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and informative manner.

Writer Reviews Role
Os Scientific Method

William T. Biaclretone has been
an instructor hi philosophy at
the UF since 1958. He received
his doctorate degree from Duke
Recently there has been a
number of attempts to justify
an ethical oode by the use of
the scientific method.
(4> It has been argued that
the rightness of an act Vs an
empirical property which can
be detected with probability by
the method of induction and that
the inductive method can pro provide
vide provide us with probable empirical
knowledge of which acts or
curses of action are right.
The scientific method, H is
argued, cam also provide prob probable
able probable empirical knowledge of
Which properties are both nec necessary
essary necessary and sufficient for an
set or course of action to be
Advocates of the scientific ap approach
proach approach to ethics go on to argue
that science can be relied upon
to settle ethical disagreements
ana to provide certain criteria
*>y virtue of which one ethical
theory is shown to be superior,
that is, more justified than all
Those ethical theorists who
advocate the scientific approach
to ethics realize that much of
traditional ethical theory has
involved question-begging, dog dogmatic
matic dogmatic assertion, and dogmatic
counter assertion. Normative
criteria or ethical standards
have been set forth as arbitrary
and unjustified definitions. In
part at least, this dogmatism
is responsible for the stalemate
in ethical theory that exists
even today.
Genuine Attempt
The scientific approach to
ethics is a genuine attempt to
avoid the dogmatism of tradi traditional
tional traditional ethical theory and the
resulting stalemate concerning
right conduct. It is an attempt to
provide an objective basis for
solving human disputes.
A similar situation to that in
ethical theory also exists in re regard
gard regard to political ideologies.
There is a stalemate here, par particularly
ticularly particularly between the ideologies
of communism and democracy.
The purpose of this paper is to
(1) For example, see Charles
Bay Us, Ethics, The Principles
of Wise Choice. New York, 1958;
Alfred Emerson. Dynamic
Homeostasis: A Unifying Prin Principle
ciple Principle In Organic, Social, and
Ethical Evolution," The Scion Sciontthe
tthe Sciontthe Monthly, V9 i. 78, 1954; and
Richard Radnor, Can Science
Provide An Ethical Code?,"

ask whether the scientific meth method
od method can be used to settle basic
ideological differences, showing
that one particular ideology is
superior to all others.
Up to now most of the dis disagreements
agreements disagreements between the ideolo ideologies
gies ideologies of communism and demo democracy
cracy democracy have been unresolvable
because of dogmatic assertion
and dogmatic counter-assertion
Invariably one party or the oth other
er other begs the question at issue,
namely What is the best form
of government?" by assuming
an answer to it at the outset.
Our purpose in this paper is
to approach this issue objec objectively
tively objectively and avoid question-beg question-begging.
ging. question-begging. It will be argued that,
in principle, the above issue is
empirically resolvable, and fur further,
ther, further, that the available empiri empirical
cal empirical data point to one particular
ideology as the superior form of
* *
Shows Why
First we wish to show why
the ideological differences be between
tween between communism and democra democracy
cy democracy hay,e remained cn an unre unresolvable
solvable unresolvable level. The fact is that
each position hag simply been
dogmatically asserted but not
justified. And when two dogmas
conflict there is by the nature
of the case no avenue of ad adjudication,
judication, adjudication, for there is no com common
mon common and agreed upon procedure
or method for deciding between
rival views.
The dogma of communism is
the view known as dialectical
materialism which states that
h.story is a history of class
struggles, that clasg struggles
are determined solely by ma material
terial material or economic factors, and
that history began with primi primitive
tive primitive communism and is develop developing
ing developing dialectically through thesis,
antithesis, and synthesis toward
ideal communism, The culmina culmination
tion culmination of history in ideal commun communism
ism communism is inevitable; it is the pre prescribed
scribed prescribed goal of history and as
the prescribed goal we owe our
allegiance to it.
There is no question that the
position of dialectical material materialism
ism materialism reeks of cosmic purpose.
The Marxist asks us to picture
the dialectic of history as in inexorably
exorably inexorably unfolding itself from
one class conflict to another,
from one economy to another,
from one class morality to an another
other another until it at last culminates
in ideal communism.
In fact, the vitality of Marx Marxism
ism Marxism springs from the notion of
purpose in the cosmos and the
belief that one has responsibil responsibility
ity responsibility to this ultimate purpose.
This perhaps is the reason why
so many speak of communism
(See, COMMUNISM, Page 9)


Vol. 1, No. 1

Delineates the Crisis
In Arts and Sciences

SI uoioijuo * ui{ii!M m
politics! science professor at the
UF and has been with the Uni University
versity University since 1921.
Prof. Oarletoa received his BA
degree from Indiana University
and did his graduate work at
the University ol North Carolina.
Carleton has been head prof,
of social science at the UF since
The heart erf any great uni university
versity university is its college of arts and
sciences and its graduate col college
lege college of arts and sciences. No
university has ever become
great merely because of Its
competent professional and
trades colleges.
This is not special training
This is not special pleading,
and it in not snobbery. There
are very definite reasons for
This is true because all of the
professional colleges are intel intellectual
lectual intellectual parasites. They depend
for sustenance on liberal educa education,
tion, education, on theories, an abstrac abstractions.
tions.- abstractions. They must make use of
the pure arts, the pure sciences,
and the humanities, found in
colleges of arts auad sciences
and the graduate schools of
arts and sciences.
The professional colleges are
precisely what they claim to
be. They are practical. They
distill, simplify, and apply
theories. And where do the theo theories,
ries, theories, without which there could
never be any application, come
from? They come primarily
from the various disciplines
found m colleges of arts and
sciences and graduate colleges
of arts and sciences.
* *
3 Dependent Colleges
The College of Medicine
depends upon biology, chem chemistry,
istry, chemistry, bio-chemistry, bacteri bacteriology,
ology, bacteriology, and scores of other
pure sciences. The college of
pharmacy obviously depends
upon some of the pure sciences.
The college of agriculture de depends
pends depends upon botany, zoology,
chemistry, and other pure
The college of engineering de depends
pends depends upon mathematics, phys physics,
ics, physics, and the fine arts. The col college
lege college of education depends upon
philosophy, psychology, and
other pure disciplines. The col college
lege college of business administration
depends upon theoretical eco economics,
nomics, economics, institutional economics,
and other social sciences.
The college of theology de depends
pends depends upon the ancient and
classical languages, philosophy,
history, and other subjects. The
college of journalism depends
upon writing, literature, and
almost every subject of the arts
and sciences college, because a
good journalist must know a
little about everything.
Even the college of law Is
not as self-sufficient ar it likes
to think it is. Fifty years ago
it was not uncommon for a pro professor
fessor professor of law to say: If the
law mis, it is only because

University of Florida Friday, May 13, 1960

human reason errs." This was
but an illustration of the influ influence
ence influence of logic and nationalist
philosophy on the law.
During the last few decades,
however, the law has been shot
through With pragmatism, in instrumentalism,
strumentalism, instrumentalism, relativity, and
social realism, and these influ influences
ences influences have come from develop developments
ments developments in philosophy, psycholo psychology,
gy, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and
other arts and sciences disci disciplines.
plines. disciplines.
Repeat Reasoning
To repeat: the professional
schools are intellectual para parasites.
sites. parasites. They could not exist for
an instant unless they were
constantly fertilized and nour nourished
ished nourished from the theoretical disci disciplines
plines disciplines found in colleges of arts
and sciences and graduate col colleges
leges colleges of arts and sciences.
If each of the great univer universities
sities universities were asked to name its
most outstanding teacher, schol scholar,
ar, scholar, or researcher, I venture to
suggest that Cambridge Univer University
sity University would name Sir Isaac New Newton,
ton, Newton, the University of Paris
would name Che Curies (in this
case husband and wife could
not be separated), the Universi University
ty University of Berlin would name Hegel,
the University of Vienna would
name Freud, the University of
Zurich would name Einstein,
Harvard University would name
William James, Yale Universi University
ty University would name William Graham
Sumner, and Columbia Univer University
sity University would name John Dewey.
Only one of these, Freud,
came out of a professional
school (medicine), and Freud
was regarded as a maverick.
William James did not do his
great creative work until he
transferred from medicine to
philosophy. It is well to remem remember
ber remember that Dewey came out of
philosophy, and not out of
teachers college, but teachers
colleges would be quit lost
without him.
Again, if each of the great
universities were asked to make
a list of say twenty-five of the
greatest teachers, scholars, and
researchers who had served it,
I venture that not a single name
would come from pharmacy,
journalism, or business admin administration.
istration. administration.
Gives Sources
A few names might come from
engineering, agriculture, educa education,
tion, education, and architecture. There
would be quite a respectable
showing from theology, medi medicine,
cine, medicine, and the law. But the great
majority of the names, the
overwhelming majority, would
come from the pure arts, the
pure sciences, and the humani- |
ties, the fine arts, history, eco- |
nomice, sociology, anthropol anthropology,
ogy, anthropology, and so forth.
In part this is to be attributed
to the historical lateness of
some of the professional schools,
but primarily it is to be attrib attributed
uted attributed to the fact that the pure
disciplines by their very nature

Four Pages

are more seminal, more cre creative.
ative. creative.
When a university neglects its
college of arts and sciences and
its graduate college of arts and
sciences it is neglecting the
most important part of higher
education. It ceases even being
a candidate for distinction and
greatness among its sister uni universities.
versities. universities.
Its professional colleges suf suffer,
fer, suffer, too, because they are not
in daily and immediate contact
with the vital theorizing, specu speculating,
lating, speculating, and researching which
come out of a creative college
of arts and sciences and a
creative graduate college of
arts and sciences.
An argument used to estab establish
lish establish Floridas College of Medi Medicine
cine Medicine at the University of Florida
at Gainesville was that a col college
lege college of medicine needed to be
closely integrated with a col college
lege college of arts and sciences and a
graduate college of arts and
sciences in order that intellec intellectually
tually intellectually creative cross-fertiliza cross-fertilization
tion cross-fertilization might take place. This may
turn out to have been only tall
talk, and tl~ s College of Medi Medicine,
cine, Medicine, to its own detriment, may
stand in very splendid isolation.
* *
Failing Education
When a university neglects Its
college of arts and sciences, it
is failing to offer its students
a first-class education, for lib liberal
eral liberal education is education in
its truest and best sense.
It is in liberal education that
a student learns to theorize and
deal in abstractions; to develop
an independent and a critical
judgment; to become creative
or, more commonly, to recog recognize
nize recognize genuine creativity when he
sees it; to dispel old supersti superstitions
tions superstitions without substituting new
ones; to free himself from hob hobgoblins
goblins hobgoblins and fears of phony
crises, personal and social, but
to recognize a genuine crisis
when he sees one; to develop a
healthy skepticism without be becoming
coming becoming cynical; to explore life
in all its phases and develop
an elan for living; to appreciate
and enjoy first-rate thinking,
literature, and the arts; to be become
come become spiritual in the broadest
and best sense, that is sensitive
to anything that affects the spir spirit
it spirit of man; and to become in insightful,
sightful, insightful, tolerant, flexible, com compassionate,
passionate, compassionate, and urbane.
In short, when a liberal edu education
cation education really takes," it makes
an individual a civilized human
After a student gets into a
professional college hia goals
become more immediate and
practical; he is less intellec intellectually
tually intellectually free and detached; he is
by that time committed to prob probing
ing probing a much narrower segment
of experience and to probing it
in a more workable" and less
theoretical way. He concen concentrates
trates concentrates more on tools and tech techniques,
niques, techniques, and less on ideas. He
becomes primarily concerned
not with the good Hfe but with
good living."
(tee, TRUE, Page 4)


Page 2

Communism, Democracy, Political Ideology Defined;
Necessity of Utilization of 'Probability' Is Illustrated

(Continued From Page ONE)
au a religion. It embodies much
of the language, presuppositions,
dogmas, and emotional atach atachment
ment atachment that many frequently asso asso
asso ciate with religion.
End is Dictatorship
The end of class struggle and
the victory of the proletariat is
to eventuate in the establish establishmen
men establishmen of the dictatorship of the
proletariat. This means the
regulating of ail social, eco economic,
nomic, economic, and cultural activities
through the agency of a single
authoritarian party which is to
be viewed as the leader of the
proletariat in all countries. This
authoriatarian party is to serve
as the. agency whereby the ulti ultimate
mate ultimate objective, ideal commu communism,
nism, communism, i to be reached.
Though historical data support
f some degree the thesis that
history develops dialectically
and that economics and class
rniggles are strong determining
forces in history, these data do
boI in any sense scientifically
prove the view that all of his history
tory history ie determined by material materialistic
istic materialistic or economc factors reflect reflected
ed reflected in class struggles or that his history
tory history will inevitably end with
ideal communism. These basic
views of Marxism are metaphy metaphysical
sical metaphysical presuppositions or un unjustified
justified unjustified dogmas. They certain certain...
... certain... ly cannot be scientifically veri verified.
fied. verified.
On the other hand the ideology
of democracy is often set forth
as dogmatically as that of com communism.
munism. communism. Democracy is often
"justified by reference to cer certain
tain certain unjustifiable metaphysical
or theological beliefs. That is,
democracy as away of life has
often been held to rest upon a
set of supernatural religious
* *
Appeol Made
(2) If democracy as away of
life is questioned, appeal is
made to these religious beliefs,
generally to the existence of a
God with certain moral charac characteristics.
teristics. characteristics. Another frequent as assertion
sertion assertion is that the democratic
vay of life is "grounded in
The universe supports or
guarantees the validity of the
democratic way of life. If then
Democracy as away of life is
questioned, appeal is made to
a certain metaphysical thesis,
nemely, that "reality or "the
universe supports an< guaran guarantees
tees guarantees the democratic ideal.
Since the invoked theological
or metaphysical beliefs remain
unjustified, then it is clear that
any appeal to them does not in
the least justify democracy. The
same situation holds in regard
to communism. The appeal to an
unjustified metphysical thesis,
namely, dialectical materialism,
and the view that communism
is the prescribed god of history,
does not justify communism as
away of life.
If the advocates of the demo democratic
cratic democratic ideology and those of the
communist ideology push their
d spute back to differing meta metaphysical
physical metaphysical theses, neither of which
csr be justified, then it is ob obvious
vious obvious that their dispute cannot
be adjudicated.

(2) For example. see William
Hallow ell. The Moral Founda Foundations
tions Foundations of Democracy, Chicago,
(3) Sidney Hook, "The Phi
losophical Presuppositions of
Democracy, Ethics, vol. 52,
(15(41-42), p 287.
(4) Ibid., p. 278.
(5) Ibid., p. 287.
(6) pt course, communism is
*lm> aa economic theory, namely, 90-

the issue between them
often is metaphysical is evident
from the "accusation hurled
by xpany American politicians
at communists, namely, that
they are "atheistic material materialists,Both
ists,Both materialists,Both parties to the dispute
are maintaining their positions
on dogmatic or absolutistic
groups. There is no common and
agreed upon procedure whereby
the dispute can be settled.
As Sidney Hooks aptly puts
the issue on one occasion: "No
more than a solipsist can make
plausible on his own assump assumptions
tions assumptions the existence of another
solipsist, can an absolutist find
a rightful place for another ab absolutist
solutist absolutist who disagrees with
him, (3)
* *
Hope for Clarity
We hope that the above re remarks
marks remarks make clear the futility
j appealing to metaphysical or
theological beliefs V so-called
justifying grounds for a politi political
cal political ideology. We wish now to
return to our original question:
"Cdn science justify a political
idee logy?
A scientific justification will
not involve an appeal to some
theory of "History, "reality,
God, or any metaphysical views.
It will involve the presentation
of inductive evidence. We will
mate clear the nature of this
ind ictive evidence later.
First it will be necessary to
specify what is meant by the
phrase "political ideology.
Thus far we have used the
phrase in a vague sense. Since
this paper will be largely con concerned
cerned concerned with the dispute between
communism and democracy, we
will take democracy as an in instance
stance instance of a poltical ideology and
point out the particular prob problems
lems problems in defining it.
These remarks will apply,
tmitatis mutandis '. the prob problem
lem problem of defining any political
ideology. It will be shown that
anj answer to our proposed
problem, "Can science justify a
political ideology? depends up upon
on upon what is meant by a "political
ideology. Taking democracy as
an instance of a political ideolo ideology.
gy. ideology. we will see that an answer
to the question, "Can science
justify democracy? depends
upon what is meant by demo democracy.
cracy. democracy. **
* *
Free Consent
Democracy has been describ described
ed described as a form of government in
which the basic decisions of the
government rest upon the free freely
ly freely given consent of the govem govemL
L govemL If consent is forced, or if
opposition is suppressed, de democracy
mocracy democracy is absent. Democracy
traditionally has alfc included
the concept of equality of oppor opportunity
tunity opportunity (not equality of status).
This concept of equality is a
,10 rm alive principle specifying
that all men should be treated
as equals. As Hook points out,
the principle of equality is not
a mechanical policy of equal
opportunity for everyone at any
time and in all respects, but ra rather,
ther, rather, equality of opportunity for
all individuals to develop what whatever
ever whatever personal and socially desir desirable
able desirable talents they possess.

cialized owner-hip of the means
ot production. Communists ar argue
gue argue that socialised ownership
oi the means of production will
re-ult in an abundance of eco economic
nomic economic goods and consequently
Mt increase in human welfare
and happiness. The> negate the
notion of individual rights in
property. Socialized ownership,
however, is one o l the regula regulative
tive regulative functions of the commun communist
ist communist government and may be

(4) This equality principle
included in the concept of de democracy
mocracy democracy is very similar to the
Kantian emphasis upon respect
for the personality of all indi individuals.
viduals. individuals.
Now suppose that someone
asks for a justification of the
principle of equality of opportun opportunity
ity opportunity and of the notion of govern government
ment government by consent of the govern governed.
ed. governed. One answer to this request
fm justification is that policies
ot action based on (a) govern government
ment government by consent of the govern governed
ed governed and (b) the principle of giv giving
ing giving individuals equal opportun opportunities
ities opportunities and treatment are the best
means to certain ends.
When actions are oased on (a)
and (b) the consequence is an
increase in human welfare and
happiness. Actions based on
(a) and (b) enable individuals
to develop their abilities and po potentialities
tentialities potentialities to a higher degree.
Stated negatively, such actions
generally result in less strife,
cruelty, and paint than actions
based on other principles. This
is a result of the fact that under
democracy there is a high de degree
gree degree of free communication and
mutual consultation.
Those who justify democracy
in the above manner are really
maintaining that the ideology
of democracy is valuable as an
instrument. It is the best form
ot government because it en enables
ables enables certain values to be at attained,
tained, attained, namely, human welfare
and happiness. Human welfare
and happiness have intrainsic
value while democracy is val valuable
uable valuable as a means of attaining
that which has intrinsic value.
On this view it is clear that
democracy as away of life can
at least in principle, be scien scientifically
tifically scientifically justified; for the issue
of what form of government is
the best means for attaining hu human
man human welfare and happiness is
certainly an empirical issue
which can be answered with
probability by the use of the in inductive
ductive inductive method.
*j *
Same Holds True
The same is true of any other
political ideology, includ including
ing including communism. If it is viewed
as an instrument or means of
attaining human welfare and
happiness, then, in principle at
least, the question of whether it
is best form of government can
be empirically resolved. We need
only determine whether the
available empirical evidence

"You'd Think the Russian's Could See Whot's
Wrong With Their Ideology. It's Un-American/'

viewed independently of the
form of government which does
the regulating, namely, a sin single
gle single authoritarian party. In the
-tme manner, democracy ae a
form of government may be
viewed as independent (though
not unrelated) of any economic
view, for example, capitalism.
That a particular economic
theory and practice is better
than another in the sense of in increasing
creasing increasing human welfare, it

points to it as the most efficient
welfare and happiness.
That the issue between com communism
munism communism and democracy is par partially
tially partially an issue about which is
the better instrument for at attaining
taining attaining human welfare and hap happiness
piness happiness is evident from remarks
that communistic and demo democratic
cratic democratic leaders make.
On numeorus occasions they
agree that they are concerned
only with human pj-ogreiis and
They agree that human wel welfare
fare welfare and happiness have in intrinsic
trinsic intrinsic value but differ on what
is the best means of attaining
this happiness, the one insisting
that actions based on the
principle of government by con consent
sent consent of the governed and on the
principle of equality of oppor opportunity
tunity opportunity is the best means to hu human
man human happiness and welfare,
whereas the other insists that
control of all social economic,
and cultural activities by a sin single
gle single authoritarian party is the
best means of attaining human
The point we wish to em emphasize,
phasize, emphasize, however, is that the
question, "Can science justify
a political ideology? can be
answered affirmatively if polit political
ical political ideologies, like democracy
or communism, are viewed as
instruments for attaining the
goal of human welfare and hap happiness,
piness, happiness,
* *
Empirical Issue
For the issue of which is the
instrument to attain an end is
certainly an empirical issue.
Os course as an empirical issue,
& tremendous amount of em empirical
pirical empirical data is relevant to any
In fact, since it is an empiri empirical
cal empirical issue, it is analytically true
that ones answer could be
probably true only. One could
not have absolute certainty
If democracy and communism
are viewed as instruments to
ends and are to be justified on
the grounds of being good in instruments,
struments, instruments, then ones accep acceptance
tance acceptance of either is contingent up upon
on upon its really being the best
means to the end of human
This means that both ideolo ideologies
gies ideologies would be viewed as hypo hypotheses,
theses, hypotheses, to be justified and ac accepted
cepted accepted only if the available em emprical
prical emprical evidence showed with

seems, would be a* empirically
ie solvable issue, mu issue, how however,
ever, however, which has a great deal of
data relevaat to it aad which
could be answered only with
(7) William T. Black stone,
"tan Science -lustily an Ethi Ethical
cal Ethical Code?, forthcoming In
gnity: An Interdisciplinary
Journal of Philosophy and The
Social Sciences.
(8) What is meant by leav-

some probability that one or the
other were the best means for
the attainment of human wel welfare
fare welfare and happiness. Sidney Hook
has str ightforwardly suggested
that democracy be viewed as a
He remarks: "When democ democracy
racy democracy is takenstrictly as a form
of political government, its
superiority over other forms of
government can be established
to the extent that it achieves
more security, freedom, and
cooperative diversity than any
of its alternatives. (5) It is
the best instrument, Hook ar argues,
gues, argues, for the attainment of de desiderata.
siderata. desiderata.
* *
Yes Answer Depends
Thus far our answer to t h e
proposed problem, "Can sci science
ence science justify a political ideolo ideology?,
gy?, ideology?, is an affirmative one.
This affirmative answer, how however,
ever, however, depends upon our con construing
struing construing the phrase "political
ideology to mean an "instru "instrument
ment "instrument for the attainment of de desired
sired desired ends or desiderata.
Viewing democracy as an in instrument,
strument, instrument, it would be defined
as a form of government in
which (a) governmental de decisions
cisions decisions are based on the freely
given consent of the governed
and upon lb) the principle of
equality of opportunity
Advocates of democracy argue
that this is the best means of
attaining human welfare and
happiness. Viewing communism
as an instrument, it would be
defined as a form of govern government
ment government in which all social, eco economic,
nomic, economic, and cultural activities
are regulated by a single au authoritarian
thoritarian authoritarian party. Advocates of
communism argue that this is
the best means of attaining hu human
man human welfare and happiness. (6)
However, the phrase "politi "political
cal "political ideology is often defined
not merely in terms of instru instrumental
mental instrumental value but also in terms
of intrinsic value. If the phrase
"political ideology is defined
not merely in terms of a form
of government viewed as an in instrument
strument instrument to attain certain de desiderata
siderata desiderata but also in terms of a
specific set of desiderata or
values, then our original ques question,
tion, question, "Can science justify a po policial
licial policial ideology? becomes much
more complicated.
# *
Question Changes
It must now read as follows:
"Can science Justify a particular
set of desiderata or values (as
opposed to others) and a partic particular
ular particular instrument or means of im implementing
plementing implementing or realizing those
values (as opposed to other in instruments)?
struments)? instruments)?
If, for example, democracy
as a form of government is de defined
fined defined not merely as an instru instrument
ment instrument (defined in terms of (a)
and (b) above to attain certain
values or desiderata but also in
terms of a particular set of de desiderata
siderata desiderata (for example, (c) hu human
man human welfare mm 3 happiness),
then our question, "Can sci science
ence science justify democracy? is a
request for a justification not
(See, DOGMATISM, Page )

toss normative term* bereft of
their normative implications is
that naturalistic analyses of
'right for example, i is
right equals If. "x is custom customary
ary customary result in not telling us
what we need to know, 1. e.
whether or not we ought to per perform
form perform x. For knowing that an
act is customary (or generality
approved) does not tell us whe whether
ther whether we ought to perform it,
but knowing that it is right does
tell us this.

Dogmatisrri Bars Scientific Plan

(Continued From Page TWO.)
' ~
merely of (a) and (bp but also
of a set of values I have argued eleswnere (7)
that science cannot justify a part parttitular
titular parttitular set values. All so-,
called scientific justifications of
a value system or ethical code
of which I am aware either are
involved in question-begging or
value reductionism, that is, the
reduction of all normitive terms
to empirical or descriptive
terms. These scientific ap approaches
proaches approaches to ethics all provide us
with naturalistic accounts of
normative terms like right
and good, and in doing this,
leave normative terms bereft of
their normative implications.
Accounts Violent
These accounts do violence to
our language. Thus if our pro proposed
posed proposed question, Can science
justify a political ideology?,
entails the further question,
Can science justify a system of
values?, then our answer to
the original question is nega negative.
tive. negative. I beg leave to refer to the
above mentioned essay for a
more detailed treatment of the
question, Can science justify a
system of values?
Our conclusion to our original
question then depends upon
whether the phrase political
ideology is defined in terms
of instrumental value or in intrinsic
trinsic intrinsic value. If political
ideology is defined as an in instrument
strument instrument to attain desiderata,
then our answer is affirmative.
* *
Result of Actions
If political ideology is
defined not only is an instrument
for attaining desiderata but also
in terms of a particular set of
desiderata, then our answer is
negative. A remark that Sidney
Hook makes ig particularly
relevant at this point.
He states: If we test the
workings as political democracy
ty PauT scheme of virtues
or by Nietzsche's, we may
perhaps reach another conclus conclusion
ion conclusion (different conclusions) So
long as there is no dispute about
observable effects and so long
as we raise no question about
the moral ideas |>y which we
evaluate these effects, we have
clear sailing.
Point Explained
(8) Hooks point here seems
to be that as long as a political
Idealogy (the insurance of a
political ideology with which
Hook is concerned is democra democracy;
cy; democracy; is viewed as an instrument
to an end, then any evaluation of
it is in terms of whether it at attains
tains attains that end. This is an issue
about observable efforts and
a3 Hook points out, as long as
we raise no question about the
ends, goals, or moral ideals by
virtue of which we evaluate the
effects of a form of government,
then we have clear sailing.
That is, viewed in this man manner,
ner, manner, the issue of Justifying a po political
litical political ideology is at least in
principle an empirically resolva resolvable
ble resolvable one, although in practice it
may be true that the accumu accumulation
lation accumulation of relevant empirical da data
ta data is a long and difficult pro process.
cess. process. However, suppose that we
question the ends, goals, or
moral ideals by virtue of which
we evaluate the effects of a
form Os government.
We are then concerned with
justifying ends, goals, or moral
ideals, and as Hook recognizes,
. when we undertake such
justification, we have undertaken
a new inquiry into a new prob problem.

lem. problem. (10) Hook is suggesting
here, I think, that the justifica justification
tion justification of an ethical cod* or system
of values may be viewed as a
logically independent issue from
that of justifying a form of gov government.
ernment. government.
This I think is true, and if it
is; true an affirmative answer to
our proposed question, Can
science justify a political ideo ideology?,
logy?, ideology?, is appropriate,
* *
Reaches Conclusion
Viewing the issue in tins man manner
ner manner I will conclude this paper by
pointing to the sort of inductive
evidence that is relevant to a
solution of our proposed prob problem.
lem. problem.
If it can be shown by point pointing
ing pointing to cases In mstory that
Where democratic communities there is more regard for
tit* potentialities of all individ individuals,
uals, individuals, that there is less strife and
cruelty, and in genera: greater
spcial welfare and happiness
than in totalitarian communities
(Which, as Hook puts it, are
systematically insensitive to the
personal needs not only of mem members
bers members of the outlawed scrapegoaf
group but of the majority of its
subjects who are excluded from
policy-making discussion), then
to some probability the use of
. the scientific method in accumu accumulating
lating accumulating these historical cases will
enable us to justify one ideolo ideology,
gy, ideology, in this case democracy, as
opposed to other ideologies,
|t think that there is an abun abundance
dance abundance of historical data which
confirms the fact that totalitar totalitarian
ian totalitarian dictatorships, with their fa fanatical
natical fanatical intolerance, bring about
more misery than the so-called
ilisj they seek to remove. For
these reasons I suggest that the
greater portion of the available
empirical data tend to justify
democracy as the best form of
governmentas the best instru instrument
ment instrument to attain human welfare
and happiness*.
* *
Resolution Possible?
The principle purpose of this
paper, however,has not been
to (justify or cite evidence for
som!e particular political ideo ideology
logy ideology as opposed to others but ra rather
ther rather to ask if the differences
between rival political ideologies
can be scientifically resolved.
Our conclusion is that such dif differences
ferences differences are in principle em empirically
pirically empirically resolvable as long a a
the (phrase political ideology
is defined in terms of an instru instrument
ment instrument to attain desiderata but
not defined in terms of a par particular
ticular particular sot of desiderate or
I emphasize the fact that any
conclusion concerning the most
efficient form of government can
be only probable because this is issue
sue issue is an empirical one, and
consequently has a tremendous
amount of future empirical data
relevant to its confirmation.
Treating democracy in this
manner as a probable hypo hypothesis
thesis hypothesis may make some people
unhappy, for in so doing one
leaves open the logical and em empirical
pirical empirical possibility that some
other! form of government ia
more adequate.
Thijs attitude I am sure would
be viewed by many as highly
suspicious. This contemporary
trend seems to be that it is
proper to be as fanatical about
democracy as others are fa fanatical
natical fanatical about fascism, com communism,
munism, communism, or other ideologies.
This attitude is rot dissimilar
to that characterizing many re religiouii
ligiouii religiouii sects, namely, that an
open and objective mind toward
the religious beliefs of otlfers
means: that one has given up
his own beliefs. This, of course,
is not true. One may be firmly
eonvirced that democracy is the
most efficent form of govern government

ment government without being fanatical
ard irrational about it,
Blindness Bod
As has often been shown in the
past, blind fanatical belief in
anj r view breeds intolerance
and, consequently, irrational be behavior.
havior. behavior. History shows this to be
true of both blind and fanatical
religious belief and blind and
fanatical political belief.
As John Dewey puts it: A
monistic theory is accompanied
in its practical execution by one oneparty
party oneparty control of press, schools,
radio, the theater and every
means of communication, even
to effective restrictions imposed
or private gatherings and poli political
tical political conversations . abso absolute
lute absolute principles are intolerant
o? dissent, for dissent from The
Truth is more than an intel intellectual
lectual intellectual error.
It is proof of an evil and dan dangerous
gerous dangerous wll.
When the dominant dogma is
definitely theological, the evil
will is described in one set of
terms; when it is political the
phraseology is different, coun counter-revolution
ter-revolution counter-revolution taking the place
of heresy,
(11) The counterposing of one
subrational dogma to another
subrational dogma not only
breeds intolerance but prepares
the ground for the acceptance of
a might-makes-right morality,
(12) Unfortunately, this is not
an entirely mistaken description
of the present state of affairs.
Advocates of both communistic
and democratic ideologies resort
to subrational dogma.
* *
Know Both Sides
As John Stuart Mill has so well
pointed out, however, intelli intelligence
gence intelligence or rational action does not
result when one knows only his
side of the picture, that is,
when one assumes that his own
position simply cannot be wrong.
In fact it may be argued that
the attitude of dogmatism is it itself
self itself incompatible with the dem democratic
ocratic democratic way of life.
Is not intolerance, which is a
general consequence of dogma dogmatism,
tism, dogmatism, incompatible with the
democratic ideal of having re respect
spect respect for the personalities (and
hence views) of all individuals?
Perhaps if it is recognized (as
argued above) that the methods
of science are relevant to a de determination
termination determination of the issue, what
is the most efficient form of
government? intolerance on
both sides of fence will be les lessened.
sened. lessened.
In conclusion I would like to
make one qualifying remark.
In this paper I have chosen to
describe both communism and
democracy as they can be seen
m the world, not as they are
ideaHy supposed to be.
Obviously if it is assumed that
either communism or democra democracy
cy democracy as a form of government wiH
result in a utopian society where
the needs of all are satisfied,
then a dogmatic answer to the
question What is the most ef efficient
ficient efficient form of government in
the sense of increasing human
welfare? has been given.
If this attitude of dogmatism
is taken, then the question of
this essay, whether the scien scientific
tific scientific method is relevant to the
adjudication ideological disputes,
would never arise.
<9) Hook, op. cit., p. 287.
(ID) Ibid., p. 290.
(11) John Dewey, Freedom
and Culture. New York, 1939. p.
(12) See Hook, op. cit., p. 291.


Factors Must Be Controlled:
Progress, Price, Parity, Supply

H. G. Hamilton has been the
head professor of Agricultural
Economics a t the UF since 1950.
Professor Hamilton received
his BA degree from the Univer University
sity University of Tennessee. He did his
graduate work at the UF and
Hamilton has been with the UF
since 1923. He is a member of
the Ameriean Farm Economics
The American farmer today is
under attack, not because he
has failed to supply the nation
with food, but because he hae
oversupplied it.
At no time in the past has
this nation or any other nation
been so well supplied with food
as we are today. Not only is
there an abundance of food but,
in terms of wages, it is more
economical than at any time in
The magnitude of the food
surplus today is quite impres impressive
sive impressive but by no means is it of re recent
cent recent date. The problem is too
complex to deal with adequately
in the brief space available
here. If all the literature on the
subject was assembled in one
place it would constitute a good goodsized
sized goodsized library.
The best that can be done is
to give something as to (1) the
nature of the problem, (2) the
current situation, (3) a brief
account of what has been done
to deal with it, and (4) how .ef .effective
fective .effective the programs have been.
Only Recently Awore
Surpluses have plagued farm
people for a long time, but it
has been only since 1930 and
particularly since 1950 that the
nonfarm population has been
aware of the problem. The aver average
age average person often thinks of a
surplus as a situation in which
a commodity will not move in into
to into the channels of trade at what
is considered a fair price.
A more precise definition
(and this will not satisfy all
people) is that a surplus exists
when over time the income for
human and capital resources
used in producing a product (in
this case agriculture) is not as
great as its returned on the
average for similar resources
in producing other products.
There are many reasons of offered
fered offered by economists as to the
cause of the surplus in agricul agriculture.
ture. agriculture. Most economists believe
that the principal cause of the
surplus are (1) rapid technol technological
ogical technological developments in agricul agriculture
ture agriculture which have generated a
supply in excess of the demand,
(2) the biological nature of agri agriculture,
culture, agriculture, (3) the nature of the
demand for agricultural prod products,
ucts, products, and (3) the governmental
programs that deal with the

"Cheer Up. Msybe the Government Will Pay You for
Not Growing Scorlet Hibiscus."
** t c miMini

Technology Not New
Technology ln agriculture,
technological development has
been of long standing. The prin principal
cipal principal ingredients have been
plant and animal breeding, plant
and animal nutrition, and mech mechanization
anization mechanization of production. Better
plants and animals and better
nutrition programs have result resulted
ed resulted in plant and animal yields
today that would have been con considered
sidered considered fantastic only a few
years ago.
Biological nature of the sup supplyThe
plyThe supplyThe supply of agricultural
products is partially governed
toy certain biological factors
which are not easily changed.
Unlike nonbiological products, it
is difficult to adjust the supply
to changes in demand. Cows do
not stop producing milk, beef
cattle do not stop calving, nor
do beef steer stop growing be because
cause because the demand has de decreased.
creased. decreased. Nor to the supply of
farm products easily accelerat accelerated
ed accelerated with an increased demand.
Can't Control
Th e farmer is not in a posi position
tion position to pull an electric switch
and stop all production, as is
done in industry. His produc production
tion production plant is biological; plants
and animals continue to grow
and must be fed regardless of
demand situations. In addition,
he is confronting with weather
which at times is .iot coopera cooperative.
tive. cooperative.
In the past the farmer or the
weatherman has not been suc successful
cessful successful in bringing weather un under
der under control, nor is it likely they
will succeed in the future. It
is usually true that when there
is an attempt to adjust supply
to a change in demand, the im immediate
mediate immediate problem is intensified.
If cattlemen find their breed breeding
ing breeding inventories are too great for
the demand conditions, they
make the immediate surplus
situation worse by throwing a
part of the breeding stock on
the market.
Os if they find theii breeding
stock is too small for the de demand
mand demand and they try to correct
it, they decrease the already
short supply by retaining cattle
for breeding purposes that
would normally go to market.
The time required to adjust
supply to new demand condi conditions
tions conditions varies with the biology of
the commodity. In the case of
row crops, It may be done with within
in within a year or two; with animals,
cattle in particular, several
years; and with tree crops,
many years.

Just Eot So Much
Nature of the demand ln
the first place, it is obvious
that the capacity of the human
(See, FARM, Page 4)

Page 3


Page 4

Farm Surplus
Solutions Cited
(Continued From P*ge THREE)
stomach is limited.' The desire
for food decreases rapidly with
each unit added. In industry
tin* is not true to the same ex extent.
tent. extent. One car does not satisfy
tbe desire of the family. Most
families want two or three ears
but only one dinner.
The total per capita consump consumption
tion consumption of food in the United States
changes hut little from region
to region, year to year, or from
low income to high income
groups. Certainly the diet may
be upgraded as the income in increases.
creases. increases. but the overall quanti quantity
ty quantity of food consumed changes
but little. Changes in work
habits, incomes, and levels of
education may cause a shift in
the demand from one product
to another.
Bales promotion, fads, etc.,
may also cause a shift in the
demand from one product to an another,
other, another, but these shifts take
place without adding to the
quantity of food consumed.
There is but little or nothing
that the fanner can do to in increase
crease increase the aggregate demand
for food
The demand for most food
products is inelastic. The on
farm consumption-income elas elasticity
ticity elasticity of food products averages
around 0.15, It is probable that
the on farm consumption-price
elasticity is also about 0.15.
Thus, by changing the price of
a farm product or the per capi capital
tal capital income of people by 10 per
eent, the amount of food taken
would change, on the average,
Ohly 1.5 per cent.
Many Schemes Tried
The efforts of the government
have been largely ia two direc directions:
tions: directions: (1) to deal with the sup supply
ply supply problem and, at the same
time, insure what it considers
fair prices to farmers through
various price-support measures,
(*) to expand the market for
agricultural products. In both
cases, many schemes have been
There has been much legisla legislation
tion legislation since 1938 in the interest
of price supports but, for the
most part, it has extended the
basic philosophy of the 1938
Act, that of bringing supply in
balance with demand and, at
tbe same time, through opera operations
tions operations of the Commodity Credit
Corporation, is attempting to
support the price of agricultural
commodities at about 90 per
cent of parity levels.
Since 1933, the Commodity
Credit Corporation has attempt attempted
ed attempted to support, in some form, the
prices of over 109 agricultural
Program Effects
Certainly tbe programs have
not removed the surplus. They
have not removed the surplus
of commodities or the surplus
of human and capital resources
ia agriculture. Had there been
no price-suport programs, stor storage
age storage houses would not today be
bursting open.
In the long run, adjustment
between supply and demand de depends
pends depends on two thingsthe rate
of growth in population and the
rate of growth of technology in
agriculture. It appears that ov over
er over the next few years tech technology
nology technology in agriculture is cap capable
able capable of growing at a faster rate
than population.
At such time as population
increases to the extent that hu human
man human and capital resources will
need to be transferred from oth other
er other industries to agriculture,
then, at that time, the surplus
problem will begin to ease.
(N. R. Collins md 6. L
Mehren, Agricultural Adjust,
seat rrnMnm ia a Gnawing
Economy, lawn State College

True Education Fails Rapidly He Says

(Continued From Page ONE)
Again, when a university neg neglects
lects neglects its college of arts and
sciences, it is not only selling
its students short, but it is also
selling the community short.
For truly educated and aware
individuals go out of the univer university
sity university to provide the highest land
of leadership m their communi communities,
ties, communities, to influence community life
in the direction of enlighten enlightenment,
ment, enlightenment, decency, and civilization.
* *
Worst Parasite
And finally, when a universi university
ty university neglects ts college of arts
and sciences and its graduate
school of arts and sciences, it
in effect becomes the very
worst kind of parasite. It is sim simply
ply simply refusing to contribute its
share to soci stys creativity and
the advancement of knowledge.
It means thzX the communities
it serves and its own profession professional
al professional colleges n.ust look elsewhere
and far away, to remote col colleges
leges colleges and universities, for their
own continued intellectual fer fertilization
tilization fertilization and enrichment. Such
a university takes, but it does
not give any:hing equivalent in
This is not to deny that such a
universitys professional schools
make very valuable research
contributions in their specific
and practical areas, for of
course they do; but it is to say
that these practical researches
are dependent, in the final
analysis, on developments in
the pure arts and pure sciences.
When a university neglects the
pure arts and pure sciences, it
Is refusing to make contributions
to the bask theoretical disci disciplines
plines disciplines upon Which its own prac practical
tical practical and applied research de depends.
pends. depends.
However, some professional
schools now do some pure and
basic research on their own,
and in addition there is always
a little bootlegging of such re research
search research in the professional
schools. For all professional
schools contain some scholars
on their staffs more interested
in pure research than in the
applied and practical research
they are supposed to do, and
these scholars manage oc occasionally
casionally occasionally to get in time for
purd research, in these ways,
some restitution is made for a
universitys neglect of the pure
arte and pure sciences.
* o
From the beginning, liberal
education at the University of
Florida has labored under diffi difficulties,
culties, difficulties, and it still labors under
Since the establishment of the
University at Gainesville in
1905, the, liberal arts college
has always taken a back seat to
the professional colleges, to
agriculture, engineering, and
law. The dominant tradition at
the University of Florida has
always been and still is pro professional
fessional professional and trades education,
not liberal education.
In every decade since 1905,
new professional schools have
been added. As new profession professional
al professional colleges proliferate and the
old ones expand, liberal educa education
tion education continues to be subordinate.
At .the University of Florida, aH
the prestige and all the popular
pressures are on the side of the
professional colleges.
In the past few years, Florida
has embarked upon an ambi ambitious
tious ambitious program of state-supported
junior colleges, which is sensi sensible,
ble, sensible, and a multiplication of
state universities, which is ques questionable.
tionable. questionable.

Prospects Dim
To put it mildly, the quality
of liberal education In the jun junior
ior junior colleges promises to be
mediocre or worse. These jun junior

ior junior colleges have virtually been
turned over to the localities,
and their administration and
staffing of faculties mainly put
in the hands of personnel
trained in teachers colleges,
personnel not trained in liberal
If liberal education in these
junior colleges is to have any
quality at all, then these col colleges
leges colleges should be supervised by
one of the state universities,
or put together in a centralized
system and guided from the top
by administrators who have the
highest standards of liberal arts
As for liberal arts in the state
universities, the prospects are
dim, because from now on state
funds will be spread even thin thinner.
ner. thinner. Florida may now never
have a first-class liberal arts
The development and main maintaining
taining maintaining of an adequate library
for graduate work in the arts
and sciences takes a long time
and a lot of money. Is this li library,
brary, library, the very heart of liberal
education, to be at Gainesville,
Tallahassee, Tampa, or Boca
Raton? Unfortunately, from
now on, 3uch a library may not
be maintained anywhere in the t
Now. I am not even remotely
suggesting that anywhere in
tiie state of Florida within the
next century we can develop
one of tile worlds leading cen centera
tera centera of liberal education. But is
K unreasonable to expect that
somewhere in the state of Flori Florida,
da, Florida, at the present time, we cam
maintain a liberal arts center
comparable to Vanderbilt, or
Duke, or the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, or
the University of Texas at Aus Austin?
tin? Austin?

No Scholars
Most Florida parents who
themselves have had a genuine
liberal education, prize It, want
it for their children, and can
afford it, send their sons and
daughters to liberal arts col colleges
leges colleges outside the state. This re reduces
duces reduces the number of students
at the University of Florida
With liberal arts backgrounds.
Liberal arte students here are
thrown into an environment
which is not conducive to lib liberal
eral liberal education. There is little
tradition of book reading; little
browsing in the quality maga magazines,
zines, magazines, the literary quarterlies,
and the little mags;* few ani animated
mated animated bull sessions about things
intellectual; no hang-outs" for
the gathering of the cognos cognoscenti.
centi. cognoscenti.
The University Book Store
carries few paperback classics,
and none of the literary quar quarterlies
terlies quarterlies and little mags. (Oh,
yes, it carries one literary
quarterly, The American
Scholar," and this is dutifully
placed among' the textbooks!)
Indeed, the University Book

Y *T
Go Right Ahead With Ymt Liberal Art* Program,
Son, 111 Sara Ymt Paper Rmrte fee Yaa TM Yea

Store has the appearance of a
little chain drug store.
Classes are under-staffed and
enormous in size. There is little
opportunity for discussion, for
real intellectual give-and-take.
A few years ago, when an in intellectually
tellectually intellectually inspired group from
an honors section in C-l, want wanting
ing wanting more time for good talk
among themselves, met volun voluntarily
tarily voluntarily one night each week from
seven to ten in an extra session
held in a regular University
classroom, and guided by two
young and gifted instructors,
some people in the office of the
Dean of Women became great greatly
ly greatly disturbed.
Were not the co-eds in that
extra class ruining their health,
and perhaps their morals, by
attending that class? Were they
not odd-balls who might better
get conventional togetherness
and social adjustment by spend spending
ing spending their time m more normal
groups? That students should be
so intellectually motivated a3
voluntarily to attend an extra
night class was grounds for the
darkest suspicions.
0 0 0
Modus Operandi
Most students in arts and
sciences are mainly interested
in amassing enough credits to
get into a professional school
like medicine or law. Most stu students,
dents, students, and even some with the
highest grades, operate in this
fashion: they attend classes
regularly, do as little reading as
possible, take copious notes in
class, cram like mad just be before
fore before the finals, at examination
time throw back to the profes professor
sor professor what he has given them in
class, and then promptly forget
the whole thing. This procedure
has little relation to education.
There are exceptions, of
course. There are students with
a genuine curiosity, students
with a passion for knowledge
and for probing the realities.
But there are not enough of
these exceptions to affect the
tone of this campus, to create a
genuine intellectual atmosphere.
Wherever on an American col college
lege college campus an intellectual at atmosphere
mosphere atmosphere does exist and there
are many such placesit is be because
cause because the number of these ex exceptions
ceptions exceptions is great enough to
make a difference. The situation
is always one of degree.
Most energies of students at
the University of Florida go
into the activities of the con conventional
ventional conventional fraternities and cam campus
pus campus organizations. Any values
offered by these activities could
be obtained by the student if he
remained at home and never
went to college.
One can stay at home and in
his own community join the
DeMolay, the junior chamber of
commerce, the junior welfare
league, and various other social,
fraternal, and civic organiza organizations.
tions. organizations. If the student wants to togetherness,

getherness, togetherness, organization life,
and social and group adjust adjustment,
ment, adjustment, he can get that without
ever leaving home.
Intellectually aware students
will take advantage of the things
offered ait college that cannot
be got at home. More, they will
be found resisting the distort distorted
ed distorted over-organization of Ameri American
can American life, and not assisting it.
0 0 0
Unique Handicap
A rather unique handicap of
liberal education at the Uni University
versity University of Florida is the friction
between the University College
and the College of Arts and
Sciences, This has existed since
the establishment of the Uni University
versity University College, and it exists to
this day. In this sense, liberal
education at the University of
Florida is divided against it itself.
self. itself.
However, the deadliest threat
to liberal education comes from
within the liberal arte colleges
themselves. Increasingly, the
various disciplines in arts and
sciences colleges are going in
for narrow specialization. They
seem to want to become pri primarily
marily primarily training schools for ex experts.
perts. experts. In effect, they want to
become little professional
schools themselves.
Now, of course, every disci discipline
pline discipline must provide enough
scholars for the future continua continuation
tion continuation and advancement of the
discipline. The danger kea in
the extent to which the old arts
and sciences disciplines are
neglecting the needs of the gen general
eral general student and emphasizing
the training of specialists.
On the other hand, general
education, in attempting a cor corrective,
rective, corrective, has frequently led to
banality ia subject matter and
mass-education methods which
smother the individual.
Moreover, increasingly schol scholars
ars scholars in the arts and sciences
subjects, even in the social
studies and the humanities, are
over- concentrating on tech techniques,
niques, techniques, tools, and methodology.
They are passionately in search
of quantitative and mathemati mathematical
cal mathematical measurements. A new 3upeis
stitution of numerology is de developing.
veloping. developing.
Now, of course, any sharpen sharpening
ing sharpening of the tools of research is
most welcome. Precision is de desirable,
sirable, desirable, and in some things it
is indispensible. But there is a
tendency to venerate techniques
and methodology for their own
sakes, to reduce them to a kind
of new scholasticism, to divorce
them from realities. There is
a growing temptation to shrink
from using them for meaning,
for interpretation, for a basis
of judgment, for am appraisal
of values.
0 9 0
Crisis in Civilization
Wait, they say, we need still
more research models," still
more quantitative measure measurements
ments measurements before we can safely do
that. And there are vast areas,
especially in the social studies
and the humanities, where quan quantitative
titative quantitative methods cannot yet be
used, and some areas where
they can never be wed. In
these areas, to refuse to make
uee of speculation, insightful insightful'pess,
'pess, insightful'pess, thinking by analogy, and
cogent analysis of values is
completely to ignore important
enpects of life, to shut them out
ifron all consideration, no mat matter
ter matter how vital they are to actual
Mving and to life.
K these tendencies continue
to gain ground in liberal arts
eo&eges, then we are headed
not only for a crisis in liberal
education but also for a crisis
hi civilization itself.
The signs multiply that the
American society may already
be hi the throes of a crisis in