better. The same report notes people can be discharged
under DADT even if they are not gay or lesbian, apparently there are
cases where men have accused women who refuse unwanted sexual
advances of being lesbians, or because the women are successful and
some men do not want to serve under them.
Gaddafi pleads with Obama
to lay down the guns
(GIN) Libyan leader, Moummar Gaddafi,
speaking at the recently concluded African Union
summit in Ethiopia, called on President Barack
Obama to end all U.S.-sponsored wars around the
The Libyan leader singled out Iraq, Afghanistan
and Palestine as battles which were unjust.
'- .I \ "The war against Iraq and Afghanistan is not prof-
itable for America and as a matter of fact, (these
wars) were lost as soon as they began. America is
today involved in the Iraqi quagmire and is also lost in the Afghan moun-
tains and has achieved none of its objectives and this represents very
complicated situations inherited by Obama," Gaddhafi observed.
The Libyan leader, whose term as head of the AU was expiring, hand-
ed over the AU mantle to president of Malawi, Bingu wa Mutharika.
Also at the summit, the African Union unveiled its new flag a dark
green background symbolising hope, and stars to represent Member
FLA LIBRARY HISTORY
205 SMA UNIV
P.O. BOX I117005
GAINESVILLE FL 32611
still relevant -
W f L 50 Cents
Volume 23 No.18 Jacksonville, Florida February 11-14, 2010
A Por trai4 t of Black Amer rica
A Portrait of Black America
There are 40 million black
Americans on the eve of the 2010
Census. We are 12.3 percent of the
U.S. population down from 14.8
percent of the population in 2000.
African Americans became the
nation's second-largest minority
group in the first decade of the 21st
WHERE WE LIVE
More than half of black
Americans live in the South.
New York had the largest black
population of any state as of July 1,
2008 (3.5 million); Georgia had the
largest numeric increase since July
1, 2007 (67,000). The District of
Columbia had the highest percent-
age of blacks (56 percent), followed
by Mississippi (38 percent).
Cook County, Ill. (Chicago's
county) had the largest black popu-
lation of any county (1.4 million),
and Orleans Parish, La. (New
Orleans' county) had the largest
numeric increase since July 1, 2007
(16,000). Claiborne County,
Miss.-on the Louisiana border-
had the highest percentage of
blacks in the nation (84 percent).
Seventy-seven counties were
majority-black or African-
American; all were in the South.
More than half of black American
(53 percent) rent their homes-
that's the largest percentage of
renters among the races in the U.S.
We are more women than men.
Households: Nearly one out of
every three black households (29
percent) are headed by a single
woman, the highest percentage of
female-headed households in the
Nearly half of us have never mar-
ried, the highest percentage for all
racial groups. Only 30 percent of
blacks are now married.
The annual median income of
black households in 2008 is
$34,218, a decline of 2.8 percent (in
2008 constant dollars) from 2007.
It's the lowest in the United States.
Black median family income was
just over $41,000 in 2008, the low-
est in the United States of any racial
group. A single black woman with
children earned a median annual
income of $25,958.
No surprise then that one out of
five black families lives in poverty.
More than 40 percent of black fam-
ilies headed by a single mom are
Only 3 million African
Americans are immigrants. Of that
number, nearly two-thirds were
born in Latin America, the other
one-third of the immigrants were
born in Africa.
Only 7 percent of us speak a lan-
guage other than English.
Number of black military veter-
ans in the United States in 2008: 2.3
million. More military veterans are
black than any other minority
Take a close look at the choices you. don't -have
by J. Peter, Root selves: Are we slaves? ly- excommunicated from civic even that is the result of some
With a black man occupying. the In his Pulitzer Prize-winning life," not unlike livestock (the'ety- accounting sleight-of-hand. If the
White House, and the nation grap- book, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise mologgy for the word "chattel" is unemployment rate were calculat-
pling with a wrenching recession, 'and Fall of Slavery In The New derived from the Latin word for ed with the methodology used in
and, celebrating the contributions World, the historian David Brion both "capital" and "cattle"). 1980, it would be.22 percent, or,
Davis contends that ownership, Davis quotes the Greek
t histqrically, has not definQd the 6th-century reformer Solon,
relationship between master who explain d his decision to
and slave. What defines the abolish slavery "All the com-
arrangement, lie posits, is the mon people," Solon said, "are.
vassal's "perpetual condition of in debt to the rich."
dishonor," which provides the What Solon said in ancient times about 3 percentage points less than
lids "master class with a resource holds true today: All the common at the peak of the Great
of African Americans to this for parasitic and psychological people are in debt to the rich, Depression. And Americans lucky
nation's history, this seems an exploitation," This, Davis argues, largely because they don't have enough to have a job are working
opportune moment to reconsider imposes on the slave a type of any money. Officially, one in ten harder and producing morel goods -
Tubinan's challenge and ask our- "social death" leaving him "whol- Americans is out-of-work,, but- continued on page 5
Super Bowl XLVI a victory for New Orleans and attendees
In the most watched Super Bowl in NFL
History, the New Orleans Saints made franchise
history with their victory over the favored
Indianapolis Colts. Leading up to the game, as
experienced by Jacksonville as a host, was a
variety of events paying tribute to America's
favorite past time. The week preceding the big
game was filled nonstop with a variety of com-
munity events and star studded celebrity events. Bengals was a featured model in the "A Love of
Shown above left at the Reggie Bush party is the GAME Fashion Show" held at Neiman
New Orleans Saints player Darren Sharper with Marcus, Bal Harbour, Florida benefitting Go
Jacksonville talk show host Lynette Red for Women. Shown right at the VIP
Jones.Jacksonville native Dr. Sirretta Williams Reception honoring NFL great John Wooten is
(center), a member of the Professional Football Jim Brown, actress Viveca Fox, comedian Kym
Players Mothers Association (PFPMA) and NFL Whitley and John Wooten at the private affair
Mom of Laveranues Coles of the Cincinnati aboard the The Biscayne Lady Yacht Breaker pho-
II b -LIII
Page 2 Ms. Perry's Free Press
7 Top Financial Questions for
Divorced Parents of College Students
Any parent can get confused
when applying for federal stu-
dent aid for a college-bound stu-
dent. For divorced parents, how-
ever, it can be more difficult. In
order for a student to get finan-
cial aid from the United States
Department of Education
(EOD), his or her parents must
fill out a Free Application For
Federal Student Aid (FAFSA).
When the student's parents are
divorced, the rules for the form
can be tricky. Among the most
commonly asked questions for
divorced parents with college-
age students seeking federal
1. Which parent should fill out
the financial application forms
for a college-bound student?
Sigler said "Families will some-
times, mistakenly, include the
income information for both legal
parents. The FAFSA is requesting
information from just one par-
ent...." Sigler said. Kantrowitz said
the parent who fills out the form
isn't necessarily the parent who has
"primary custody" as the court
defines it. It should be, he said, the
parent the child lives with most
often is the one who should fill out
the forms. In situations where par-
ents split custody 50-50, "...the
financial aid office will likely
choose whichever parent has the
highest income." In the event that a
student's parent hasn't maintained
contact with the child, Kantrowtiz
said he or she is simply not the cus-
todial parent. "Only one parent's
household income information is
included on the FAFSA, so the stu-
dent would likely use the informa-
tion for the parent who is still
around," Sigler added. One answer
does not fit all situations.
Generally, there is probably little
impact on the student's financial
2. If you're not divorced yet,
how should the forms be filled
Not all parents are officially
divorced when it comes time to file
the application for student aid.
Both Kantrowitz and Sigler said if
a couple is separated and planning
to divorce, they are considered
divorced in terms of financial aid.
"If the separation is with the intent
to divorce, and the parents are liv-
ing in separate locations, there is
no difference in qualifying for aid.
The reason is because it is appro-
priate to list only the information
for the custodial parent's house-
hold," Sigler said. Kantrowitz,
however, warns that co-habituating
parents who claim they are separat-
ed do not count as separated. "If
the husband is living in the base-
ment and the wife upstairs, that
doesn't count ... it has to be two
separate residences," he said. "That
is often a misconception, and the
schools will generally be suspi-
cious if the separate residences is
something temporary is like a hotel
3. What happens if a parent gets
divorced while the student is
attending college during the
In some situations, Sigler said,
the student's parents may divorce
during the school year. "If a sepa-
ration or divorce is one of those
unexpected situations that occurs
and the FAFSA was already com-
pleted with both parents' income
information, the family should
work directly with the financial aid
office at the student's school to see
what adjustments can be made to
the FAFSA," she said. "The school
will determine if it is appropriate to
change the data, and the school will
actually make the changes."
4. What happens if parent
divorce during the school year?
According to Kantrowitz a popu-
lar trend among divorce cases is to
establish a college support agree-
ment, which determines what, if
any, financial aid the student will
receive from either party.
Kantrowitz said an agreement
could range from a pre-detennined
amount of money to pay for tuition,
living expenses or other college-
related bills. When a custodial par-
ent fills out a FAFSA, however, he
or she is required to list any money
received as part of a college sup-
port agreement. This money is con-
sidered like any form of income.
5. Does it matter if the student
was claimed as a dependent on
"How the student is or is not
claimed on the parents' taxes is not
a factor in determining which par-
ent's information is to be includ-
ed... on the application. "The rea-
son is because the divorce settle-
ment might specify who gets to
claim the child as a dependent or
parents may choose to claim the
child as a dependent on alternating
years," Sigler said. And while
many parents read the FAFSA
instructions accurately and only
provide one of the parent's house-
hold information, if taxes are filed
jointly, some parents get confused.
As an example, Sigler said: "The
FAFSA will ask for the amount on
XYZ line of the tax return.
Frequently (the parent filling out
the form) will remember to exclude
the ex-spouse's income where it
asks for the father's income and the
mother's income, but they forget to
also adjust the AGI (adjusted gross
income) and taxes paid amounts to
reflect the portion relating to the
custodial parent's income."
6. If a parent remarries, must
he or she refile a federal aid
It depends. All of the questions
on the application -- not just the
income questions -- are used to cal-
culate the expected family contri-
bution and the amount of aid a stu-
dent receives, Sigler said. So the
number of people in a household,
the number of dependents in col-
lege, the age of the older parent or
stepparent in the household and
even the state of residence can
impact the expected family contri-
bution. The lower the family con-
tribution, the more eligible a student
is for aid. That expected family
contribution "may go up or down
after the parent remarries," Sigler
said. To find out if you should
refile, check out this federal aid
calculator called FAFSA4caster at
7. Should a stepparent's income
be considered in the application?
"The (custodial) parent's and the
stepparent's income information is
to be included..." Sigler said. Why?
Federal college aid officials con-
sider all the resources sustaining a
parent's household, which includes
a stepparent's income, even though
the stepparent doesn't contribute to
the student's education. A prenup-
tial agreement between the custodi-
al aprent and the stepparent has no
bearing on the application. "Two
individuals cannot make an agree-
ment that is binding on the third
party," Kantrowitz said. "Both
incomes and assets are going to be
Managing Your Cash Flow
._ Syndicated Content
Available from Commercial News Providers
IbOm ~O"" a
- 'S S -
Foreclosure affects more than just you.
It affects your whole family.
A million families will face losing their homes
this year. Call today for real help and guidance.
Because nothing is worse than doing nothing.
February 11-17, 2010 Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 3
IW a ad 3 r I sJioni*
Black History in the Military Governor
Schwarzenegger swears in Brigadier General Mary J. Kight as the
first female adjutant general of the California National Guard and
first African-American female National Guard adjutant general in the
nation during a ceremony at at Mather Air Force Base Tuesday, Feb.
2, 2010 in Mather, Calif. Kight, 59, has spent nearly 25 years with the
California Guard after seven years in the Air Force.
Marriage eludes high-
achieving black women
Michelle Obama may have
become an archetypal African-
American female success story -
law career, strong marriage, happy
children but the reality is often
very different for other highly edu-
cated black women.
They face a series of challenges
in navigating education, career,
marriage and child-bearing, dilem-
mas that often leave them single
and childless even when they'd pre-
fer marriage and family, according
to a recent research study.
Yale researchers Natalie Nitsche
and Hannah Brueckner argued that
"marriage chances for highly edu-
cated black women have declined
over time relative to white women."
Women of both races with post-
graduate educations "face particu-
larly hard choices between career
and motherhood," they said, "but
especially in the absence of a reli-
And there's the rub. Most educat-
ed, professional women who want
to marry can and do marry. But the
picture is less bright for high-
achieving black women because
"marriage markets" for them have
deteriorated to the point that many
remain unmarried, the researchers
found. Since these women also feel
pressured not to become single
mothers, they often go childless as
well, the researchers found.
Mr. and Mrs. B.J. Richardson
Last week Mr. and Mrs B.J.
Richardson were incorrectly identi-
fied as Mr. and Mrs. J.B.
Richardson. Our apologies to the
happy couple for this error in cele-
bration of their 53rd Anniversary.
Last year at this time, Michael Vick was behind bars watching the
Super Bowl. For as talented a football player as Vick, it is easy to
understand why that must have been so difficult. In 2001, Vick was
the overall #1 draft pick and was signed to the Atlanta Falcons,
where he shined. But in 2007, Vick was convicted of running a dog-
fighting ring and served a 23-month sentence in a federal prison.
Since his release, he has returned to football, playing for the
Philadelphia Eagles, and has launched a reality show on BET,
called "The Michael Vick Project."
Writer Cathy Charmon caught up with Vick to discuss the details
of his dogfighting past, what prison has taught him, and where he
is mentally and spiritually now.
Q: I know of your football fame
and success, but after being in
prison and returning to outside
life--the NFL, your family--there
is so much written about you, but
I'd like to ask you: How are you,
Michael? How is this new phase
of your life going?
VICK: I am doing well. It's been
a tough road--18 months locked
away--but I am doing better
because I detached from the people
and the activities that were hurting
me--that risked everything I'd
worked for and that was ruining all
of the goals I had attained.
Q: You mention the "people"
you had to detach from--you
mean your old friends from grow-
ing up? Did you somehow feel
responsible to take care of them?
VICK: I did feel I had to take care
of my old friends, the people I came
up with. Here I was, making all this
money and I wanted them to have a
shot, too. I wanted them to be in a
position to have a good life, too. I
felt a responsibility to keep some-
thing going for them. I grew up
with them, love and respected them.
At the beginning of doing this thing
for them, i never thought it would
end up as it did.
Q: And by that you mean the dog
fighting, the Bad Newz Kennels?
VICK: Yes, it was something
they knew, something they did, it
was around a lot. I know it is so
wrong now. And, I am doing a lot of
work with the Humane Society to
try to give back, to do something
positive, to go against all the nega-
The truth about Black Memorial Day
Memorial Day is the day where
we honor these who have died in
military services. While some black
folks think Memorial Day is a white
oriented holiday, what many people
do not know about Memorial Day is
according to many historians the
day was first celebrated "in 1865 by
liberated slaves at the historic race
track in Charleston, S.C." That is
one of those tidbits people leave out
in history. Here are some details
from Samuel Williams, Jr. with the
L.A. Watts Times:
"Many of the Southland's African
American workforce relish
Memorial Day as a much-needed
day off and the start of a shortened
workweek. Little do they know that
the holiday finds its roots trenched
deep in the annals of black
American history. According to
Yale University history department
professor David Blight, the first
Memorial Day was actually
observed in 1865 by liberated
slaves at an historic racetrack in
Charleston, S.C. The site was previ-
ously used as a Confederated prison
camp as well as a mass grave for
Union soldiers who died while pris-
oners of war. Although the date was
not specified, one day, thousand of
freed blacks and Union soldiers
conducted a parade on the way to
the site. Once there, the participant
has a picnic and shared in the
singing of patriotic songs. You
know they were doing the cakewalk
and singing. "Jimmy crack corn and
I don't care. Jimmy crack corn and I
tive I did, and that went on in that
business. I just felt this pressure to
keep the financial end going for
those guys, and I've learned to let
that go, and let them go, and what I
was doing with them. I had to
detach from all of it.
Q: Your fiancee Kijafa Frink
has stood by you 100% along
with many of your fans. That sup-
port must mean so much to you.
VICK: Absolutely, that support
means everything. It's all you have
when you are in prison. I am grate-
ful to my fans, and most of all to
Kijafa. I was sitting there incarcer-
ated, feeling angry, disgusted... At
first you just want to blame some-
one else, I just couldn't believe I
ended up in that cell and I would get
full of rage thinking about the peo-
ple who put me in that position. But
Kijafa gave me support and guid-
ance, and told me how feeling that
was only going to hurt me, not any-
one I may have been angry with.
She helped me to focus on getting
better, healthier, stronger in a spiri-
Q: But staying positive in
prison--that's got to be tough to
keep the faith?
VICK: When you are the one in
that situation, in that moment of
really knowing you have no free-
dom, there is a period where
nobody can tell you anything that
gives you hope. I was in a desolate
place where I'd never wanted to be,
where I'd never pictured myself
being, but it's at that low point
where you have to keep
trying to believe--harder
than you ever have about
anything before--that you
will get out, that this will
not be the rest of your life.
You have to say to your-
self: "I will get out, I will
Q: And your faith
played a big role in help-
ing you to believe that?
VICK: Yes, and faith had
a big role in every aspect of
my life before. I found God
a long time ago, but when
times are really hard and
you are faced with the type
of adversity that I was, it is
harder to connect, to
believe that there is a plan,
and it's bigger than you are.
I tried harder and harder
every day to believe, to
keep my faith strong. Tony
Dungy helped me to do
that, and as hard as it was,
it is the only reason I was
able to maintain my sanity.
Q: You were raised as a
spiritual young man. You fol-
lowed a path of hard work and
determination, and you attained
enormous success, but you had a
curve in the road that had great
consequences. How do you think
VICK: What happened was my
whole life changed in one night. I
went from being broke to a guy
with two million dollars.
Q: So the enormous fame,
wealth, success came quickly to
you. Do you think that created a
difficult scenario to keep yourself
VICK: I was young, I had no
responsibilities and had no clue of
how to deal with money. I started to
feel superior, like I was of a differ-
ent status than people around me,
that I had more skills, more gifts.
The problem with me, and the guys
like me in that situation, is that we
start to think the whole world
revolves around us. And then we
get surrounded by a bunch of peo-
ple who are telling us that the whole
world actually does revolve around
us--you lose a sense of reality. You
think you are invincible.
Q: Did fame make it harder to
VICK: I never knew what peo-
ple's motives were. I was in a whole
new world and new people were
coming to see me every day telling
me how I could invest and have my
money make so much more money.
They seemed smart, they seemed
sincere, I wanted to believe them,
but there were so many of them.
Are they all honest? Are they all
giving me the right information?
They find guys like me who come
into a lot of money quickly--who
grew up without any money--and
we are great targets for them. I
never, knew who to trust.
Created inspiration Helped millions of
through her words. hearts beat.
Maya Angelou Otis Boykin
Stood her ground by Had a dream and made
keeping her seat. it everyone's.
Rosa Parks Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Proved that justice is Changed the way we do so
truly for all. many things, even lunch.
Thurgood Marshall George Washington Carver
Changed the face Led the way to
of baseball, freedom.
Jackie Robinson Harriet Tubman
This month, we celebrate all of
those who have dreamed big.
This month wie honor Black History.
Learn more at www.comcast.com/diversity
Page 4 Ms. Perry's Free Press February 11-17, 2010
Back History is still Relevant but Why?
If you walk into any elementary
school classroom around the coun-
try, regardless of the demographic
make up of the children, a vast
majority of those students will
know who Dr. Martin Luther King
If you walk in to that same class-
room and ask about Medgar Evars
or Harriet Tubman you may have a
few bright students who may have
heard of these African American
leaders from decades past.
The reason that many American
students don't know about key
black leaders who helped shape this
country's history is pretty simple.
And it was the same reason that
existed when I was in elementary
some 25 years ago the textbooks
used by many school districts do
not feature much about African
That has certainly changed some-
what, but instead of blacks like
Booker T. Washington and
Frederick Douglas being included
as key components of a particular
section or chapter there's simply
some page or a few pages dedicat-
ed to black history.
In my many times irrelevant
somewhat educated opinion,
American history books should not
just highlight black, Hispanic or
Native American history, but pro-
vide a historical context from vari-
For example, when talking about
programs offered $23 trillion in
loans, grants, or asset guarantees to
the financial sector. Huh! This item
was buried in paragraph 11 of 12
paragraphs in a joint statement that
California Senator Barbara Boxer
and Virginia Senator Jim Webb
The only thing
since then is that
public fury at the
bonuses they pay
each other has
risen to fever pitch.
i n g
sate themselves. That's more than
30 times more than the official
$700 billion that Congress author-
ized to bail out the big banks and
failed Wall Street financial houses.
The $700 billion figure tossed out
quickly became etched in financial
stone. Then President Bush,
President Obama, Congress, and
the Wall Street and banking indus-
try and every financial pundit cited
the $700 billion payout as the max-
imum that taxpayers would be
stuck with. Now almost as an after-
thought, Webb and Boxer casually
toss out the $23 trillion number.
Boxer and Webb made mention
of it in a press statement to bolster
their call for passage of the
Taxpayer Fairness Act. This would
levy a one time 50 percent surtax
on bonuses on amounts over
$400,000 in compensation and
the Civil War, it's important to look
at the rationale for the fighting
from a Northern white perspective,
Southern white perspective,
Northern black freed man and
Southern black slave's point of
view. You can not talk about the
Civil War without talking about the
conflict that many slaves were
faced with run or stay.
And because American children
are not getting a complete
"American" history, it is critical
that it continues.
Hopefully, you noticed that I said
American history, because the real-
ity is that America is so unique
because so many different races
and folks from all walks of life
have molded our history.
So Black History Month will
continue to be relevant until
African American history is truly
interwoven in to American History
in text books and lesson plans.
So was Black History Month
meant to last forever?
We know that Black History
Month originated in 1926 by Carter
G. Woodson as Negro History
Week. Why February? Well,
Woodson selected the month in
deference to Frederick Douglas and
Abraham Lincoln who were both
born in February.
No one really knows if Woodson
ever foresaw this country's evolu-
tion to the point where a black man
could be elected to President so
soon. I have a feeling that a sunset
date never entered Woodson's
If the acknowledgement of the
month is supposed to sunset then
what event or accomplishment trig-
gers that end date? Is it a black
man being elected to President of
the United States? If you would
have asked me a couple of years
back I would have said that it will
be another 20 to 30 years before
that happens, and it would have
seemed like a pretty good prompt.
I guess we should fault Barrack
Obama for being the ultimate over-
achiever. The nerve of him to actu-
ally shock the world and put
together one of best presidential
Some would argue that over
time, the relevance of Black
History month has diminished. I
can understand that argument
because with each generation of
African American youth they are
more removed from the Civil
Rights era and the legacy slavery.
No one living today has ever
experienced slavery directly and
most of our youth can't begin to
fathom the impact that slavery has
had on black culture so they have
no frame of reference.
Most blacks feel that we are still
far from equal despite major
advancements in equal rights over
the past 50 years. To put this issue
into perspective, the immortal
words of Martin Luther King, Jr.
ring true today.
He said, "Being a Negro in
America means trying to smile
when you want to cry. It means try-
ing to hold on to physical life amid
psychological death. It means the
pain of watching your children
grow up with clouds of inferiority
in their mental skies."
One of the aspects about being
black that I love the most is the
sense of togetherness blacks gener-
ally have. Our communities used to
emulate the very essence of black
pride and support for one another.
The lack of "togetherness" in the
black community is sort of a side
bar issue, but I would argue that
having a strong sense of black pride
is what the celebration of Black
History Month is about.
Obama's election should not
diminish the need for Black History
Month and I don't believe that we
should ever stop celebrating our
past and present accomplishments.
President Obama's election does
signify that America is in a contin-
uous state of evolution in all
aspects of its existence racially,
socially, governmental make up
Let's celebrate Black History
Month in February, but make the
education of our children an ongo-
Signing off from Martin Luther
King Elementary, Reggie Fullwood
bonuses that the big banks and
firms ladled out to their executives.
Don't hold your breath on this one,
though. Boxer, Webb and the
Senate was unwilling to impose
this tax on the obscene bonuses that
the big bank execs paid each other
as a condition of getting the TARP
money. The only thing that's
changed since then is that public
fury at the non-stop record bonuses
they pay each other has risen to
fever pitch. And even if there was a
congressional epiphany and pay-
ment required, the big banks that
got the taxpayer cash will argue as
they have every time a squawk is
made about their obscene money
that they've paid the money back.
Boxer and Webb's move smacks
of yet another empty gesture by
two Senators feeling election heat
to tap into popular rage at the
bankers by appearing to be anti-
Wall Street crusaders.
The outrage, though, should be
over whether Boxer, Webb, the
White House and Congress have
come clean over how much the
banks and financial houses dinged
taxpayers for. One, two, or three
federal agencies involved in the fed
giveaway is one thing but fifty dif-
ferent agencies is another. The
agencies that may have shoved
more money to the banks and hous-
es were known as early as April,
2009. In testimony before the
House Oversight and Government
Reform Committee Tarp's
Inspector General listed the agen-
cies and the projected dollar
Federal Reserve 6.8 trillion
Treasury -Non-Tarp 4.4 trillion
National Credit Union, Veterans
Affairs, the Government National
Mortgage Assn, the Federal
Housing Administration, Federal
Housing Finance Agency 7.2 tril-
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp
(FDIC) 2.3 Trillion
US Treasury 7.4 trillion
Several house reps screamed
loud then that the treasury was
mute silent or had stonewalled
every effort made to find out exact-
ly how much of the cash that the
treasury actually doled out to the
banks and financial houses. Nearly
a year later they still really don't
know. The issue from the beginning
has been transparency or the
absence of it by the treasury.
Congress has failed to force the
federal agencies to tell what they
have spent, and how they spent it.
At the time of his congressional
testimony last April, the Tarp
inspector general had 35 criminal
and civil investigations of banks
and financial houses for accounting
fraud, securities fraud, insider trad-
ing, mortgage service misconduct,
mortgage fraud and public corrup-
tion false statement and tax investi-
gations going. This wasn't enough
to trigger bells and whistles that
treasury had grossly low balled the
figures on the bailout.
Boxer and Webb had ample
opportunity to demand and fight
that the treasury and other federal
agencies fully open their books on
the amounts that were being spent.
The White House and Congress
have repeatedly publicly assured
that bail out money ladled out came
in way under the official $700 bil-
lion that Congress authorized, and
that much of the money has been
repaid. That still doesn't tell what
other help the big banks and finan-
cial houses got in the form of loans,
grants, insurance or asset guaran-
tees, and what federal agencies
were involved. Boxer and Webb
haven't told us that either.
Earl Ofari Hutchinson is an
author and political analyst. His
new book is, How Obama
Governed: The Year of Crisis and
Challenge (Middle Passage Press).
Past for the Future
We study history to learn valuable lessons and to
avoid tragic mistakes.
For all the divisions that rend the U.S., there is at least
one point of agreement between today's Blacks and
Whites, Democrats and Republicans, young and old:
factually, Blacks are inattentive to America's system of capitalism. Amid
American capitalism 98 percent of Blacks are consumers, not producers.
Black Americans are dependant on other groups for feeding, clothing, cul-
ture and language and need organized participation in ways of America's
In the main, modern-day African Americans avoid active participation
investing in, and ownership of, the national means of production and distri-
bution. Under America's system of capitalism, individuals and groups cap-
italize businesses in hopes of making a profit. In the nation's "private sec-
tor" individuals and groups own the means of production. From colonial
times to the present, enterprising Blacks have experienced significant suc-
cesses in American capitalism. Yet, among contemporary African Americans
"Black Capitalism" is not considered a legitimate "movement" or protocol.
Since the Civil Rights Movement, Blacks in America have improved their
social and economic standing significantly; nevertheless, African Americans
as a group remain at a pronounced economic and social disadvantage rela-
tive to European Americans. Rather than promoting and participating in
wealth building processes, today's Black "talented tenth" are more attuned
toward planning how to dress for job interviews than how to do a business
plan. Blacks in high public and private sector professional and managerial
jobs tend to balk at anything outside mainstream interests and stay in accord
with "politically correct" and post-racial concepts. Before "going main-
stream," Blacks built big enterprises in banking, insurance, cosmetics, and
retailing. The most hardly times of Black business were during the century
of Jim Crow (1870 1970s). The Golden Age of Black Business occurred
from 1900 to 1930. This era produced Black legends such as: Carter G.
Woodson; Booker T. Washington's National Negro Business League; the
Universal Negro Improvement Association and Marcus Garvey's Black
Nationalist movement; Madam C. J. Walker; S.B. Fuller; A. G. Gaston and
John H. Johnson. The period started a Black Wall Street and bastions of
Black business in townships in Mississippi and Oklahoma. During times the
races were officially segregated There were Black inventors, Charles
Richard Patterson started the world's first Black owned automobile manu-
facturing company, and Black companies made products such as embalming
fluid, hair care, and toothpaste. Black-owned funeral and newspaper busi-
nesses were staples of their communities and commerce.
Today's Black Americans expect politics to revive their lives and commu-
nities. Many believe that Blacks' empowerment will come from "register-
ing and voting". But, Booker T. Washington postured that voting had not-
ing to do with succeeding in economic development. Capitalism makes
economic production occur, yet rarely can aspiring Black entrepreneurs rely
on revenue, or draw on entrepreneurial experiences of relatives and friends.
Going forward, more respect should be given to Black entrepreneurs and
more support is needed that will increase their participation in public and
private sector procurement processes. The advocacy and legacy of Booker
T. Washington is needed among contemporary African Americans to
"advance human progress through an economic, political and social system
based on individual freedom, incentive, initiative, opportunity, and respon-
sibility". Going forward, African Americans need to organize around issues
of their economic empowerment. Such organizing creates formats that fos-
ter growth and' networking opportunities for Black business. In the tradition
of the "Wizard of Tuskegee", the National Black Chamber of Commerce is
a 21st Century movement economically empowering Blacks. The NBCC is
a leading voice for Black business interests before Congress; at the White
House, regulatory agencies and the courts. Similarly, the National Business
League is another organization educating, training and connecting Blacks
around American capitalism. In a "Time to Raise the Issues" campaign, the
NBCC is leading an array of advocacy groups holding field hearings in 25
US cities. The Arthur Fletcher / Parren J. Mitchell Free Enterprise Tour will
enable local business operators to present testimony that the NBCC, et al
will convey to Congress. Information about the Tour and city listing is avail-
able by contacting firstname.lastname@example.org.
from Commercial Newt
P.O. Box 43580
Jacksonville, FL 32203
h *~ .
Ulhbombebr c[ ofICInCree
903 W. Edgewood Ave.
Jacksonville, FL 32208
Fax (904) 765-3803
Sorry Sylvia Perry
ER Managing Editor
CONTRIBUTORS: Lynn Jones, Charles Griggs, Camilla Thompson, Reginald
Fullwood, E.O.Huthcinson, William Reed, Andre X, Brenda Burwell, Dyrinda
Sapp, Marsha Oliver, Marretta Latimer, Phyllis Mack, Carlottra Guyton, Brenda
Burwell, Rhonda Silver, Vickie Brown, Rahman Johnson, Headshots
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Therefore, the Free Press ownership
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Bailout could cost taxpayers
30 times more than expected
February 11-17, 2010
Page 4 Ms. Perry's Free Press
Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 5
I-m --L .
T~m ewgobm as0 su
"No sogo& wolft-
NY gov battles rumors of womanizing and drug use
S- Copyrighted Material
Available from Commercial News ProviderE
Governor David Paterson
ALBANY, New York -New York
Gov. David Paterson, who got the
job after his predecessor resigned in
a prostitution scandal, is fighting
unconfirmed rumors and news
reports of womanizing and drug
The rumors about Paterson's per-
sonal conduct have been circulating
in the state capital of Albany -- and
sometimes appearing online and in
s newspaper reports -- at a crucial
moment in the Democratic gover-
nor's career. His popularity has fall-
en precipitously, but he has
vowed to run for re-election
in November despite lack of
support from Washington
Paterson, New York's first
black governor, has cited as
fabricated a Jan. 30 New
York Post report that he was
caught by state police in the
governor's mansion cavort-
ing with a woman other than
In a recent interviewhe revealed
that that he has not been involved
sexually with another woman since
he and his wife separated temporar-
ily more than a decade ago, reiterat-
ing an admission he made upon tak-
ing office 23 months ago.
The Post has said it stands by its
"For the last couple of weeks I
have been the subject of what, even
by Albany standards, has been a
spate of outrageous rumors about
me," Paterson said.
While the reports are uncon-
firmed, they mean fresh trouble to
the governor, who had been facing
pressure from Washington and
within New York to drop out of the
election because of his low poll
numbers, and concerns from other
Democrats that he might hurt their
chances in 2010.
New York Attorney General
Andrew Cuomo, many Democrats'
preferred candidate for governor in
2010, refused to comment Tuesday
on the unsubstantiated tales.
"We don't comment on rumors," a
Cuomo spokesman said. "There are
serious problems facing our state
and the attorney general is busy
doing the job he was elected to do."
Many Democrats have voiced
wishes that Cuomo run for gover-
nor instead of Paterson, who took
the post upon the resignation of
Eliot Spitzer amid allegations
Spitzer hired a high-priced prosti-
tute from an escort service.
Paterson said the most recent
rumors about himself had been
stirred up by an as-yet unpublished
New York Times investigation "that
spawned a bunch of speculations
that are so way out that it's shock-
ing," he said. He said he now fears
that all reporters are "stretching the
bounds of journalism" in a race to
get anyone to confirm a vicious
rumor about him.
Paterson won't publicly identify
who he thinks is behind the attacks
on his character and said accusing
anyone would be as unfair as
spreading rumors about him.
In a recent interview he respond-
ed, "But it is certainly serving oth-
ers' interest and not mine," he said.
"And I think it's a callous and
sleazy way to treat a governor who
is just trying to do his job and, in a
democracy, is trying to keep his
Get the Facts.
Protect yourself and your family
against the spread of the H I N I Flu virus.
For your FREE H I N I vaccination visit one of the following
Duval County Health Department locations:
4b -mow 0
DCHD Immunization Center
5220 N. Pearl Street
Monday-Friday, 8:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
DCHD HERAP Program
900 University Boulevard, North
Monday-Friday, 9:00 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.
No appointment necessary at either location.
For more information visit www.dchd.net. Or call 253-1000.
Fbhruuorv 11-17 .010
meet critics part Washington Watch:Obama would
way on health care,
Presidentbaa saithisOK Health Bill minus items he pursued
week he's willing to Obama's overarching goals are to in the 1994 midterm election. accomplish. Sen. Chris Dodd, I
sign a bill even if it doesn't deliverrein in medical costs and expand Still, Republican leaders Conn., who shepherded the legisl
everything he pursued through a coverage to millions of uninsured, expressed renewed skepticism tion through the Senate's heal
year of grinding effort at risk of Specifically, Obama said he'd be about Obama's call for bipartisan- committee, said the GOP has ha
going down as a dismal failure. willing to work on ways to limit ship and reiterated their demand plenty of chances to offer inpt
The Democrats' massive health medical malpractice lawsuits that Obama jettison the and Republicans and Democra
overhaul legislation is stalled in one of the main ideas Republicans Democratic bills and start from know each others' positions so we
Congress by disagreements within have for reducing costs, by scratch. that "this meeting could occur o
the party and the loss last month of addressing the problem of defen- "It's going to be very difficult to hour from now."
their 60th Senate vote, and with it, sive medicine. Democrats, who have a bipartisan conversation with "We could play each other
control of the agenda. Republicans count trial lawyers among their regard to a 2,700-page health care hands, that's how much familiar
suspect that Obama's invitation to a most generous contributors, espe- bill that the Democrat majority in we've had with this issue," Dod
televised health care summit Feb. cially in an election year, have the House and the Democrat said. "This idea we all don't knc
25 is a thinly disguised political blocked all previous attempts to majority in the Senate can't pass," what the other side wants, the
trap. On Tuesday, the president tackle the issue. said House Republican Leader isn't a person left around here" wl
tried to change the dour dynamic, Obama's flexibility marks a con- John Boehner of Ohio. "It really is doesn't, Dodd said.
indicating he could settle for less in trast with the approach former time to scrap the bill and start Obama said he's not interested
order to move ahead. President Bill Clinton took in the over." Senate Republican Leader starting over on health care, wi
"Let's put the best ideas on the 1990s when his health care over- Mitch McConnell of Kentucky five congressional committee
table," Obama told reporters after haul got bogged down in Congress. echoed those sentiments, even holding new rounds of hearing
meeting with congressional leaders Clinton sternly waved his veto pen though the White House says and bill-drafting sessions.
of both parties. "My hope is that at lawmakers and threatened to Obama has no plans to set the "What I don't think makes sen
we can find enough overlap that we reject any legislation that fell short clock back to beginning. and I don't think the Americ;
can say, this is the right way to of his goal of covering all But even Obama's fellow people want to see would
move forward, even if I don't get Americans. The bill died, and Democrats are expressing skepti- another year of partisan wrangling
every single thing that want." Democrats lost control of Congress cism about what the summit can around these issues," he said.
February 11-17, 2010
Pave 6 Ms. Perrv's Free Press
Greater Macedonia Baptist Church
of North Side will celebrate the 34th
Anniversary of our Pastor Dr.
Landon L. Williams Sr., We invite
you to celebrate with us. The com-
munity is invited to participate in
one of the many celebration
Anniversary services that will be
held at the church. Guest speakers
are as follows: Sunday February
14th, Bishop Virgil Jones Pastor of
Philippian Community Church, Mt.
Bethel Missionary Baptist Church
Pastor Landon Williams
and Pastor Dr. Robert Herring in
addition to Mt. Vernon Baptist
Church and Pastor Rev Kelly
Brown. On Sunday February 21st,
the spoken word will be delivered
by Dr. John Guns Pastor of St. Paul
Missionary Church joined by First
Missionary Baptist Church
Jacksonville Beach Pastor Dr.
Marvin McQueen, at 4:00 p.m.
. For more information please call
the Church at 764-9257.
St. Thomas Lent Worship Service
The St. Thomas Missionary Baptist Church will begin their Lent Worship
Service each Wednesday night, beginning February 17th, 24th and March
3rd ,10th ,17th ,24th and 31st. The service will begin at 7:00p.m. nightly.
The public is invited to attend. The Church is located at 5863 Moncrief Rd.
Pastor Ernie L. Murray Sr. Pastor. For more information call the church at
Praise and Worship Conference
2010 Gospel Heritage Praise And Worship Conference, February 18-19
at th'"Bethbt'BapTist Church located at 215 Bethel Baptist St. in
Jacksonville. Performing are Minister Kirk Franklin, Pastor Donnie
McClurkin, Vanessa Bell-Armstrong, Bishop Paul S. Morton, Sr., and
more. For more information Call (770) 719-4825.
A Song Within My Heart: Free
Couples & Singles Seminar at Central
Central Metropolitan CME Church is presenting a free Couples and
Singles Seminar on Saturday, February 13, 2010, from 9:30 a.m.-12: 10
p.m. The church is located at 4611 Pearl Street. The session will kick-off
with a free breakfast. Topic discussions are: Biblical Portrait of Marriage
and Singles Relationships, An Extreme Make Over From the Heart,
Maintaining and Sustaining an Effective Marriage Relationships, Falling in
Love: Don't Give It Away, and Money Does Matter. Pastor Clarence
Kelby Heath, and Rev. Dr. Debora Wallace are the keynote seminar speak-
ers. This seminar is open to the public and is free. Call the church for more
information at 904-354-7426.
Woodlawn Continues Anniversary
Woodlawn Presbyterian will continue their anniversary celebration on
February 13th at 11:00 a.m. with a Black History Oratorical Contest and
Luncheon. On February 20th at 11:00 a.m., there will be a visit to the
Founder's Gravesite Old City Cemetery followed by the 6:00 p.m.
"Woodlawn's God Talent" A showcase of talent for all age groups On
February 21st at 1:30 p.m., the Musical Caring Caravan will visit nursing
homes in the area. The Anniversary Luncheon will be held at the Wyndham
Riverwalk Hotel on February 27th at 11:30 a.m., The celebration will con-
clude on Sunday, February 28th at 11:00 a.m. with the special Anniversary
Worship featuring guest Minister Rev Ralph Akers of Orlando, Fl.
For more information contact Lee M. Iles at 768-7446.
Special Valentine Dinner Concert
features soprano Sharon Coon
Come celebrate with us "A Song Within My Heart" Valentine Dinner
Concert featuring Sharon Coon, Ray Mezo, and Robert Moore. This year's
Semi-Formal red carpet event is Saturday, February 13, 2010, 6:30 pm,
Omni Jacksonville Hotel. A special love tribute to singles will be presented
and a sentimental vows renewal ceremony of couples. For reservations,
call Dr. Cheresa Hamilton at 904 514-8125.
Stanton All Class Reunion
The 4th Annual Stanton Gala for alumni, faculty and staff of Old Stanton,
New Stanton and Stanton Vocational High School will be held May 1, 2010
at the Prime Osborn convention center. This year's event will spotlight for-
mer Stanton Bands and honor, posthumously, Band Director Mr. Kernaa
For more information about this year's Gala and to view previous Galas,
visit www.stantonhighschool.org or call Gala Chairman Kenneth Reddick
at 904-764-8795. Tickets will be available at our next meeting February 8th
at 6:00p.m. at Bethel Baptist Institutional Church.
AME Founder's Day and Black Heritage
Event Hosts 2900 in Youth Competitions
The 23rd Annual Black Heritage
Weekend, a Florida and Bahamas
youth competition sponsored by the
Young People's & Children's
Division (YPD) of the African
Methodist Episcopal Church
(AME) will be held Friday through
Sunday, February 19-21, 2010 on
the campuses of Edward Waters
College and James Weldon Johnson
Middle School. Over 2,900 youth
participants will compete individu-
ally and as teams in the areas of
drama, dance, essay writing, poetry,
speech, music, and sports. Also
returning is Bible Jeopardy and a
Chess competition with participants
ranging in age from 8-to-18.
The weekend kicks off on Friday
with the Founder's Day
Observance, celebrating the 250th
birthday of Richard Allen, the
Founder and first Bishop of the
AME Church. Festivities include a
lecture series beginning at 10:00
a.m., a founding service at 2:00
p.m., and a contemporary worship
experience by the YPD featuring the
EWC Concert Choir at 7:00 p.m.
All Friday events are held in the
Adams-Jenkins Community Sports
& Music Complex at EWC. An
open golf tournament at the Eagle
Landing Golf Club tees off at 1:00
p.m. on Saturday.
The Founder's Day lecturer and
keynote speaker will be internation-
ally known and pre-eminent power
speaker, Reverend Dr. Frank
Madison Reid, III, pastor of the
famed Bethel AME Church in
Competitions begin at 10:00 a.m.
on Saturday, February 20th and will
continue throughout the day; com-
petitions sites will be in the
Complex, J.WJ Middle School and
Milne Auditorium. A directory of
event times and locations will be
posted on the campuses. The much-
anticipated Step Show, comprised
of members from the various con-
ferences,closes out the evening in
the Adams-Jenkins Complex.
The public is invited to attend. For
more information, call 358-1123.
Grand Lodge Black History Program
The Most Worshipful Union Grand Lodge of Jacksonville invites the
community to their 3rd annual Black History program. It will be held
February 20th at 3:00p.m. Special guests include E.J. Cameron and
Delores Duff. Ms.Cameron has an OES Chapter names after her, has been
a part of the Order for approximately 40+ years and is a past Worthy Matron
and District Deputy. Delores Duff has been a member of the Order for over
40+ years and has held several appointed imperial positions in the order.
Mary Hall Daniels is also one of the honorees. As one of the original sur-
vivors of Rosewood, she will be present to share some of her history
moments. Also honored will be Herman Randolph. He is one of the first
original black members of the Black Paratrooper Unit called, "Triple
Nickels" of WWII. This great service will be held at Greater Israel United
Missionary Baptist Church located at 6901 N. Main Street. For more infor-
mation call 904-759-2838.
Sunday Morning Worship
7:40 a.m. and 10:45 a.m.
The Word from the Sons
and Daughters of Bethel
3rd Sunday 3:30 p.m.
5863 Moncrief Rd. Jacksonville, FL 32209 (904) 768-8800 FAX 764-3800
Pastor Ernie Murray
Join Us for One of Our Services
Early Worship 8:00 a.m.
Sunday School 9:15 a.m.
Morning Worship 10:45 a.m.
1st Sunday 3:45 p.m.
Lord's Supper & Baptism
3rd Sunday 7:00 p.m.
Bible Study 7:00 p.m.
Noon Day Worship
Youth Church 7:00 p.m.
The Church ThatReac esUptoGodandOuttoMan
* *A Full Gospel Baptist Church *
Every 3rd & 4th
4 :00 p.m.
that's on the
Pastor Robert Lecount, Jr
School of Ministry Tuesday at 7:00 p.m.
Thursday High Praise Worship 7:00 p.m.
2061 Edgewood Avenue West, Jacksonville, Florida 32208
(904) 765-5683 Email:email@example.com
Dr. Landon Williams Dr. John Guns
Greater Macedonia Celebrating
Pastor's 34th Anniversary
Bethel Baptist Institutional Church
215 Bethel Baptist Street, Jacksonville, FL 32202 (904) 354-1464
Seeking the lost for Christ J,
Matthew 28:19 20 0 _
S:00 A.M. Early Morning Worship
9:30 a.m. Sunday School
Wednesday Noon Service
"Miracle at Midday"
12 noon-1 p.m.
Dinner and Bible Study
at 5:00 p.m. 6:30 p.m.
11:00 a.m. Morning Worship
Tuesday Evening 7 p.m. Prayer Service
Wednesday Bible Study 6:30 7 p.m.
Mid-Week Worship 7 p.m.
Radio Weekly Broadcast WCGL 1360 AM
Sunday 2 PM 3 PM
**FREE TUTORING FOR YOUTH IN ENGLISH, SCIENCE,
HISTORY AND MATH EVERY TUESDAY 6:30 8 P.M.
Come share In Holy Communion on 1st Sunday at 4:50 p.m.
WCGL 1360 AM Thursday 8:15 -8:45 a.m.
AM 1400 Thursday 7:00 8:00 p.m.
WTLV Channel 12 Sunday's at 6:30 a.m.
Grace and Peace
. -r --~
J r L iiua3ry L.1 I/, I I 1
Michelle Obama Makes Obesity Campaign Personal 0.
Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 9
First lady Michelle Obama
framed her national campaign
against childhood obesity in
intensely personal terms Thursday,
relating that her own daughters
were starting to get off-track before
the family's pediatrician gave her a
wake-up call and warned her to
"In my eyes, I thought my chil-
dren were perfect," the first lady
said. "I didn't see the changes."
But the family's pediatrician, she
said, kept a close eye on trends in
African-American children and
"warned that he was concerned that
something was getting off-bal-
ance." The doctor "cautioned me
that I had to take a look at my own
children's BMI," or body mass
index, the first lady said.
Mrs. Obama said parents often
recognize that kids in general don't
eat right and aren't exercising
enough, but "we always think that
only happens to someone else's
kids, and I was in that position."
"Even though I wasn't exactly
sure at that time what I was sup-
posed to do with this information
about my children's BMI, I knew
that I had to do something," she
said. "I had to lead our family to a
The first lady said that over the
next few months she made some
First lady Michelle Obama has said the fight against childhood obesi-
ty begins at home with the First Daughters Sasha and Malia.
small changes that got her daugh-
ters back on track. No more week-
day TV. More attention to portion
sizes. Low-fat milk. Water bottles
in the lunch boxes. Grapes on the
breakfast table. Apple slices at
lunch. Colorful vegetables on the
"It was really very minor stuff,
but these small changes resulted in
some really significant improve-
ments, and I didn't know it would,"
Mrs. Obama said. "It was so signif-
icant that the next time we visited
our pediatrician, he was amazed.
He looked over the girls' charts and
he said, 'What on earth are you
Mrs. Obama said that's the mes-
sage she hopes to share in her anti-
obesity campaign, that "small
changes can lead to big results."
The first lady made her remarks
at a YMCA in Alexandria, Va.,
where she appeared with Surgeon
General Regina Benjamin, Health
and Human Services Secretary
Kathleen Sebelius, and Dr. Judith
Palfrey, president of the American
Academy of Pediatrics.
Benjamin released a report that
serves as an update to a 2001 sur-
geon general's report that was a call
to action against obesity.
"Although we've made some
strides since 2001," Benjamin said,
"the number of Americans like
me who are struggling with their
weight and health conditions relat-
ed to their weight, remains too
Almost one-third of kids are at
least overweight; about 17 percent
"We're determined to finally take
on one of the most serious threats to
their future, and that's the epidemic
of childhood obesity in America
today," the first lady said at the
launch of the "Let's Move" cam-
The initiative aims to rally fami-
lies, communities, schools, urban
planners, politicians and the media
to "solve the problem of childhood
obesity in a generation so that chil-
dren born today will reach adult-
hood at a healthy weight."
SIala by FBI Agelts
SCopyrig hted Material oI a
S indicated Content
Available from Commercial News Providers
Floyd Little, Jerry Rice and Emmitt Smith after the announcement of
this year's Hall of Fame selections.
Smith, Rice Head NFL Hall of Fame
Jerry Rice and Emmitt Smith
were two -of the seven players
named to the Pro Football Hall of
Fame during the Super Bowl week-
end, the only first-year eligible
players awarded the honor.
Joining the NFL's all-time lead-
ing receiver and leading rusher in
the 2010 class, as chosen by the
Hall of Fame Selection Committee,
were Russ Grimm, Rickey Jackson,
John Randle, Dick LeBeau and
Floyd Little -- the latter two both
The original list of candidates
consisted of 131 modem-era play-
ers and was whittled down to 25
semifinalists in November and 15
finalists in January, not including
the two senior nominees. Each
finalist had to receive a minimum
vote of 80 percent to be elected.
Rice, a 13-time Pro Bowl selec-
tion in 20 seasons, holds numerous
NFL receiving records by a wide
margin, including receptions
(1,549), yards (22,895) and touch-
Smith was drafted 17th overall in
1990 out of Florida by Dallas,
where he won three Super Bowl
rings before spending his final two
seasons of his 15-year career with
the Arizona Cardinals.
Grimm earned notoriety as a
guard for the Washington Redskins'
offensive line that was affectionate-
ly nicknamed "The Hogs." From
1981-1991, Grimm led the 'Skins to
three Super Bowl victories and was
named to four Pro Bowls. He start-
ed in 114 of his 140 games played.
Jackson, was a six-time Pro Bowl
selection at his linebacker position
during his career with the New
Orleans Saints (1981-93) and San
Francisco 49ers (1994-95). He
ended his career with 128 sacks, 29
fumble recoveries and eight inter-
Randle was signed as an undraft-
ed free agent by the Minnesota
Vikings in 1990. He developed into
a fierce pass rusher and had nine
seasons with 10-plus sacks. He
wound up going to seven Pro
Bowls and finished with 137 1/2
sacks in his 14-year career with the|
Vikings (1990-2000) and Seattle!
LeBeau finished his playing
career with the Detroit Lions with
62 interceptions for 762 yards and
three touchdowns, ranking third all-
time at the time of his retirement.,
He spent his entire 14-year career
with the Lions and earned three
trips to the Pro Bowl.
Little was the Denver Broncos'
first-round draft pick in 1967. He
led the Broncos in rushing in each
season between 1968 and 1973,
topping the league in 1971 with
1,133 yards logging 6,323 yards
throughout his career (1967-75).
Each Hall-of-Fame class consists
of between four to seven new mem-
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Call 634-1993 for
What to do from social, volunteer, political and sports activities to self enrichment and the civic sceneWN
What to do from social, volunteer, political and sports activities to self enrichment and the civic scene
FAMU Alumni meeting
The FAMU JRE Lee Alumni
Chapter will have their upcoming
meeting on Saturday, February
13th at the Pharmacy Building,
2050 Art Museum Drive, Suite 200.
For more information email: jrwa-
firstname.lastname@example.org or call 910-7829
The Ritz Theater will present jazz
artist Rachelle Ferrell in concert on
February 13th. Showtime is 8
p.m. A must do for your Valentine's
Day sweet! For more information
The Jacksonville Human Rights
Commission will have new facilita-
tor training for the the Study Circle
program on Saturday, February
13th from 8:30 am 4:30 pm. The
training will be presented at City
Hall, 117 W. Duval Street in the
Lynwood Roberts Room. The 2010
requirement for facilitators, will
include first registering as a volun-
teer with the City of Jacksonville
and completing two sessions. For
more information on registering for
this training, call 904-630-8073.
The community s welcome to come
out and join the Royal Vagabonds at
their annual Valentine Sweetheart
Ball. It will be held Saturday
February 13th from 7:00 p.m.
until midnight at the Garden Club
of Jacksonville 1005 Riverside
Ave. For additional information
contact Dwaine Sweet at 866-0477.
JU Annual Black
Jacksonville University will cele-
brate Black History Month on
Monday, February 15th.
Presented by the school's United
Multicultural Association, the 22nd
Annual Gospel Extravaganza will
be filled with praise and worship
inside the Terry Concert Hall at
6:45 p.m. Admission is free and
open to the public. For additional
information, call 256-7150.
Forum on Racial
The Human Rights Commission
will present a forum on "Post-
Racial America: Are You Kidding
Me?": An Evening With Dr.
Andrew Manis. It will be held on
Thursday, Feb. 18th at WJCT
Public Broadcasting Studios, 100
Festival Park Ave starting at 6 p.m.
Reception. To RSVP for the free
event call 630-4620 or email
Blacks in Wax Museum
Exhibit in Fernandina
The MartinLuther King Jr. Center
of Fernandina Beach will host the
touring Blacks in Wax Exhibit Feb
18-20, 2010. This year's tour fea-
tures contributions of African-
Americans to the medical and
health profession. The center is
located at 1200 Elm Street. For
more information, call 583-8466.
Chocolate Male Revue
There will be all male revue on
Friday February 19th at 8:00PM.
The Ladies only event will feature a
bevy of exotic entertainers. Doors
oo 00 *
open at 8 pm and show time is at 9.
It will be held at Plush Nightclub,
845 University Blvd. For more
information call 535 3437.
Father Daughter Dance
Girls Inc. will present their annu-
al Father Daughter Dance that will
take place on Saturday, February
20th at the Hyatt Hotel. All pro-
ceeds will benefit the programs of
Girls Inc. For more information,
explored at the Ritz
There will be a free symposium at
the Ritz Theater themed "Black
Athletics Then and Now" at 7:00
p.m. on Thursday, February 25th
at 7 p.m. Call 632-5555 for more
The Jacksonville Public Library's
annual book festival, Much Ado
About Books will be held Feb. 26-
27, 2010, and events include a
writer's workshop, breakfast with
an author, panel discussions,
Children's Chapter and keynote
luncheon. The event is
Jacksonville's largest literary event,
bringing national, regional and
local authors together with book
lovers. For more info including
schedule and guest authors, visit
Fort Mose Flight
Fort Mose Historic State Park will
celebrate the first free black com-
munity in the U.S. to commemorate
Black History Month on February
27. Re-enactors in period clothing
will tell the story of Fort Mose in
"Flight to Freedom" a living history
event. In addition, the St. Augustine
Spanish Garrison will perform a
Colonial Spanish military drill. The
event will take place from 10 a.m.to
3:00 p.m. at the park located at 15
Fort Mose Trail in St. Augustine,
FL. For more information call 904-
The Genealogy Society will be
hosting a full day of seminars on
Saturday, February 27, 2010.
Presented topics include "The
Family History in Your Cell: Using
DNA for Genealogical Research",
"Where is the Book with My
Family In It", "Social Networking
for Genealogical Researchers" and
Beyond Database Programs:
Technology Tools to Help Manage
Your Research. It will be held at
Crown Point Baptist Church, 10153
Old St. Augustine Road. For addi-
tional information call 264-0743.
of Spoken Word
Come out and enjoy an evening of
Spoken Word at the Ritz Theater in
Thursday, March 4, 2010. The
free event will start at 7 p.m.
Spoken word night is held on the
first Thursday of every month
where poets, writers, vocalists and
sometimes musicians gather to
present and hear some of the area's
most powerful and profound lyrical
voices in a casual open-mic setting.
For more info call 632-5555.
A Day of Gardening
The public is invited to participate
in 'A Day of Gardening' on
I look forward to receiving the Free
Press each and every week. I've ever
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truly feel that it is a viable part of our
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Mail this form to: Subscriptions c/o Jacksonville Free Press
P.O. Box 43580, Jacksonville, FL 32203
Saturday, March 6 from 9 to 2:30
p.m. at the Duval Extension Office
on 1010 N McDuff Avenue. Topics
include Florida-Friendly Yards, The
Frugal Farmer, Organic Vegetable
Gardening, Bee Basics, Attracting
Hummingbirds, Success with
Peppers, Lawn Weed Control,
Hydroponic Vegetable Gardening,
and more. For questions, please
call Becky at 387-8850.
Ritz Jazz Jamm
On Saturday, March 6, join the
Ritz Theatre for the Ritz Jazz
Jamm. Admission is $15 at the
door and includes 1 drink of your
choice. It's an experience of relax-
ing music, beverages and a unique
atmosphere. You are welcome to
bring your instrument or vocals and
Jam with the band. Or just bring
your "Ears on Jazz"! The first
Saturday of every month the Ritz
Jazz Band features a different jazz
artist. This month is the music of
Grover Washington. Call 632-5555
for more information.
The Universoul Circus will return
to Jacksonville March 9 14 across
the street from the Prime Osborne
Convention Center. Contact ticket-
master.com for tickets.
March PRIDE Book
The March meeting of the PRIDE
Book Club will be on Friday,
March 12, 2010 at 7 p.m. at the
homeof Marie Carter. The book for
discussion will be ON THE LINE
by Daniel Paisner. For directions or
more information, call 220-4746.
James Love Pinochle
The Jacksonville Pinochle Club
will host a tournament on Friday,
March 19th at 7 p.m. and on
Saturday, March 20th at 10 a.m. at
Hotel Indigo in Tapestry Park, (off
Southside Blvd). The tournament
honors the late James Love, an avid
pinochle player. For further infor-
mation please contact Sharon
San Marco Art Festival
The 13th Annual San Marco Art
Festival on San Marco Blvd. will be
held March 27th-28th from 10
a.m. 5 p.m.
Heart & Soul Concert
There will be a Heart & Soul
Concert April 2nd and 3rd featur-
ing artists Charlie Wilson, Cameo,
Mint Condition, Ohio Players and
Doug E. Fresh. For more informa-
tion visit www.heartandsouljax.com.
Boyz II Men in Concert
Boyz II Men hailed by the RIAA
as the most commercially success-
ful R&B group of all time return
to center stage at the Florida
Theatre on Thursday, April 8, 2010.
Call 630-4964 for more info.
The Annual Gala of alumni, facul-
ty and staff of Old Stanton, New
Stanton and Stanton Vocational
High Schools will be held May 1,
2010 at the Prime Osborne
Convention Center. This year's
event will be held at the Prime
Osborne Convention Center and
will honor Band Director Kernaa
McFarlin. Monthly meetings are
held at Bethel Baptist Instituitional
Church. Tickets are now available.
For tickets, more information, or to
participate in the planning process,
This year's One Jax Humanitarian
Award Dinner will be held on May
13, 2010 at the Hyatt Regency
Jacksonville Riverfront This year's
event will honor Cleve E. Warren
Martha "Marty" Lanahan John J.
"Jack" Diamond. For tickets or
more information, call 354-1529.
B.B. King in Concert
Tickets are now on sale for the leg-
endary bluesman B.B. King who
will be in concert at the Florida
Theater on May 9. For tickets or
more information, call 355-2787.
&kmt Your News d wComin Ey veg
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Page 10 Ms. Perry's Free Press
February 11-17, 2010
( .' l
Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 11
Eddie and Lorraine Baggs
Jean and Chester Aikens
Ronnie and Gloria Belton
Troy and Minne Canady
Carlton and Barbara Jones
Joyce and Richard Danford
Carl and Betty Davis
Willye and Leo Dennis LaTasha and Reginald Fullwood
Jacquie and Craig Gibbs
Coby Hayes and David Bishop Tony and Pat Hill
Wendy and Jerry Hinton
Wendell and Jaquie Holmes
Tracee and Kevin Holzendorf
Claude and Mary Hunter
Ronnie and Levon Burnett Pearl and Albert Mackey Reese and Lee Marshall
Susan and Kenneth Jones
Bish. Rudolph and Kim McKissick Josephine and Robert Porter
Shelly and Matt Thompson
William and Eleanor Sweet
Barney and Darlene Spann
/ / Igoe f
- /4AI44 lpt
Brenda and Herman Miller
William and Doris Scott
S.. 1 1lmin
Page 12- Ms. Perry's Free Press February 11-17, 2010
Stroke and African-Americans: Know the Facts
Stroke is the third leading cause
of death in the United States after
coronary heart disease and cancer.
There are about 500,000 strokes
each year of which 150,00 are fatal.
Stroke is also a major cause of
physical impairment and the cost of
acute and chronic care exceeds $30
billion a year in this country. A so-
called "stroke belt" exists in the
Southeastern part of the country,
where almost 60 per cent of the
African American population
resides. Even though stroke is gen-
erally thought of as a disorder
affecting the elderly, it should be
recognized that 28 percent of the
victims are under age 65.
African Americans have a
stroke mortality rate which is
twice that for whites. Although the
rate of decline for stroke mortality
has increased since the 1970s, there
has been a recent slowdown in this
decline. This has been especially
true for AA, and some recent
reports indicate that stroke mortali-
ty in this group may actually be
Since it is very difficult to treat
stroke once the process has been
initiated, much of the focus has
been on primary prevention.
Hypertension is the most powerful
predictor of stroke (NEJM
11/23/95), and is found to be a fac-
tor in 70 per cent of the cases.
Control of hypertension therefore
represents the best strategy to pre-
vent stroke, and in fact a meta-
analysis showed that in all studies
combined of the association
between treating to lower blood
pressure and stroke, there was a 42
per cent reduction in the incidence
of stroke and a 45 per cent reduc-
tion in fatal stroke when diastolic
blood pressure was reduced by 5-6
mmHg. This meta-analysis is par-
ticularly important because it con-
tains studies of mild-to-moderate
hypertension as well as studies
involving higher levels of blood
pressure; it showed that any treat-
ment is likely to be beneficial.
In addition, the Systolic
Hypertension in the Elderly
Program (SHEP) demonstrated that
a 36 per cent decrease in stroke risk
resulted from mean blood pressure
reductions of 11/3.4 mm Hg. This
benefit was seen at all ages studied
and in both sexes. This evidence
and other data, e.g., from the HOT
Study, support the need for vigor-
ous drug therapy of hypertension
for the primary prevention of stroke
at all levels of blood pressure, at all
ages, in both sexes,and especially in
African American patients.
Another approach to prevention
of stroke is through carotid
endarterectomy (CE) in patients
with high-grade carotid artery
stenosis, which often leads to
ischemic stroke. Although the latter
condition occurs more commonly
in African Americans than in
whites, African Americans are one-
third to one-fourth less likely than
whites to receive CE to detect
stenosis. This is an area which qual-
ifies as denial of access based on
race. It deserves further study and a
change in selection patterns for CE
procedures may result in a lowering
of the stroke rate among blacks.
According to a new research
study, Cola boosts osteoporosis risk
in women. After reading this, you
may think twice about ordering a
Coke with dinner.
"Among women, cola beverages
were associated with lower bone
mineral density," said lead
researcher Katherine Tucker, direc-
tor of the Epidemiology and
Dietary Assessment Program at the
Jean Mayer USDA Human
Nutrition Research Center on Aging
at Tufts University.
There was a pretty clear dose-
response, Tucker added. "Women
who drink cola daily had lower
bone mineral density than those
who drink it only once a week," she
said. "If you are worried about
osteoporosis, it is probably a good
idea to switch to another beverage
or to limit your use."
Osteoporosis is a term that means
"porous bones." Osteoporosis is a
condition in which bones have lost
minerals especially calcium -
making them weaker, more brittle,
and susceptible to fractures (broken
bones). Any bone in the body can
be affected by osteoporosis, but the
most common places where frac-
tures occur are the back (spine),
hips and wrists.
According to HealthDay News,
during the study, Tucker's team col-
lected data on more than 2,500 par-
ticipants averaging just below 60
years of age. The researchers
looked at bone mineral density at
three different hip sites, as well as
They found that in women, drink-
ing cola was associated with lower
bone mineral density at all three hip
sites, regardless of age, menopause,
total calcium and vitamin D intake,
or smoking or drinking alcohol.
Women reported drinking an aver-
age of five carbonated drinks a
week, four of which were cola.
Bone density among women who
drank cola daily was almost 4 per-
cent less, compared with women
who didn't drink cola, Tucker said.
"This is quite significant when you
are talking about the density of the
skeleton," she said.
Other risk factors for
Being female and post-
menopausal, and over the age of 50
Being thin or having a small
Having a family history of osteo-
porosis or fracture
Having certain health conditions,
such as low bone mass; anorexia;
estrogen deficiency related to
menopause; or an abnormal
absence of menstrual periods
Use of certain medications, such
as oral corticosteroids and anticon-
Lifestyle choices such as lack of'
exercise; cigarette smoking; or
excessive consumption of alcohol.
OBSTETRICAL & GYNECOLOGICAL
& Gynecological Care
Comprehensive Pregnancy Care
Board Certified Laser Surgery
Family Planning Vaginal Surgery
Osteoporosis Menopausal Disorder
Laparoscopy Menstrual Disorder
St. Vincent's Division IV
1820 Barrs Street, Suite 521
Jacksonville, FL 32204
William L. Cody, M.D.
B. Vereen Chithriki, M.D.
I have friends and loved ones suffering from
Alzheimer's. But I can imagine... and hope
for... a world without this terrible disease.
You can help make a difference. A major brain imaging study led by
the National Institutes of Health may help us learn how to stop the
progression of Alzheimer's.
Please consider joining the study if you are between 55 and 90 and:
* are in good general health with no memory problems, OR
* are in good general health but have memory problems
or concerns, OR
* have a diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease.
For more information, call 1-800-438-4380
or visit www.alzheimers.org/imagine.
stopping the progression oaAlzheimer's disease
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE NEUROIMAGING INITIATIVE
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25 Ways to
1. Get off the couch 33 times to
change the channel.
2. Go to the beach with your
kids and fly a kite for 20 minutes.
3. Play beach volleyball for 13
4. Fish for 41 minutes. -
5. Go to the pool and dog-pad-
die for 17 minutes.
6. Go to the pool and do 250
breast strokes (approximately 10
7. Walk up and down 33 flights
8. Strap on 4-inch stilettos and
climb 25 flights of stairs.
9. Hit the stair climber for 11 ",-
10. Push a grocery cart for 45 Emailing for 68 minutes burns
minutes. a shocking 100 calories.
11. Carry five grocery bags
from the car to the kitchen and put them away, take out the trash,
wash the dishes and wipe down the kitchen counter.
12. Chew calorie-free gum for 30 minutes.
13. Eat chili for a couple of days. Research shows that chili pep-
pers boost your metabolic rate, burning 50 more cals a day.
14. Eat four meals with chop sticks instead of a fork. Slowing
down can help you consume 25 fewer calories per meal.
15.Take a leisurely walk in the park for 51 minutes.
16. Walk backwards in the park for 43 minutes. For every 8 calo-
ries burned walking forward, walking backwards burns 10.
17. Hit the shower for 15 minutes, then spend 7 minutes shaving,
3 minutes toweling off, 4 minutes moisturizing and 20 minutes
blow-drying and styling your hair.
18. Shop during your lunch break while carrying a 7 pound bag.
19. Twirl in your chair at work 123 times, but don't let your boss
20. E-mail for 68 minutes.
21. Drink 3 cups of green tea in 24 hours.
22. Chug a 12 8-ounce glasses of ice water a day.
23. Go 20 mph on your bike for 6 / minutes.
24. Walk at 3.5 mph for 23 minutes.
25. Jump rope as fast as you can for 8 minutes.
Dr. Chester Aikens
305 E. Union St. Jacksonville, FL
For All Your Dental Needs
8:30 AM 5 PM
Saturday Appointments Available
D ental Insurance
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I Simmons Pediatrics
Copyrighted Material .
Available from Commercial News Providers
Report Links Cola to Osteoporosis
Charles E. Simmons, III, M.D.
Have your ne owhm or smck chR seen
i ih he hospifl by fh er own Ddor.
Baptist-Wolfson Children's Hospital
St. Vncents M m orial & St. Lukes Hospital
Primary Care Hours:
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1771 Edgewood Avenue, W., Ste 1
Jacksonville, Florida 32208
Page 12- Ms. Perry's Free Press
February ll-17, 2010
Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 13
Comedian Sinbad down
but definitely not out
There's good news and bad news for
Reports surfaced in Dec. 2009 that the
53-year-old funnyman had declared
bankruptcy after the IRS claimed he had
$8.15 million in debt. Additionally,
Sinbad's bankruptcy filing listed $10 mil-
II lion to $50 million in liabilities, while
claiming the comic had less than $50,000
l Now comes word that the former star of
films like 'Houseguest,' 'First Kid' and
'Jingle All the Way' is having to give up
Sinbad his $1.5 million Hidden Hills, Calif. home
to make good on the debt.
Sinbad's house has hit the market for $3 million. The five-bedroom home
was purchased in 2007 and sits on 2.4 acres with a guest house, recording
studio, pool and a barn.
While the Benton Harbor, Mich. native may be struggling on the finan-
cial front, things are looking up professionally.
On Feb. 21, Comedy Central will premiere Sinbad's hour-long special,
'Sinbad: Where U Been.'
The standup show, which airs at 10p.m., will showcase the comic's jokes
on everything from being married to President Barack Obama.
The special will be released on DVD on Feb 23 and will feature 45 min-
utes of never-aired material.
Sinbad, who hosted the 2009 Stellar Gospel Awards, is also a contestant
on the third season of Donald Trump's 'Celebrity Apprentice,' which pre-
mieres March 14.
The Blind Boys from Alabama from left to right Joey Williams,
Bishop Billy Bowers, Jimmy Carter, Ben Moore and Eric McKinnie
perform for high school students from around the country for 'Music
That Inspired the Civil Rights Movement' in the State Dining Room of
the White House in Washington, Tuesday, Feb. 9, 2010. The perform-
ance was part of the White House Music Series celebrating Black
History Month. Also on stage is Gospel Singer Yolanda Evans
Civil rights era music fills White House
The weatherman said the wind
was blowing in a blizzard so a star-
studded concert at the U.S. White
House celebrating civil rights era
music was moved up a day to this
The event was themed, "In
Performance at the White House: A
Celebration of Music from the Civil
Rights Movement,". The lineup
included The Freedom Singers,
Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Yolanda
Adams, Natalie Cole, Smokey
Robinson, Jennifer Hudson, John
Mellencamp, John Legend, Seal,
the Howard University Choir and
the Blind Boys of Alabama.
Robert De Niro, Morgan
Freeman and Queen Latifah were
the scheduled guest speakers. It will
be televised on PBS stations the
evening of Thursday, Feb. 11th.
Still Standing: El Debarge survives through it all
last we heard from El DeBarge, he
was in jail for possession of a con-
trolled substance in Oct. 2008.
And that charge came just
weeks after he was jailed
on two warrants stem-
ming from several other
offenses from the pre-
vious year, including
vandalism, drugs and
But those days are
in the past, the singer
said in a recent inter-
"Things are fine right
now. My challenges were
basically a drug addiction
that sat me down for a minute
and made me stop writing, and
made me not participate in my own
self," said the famous falsetto. "I
A planned biopic on disgraced
pop group Milli Vanilli is moving
forward with full blessings and
assistance from surviving group
member Fabrice "Fab" Morvan.
However the lip-syncher, who,
along with late group member Rob
Pilatus, fronted the Germany-based ,-.
dance-pop outfit is still bitter
about the whole Grammy debacle.
In 1990, the group won a best new
artist award for their album "Girl
You Know It's True," which went
six-times platinum and spawned '7 *
three No. 1 hits: "Baby Don't
Forget My Number," "I'm Gonna .
Miss You" and "Blame It on the
But soon after winning the
Grammy, Morvan and Pilatus were
spotted lip-synching in concert.
Producer Frank Farian later
revealed that the album's lead
vocals, credited to the duo, were
those of other singers. The resulting
firestorm led the Recording
Academy to revoke the award and
got tired of that, I got tired of being
stuck on stupid. I went through
something, I learned from it and I
got a great story to tell. It's a testi-
mony, it's not misery anymore."
These days, El DeBarge is in the
studio working on a new album,
and he's featured in the current
"soundtrack week" of TV One's
"Way Black When" programming
for Black History Month.
"It's basically paying respect and
homage to as many of the black
films, black producers and black
recording artists as we possibly can
of the 80s," El explained of the TV
One specials. "I realized a lot of
success in the 80s, so naturally I
had some things I want to say about
Under host Chris "Kid" Reid
("House Party"), TV One's sound-
for Milli Vanilli
Davis to delete the master record-
ings from Arista's catalog.
Their Grammy for best new artist
was promptly revoked the only
take-back in Recording Academy
history. In an article in USA Today,
Morvan called the whole scandal a
track week honors the movie
albums that had an impact on
African American pop culture.
DeBarge is joined by musical artists
Brian McKnight and Kurtis Blow,
along with producer/director
Warrington Hudlin, actor Lawrence
Hilton-Jacobs and actor Glynn
"We just talked about 'Cooley
High' being one of the films," said
DeBarge. "We talked about 'Boys
N the Hood,' [my song] 'Rhythm of
the Night' being in 'The Last
Dragon,' this song I did in the
movie 'Short Circuit' called 'Who's
Johnny,' you know, that's pretty
As for his other 80s pastime of
drug abuse, El says he got a lot of
prodding from his family and fans
in recent years to finally get his act
"People were reaching out to me.
And really, actually it was God. It
was a spiritual intervention that
took place in me," he said. "I just
didn't want to do it anymore and I
had to just lay back, go somewhere,
take a vacation and just chill and
just get my thoughts together get
my will power together because
that's what was missing and that's
where I'm at right now."
WILL SMITH MAY BE GU1ING
Will Smith is considering a career in poli-
tics. "He once said he could imagine becom-
ing a U.S. president," his wife Jada Pinkett-
Smith says. "He wasn't joking. He was quite
serious about it." Smith has been seen hob-
nobbing around Washington, and recently he
traveled to Oslo, Norway with his family l
when Pres. Obama received the Nobel Prize.
TYLER PERRY GIVES A
MILLION TO HAITI
Movie producer Tyler Perry donated $1 mil-
lion to relief efforts in Haiti. "I have raised
my personal donation from $250,000 to $1
million. I did this realizing that after the next
l big story comes along, the news media will
pack up and leave the people of Haiti to fend
for themselves. They always do," he wrote on
his Web site. Perry says he hopes to follow
his donation with a trip to the island nation.
FAITH EVANS GETS REALITY TV SHOW
Faith Evans will document her return to the music industry after a five-
year hiatus in the new reality series, "It's All About Faith," due later this
year from producers El Television and El Music.
The series will also follow the R&B singer at home with her hus-
band/manager Todd Russaw and their four children.
"Working with Faith on her new highly anticipated album and this c
Evans' sixth album is due later this year on her own imprint, Prolific
Music Group, which is distributed by El Music.
LIL WAYNE SENTENCING POSTPONED FOR DEN-
Rap star Lil Wayne has gotten a temporary reprieve from jail for den-
The Grammy Award-winning rapper's sentencing in a New York City
gun case was postponed this week, because he needs to finish a string of
recent surgeries before he goes to jail.
Lil Wayne, one of music's biggest sellers and rap's hottest stars, is
poised to spend as much as a year in jail under a plea deal, though good
behavior could shave that to as little as eight months.
Sentencing now is scheduled for March 2. Manhattan state Supreme
Court Justice Charles Solomon said it wouldn't be put off any further.
Lil Wayne, 27, pleaded guilty in October to a charge of attempted crim-
inal possession of a weapon, admitting he illegally had a loaded .40-cal-
iber semiautomatic gun on his tour bus in July 2007. Police found the
weapon when they stopped the bus after a Manhattan concert.
OSCAR NOMINEES MOM SINGS AT THE SUBWAY
Gabourey Sidibe may be nominated for an
Academy Award, but it hasn't stopped her mom
from traipsing underground into New York City
subway stations to sing for money.
Alice Tan Ridley continues to show up at least *w'-
three times a week in the 14th Street/Union
Square, 34th Street/Sixth Avenue and Times .
Square/Eighth Avenue subway stations to belt
R&B tunes for commuters, despite the fact that
her famous daughter has more dough coming in than ever before one
of the sources from a regular role on an upcoming Showtime series.
"My name is not on Gabby's paycheck," Ridley told the New York
Post. "For a while, I was teaching and doing the singing, burning the
candle at both ends to support my family."
Ridley, who worked as a former nursery-school teacher and Department
of Education teacher's aide, believes she paved the way for her daugh-
ter's breakout role in 'Precious."
"We wanted to give the Grammy
back," he said. "We felt in our
hearts that it would be a good ges-
ture to do that. But they made it
look as though (the academy) want-
ed it back. They could have come to
lets you give students at risk of dropping out the boost they need to make it
through high school. Because over 30% of students in the U.S. aren't graduating.
And they've got a lot more to tackle than just their schoolwork.
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Pave 14- Ms. Perrvls F~ree Press
Lynchings were often photographed and highly popular, well attended social events in the southern states.
Lynching Practices Terrorize
Blacks in the South for Decades i
Lynching is the practice whereby a mob--usually several
dozen or several hundred persons--takes the law into its own
hands in order to injure and kill a person accused of some
wrongdoing. The alleged offense can range from a serious
crime like theft or murder to a mere violation of local cus-
toms and sensibilities. The issue of the victim's guilt is usu-
ally secondary, since the mob serves as prosecutor, judge,
jury, and executioner. Due process yields to momentary
passions and expedient objectives.
Vigilantism, or summary justice, has a long history, but
the term lynch law originated during the American Revolu-
tion with Col. Charles Lynch and his Virginia associates,
who responded to unsettled times by making their own rules
for confronting Tories and criminal elements. "Lynching"
found an easy acceptance as the nation expanded. Raw fron-
tier conditions encouraged swift punishment for real, imag-
ined, or anticipated criminal behavior. Historically, social
control has been an essential aspect of mob rule.
Opponents of slavery in pre-Civil War America and cattle
rustlers, gamblers, horse thieves, and other "desperadoes" in
the South and Old West were nineteenth-century targets.
From the 1880s onward, however, mob violence increas-
ingly reflected white America's contempt for various racial,
ethnic, and cultural groups. African-Americans especially,
and sometimes Native Americans, Latinos, Jews, Asian
immigrants, and European newcomers, felt the mob's fury.
In an era when racist theories prompted "true Americans" to
assert their imagined superiority through imperialist ven-
tures, mob violence became the domestic means of asserting
cans. Taking its cue from this intersectional white harmony,
the federal government abandoned its oversight of constitu-
tional protections. Southern and border states responded
with the Jim Crow laws of the 1890s, and white mobs flour-
ished. With blacks barred from voting, public office, and
jury service, officials felt no obligation to respect minority
interests or safeguard minority lives. In addition to lynch-
ings of individuals, dozens of race riots--with blacks as vic-
tims--scarred the national landscape from Wilmington,
North Carolina, in 1898 to Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1921.
Between 1882 (when reliable statistics were first col-
lected) and 1968 (when the classic forms of lynching had
disappeared), 4,743 persons died of lynching, 3,446 of them
black men and women. Mississippi (539 black victims, 42
white) led this grim parade of death, followed by Georgia
(492, 39), Texas (352, 141), Louisiana (335, 56), and Ala-
white dominance. Occasionally, this complemented the
profit motive, when the lynching of a successful black
farmer or immigrant merchant opened new economic oppor-
tunities for local whites and simultaneously reaffirmed eve-
ryone's "place" in the social hierarchy. Sometimes lynching
was aimed at unpopular ideas: labor union organizers, po-
litical radicals, critics of America's role in World War I, and
civil rights advocates were targets.
African-Americans suffered grievously under lynch law.
With the close of Reconstruction in the late 1870s, southern
whites were determined to end northern and black participa-
tion in the region's affairs, and northerners exhibited a
growing indifference toward the civil rights of black Ameri-
bama (299, 48). From 1882 to 1901, the annual number na-
tionally usually exceeded 100; 1892 had a record 230 deaths
(161 black, 69 white). Although lynchings declined some-
what in the twentieth century, there were still 97 in 1908 (89
black, 8 white), 83 in the racially troubled postwar year of
1919 (76, 7, plus some 25 race riots), 30 in 1926 (23, 7), and
28 in 1933 (24, 4).
Statistics do not tell the entire story, however. These were
recorded lynchings; others were never reported beyond the
community involved. Furthermore, mobs used especially
sadistic tactics when blacks were the prime targets. By the
1890s lynchers increasingly employed burning, torture, and
dismemberment to prolong suffering and excite a "festive
atmosphere" among the killers and onlookers. White fami-
lies brought small children to watch, newspapers sometimes
carried advance notices, railroad agents sold excursion tick-
ets to announced lynching sites, and mobs cut off black vic-
tims' fingers, toes, ears, or genitalia as souvenirs. Nor was it
necessarily the handiwork of a local rabble; not infre-
quently, the mob was encouraged or led by people promi-
nent in the area's political and business circles. Lynching
had become a ritual of interracial social control and recrea-
tion rather than simply a punishment for crime.
FUNCTIONS dF :LYNCINd :
-jrst to maintain soia~rder over the black p on though terrorism
second, to suppress of e maite.black competitors for economic,polticaL, or social rewards -
thrd, to stabilize thehi class structure and preserve the privile ed status of the white aristocracy"
The Tuskegee Experiment
Black men were told they were being treatedfor an illness, instead
they were monitored as doctors watched as they died from syphilis
In 1932 the American Government
promised 400 men all residents of
Macon County, Alabama, all poor, all
African American free treatment for
Bad Blood, a euphemism for syphilis
which was epidemic in the county.
Treatment for syphilis was never
given to the men and was in fact with-
held. The men became unwitting sub-
jects for a government sanctioned
medical investigation: The Tuskegee
Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Ne-
The Tuskegee Study, which lasted for 4
decades, until 1972, had nothing to do with
treatment. No new drugs were tested; neither
was any effort made to establish the efficacy
of old forms of treatment. It was a non-
therapeutic experiment, aimed at compiling
data on the effects of the spontaneous evolu-
tion of syphilis on black males. What has
become clear since the story was broken by
Jean Heller in 1972 was that the Public
Health Service (PHS) was interested in us-
ing Macon County and its black inhabitants
as a laboratory for studying the long-term
effects of untreated syphilis, not in treating
this deadly disease. These men, for the most
part illiterate sharecroppers from one of
the poorest counties in Alabama, were never
told what disease they were suffering from
or of its seriousness. The data for the experi-
ment was to be collected from autopsies of
the men, and they were thus deliberately left
to degenerate under the ravages of tertiary
syphilis which can include tumors, heart
disease, paralysis, blindness, insanity, and
death. "As I see it," one of the doctors in-
volved explained, "we have no further inter-
est in these patients until they die."
Using Human Beings as
The Tuskegee Study symbolizes the medi-
cal misconduct and blatant disregard for
human rights that takes place in the name of
science. The studies principal investigators
were not mad scientists, they were govern-
ment physicians, respected men of science,
who published reports on the study in the
leading medical journals. The subjects of the
study bear witness to the premise that the
burden of medical experimentation has his-
torically been borne by those least able to
The true nature of the experiment had to
be kept from the sub-
jects to ensure their
disadvantaged lot in
life made them easy to
manipulate. Pleased at
the prospect of free
medical care -almost
none of them had ever
seen a doctor before-
and trusting men be-
came the pawns in what James Jones, author
of the excellent history on the subject, Bad
Blood, identified as "the longest non thera-
peutic experiment on human beings in medi-
The government doctors who participated
in the study failed to obtain informed con-
sent from the subjects in a study of disease
with a known risk to human life. Instead, the
PHS offered the men incentives to partici-
pate: free physical examinations, free rides
to and from the clinics, hot meals on exami-
nation days, free treatment for minor ail-
ments, and a guarantee that a burial stipend
would be paid to their survivors. This mod-
est stipend of $50.00 represented the only
form of burial insurance that many of the
men had. By failing to obtain informed con-
sent and offering incentives for participa-
tion, the PHS doctors were performing un-
ethical and immoral experiments on human
subjects. From the moment the experiment
begun, the immorality of the experiment was
The study was meant to discover how
syphilis affected blacks as opposed to
whites -the theory being that whites ex-
perienced more neurological complications
from syphilis, whereas blacks were more
susceptible to cardiovascular damage. How
this knowledge would have changed clinical
treatment of syphilis is uncertain.
Although the PHS touted the study as one
When the experiment was brought to the
attention of the media in 1972, news anchor
Harry Reasoner described it as an experi-
ment that "used human beings as laboratory
animals in a long and inefficient study of
how long it takes syphilis to kill someone."
A Heavy Price in the
Name of Bad Science
By the end of the experiment, 28 of the
men had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of
related complications, 40 of their wives had
been infected, and 19 of their children had
been born with congenital syphilis.
To persuade the community to support the
experiment, one of the original doctors ad-
mitted it "was necessary to carry on this
study under the guise of a demonstration and
provide treatment." At first, the men were
prescribed the syphilis remedies of the
day-but in such small amounts that only 3
percent showed any improvement.
These token doses of medicine were good
public relations and did not interfere with
the true aims of the study. Eventually, all
syphilis treatment was replaced with "pink
medicine" AKA aspirin.
To ensure that the men would show up for
a painful and potentially dangerous spinal
tap, the PHS doctors misled them with a
letter full of promotional hype: "Last
Chance for Special Free Treatment." The
fact that autopsies would eventually be re-
quired was also concealed.
As a doctor explained, "If the colored
population becomes aware that accepting
free hospital care means a post-mortem,
every darky will leave Macon County..."
Even the U.S. Surgeon General participated
in enticing the men to remain in the experi-
ment, sending them certificates of apprecia-
tion after 25 years in the study.
Following Doctors' Orders
It takes little imagination to ascribe racist
attitudes to the white government officials
who ran the experiment, but what can one
make of the numerous African Americans
who collaborated with them? The experi-
ment's name comes from the Tuskegee Insti-
tute, the black university founded by Booker
T. Washington. Its affiliated hospital lent
the PHS its medical facilities for the study,
and other predominantly black institutions as
well as local black doctors also participated.
A black nurse, Eunice Rivers, was a central
figure for most of its forty years.
The promise of recognition by a prestig-
ious government agency may have obscured
the troubling aspects of the study for some.
A Tuskegee doctor, for example, praised
"the educational advantages offered our in-
terns and nurses as well as the added stand-
ing it will give the hospital." Nurse Rivers
explained her role as one of passive obedi-
ence: "we were taught that we never diag-
nosed, we never prescribed; we followed the
It is clear that the men in the experiment
trusted her and that she sincerely cared about
their well-being, but her unquestioning sub-
mission to authority eclipsed her moral judg-
ment. Even after the experiment was ex-
posed to public scrutiny, she genuinely felt
nothing ethical had been amiss.
One of the worst aspects of the experi-
ment was how the PHS kept these men from
receiving treatment. When several nation-
wide campaigns to eradicate venereal dis-
ease came to Macon County, the men were
prevented from participating. Even when
penicillin, the first real cure for syphilis -
was discovered in the 1940s, the Tuskegee
men were deliberately denied the medica-
Blowing the Whistle
The story finally broke in the Washington
Star on July 25, 1972, in an article by Jean
Heller of the Associated Press. Her source
was Peter Buxtun, a former PHS venereal
disease interviewer and one of the few whis-
tle blowers over the years. The PHS, how-
ever, remained unrepentant, claiming the
men had been "volunteers" and "were al-
ways happy to see the doctors," and an Ala-
bama state health officer who had been in-
volved claimed "somebody is trying to make
a mountain out of a molehill."
Under the glare of publicity, the govern-
ment ended their experiment, and for the
first time provided the men with effective
medical treatment for syphilis. Fred Gray, a
lawyer who had previously defended Rosa
Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr. filed a
class action suit that provided a $10 million
out-of-court settlement for the men and their
families. Gray, however, named only whites
and white organizations as defendants in the
suit, portraying Tuskegee as a black and
white case when it was in fact more complex
than that -black doctors and institutions
had been involved from beginning to end.
The PHS did not accept the media's com-
parison of Tuskegee with the appalling ex-
periments performed by Nazi doctors on
Jews during World War II. Yet in addition to
the medical and racist parallels, the PHS
offered the same morally bankrupt defense
offered at the Nuremberg trials: they
claimed they were just carrying out orders ,
exempt from personal responsibility.
On July 23, 1973, Fred Gray, a prominent
civil rights lawyer, brought a $1.8 billion
class action civil suit against many of those
institutions and individuals involved in the
study. Gray demanded $3 million in dam-
ages for each living participant and the heirs
of the deceased. The case never came to
trial. In December, 1974, the government
agreed to a $10 million out of court settle-
ment. The living participants each received
$37,500 in damages, the heirs of the de-
ceased, $15 000. Gray received nearly $1
million in legal fees. Had the subjects of The
Tuskegee Study been taken advantage of?
Although the survivors and the families of
the deceased received compensation, no
PHS officer who had been directly involved
in the study felt contrition. No apologies
were ever tendered; no one ever admitted
any wrong doing. On the contrary, the PHS
officers made it clear that they felt they were
acting in good conscience. They felt be-
trayed by the government's failure to defend
the study they commissioned. But as one
survivor said "...I don't know what they used
us for. I ain't never understood the study."
The Legacy of Tuskegee
In 1990, a survey found that 10 percent of
African Americans believed that the U.S.
government created AIDS as a plot to exter-
minate blacks, and another 20 percent could
not rule out the possibility that this might be
true. As preposterous and paranoid as this
may sound, at one time the Tuskegee experi-
ment must have seemed equally farfetched.
Who could imagine the government, all
the way up to the Surgeon General of the
United States, deliberately allowing a group
of its citizens to die from a terrible disease
for the sake of an ill-conceived experiment?
In light of this and many other shameful
episodes in our history, African Americans'
widespread mistrust of the government and
white society in general should not be a sur-
prise to anyone.
The Tuskegee Experiment,
Insurrections that Decimated Black Communities
Racial unrest and violence against African Americans permeated domestic developments in the United States during the post-World War 1 era. From individual
lynching to massive violence against entire African American communities, whites in both the North and the South lashed out against African Americans with a
rage that knew few bounds. From Chicago to Tulsa, to Omaha, East St. Louis, and many communities in between, and finally to Rosewood, white mobs pursued
what can only be described as a reign of terror against African Americans during the period from 1917 to 1923.
The Rosewood Massacre is now written in
history as one of the worst race riots in
American history, in which hundreds of an-
gry whites killed an undetermined number
of blacks and burnt down their Florida com-
In 1922 Rosewood, Florida, was a small,
predominantly black town. During the win-
ter of 1922, two events in the vicinity of
_.. Rosewood aggravated local race relations:
the murder of a white schoolteacher in
nearby Perry, which led to the murder of
three blacks, and a Ku Klux Klan rally in
Gainesville on New Year's Eve.
On New Year's Day of 1923, Fannie Tay-
lor, a young white woman living in Sumner,
claimed that a black man sexually assaulted
her in her home. A small group of whites
began searching for a recently escaped black
convict named Jesse Hunter, whom they
believed to be responsible. They incarcer-
ated one suspected accomplice, Aaron Car-
rier, and lynched another, Sam Carter. The
men then targeted Aaron's cousin Sylvester
Carrier, a fur trapper and private music in-
structor, who was rumored to be harboring
Jesse Hunter.A group of 20 to 30 white men
went to Sylvester Carrier's house to confront
him. They shot his dog, and when his
mother, Sarah, stepped outside to talk with
"' the men, they shot her.
Sylvester killed two men and wounded
four in the shoot-out that ensued. After the
men left, the women and children, who prior
to this had gathered in Carrier's house for
protection, fled to the swamp where the ma-
jority of Rosewood's residents had already
The white men returned to Carrier's house
the following evening. After a brief shoot-
out, they entered the house, found the bodies
of Sarah Carrier and a black man whom they
believed to be Sylvester Carrier, and set the
residence on fire.
The men then proceeded to rampage
through Rosewood, torching other buildings
and slaughtering animals. They were joined
by a mob of about 200 whites who con-
verged on Rosewood after finding out that a
black man had killed two whites.That night
two local white train conductors, John and
William Bryce, who knew all of Rosewood's
residents, picked up the black women and
children and took them to Gainesville. John
Wright, a white general store owner who hid
a number of black women and children in
his home during the riot, planned and helped
carry out this evacuation effort. The African
Americans who escaped by foot headed for
Gainesville or for other cities in the northern
By the end of the weekend all of Rose-
wood was leveled except for the Wright
house and the general store. Although the
state of Florida claimed that only eight peo-
ple died in the Rosewood riot-two whites
Tulsa, Oklahoma Race
Although the number of lynching had de- schools. W
lined from 64 in 1921 to 57 in 1922. In On May 30, 1921, a 19-year-old African had
1921 Tulsa was the site of one of the worst American shoeshine man named Dick Row- depu
race riots in U.S. history. From the evening land entered the Drexal building downtown ham
of May 31st, to the afternoon of June 1, to use the segregated restroom. While ap- can
1921, more Americans killed fellow Ameri- preaching the elevator, which apparently retui
cans in the Tulsa riot than probably anytime hadn't stopped evenly with the floor, Mr. Aga
since the Civil War. Rowland tripped and fell on the operator, a wou
The official death count in the days fol- 17-year-old white girl named Sarah Page. leav
lowing the riot was around 35, but evidence Ms. Page not knowing it was accidental at- atter
has surfaced through an investigation to sug- tempts to hit Mr. Rowland with her purse. fired
gest that at least 300 people were killed. Mr. Rowland grabs Ms. Page, attempting to crim
Rumors still persist that hundreds, not doz- stop her assault. Ms. Page screams, Mr. (2 A
ens, of people were killed and that bodies Rowland runs out of the elevator and the ing
A- were crudely buried in mass graves, stuffed building. Ms. Page tells the police that the Th
into coal mines and tossed into the Arkansas man had attempted to criminally assault her. bere
River. If so, the Tulsa race riot would go Ms. Page later changes her story and said he of t
down as the worst single act of domestic grabbed her. Authorities arrested Mr. Row- arou
violence on U. S. soil since the Civil War; land and held him overnight in the county Am
worse than the 1965 Watts riot, the 1967 jail, though Ms. Page declined to press lam
Detroit riot, the 1992 Los Angeles riot and charges. mes:
the 1995 Oklahoma city bombing. The following day, the Tulsa Tribune ran the
Those events left a total of 301 dead. Two a story in the afternoon edition headlined, assi,
days of violence and arson directed by "Nab Negro For Attacking Girl In Elevator," horn
whites against African American neighbor- and added a racially charged editorial calling com
" hoods left hundreds dead, hundreds injured, for a lynching. That evening a crowd of first
and more than 1500 African American about 400 whites gather around the jail, 2:30
owned homes and 600 businesses destroyed. some say to help with or view the lynching. while
Also destroyed in the African American Shortly there after, the news reached the mar
neighborhoods were 21 churches, 21 restau- African American community. A group of buil
rants, 30 stores, 2 movie theaters, a hospital, about 25 African Americans, all armed head F
a bank, the post office, libraries, and to the jail. and
six blacks-testimonies by survivors
est that more African Americans per-
1. No one was charged with the Rose-
d murders. After the riot, the town was
rted and even blacks living in surround-
;ommunities moved out of the area.
though the Rosewood riot received na-
il coverage in the New York Times and
Washington Post as it unfolded, it was
ected by historians. Survivors of Rose-
d did not come forward to tell their story
use of the shame they felt for having
connected with the riot. They also kept
Lt out of fear of being persecuted or
hen they arrive, they find out the story
been exaggerated. After talking to the
ity sheriff, whom reassured them no
n would come to Mr. Rowland, the Afri-
Americans went home. But later they
rned, this time numbering about 75.
in the sheriff convinced them no harm
ld come to Mr. Rowland. As they were
ing a white man (possibly a deputy)
npted to disarm one of them. A shot was
I. By 10pm shots were being fired indis-
inately by both sides, 12 men were dead
frican Americans, 10 whites). The fight-
continued until around midnight.
e African Americans, being outnum-
d, begin to retreat back to their section
own. Mobs of whites began to drive
nd the streets, shooting any African
erican person they saw. Sometime near
, the mayor and the chief of police sent a
sage to the governor, informing him that
riot was out of control and requested
stance. The governor activated the Okla-
la National Guard and requested two
panies of soldiers from Fort Sill. The
group of guardsmen arrived before
)am. By 5am, a mob of 10,000-15,000
tes gathered near First St. and Elgin then
ched on Greenwood, setting fire to every
riday, June 3rd martial law was revoked
the national guard returned the city back
killed. In 1993 the Florida Department of
Law Enforcement conducted an investiga-
tion into the case, and this led to the drafting
of a bill to compensate the survivors of the
After an extended debate and several hear-
ings, the Rosewood Bill, which awarded
$150,000 to each of the riot's nine eligible
black survivors, was passed in April 1994.
In spite of the state's financial compensation,
the survivors remained frightened. When
asked if he would go back to Rosewood,
survivor Wilson Hall said, "No, ... They still
don't want me down there."
y 30, 1921
to the local police. Within a week of the riot,
African Americans were made to carry
"green cards". African Americans working
in a permanent jobs wore "green cards",
signed by their employer as a matter of iden-
tification. Employers would go to the issuing
location to identify the employee, then the
employee would be issued the "green card".
Any African American found in the streets
without a "green card" were to be arrested
after Tuesday, June 7th and taken to the fair-
grounds camp to help the African American
victims of the riot. More than 7,500 cards
The Greenwood District was rebuilt, but
never again achieved the national reknown
and economic status it had enjoyed as the
country's "Negro Wall Street". Now Okla-
homa officials are opening up a nearly 80-
year-old wound, conducting an investigation
to find out once and for all what happened in
Tulsa on May 31st and June 1,1921. Investi-
gators intend to sweep metal-detection de-
vices over a suspected site in search of belt
buckles, shoe nails and other evidence that
might suggest a mass grave. If investigators
find something, they may excavate the site
to search for remains. The main aims of the
project are to spur healing and closure in
Tulsa and possibly to offer survivors and
descendants of victims some sort of repara-
A burning house in Rosewood, FL in January 4, 1923.