Special pullout page
know about her
Serena Williams wins 5th
Aussie Title, 12th Grand Slam
MELBOURNE, Australia Serena Williams
loves a good underdog story and understood that
most of the crowd was behind her opponent
All that sentiment was put aside once she heard
an insult from the stands, a crack that went right
to the heart of all athletes. Williams surged to a
6-4, 3-6, 6-2 victory in the Australian Open final
last weekend, closing the chapter on Henin's
remarkable comeback from retirement.
"I think everyone was for Justine tonight," Williams said. "But you
know what really helped me out? This one guy was like, 'You can beat
her Justine, she's not that good.'
The win marked her fifth Australian Open title. It also gave her more
Australian titles than any woman in the Open era and allowed her to
match Billie Jean King's career total of 12 majors in singles.
Serena has now won three majors in 12 months, including Wimbledon
and the Australian in 2009. Her conversion rate in Grand Slam finals is
12 of 15, second only to Margaret Court.
Rutgers suspends Sigma
Gamma Rho Chapter for hazing
National leaders of the Sigma Gamma Rho sorority have suspended its
Rutgers University chapter amid an ongoing probe of hazing allegations.
The North Carolina-based sorority took the action last week after six
members of the Rutgers chapter were charged with hazing prospective
pledges by paddling them and denying them food. Rutgers has also sus-
pended the sorority.
Campus police say the incidents occurred between Jan. 18 and Monday
and at least seven woman sustained some injuries, including one who
sought medical attention.
One woman claimed sorority members struck her 201 times with a pad-
dle over a week and planned another round of punishment before the alle-
gations became public.
The six sorority members are charged with aggravated hazing, an
indictable criminal offense, and could face disciplinary action and possi-
ble expulsion under the university's code of conduct. They are free on
Oakland Transit system to pay $1.5M
over cop's fatal shooting of passenger
San Francisco, California -- Officials have agreed to pay $1.5 million
to the daughter of twenty-two year old Oscar Grant, the man fatally shot
in the back by a transit police officer on New Year's Day 2009 in
A bystander's cell-phone video of the shooting on a transit platform was
widely circulated on the Internet and on news shows.
The video showed then-Officer Johannes Mehserle, 27, pulling his gun
and shooting Grant in the back as another officer kneeled on Grant.
"It's been a little over a year since we experienced the tragic death of
Oscar Grant," BART Board President James Fang said. "No matter what
anyone's opinion of the case may be, the sad fact remains this incident
has left Tatiana without a father. The $1.5 million settlement will provide
financial support for her." Grant's daughter, Tatiana, is 5.
Mehserle might have intended to draw and fire his Taser rather than his
gun, according to a court filing by his attorney.
The shooting sparked large protests in Oakland and led to Mehserle's
arrest on a murder charge. The case against him is pending.
Initially, attorney John Burs asked for $50 million in a wrongful-death
lawsuit filed on behalf of Grant's daughter.
The transit system's police department has made several changes since
the shooting. The department has increased training hours for officers, is
requiring them to report all "use-of-force incidents," and is tapping the
public's help in searching for a new police chief, the transit system said
in a statement.
Michael Jackson's Doctor Conrad
Murray faces criminal charges
Prosecutors plan to charge Michael Jackson's doctor with manslaugh-
ter rather than take the case to a grand jury.
Dr. Conrad Murray Prosecutors will file a criminal complaint against
how we tip?
4W Page 10
m Time to close
Volume 23 No.17 Jacksonville, Florida February 4-10, 2010
Is Black History Month Still Relevant?
The month of February is once
again among us signifying another
month filled with a bevy of activi-
ties dedicated to Black culture and
history. Many still ask, "Do we still
need a Black History Month?" The
question itself sounds redundant.
How many times can you hear
about George Washington Carver,
Harriet Tubman, Frederick
Douglass, etc. and the other myriad
of African- American Heroes and
Obviously not enough.
With Jacksonville having been
dubbed the 'murder capital of the
state" and heinous activities still
plaguing Black America, the idea
that yes "success does run in our
race" is obviously not instilled in
the masses. The historical relevance
of Blacks helping out their less for-
tunate is all but gone with the
exception of a faithful few as the
great divide between the haves and
the have-nots grow wider and
"Yes the murder rate is bad,"
began one Free Press reader who
stopped by our offices, "But as long
as you're not around that kind, you
should be ok," they said.
Statistics say a Black man is more
likely to die at the hands of another
Black man more than any other
force in the universe. More than
AIDS, stroke, heart attack, drugs or
any random attack of violence.
Continued on page 3
Perfect timing for Miss America 2010
TwceassMn lc eale innt Prollege
)C o'UrcliAmerican Beliaich a
1111CS [IN llMk m O 10' *;C l0 \V\C'
Miss America Caressa Cameron
After belting out Beyonce's
"Listen" from "Dreamgirls" and
telling kids they should get outside
more often., 22 year old Caressa
Cameron was crowned Miss
At the competition, held in Las
Vegas, Caressa Cameron a student
at Virginia Commonwealth
University communications major,
won one of the oldest and most cel-
ebrated titles in American popular
"Take away the TV, take away the
video games, set some standards for
our children!" she answered unhesi-
tatingly in the interview portion of
the contest, in which she was asked
what to do about the epidemic of
As winner of the pageant, which is
in its 88th year, she is to receive a
Her platform was listed as AIDS
In 1983, Vanessa L. Williams was
the first African American woman
crowned Miss America. In 1990,
Debbye Turner became the second
black woman to win the title.
Others who have been crowned
include Ericka Dunlap (2004),
Erika Harold (2003) and Kimberly
Clarice Aiken (1994).
Sunday, January 31, 2010 was proclaimed American Beach Day by the
Nassau County Board at a ceremony held at Franklintown United
Methodist Church on Lewis Street on American Beach. Festivities includ-
ed a panel discussion by beach historians and residents (shown above)
George Green, Annette Myers, Camilla Thompson and Marsha Dean
Phelts. Judge Henry Adams moderated the discussion. American Beach,
a well known established African-American community, celebrates 75
years this year. It was founded by the Afro American Life Insurance
Company in 1935. T Austin photo
Woodlawn Celebrates 140th Anniversary With a Step Back in Time
Dr. Conrad Murray, who practices in Houston, instead of taking the case
before a grand jury, which is done in private.
The complaint would be the prelude to a public hearing in which a
judge would weigh testimony from witnesses to decide if there is proba-
ble cause to try him on an involuntary manslaughter charge.
Jackson died June 25 from an anesthetic overdose. Murray maintains
nothing he gave Jackson should have killed him.
Murray arrived in Los Angeles last weekend in anticipation of a charg-
ing decision from the district attorney's office.
Jackson, 50, hired Murray to be his personal physician as he prepared
for a strenuous series of comeback performances in London. He died in
Los Angeles after Murray administered the powerful general anesthetic
propofol and two other sedatives to get the chronic insomniac to sleep,
according to the Los Angeles County coroner's office, which ruled the
death a homicide.
Murray has denied any criminal wrongdoing.
Woodlawn Presbyterian Church kicked off their 140th Anniversary last weekend with a luncheon honoring their past. Organized by Ms. Letha Isles,
the celebration was highlighted by the period wear of church members and honoring longstanding members. Shown above dressed in the attire of the
1800's are Woodlawn participating memebrs: Front Row: Hannah and Dionne Cooke, Frank Morene HI, Muriel Exson, Letha M. Iles, Barbara
H. Walker, Nancy S. Watts, Ardelia McClain, Second Row: Pauline E. Davis, Joyce Lawson, Mary P. Crumley, Reva M. Oliver, Gail W. Holley,
Mary L. Brown, Rev. and Mrs. J.W. Rigsby, Carolyn Newton, Harriett M. Hallback, Carolyn Alexander, Betty Burgess, Esther Barton and
Jennie M. Sharpton. For more see page 5. Winston Northern Photo
--g------ ~ ----~I~Sg- -d II
February 4-10, 2010
Page 2 Ms. Perry's Free Press
Does race play a role in the way we tip?
from opinions and data collected
from restaurant servers.
Lynne's research also revealed
that a third of whites within the
study did not know the standard
amount accepted for gratuities.
Lynne who has continued to
update his research findings,
believes that there is no
single answer as to why
blacks might tend to tip
less. At the same time
Lynne also believes
that the data can point
to potential difficul-
ties for restaurants
operating in African-
says Lynne, the
is less likely to open
up restaurants in
even if they are afflu-
V because of this race
difference in tipping."
Wendi Williams believes
Who requires or expects a tip and what is the proper amount? Make sure good
service is rewarded bv following these tiDoina guidelines, rules and customs.
seafood caf6 last fall
she counted on her signa-
ture garlic blue crab dish and a lit-
tle Southern charm as a way to sat-
isfy her customers. Although her
restaurant is relatively young and
most likely prone to new start-up
headaches, one of the things that
McGinnis never expected was the
way that some of her African-
American customers failed to leave
behind a tip or gratuity. Almost
right away McGinnis noticed the
difference between the tips she
received from her African-
American and white clientele.
According to McGinnis this past
week an Black NFL player patron-
ized the cafe and left without tip-
ping. "He pulled out not a small
amount of money, but a wad...I just
had to experience [this] firsthand,"
says McGinnis who runs Bushels
Seafood Caf6, a mom and pop style
establishment with her husband
and one additional worker. "I never
paid attention before but I've
noticed [here] that our white cus-
tomers tip more than our black cus-
tomers who come through."
McGinnis says that her food item
prices range from $8 $25 dollars
for a meal. While some restaurants
go as far as calculating or even
including the gratuity as part of the
bill, at the caf6 McGinnis says that
she prints a straight bill or receipt
for the food and service she deliv-
ers. "It's up to them whether they
tip," McGinnis adds.
Dr. William Michael Lynne, a
professor at Cornell University's
School of Hotel Administration has
been examining the relationship
between gratuities and race since
the late-80s but due to what he saw
as a politically sensitive topic, Dr.
Continued from page 4
Students are not learning about
Civics, Social Studies, Science and
Art because the stakes are so high
that it becomes imperative that they
focus on "the test." That is not what
our educational system should be
about. We should be concentrating
on balanced curriculums that intro-
duce children to all aspects of educa-
tion not just a standardized test.
If standardize test prove anything,
they prove that there is still tremen-
dous inequality in our public school
system. So what happens as a result
of these lower test scores?
Researchers consistently find that
adding test scores to the admissions
equation results in fewer women and
minorities being accepted than if
their academic records alone were
And do not be mistaken I am not
totally opposed to NCLB and stan-
dardized testing, but the emphasis
has to be changed. Unlike the last
administration, at least Obama is
willing to bring everyone to the table
to improve public education,
Signing off from Central Riverside
I If you're dining at a sit-down
restaurant and you'ree %aited on b\
a server for all of your meal, a tip of
fifteen to twenty percent is called
for. If you feel the service was truly
exemplary, you can, of course, tip
more. Unless your service was
below standard, it's not good eti-
quette to tip less than fifteen per-
cent. If you're dining at a restaurant
that offers only partial service, for
instance a buffet, the gratuity should
be less, about five to ten percent
depending on the quality, and
amount, of service received.
For take-out orders you'll want
to tip the delivery person fifteen per-
cent of the order. For a catered affair
where the food must be presented as
well as delivered, tipping upwards
of twenty percent is the norm.
Deliveries that have nothing to do
with food require a tip as well. For a
food delivery, one to five dollars is
Lynne only recently began to dis-
cuss some of the implications
attached to the subject. "It's a dirty
secret in the industry that there is a
wide spread perception that blacks
don't tip well," says Lynne.
Because of this perception, Lynne ,
believes that African-Americans
might often receive inferior serv-
Beyond the perception however,
Lynne who has conducted surveys
in targeted areas of he U.S. believes
that at least some of the evidence
from hisresearch supports the neg-
ative perception of blacks and tip-
According to Lynne, one study
from the paper concluded that
among whites, blacks, Hispanics
and Asians, blacks gave or claimed
to give the lowest average tip. In
another survey from the same
report blacks were more than twice
as likely as whites to leave a flat
dollar amount instead of a gratuity
reflecting a percentage of the bill.
Part of Lynne's research also came
acceptable depending on the number
and size of items ordered. For very
large deliveries, you might want to
be more generous.
For furniture, three to five dol-
lars per piece of furniture is
acceptable; however, you should
take into consideration the type of
furniture and how much lifting and
maneuvering was required to get it
to its final destination.
Your hair stylist should receive a
tip of fifteen to twenty percent of the
final bill if you received the basic
cut and style. Additional services
require additional gratuities. The
person who washes your hair should
receive a dollar or two. If you had a
manicure, your nail technician
should receive one to three dollars.
Different hotel workers also
require different gratuities. The
housekeeper should receive any-
where from one to ten dollars per
that even if blacks and whites have
similar socioeconomic back-
grounds the difference in tipping
etiquette might have to do with the
actual amount of disposable
income within a black household.
"Class-wise, it may appear as if
[certain] blacks should be dining
out but I think that blacks carry
more debt and less wealth...what
we know about black wealth is that
it's different, few black people have
wealth," says Williams.
Williams who dines out approxi-
mately at least once a week says
that she has noticed a difference in
service when dining out with
blacks versus eating with mixed
groups at restaurants. "I never
receive poor service when [dining]
out with whites [or] Asians and it
never happens if there is a white
male in the group," adds Williams.
"I've heard of the stereotypes and I
believe that some blacks are over
tipping in order to not be identified
as that sort of patron since we tend
to internalize oppression and preju-
night. If you're in a large room in an
expensive hotel, a high-end tip is
expected. You should also give gen-
erously if you're not very neat, or if
you constantly have to contact
housekeeping. The bellhop should
receive one to three dollars per piece
when carrying bags to your room,
and it's proper to tip the room serv-
ice delivery person ten to fifteen
If you receive valet parking, one
or two dollars is fine.
Taxi Drivers require a ten to fif-
teen percent tip and limousine driv-
ers should receive about twenty per-
A massage therapist should
receive ten to twenty percent.
Tips or donations for wedding
clergy person usually amount to
$50-75. If your house of worship
brings in an organist, that person
should receive fifty dollars as well.
South African president's extra
martial affairs causes uproar
JOHANNESBURG South Africa's governing party says a report
that the president fathered a child out of wedlock is making "a moun-
tain out of nothing." 4'
Johannesburg's Sunday Times
newspaper, citing unnamed .
friends of the woman's family,
reported that President Jacob
Zuma had a daughter in October.' 'r
The paper said the child's moth- V
er is not one of Zuma's three wives
nor a fourth woman to whom he is
engaged. Jacob Zuma
Zuma, an unabashed polygamist, has not commented on the Times
story. Monday's statement from the governing African National
Congress party neither confirmed nor denied Zuma is the child's
Zuma's party swept parliamentary elections last year, ensuring him
the presidency, even though he had acknowledged a previous affair.
Veterans Employment and
Education Expo set for Feb. 11th
For McGinnis in Atlanta, part of
the differences in the way her cus-
tomers tip might actually come
from home. "My mother never
taught me as a child about tipping
and we went out to eat all the time,
says McGinnis. "We as parents
need to educate our children and
tell them 'why do we tip?'...it has to
start with educating our kids."
Anna Brathwaite, a New York
based musician and educator, imag-
ines that black restaurant patrons
and waitstaff with black clientele
should probably assume the best of
each other as opposed to relying on
stereotypes. "I think you should
behave the way you think you
should behave," says Brathwaite.
"Your tipping them or not tipping
them is not going to change their
opinion of you, ultimately if they
already have such a pre-judgment.
If you think that their service was
good then you should tip well, if
not then you don't have to ...I don't
think you should let another per-
son's ignorance spoil your ability to
go out and enjoy a [meal]."
educational institutions, fran-
chisors, veterans service agen-
cies, and veterans associations.
Already in the line-up for
Jacksonville are American
Eurocopter, Corinthian Colleges,
Inc., the Department of the Navy
- Naval Facilities Engineering
Command (NAVFAC), FastTrain,
FranNet, Grand Canyon
University, Military Sealift
Command, North Florida/South
Georgia Veterans Health System,
Prudential, Strayer University,
The Geo Group, Troops to
Teachers, UEI College,
University of Phoenix, and
Additional Expos will take
place in Jacksonville on August
19 and November 4. For more
information call 513-683-5020.
lHave you gotten your
rREE credit report yet?
Visit www.freeannualcreditreport.com to
receive your free annual report from each of the
three major credit reporting bureaus. It's the
During Black History Month and throughout the year, Winn-Dixie salutes
all those great Americans who fought and still fight for the dream of liberty
and equality for all.
There will be a a free employ-
ment, education, and entrepre-
neurship Opportunity Expo for
job seekers who have military
backgrounds in Jacksonville on
Thursday, February 11. The event
will take place from 11 a.m. until
3 p.m. at Jacksonville Municipal
Stadium, home of the
Jacksonville Jaguars. The Expo
will be open to veterans who
already have civilian work expe-
rience, men and women who are
transitioning from active duty to
civilian life, members of the
National Guard and reserve
forces, military spouses, and
other military family members.
Organizations attending will
include corporate employers,
law-enforcement agencies and
other government employers,
Need an Attorney?
Contact Law Office of
Reese Marshall, P.A.
214 East Ashley Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Over 30 years experience of professional
and courteous service to our clients
%OWN lww 1
Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 3
IV eLra 1013 -JV,'-Ulu
Enjoyin Zora Thousands flocked to Eatonville, Florida last
weekend to experience the 21st annual Zora Neale Hurston Festival of the
Arts and Humanities. In addition to the bountiful culinary and artistic
vendors, this years guest entertainer was Kem. Shown above in attendance
were Jacksonville residents LaReena Gerome, Tevra Johnson,
Congresswoman Corrine Brown, Suzonna Warrenton and Don Miller.
$30 billion small
Naming job creation as his priori-
ty for 2010, President Barack
Obama pitched his $30 billion loan
program proposal this week o help
small businesses grow their compa-
nies through increased hiring.
Obama said he hopes to take
money repaid by Wall Street banks
as part of the $700 billion bank
bailout known as TARP to create the
Small Business Lending Fund,
which would provide capitol to com-
munity banks to spur economic
growth on Main Street.
Citing a now-familiar statistic,
Obama noted that small businesses
have created roughly 65 percent of
all new jobs over the past 15 years.
The new loan program could, by
loosening credit, help to create thou-
sands of jobs, the president said.
To encourage hiring, the president
supports a tax credit that will
encourage companies to hire work-
ers, to pay competitive wages, and to
expand facilities such as manufac-
turing plants. He also supports cut-
ting the capital gains tax on small
The announcement came one day
after announcing a $3.8 trillion fiscal
blueprint for 2011. The budget calls
for an additional $100 billion in
spending to bring down unemploy-
ment and boost the economy.
Shown above are the leadership of the recent Women Ministry Breakfast: (L-R) Rev. Roz Carter, Elder
Beverly Clark, Rev. Darleatha LaSane, Rev. Zella Richardson, Sandra McGlockton, Tresonda Thompson
and Carolyn Madison. R. Silver photo
Bethel Women's Ministry Breakfast invokes the power of
prayer The Women's Ministry of Bethel Baptist Instittional Church held their annual Prayer Breakfast and
inspired ladies throughout the First Coast with a spirit filled morning. The speaker for the event was Rev. Zella
Richardson who spoke on the power of prayer and referenced Luke 11. Rev. Richardson imparted to the audience
that one can actually void their prayers with some of the words spoken out of their mouths.
Mr. & Mrs. JB Richardson
Mr. & Mrs. J.B. Richardson
celebrate 53 years of marriage
Mr. & Mrs. JB Richardson celebrated their Fifty-Three years of marriage
with family members and close friends at Alhambra Dinner Theatre. After
Dinner the party enjoyed the play entitled "High School Musical". The
couple was married February 1, 1957 in Jacksonville, Florida. She is the
former Barbara Baldwin. Mrs. Richardson retired from teaching after
twenty-Two years of dedicated service with the Duval County School
board. Her devoted mate retired from Jacksonville Transport Management
after Seventeen years of services. The Richardson Attend Greater St.
Matthew Missionary Baptist Church. They are the proud Godparents of
two Goddaughters and three Godsons.
A need for Black History
Continued from front the most successful and despairing
Furthermore, the only statistic immigrant of all time for nothing. It
exceeding a Black woman being seems as if we have taken advan-
killed by her spouse is that of a tage of the very best and worst
Black man being killed by his. opportunities available to us and
During the days of segregation we everyone ran in different directions.
depended on each other for every- As the front page story indicates -
thing from services and entertain- there WERE more Black males in
ment to healthcare and information, college thirty years ago than today.
Not so today. Black businesses As an educated reader, we implore
struggle to survive and a recent you to take advantage of the oppor-
study showed Black patients ran- tunities this month to learn and
domly thought white doctors had reenergize your thoughts and self
more sense. And that is just the tip during this month of cultural indul-
of the iceberg of how far we as a gence.
people have descended as a people. We at the Free Press will do our
Yes we need a Black History best to make sure you are aware of
Month. the opportunities (many of them
Matter of fact, we need a Black free) available to you in hopes that
History Brainwashing. Black peo- the the reminders of sacrifice, bril-
ple haven't endured 300 years of liance and struggle will remind us
slavery and Jim Crow to become hat we've come too far to turn back
the most parallel paradox of being now.
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Page 4 Ms. Perry's Free Press
n r. to L"" I% CW Lao &*AW somw
-- -- Syndicated Content
Available from Commercial News Providers
--. Al -
Matthews May Have Almost Forgot Obama
Was Black But Many Others Haven't
1 TChris Matthews
got a mini-version
of the Harry Reid
treatment for his honest slip that he
almost forgot Obama was black
when he watched him during the
State of the Union Speech.
Matthew's operative word is not
black but "almost." But it really
wouldn't have made much differ-
ence if Matthews had dropped the
almost. The meaning, or at least the
thought behind it, would still have
been the same. Matthews just
couldn't stop thinking about race
when Obama spoke.
Can't be too hard on him, though,
for his foot-in-the mouth blurt.
Matthews, as Reid, simply mut-
tered an uncomfortable but tor-
menting reality for Obama; and
that's that Obama's presidency, elo-
quence, political acumen, and still
sky high personal likeability has
not buried thoughts about Obama
and race in the skulls of many.
The racial pillorying of the presi-
dent has been ruthless and relent-
less. There are countless active
anti-Obama websites filled with
demeaning racist cartoons, depic-
tions, characterizations and racially
poisonous verbal bashes and
attacks. The sites have received
millions of hits and posts-almost
The digs have worked. Polls
show that a majority of
Republicans and a significant per-
cent of other respondents still think
there's something to the charge that
Obama is an illegal alien. On the
eve of Obama's State of the Union
Address, and fully one year after
his election, a California Field Poll
found that, fully one-third of
Californians nation's most popu-
lous state are not satisfied that
Obama was U.S.-bom. More than
ten percent have convinced them-
selves that he's a Constitution-vio-
lating foreigner and nearly one-
quarter aren't sure.
The silly talk about a post-racial
America after Obama's presidential
win was not merely exercises in
self-delusion, honest wish and
hope, or deliberately disinformed
media chatter. Race, Obama or no,
is and continues to be America's
oldest, deepest and touchiest issue.
Politicians know it. And they can
subtly work the race card to
inflame passions, deepen divisions,
and bag votes. Or they can ignore it
and hope that it goes away, at least
until the votes are counted. With
presidential candidates, and as
we've seen with Obama in the
White House, race has been a taboo
subject for presidents and their
challengers on the campaign trail
for the past two decades. No presi-
dent or presidential challenger,
especially a Democrat, can risk
being tarred as pandering to
minorities for the mere mention of
The double standard on race is
troublesome to Obama. He
backpedalled fast from his first,
and impulsive, quip that the white
Cambridge officer who man han-
dled and cuffed Harvard Professor
Henry Louis Gates was out of line.
The reaction to Obama's Gate's
defense was savage and the back-
lash momentarily sent his poll
numbers down. When the
Congressional Black Caucus saber
rattled Obama in December with
the threat of voting against one of
his financial reform measures if he
didn't do more to help black busi-
nesses and the black unemployed,
Obama was unfazed. He told an
interviewer that he would not do
anything special to help blacks. He
had too. He has one eye always
nervously fixed on public opinion.
The Gates flap reminded him again
in no uncertain terms that race is a
deadly minefield that can blow up
at any time and the explosion can
fatally harm him, his image, and his
But polls, white voter wariness
over race and Obama's nervous eye
on them can't magically make
racial issues disappear. In each of
its annual State of Black America
reports the past decade the National
Urban League found rampant dis-
crimination and gaping economic
disparities between Latinos and
whites in every area of American
life. In the past decade, the income,
and education performance gaps
between blacks and Latinos and
whites have only marginally
closed, or actually widened.
Discrimination remains the major
cause of the disparities.
Shunting race to the back burner
of presidential campaigns invari-
ably means that presidents shunt
them to the backburner of their leg-
islative agenda. Yet, presidents
have not been able to tap dance
around racial problems. Reagan's
administration was embroiled in
affirmative action battles. Bush
Sr.'s administration was tormented
by urban riots following the beating
of black motorist Rodney King.
Clinton's administration was sad-
dled with conflicts over affirmative
action, police violence and racial
profiling. W. Bush's administration
was confronted by the HIV/AIDS
pandemic, voting rights, repara-
tions, and affirmative action bat-
tles, gang violence, and failing
inner city public schools.
The pile of racial or race leaden
problems that always lurk just
under the surface haven't and
won't go kapoof and vanish.
Matthews's "almost forgot" crack
about Obama's blackness was just
one more reminder from a windy,
and obnoxious, talking head of that.
Earl Ofari Hutchinson is an
author and political analyst. His
new book is, How Obama
Governed: The Year of Crisis and
Challenge (Middle Passage
February 4-10, 2010
Blacks and Super |
The National Football League's showcase event will
draw an audience numbering in the millions and money
in the billions for the NFL and team owners. While
African American fans root, bet and grouse about the game and competing
teams, we'd be remiss not to ask the NFL, and its member teams, "Are NFL
hiring and retention practices acts of equal and equitable opportunities?"
The bloom is off the rose in the "hunt" for Black coaches. Indianapolis
Colts coach Jim Caldwell is the fourth African-American to stalk the side-
lines in a Super Bowl. But, even with that progress does the league still fall
short in on-field and front-office practices? Despite what you see on the
field seven times out of 10 it is an African American player the NFL is
a good "old boy network" of rich White men. The NFL exemplifies the dif-
ference between the nouveau riche and real wealth. It is run by men who
regularly write checks in the millions. The National Football League is big
business The 32 teams have millions of fans that generate billions of dol-
lars for the NFL from merchandise, TV contracts, advertising and ticket
sales. Billions of dollars are generated in the teams' participation in an
annual 17-week competition and culminating in the final annual competition
between the National and American
America's biggest entertainment event.
On the field, a few stars like Colts
quarterback Payton Manning makes $14
million a year and play multiple seasons;
but the average NFL player plays 3
years, makes $770,000 a year, and a
career average of $2.3 million. Playing
in the NFL has made many rich, but
Conferences: the Super Bowl,
Playing in the NFL has
made many rich, but
within five years after
retiring most have lost
all the money he made.
within five years after retiring most have lost all the money he made.
Upstairs, in NFL owners' boxes are billionaire owners such as: Microsoft
co-founder Paul Allen, Seattle Seahawks net worth of $16.8 billion. Others
include Malcolm Glazer, Tampa Bay Bucs, $2.5 billion; Wayne Huizenga,
Miami Dolphins, $2.5 billion; Cleveland Browns, Randolph Lerner, $1.6
billion; Robert McNair, Houston Texans, $1.5 billion; Arthur Blank, Atlanta
Falcons, $1.5 billion; Dallas Cowboys' owner, Jerry Jones, $1.3 billion;
Robert Kraft, New England Patriots, $1.4 billion; Baltimore Ravens owner
Steve Bisciotti, $1.3 billion; and Washington Redskins owner Daniel Snyder
has a net worth of $1 billion.
In 2002, attorneys Cyrus Mehri and the late Johnnie Cochran accused
NFL of denying Black coaches a fair chance to compete for head coaching
jobs. That led to establishment of the "Rooney Rule," which requires that
each team interview at least one minority candidate prior to filling a head
Two NFL owners recently ran a rook on the Rooney Rule. The Redskins
recently hired Mike Shanahan as their new head coach and give him a 5-
year, $35 million contract. The Redskins also interviewed their secondary
coach, Jerry Gray, an African American, for the job. The Seahawks tapped
famed USC coach Pete Carroll for five years for $35 million. But, Seahawks
management first flew to Minneapolis to interview Vikings defensive coor-
dinator Leslie Frazier, an African American, for the job.
During the 2009 season, seven of the league's 32 head coaches Mike
Tomlin at Pittsburgh, Marvin Lewis at Cincinnati, Mike Singletary in San
Francisco, Perry Fewell at Buffalo, Lovie Smith at Chicago, Raheem Morris
at Tampa Bay and Jim Caldwell were African American. But, it is difficult
to square the Rooney Rule with reality. Leslie Frazier reportedly a "can-
didate" for seven NFL head coaching jobs over past years, is simply being
interviewed multiple times just to comply with the rule. The Redskins were
in such a lather over how to comply with the rule that team officials inter-
viewed Gray even before former head coach Jim Zorn was fired ostensibly
to clear the path for Shanahan.
Bottom line is that neither Frazier nor Gray had a chance of head coach-
ing jobs at Seattle or Washington. Snyder and Allen are at the top of their
game; so if Shanahan and Carroll make them more money and build their
legacies as NFL owners, ain't that just "the boyz doin' business as usual.
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Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 5
The 140th Anniversary Steering Committee: Mary L. Brown, Rev Rigsby, Letha M. Miles, Margaret
Hawkins, Ben Hawkins, Flora w. Watts, Gwendolyn Flanders, Blondell M. Mathews, Linda S. Andrews,
Gail W. Holley, Doris H. Swinton, John B. Darby Jr. and Addie C. Ford.
'Available from Commercial News Providers
=A e --
- t .
Mrs. Irma James Telfair and Mrs. Nancy Scriven
Watts were honored for longevity of membership,
Eighty-Two and Seventy-Five years respectively.
Letha McBride Iles, member of the Anniversary
steering Committee and Chairperson for the
Woodlawn Presbyterian Kicks off 140th Anniversary
Sunday January 31st marked the
beginning f Woodlawn Presbyterian
Church's 140th Anniversary. The
church was founded in February of
1870 as Third Presbyterian Church.
Later it became Laura Street
Presbyterian Church until it relocat-
ed to Woodlawn Rd in 1961.
After worship on the celebration
Sunday, the congregation gathered
in the Family Life Center for the
"Kick-Off' luncheon. Many mem-
bers were dressed in the attire of the
1800's as a tribute and flashback to
1870 when the Church received its
The month of February will pro-
vide other celebratory activities
including a Black History oratorical
contest; laying of a wreath on the
founder's graves on Old City
Cemetery, Woodlawn's Got Talent -
a showcase of talent of all age
groups; the musical caring caravan
which will visit nursing homes in
the area: the anniversary luncheon
at the Wyndham Hotel and conclud-
ed with a special worship services
on Sunday February 28, 2010.
The Community is invited to
share in these activities. For infor-
mation you may contact the church
at 768-5905 or 768-1777.
Foryor RE HI Ivaciatonviiton o te olowng
Duva Conty ealh Deartent ocaions PL
DCHD Immunization Center DCHD HEFM roga.UA ONY ELHDPRMN
5220N. ear Stret 00 nivesit Bolevad, ort
Moda-riay :0 ~m -400pm. Mody-rda, :0 40 pm
Prtet0ousef'ndyor amlyagint hespra fth S Fuvrs
February 4-10, 2010
'" AdL j 'B
Page 6 Ms Pery' Fre Pres Februar 4-1,20
^* L -^SWrv^i %S V
^y*" *yj ^^ ^^.A.A^^SS.
Free Gospel Concert Gospel superstars headline Gospel Praise and
Come join Bishop A.C. Richardson and the NLEC family in the first free
gospel concert of the year. You heard right FREE! Grammy nominated Troy
Sneed with special guests Elisha Parris & Heart's Desire, Vickie Farrie, and
Radar also featuring Saving Grace Dance Ministry, and Prophetic
Expression will perform on Saturdday February 6th starting at 6 p.m. The
concert will be held at the New Life Evangelistic Center located at 8040
Lone Star Road. For More information e-mail
Grand Lodge Black History Program
The Most Worshipful Union Grand Lodge of Jacksonville invites the
community to their 3rd annual Black History program. It will be held
February 20th at 3:00p.m. Special guests include E.J. Cameron and
Delores Duff. Ms.Cameron has an OES Chapter names after her, has been
a part of the Order for approximately 40+ years and is a past Worthy Matron
and District Deputy. Delores Duff has been a member of the Order for over
40+ years and has held several appointed imperial positions in the order.
Mary Hall Daniels is also one of the honorees. As one of the original sur-
vivors of Rosewood, she will be present to share some of her history
moments. Also honored will be Herman Randolph. He is one of the first
original black members of the Black Paratrooper Unit called, "Triple
Nickels" of WWII. This great service will be held at Greater Israel United
Missionary Baptist Church located at 6901 N. Main Street. For more infor-
mation call 904-759-2838.
Greater Macedonia Celebrating
Pastor's 34th Anniversary
Greater Macedonia Baptist Church
of North Side will celebrate the 34th
Anniversary of our Pastor Dr.
Landon L. Williams Sr., We invite
you to celebrate with us. The com-
munity is invited to participate in
one of the many celebration
Anniversary services that will be
held at the church. Guest speakers
are as follows: Sunday February
14th, Bishop Virgil Jones Pastor of
Philippian Community Church, Mt.
Bethel Missionary Baptist Church
and Pastor Dr. Robert Herring in
addition to Mt. Vernon Baptist
Church and Pastor Rev Kelly
Brown. On Sunday February 21st,
the spoken word will be delivered
by Dr. John Guns Pastor of St. Paul
Missionary Church joined by First
Missionary Baptist Church
Jacksonville Beach Pastor Dr.
Marvin McQueen, at 4:00 p.m.
. For more information please call
the Church at 764-9257.
Bethel Baptist Institutional
Church will host the 2010 Gospel
Heritage Praise & Worship
Conference at the church February
18-19, 2010. The 2-day worship
encounter is being themed an event
"that will bless your life and revolu-
tionize your personal and public
ministry." In addition to world class
music, classes, seminars and general
sessions are specially designed to
provide information, inspiration and
education to all facets of church life.
The event will kick off on
Thursday, February 18th featuring
Stanton All Class Reunion
The 4th Annual Stanton Gala for alumni, faculty and staff of Old Stanton,
New Stanton and Stanton Vocational High School will be held May 1, 2010
at the Prime Osborn convention center. This year's event will spotlight for-
mer Stanton Bands and honor, posthumously, Band Director Mr. Kernaa
For more information about this year's Gala and to view previous Galas,
visit www.stantonhighschool.org or call Gala Chairman Kenneth Reddick
at 904-764-8795. Tickets will be available at our next meeting February 8th
at 6:00p.m. at Bethel Baptist Institutional Church.
host pastor, Dr. Rudloph McKissick,
Jr.at 9 a.m. and will conclude with
Bishop Noel Jones at 7p.m.Min. and
Gospel superstar Kirk Franklin will
headline Friday, February 19th at 9
a.m.Friday evening will conclude
with an "Unforgettable Evening of
Gospel Greats" at 7 p.m.
Grammy winning attendees
include, Kirk Franklin and Bishop
Hezekiah Walker. Other artist that
will be a part of the Gala Concert on
Friday, include Bishop Paul
Morton, Vanessa Bell Armstrong,
Pastor Donnie McClurkin, Minister
Bishop Hezekiah Walker
Johnathan Nelson, Bishop Rudolph
McKissick, Bishop Noel Jones,
Pastor DeWayne Harvey and a spe-
cial tribute to Dr. Martin Luther
King, Jr.'s daughter, Elder Bernice
King among others.
In addition, the first fifteen min-
utes of the program will be a special
prayer for the victims of Haiti. This
effort will be met with song, "Are
You Listening" the Artists United
For Haiti's landmark song with also
a visual presentation of the music
"Our goal is to preserve the
Special Valentine Dinner Concert
features soprano Sharon Coon
Come celebrate with us "A Song Within My Heart" Valentine Dinner
Concert featuring Sharon Coon, Ray Mezo, and Robert Moore. This year's
Semi-Formal red carpet event is Saturday, February 13, 2010, 6:30 pm,
Omni Jacksonville Hotel. A special love tribute to singles will be presented
and a sentimental vows renewal ceremony of couples. For reservations,
call Dr. Cheresa Hamilton at 904 514-8125.
Minister Byron Cage
Gospel heritage and perpetuate the
Gospel legacy, which is to help each
other in times of need", says Dr.
Teresa Hairston. In 1996, Hairston
founded the Gospel Heritage
Foundation and says, "The 2010
Gospel Heritage Praise & Worship
Conference is probably the largest
international Gospel celebration
during Black History month and we
are happy to have our conference in
the city of Jacksonville in Florida.
For a full conference schedule or
more information, vist
Seeking the lost for Christ
Matthew 28:19 20 .E...-
S:00 A.M. Early Morning Worship
9:30 am. Sunday School
Pastor Landon Williams
Pastor Ernie Murray
Bethel Baptist Institutional Church
215 Bethel Baptist Street, Jacksonville, FL 32202 (904) 354-1464
Sunday Morning Worship
7:40 a.m. and 10:45 a.m.
The Word from the Sons
and Daughters of Bethel
3rd Sunday 3:30 p.m.
Wednesday Noon Service
"Miracle at Midday"
12 noon-1 p.m.
Dinner and Bible Study
at 5:00 p.m. 6:30 p.m.
Come share In Holy Communion on 1st Sunday at 450 p.m.
WCGL 1360 AM Thursday 8:15 -8:45 a.m.
AM 1400 Thursday 7:00 8:00 p.m.
WTLV Channel 12 Sunday's at 6:30 a.m.
Grace and Peace f
* *A Full Gospel Baptist Church *
Every 3rd & 4th
4 :00 p.m.
that's on the
Pastor Robert Lecount, Jr
School of Ministry Tuesday at 7:00 p.m.
Thursday High Praise Worship 7:00 p.m.
2061 Edgewood Avenue West, Jacksonville, Florida 32208
(904) 765-5683 Email:email@example.com
Worship Conference 2010 hosted by BBIC
1 I o. I
NOTICE: Church news is pub-
lished free of charge. Information
must be received in the Free Press
offices no later than Monday, at 5
p.m. of the week you want it to
run. Information received prior to
the event date will be printed on a
space available Basis until the
date. Fax e-mail to 765-3803 or e-
mail to JFreePress@aol.com.
11:00 a.m. Morning Worship
Tuesday Evening 7 p.m. Prayer Service
Wednesday Bible Study 6:30 7 p.m.
Mid-Week Worship 7 p.m.
Radio Weekly Broadcast WCGL 1360 AM
Sunday 2 PM 3 PM
**FREE TUTORING FOR YOUTH IN ENGLISH, SCIENCE,
HISTORY AND MATH EVERY TUESDAY 6:30 8 P.M.
5863 Moncrief Rd. Jacksonville, FL 32209 (904) 768-8800 FAX 764-3800
Join Us for One of Our Services
Early Worship 8:00 a.m.
Sunday School 9:15 a.m.
Morning Worship 10:45 a.m.
1st Sunday 3:45 p.m.
Lord's Supper & Baptism
3rd Sunday 7:00 p.m.
Bible Study 7:00 p.m.
Noon Day Worship
Youth Church 7:00 p.m.
Th CuchThtReces UetoGodan OutoMa
1880 West Edgewood Avenue
Page 6 Ms. Perry's Free Press
February 4-10, 2010
Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 9
The Greensboro Four, 50 Years Later
Remembering the four young men who challenged segregation and launched a movement.
The image of the Greensboro
Four is frozen in American history,
four young men sitting quietly at
the lunch counter at the F.W.
Woolworth in downtown
Greensboro, N.C., on Feb. 1,
1960--politely asking to be served
and being refused because they are
black. There had been sit-ins
before, but the headlines generated
by the simple act of Franklin
McCain and three friends at North
Carolina A&T State University
inspired others and launched a
However, Franklin McCain is not
one for nostalgia. The 68-year-old
lives very much in the present. And
even as the new International Civil
Rights Center & Museum prepares
for its opening, exactly 50 years
after this historic act, in the shell of
that long-closed Greensboro
Woolworth, McCain is thinking
more about what's next for him and
The museum is supposed to be "a
place for people to exchange ideas
about this society of ours and
democracy or the lack of," he told
me in his Charlotte, N.C., home. It's
a place for "kids to talk about the
heritage of black folks."
"I am always reminded that in
any upheaval or in any march for
change you really need just a few
people, sometimes only one. And I
am also reminded to give myself a
little report card to see what I've
done lately," he said. "I'm forced to
give myself a grade, comparing
what I have done to what I should
have, could have done." He said he
is not always ecstatic about the
grade, not depressed either. "It's
sort of a challenge."
He intends to be a part of the
museum's opening celebration,
parts of which he will especially
cherish. There's the luncheon to
heroes;" the girl
showed up to sit-
in even on
holidays; the guy
who made the
signs ("you could
call him at mid-
night"); the min-
isters who opened
their doors and let
students use their
And of course,
McCain will be
reunited with the
other two surviv-
ing members of
Four. A memorial
will honor David
died in 1990.
Joseph McNeil On February
and Ezell Blair Jr. University stuck
had a lot in com- at a segregate
mon from the
start. They were all science majors,
took several classes together and
lived 15 feet apart. "We were
brought up with the same set of val-
ues and outlooks, the same kinds of
lessons from our parents and grand-
parents," McCain said. The sit-in
happened "because of a dare."
"We were totally exhausted," he
said, spending time-as college stu-
dents always have-discussing
"society in general, specifically
people we loved and admired."
They gave their parents a hard time
"because of what we thought they
had not done." The young men
couldn't understand how they could
live with segregation. "To us, that
didn't make sense. Why not do
something about it?"
Then they realized they were
judging the wrong people. "Our
parents didn't do so badly; after all,
look at us. All these months we had
been talking and giving our parents
hell," he remembered. And with all
the opportunity in the world, "I
haven't done one thing." To walk
away would be irresponsible.
They picked Woolworth because
the store was "on every corner," and
because while anyone could get
service at any counter in New York
and Philadelphia, it was a different
story in Richmond, Va., or
Greensboro. They made purchases,
so that when they were turned away
at the lunch counter, they could
show receipts to prove they had
already been served in the store.
"We were going to be nonvio-
lent," McCain said, even when peo-
ple "said nasty things or spat on us
or whacked us across the head.
They were going to be courteous,
have exemplary decorum and look
nice, as everyone who has seen the
photos of the young men surround-
ed by chaos knows.
McCain knew that things would
never be the same: "If I were lucky,
I would go to jail for a long, long
time. If I were not quite so lucky, I
would come back to
my campus but in a
"I was too angry to
It's always been easy
for the Greensboro
Four to keep the con-
versation going, talk-
ing about everything
"from 1960 to Barack
Obama," said McCain.
David Richmond, the
McCain describes as
"on the shy side," was
a Greensboro native,
"extremely smart, ath-
letic, easy to be a
brother." He worked
with a government
in Greensboro but left
for several years
because of threats and
label as one of the
When he returned to
take care of his parents,
he worked as a janitor
f rf the G reensboron
Health Care Center. He
died in December 1990, at 49, and
was awarded a posthumous hon-
orary doctorate degree from A&T.
"David had some difficulties at
the end of his life," said McCain. "I
always felt that David was some-
what afraid of true success because
in so many instances he would
defer to others who were far, far
less capable than himself ... He
never wanted things to be focused
on him, never wanted to stand out."
Ezell Blair Jr. was a campus
leader, president of the junior class,
A&T's NAACP and the Greensboro
Congress for Racial Equality. He
S1. YES! By taking just minutes to answer 10 simple questions, you can
S, arrives in March. Responses are confidential by law and will not be shared
ii:.with third parties, including immigration or law enforcement.
"'" 7 7 3," .
ON E .. ,. 1,-
-'- YES! Bytakingjust 10.minutes to ansr 10 simple questions, you can
.. help improve education, public transportation and even healthcare in our
February 4-10. 2010
1, 1960 four African-American North Carolina Agricultural & Technological State
lents, Ezell A. Blair Jr., David Richmond, Joseph McNeil, and Franklin McCain sat
d lunch counter in the Greensboro, North Carolina, Woolworth's store.
was "jovial, the jokester, very gre-
garious," said McCain. He moved
to New Bedford, Mass., in the mid-
1960s, where he became a member
of the New England Islamic Center
and took the name Jibreel Khazan.
In New Bedford, Khazan has
worked with the developmentally
disabled, the AFL-CIO Trade
Council in Boston and other groups.
Joseph McNeil, who McCain said
is "more like a brother" than a
friend, graduated from A&T with a
degree in engineering physics. "He
is smart, gifted smart," said
McCain, a dean's list student with a
full four-year scholarship. "He is
very analytical. He is impatient.
He's got a great soul as a person."
McNeil served in the U.S. Air
Force after graduating, attaining the
rank of captain. In the Air Force, he
initiated diversity programs and has
worked for IBM, Bankers Trust in
New York and as a stock broker.
McNeil, who lives in Hempstead,
N.Y., served the Federal Aviation
Administration for over 15 years as
head of the Flight Standards
Division for the Eastern Region in
Jamaica, N.Y. He retired from the
Air Force Reserves with the rank of
major general. His son, Franklin
David, McCain's godson, is named
for his friends.
McCain-who was raised in
Washington, D.C., received degrees
in chemistry and biology from A&T
and attended graduate school in
Greensboro--worked as a chemist
for the Celanese Corporation in
Charlotte. He believes that it's still
possible for a handful of people to
change the world. "I feel that way
today; I can do anything I want to."
The Greensboro museum, he said,
should be "a symbol of hope to peo-
ple who might feel hopeless or
PaE 1 s er rePrs eray41,21
What to do from social, volunteer, political and sports activities to self enrichment and the civic scene
To Kill a Mockingbird
at Stage Aurora
Stage Aurora Theatrical Company
will present the classic theatrical
production To Kill a Mockingbird
weekends through February 7. The
Theater company's performance
hall is located at 5188 Norwood
Avenue inside the Gateway Town
Center. For more information or to
purchase tickets, please call 904-
765-7372 or (904) 765-7373.
The next PRIDE Book Club meet-
ing will be held on Saturday,
February 6, 2010 at 3:30 p.m. at
the Main Library (Downtown), 303
N. Laura Street. The book for dis-
cussion with the author will be
WRAPPED IN PLEASURE:
Delaney's Desert Sheikh\Seduced
by a Stranger by Brenda Jackson.
For more information call 384-3939
Black Eyed Peas
Grammy Award Winning artist
Black Eyed Peas will be in concert
Tuesday, February 9th at the
Veterans Memorial Arena. Tickets
are currently on sale. For more
information call 745-3000.
Soweto Gospel Choir
The Soweto Gospel Choir was
formed to celebrate the unique and
inspirational power of African
Gospel music. The 26-strong choir
draws on the best talent from
around Soweto. They will be in
concert on February 10, 2010 at 8
p.m. at the Florida Theatre. For
tickets or more info, call 355-2787.
Learn how to can foods
The City of Jacksonville Canning
Center will offer a workshop on
Wednesday, February 10th from 9
a.m. to Noon and another from 1 to
4 p.m. Get ready for Valentines
Day by learning how to make
Sweetheart Jam and take some
home for the family to enjoy. The
cost is $20.00 per person which
includes all materials. Space is lim-
ited and you must pre-pay to regis-
ter. Send your $20 check made
payable to DCOHAC and mail to
Canning, 1010 N. McDuff Ave.,
JLOC Open Meeting
The Jacksonville Local Organizing Committee for the Millions More
Movement Inc., will have 'Open Meetings' on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Sunday
of each month. The time is 6:00 8:00 p.m, at 916 N.Myrtle Avenue. The
meetings are open to the public. If you are concerned and want to see
improvement in the quality of life and living conditions in your communi-
ty, you are invited to attend. For more information call 904-240-9133.
Jacksonville, FL 32254. Deadline is
February 8. Call Jeannie at 387-
8850 to register.
FAMU Alumni meeting
The FAMU JRE Lee Alumni
Chapter will have their upcoming
meeting on Saturday, February
13th at the Pharmacy Building,
2050 Art Museum Drive, Suite 200.
For more information email: jrwa-
firstname.lastname@example.org or call 910-7829
The Ritz Theater will present jazz
artist Rachelle Ferrell in concert on
February 13th. Showtime is 8
p.m. A must do for your Valentine's
Day sweet! For more information
The Jacksonville Human Rights
Commission will have new facilita-
tor training for the the Study Circle
program on Saturday, February
13th from 8:30 am 4:30 pm. The
training will be presented at City
Hall, 117 W. Duval Street in the
Lynwood Roberts Room. The 2010
requirement for facilitators, will
include first registering as a volun-
teer with the City of Jacksonville
and completing two sessions. For
more information on registering for
this training, call 904-630-8073.
JU Annual Black
Jacksonville University will cele-
brate Black History Month on
Monday, February 15th.
Presented by the school's United
Multicultural Association, the 22nd
Annual Gospel Extravaganza will
be filled with praise and worship
inside the Terry Concert Hall at
6:45 p.m. Admission is free and
open to the public. For additional
information, call 256-7150.
Forum on Racial
The Human Rights Commission
will present a forum on "Post-
Racial America: Are You Kidding
Me?": An Evening With Dr.
Andrew Manis. It will be held on
Thursday, Feb. 18th at WJCT
Public Broadcasting Studios, 100
Festival Park Ave starting at 6 p.m.
Reception. To RSVP for the free
event call 630-4620 or email *
Father Daughter Dance
Girls Inc. will present their annu-
al Father Daughter Dance that will
take place on Saturday, February
20th at the Hyatt Hotel. All pro-
ceeds will benefit the programs of
Girls Inc. For more information,
I look forward to receiving the Free
Press each and every week. I've ever
given several gift subscriptions and
truly feel that it is a viable part of our
community. If you care about what's
going on in our community and our
world, I encourage you to join the Fre
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explored at the Ritz
There will be a free symposium at
the Ritz Theater themed "Black
Athletics Then and Now" at 7:00
p.m. on Thursday, February 25th
at 7 p.m. Call 632-5555 for more
The Jacksonville Public Library's
annual book festival, Much Ado
About Books will be held Feb. 26-
27, 2010, and events include a
writer's workshop, breakfast with
an author, panel discussions,
Children's Chapter and keynote
luncheon. The event is
Jacksonville's largest literary event,
bringing national, regional and
local authors together with book
lovers. For more info including
schedule and guest authors, visit
Fort Mose Flight
Fort Mose Historic State Park will
celebrate the first free black com-
munity in the U.S. to commemorate
Black History Month on February
27. Re-enactors in period clothing
will tell the story of Fort Mose in
"Flight to Freedom" a living history
event. In addition, the St. Augustine
Spanish Garrison will perform
Colonial Spanish military drill, give
demonstrations of musket and can-
non firing. The event will take place
from 10 a.m.to 3:00 p.m. at the park
located at 15 Fort Mose Trail in St.
Augustine, FL. For more informa-
tion call 904-823-2232.
The Genealogy, Society'. will, be,
hosting a full day of seminars on
Saturday, February 27, 2010.
Presented topics include "The
Family History in Your Cell: Using
DNA for Genealogical Research",
"Where is the Book with My
Family In It", "Social Networking
for Genealogical Researchers" and
Beyond Database Programs:
Technology Tools to Help Manage
Your Research. It will be held at
Crown Point Baptist Church, 10153
Old St. Augustine Road. For addi-
tional information call 264-0743.
of Spoken Word
Come out and enjoy an evening of
Spoken Word at the Ritz Theater in
Thursday, March 4, 2010. The
free event will start at 7 p.m.
Spoken word night is held on the
first Thursday of every month
where poets, writers, vocalists and
sometimes musicians gather to
present and hear some of the area's
most powerful and profound lyrical
voices in a casual open-mic setting.
For more info call 632-5555.
Ritz Jazz Jamm
On Saturday, March 6, join the
Ritz Theatre for the Ritz Jazz
Jamm. Admission is $15 at the
door and includes 1 drink of your
choice. It's an experience of relax-
ing music, beverages and a unique
atmosphere. Na'im and the Jazz
Band welcomes you to bring your
instrument or vocals and Jam with
the band. Or just bring your "Ears
on Jazz"! The first Saturday of
every month the Ritz Jazz Band fea-
tures a different jazz artist. This
month is the music of Grover
Washington. Call 632-5555 for
The Universoul Circus will return
to Jacksonville March 9 14 across
the street from the Prime Osborne
Convention Center. Contact ticket-
master.com for tickets.
March PRIDE Book
The March meeting of the PRIDE
'Book ,Club will be on Friday,
March 12, 2010 at 7 p.m. at the
homeof Marie Carter. The book for
discussion will be ON THE LINE
by Daniel Paisner. For directions or
more information, call 220-4746.
San Marco Art Festival
The 13th Annual San Marco Art
Festival on San Marco Blvd. will be
held March 27th-28th from 10
a.m. 5 p.m.
Sibmt Yoar NeVg amn d m" Eymift
News deadline is Monday at 6 p.m. by the week you would like your
information to be printed. Information can be sent via email, fax,
brought into our office or mailed in. Please be sure to include the 5W's
- who, what, when, where, why and you must include a contact number.
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February 4-10, 2010
Page 10 Ms. Perry's Free Press
Page~~~~~~~~~~~~ 11-M.PrysFe rs eray41.21
Are the Oscars finally colorblind?
Gabourey Sidibe, left, Mo'Nique are seen on stage at the 16th Annual
Screen Actors Guild Awards on Saturday, Jan. 23, 2010, in Los
This morning, Gabourey Sidibe,
Mo'Nique, Lee Daniels (the stars
and director of Precious, respec-
tively) and the legendary Morgan
Freeman (who embodied Nelson
Mandela in Clint Eastwood's
Invictus) were all recognized for
their acclaimed work in film with
Academy Award nominations. By
most accounts this was a better than
average showing for African-
Americans in the film industry.
These significant achievements fol-
low a decade of considerable suc-
cess for African-Americans on the
awards circuit and beg the question:
are the Oscars finally colorblind?
Ever since their inception, the
Academy Awards have had a rocky
history when it comes to recogniz-
ing African-American performers.
As Hollywood's highest honor,
most actors and actresses covet "the
Oscar" regardless of race. But for
blacks it can also be a major
acknowledgment of acceptance and
status in a still mostly white-domi-
In 1939, Hattie McDaniel, after
enduring the indignity of being
barred from her own film's pre-
miere, was the first black performer
recognized by the academy, win-
ning the best supporting actress
award for the stereotypical role of
'Mammy' in Gone with the Wind.
The next time a black actor was
nominated was in 1948 and the next
time one actually won a prize was
in 1963, when Sidney Poitier
became the first black man to win
best actor for Lilies in the Field.
In the decades that followed
African-Americans were rarely
nominated and hardly ever won.
The exclusion of blacks became so
consistent that black Hollywood
heavyweights began holding a
secret "black Oscars" on the eve of
the actual ceremony in the early
1970s. Over the years, performers
like Will Smith, James Earl Jones,
Whitney Houston and Samuel L.
Jackson would get together with
their peers in the industry and honor
By 1996, the paucity of African-
American talent honored at the
Academy Awards was so egregious
that it inspired a highly publicized
protest featuring the Reverend Jesse American community?
Jackson. That year out of 166 nom- "[The Academy Awards] are seen
inees only one was a person of internationally and there is a recog-
color. In an open letter addressed to nized bump in terms of financial
the entertainment industry, Jackson gain for projects that win or are
lamented: "Behind the glamour and nominated," said Bulluck. "In the
glitz, behind the fantasy of inclu- business sense getting recognition
sion and opportunity so carefully is important and in the cultural
nurtured by the film industry, there sense getting recognized is his-
is the reality that there is only one toric." In other words, if more films
African American nominee this made by and starring African-
year and zero Latino, Asian Pacific, Americans are both critical and
or Native Americans. What does commercially viable, more oppor-
this fact say about the marginal role tunities will be there for people of
people of color play in films?" color in the future.
To many, 2002 was a turning Still, even with the pride and
point. That year Denzel Washington prestige that comes along with win-
became the first black man to win ning a high-profile award it is still
best actor since Poitier in 1963. challenging for Blacks to get the
That same night Halle Berry made kind of roles that receive critical
history by becoming the first, and kudos. Bulluck believes the black
so far only, black woman to win community needs to continue to
best actress. The rest of the decade support black nominees with their
brought victories for Jamie Foxx, dollars so they can continue inspire
Forest Whitaker, Morgan Freeman us with their work.
and Jennifer Hudson--with many According to Bulluck, the final
more African-Americans recog- vote on this issue is at the box
nized with nominations. In total, 11 office. "Gabourey Sidibe is a phe-
African-Americans have won nomenal actress, if you look at her
Oscars--six of them within the last performance and when you look at
decade. Perhaps as a sign of the who she really is--it's incredible.
times the plug was pulled on the When she is in her next project--
"black Oscars" in 2007, as they black audiences need to show up."
were deemed no longer necessary.
Vie Bulluck, the Executive Social N c
Director of the NAACP's
Hollywood Bureau says that while F
"phenomenal actors over the years F acebook ri
have been overlooked" the
Academy Awards have grown more LOS ANGELES When a gang
"inclusive" in recent years. Still, his member was released from jail soon
organization's Image Awards have after his arrest for selling metham-
done a far better job of recognizing phetamine, friends and associates
black talent consistently and early. assumed he had cut a deal with
"We recognized Denzel was a star authorities and become a police
when he was the third lead on St. informant.
Elsewhere," said Bulluck. They sent a warning on Twitter
African-Americans undeniably that went like this: We have a snitch
broke ground this Oscar season. in our midst.
Sidibe is the first black woman to Unbeknownst to them, that tweet
be nominated for best actress since and the traffic it generated were
Halle Berry won and Daniels is being closely followed by investi-
only the second African-American gators, who had been tracking the
to be nominated for best director in San Francisco Bay Area gang for
the academy's history (the only months. Officials sat back and
other black best director nominee watched as others joined the con-
was John Singleton in 1991 for versation and left behind incrimi-
Boyz N the Hood)., But why-should f.,nating information. .
these awards shows mean anything Law enforcement officials say
to these performers or the African- gangs are making greater use of
A study by the Center for
Economic Policy Research (study)
has found that when it comes to
adopting children in America,
there is a noticeable bias in
favor of girls and a
fo u r
boys and the
least favored of '
all was Black male .
The authors suggest that this pref-
erence for girls in cases of adop-
tive children may be because
adoptive parents "fear dysfunc-
tional social behavior in adopted
children and perceive girls as 'less
atwoking Use of Twitter,
sing among gang members
Twitter and Facebook, where they
sometimes post information that
helps agents identify gang associ-
ates and learn more about their
"You find out about people you
never would have known about
before," said Dean Johnston with
the California Bureau of Narcotics
Enforcement, which helps police
investigate gangs. "You build this
little tree of people."
In the case involving the suspect-
ed informant, tweets alerted investi-
gators to three other gang members
who were ultimately arrested on
Tech-savvy gangsters have long
been at home in chatrooms-and-on'
Web sites'like M)Space. but the)
appear to be gravitating toward
Twitter and Facebook, where they
can make threats, boast about
crimes, share intelligence on rivals
and network with people across the
And gang members sometimes
turn the tables, asking contacts
across their extended networks for
help identifying undercover police
It's hard to know exactly how
many gang members are turning to
Twitter and Facebook. Many police
agencies are reluctant to discuss the
phenomenon for fear of revealing
their investigative techniques.
Gang use of Twitter and Facebook
still,lags behind use, of the much-
I NeM !MySpa .-r
gang members' online venue of
SOur36K award honor
Stochanging lives 365 d;
-. 3S, >
Room *Air /
for 3 days and
2 nights at the
beautiful Crystal Palace
in Nassau, Bahamas
3 Card Poker
Fri-Sun on a chartered plane from JIA
Call Casino Steve
McDonald's" annual 365Black Awards recognizes individuals who are committed to and deeply rooted
in the community." That's why we're recognizing Soledad O'Brien, Alonzo Mourning, Earl Graves,
Frank Mason and James Clyburn for their ceaseless efforts to serve the African-American community
365 days a year. To find out more about our esteemed honorees, visit 3M.COm
Black Male Babies least
likely to be adopted
Tavis ends State of
the Black Union series :
nf- Tavis Smiley says he is ending his annual State
of the Black Union (SOBU) symposiums,
which served as an anticipated event for African
Americans during the last decade.
The host of "Tavis Smiley" on PBS said
ending production of SOBU will allow him to
\ focus attention on his 2010 primetime specials
on PBS as well as grow other divisions of his
multimedia company, including the SmileyBooks imprint, his weekly
public radio show, his non-profit youth foundation and the award-win-
ning traveling museum exhibition America I AM: The African American
Past SOBUs are now available on DVD. "The State of the Black Union:
10-Year Conversation Box Set Collection" includes all 10 symposia on
23 separate discs. Each boxed set is numbered and personally auto-
graphed by Smiley.
AR YO ELNGLCYTHSMNH
i'm lovin' it
Page 11 Ms. Perry's Free Press
February 4-10, 2010
risky' than boys in that respect."
Even homosexuals seeking to
adopt a child showed a preference
for girls and against Black boys.
Indeed, the bias against
S Black boys was greater
among gays than
A :f tive parents
e. were seven
likely to pre-
a n d
6 over African
S regardless of
The trend in the
-. United States. runs
counter to that in most for-
eign countries where boys are gen-
erally preferred over girls.
Indeed, foreign adoptive parents
tended to show less of a preference
for girls and less of a bias against
Page 12 Ms. Perry's Free Press February 4-10, 2010
The Duval County Health
Department (DCHD) will observe
National Black HIV/AIDS
Awareness Day by offering free
HIV testing on Thursday, February
4, from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. at the
Central Health Plaza, 515 W. 6th
St. Information will also be avail-
able regarding basic facts about
HIV/AIDS, treatment, and com-
In Florida, Blacks account for
49% of all cases of people living
with HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS is
the leading cause of death among
black males and black females
aged 25 to 44 years. The disparity
is attributed to poverty, access to
health care, lack of awareness and
education, and social stigma. The
state Department of Health urges
all Floridians to educate them-
selves; know their HIV status; sup-
port those in their community bat-
tling the virus; and talk about
HIV/AIDS where they live, work,
play, and worship.
The DCHD Boulevard
Comprehensive Care Center
(BCCC), which recently moved to
the Central Health Plaza, is dedi-
cated to infectious and communi-
cable diseases, including sexually
transmitted diseases and
HIV/AIDS specialty care. The
BCCC provides education, testing,
and counseling. For more informa-
tion about the BCCC, call 253-
National Black AIDS Awareness
Day is annually observed on Feb.
7. The national theme is "HIV
AIDS Prevention-A Choice and a
Lifestyle." The focal points of the
initiative are education, testing,
involvement, and treatment. For
information regarding local obser-
vances, call 253-1413 or 253-1337,
or visit www.blackaidsday.org or
Free testing and other events
mark Black HIV Awareness Day
a caregiver to help them floss.
Flossing is a tough job that takes a
lot of practice. Waxed, unwaxed,
flavored, or plain floss all do the
same thing. The person you care for
might like one more than another,
or a certain type might be easier.
1. Grip the floss between the
thumb and index finger.
2. Start with the lower front teeth,
then floss the upper front teeth.
Next, work your way around to all
the other teeth.
Step 3. Visit a Dentist Regularly
You should have regular dental
appointments. Professional clean-
ings are just as important as brush-
ing and flossing every day. Regular
examinations can identify problems
before they cause unnecessary pain.
Like everyone else, people with
developmental disabilities can have
a healthy mouth if these three steps
1. Brush every day.
2. Floss every day.
3. Visit a dentist regularly.
Step 1. Brush Every Day
If the person you care for is
unable to brush, these suggestions
might be helpful.
First, wash your hands and put
on disposable gloves. Sit or stand
where you can see all of the sur-
faces of the teeth.
Be sure to use a regular or
power toothbrush with soft bristles.
Step 2. Floss Every Day
Flossing cleans between the teeth
where a toothbrush can't reach.
Many people with disabilities need
Copyrighted Material -
Available from Commercial News Providers
- a 40.
-w- e -
-o a a-
OBSTETRICAL & GYNECOLOGICAL
& Gynecological Care
Comprehensive Pregnancy Care
Board Certified Laser Surgery
Family Planning Vaginal Surgery
Osteoporosis Menopausal Disorder
Laparoscopy Menstrual Disorder
St. Vincent's Division IV
1820 Barrs Street, Suite 521
Jacksonville, FL 32204
B. Vereen Chithriki, M.D.
William L. Cody, M.D.
' I s 1 '4I
Go Red for Women has open
casting call for heart healthy women
Go Red For Women is calling on real women from the First Coast to share
their heart health stories. By participating in the 2010 Go Red for Women
heart healthy campaign.
Six women will become the official "Heart of Go Red" and represent the
movement throughout the year, including the opportunity to appear in the
The campaign is looking for survivors, family members, friends or heart
health professionals to share their stories.
Participants should send a biography including their heart story and their
image demonstrating their favorite way to "Go Red" to the local American
Heart Association office at 5851 St. Augustine Road, Jacksonville, Florida
32207 or by email to email@example.com. Submissions can also be
dropped off at First Coast Jiffy Lube locations. For more details call (904)
Submissions will be accepted through February 28, 2010.
Three steps to a healthy mouth
fPr. Che5ter Aikens
S 5 305 La5t Union street
in Powniown JacksonviLLe
For All ,rr
Needs .. ,'
8:30 AM-5 PM 7
Saturday Appointments Available
Dental Insurance and Medicaid Accepted
Charles E. Simmons, III, M.D.
Have your newtoom or sick chi seen
in the hospdiafbyiheir own Dodor.
Baptist-Wolfson Children's Hospital
St. Vincents-Memorial & S. Lukes Hospital
Primary Care Hours:
9 A.M. to 5:30 P.M. M-F
1771 Edgewood A/enue, W., Ste 1
Jacksonville, Florida 32208
Page 12 Ms. Perry's Free Press
February 4-10, 2010
FebruaryII 4-10 201 Ms Per' Fre Press_ Pae1
Worth Watching:SOul Train: The Hippiest Trip in America
It was the little show that could.
Beginning its ride as a local dance
show on Chicago's WCIU-TV,
"Soul Train" chugged its way to
Los Angeles and into pop culture
history. The syndicated franchise's
impact is chronicled in the 40th-
anniversary tribute "Soul Train: The
Hippest Trip in America."
Coinciding with the start of Black
History Month, the documentary
airs February 6 at 9:30 p.m. on
Narrated by actor Terrence
Howard, the 90-minute documen-
tary abounds with performance
clips and commentary by former
dancers and crew members as well
as music executives (Clive Davis,
Antonio "L.A." Reid) and major
performers who appeared on "Soul
Train," including Chaka Khan,
Snoop Dogg, Aretha Franklin and
Sly Stone. At the helm is "Soul
Train" creator/producer/host Don
The special, produced by VH1
Rock Does and Soul Train
Holdings, doubles as entertainment
and history lesson. The innovative
show's August 17, 1970, debut was
bracketed on one side by the civil
rights movement and on the other
by the emergence of black empow-
Cornelius jokes in the documen-
tary that the hit's title change was
his "one mistake." During a recent
phone interview, though, he said his
fondest memory is the show's early
validation by major R&B talent.
"Gladys Knight & the Pips
helped us start out, but we didn't
know where it would go from there.
We were just determined to make
this happen, feeling it was the right
kind of show for this country at the
time," he recalls. "Then one day
James Brown walked onto the
sound stage. A few months later
came the Jackson 5, and then Stevie
Wonder. So we're thinking, 'OK,
this might work.'"
The show later hosted perform-
ances by such pop stars as Elton
John and David Bowie.
Jones redoes "We are the World" to benefit Haiti
Actors and singers perform at a recording session of the 1985 song
"We Are The World" to raise money for the Haiti earthquake, at Jim
Henson Studios in Hollywood February 1, 2010 in this handout photo
from WATW Foundation. Celebrities including Celine Dion, Justin
Bieber, Usher, Katharine McPhee, will.i.am, Toni Braxton, Barbra
Streisand, LL Cool J, Harry Connick Jr., Wyclef Jean and Natalie
Cole took part in the recording.
More than 75 mega-stars gathered
this week to re-record the 1985
charity anthem "We are the World"
in the same Hollywood recording
studio where the original was cut 25
Pink, Celine Dion, Natalie Cole,
the Jonas Brothers, Kanye West,
Tony Bennett, Jennifer Hudson,
Akon and other musical luminaries
stood shoulder to shoulder on risers
at Henson Recording studios,
singing their hearts out and hoping
to help Haiti.
At one point during the session,
the musicians broke out into an a
cappella version of the pop classic
"Lean on Me."
Rapper Lil' Wayne was told he
would do Bob Dylan's part in the
"I said, 'Are you kidding?'" he
said. He felt blessed to record the
song but admitted, "I don't know
how to sing."
Asked how the earthquake had
affected him, he said he had Haitian
friends in Miami who lost relatives
in the disaster.
"1 think it's amazing what's been
done for Haiti, but I think it's amaz-
ing what hasn't been done for New
Orleans," said the Crescent City
Quincy Jones, who produced the
1985 anthem, announced last week
that he planned to redo the song to
benefit recovery from the deadly
earthquake in Port-au-Prince.
Written by Michael Jackson and
Lionel Richie, the original "We Are
the World" thundered up the charts
when it was released on the radio
and in record stores in March 1985.
An unprecedented number of top
pop musicians gathered atA&M the
night of Jan. 28, 1985, following
the American Music Awards, to
record the tune. The song featured
45 American superstars, including
Jackson, Richie, Stevie Wonder,
Tina Turner, Ray Charles, Bruce
Springsteen, Diana Ross, Bob
Dylan and Cyndi Lauper.
None of the original performers
returned for the re-record.
The 1985 record raised more than
$30 million for USA for Africa, a
nonprofit organization founded by
the singers to fund hunger relief in
Avail able from Commercial News Providers
ETTA JAMES HOSPITALIZED
Etta James, the pioneer R&B singer por-
trayed by Beyonce in the film Cadillac .
Records, was hospitalized in Southernf
California over the weekend with a serious \
infection, but she should be released soon, ."
according to her son.
Donto James says his 72-year-old mother,
perhaps best known for her recording of the h
standard ballad "At Last," has been at
Riverside Community Hospital for about a
week and is recovering from sepsis caused
by a urinary tract infection, The Associated
Donto says James, who lives in Woodcrest, Calif., entered a treatment
program about a month ago to shake a dependency on painkillers and
over-the-counter medicine. She was transferred to another facility and
then the hospital when her physical condition worsened.
ALICIA KEYS REPORTEDLY
ENGAGED TO A MARRIED MAN
Can you be engaged to a man that's already mar-
ried? According to the rumor mill, Alicia Keys is.
TP, The music superstar is reportedly wearing an
engagement ring given to her by music producer
/ *Swizz Beatz as the couple vacationed in Hawaii.
Problem is, Swizz is still legally married to R&B
singer Mashonda. We'll keep watching this one.
TV ONE CANCELS 5 P.M. RERUN OF
If you're looking for the 5 p.m. repeat of Sunday's "Washington Watch"
political talk show on TV One, expect to see reruns of the "Martin" sit-
com instead. The repeat has been moved to the early-morning hours.
"Washington Watch has always been intended to be a Sunday morning
show, but when it was new in the fall Johnathan wanted to offer an addi-
tional afternoon sampling opportunity for the show, which TV One did
until the beginning of the year," spokeswoman Lynn McReynolds told
Journal-isms, referring to TV One CEO Johnathan Rodgers.
T he show, oriented toward African American interests and hosted by
Roland Martin, airs at 11 a.m. Eastern time and now repeats at 2 a.m.
Eastern and 6 a.m. Eastern the next morning.
A spokeswoman for the Nielsen Co.said that "Washington Watch" was
carving a small niche at 11 a.m. but that the 5 p.m. rerun barely regis-
tered in its ratings.
PRECIOUS BASKING IN OSCAR LOVE
The recently announced six Oscar nominations for "Precious" has the
film's director Lee Daniels feeling pretty precious himself.
"I am stoked," the best director nominee told the Hollywood Reporter.
"I haven't moved. I'm in bed feeling like a stuffed pig, I'm just so over-
whelmed with joy and so full with excitement."
Daniels becomes the second black filmmaker to earn a directing Oscar
nom after John Singleton broke the racial barrier in 1992 with "Boyz N
"It doesn't even register," Daniels said. "When it's down to a black per-
son, it's always a first of something. Lilk,jiminy Cri t!.4..w., many,
firsts are there?"
"What it does is it makes me think that it's not just for little black kids
hoping to dream, but for all kids hoping to dream because what happens
is they all see that anything is possible everything is possible,"
As reported earlier, "Precious" also received Academy Award nomina-
tions for best picture, best actress (Gaborey Sidibe), best supporting
actress (Mo'Nique), adapted screenplay (Geoffrey Fletcher) and editing
lets you give students at risk of dropping out the boost they need to make it
through high school. Because over 30% of students in the U.S. aren't graduating.
And they've got a lot momr to tackle than just their schoolwork.
February 4-10, 2010
Ms. Perry's Free Press Page 13
Pare 14- Ms. Perry's Free Press February 4-10, 2010
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Page 14- Ms. Perry's Free Press
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History of African-American Cooking
Affirmative A ctio: Leveling the Playing
Field in America o Page 3
Higher Learning: HBBCU's Have Paved the
Wa qforEduca ng k America :
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HBCU's Have Paved the Way for Educating Black America
By James Anderson
There are more than 100 historically
Black colleges and universities in the United
States today. These institutions of higher
learning, whose principal mission is to edu-
cate African Americans, have evolved since
their beginning in 1837 when their primary
responsibility was to educate freed slaves to
read and write. At the dawn of the 21st cen-
tury, along with graduate and post-graduate
degrees, historically Black colleges and uni-
versities offer African American students a
place to earn a sense of identity, heritage and
Before the Civil War (1861-1865) the
majority of Blacks in the United States were
enslaved. Although a few free Blacks at-
tended primarily White colleges in the North
in the years before the war, such opportuni-
ties were very rare and nonexistent in the
slave states of the South. In response to the
Institute for Colored Youth Building
lack of opportunity, a few institutions of
secondary and higher education for Blacks
were organized in the antebellum years
Cheyney University in Pennsylvania,
founded in 1837 as the Institute for Colored
Youth, has the earliest founding date of an
HBCU, although for most of its early history
it offered only elementary and high school
level instruction. The first great expansion in
Black higher education came after the war,
however, during the widening opportunities
of Reconstruction (1865-1877).
The years between the Civil War and
World War I (1914-1918) were an era of
tremendous growth for American colleges
and universities. Higher education spread
primarily through institutions financed by
public taxes, particularly the rapidly expand-
ing land-grant colleges established by U.S.
Congress in the Morrill Act of 1862. These
land-grant institutions, coupled with a grow-
ing system of state colleges, marked the
emergence of a distinctive style of American
higher education: publicly supported institu-
tions of higher learning serving a broad
range of students as well as the cultural,
economic, and political interests of various
local and state constituencies.
African American higher education took a
different path. From the Reconstruction era
through World War II (1939-1945) the ma-
jority of Black students were enrolled in
private colleges. Northern religious mission
societies were primarily responsible for es-
tablishing and maintaining the leading Black
colleges and universities. African American
religious philanthropy also established a
bama, argued that African Americans should
concentrate on the more practical arts of
manual labor to better suit them for the work
that was available.
Meanwhile, Harvard-trained scholar W. E.
B. Du Bois was charting another path. Du
Bois paired the liberal and scientific ideals
of the missionaries with a conviction that
Black life and culture should be a primary
topic of Black thought and investigation. Du
Bois criticized Washington and his allies for
downplaying intellectual ambition and for
appeasing Southern White leaders. Du Bois's
criticisms gained influence in the following
decades, and by the end of World War I,
Black leaders had largely turned against
Washington's educational theories. The in-
creased militancy of Du Bois and others led
to student protests in the 1920s against the
lio f,' '
Given the virtual nonexistence of public
education for Blacks in the South, these in-
stitutions had to provide preparatory courses
at the elementary and high school levels for
their students. Often they did not offer col-
lege-level courses for years until their stu-
dents were prepared for them. Nonetheless,
the missionary aims of these early schools
reflected the ideals of classical liberal educa-
tion that dominated American higher educa-
tion in general in that period, with its em-
phasis on ancient languages, natural sci-
ences, and humanities. Blacks were trained
for literacy, but also for teaching and the
With the end of Reconstruction and the
return of White rule in the South, however,
opportunities for African American profes-
sionals became scarcer. Consequently many
Black and White leaders turned toward in-
dustrial training. The proponents of indus-
trial training, whose most public spokesman
was Booker T. Washington of the Tuskegee
Institute (now Tuskegee University) in Ala-
White administrations at Fisk, Hampton, and
Howard. As a result of such protest, Morde-
cai Johnson was named the first Black presi-
dent of Howard in 1926.
During Jim Crow
Private missionary colleges figured so
heavily in the overall scheme of higher edu-
cation for African Americans because vari-
ous states virtually excluded Blacks from
publicly supported higher education. Of the
17 Southern states that mandated racially
segregated education during the Jim Crow
era, 14 simply refused to establish land-grant
colleges for African American students until
Congress required them to do so in the 1890.
But the institutions they established were
colleges in name only. Not one met the land-
grant requirement to teach agriculture, me-
chanical arts and liberal education on a col-
With the founding of the United Negro
College Fund (UNCF) in 1944, Black col-
leges and universities enlisted the support of
corporate philanthropy and the donations of
thousands of individuals. African Americans
also continued to press for equality in public
higher education their efforts encouraged by
the Supreme Court decision in Missouri ex
rel. Gaines v. Canada in 1938, which forced
Southern state governments to concede more
resources for the improvement of African
American higher education than at any time
since the Reconstruction era.
During the early 1950s, the National As-
sociation for the Advancement of Colored
People (NAACP) turned its efforts from
educational equality to school desegregation.
Its work culminated successfully in the
Sweatt v. Painter (1950) and Brown v.
Board of Education (1954) desegregation
decisions, although these decisions had little
direct effect on Black colleges.
This success in the courts sparked a new
optimism about the future of African Ameri-
can higher education. But during the last
four decades of the 20th century, that opti-
mism was tempered by the endurance of old
problems. Private colleges and universities
had not built up a solid financial base. At the
start of new millennium, raising money re-
mains the major challenge for a Black col-
lege president or chancellor. Private Black
colleges are struggling to keep their funding
sources viable and to fight off financial star-
vation in an increasingly competitive envi-
ronment. Public Black colleges are fighting
to obtain their fair share of state support, and
this struggle is greatly compromised by in-
action and resistance from state legislatures.
In 1992 the Supreme Court ruled in United
States v. Fordice that patterns of racial seg-
regation still remained in Mississippi's pub-
lic university system, nearly 40 years after
Brown v. Board of Education The slow
elimination of segregation has in general had
mixed blessings for Black colleges and uni-
versities, as integrated White institutions
have drawn Black students and support
away from the traditional Black schools. But
after stagnating enrollments in the 1970s and
1980s, the student population at HBCUs
rose 25 percent between 1986 and 1994, an
increase greater than the average for U.S.
colleges and universities.
America Makes Legal Strides
Towards Leveling the Playing Field
Page 3 1"
Se In its tumul-
President Lyndon Johnson to racial
inequality. The policy was introduced in
1965 by President Johnson as a method
of redressing discrimination that had
persisted in spite of civil rights laws and
constitutional guarantees. "This is the
next and more profound stage of the bat-
tle for civil rights," Johnson asserted.
"We seek... not just equality as a right
and a theory, but equality as a fact and as
A Temporary Measure to
Level the Playing Field
Focusing in particular on education
and jobs, affirmative action policies re-
quired that active measures be taken to
ensure that blacks and other minorities
enjoyed the same opportunities for pro-
motions, salary increases, career ad-
vancement, school admissions, scholar-
ships, and financial aid that had been the
nearly exclusive province of whites.
From the outset, affirmative action was
envisioned as a temporary remedy that
would end once there was a "level play-
ing field" for all Americans.
Bakke and Reverse
By the late '70s, however, flaws in the
policy began to show up amid its good
intentions. Reverse discrimination be-
came an issue, epitomized by the famous
Bakke Case in 1978. Allan Bakke, a
white male, had been rejected two years
in a row by a medical school that had
accepted less qualified minority appli-
cants-the school had a separate admis-
sions policy for minorities and reserved
16 out of 100 places for minority stu-
dents. The Supreme Court outlawed in-
flexible quota systems in affirmative
action programs, which in this case had
unfairly discriminated against a white
applicant. In the same ruling, however,
the Court upheld the legality of affirma-
tive action per se.
Game for Conservatives
Fueled by "angry white men," a back-
lash against affirmative action began to
mount. To conservatives, the system was
a zero-sum game that opened the door for
jobs, promotions, or education to minori-
ties while it shut the door on whites. In a
country that prized the values of self-
reliance and pulling oneself up by one's
bootstraps, conservatives resented the
idea that some unqualified minorities
were getting a free ride on the American
system. "Preferential treatment" and
"quotas" became expressions of con-
tempt. Even more contentious was the
accusation that some minorities enjoyed
playing the role of professional victim.
Why could some minorities who had also
experienced terrible adversity and ra-
cism-Jews and Asians, in particular-
manage to make the American way work
for them without government handouts?
"Justice and Freedom for All"
Still in Its Infancy
Liberals countered that "the land of
opportunity" was a very different place
for the European immigrants who landed
on its shores than it was for those who
arrived in the chains of slavery. As histo-
rian Roger Wilkins pointed out, "blacks
have a 375-year history on this continent:
245 involving slavery, 100 involving
legalized discrimination, and only 30
involving anything else."
Considering that the laws of Jim
Crow and lynching existed well into the
'60s, and that myriad subtler forms of
racism in housing, employment, and edu-
cation persisted well beyond the civil
rights movement, conservatives impa-
tient for blacks to "get over" the legacy
of slavery needed to realize that slavery
was just the beginning of racism in
America. Liberals also pointed out that
another popular conservative argument-
that because of affirmative action, mi-
norities were threatening the jobs of
whites-belied the reality that white men
were still the undisputed rulers of the
roost when it came to salaries, positions,
Polemics Turn Gray
The debate about affirmative action
has also grown more murky and difficult
as the public has come to appreciate its
complexity. Many liberals, for example,
can understand the injustice of affirma-
tive action in a case like Wygant (1986):
black employees kept their jobs while
white employees with seniority were laid
off. And many conservatives would be
hard pressed to come up with a better
alternative to the imposition of a strict
quota system in Paradise (1987), in
which the defiantly racist Alabama De-
partment of Public Safety refused to pro-
mote any black above entry level even
after a full 12 years of court orders de-
manded they did.
The Supreme Court: Wary of
"Abstractions Going Wrong"
The Supreme Court justices have been
divided in their opinions in affirmative
action cases, partially because of oppos-
ing political ideologies but also because
the issue is simply so complex. The
Court has approached most of the cases
in a piecemeal fashion, focusing on nar-
row aspects of policy rather than grap-
pling with the whole.
Even in Bakke-the closest thing to a
landmark affirmative action case-the
Court was split 5-4, and the judges' vari-
ous opinions were far more nuanced than
most glosses of the case indicate. Sandra
Day O'Connor often characterized as the
pivotal judge in such cases because she
straddles conservative and liberal views
about affirmative action, has been de-
scribed by University of Chicago law
professor Cass Sunstein as "nervous
about rules and abstractions going
wrong. She's very alert to the need for
the Court to depend on the details of each
Landmark Ruling Buttresses
But in a landmark 2003 case involving
the University of Michigan's affirmative
action policies-one of the most impor-
tant rulings on the issue in twenty-five
years-the Supreme Court decisively
upheld the right of affirmative action in
In the Michigan cases, the Supreme
Court ruled that although affirmative
action was no longer justified as a way of
redressing past oppression and injustice,
it promoted a "compelling state interest"
in diversity at all levels of society. A
record number of "friend-of-court" briefs
were filed in support of Michigan's af-
firmative action case by hundreds of or-
ganizations representing academia, busi-
ness, labor unions, and the military, argu-
ing the benefits of broad racial represen-
tation. As Sandra Day O'Connor wrote
for the majority, "In order to cultivate a
set of leaders with legitimacy in the eyes
of the citizenry, it is necessary that the
path to leadership be visibly open to tal-
ented and qualified individuals of every
race and ethnicity."
Laws Applying to Affirmative Action in Educational Institutions
Affirmative action programs are governed by a num-
ber of overlapping laws. A common principle is that
whether for admissions or employment, affirmative
action programs such as largeled recruitment and goals
are encouraged to remedy past effects of discrimina-
tion; quotas are disfavored.
14 Amendment of the United States Constitution
The "equal protection clause" of the Fourteenth
Amendment, which applies only to public institutions,
prohibits discrimination based on race or sex. Accord-
ing to recent U.S. Supreme Court cases decided under
this provision, such as City of Richmond i. J.A. Croson
Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989), public employers' affirmative
action programs must be justified by and narrowly tai-
lored to remedy specific evidence of past discrimina-
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C.
2000d, and regulations at 45 C.F.R. 80.1 et seq.
Title VI prohibits race discrimination in any program
receiving federal funds. This law applies to both admis-
sions and employees. Violations can result in with-
drawal of federal funds or suits by private individuals. LX's affirmative action provisions apply to both em-
Cases brought under Title VI, such as University of ployment and admission of students. Violations can
California Board of Regents v. Bakke. 438 U.S. 265 result in withdrawal of federal funds or suits by private
(1978), establish that in an affirmative action context, individuals. Regulations promulgated under Title IX.
race can be one of several factors used in admissions 34 C.F.R. 106.3. authorize affinnatile or remedial
decisions. action in instances in which members of one se\ must
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 be treated differently to overcome the specific effects of
U.S.C.A. 2000e et seq., and regu rations at 29 past discrimination.
C.F.R. 1604-1606, 1608.1 et seq. Executive Order 11246, Sept 24, 1965. as
Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based amended by Executive Order 11375, Oct. 13, 1967.
on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin by any 41 C.F.R. 60-1 et seq.
employer with 15 or more employees; as amended in Executive Order 11246 requires federal contractors to
1972 it applies to public and private educational institu- adopt and implement "affirmative action programs" to
tions. Cases decided under Title VI 1 authorize affirma- promote attainment of equal employment objectives. It
tive action programs that are "narrowly tailored" to authorizes use of goals but prohibits quotas, and applies
remedy past discrimination based on race, sex, etc. to race. religion, color, national origin, and sex.
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, 20 State Lavs
U.S.C. 1681 et seq., and regulations at 34 C.F.R. Many states have laws that arc similar to Title VII or
106.1 et seq., 45 C.F.R. 86.1 et seq. Title LX. In some instances, state laws provide broader
Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in all educa- remedies or more expansive coverage to protected
tional institutions that receive federal funding. Title groups.
".. Page 4
Afri age (300-1619)
Back a, most Afrian men
were farm. raisers and fisherman.
Planting, sowing and harvesting crops were
considered women's work. Cooking was one
of the most important skills a young girl
needed to learn. One traditional dish called
fufu was made of pounded yams. Fufu was
served with soup, stew, roasted meat and
2-;- different sauces. During this time in history,
cooking was done over open pits. Africans
were very skilled in roasting, frying, stew-
ing, boiling and steaming their foods. Their
native foods were yams, okra, watermelon,
cassava, groundnuts, black-eyed peas and
and Slavery 1619
In August, 1619, the first group of Af-
ricans landed in America at Jamestown, Vir-
ginia. These Africans were indentured ser-
vants. They gave up four to seven years of
labor just to pay for transportation to Amer-
ica. Southern plantations consisted of Afri-
cans from many different tribal nations.
These Africans made up the slave popula-
tion in southern America. Verbal exchanges
of recipes on these Southern plantations led
to the development of an international Afri-
can cooking style in America. The slaves
enjoyed cooking pork, yams, sweet potatoes,
hominy, corn, ashcakes, cabbage, hoecakes,
collards and cowpeas. On these plantations,
cooking was done on an open fireplace with
large swing black pots and big skillets.
African American cooking techniques
and recipes were also influenced by Native
American Indians all across the United
States. When Africans were first brought to
History of African-
America in 1619, they lived on farms. In
many areas, local Indians taught them how
to hunt and cook with native plants. Indian
cooking techniques were later introduced
into the southern society by black American
cooks. Dishes such as corn pudding, succo-
tash, pumpkin pie, Brunswick Stew and
hominy grits are a few examples of Native
American dishes found in African American
American Revolution 1776
Between 1773 and 1785 thousands of .
Africans were brought to America. They c--....--. --. 2 .
were brought ashore in Virginia, Georgia .
and the Carolinas (Sea Island). In America, "
slaves were cooks, servants and gardeners. '
They worked in the colonial kitchens and on .
the plantations as field hands. At the Big- '
House, slaves cooked such foods as greens,
succotash, corn pudding, spoon bread, corn ...
pone and crab cakes. These foods were" .. i
cooked on an open pit or fireplace. On the -, .. ...
plantation, breakfast was an important and Both the northern and the southern ai
an early meal. Hoecakes and molasses were Black Americans thought they were joi
eaten as the slaves worked from sunup to into another form of servitude.
sundown. swing pots and skillets with legs.
Both the northern and the southern armies
hired black Americans as cooks. Most of the
cooking throughout the South was done by
black cooks. Slaves created their own reci-
pes and made the best of hard times and
scarce supplies. Cajun and Creole cooking
developed during this period. These foods
included jambalaya, bread pudding, dirty
rice, gumbo and red beans and rice. Cooking
was done on a great big old fireplace with
Post Reconstruction Westward
At the end of the Civil War, black
Americans began to move westward. They
migrated to Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma
and Texas. Black Americans became cow-
boys and cooks on the cattle drives. Many
black Americans were also pioneers and as
farmers they survived off the land. They
adapted their cooking habits and formed
new ones when necessary. It was a great
GREAT TRADITIONAL RECIPES
Fried Okra- 8 pods okra, I cup yellow cornmeal, I tablespoon and cook until the yams are soft
flour, I teaspoon salt, 1' teaspoon pepper. 'A vegetable oil. Slice (maybe half an hour). Remove pot
okra into /4 inch slices. Wash okra in cold water. Mix cornmeal. from heat and cool yams with run-
flour, salt and pepper together. Roll okra in cornmeal mix. Fry in ning water. Drain. Remove peels
hot skillet for 10 minutes until golden brown. Drain on paper towel. from yams. Add butter. Put yams in
(Serves 6) a bowl (or back in the empty pot)
Fufu I large yam. I egg, 5 teaspoons evaporated milk. I small and mash with a potato masher, then
onion grated, 3 tablespoons butter or margarine, pinch of garlic beat and stir with a wooden spoon until completely smooth. This
salt Peel and cut yam into small pieces. Boil pieces until tender in might take two people: one to hold the bowl and the other to stir.
cup water for 20 minutes. Drain off the water and mash until Shape the fufu into balls and serve immediately with meat stew or
smooth. Add the egg, milk. onion and garlic salt. Beat and roll into any dish with a sauce or gravy. To eat it, tear off a small handful
2 inch balls. If the mixture is too wet, add a little flour. Fry in butter with your fingers and use it to scoop up your meat and sauce.
or margarine until brown. (Serves 2-3) Cajun Dirty Rice
Hominy Grits- 1 cup grits, I teaspoon salt, 4 cups of water, 3 Yield: 8 Servings
tablespoons butter or margarine. Bring water to a boil. Add salt. I lb Chicken Gizzards finely chopped, 1 lb Chicken Livers --
.Slowly stir in grits. Stir constantly to prevent lumping. Reduce heat finely chopped. '4 cup squeeze margarine, 1 /2 c Onion -- finely
and cover for 10 minutes. Serve hot with butter. (Serves 4) chopped, 1/2 c Celery -- finely chopped. 1/4 c Green Pepper -
Fufu Fufu (Foo-foo, Foufou, Foutou,.fiifi) is to Western and chopped, 2 Garlic Cloves minced, 2 tsp. Salt. I tsp. pepper, 1/8
,Central Africa cooking what mashed potatoes are to traditional tsp ground red pepper, 3 cups freshly cooked rice, 1/2 cup chopped
European-American cooking. parsley.
2 4 lbs. pounds of yams (use large, white or yellow yams; not Brown meat in margarine in large skillet. Add onion,. celery,
'sveet potatoes, not "Louisiana yams"); or equal parts yams and green pepper, garlic and seasonings, mix well. Cover. Cook, sdr-*
piantain bananas and I tsp, butter (optional).. .. "-. ring occasionally, over medium heat until vegetables are tender.
V-P.lace yams in large pot'6 id'c ver with cold writer. Bring'to. boil Add rice and parsley, inixlightly: Serve immediately. .~ ':. '
rmies hired black Americans as cooks. Many
ning the war as enlisted man but just entered
challenge to create good food with primitive
tools and very limited ingredients. They
cooked such foods as: biscuits, stew, baked
beans and barbecued meat.
The Great Migration 1900-1945
During this period, a large number of
black Americans worked as cooks in private
homes, shops restaurants, schools, hotels
and colleges. Many moved to such large
cities as Chicago, New York, Ohio, Detroit
and Pennsylvania to work. Black cooks,
chefs and waiters also worked in Pullman
cars of the old railroads and on the steam-
boats. Many black Americans also started
small businesses such as fish markets, barbe-
que and soul food restaurants throughout the
United States. These establishments special-
ized in fried fish, homemade rolls, potato
salad, turkey and dressing, fried pork chops,
rice and gravy and southern fried chicken.
Cooking was done on wood burning and gas
Civil Rights Movement
In the early 60s and 70s, soul food, the
traditional food of black Americans, was
very popular. Soul foods were candied
yams, okra, fried chicken, pig's feet,
chitlin's, cornbread, collard greens with ham
hocks and black-eyed peas. Today in the
90s, soul food preparation has changed.
Black Americans are becoming increasingly
health conscious, thus, they are avoiding
foods with high levels of fat and cholesterol,
and increasing their intake of fruit, vegeta-
bles and fiber. Black Americans are still in
the kitchen cooking, but now they are own-
ers and managers of restaurants. Today is
cooking is done on electric, gas and micro-