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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary
 1. Introduction
 2. Review of the HOORC context
 3. Stakeholder issues
 4. Analysis of the issues: Options...
 5. Recommendations: Options and...
 Appendix 1: Persons contacted
 Appendix 2: References






Title: Preparation of a 5-year development plan for the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center, Maun, Botswana
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00028284/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preparation of a 5-year development plan for the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center, Maun, Botswana
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Brown, Mark
Russo, Sandra
Affiliation: University of Florida
Publisher: University of Florida
Publication Date: August 19, 2002
 Subjects
Subject: Africa   ( lcsh )
University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Africa -- Botswana -- Maun
Africa
North America -- United States of America -- Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00028284
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Executive summary
        Page i
        Section 1: Introduction
            Page i
        Section 2: Review of the HOORC Context
            Page i
        Section 3: Stakeholder issues
            Page i
            Page ii
            Page iii
        Section 4: Analysis of the issues: Options and scenarios for HOORC
            Page iv
            Issue area 1: Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
                Page iv
            Issue area 2: Research
                Page iv
            Issue area 3: Academics and students
                Page v
            Issue area 4: Staffing
                Page v
            Issue area 5: Administration and management
                Page v
            Issue area 6: Infrastructure
                Page vi
        Section 5: Recommendations: Options and scenarios for HOORC
            Page vi
            Overall objectives
                Page vi
                Page vii
            Research
                Page viii
            Academics and students
                Page viii
            Staffing
                Page ix
            Administration and management
                Page x
            Infrastructure
                Page x
                Page xi
    1. Introduction
        Page 1
        Terms of reference
            Page 1
            Page 2
        Background
            Page 3
    2. Review of the HOORC context
        Page 4
        Review of current programs, personnel, and facilities
            Page 4
            Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
                Page 4
            Current HOORC organization
                Page 5
            Current research programs
                Page 6
            Current HOORC personnel
                Page 6
            Current HOORC facilities
                Page 7
            Review of current plans
                Page 7
                Page 8
                Page 9
        Review of the roles of HOORC
            Page 10
            National role of the HOORC
                Page 10
            Regional role of the HOORC
                Page 11
            International role of the HOORC
                Page 11
            Review of current strategies for accessing resources
                Page 12
                Page 13
    3. Stakeholder issues
        Page 14
        Research agenda
            Page 14
        Administration/management
            Page 15
        Academics
            Page 15
        Collaborations between UB campus and HOORC
            Page 16
        Outreach
            Page 16
        Physical plant
            Page 17
        HOORC staff - concerns, gaps
            Page 18
        Advisory groups
            Page 19
        Students
            Page 19
        Library/information resource center
            Page 20
        Public participation
            Page 20
        Relationships
            Page 20
    4. Analysis of the issues: Options and scenarios for HOORC
        Page 21
        Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
            Page 21
        Research
            Page 22
            Research gap analysis
                Page 22
                Page 23
                Page 24
                Page 25
            A reconfiguration of the research portfolio
                Page 26
            Linking national, regional and international priorities into the portfolio
                Page 26
            The need for strategic, long-term planning
                Page 27
        Academics and students
            Page 27
            Academics
                Page 28
            Student issues
                Page 28
                Page 29
        Staffing
            Page 30
        Administration and management
            Page 31
        Infrastructure
            Page 32
            Page 33
    5. Recommendations: Options and scenarios for HOORC
        Page 34
        Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
            Page 34
            Page 35
        Research
            Page 36
        Academics and students
            Page 37
        Staffing
            Page 38
        Administration and management
            Page 38
        Infrastructure
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
    Appendix 1: Persons contacted
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Appendix 2: References
        Page 49
        Page 50
Full Text






EDDI Consultants Report


PREPARATION OF
A 5-YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLAN

For

THE HARRY OPPENHEIMER OKAVANGO
RESEARCH CENTER


MAUN, BOTSWANA










Mark Brown and Sandra Russo
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida


August 19, 2002











Preparation Of A 5-Year Development Plan
For
The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center
Maun, Botswana


Table of Contents

Executive Summary I

SECTION 1: Introduction I

SECTION 2: Review of the HOORC Context I
SECTION 3: Stakeholder Issues I
SECTION 4: Analysis of the Issues: Options and Scenarios for HOORC IV
ISSUE AREA 1: Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC IV
ISSUE AREA 2: Research IV
ISSUE AREA 3: Academics and Students V
ISSUE AREA 4: Staffing V
ISSUE AREA 5: Administration and Management V
ISSUE AREA 6: Infrastructure VI
SECTION 5: Recommendations: Options and Scenarios for HOORC VI
Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC VI
Research VIII
Academics and Students VIII
Staffing IX
Administration and Management X
Infrastructure X

Development Plan

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Terms of Reference 1
1.2 Background 3

2.0 Review of the HOORC Context 4


1











2.1 Review of Current Programs, Personnel, and Facilities 4
2.1.1 Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC 4
2.1.2 Current HOORC organization 5
2.1.3 Current Research Programs 6
2.1.4 Current HOORC Personnel 6
2.1.5 Current HOORC Facilities 7
2.1.6 Review of Current Plans 7

2.2 Review of the Roles of HOORC 10
2.2.1 National Role of the HOORC 10
2.2.2 Regional role of the HOORC 11
2.2.3 International Role of the HOORC 11
2.3. Review of current strategies for accessing resources 12

3.0 Stakeholder Issues 14

3.1 Research agenda 14

3.2 Administration/management 15

3.3 Academics 15

3.4 Collaborations between UB campus and HOORC 16

3.5 Outreach .16

3.6 Physical Plant 17

3.7 HOORC Staff- concerns, gaps 18

3.8 Advisory Groups 19

3.9 Students 19

3.10 Library/information resource center 20

3.11 Public Participation 20

3.12 Relationships 20

4.0 Analysis of the Issues: Options and Scenarios for HOORC 21

4.1 Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC 21
4.2 Research 22
4.2.1 Research gap analysis 22
4.2.2 A reconfiguration of the research portfolio 26


2











4.2.3 Linking national, regional and international priorities into the portfolio 26
4.2.4 The need for strategic, long-term planning 27

4.3 Academics and Students 27
4.3.1 Academics 28
4.3.2 Student issues 28

4.4 Staffing 30

4.5 Administration and Management 31

4.6 Infrastructure 32

5.0 Recommendations: Options and Scenarios for HOORC 34

5.1 Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC 34

5.2 Research 36

5.3 Academics and Students 37

5.4 Staffing 38
5.5 Administration and Management 38
5.6 Infrastructure 39

Appendix 1: Persons Contacted 46

Appendix 2: References 49


3











Preparation Of A 5-Year Development Plan
For
The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center
Maun, Botswana

By
Mark T. Brown and Sandra L. Russo
University of Florida


Executive Summary


This report is the culmination of consultant services provided to the University of Botswana
(UB) under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) program titled
Education for Democracy and Development Initiative (EDDI) and results from a visit to the
University of Botswana (UB) and The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre
(HOORC) between March 4 and March 20, 2002. During the visit, the consultant team met with
administration officials, academic staff, supporting staff, and students from the main campus of
the University and at the Research Center. In addition the consultants met with many
stakeholders, governmental and non-governmental, in both Gabarone and Maun. The consultant
report is organized into five sections. A summary of each section is given below.

SECTION 1: Introduction
The introduction provides the terms of reference whose objective was to strengthen the academic
program of HOORC by formulating a new Development Plan, which should define its future
directions for research, academic, and outreach activities. Following the terms of reference, the
Introduction includes a brief background of the EDDI project and of the itinerary of the
consultants while in Botswana

SECTION 2: Review of the HOORC Context
The second section of this report documents and reviews the present conditions at HOORC...its
current programs, personnel, and facilities. Documents provided and reviewed for this
consultancy suggest there have been a total of about 33 funded research projects at the center;
currently there are 19 ongoing research projects and 9 development projects. The staff of the
Center totals about 27 individuals with plans for an additional 66 academic and nonacademic
staff in the next several years. The Center has recently moved into new facilities totaling 1122
m2 in floor area with about 632 m2 in laboratory space and 490 m2 in research offices. Building
costs were 8.5 million pula, while equipment and infrastructure were an additional 6.9 million
pula.

SECTION 3: Stakeholder Issues
The third section of this report summarizes interviews with over 75 stakeholders. Those
interviewed represented a broad spectrum of stakeholders including senior government officials
and local field staff; University of Botswana staff, administrators, and students; HOORC staff;


I











Preparation Of A 5-Year Development Plan
For
The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center
Maun, Botswana

By
Mark T. Brown and Sandra L. Russo
University of Florida


Executive Summary


This report is the culmination of consultant services provided to the University of Botswana
(UB) under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) program titled
Education for Democracy and Development Initiative (EDDI) and results from a visit to the
University of Botswana (UB) and The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre
(HOORC) between March 4 and March 20, 2002. During the visit, the consultant team met with
administration officials, academic staff, supporting staff, and students from the main campus of
the University and at the Research Center. In addition the consultants met with many
stakeholders, governmental and non-governmental, in both Gabarone and Maun. The consultant
report is organized into five sections. A summary of each section is given below.

SECTION 1: Introduction
The introduction provides the terms of reference whose objective was to strengthen the academic
program of HOORC by formulating a new Development Plan, which should define its future
directions for research, academic, and outreach activities. Following the terms of reference, the
Introduction includes a brief background of the EDDI project and of the itinerary of the
consultants while in Botswana

SECTION 2: Review of the HOORC Context
The second section of this report documents and reviews the present conditions at HOORC...its
current programs, personnel, and facilities. Documents provided and reviewed for this
consultancy suggest there have been a total of about 33 funded research projects at the center;
currently there are 19 ongoing research projects and 9 development projects. The staff of the
Center totals about 27 individuals with plans for an additional 66 academic and nonacademic
staff in the next several years. The Center has recently moved into new facilities totaling 1122
m2 in floor area with about 632 m2 in laboratory space and 490 m2 in research offices. Building
costs were 8.5 million pula, while equipment and infrastructure were an additional 6.9 million
pula.

SECTION 3: Stakeholder Issues
The third section of this report summarizes interviews with over 75 stakeholders. Those
interviewed represented a broad spectrum of stakeholders including senior government officials
and local field staff; University of Botswana staff, administrators, and students; HOORC staff;


I











Preparation Of A 5-Year Development Plan
For
The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center
Maun, Botswana

By
Mark T. Brown and Sandra L. Russo
University of Florida


Executive Summary


This report is the culmination of consultant services provided to the University of Botswana
(UB) under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) program titled
Education for Democracy and Development Initiative (EDDI) and results from a visit to the
University of Botswana (UB) and The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre
(HOORC) between March 4 and March 20, 2002. During the visit, the consultant team met with
administration officials, academic staff, supporting staff, and students from the main campus of
the University and at the Research Center. In addition the consultants met with many
stakeholders, governmental and non-governmental, in both Gabarone and Maun. The consultant
report is organized into five sections. A summary of each section is given below.

SECTION 1: Introduction
The introduction provides the terms of reference whose objective was to strengthen the academic
program of HOORC by formulating a new Development Plan, which should define its future
directions for research, academic, and outreach activities. Following the terms of reference, the
Introduction includes a brief background of the EDDI project and of the itinerary of the
consultants while in Botswana

SECTION 2: Review of the HOORC Context
The second section of this report documents and reviews the present conditions at HOORC...its
current programs, personnel, and facilities. Documents provided and reviewed for this
consultancy suggest there have been a total of about 33 funded research projects at the center;
currently there are 19 ongoing research projects and 9 development projects. The staff of the
Center totals about 27 individuals with plans for an additional 66 academic and nonacademic
staff in the next several years. The Center has recently moved into new facilities totaling 1122
m2 in floor area with about 632 m2 in laboratory space and 490 m2 in research offices. Building
costs were 8.5 million pula, while equipment and infrastructure were an additional 6.9 million
pula.

SECTION 3: Stakeholder Issues
The third section of this report summarizes interviews with over 75 stakeholders. Those
interviewed represented a broad spectrum of stakeholders including senior government officials
and local field staff; University of Botswana staff, administrators, and students; HOORC staff;


I











Preparation Of A 5-Year Development Plan
For
The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center
Maun, Botswana

By
Mark T. Brown and Sandra L. Russo
University of Florida


Executive Summary


This report is the culmination of consultant services provided to the University of Botswana
(UB) under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) program titled
Education for Democracy and Development Initiative (EDDI) and results from a visit to the
University of Botswana (UB) and The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre
(HOORC) between March 4 and March 20, 2002. During the visit, the consultant team met with
administration officials, academic staff, supporting staff, and students from the main campus of
the University and at the Research Center. In addition the consultants met with many
stakeholders, governmental and non-governmental, in both Gabarone and Maun. The consultant
report is organized into five sections. A summary of each section is given below.

SECTION 1: Introduction
The introduction provides the terms of reference whose objective was to strengthen the academic
program of HOORC by formulating a new Development Plan, which should define its future
directions for research, academic, and outreach activities. Following the terms of reference, the
Introduction includes a brief background of the EDDI project and of the itinerary of the
consultants while in Botswana

SECTION 2: Review of the HOORC Context
The second section of this report documents and reviews the present conditions at HOORC...its
current programs, personnel, and facilities. Documents provided and reviewed for this
consultancy suggest there have been a total of about 33 funded research projects at the center;
currently there are 19 ongoing research projects and 9 development projects. The staff of the
Center totals about 27 individuals with plans for an additional 66 academic and nonacademic
staff in the next several years. The Center has recently moved into new facilities totaling 1122
m2 in floor area with about 632 m2 in laboratory space and 490 m2 in research offices. Building
costs were 8.5 million pula, while equipment and infrastructure were an additional 6.9 million
pula.

SECTION 3: Stakeholder Issues
The third section of this report summarizes interviews with over 75 stakeholders. Those
interviewed represented a broad spectrum of stakeholders including senior government officials
and local field staff; University of Botswana staff, administrators, and students; HOORC staff;


I











international and local Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs); advisory bodies; donor
agencies; and local citizenry. Stakeholders had a positive impression of HOORC and the work
that HOORC does. The location of HOORC in Maun, close to the Delta, was seen positively.
Concerns were expressed by stakeholders outside of UB and HOORC in two general areas.
First, the high value of the research done by HOORC specifically for local communities and the
perception that local communities are not participating or being informed of the work of
HOORC. Second and somewhat related, was the concern about how much the local community
(Maun and the Delta) will benefit for the presence of UB and HOORC. Many local stakeholders
wished to know if HOORC will continue to serve solely a research function, what will the
research entail, will there be academic opportunities offered at HOORC (specifically aimed at
the local community), and how will HOORC communicate the results of its research to the
general public. Other issues were as follows:

Research agenda A strong argument was made for more interdisciplinary and
multidisciplinary research. International collaboration was recognized as important to maintain.
However, concern was expressed that HOORC and international researchers did not "share
enough of their research results" with Botswana, either locally or nationally. It was felt that
much of the research has significant policy implications but that there are no avenues to get the
information to policy makers.

Administration/management Interviews conducted with outside stakeholders suggested that
response to inquires were uneven. Staff within HOORC were concerned with representation on
executive committee, the need for more communication between various components of the
organization (i.e., administration/management and researchers and non academic staff).
Concerns were expressed often about having to follow UB regulations, which seems to
unnecessarily delay even the most trivial matters.

Academics HOORC researchers do not wanting to take on the heavy teaching loads yet they
also express interest in occasional teaching, short course teaching, or graduate teaching.
Local agencies (BWTI, DWNP) expressed interest in taking short courses (e.g., EIA, research
design, land use planning) and would like the opportunity, as well, to pursue master's degrees if
there were a Maun branch of UB. Technical staff would also like to see HOORC develop and
support a training plan for support staff that would be aimed at enhancing local/citizen
empowerment.

Collaborations between UB campus and HOORC It was noted in interviews with staff and
UB faculty, that individual-to-individual collaborations seem to work while the institutional-to-
institutional collaboration were burdened with bureaucracy. Many of the UB staff interviewed
stated a willingness to be actively involved with activities at HOORC Opportunities for
research collaboration, for UB students to have field experiences, for joint teaching or
supervision of graduate students are all possible were the lines of communication better between
UB and HOORC.

Outreach There are three levels of communication and outreach that were addressed by
stakeholders: within HOORC itself, between HOORC and UB, and between HOORC and the
rest of Botswana including communities, the general public and government agencies.


II











Communication between staff within HOORC can be strengthened. The communications
between HOORC and UB are weak, at best. Stakeholders representing local community and
government agencies strongly expressed their displeasure and dismay that research results are
not widely available and that they do not have regular communications with HOORC.

Physical Plant An issue raised by staff and students at HOORC and other stakeholders outside
of HOORC was the need for an expanded physical plant that includes housing for staff and
students, a place to eat, recreation, classrooms, and more office and lab space. HOORC's
research campsite in the Delta is in need of being upgraded with environmentally friendly toilet
and washing facilities and fenced to keep out animals and prevent loss of equipment. Radio
communication between the camp, field vehicles and the Research Center is problematic and
should be fixed immediately.

HOORC Staff / concerns, gaps Research/academic staff mostly expressed concerns with
workloads, the burden of visitors, and the uneven (in some cases) distribution of projects
weighted more heavily to natural sciences and less to social sciences. A big concern was related
to disappearance of data and lack of standard formats and central storage and retrieval system.
They also were most interested in increasing the number of in country Ph.D. students.

Technical and support staff were concerned with their lack of ability to upgrade their skills and
be promoted, lack of respect from researchers and students, lack of recognition of level of
responsibilities, and lack of communication between researchers and the field staff who are
expected to make the field research possible.

Advisory Groups Two different issues emerged regarding advisory groups or bodies. The first
is that UB does not allow "outsiders" to be on the HOORC Board. The second issue raised was
the role of HOORC as an institution vs. HOORC researchers as individuals on advisory groups.

Students there were a number of concerns; first, more Botswanan students should be at
HOORC, whether undergraduate or graduate students. How to make this happen is the big
question. Second, foreign students were seen sometimes as a blessing and sometimes as
hindrance and, at times, both. Third, HOORC staff would like to be able to supervise graduate
students and it appears that there is some confusion as to whether or not there is an
administrative policy that would allow this.

Library or Information resource center Staff requested that a database accessible to all
HOORC staff with research information be constructed. HOORC reports and activities on which
HOORC researchers participated should clearly be part of the HOORC information resource
pool.

Public Participation Outside agencies (NCSA, KCS, DWNP, etc.) have said that HOORC
needs to do a better job of working with and talking with the public. Local stakeholders
expressed that they would like to know more about what is going on at HOORC and to be able to
participate more readily


III











Relationships the perception is that HOORC does not share information, however it is also
understood this is a two way street and that others also do not share information, nor go out of
their way to obtain it. There was a general consensus that HOORC needs to do a better job of
communicating.

SECTION 4: Analysis of the Issues: Options and Scenarios for HOORC
Section 4 of the report delves deeper into issues and develops a general strategy for future
directions of HOORC. Issues from the stakeholder interviews were grouped into six broader
issue areas, then the main concerns within each issue area are analyzed and options for the
future of HOORC are presented.

ISSUE AREA 1: Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
The original mission of HOORC implied an applied approach to research that would serve the
Okavango region by initiating, coordinating, and promoting research, environmental monitoring,
and teaching and outreach activities. With the move to the new campus, however, objectives and
goals began to shift into other areas.With current and projected resources and staffing, it is not in
HOORC's manageable interests to take on other missions without a concomitant increase in
support at all levels. Any expansion of HOORC should be an expansion of the research and
service missions of the Center. It is important that HOORC administratively should not come
under a UB Faculty but instead remain as a research unit reporting to ORD. Staff should,
however, have departmental affiliations within UB Faculties.

ISSUE AREA 2: Research
HOORC is a research center and has a large number of research projects that it is undertaking.
The research emphasis over the past few years has shifted, due to the presence of a number of
externally funded projects and a shift in staffing. HOORC's Five Year Development Plan listed
11 strategic goals yet a comparison of those goals with current/proposed projects and staffing
indicate a disconnect between the goals and the projects meant to serve those goals. A
Research Gap Analysis indicated that of the total current and past projects ten are/were within
the Ecology Unit, nine are/were within the Hydrology and Water Management Unit, and 11
are/were within Natural Resources Management Unit. Only one project was identified as falling
under the Tourism Management Unit. The gap analysis showed that two of HOORC's strategic
goals were met, threewere moderately met, and six were not met or only marginally met.

A reconfiguration of the academic units and research agenda was recommended to better address
the complexity of social aspects of HOORC's stated Strategic Goals. The proposed organization
for HOORC follows:

Areas of Research Emphasis (Units)
Research Area 1. Hydrology and water management
Research Area 2. Ecosystem management
Research Area 3. Resource policy, planning, and law
Research Area 4. Social systems
Research Area 5. Tourism and parks
Cross Cutting Themes
Natural Resource Management


IV











Relationships the perception is that HOORC does not share information, however it is also
understood this is a two way street and that others also do not share information, nor go out of
their way to obtain it. There was a general consensus that HOORC needs to do a better job of
communicating.

SECTION 4: Analysis of the Issues: Options and Scenarios for HOORC
Section 4 of the report delves deeper into issues and develops a general strategy for future
directions of HOORC. Issues from the stakeholder interviews were grouped into six broader
issue areas, then the main concerns within each issue area are analyzed and options for the
future of HOORC are presented.

ISSUE AREA 1: Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
The original mission of HOORC implied an applied approach to research that would serve the
Okavango region by initiating, coordinating, and promoting research, environmental monitoring,
and teaching and outreach activities. With the move to the new campus, however, objectives and
goals began to shift into other areas.With current and projected resources and staffing, it is not in
HOORC's manageable interests to take on other missions without a concomitant increase in
support at all levels. Any expansion of HOORC should be an expansion of the research and
service missions of the Center. It is important that HOORC administratively should not come
under a UB Faculty but instead remain as a research unit reporting to ORD. Staff should,
however, have departmental affiliations within UB Faculties.

ISSUE AREA 2: Research
HOORC is a research center and has a large number of research projects that it is undertaking.
The research emphasis over the past few years has shifted, due to the presence of a number of
externally funded projects and a shift in staffing. HOORC's Five Year Development Plan listed
11 strategic goals yet a comparison of those goals with current/proposed projects and staffing
indicate a disconnect between the goals and the projects meant to serve those goals. A
Research Gap Analysis indicated that of the total current and past projects ten are/were within
the Ecology Unit, nine are/were within the Hydrology and Water Management Unit, and 11
are/were within Natural Resources Management Unit. Only one project was identified as falling
under the Tourism Management Unit. The gap analysis showed that two of HOORC's strategic
goals were met, threewere moderately met, and six were not met or only marginally met.

A reconfiguration of the academic units and research agenda was recommended to better address
the complexity of social aspects of HOORC's stated Strategic Goals. The proposed organization
for HOORC follows:

Areas of Research Emphasis (Units)
Research Area 1. Hydrology and water management
Research Area 2. Ecosystem management
Research Area 3. Resource policy, planning, and law
Research Area 4. Social systems
Research Area 5. Tourism and parks
Cross Cutting Themes
Natural Resource Management


IV











Relationships the perception is that HOORC does not share information, however it is also
understood this is a two way street and that others also do not share information, nor go out of
their way to obtain it. There was a general consensus that HOORC needs to do a better job of
communicating.

SECTION 4: Analysis of the Issues: Options and Scenarios for HOORC
Section 4 of the report delves deeper into issues and develops a general strategy for future
directions of HOORC. Issues from the stakeholder interviews were grouped into six broader
issue areas, then the main concerns within each issue area are analyzed and options for the
future of HOORC are presented.

ISSUE AREA 1: Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
The original mission of HOORC implied an applied approach to research that would serve the
Okavango region by initiating, coordinating, and promoting research, environmental monitoring,
and teaching and outreach activities. With the move to the new campus, however, objectives and
goals began to shift into other areas.With current and projected resources and staffing, it is not in
HOORC's manageable interests to take on other missions without a concomitant increase in
support at all levels. Any expansion of HOORC should be an expansion of the research and
service missions of the Center. It is important that HOORC administratively should not come
under a UB Faculty but instead remain as a research unit reporting to ORD. Staff should,
however, have departmental affiliations within UB Faculties.

ISSUE AREA 2: Research
HOORC is a research center and has a large number of research projects that it is undertaking.
The research emphasis over the past few years has shifted, due to the presence of a number of
externally funded projects and a shift in staffing. HOORC's Five Year Development Plan listed
11 strategic goals yet a comparison of those goals with current/proposed projects and staffing
indicate a disconnect between the goals and the projects meant to serve those goals. A
Research Gap Analysis indicated that of the total current and past projects ten are/were within
the Ecology Unit, nine are/were within the Hydrology and Water Management Unit, and 11
are/were within Natural Resources Management Unit. Only one project was identified as falling
under the Tourism Management Unit. The gap analysis showed that two of HOORC's strategic
goals were met, threewere moderately met, and six were not met or only marginally met.

A reconfiguration of the academic units and research agenda was recommended to better address
the complexity of social aspects of HOORC's stated Strategic Goals. The proposed organization
for HOORC follows:

Areas of Research Emphasis (Units)
Research Area 1. Hydrology and water management
Research Area 2. Ecosystem management
Research Area 3. Resource policy, planning, and law
Research Area 4. Social systems
Research Area 5. Tourism and parks
Cross Cutting Themes
Natural Resource Management


IV











Environmental Monitoring
Outreach/community education
Research Services (support)
GIS and Remote Sensing
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory
Biological Laboratory
Library and Information Resources
Information Technology

ISSUE AREA 3: Academics and Students
Considerable pressure is being exerted on HOORC to take on more of an academic teaching role.
The propositions range from a second campus on HOORC grounds, offering first and second
year courses, to expanding the academic areas of research far beyond the current HOORC
mission. Other propositions include training and short courses (as in their current portfolio),
offering post-graduate courses, supporting summer field research by UB undergraduates, and a
greatly expanded public outreach role.

Student issues form a matrix that consists of issues related to undergraduate and graduate
students and whether the students are from Botswana or elsewhere. At the top of the list for all
students is the lack of protocols and staff to advise students of their responsibilities and rights.
All students must be able to contribute to a research program. All students must also follow
standard safety procedures involved in working in a laboratory or field situation. All students
should have health insurance and medical evacuation insurance (especially for international
students).

ISSUE AREA 4: Staffing
Staffing issues fall into several different areas: (1) There are numerous positions that are unfilled,
and as a result, meeting research objectives and timelines could easily be compromised. (2)
Staffing decisions appear to have been made years in advance of current development plans, and
in some cases, current "already filled" positions have become vacant before planned future staff
have been hired. (3) Apparently, support staff have issues regarding their perceived importance
to the Center and its mission, goals and operation. (4) Current and proposed staffing should
more closely reflect the strategic goals and objectives of the Center. (5) The whole area of staff
welfare needs to be addressed including the housing shortage in Maun and lack of secondary
schools. (6) Some mechanism should be in effect to rotate annually and equitably amongst all
academic staff, administrative responsibilities which contribute to the various functions of the
Center.

ISSUE AREA 5: Administration and Management
Administration of the Center is more than two fully engaged individuals can handle. The
administration and management of the Center has grown suchthat a Deputy or Associate
Director should be hired. A "Research Advisory Board' should be formed that would enable
HOORC to officially access the various constituencies that care about and participate in HOORC
activities. Since it is clear that HOORC must raise much of its future funding from external
sources a Development Officer based in Maun is required.UB and the UB foundation should
jointly fund this person. In conjunction with a Development Officer, there is a need, for a


V











Environmental Monitoring
Outreach/community education
Research Services (support)
GIS and Remote Sensing
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory
Biological Laboratory
Library and Information Resources
Information Technology

ISSUE AREA 3: Academics and Students
Considerable pressure is being exerted on HOORC to take on more of an academic teaching role.
The propositions range from a second campus on HOORC grounds, offering first and second
year courses, to expanding the academic areas of research far beyond the current HOORC
mission. Other propositions include training and short courses (as in their current portfolio),
offering post-graduate courses, supporting summer field research by UB undergraduates, and a
greatly expanded public outreach role.

Student issues form a matrix that consists of issues related to undergraduate and graduate
students and whether the students are from Botswana or elsewhere. At the top of the list for all
students is the lack of protocols and staff to advise students of their responsibilities and rights.
All students must be able to contribute to a research program. All students must also follow
standard safety procedures involved in working in a laboratory or field situation. All students
should have health insurance and medical evacuation insurance (especially for international
students).

ISSUE AREA 4: Staffing
Staffing issues fall into several different areas: (1) There are numerous positions that are unfilled,
and as a result, meeting research objectives and timelines could easily be compromised. (2)
Staffing decisions appear to have been made years in advance of current development plans, and
in some cases, current "already filled" positions have become vacant before planned future staff
have been hired. (3) Apparently, support staff have issues regarding their perceived importance
to the Center and its mission, goals and operation. (4) Current and proposed staffing should
more closely reflect the strategic goals and objectives of the Center. (5) The whole area of staff
welfare needs to be addressed including the housing shortage in Maun and lack of secondary
schools. (6) Some mechanism should be in effect to rotate annually and equitably amongst all
academic staff, administrative responsibilities which contribute to the various functions of the
Center.

ISSUE AREA 5: Administration and Management
Administration of the Center is more than two fully engaged individuals can handle. The
administration and management of the Center has grown suchthat a Deputy or Associate
Director should be hired. A "Research Advisory Board' should be formed that would enable
HOORC to officially access the various constituencies that care about and participate in HOORC
activities. Since it is clear that HOORC must raise much of its future funding from external
sources a Development Officer based in Maun is required.UB and the UB foundation should
jointly fund this person. In conjunction with a Development Officer, there is a need, for a


V











Environmental Monitoring
Outreach/community education
Research Services (support)
GIS and Remote Sensing
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory
Biological Laboratory
Library and Information Resources
Information Technology

ISSUE AREA 3: Academics and Students
Considerable pressure is being exerted on HOORC to take on more of an academic teaching role.
The propositions range from a second campus on HOORC grounds, offering first and second
year courses, to expanding the academic areas of research far beyond the current HOORC
mission. Other propositions include training and short courses (as in their current portfolio),
offering post-graduate courses, supporting summer field research by UB undergraduates, and a
greatly expanded public outreach role.

Student issues form a matrix that consists of issues related to undergraduate and graduate
students and whether the students are from Botswana or elsewhere. At the top of the list for all
students is the lack of protocols and staff to advise students of their responsibilities and rights.
All students must be able to contribute to a research program. All students must also follow
standard safety procedures involved in working in a laboratory or field situation. All students
should have health insurance and medical evacuation insurance (especially for international
students).

ISSUE AREA 4: Staffing
Staffing issues fall into several different areas: (1) There are numerous positions that are unfilled,
and as a result, meeting research objectives and timelines could easily be compromised. (2)
Staffing decisions appear to have been made years in advance of current development plans, and
in some cases, current "already filled" positions have become vacant before planned future staff
have been hired. (3) Apparently, support staff have issues regarding their perceived importance
to the Center and its mission, goals and operation. (4) Current and proposed staffing should
more closely reflect the strategic goals and objectives of the Center. (5) The whole area of staff
welfare needs to be addressed including the housing shortage in Maun and lack of secondary
schools. (6) Some mechanism should be in effect to rotate annually and equitably amongst all
academic staff, administrative responsibilities which contribute to the various functions of the
Center.

ISSUE AREA 5: Administration and Management
Administration of the Center is more than two fully engaged individuals can handle. The
administration and management of the Center has grown suchthat a Deputy or Associate
Director should be hired. A "Research Advisory Board' should be formed that would enable
HOORC to officially access the various constituencies that care about and participate in HOORC
activities. Since it is clear that HOORC must raise much of its future funding from external
sources a Development Officer based in Maun is required.UB and the UB foundation should
jointly fund this person. In conjunction with a Development Officer, there is a need, for a


V











Development Board, that solely focuses on fund-raising from the international community of
donors.

ISSUE AREA 6: Infrastructure
The current infrastructure of HOORC is impressive, yet t aspects important to HOORC's
functioning are missing. These include administrative space, resource center, and housing.
Currently there are signs that infrastructure and expendable materials are not being replaced and
replenished with use. It is noted and suggested that HOORC develop mechanisms for project
cost reimbursement of equipment and expendable material use so that research that uses
equipment and materials can be charged for its eventual replacement.


SECTION 5: Recommendations: Options and Scenarios for HOORC
The following are the recommendations that resulted from this consultancy. Taken together,
they form the suggested path for the next five year development plan for HOORC.

Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
At the conclusion of this consultancy, and as result of engagement in consultative workshops
with HOORC staff, University of Botswana, and other stakeholders, a vision, mission, and
strategic objectives were developed to provide a framework for this five year development plan.

VISION: To be internationally recognized as a leading Centre in wetland
research.

MISSON: promote sustainable use and development of natural resources
of the Okavango River Basin and other wetlands.

Research goal: To enhance understanding of the natural, socio-cultural,
political and economic systems of the Okavango River Basin and other
wetlands that will lead to effective long-term planning and management.

Research objectives
STo enhance the understanding of natural resource systems with particular emphasis
on spatial/temporal changes and human activities,
> To investigate the hydrological systems and geo-chemical cycles of the Okavango
River Basin,
> To investigate the ecological and wildlife systems of the Okavango River Basin,
> To establish long term environmental monitoring programs including effects of
human activities,
> To research national and international plans, policies, and laws regarding
transboundary natural resource management (TBNRM) activities,
> To investigate the needs and wants of the population and facilitate community based
natural resource management (CBNRM),
> To investigate historical, cultural and indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) of the
population to determine environmental and policy impacts,
> To investigate social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts of tourism,


VI











Development Board, that solely focuses on fund-raising from the international community of
donors.

ISSUE AREA 6: Infrastructure
The current infrastructure of HOORC is impressive, yet t aspects important to HOORC's
functioning are missing. These include administrative space, resource center, and housing.
Currently there are signs that infrastructure and expendable materials are not being replaced and
replenished with use. It is noted and suggested that HOORC develop mechanisms for project
cost reimbursement of equipment and expendable material use so that research that uses
equipment and materials can be charged for its eventual replacement.


SECTION 5: Recommendations: Options and Scenarios for HOORC
The following are the recommendations that resulted from this consultancy. Taken together,
they form the suggested path for the next five year development plan for HOORC.

Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
At the conclusion of this consultancy, and as result of engagement in consultative workshops
with HOORC staff, University of Botswana, and other stakeholders, a vision, mission, and
strategic objectives were developed to provide a framework for this five year development plan.

VISION: To be internationally recognized as a leading Centre in wetland
research.

MISSON: promote sustainable use and development of natural resources
of the Okavango River Basin and other wetlands.

Research goal: To enhance understanding of the natural, socio-cultural,
political and economic systems of the Okavango River Basin and other
wetlands that will lead to effective long-term planning and management.

Research objectives
STo enhance the understanding of natural resource systems with particular emphasis
on spatial/temporal changes and human activities,
> To investigate the hydrological systems and geo-chemical cycles of the Okavango
River Basin,
> To investigate the ecological and wildlife systems of the Okavango River Basin,
> To establish long term environmental monitoring programs including effects of
human activities,
> To research national and international plans, policies, and laws regarding
transboundary natural resource management (TBNRM) activities,
> To investigate the needs and wants of the population and facilitate community based
natural resource management (CBNRM),
> To investigate historical, cultural and indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) of the
population to determine environmental and policy impacts,
> To investigate social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts of tourism,


VI











Development Board, that solely focuses on fund-raising from the international community of
donors.

ISSUE AREA 6: Infrastructure
The current infrastructure of HOORC is impressive, yet t aspects important to HOORC's
functioning are missing. These include administrative space, resource center, and housing.
Currently there are signs that infrastructure and expendable materials are not being replaced and
replenished with use. It is noted and suggested that HOORC develop mechanisms for project
cost reimbursement of equipment and expendable material use so that research that uses
equipment and materials can be charged for its eventual replacement.


SECTION 5: Recommendations: Options and Scenarios for HOORC
The following are the recommendations that resulted from this consultancy. Taken together,
they form the suggested path for the next five year development plan for HOORC.

Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
At the conclusion of this consultancy, and as result of engagement in consultative workshops
with HOORC staff, University of Botswana, and other stakeholders, a vision, mission, and
strategic objectives were developed to provide a framework for this five year development plan.

VISION: To be internationally recognized as a leading Centre in wetland
research.

MISSON: promote sustainable use and development of natural resources
of the Okavango River Basin and other wetlands.

Research goal: To enhance understanding of the natural, socio-cultural,
political and economic systems of the Okavango River Basin and other
wetlands that will lead to effective long-term planning and management.

Research objectives
STo enhance the understanding of natural resource systems with particular emphasis
on spatial/temporal changes and human activities,
> To investigate the hydrological systems and geo-chemical cycles of the Okavango
River Basin,
> To investigate the ecological and wildlife systems of the Okavango River Basin,
> To establish long term environmental monitoring programs including effects of
human activities,
> To research national and international plans, policies, and laws regarding
transboundary natural resource management (TBNRM) activities,
> To investigate the needs and wants of the population and facilitate community based
natural resource management (CBNRM),
> To investigate historical, cultural and indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) of the
population to determine environmental and policy impacts,
> To investigate social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts of tourism,


VI











>To value the cost and benefits of natural resources use in the Okavango River Basin.

Education/outreach goal: To develop the intellectual and human
resource capacity to conduct research and to effectively collect,
communicate and disseminate information to all stakeholders.

Education objectives
> To develop regional and citizen expertise with adequate knowledge of national and
regional natural resources management and sustainable development issues,
> To provide information and outreach to stakeholders (local, national, and
international) that illustrates the work of HOORC and improves understanding of the
Okavango River Basin.

Service goal: To provide expertise, information, and knowledge to
governments, NGOs, schools, and citizens at large

Service objectives
> To develop recommendations on enhanced planning, sustainable management, and
natural resource use including economic and settlement activity,
> To provide recommendations on policies and programs for poverty alleviation,
> To provide information in support of conflict resolution (including CBNRM and
TBNRM) among stakeholders,
> To provide information and technical expertise to policy makers to support planning
for the sustainable use and management of the Okavango River Basin,
> To coordinate, document, disseminate and make available information, research, and
knowledge on the Okavango River Basin.

Administration goal: To provide the framework, ensure effective
management, and secure the resources necessary to carry out the
mission of the Center

Administration objectives
1. To establish financial and administrative mechanisms to achieve HOORC's
objectives,
2. To promote and facilitate international collaborative research and effective,
sustainable partnerships,
3. To coordinate research between HOORC, NGOs, other researchers and government.

The foregoing goals, organized within functional categories, are broad and long term, while the
objectives under each are more specific. In addition, we suggest the following.

Recommendations:
.* HOORC should remain true to its vision and mission as a research center dedicated to
research and human capacity building related to sustainable use of the resources of the
Okavango River Basin.
To accomplish this, HOORC needs to:


VII











Meet regularly with its Faculty Management Board,
> Establish an Research Advisory Board comprised of stakeholders external to
UB and HOORC,
Meet regularly as a "Center" to review and adjust the overall mission and
strategic objectives in order to remain a dynamic and flexible research center,
> Hold regular reviews of research projects and their alignment with strategic
objectives (e.g., research gap analysis) in annual strategic planning exercises.

Research
Recommendations:
> Reconfigure current "research themes" into research areas and cross cutting themes as well
as support services as follows:

Areas of Research Emphasis (Units)
Research Area 1. Hydrology and water management
Research Area 2. Ecosystem management
Research Area 3. Resource policy, planning, and law
Research Area 4. Social systems
Research Area 5. Tourism and parks
Cross Cutting Themes
Natural Resource Management
Environmental Monitoring
Outreach/community education
Research Services (support)
GIS and Remote Sensing
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory
Biological Laboratory
Library and Information Resources

1. Remain committed to research on the Okavango River Basin,
2. Continue to develop and implement a transboundary and international focus of research and
service while remaining a national research center.
3. The comparative studies of major wetland systems across the tropics and sub-tropics and
development of resource management options should be a high priority
4. HOORC should institute a policy that all researchers, including students, who participate in
research through the Center, leave behind a report.
5. We recommend that the Center accept consultancies, but that it look very carefully at the
"costs and benefits" and determine if current levels of staffing and facilities are adequate.
Should a consultancy require it, outside consultants, or academics on leave from UB (or other
institutions) could be "incorporated' into the Center's personnel pool for short periods to
staff and manage it.

Academics and Students
HOORCs role in educating Batswana should be in providing a research environment wherein
relevant research topics for both graduate and undergraduate students are accessible and
encouraged.


VIII











Meet regularly with its Faculty Management Board,
> Establish an Research Advisory Board comprised of stakeholders external to
UB and HOORC,
Meet regularly as a "Center" to review and adjust the overall mission and
strategic objectives in order to remain a dynamic and flexible research center,
> Hold regular reviews of research projects and their alignment with strategic
objectives (e.g., research gap analysis) in annual strategic planning exercises.

Research
Recommendations:
> Reconfigure current "research themes" into research areas and cross cutting themes as well
as support services as follows:

Areas of Research Emphasis (Units)
Research Area 1. Hydrology and water management
Research Area 2. Ecosystem management
Research Area 3. Resource policy, planning, and law
Research Area 4. Social systems
Research Area 5. Tourism and parks
Cross Cutting Themes
Natural Resource Management
Environmental Monitoring
Outreach/community education
Research Services (support)
GIS and Remote Sensing
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory
Biological Laboratory
Library and Information Resources

1. Remain committed to research on the Okavango River Basin,
2. Continue to develop and implement a transboundary and international focus of research and
service while remaining a national research center.
3. The comparative studies of major wetland systems across the tropics and sub-tropics and
development of resource management options should be a high priority
4. HOORC should institute a policy that all researchers, including students, who participate in
research through the Center, leave behind a report.
5. We recommend that the Center accept consultancies, but that it look very carefully at the
"costs and benefits" and determine if current levels of staffing and facilities are adequate.
Should a consultancy require it, outside consultants, or academics on leave from UB (or other
institutions) could be "incorporated' into the Center's personnel pool for short periods to
staff and manage it.

Academics and Students
HOORCs role in educating Batswana should be in providing a research environment wherein
relevant research topics for both graduate and undergraduate students are accessible and
encouraged.


VIII












Academic Recommendations:
> HOORC's primary role as a research center should be fostered and supported
and not be diluted by having to take on major teaching responsibilities, however,
> HOORC could provide much needed hands on training opportunities as well
as "re-training" opportunities in latest methods, concepts and applications of
natural resource management.
> HOORC does not have the resources to become the parent structure for other
institutes and research/academic areas but should remain focused on resource,
management, research, outreach and service related to the Okavango River Basin,
> It is essential that staff at UB become more engaged in research at HOORC,
> Qualified HOORC staff should be allowed to directly supervise graduate
students.

Student Recommendations
1. Every effort must be made to find and encourage Batswana students to do
research work at HOORC, this includes:
Funding for undergraduate student research,
Funding for in country graduate research,
Providing the necessary infrastructure for students.
2. Students coming to HOORC must have a research supervisor and be attached
to a research unit with explicit research objectives.
3. HOORC should assign the responsibility of student liaison on a rotating basis
to academic staff,
4. Risk management procedures and protocols must be established for all
students,
5. International students should pay a research fee that is based on a sliding scale
depending on whether they are regional or international students.

Staffing
Recommendations:
1. Augment current staffing as proposed in Table 5.1 (at the end of Section 5),
The proposed reorganization and staffing plans will require an additional 13
research staff to complete the proposed research teams
Based on the proposed reorganization and staffing plans, 10 additional non-
academic staff is required by some research and support units,
2. Insure that future staffing patterns and rationale support the research objectives of the
Center,
3. HOORC must have a streamlined and flexible hiring process that works in
consultation with UB Human Resources,
4. Research fellows and support staff should be represented on the Executive
Committee,
5. The position of Associate Director should be filled as soon as possible HOORC
should propose inclusion of this position in its next budget request,


IX











6. HOORC and UB should enter into serious dialogue related to solving the issues
surrounding staff welfare which significantly hamper Batswana staff. These
include: housing, schooling, and maintaining an active Staff Development
Fellows program.

Administration and Management
Recommendations:
1. Develop and implement policies for visiting researchers and students, this includes
identification of an administrative staff person to act as student liaison,
2. Institute and maintain effective communication with Campus on administrative and
personnel matters,
3. Consistently use the University indirect cost rate and develop a policy for overhead
return to HOORC as per University policy,
4. Implement a cost accounting procedure to recoup, on a recurring basis, expendable
materials and for the maintenance and replacement of equipment,
5. Working with ORD and the UB Foundation, hire a development officer who will
secure external resources for HOORC,
6. Establish a Development Board composed of international donors, patrons, and
renowned researchers.

Infrastructure
Recommendations:
1. Complete the administrative space, library, and housing that comprise the already
approved Phase II building plan.
2. As a result of future staffing patterns, including the proposed reorganization and
staffing plan, as well as the increasing number of international partnerships, the
following infrastructure is needed:
1 lecture theatre (seating capacity 200)
25 academic offices
17 Non-academic offices
2 Student work area for 10 students each
Storeroom
Kitchen
Computer Support Lab
Classroom with seating for 50
4 Seminar room with seating for 50
Housing:
52 Staff housing units
20 self catering student housing units for graduate students
15 dormitory style housing units for undergraduate students
3. Construct a database accessible to all HOORC staff with research information. In
addition, the HOORC website should contain links to HOORC reports and related
sites and publications


X











6. HOORC and UB should enter into serious dialogue related to solving the issues
surrounding staff welfare which significantly hamper Batswana staff. These
include: housing, schooling, and maintaining an active Staff Development
Fellows program.

Administration and Management
Recommendations:
1. Develop and implement policies for visiting researchers and students, this includes
identification of an administrative staff person to act as student liaison,
2. Institute and maintain effective communication with Campus on administrative and
personnel matters,
3. Consistently use the University indirect cost rate and develop a policy for overhead
return to HOORC as per University policy,
4. Implement a cost accounting procedure to recoup, on a recurring basis, expendable
materials and for the maintenance and replacement of equipment,
5. Working with ORD and the UB Foundation, hire a development officer who will
secure external resources for HOORC,
6. Establish a Development Board composed of international donors, patrons, and
renowned researchers.

Infrastructure
Recommendations:
1. Complete the administrative space, library, and housing that comprise the already
approved Phase II building plan.
2. As a result of future staffing patterns, including the proposed reorganization and
staffing plan, as well as the increasing number of international partnerships, the
following infrastructure is needed:
1 lecture theatre (seating capacity 200)
25 academic offices
17 Non-academic offices
2 Student work area for 10 students each
Storeroom
Kitchen
Computer Support Lab
Classroom with seating for 50
4 Seminar room with seating for 50
Housing:
52 Staff housing units
20 self catering student housing units for graduate students
15 dormitory style housing units for undergraduate students
3. Construct a database accessible to all HOORC staff with research information. In
addition, the HOORC website should contain links to HOORC reports and related
sites and publications


X











Maximize the EDDI projects contributions in Information Technology so as to
encourage HOORC's full integration into the global research community by video
conferencing, joint seminars and workshops, and collaborative research.


XI











PREPARATION OF A 5-YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLAN
FOR
THE HARRY OPPENHEIMER OKAVANGO RESEARCH CENTER
MAUN, BOTSWANA


1.0 Introduction
We were privileged to visit the University of Botswana (UB) and The Harry Oppenheimer
Okavango Research Centre (HOORC) between March 4 and March 20, 2002. We met with many
dedicated senior administration officials, academic staff, supporting staff, and students from both
the main campus of the University and at the Research Center. In addition we met with many
stakeholders in both Gabarone and Maun. We wish to express our sincere appreciation for the
generosity of those whose time we occupied during our work while in Botswana. A special note
of thanks is given to our host Dr. Cliff Studman and his staff, as well as to Dr. Lars Ramberg and
his staff, and to the EDDI Coordinator, Mr. Paul Knight.

The HOORC is in the throes of planning and growth. A great deal of planning has occurred
since its inception in 1995, the move to Maun in 1996, and occupancy of new facilities in
February, 2001. All of these milestones have required huge amounts of effort on the part of
many individuals, but especially on the part of Lars Ramberg, Director of the Center. As a result
of the inception and growth of the Center, there has been a continuous university-wide
discussion regarding HOORC's mission, goals, and objectives, relationship to the University,
academic status of HOORC staff, student participation, national, regional, and international roles
of HOORC and funding, among numerous other issues. We anticipate that in the next few years
the University and HOORC will experience even more changes including: growth in student
enrolment; expansion of facilities, a change to a semester-based academic year; and possibly
more emphasis will be given to research and post-graduate education. While these may be
difficult times they are also very exciting and they offer many opportunities to faculty, staff and
students alike.

1.1 Terms of Reference
The objective of our terms of reference was to strengthen the academic program of HOORC by
formulating a new Development Plan, which should define its future directions for research,
academic, and outreach activities.
This objective included:
1. Preparatory research for the formulation of the development plan.
2. Review of current five-year plan of the HOORC (2000 2004) in the context
of the UB vision and mission, and national and international needs in order to
determine if there is need for revision.
3. Determine whether current activities of the HOORC match the objectives of
the current development plan.
4. Evaluate the current strategies for accessing funds at HOORC, and make
suggestions for the future.
5. Suggest ways in which the HOORC could increasingly play a regional role in
research and learning on the management of natural resources, and how natural


1











PREPARATION OF A 5-YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLAN
FOR
THE HARRY OPPENHEIMER OKAVANGO RESEARCH CENTER
MAUN, BOTSWANA


1.0 Introduction
We were privileged to visit the University of Botswana (UB) and The Harry Oppenheimer
Okavango Research Centre (HOORC) between March 4 and March 20, 2002. We met with many
dedicated senior administration officials, academic staff, supporting staff, and students from both
the main campus of the University and at the Research Center. In addition we met with many
stakeholders in both Gabarone and Maun. We wish to express our sincere appreciation for the
generosity of those whose time we occupied during our work while in Botswana. A special note
of thanks is given to our host Dr. Cliff Studman and his staff, as well as to Dr. Lars Ramberg and
his staff, and to the EDDI Coordinator, Mr. Paul Knight.

The HOORC is in the throes of planning and growth. A great deal of planning has occurred
since its inception in 1995, the move to Maun in 1996, and occupancy of new facilities in
February, 2001. All of these milestones have required huge amounts of effort on the part of
many individuals, but especially on the part of Lars Ramberg, Director of the Center. As a result
of the inception and growth of the Center, there has been a continuous university-wide
discussion regarding HOORC's mission, goals, and objectives, relationship to the University,
academic status of HOORC staff, student participation, national, regional, and international roles
of HOORC and funding, among numerous other issues. We anticipate that in the next few years
the University and HOORC will experience even more changes including: growth in student
enrolment; expansion of facilities, a change to a semester-based academic year; and possibly
more emphasis will be given to research and post-graduate education. While these may be
difficult times they are also very exciting and they offer many opportunities to faculty, staff and
students alike.

1.1 Terms of Reference
The objective of our terms of reference was to strengthen the academic program of HOORC by
formulating a new Development Plan, which should define its future directions for research,
academic, and outreach activities.
This objective included:
1. Preparatory research for the formulation of the development plan.
2. Review of current five-year plan of the HOORC (2000 2004) in the context
of the UB vision and mission, and national and international needs in order to
determine if there is need for revision.
3. Determine whether current activities of the HOORC match the objectives of
the current development plan.
4. Evaluate the current strategies for accessing funds at HOORC, and make
suggestions for the future.
5. Suggest ways in which the HOORC could increasingly play a regional role in
research and learning on the management of natural resources, and how natural


1











resource management practitioners in the region could benefit from HOORC
resources.
6. Formulate a five year development plan of the HOORC for the period 2003/4
to 2008/9, including elements incorporated into the current development plan, but
expanding to meet new and emerging issues and needs.
7. Present the plan to the UB staff at a three-day workshop.

We have interpreted each of the terms of reference in the following manner:
Preparatory research. Both team members prior to arrival in Botswana read documents
that were sent. In addition several documents received since arrival have been read and
assimilated. A bibliography of materials reviewed is included in this report.
Review of the current five-year plan. We have reviewed the HOORC plan as well as
several documents that summarize various visions for the HOORC, in detail. To establish the
University, national and international context, we also reviewed, in detail, development plans
currently underway at the University of Botswana, Botswana NDP-8, and the Okavango Delta
Management Plan.
Match of current activities with current development plan. We have interviewed staff
and reviewed the current development plan, especially the mission and strategic goals of the
Center as outlined in various documents. Our analysis consisted of a matrix of research
objectives, key staff, and current research and strategic goals. Using the matrix we conducted a
gap analysis to evaluate how well current activities match the objectives and strategic goals of
current development plan.
Evaluate the current strategies for accessing funds. We have identified four areas that are
addressed in this report.
1. Gaps in research and the resources required to conduct this research
2. Personnel necessary to seek endowment funds as well as research funding
opportunities
3. Cost recovery of Center operations in relation to international visitors and
students
4. University funds and their expenditure.

Regional role of HOORC. We have paid particular attention to the Okavango Delta
Management Plan and HOORC's current development as well as interviews of national and local
NRM practitioners. We are relying on these various sources of information to develop a strategy
for effective integration of HOORC and its activities within the national, regional and
international context by defining the role HOORC should play in each of these contexts.
Five year development plan of the HOORC. Our review of all relevant materials, and
interviews with staff, UB staff, and stakeholders were considered as we wrote the Development
Plan.
Presentation of the Plan. Instead of the three-day workshop called for in the Terms of
Reference, we suggest a one-day workshop with staff at HOORC and a half-day presentation on
the main campus of the University of Botswana. Our report is organized into five sections and
includes two appendices as follows:
Section 1.0 Introduction
Section 2.0 Review of HOORC Context
Section 3.0 Stakeholder Issues


2











Section 4.0 Analysis of the Issues: Options and scenarios for HOORC
Section 5.0 Recommendations for the five-year development plan of the HOORC 2003/4-
2008/9
Appendix 1: Persons Contacted
Appendix 2: Documents Reviewed

1.2 Background
This consultancy is under the auspices of the Education, Democracy and Development
Initiative (EDDI) of the United States government, an initiative prompted by President's
Clinton's visit to Africa in 1998. The Botswana agreement was signed with the University of
Botswana in December 2000 and involves five U.S. university partners. The UB EDDI project
focuses primarily on environmental sciences, instructional technology, human capacity building
in research and development, and women in science. This consultancy, as noted earlier, is
specifically for HOORC to strengthen the academic and research program of the HOORC by
formulating a new Development Plan to define future directions.

An exhaustive schedule of stakeholder interviews ensured that we, the consultants, met
with the broadest possible range of actors and interested parties during the first visit in March
2002. Intensive, detailed discussions were held with HOORC and UB staff as well. In June
2002, we held consultative meetings and workshops with staff at UB and HOORC to present our
preliminary findings and obtain ownership of the proposed recommendations for the
Development Plan. Additionally, our own experiences as researchers and academics that have
worked with other research stations and center around the world have informed this report. Any
errors of interpretation are our own.


3











2.0 Review of the HOORC Context


The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre has been actively conducting research on
the Okavango region for almost six years, beginning residence in Maun in September 1996. The
Center moved into new facilities on a 70-hectare campus about 15 kilometers north of Maun in
February 2001. This review recognizes the revolving nature of projects that reflect the natural
development of a rapidly growing research center.

2.1 Review of Current Programs, Personnel, and Facilities
Documents that were reviewed include:
1. "Development of the Okavango Research Centre Project Memorandum", dated
June 1995
2. "Future Direction of the HOORC: Mission, Objectives, Activities, Resource
Requirements (a five year academic development plan 2000-2004)", dated 15
February 2000
3. "Required Education Facilities at HOORC", dated 12 March 2001,
4. "Development of the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center in Maun 2003-
2009", dated 14 July 2001,
5. Annual Report 1 July 30 June, 2001, dated 13 August 2001
6. "Development of the Resource Centre at HOORC: All information under one roof
Summary of the Request", dated 20 November 2001;
7. "University of Botswana Maun Campus, Discussions on Vision for the Future of
HOORC" (Notes from a workshop dated 7 February 2002),
8. HOORC Board Meeting briefing materials, dated 4 March, 2002, titled
"Development of HOORC 2002/2004 Doc#2002/01
9. Tourist brochure titled: Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre

2.1.1 Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
Summarizing the initial statements of the overall policy of HOORC from the June 1995 project
memorandum [1: page 12], the HOORC was intended to be a multidisciplinary research centre
that would serve the Okavango region by initiating, coordinating, and promoting research,
environmental monitoring, and teaching and outreach activities. Further, the Center was to have
an applied profile and concentrate its efforts on the most urgent development and conservation
problems in the region, as well as support basic research motivated by the uniqueness of the
Okavango Delta. Somewhat later, in a proposed five-year academic development plan
memoranda [2] it is stated that:

The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre of the University of Botswana is
multidisciplinary and specializes in natural resource management research in the
Okavango River Basin. Its aim is to support the development of sustainable resource use
by local communities in the whole river basin so as to promote its long-term conservation
[2: page 9].

In the more recent documents the overall mission of the Center has not changed significantly, but
has been refined as follows: "the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre, University of


4











2.0 Review of the HOORC Context


The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre has been actively conducting research on
the Okavango region for almost six years, beginning residence in Maun in September 1996. The
Center moved into new facilities on a 70-hectare campus about 15 kilometers north of Maun in
February 2001. This review recognizes the revolving nature of projects that reflect the natural
development of a rapidly growing research center.

2.1 Review of Current Programs, Personnel, and Facilities
Documents that were reviewed include:
1. "Development of the Okavango Research Centre Project Memorandum", dated
June 1995
2. "Future Direction of the HOORC: Mission, Objectives, Activities, Resource
Requirements (a five year academic development plan 2000-2004)", dated 15
February 2000
3. "Required Education Facilities at HOORC", dated 12 March 2001,
4. "Development of the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center in Maun 2003-
2009", dated 14 July 2001,
5. Annual Report 1 July 30 June, 2001, dated 13 August 2001
6. "Development of the Resource Centre at HOORC: All information under one roof
Summary of the Request", dated 20 November 2001;
7. "University of Botswana Maun Campus, Discussions on Vision for the Future of
HOORC" (Notes from a workshop dated 7 February 2002),
8. HOORC Board Meeting briefing materials, dated 4 March, 2002, titled
"Development of HOORC 2002/2004 Doc#2002/01
9. Tourist brochure titled: Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre

2.1.1 Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
Summarizing the initial statements of the overall policy of HOORC from the June 1995 project
memorandum [1: page 12], the HOORC was intended to be a multidisciplinary research centre
that would serve the Okavango region by initiating, coordinating, and promoting research,
environmental monitoring, and teaching and outreach activities. Further, the Center was to have
an applied profile and concentrate its efforts on the most urgent development and conservation
problems in the region, as well as support basic research motivated by the uniqueness of the
Okavango Delta. Somewhat later, in a proposed five-year academic development plan
memoranda [2] it is stated that:

The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre of the University of Botswana is
multidisciplinary and specializes in natural resource management research in the
Okavango River Basin. Its aim is to support the development of sustainable resource use
by local communities in the whole river basin so as to promote its long-term conservation
[2: page 9].

In the more recent documents the overall mission of the Center has not changed significantly, but
has been refined as follows: "the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre, University of


4











2.0 Review of the HOORC Context


The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre has been actively conducting research on
the Okavango region for almost six years, beginning residence in Maun in September 1996. The
Center moved into new facilities on a 70-hectare campus about 15 kilometers north of Maun in
February 2001. This review recognizes the revolving nature of projects that reflect the natural
development of a rapidly growing research center.

2.1 Review of Current Programs, Personnel, and Facilities
Documents that were reviewed include:
1. "Development of the Okavango Research Centre Project Memorandum", dated
June 1995
2. "Future Direction of the HOORC: Mission, Objectives, Activities, Resource
Requirements (a five year academic development plan 2000-2004)", dated 15
February 2000
3. "Required Education Facilities at HOORC", dated 12 March 2001,
4. "Development of the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center in Maun 2003-
2009", dated 14 July 2001,
5. Annual Report 1 July 30 June, 2001, dated 13 August 2001
6. "Development of the Resource Centre at HOORC: All information under one roof
Summary of the Request", dated 20 November 2001;
7. "University of Botswana Maun Campus, Discussions on Vision for the Future of
HOORC" (Notes from a workshop dated 7 February 2002),
8. HOORC Board Meeting briefing materials, dated 4 March, 2002, titled
"Development of HOORC 2002/2004 Doc#2002/01
9. Tourist brochure titled: Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre

2.1.1 Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
Summarizing the initial statements of the overall policy of HOORC from the June 1995 project
memorandum [1: page 12], the HOORC was intended to be a multidisciplinary research centre
that would serve the Okavango region by initiating, coordinating, and promoting research,
environmental monitoring, and teaching and outreach activities. Further, the Center was to have
an applied profile and concentrate its efforts on the most urgent development and conservation
problems in the region, as well as support basic research motivated by the uniqueness of the
Okavango Delta. Somewhat later, in a proposed five-year academic development plan
memoranda [2] it is stated that:

The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre of the University of Botswana is
multidisciplinary and specializes in natural resource management research in the
Okavango River Basin. Its aim is to support the development of sustainable resource use
by local communities in the whole river basin so as to promote its long-term conservation
[2: page 9].

In the more recent documents the overall mission of the Center has not changed significantly, but
has been refined as follows: "the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre, University of


4











Botswana has as its aim to work for long-term conservation through wise management, of river
basins and wetlands in the Southern Africa Region"[6:page 1]; and that the emphasis of the
Center is on management of water and natural resources in an international context [4: page 13].
Finally, in the tourist brochure titled "Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre" HOORC
is described as "...establishing itself as a world class centre of academic excellence for the study
and conservation of the world's largest and most intact wetland ecosystem..." and which
"...specializes in natural resource management research of the Okavango River basin, with a
primary focus on influencing policy makers on the region's most pressing environmental issues."
Further, the document states:

Multi-disciplinary in approach, the Centre initiates, coordinates and promotes
research and assists with environmental monitoring. It aims to develop and
implement educational strategies for the sustainable use of the Delta's resources
in order to promote the Okavango's long term conservation. [9: page 2]

Eleven strategic goals of the Center were listed in the HOORC Five-Year Development Plan
2000-2004 [2] as follows:
1. To enhance the understanding of the natural systems of the Okavango River Basin.
2. To explain the relationships between human activity and the functioning of those natural
systems.
3. To initiate and facilitate conflict resolution processes amongst stakeholders in the
Okavango River Basin.
4. To assess, evaluate, monitor and, if needed, facilitate community based natural resource
management activities.
5. To develop recommendations on enhanced planning and management of natural resource
use and economic and settlement activity in the Okavango Region.
6. To investigate the needs such as health, education and economy of the population in
the region and produce recommendations on policies and programs that will enhance
local standards of living.
7. To investigate historical, cultural and linguistic characteristics of the populations in order
to determine their interaction with the physical environment.
8. To document and disseminate information and knowledge on the Okavango River Basin.
9. To monitor environmental, social and attitudinal change.
10. To develop regional and citizen expertise with the ambition and ability to convey this
mission and these objectives into the future.
11. To establish supplementary financial and administrative mechanisms for the achievement
of these goals.

2.1.2 Current HOORC organization
Summarizing the HOORC organization and staffing found in board briefing materials from the
March 2002 meeting, the Center is organized into three broad functional categories: Support,
Research and Support, and Academic. Within each of these functional categories are one or
more units as follows:

1. Support
Administration


5











2. Research and Support
Resource center
Environmental monitoring
Environmental chemistry lab
3. Academic
Hydrology and water management
Natural resource management
Tourism management
Ecology

2.1.3 Current Research Programs
In the five-year academic development plan (2000-2004) titled Future Directions [2] it was
proposed that the HOORC research program be organized into 5 research themes as follows:

Theme 1. Hydrology and water management
Theme 2. Ecology
Theme 3. International resource policy and law
Theme 4. Social aspects of natural resource management
Theme 5. Tourism management.

Each of these themes contributes to a larger synthesis theme titled Natural Resource
Management which was described as the "academic area where HOORC must achieve
excellence." and to the objective of "...determining the content also of teaching, outreach, and
monitoring activities."

Currently, there is some overlap between the five research themes given in the 2000-04
development plan and the four academic research units (Hydrology and water management,
Natural resource management, Tourism management, and Ecology) given in the HOORC
organizational materials.

In the latest information we have suggests there are about 33 collaborative research projects
underway at HOORC. The most recent list of current projects we have was taken from board
briefing materials [8] presented at the March 2002 Board meeting. Table 4.1 lists current
funded research from that list and our attempt to categorize each project within one of the four
current academic units and five research themes. We are unsure why the list had only 16 current
projects but memoranda suggest there are 33.

2.1.4 Current HOORC Personnel
Current HOORC personnel are grouped according to the three broad functional groups as
follows [8]:


6











2. Research and Support
Resource center
Environmental monitoring
Environmental chemistry lab
3. Academic
Hydrology and water management
Natural resource management
Tourism management
Ecology

2.1.3 Current Research Programs
In the five-year academic development plan (2000-2004) titled Future Directions [2] it was
proposed that the HOORC research program be organized into 5 research themes as follows:

Theme 1. Hydrology and water management
Theme 2. Ecology
Theme 3. International resource policy and law
Theme 4. Social aspects of natural resource management
Theme 5. Tourism management.

Each of these themes contributes to a larger synthesis theme titled Natural Resource
Management which was described as the "academic area where HOORC must achieve
excellence." and to the objective of "...determining the content also of teaching, outreach, and
monitoring activities."

Currently, there is some overlap between the five research themes given in the 2000-04
development plan and the four academic research units (Hydrology and water management,
Natural resource management, Tourism management, and Ecology) given in the HOORC
organizational materials.

In the latest information we have suggests there are about 33 collaborative research projects
underway at HOORC. The most recent list of current projects we have was taken from board
briefing materials [8] presented at the March 2002 Board meeting. Table 4.1 lists current
funded research from that list and our attempt to categorize each project within one of the four
current academic units and five research themes. We are unsure why the list had only 16 current
projects but memoranda suggest there are 33.

2.1.4 Current HOORC Personnel
Current HOORC personnel are grouped according to the three broad functional groups as
follows [8]:


6











Functional Group Current Staff Proposed Staff
Support (Administration) 12 16
Research & Support 4 18
Academic
Hydrology & water 5 11
management
Natural resource 4 9
management
Tourism management 1 4
Ecology 1 8
Total 27 66


Documents list the current staff as 40 individuals with 17 of these as academic personnel [8].
The plan is for staff to increase to 60 in fiscal year 2003/04 and final total personnel under
current plans to reach 67 with 30 individuals as academic staff (we found the total to be only 66).

2.1.5 Current HOORC Facilities
The Center moved into its new facilities in February of 2001. Totaling 1122 m2 in floor area, the
Center has about 632 m2 in laboratory space and 490 m2 in research offices. Building costs were
8.5 million pula, while equipment and infrastructure were an additional 6.9 million pula.

2.1.6 Review of Current Plans
To place into perspective current development plans, we reviewed previous plans as well as
several memoranda that outlined different elements related to overall development of the Center.
In essence, there are several documents that have contributed to an overall development plan for
the future of HOORC. In chronological order, these are:

1 "Future Direction of the HOORC: Mission, Objectives, Activities, Resource
Requirements (a five year academic development plan 2000-2004)" dated 15
February 2000
2 "Required Education Facilities at HOORC" dated 12 March 2001
3 Development of the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center, University of
Botswana, in Maun 2003-2009" dated 14 July, 2001
4 "Development of the Resource Center at HOORC: All information under one roof'
dated 20 November 2001
5 "Development of HOORC 2002-2004. Board briefing material; dated 4 March 2002

In general, the intent of HOORC (summarizing from several documents), was to act as the center
of Research, Teaching Outreach and Information, and Environmental and Social Monitoring in
the Maun / Okavango Delta region, and to include a first class environmental laboratory.
Buildings, equipment and staffing requirements were based on this general premise.


7











Functional Group Current Staff Proposed Staff
Support (Administration) 12 16
Research & Support 4 18
Academic
Hydrology & water 5 11
management
Natural resource 4 9
management
Tourism management 1 4
Ecology 1 8
Total 27 66


Documents list the current staff as 40 individuals with 17 of these as academic personnel [8].
The plan is for staff to increase to 60 in fiscal year 2003/04 and final total personnel under
current plans to reach 67 with 30 individuals as academic staff (we found the total to be only 66).

2.1.5 Current HOORC Facilities
The Center moved into its new facilities in February of 2001. Totaling 1122 m2 in floor area, the
Center has about 632 m2 in laboratory space and 490 m2 in research offices. Building costs were
8.5 million pula, while equipment and infrastructure were an additional 6.9 million pula.

2.1.6 Review of Current Plans
To place into perspective current development plans, we reviewed previous plans as well as
several memoranda that outlined different elements related to overall development of the Center.
In essence, there are several documents that have contributed to an overall development plan for
the future of HOORC. In chronological order, these are:

1 "Future Direction of the HOORC: Mission, Objectives, Activities, Resource
Requirements (a five year academic development plan 2000-2004)" dated 15
February 2000
2 "Required Education Facilities at HOORC" dated 12 March 2001
3 Development of the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center, University of
Botswana, in Maun 2003-2009" dated 14 July, 2001
4 "Development of the Resource Center at HOORC: All information under one roof'
dated 20 November 2001
5 "Development of HOORC 2002-2004. Board briefing material; dated 4 March 2002

In general, the intent of HOORC (summarizing from several documents), was to act as the center
of Research, Teaching Outreach and Information, and Environmental and Social Monitoring in
the Maun / Okavango Delta region, and to include a first class environmental laboratory.
Buildings, equipment and staffing requirements were based on this general premise.


7










Future Direction of the HOORC: Mission, Objectives, Activities, Resource Requirements
(a five year academic development plan 2000-2004) (1)

The most complete, relatively recent, document that spells out an overall plan for HOORC is the
"Future Directions..." document. It provides a list of goals for the Center and a detailed outline
of five specific areas of research emphasis (research themes) within a Strategic Plan of
Operations. Also within the Strategic Plan of Operations are plans for teaching, outreach and
information, environmental and social monitoring, and an environmental laboratory. Following
the operations plan, the document outlines "Estimates of Human Resource Requirements"
providing a matrix of proposed academic personnel by "unit", whether they are a natural or
social scientist and an estimate of the date the position will be filled. A similar table is provided
for non-academic personnel. At the time the document was written, there were nine academic
staff with a proposed total number of 24 by the 2004/05 academic year. The non-academic staff
numbered eight individuals with a proposed total of 30 by the 2004/05 academic year. Plans for
training of academic and non-academic staff were also given.

Very detailed lists of building requirements and specifications as well as equipment lists were
given. Two building phases are given; the first of which appears to have been partially
completed at this time. It appears that while the total build-out of Phases I and II was approved
in the 1995 development plan, a little more than half of the proposed building area called for in
Phase I and all of Phase II have not been realized. A Resource Center proposed in Phase I has
not been constructed at the time of this writing. The entire second phase consisting of 1224 m2
of accommodations for visiting students and researchers has not been realized as well.

Total costs of HOORC development were estimated as follows:

Phase I building (2052 m2) 16.4 million pula
Phase II building (1224 m2) 9.1 million pula
Equipment costs 8.4 million pula

Subsequent to the "Future Directions...." document several other documents were produced by
HOORC that have elements related to overall planning and development of the Center. The first
of these is a proposal offered as justification for an education facility at HOORC.

Required Education Facilities at HOORC (2)

In order to provide extension services and training programs for local people, it is suggested that
education facilities are needed at HOORC. The education center would cater to day and
residential visitors having interactive displays and lecture hall for 150 participants. It would also
contain accommodation facilities for visitors of short and/or extended periods.

Total area of the Education Center was estimated as 1200 m2 (200m2 lecture hall and 1000m2
display facility). In addition to the lecture hall an administration area (285m2), student hostel
(800m2), guesthouse (420m2), library (645 m2), and 24 guesthouses are also proposed. Mention


8











of the need for 10 postgraduate scholarships per year is again made, and the need for
infrastructure like sewage facilities and social and sports facilities.

While not a facility, per se, the document also calls for 10 postgraduate scholarships for Ph.D.
and Masters research.

MEMORANDUM: Development of the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center,
University of Botswana, in Maun 2003-2009 (3)

This memorandum resulted from a request from UB to "Think Big about the future development
of HOORC. The opening paragraphs in this memorandum state that HOORC "...should be
allowed to fully develop its potential as a research center of international standing, but in
addition this resource [HOORC] should be used to train the future need in the country of
researchers, managers, and policy makers in its field of expertise."

In addition to the four academic units (hydrology & water management, natural resource
management, tourism management, and ecology) the document calls for five new academic units
as follows:
1. Department of Integrated Agriculture
2. Department of Hotel Management
3. Center for Applied Arts
4. Institute for Desert Technology
5. Institute for Basarwa Studies.

In the area of public education, the development plan calls for a Public Education Center and
Amphitheater.

Infrastructure requirements for the new academic units are given, and facilities that were
previously approved but never constructed were re-iterated.

In all, the development proposal calls for a total of 117 academic staff, 120 support staff with
265 undergraduate students and 107 graduate students. Total infra-structure proposed is 32,355
m2 of building space with 9690 m2 in academic facilities, 7000m2 in public education, 8515m2 in
accommodations and service, and 7150m2 in staff houses.

Development of the Resource Center at HOORC: All information under one roof.
Summary of the Request, 20 November 2001 (4)

This summary is aimed at developing the infrastructure for effective information storage,
management and dissemination to scientists, resource managers, and communities and for
teaching. An urgent need for management of data and training of professionals is a consequence
of OKACOM and the NCSA project titled "An Integrated Management Plan for the Okavango
Delta" will require development of academic and intellectual infrastructure. Other needs for
such professional resources from HOORC are also being expressed. The Request Summary
states that..."HOORC is the only organization in place which has the ambition, capability, and
organization to take care of the needs for long-term data management and training of


9











management personnel." This statement drives the proposal for the next phase of HOORC
development "... the establishment of a comprehensive Resource Center." Background
information on the role of HOORC in public education, training of future managers and policy
makers, staff development, provides a rational for future development. Further, projection of
HOORC activities in the expansion of research, international collaborations, required library and
natural collections, and staffing and student numbers all point toward significant increases in
HOORC building infrastructure.

It is proposed that the resource center will house: library, natural collections, database
management & GIS/environmental monitoring facility, outreach and information, teaching
workshop and seminar facility

Development of HOORC 2002-2004 (5)

Finally, in a memorandum to the HOORC Board dated 5 March 2002, a detailed proposal for the
future development of HOORC facilities is made. The proposal calls for two facilities as soon as
possible: a Resource Center and Visitors Accommodations. The Resource Center will be
composed of Library (1210 m2), Natural Collections (380 m2), Outreach and Information (140
m2), teaching Workshops and Seminar Area (950 m2), Environmental Monitoring, Data
Management and Mapping (310 m2), and some support areas (450 m2) for a total proposed area
of 3440 m2.

The proposal for required accommodation facilities totals 4530 m2 as follows: Hostel for short
visitors (500m2), Hostel for post-graduate students (420 m2), Houses for visiting scientists (1200
m2) and Staff housing (2410 m2).

2.2 Review of the Roles of HOORC

2.2.1 National Role of the HOORC
Those who are aware of HOORC in Botswana (university, government, NGO, and private
stakeholders) generally hold the view that HOORC plays a prominent national role more than
any other role. Probably the most significant national activity to date, as far as research is
concerned, is the monitoring of impacts from tsetse fly spraying activities. With this project, the
Center established itself as a national research center capable of responding to the needs of the
country. Soon a project developed by the National Conservation Strategy Agency (NCSA),
Government of Botswana, will involve HOORC staff and facilities. HOORC is envisioned as
the center of data management and storage for the four year project whose title "An Integrated
Management Plan for the Okavango Delta" suggests that HOORC's broad multidisciplinary
mission could play a major role in the development of the Delta, particularly if sufficient infra-
structure are available in implementation of the management plan.

Teaching and training activities of HOORC, up until now, have been limited. Opportunities for
teaching and training at the local level exist with the Botswana Wildlife Training Institute and
local wildlife officers, planning agencies, schools, etc. However, the lack of facilities and staff
dedicated to these functions limits HOORC's involvement in these activities. The move out to


10











management personnel." This statement drives the proposal for the next phase of HOORC
development "... the establishment of a comprehensive Resource Center." Background
information on the role of HOORC in public education, training of future managers and policy
makers, staff development, provides a rational for future development. Further, projection of
HOORC activities in the expansion of research, international collaborations, required library and
natural collections, and staffing and student numbers all point toward significant increases in
HOORC building infrastructure.

It is proposed that the resource center will house: library, natural collections, database
management & GIS/environmental monitoring facility, outreach and information, teaching
workshop and seminar facility

Development of HOORC 2002-2004 (5)

Finally, in a memorandum to the HOORC Board dated 5 March 2002, a detailed proposal for the
future development of HOORC facilities is made. The proposal calls for two facilities as soon as
possible: a Resource Center and Visitors Accommodations. The Resource Center will be
composed of Library (1210 m2), Natural Collections (380 m2), Outreach and Information (140
m2), teaching Workshops and Seminar Area (950 m2), Environmental Monitoring, Data
Management and Mapping (310 m2), and some support areas (450 m2) for a total proposed area
of 3440 m2.

The proposal for required accommodation facilities totals 4530 m2 as follows: Hostel for short
visitors (500m2), Hostel for post-graduate students (420 m2), Houses for visiting scientists (1200
m2) and Staff housing (2410 m2).

2.2 Review of the Roles of HOORC

2.2.1 National Role of the HOORC
Those who are aware of HOORC in Botswana (university, government, NGO, and private
stakeholders) generally hold the view that HOORC plays a prominent national role more than
any other role. Probably the most significant national activity to date, as far as research is
concerned, is the monitoring of impacts from tsetse fly spraying activities. With this project, the
Center established itself as a national research center capable of responding to the needs of the
country. Soon a project developed by the National Conservation Strategy Agency (NCSA),
Government of Botswana, will involve HOORC staff and facilities. HOORC is envisioned as
the center of data management and storage for the four year project whose title "An Integrated
Management Plan for the Okavango Delta" suggests that HOORC's broad multidisciplinary
mission could play a major role in the development of the Delta, particularly if sufficient infra-
structure are available in implementation of the management plan.

Teaching and training activities of HOORC, up until now, have been limited. Opportunities for
teaching and training at the local level exist with the Botswana Wildlife Training Institute and
local wildlife officers, planning agencies, schools, etc. However, the lack of facilities and staff
dedicated to these functions limits HOORC's involvement in these activities. The move out to


10











the current site has especially curtailed the limited training and seminar activities with local
stakeholders in the Maun area, with which HOORC had previously been more involved.


2.2.2 Regional role of the HOORC
The Ramsar convention has drawn significant attention to the River Basin and the Delta; as a
result, regional initiatives like OKACOM and the Okavango Delta Management Plan have been
realized. These initiatives, as well as CBNRM, have and will occupy much staff and support time
of HOORC. As an applied research facility, the Center is positioned to take the leadership role
in developing research relevant to the significant regional policy issues regarding the River
Basin, the Delta, and all its living resources, including human use and management. We believe
that this is a key position that HOORC occupies and it should foster its continued recognition as
a center of excellence in regional natural resource management.

There exists a significant gap in regional training opportunities for those in government and
those who are seeking degrees that will lead to employment in agencies concerned with
environment, development, and planning. HOORC could provide much needed hands on
training opportunities as well as "re-training" opportunities in latest methods, concepts and
applications of natural resource management.


2.2.3 International Role of the HOORC
The Center now has approximately 19 ongoing research projects and 9 development projects,
many of which are funded by and/or in cooperation with international agencies. Several of the
projects have co-investigators from Universities in a broad array of countries in both Europe and
North America. As the Center matures and staff numbers increase, the number of externally
funded research projects is expected to increase.

The Center has about 50 collaborative academic and research arrangements, mostly with
Universities, of which about 70% are overseas. We believe that these collaborations will increase
with time as the trend with funding agencies and donors is for broader collaborations and
multidisciplinary research. The Center is well placed and the Okavango Delta of significant
importance for these sorts of collaborative projects to not only continue but to increase in
number and total breadth of disciplines involved.

With the proposed Conference on Wetland Monitoring scheduled for later this year, HOORC
should take the lead in developing a network of wetland research centers globally, that would
foster exchange of information (at this writing, the Center has made initial contacts and
developed plans to host such a gathering). The comparative studies of major wetland systems
across the tropics and sub-tropics and development of resource management options should be a
high priority.


11











the current site has especially curtailed the limited training and seminar activities with local
stakeholders in the Maun area, with which HOORC had previously been more involved.


2.2.2 Regional role of the HOORC
The Ramsar convention has drawn significant attention to the River Basin and the Delta; as a
result, regional initiatives like OKACOM and the Okavango Delta Management Plan have been
realized. These initiatives, as well as CBNRM, have and will occupy much staff and support time
of HOORC. As an applied research facility, the Center is positioned to take the leadership role
in developing research relevant to the significant regional policy issues regarding the River
Basin, the Delta, and all its living resources, including human use and management. We believe
that this is a key position that HOORC occupies and it should foster its continued recognition as
a center of excellence in regional natural resource management.

There exists a significant gap in regional training opportunities for those in government and
those who are seeking degrees that will lead to employment in agencies concerned with
environment, development, and planning. HOORC could provide much needed hands on
training opportunities as well as "re-training" opportunities in latest methods, concepts and
applications of natural resource management.


2.2.3 International Role of the HOORC
The Center now has approximately 19 ongoing research projects and 9 development projects,
many of which are funded by and/or in cooperation with international agencies. Several of the
projects have co-investigators from Universities in a broad array of countries in both Europe and
North America. As the Center matures and staff numbers increase, the number of externally
funded research projects is expected to increase.

The Center has about 50 collaborative academic and research arrangements, mostly with
Universities, of which about 70% are overseas. We believe that these collaborations will increase
with time as the trend with funding agencies and donors is for broader collaborations and
multidisciplinary research. The Center is well placed and the Okavango Delta of significant
importance for these sorts of collaborative projects to not only continue but to increase in
number and total breadth of disciplines involved.

With the proposed Conference on Wetland Monitoring scheduled for later this year, HOORC
should take the lead in developing a network of wetland research centers globally, that would
foster exchange of information (at this writing, the Center has made initial contacts and
developed plans to host such a gathering). The comparative studies of major wetland systems
across the tropics and sub-tropics and development of resource management options should be a
high priority.


11











2.3. Review of current strategies for accessing resources
We defined resources as funding, staffing and research projects and identified the following
issues regarding these resources:
1. Internal versus external funding, (dependability of UB funds versus NDP
funds),
2. Consultancies versus donor funded projects,
3. Acceptance of any and all projects,
4. Independently funded researchers,
5. Difficulties of hiring staff

It would appear that even when projects are approved within a given National Development
Plan, they are not necessarily funded. Where the fault lies is beyond our review process, but
regardless, the Center and its development plans should be assured of a firmer budgetary position
so that once conceived and judged as appropriate, funds can be allocated and development can
proceed. It is our impression that while approved, various development plans have not been
realized and others only partially funded. HOORC sometimes shoulders the blame for not
realizing their research objectives when, in fact, they did not receive funding to proceed with
certain programs. In such a climate it is difficult, at best, to stick to missions, plans and
objectives when those that are approved do not materialize.

Consultancies are a "necessary evil". Often these come from Government wishing to understand
better the environmental and social consequences of policies or actions. They cannot easily be
rejected. At the same time they can divert energies of the Center and its staff away from stated
missions and objectives as well as ongoing funded research projects. They represent sources of
funding and can provide unrestricted funds that allow flexibility and thus opportunities to enrich
the mission of the Center. We recommend that the Center accept consultancies, but that it look
very carefully at the "costs and benefits" and determine if current levels of staffing and facilities
are adequate. Should a consultancy require it, outside consultants, or academics on leave from
UB (or other institutions) could be "incorporated' into the Center's personnel pool for short
periods to staff and manage it.

HOORC appears to accept most projects that come its way. As researchers that are often in
search of funds ourselves, we understand the desire to accept these projects, the funds and
researchers that they bring into the Center, and the interesting research questions with which they
deal. On the other hand, we caution the Center to carefully review these projects to make sure
they reinforce the stated mission and strategic goals the Center has set. And while there may be
short-term gains to be had by entertaining these projects, they may erode the goals and cause
"mission creep."

An interesting situation exists being the sole research institution in a very desirable location. We
see a continued growth of researchers independently funded and wishing to "affiliate" in some
manner with the Center. As the old saying goes... "everything in moderation." While additional
self-funded researchers add to the richness of the Center and its academic mission, they need to
"pay their own way." We do not necessarily mean that they pay monetarily (although they can
and should probably contribute some funds) but more importantly, they should in some
measurable way contribute to the academic, research and service missions of the Center.


12












There are two aspects to the difficulties of hiring staff. First, there are difficulties working
through University of Botswana Human Relations in the advertising, recruiting, and hiring of
staff. Second, because of the lack of housing and the perceived rural character of the HOORC
location it is not easy to recruit in-country professionals and academics. The first difficulty can
be worked through by opening serious lines of communication between UBHR and HOORC
personnel and the devolution of some authority for hiring to HOORC. Should plans for solving
the housing problem result in the construction of staff housing, a portion of the second problem
might be solved, but Maun remains relatively rural in the minds of many. If UB were to expand
and develop a second campus at Maun either on the HOORC campus or elsewhere, recruiting of
in-country staff may get easier.


13











3.0 Stakeholder Issues


For this consultancy, a broad spectrum of stakeholders was interviewed senior government
officials and local field staff; University of Botswana staff, administrators, and students;
HOORC staff; international and local NGOs; advisory bodies; donor agencies; and local
citizenry. Overall, stakeholders have a positive impression of HOORC and the work that
HOORC does. Concessions are made to the "newness" of HOORC, especially since moving to
new facilities, with an awareness that they may not have had the time nor resources to fully
address all research needs for the Delta. The location of HOORC in Maun is seen positively as
well. Great concerns were expressed by the larger, non-UB or HOORC stakeholders, in two
general areas. First, the value of the research done by HOORC for local communities and the
perception that local communities are not participating or being informed of the work of
HOORC. Second and somewhat related, is the concern about how HOORC and UB will benefit
Maun and the Delta will HOORC continue to serve solely a research function, what will the
research entail, will there be academic opportunities offered at HOORC, not only for UB
students but for the local community, and how will HOORC communicate the results of its
research to the general public. The context for these two broad questions, as well as other, more
specific issues, are highlighted below. A caveat must be added here: while we have recorded and
represented stakeholder issues herein, we have not taken all of these at "face value" in the
recommendations that we make.

3.1 Research agenda
Later sections on research detail possible directions for HOORC to take as it expands. The
diverse stakeholders interviewed provided an array of research agendas with which they believe
HOORC needs to be involved. A strong argument was made for more interdisciplinary and
multidisciplinary research with the belief that narrowly-focused, theoretical research avenues
will not serve the needs of the Delta nor result in practical, applied results that can be
implemented for management purposes. At the same time however, there was a call for more
basic research. More interactions with communities, using indigenous knowledge, and a
significant increase in social science research on women/gender/youth issues, poverty and
tourism was stressed. DWNP staff, for example, said social science research is needed to help
with the management of natural resources in the Okavango Delta.

The level of international collaboration was recognized as outstanding and important to maintain.
However, the "drop-in" nature of many of the international projects has diverted HOORC from
maintaining a balanced research portfolio and has especially negatively impacted, lately, the
social science and tourism research. Also, it was noted that almost all of the research results
were taken out of the country and not shared by HOORC or the international researchers with
Botswana, either locally or nationally. Further, it was felt that much of the research has
significant policy implications but that there are no avenues to get the information to policy
makers.

It was felt that there was a need to develop and solidify collaborative research relationships with
other universities around the world, but that a formal protocol for faculty and student research
and exchanges was missing. In addition a standard procedure for accepting research projects
from outside was needed to clarify roles, responsibilities and resource allocations. Finally,


14











3.0 Stakeholder Issues


For this consultancy, a broad spectrum of stakeholders was interviewed senior government
officials and local field staff; University of Botswana staff, administrators, and students;
HOORC staff; international and local NGOs; advisory bodies; donor agencies; and local
citizenry. Overall, stakeholders have a positive impression of HOORC and the work that
HOORC does. Concessions are made to the "newness" of HOORC, especially since moving to
new facilities, with an awareness that they may not have had the time nor resources to fully
address all research needs for the Delta. The location of HOORC in Maun is seen positively as
well. Great concerns were expressed by the larger, non-UB or HOORC stakeholders, in two
general areas. First, the value of the research done by HOORC for local communities and the
perception that local communities are not participating or being informed of the work of
HOORC. Second and somewhat related, is the concern about how HOORC and UB will benefit
Maun and the Delta will HOORC continue to serve solely a research function, what will the
research entail, will there be academic opportunities offered at HOORC, not only for UB
students but for the local community, and how will HOORC communicate the results of its
research to the general public. The context for these two broad questions, as well as other, more
specific issues, are highlighted below. A caveat must be added here: while we have recorded and
represented stakeholder issues herein, we have not taken all of these at "face value" in the
recommendations that we make.

3.1 Research agenda
Later sections on research detail possible directions for HOORC to take as it expands. The
diverse stakeholders interviewed provided an array of research agendas with which they believe
HOORC needs to be involved. A strong argument was made for more interdisciplinary and
multidisciplinary research with the belief that narrowly-focused, theoretical research avenues
will not serve the needs of the Delta nor result in practical, applied results that can be
implemented for management purposes. At the same time however, there was a call for more
basic research. More interactions with communities, using indigenous knowledge, and a
significant increase in social science research on women/gender/youth issues, poverty and
tourism was stressed. DWNP staff, for example, said social science research is needed to help
with the management of natural resources in the Okavango Delta.

The level of international collaboration was recognized as outstanding and important to maintain.
However, the "drop-in" nature of many of the international projects has diverted HOORC from
maintaining a balanced research portfolio and has especially negatively impacted, lately, the
social science and tourism research. Also, it was noted that almost all of the research results
were taken out of the country and not shared by HOORC or the international researchers with
Botswana, either locally or nationally. Further, it was felt that much of the research has
significant policy implications but that there are no avenues to get the information to policy
makers.

It was felt that there was a need to develop and solidify collaborative research relationships with
other universities around the world, but that a formal protocol for faculty and student research
and exchanges was missing. In addition a standard procedure for accepting research projects
from outside was needed to clarify roles, responsibilities and resource allocations. Finally,


14











apparently, HOORC staff are not fully cognizant there are signoff procedures with the Director
for Research and Graduate Education when proposals are written and/or collaborative
agreements reached. Thus the UB administration is often not aware of research and outside
agreements aside from yearly reports and Board meetings.

The following provides a list of specific requests for research by stakeholders: long term water
quality; fire studies; long term monitoring of lodges and camps for pollution; baseline data on
indicator species that can be used to measure impacts of tourism, camping, fire, etc.; tourism
impacts in general and the effects on biodiversity; impacts of basket-making on destruction of
palms. Government departments that neither had the staff or resources to undertake long-term
studies or baseline studies made many of the requests for long-term research efforts. The specific
request heard time and again, was "more applied research that can be implemented at the
community level."

Finally, and related to student issues, it was felt that research should be practical and hands-on
for students. UB Deans noted that HOORC provided the perfect opportunity for postgraduate
and possibly undergraduate research. It was generally felt by government stakeholders (e.g., in
Tourism, DWNP, etc.) that students graduating from UB in environment sciences and related
studies do not have the skills required to be hired for jobs in natural resource related fields.

3.2 Administration/management
A number of stakeholders viewed as problematic that the Director is expected to be both an
administrator and a scientist. Several suggestions were made for alternative administrative
structures.

The organizational structure of HOORC "needs to be sorted out" to quote staff members, with
research informing management. Staff would like to see the executive committee include a
representative from the support staff and a representative of the research fellows. The
composition of the executive committee itself appears to sway decisions about long-term staff
needs, which may cause HOORC to deviate from presumed long-term strategic research foci.

Concerns were expressed often about having to follow UB regulations, which unnecessarily
delays even the most trivial matters. For example, the hiring of a local groundskeeper at
HOORC has to go through the UB Human Resources Department. Not all of the HOORC staff
are privy to the details of UB rules so that the concerns about possible micromanagement are
conflated with lack of understanding of the constraints imposed by the UB strictures on issues
such as hiring, purchasing, physical plant decisions, and telecommunications.

As will be discussed later, there were complaints about "individual vs. institutional" responses,
whether to meet a visitor, serve on an advisory committee, work with government officials, or
decide on a research plan.

3.3 Academics
NDP9 plans may have overtaken HOORC as the establishment of a second campus in Maun now
appears to be a given. How and when this will occur is not known at the time of writing.


15











apparently, HOORC staff are not fully cognizant there are signoff procedures with the Director
for Research and Graduate Education when proposals are written and/or collaborative
agreements reached. Thus the UB administration is often not aware of research and outside
agreements aside from yearly reports and Board meetings.

The following provides a list of specific requests for research by stakeholders: long term water
quality; fire studies; long term monitoring of lodges and camps for pollution; baseline data on
indicator species that can be used to measure impacts of tourism, camping, fire, etc.; tourism
impacts in general and the effects on biodiversity; impacts of basket-making on destruction of
palms. Government departments that neither had the staff or resources to undertake long-term
studies or baseline studies made many of the requests for long-term research efforts. The specific
request heard time and again, was "more applied research that can be implemented at the
community level."

Finally, and related to student issues, it was felt that research should be practical and hands-on
for students. UB Deans noted that HOORC provided the perfect opportunity for postgraduate
and possibly undergraduate research. It was generally felt by government stakeholders (e.g., in
Tourism, DWNP, etc.) that students graduating from UB in environment sciences and related
studies do not have the skills required to be hired for jobs in natural resource related fields.

3.2 Administration/management
A number of stakeholders viewed as problematic that the Director is expected to be both an
administrator and a scientist. Several suggestions were made for alternative administrative
structures.

The organizational structure of HOORC "needs to be sorted out" to quote staff members, with
research informing management. Staff would like to see the executive committee include a
representative from the support staff and a representative of the research fellows. The
composition of the executive committee itself appears to sway decisions about long-term staff
needs, which may cause HOORC to deviate from presumed long-term strategic research foci.

Concerns were expressed often about having to follow UB regulations, which unnecessarily
delays even the most trivial matters. For example, the hiring of a local groundskeeper at
HOORC has to go through the UB Human Resources Department. Not all of the HOORC staff
are privy to the details of UB rules so that the concerns about possible micromanagement are
conflated with lack of understanding of the constraints imposed by the UB strictures on issues
such as hiring, purchasing, physical plant decisions, and telecommunications.

As will be discussed later, there were complaints about "individual vs. institutional" responses,
whether to meet a visitor, serve on an advisory committee, work with government officials, or
decide on a research plan.

3.3 Academics
NDP9 plans may have overtaken HOORC as the establishment of a second campus in Maun now
appears to be a given. How and when this will occur is not known at the time of writing.


15











HOORC researchers are adamant about not wanting to take on the heavy teaching loads that their
UB colleagues have. Yet they also express interest in occasional teaching, short course teaching,
or graduate teaching. UB staff also expressed interest in having HOORC researchers teach
occasionally at UB in, perhaps, an exchange program where the UB staff member conducts
research at Maun for a short period while the HOORC researcher teaches their classes.

Local agencies (BWTI, DWNP) expressed interest in taking short courses (e.g., EIA, research
design, land use planning) and would like the opportunity, as well, to pursue master's degrees if
there were a Maun branch of UB.

Technical staff would also like to see HOORC develop and support a training plan for support
staff that would be aimed at enhancing local/citizen empowerment. They were adamant in their
belief that the technical staff would not leave if they received more training and to believe
otherwise was a myth. Staff felt that research approaches change over time and technical staff
need to be kept up to date with skills and approaches.

3.4 Collaborations between UB campus and HOORC
While within HOORC the connections with UB are obvious albeit constraining at times; from
the outside, few understand the connections. This includes UB staff, many of whom have
misperceptions of the "easy" life of HOORC researchers, i.e., no teaching loads, no committee
responsibilities, more freedom to pursue their own interests. Once again, as noted earlier,
individual-to-individual collaborations seem to work while the institutional-to-institutional
collaboration is burdened with bureaucracy. Hiring of both international recruited scientists as
well as grounds staff, procurement of supplies, repairs, and technical support must go through
UB. Devolving some of the management and administrative authority to HOORC would be in
the manageable interests of both HOORC and UB.

Many of the UB staff interviewed stated a willingness to be actively involved with activities at
HOORC and felt that collaborative programs were very important to both the main campus and
the research Center. However, it was also noted that there were many roadblocks that made such
collaborations difficult as follows:
No formal collaborative structure for UB faculty to work with HOORC staff
The perception that HOORC academic staff cannot supervise graduate students
Housing at Maun
Unwillingness to live in the rural setting of Maun

Opportunities for research collaboration, for UB students to have field experiences, for joint
teaching or supervision of graduate students are all possible were the lines of communication
better between UB and HOORC. Communication between the two is deemed "weak" at best.
We understand that new regulations regarding supervision of graduate students are being
promulgated. Historically, anyone could supervise graduate students, however, in practice this
has not been observed. Hence, the need to revisit the regulations and make staff aware of them.

3.5 Outreach
There are three levels of communication and outreach that were addressed by stakeholders:
within HOORC itself, between HOORC and UB, and between HOORC and the rest of Botswana


16











HOORC researchers are adamant about not wanting to take on the heavy teaching loads that their
UB colleagues have. Yet they also express interest in occasional teaching, short course teaching,
or graduate teaching. UB staff also expressed interest in having HOORC researchers teach
occasionally at UB in, perhaps, an exchange program where the UB staff member conducts
research at Maun for a short period while the HOORC researcher teaches their classes.

Local agencies (BWTI, DWNP) expressed interest in taking short courses (e.g., EIA, research
design, land use planning) and would like the opportunity, as well, to pursue master's degrees if
there were a Maun branch of UB.

Technical staff would also like to see HOORC develop and support a training plan for support
staff that would be aimed at enhancing local/citizen empowerment. They were adamant in their
belief that the technical staff would not leave if they received more training and to believe
otherwise was a myth. Staff felt that research approaches change over time and technical staff
need to be kept up to date with skills and approaches.

3.4 Collaborations between UB campus and HOORC
While within HOORC the connections with UB are obvious albeit constraining at times; from
the outside, few understand the connections. This includes UB staff, many of whom have
misperceptions of the "easy" life of HOORC researchers, i.e., no teaching loads, no committee
responsibilities, more freedom to pursue their own interests. Once again, as noted earlier,
individual-to-individual collaborations seem to work while the institutional-to-institutional
collaboration is burdened with bureaucracy. Hiring of both international recruited scientists as
well as grounds staff, procurement of supplies, repairs, and technical support must go through
UB. Devolving some of the management and administrative authority to HOORC would be in
the manageable interests of both HOORC and UB.

Many of the UB staff interviewed stated a willingness to be actively involved with activities at
HOORC and felt that collaborative programs were very important to both the main campus and
the research Center. However, it was also noted that there were many roadblocks that made such
collaborations difficult as follows:
No formal collaborative structure for UB faculty to work with HOORC staff
The perception that HOORC academic staff cannot supervise graduate students
Housing at Maun
Unwillingness to live in the rural setting of Maun

Opportunities for research collaboration, for UB students to have field experiences, for joint
teaching or supervision of graduate students are all possible were the lines of communication
better between UB and HOORC. Communication between the two is deemed "weak" at best.
We understand that new regulations regarding supervision of graduate students are being
promulgated. Historically, anyone could supervise graduate students, however, in practice this
has not been observed. Hence, the need to revisit the regulations and make staff aware of them.

3.5 Outreach
There are three levels of communication and outreach that were addressed by stakeholders:
within HOORC itself, between HOORC and UB, and between HOORC and the rest of Botswana


16











including communities, the general public and government agencies. A fourth level would
include the outside world, the international research and policy making communities.

As in most close relationships, communication between the various entities involved in the
relationship often is overlooked in favor of day to day responsibilities. The design of the physical
plant with the large common area was intended to encourage communication between all levels
the HOORC staff and to a certain degree it functions as such.. Yet, concern was expressed by
some that units and researchers stick together and that interchange outside their respective units
could be better. Within HOORC, few formal opportunities are presented for between unit
communication. The technical/support staff recommended that the research staff needs to bridge
the gap by establishing a strong consultative process.

The communications between HOORC and UB are weak, at best. Misunderstandings arise.
Improving such communications is both an institutional responsibility and an individual
responsibility. A workshop was held in March to begin to address some of these problems.

Many of the communication problems outside the HOORC-UB dyad involve the local
communities and government agencies. Stakeholders strongly expressed their displeasure and
dismay that research results are not widely available. Suggestions included getting news into
local newspapers, developing a HOORC newsletter and website, attending local meetings and
kglotas, radio and TV spots, and the hiring of an Outreach Director. Stakeholders thought that
the director should be local and able to attend kglotas, should be unbiased and have knowledge
of government and local needs, and be able to meet with local communities. Communities are
often confused about HOORC who do they represent? Is HOORC government or UB or
independent? Individuals representing HOORC often do not have the full picture and too often
do not tell HOORC what they are doing which can confuse the communities even more. When
there are big activities, such as the tsetse spraying, HOORC should make a big presentation to
the public and go to the media so that people know HOORC's role.

Several stakeholders, including both government and NGOs expressed the desire that there be a
"central authority" or individual with which they could communicate, make requests, or seek
information. The current method of communication is through individuals, which gets
confusing. DWNP, for example, wants to be able to contact one person who can then tell them
who they should be talking with. If a single individual (or office) were the focal point for these
types of communication/information requests, it would be possible for both HOORC as an
institution and the individual researchers to be aware of the communication/information request.

Stakeholders expressed the strong opinion that a HOORC newsletter and website should be a
priority for many reasons, outreach being only one of those reasons. A newsletter could go on
the website but also be printed.

3.6 Physical Plant
While NDP9 and UB planning may have already "resolved" physical plant issues, There was a
consistent issue raised by staff and students at HOORC and to a lessor extent by other
stakeholders outside of HOORC. This issue was the need for an expanded physical plant that


17











includes housing for staff and students, a place to eat, recreation, classrooms, and more office
and lab space.

Concerning lab and office space another facility is needed soon. There is not enough lab space
for some research units, not enough staff or student offices, and the resource storeroom must
resolve the air conditioning problems. The telephone and internet connection problems may be
solved by now but during the first visit of the consultants, the conditions were totally
unacceptable for a research station.

Concerning housing there is a significant housing shortage in Maun that exacerbates the
housing problems for HOORC. While there is ample land at the center for a housing block, there
was no clear consensus that such should be built at HOORC. Problems with transportation, food,
and recreation would need to be addressed in the context of providing housing. Graduate and
undergraduate students and research fellows seem to be at the top of the list of those having the
most problems finding housing while staff currently seem to be able to find accommodations.
However, as staff numbers grow, HOORC will have to build more staff houses, whether on site
or nearby. Students specifically requested that housing blocks be self-catering, conducive to
studying, and affordable for locals.

It was brought to our attention that storerooms for cleaning equipment were lacking as well as a
true kitchen, working space for cleaners, security guards, and groundsmen. We learned that an
untenable situation exists where security guards are on duty for hours at a time and have neither
water, toilet facilities nor a telephone.

Our visit the HOORCs research campsite in the Delta revealed that it is in need of being
upgraded with environmentally friendly toilet and washing facilities and fenced to keep out
animals and prevent loss of equipment. We also learned that radio communication between the
camp and the Research Center is problematic and that field-going vehicles do not have radios.

3.7 HOORC Staff- concerns, gaps
Research staff mostly expressed concerns with workloads, the burden of visitors, and the uneven
(in some cases) distribution of projects weighted more heavily to natural sciences and less to
social sciences. All expressed concern about possibly having to take on teaching responsibilities
if a second campus was established at the center.

Academic staff expressed the concern that data from many different sources including:
government agencies, visiting researchers, and non-authorized researchers not working directly
through HOORC is rapidly disappearing, scattered and of varying qualities and formats. It was
suggested that HOORC might play a pivotal role in information storage and dissemination.

Academic staff also expressed the concern that the lack of in country Ph.D. students was a
detriment to HOORC achieving a center of excellence and a mechanism should be found to
allow Botswana students to use government funds to study in country.

Technical and support staff presented a long list of well-thought out recommendations. Mostly
these concerned lack of ability to upgrade their skills and be promoted, lack of respect from


18











researchers and students, lack of recognition of level of responsibilities, and lack of
communication between researchers and the field staff who are expected to make the field
research possible. Technical staff should be recognized in publications. Students should be
briefed on the role of the technical staff. Training courses are needed in a wide array of topics
from basic mechanics to research design and methods. Job titles should be changed when
evidence of increased responsibilities is noted.

3.8 Advisory Groups
Two different issues emerged regarding advisory groups or bodies. The first is that UB does not
allow "outsiders" to be on the HOORC Board. This insularity is damaging to HOORC in that
their major constituency and client groups are outside of the HOORC-UB dyad.

The second issue raised was the role of HOORC as an institution vs. HOORC researchers as
individuals on advisory groups such as NCSA, OKACOM, and the like. It was felt that
sometimes when HOORC was invited as an institution to participate, often there was no response
or that if an individual participated in an advisory or policymaking body, then HOORC as an
institution did not know or benefit from such participation.

3.9 Students
"Students" seemed to generate most of the divergent opinions, suggestions, and complaints
amongst many of the stakeholders. While having students was seen as highly beneficial, who
those students should be, what they should do, and who will take care of them were highly
contentious issues.

First, everyone acknowledged that more Botswanan students should be at HOORC, whether
undergraduate or graduate students. How to make this happen is the big question. Funding is a
problem undergraduates can't get funds for summer research projects and there are no
accommodations. Graduate students can get funded to go overseas to study but not to do
research at HOORC. NCSA, KCS, DWNP, BWTI, DWA, Tourism, and other government
agencies all said there is a need for environmental managers with practical skills training.
Hence, the need for UB students to have a practical, field experience during their academic
training. UB must address this issue as a high priority, securing funds for students and solving
the housing problem.

Second, foreign students were seen as either a blessing or a hindrance or both. Some students,
especially undergraduates, come with no supervision, no research plan, and nothing organized.
They are viewed as culturally insensitive tourists that do not contribute to the center. They strain
the resources of the center to accommodate them. Often, they do not follow rules of basic
courtesy and respect for support staff and do not follow basic safety procedures required in a
research facility. Not all students fit into this category. Some international students pay a
stipend; some don't. Some international students accompany international researchers and fit
into a project. There is uneven treatment of students

Third, HOORC staff would like to supervise graduate students and it appears that there is some
confusion as to weather or not there is an administrative structure that would allow this..


19











researchers and students, lack of recognition of level of responsibilities, and lack of
communication between researchers and the field staff who are expected to make the field
research possible. Technical staff should be recognized in publications. Students should be
briefed on the role of the technical staff. Training courses are needed in a wide array of topics
from basic mechanics to research design and methods. Job titles should be changed when
evidence of increased responsibilities is noted.

3.8 Advisory Groups
Two different issues emerged regarding advisory groups or bodies. The first is that UB does not
allow "outsiders" to be on the HOORC Board. This insularity is damaging to HOORC in that
their major constituency and client groups are outside of the HOORC-UB dyad.

The second issue raised was the role of HOORC as an institution vs. HOORC researchers as
individuals on advisory groups such as NCSA, OKACOM, and the like. It was felt that
sometimes when HOORC was invited as an institution to participate, often there was no response
or that if an individual participated in an advisory or policymaking body, then HOORC as an
institution did not know or benefit from such participation.

3.9 Students
"Students" seemed to generate most of the divergent opinions, suggestions, and complaints
amongst many of the stakeholders. While having students was seen as highly beneficial, who
those students should be, what they should do, and who will take care of them were highly
contentious issues.

First, everyone acknowledged that more Botswanan students should be at HOORC, whether
undergraduate or graduate students. How to make this happen is the big question. Funding is a
problem undergraduates can't get funds for summer research projects and there are no
accommodations. Graduate students can get funded to go overseas to study but not to do
research at HOORC. NCSA, KCS, DWNP, BWTI, DWA, Tourism, and other government
agencies all said there is a need for environmental managers with practical skills training.
Hence, the need for UB students to have a practical, field experience during their academic
training. UB must address this issue as a high priority, securing funds for students and solving
the housing problem.

Second, foreign students were seen as either a blessing or a hindrance or both. Some students,
especially undergraduates, come with no supervision, no research plan, and nothing organized.
They are viewed as culturally insensitive tourists that do not contribute to the center. They strain
the resources of the center to accommodate them. Often, they do not follow rules of basic
courtesy and respect for support staff and do not follow basic safety procedures required in a
research facility. Not all students fit into this category. Some international students pay a
stipend; some don't. Some international students accompany international researchers and fit
into a project. There is uneven treatment of students

Third, HOORC staff would like to supervise graduate students and it appears that there is some
confusion as to weather or not there is an administrative structure that would allow this..


19











3.10 Library/information resource center
Many stakeholders noted that much of the research done in Botswana leaves the country without
even a draft report left in country. While HOORC cannot do anything about research in general
that is done by others in Botswana, they could institute a policy that all researchers, including
students, who participate in research through the Center, leave behind a report.

Once the electronic communication/computer problems are resolved, staff requested that a
database accessible to all HOORC staff with research information be constructed. The HOORC
website should contain links to HOORC reports and related sites and publications.

NCSA, however, appears to want to be the controller of information so it is not clear how the
division of responsibility would be made. Nevertheless, HOORC reports and activities on which
HOORC researchers participated should clearly be part of the HOORC information resource
pool.

3.11 Public Participation
Repeatedly, outside agencies (NCSA, KCS, DWNP, etc.) have said that HOORC needs to do a
better job of working with and talking with the public. The consultative machinery works in
Botswana and it should be used. It is only ethical that locally conducted research results be
transmitted to local communities.

Local stakeholders expressed again and again that they would like to know more about what is
going on at HOORC and somehow participate. Suggestions were made that someone from
HOORC make periodic reports to local community groups, and governmental organizations, and
that a newsletter might help to increase public participation

3.12 Relationships
With communities, as noted often, not enough communication occurs, especially by the scientists
who go into or through the community while doing their research and do not report back on what
they are doing. A service attitude of sharing information rather than a "scientist" attitude of non-
sharing information would go a long way to alleviating community complaints. HOORC too
often acts as a private entity; they need to market to local people and work with local ministries.
People living in the Delta equate HOORC with UB and want to see it better utilized, i.e., to have
more visibility. While it was noted that HOORC does not share information, it was also noted
that this is a two way street and that others also do not share information.

Another complaint, echoed earlier, is that official invitations are lost and not responded to by
HOORC. While the number of such invitations may be onerous, the courtesy of a response is
required. Individuals do respond and participate when approached as individuals but when
HOORC is approached as an institution, the responses are uneven.


20











3.10 Library/information resource center
Many stakeholders noted that much of the research done in Botswana leaves the country without
even a draft report left in country. While HOORC cannot do anything about research in general
that is done by others in Botswana, they could institute a policy that all researchers, including
students, who participate in research through the Center, leave behind a report.

Once the electronic communication/computer problems are resolved, staff requested that a
database accessible to all HOORC staff with research information be constructed. The HOORC
website should contain links to HOORC reports and related sites and publications.

NCSA, however, appears to want to be the controller of information so it is not clear how the
division of responsibility would be made. Nevertheless, HOORC reports and activities on which
HOORC researchers participated should clearly be part of the HOORC information resource
pool.

3.11 Public Participation
Repeatedly, outside agencies (NCSA, KCS, DWNP, etc.) have said that HOORC needs to do a
better job of working with and talking with the public. The consultative machinery works in
Botswana and it should be used. It is only ethical that locally conducted research results be
transmitted to local communities.

Local stakeholders expressed again and again that they would like to know more about what is
going on at HOORC and somehow participate. Suggestions were made that someone from
HOORC make periodic reports to local community groups, and governmental organizations, and
that a newsletter might help to increase public participation

3.12 Relationships
With communities, as noted often, not enough communication occurs, especially by the scientists
who go into or through the community while doing their research and do not report back on what
they are doing. A service attitude of sharing information rather than a "scientist" attitude of non-
sharing information would go a long way to alleviating community complaints. HOORC too
often acts as a private entity; they need to market to local people and work with local ministries.
People living in the Delta equate HOORC with UB and want to see it better utilized, i.e., to have
more visibility. While it was noted that HOORC does not share information, it was also noted
that this is a two way street and that others also do not share information.

Another complaint, echoed earlier, is that official invitations are lost and not responded to by
HOORC. While the number of such invitations may be onerous, the courtesy of a response is
required. Individuals do respond and participate when approached as individuals but when
HOORC is approached as an institution, the responses are uneven.


20











3.10 Library/information resource center
Many stakeholders noted that much of the research done in Botswana leaves the country without
even a draft report left in country. While HOORC cannot do anything about research in general
that is done by others in Botswana, they could institute a policy that all researchers, including
students, who participate in research through the Center, leave behind a report.

Once the electronic communication/computer problems are resolved, staff requested that a
database accessible to all HOORC staff with research information be constructed. The HOORC
website should contain links to HOORC reports and related sites and publications.

NCSA, however, appears to want to be the controller of information so it is not clear how the
division of responsibility would be made. Nevertheless, HOORC reports and activities on which
HOORC researchers participated should clearly be part of the HOORC information resource
pool.

3.11 Public Participation
Repeatedly, outside agencies (NCSA, KCS, DWNP, etc.) have said that HOORC needs to do a
better job of working with and talking with the public. The consultative machinery works in
Botswana and it should be used. It is only ethical that locally conducted research results be
transmitted to local communities.

Local stakeholders expressed again and again that they would like to know more about what is
going on at HOORC and somehow participate. Suggestions were made that someone from
HOORC make periodic reports to local community groups, and governmental organizations, and
that a newsletter might help to increase public participation

3.12 Relationships
With communities, as noted often, not enough communication occurs, especially by the scientists
who go into or through the community while doing their research and do not report back on what
they are doing. A service attitude of sharing information rather than a "scientist" attitude of non-
sharing information would go a long way to alleviating community complaints. HOORC too
often acts as a private entity; they need to market to local people and work with local ministries.
People living in the Delta equate HOORC with UB and want to see it better utilized, i.e., to have
more visibility. While it was noted that HOORC does not share information, it was also noted
that this is a two way street and that others also do not share information.

Another complaint, echoed earlier, is that official invitations are lost and not responded to by
HOORC. While the number of such invitations may be onerous, the courtesy of a response is
required. Individuals do respond and participate when approached as individuals but when
HOORC is approached as an institution, the responses are uneven.


20











4.0 Analysis of the Issues: Options and Scenarios for HOORC


The overall impression that we have gotten during this review is that HOORC is well regarded,
both within Botswana and outside Botswana. The stakeholder analyses point to some areas that
need adjusting; these will be detailed below. What is evident, from the research reports and
interviews, is that HOORC responds to pressure from UB, the government, and outside donors
by sliding around on the slippery slope of their mission and objectives, trying to satisfy everyone
and losing sight, at times, of their goals. This is not an uncommon situation for research
institutions that serve several client groups and that accept and pursue outside funding.
Nevertheless, given current and projected resources, HOORC cannot be "all things to all people"
and must delineate and defend its mission whatever it is determined to be.


4.1 Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC

As noted in the review of HOORC (Section 2), the original mission of HOORC implied an
applied approach to research that would serve the Okavango region by initiating, coordinating,
and promoting research, environmental monitoring, and teaching and outreach activities. Early
on in the documents, the need to include local communities was stressed repeatedly, so that
natural resource management issues could be resolved and sustainable development and long
term conservation promoted. With the move to the new campus, however, objectives and goals
began to shift into other areas as stakeholders became dazzled with the possibilities and potential
of the greatly expanded area and improved facilities. These visions for the future, elucidated by
numerous stakeholders from UB and Gabarone to Maun, explode HOORC into a place/location
where all things are possible. While none of these visions are poorly thought out or unworthy,
they do pull HOORC away from the overall objective of doing research on natural resource
management in the Okavango. Given the centralized decision making structure that is
Botswana's government, HOORC may find it difficult to hold the line and remain a research
center focused solely on natural resource management. Nevertheless, with current and projected
resources and staffing, it is not in HOORC's manageable interests to take on the visions of others
without a concomitant increase in support at all levels.

We have observed while studying the various "development plans" and summary memoranda
concerning future directions of HOORC, that there is a definite tendency toward posturing the
site of the HOORC campus as a second UB campus. Should UB decide to expand by opening a
second campus in Maun, it should be just that...a second UB campus. Any expansion of
HOORC should be an expansion of the research and service missions of the Center. Other
academic and research interests should remain under the academic umbrella of the University
proper, whose vision is to be a leading academic centre of excellence in Africa and the world,
and whose mission is to advance the intellectual and human resource capacity of the nation and
the international community. HOORC is and will become an ever greater part of that vision and
mission, as it attains national and international recognition as a center of excellence for research
related to natural resource management. It is important to emphasize that HOORC
administratively, should not come under a UB Faculty but instead remain as a research unit
reporting to ORD. We believe however, staff should have departmental affiliations.


21











4.0 Analysis of the Issues: Options and Scenarios for HOORC


The overall impression that we have gotten during this review is that HOORC is well regarded,
both within Botswana and outside Botswana. The stakeholder analyses point to some areas that
need adjusting; these will be detailed below. What is evident, from the research reports and
interviews, is that HOORC responds to pressure from UB, the government, and outside donors
by sliding around on the slippery slope of their mission and objectives, trying to satisfy everyone
and losing sight, at times, of their goals. This is not an uncommon situation for research
institutions that serve several client groups and that accept and pursue outside funding.
Nevertheless, given current and projected resources, HOORC cannot be "all things to all people"
and must delineate and defend its mission whatever it is determined to be.


4.1 Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC

As noted in the review of HOORC (Section 2), the original mission of HOORC implied an
applied approach to research that would serve the Okavango region by initiating, coordinating,
and promoting research, environmental monitoring, and teaching and outreach activities. Early
on in the documents, the need to include local communities was stressed repeatedly, so that
natural resource management issues could be resolved and sustainable development and long
term conservation promoted. With the move to the new campus, however, objectives and goals
began to shift into other areas as stakeholders became dazzled with the possibilities and potential
of the greatly expanded area and improved facilities. These visions for the future, elucidated by
numerous stakeholders from UB and Gabarone to Maun, explode HOORC into a place/location
where all things are possible. While none of these visions are poorly thought out or unworthy,
they do pull HOORC away from the overall objective of doing research on natural resource
management in the Okavango. Given the centralized decision making structure that is
Botswana's government, HOORC may find it difficult to hold the line and remain a research
center focused solely on natural resource management. Nevertheless, with current and projected
resources and staffing, it is not in HOORC's manageable interests to take on the visions of others
without a concomitant increase in support at all levels.

We have observed while studying the various "development plans" and summary memoranda
concerning future directions of HOORC, that there is a definite tendency toward posturing the
site of the HOORC campus as a second UB campus. Should UB decide to expand by opening a
second campus in Maun, it should be just that...a second UB campus. Any expansion of
HOORC should be an expansion of the research and service missions of the Center. Other
academic and research interests should remain under the academic umbrella of the University
proper, whose vision is to be a leading academic centre of excellence in Africa and the world,
and whose mission is to advance the intellectual and human resource capacity of the nation and
the international community. HOORC is and will become an ever greater part of that vision and
mission, as it attains national and international recognition as a center of excellence for research
related to natural resource management. It is important to emphasize that HOORC
administratively, should not come under a UB Faculty but instead remain as a research unit
reporting to ORD. We believe however, staff should have departmental affiliations.


21











4.2 Research
HOORC is a research center, with all that implies, and has a large number of research projects
that it is undertaking. Any additional activities that HOORC takes on are meant, at this point, to
support the research mission of the center. These include long term environmental monitoring,
training, outreach, and involvement on advisory groups and with consultancies that impact the
Delta.

4.2.1 Research gap analysis
As noted in Section 2.1, the research emphasis over the past few years has shifted, due largely to
the presence of a number of externally funded projects and the resultant shift in staffing. We
also note that some areas of activity entitled "research" are, in some cases, more of a support or
advisory service. In fact, there is some confusion in the various documents where sometimes a
unit is a support unit and other times, it is a research unit or theme of its own. HOORC's Five
Year Development Plan listed 11 strategic goals yet a comparison of those goals with
current/proposed projects and types of staffing indicate a disconnect between the goals and the
projects meant to serve those goals. As an example, most of the strategic goals include mention
of working with local communities and community participation, yet a mere handful of projects
are doing such. The shifting research paradigm apparently caused by the increased level of
outside funded projects and presence of international researchers has meant a real decline or
omission of some research areas, primarily those related to social science, tourism, community
participation, and ecological processes writ large. This is not to say that outside projects should
be discouraged; on the contrary, the richness of the various projects contribute mightily to
HOORC's research portfolio.

Table 4.1, Research Gap Analysis, is a list of current and past projects as near as we can compile
them from the data we had available. Projects are in ascending order by their funding date. We
have suggested which of the academic units that projects fall under and then have tried to match
the objectives of each project with HOORC's Strategic Goals as given in "Future Direction of
the HOORC: Mission, Objectives, Activities, Resource Requirements (a five year academic
development plan 2000-2004)", dated 15 February 2000. Shaded cells under each goal indicate
how well the objectives of the project meet that goal. Dark shading means that a particular goal
is well met by the project, while light shading means a goal is only partially met by the project.
The intermediate shading means that the goal is moderately met by the project.

Based on our categorization of projects into Academic Units, of the total current and past
projects ten are/were within the Ecology Unit, nine are/were within the Hydrology and Water
Management Unit, and 11 are/were within Natural Resources Management Unit. We could
identify only one project that was within the Tourism Management Unit.

The gap analysis shows that Strategic Goal #1 is well covered by research at HOORC. This goal
is "to enhance the understanding of the natural systems of the Okavango River Basin." If we
assume that information learned in each of the research projects is well disseminated, then
Strategic Goal #8 (To document and disseminate information and knowledge on the Okavango
River Basin) is well covered.


22











4.2 Research
HOORC is a research center, with all that implies, and has a large number of research projects
that it is undertaking. Any additional activities that HOORC takes on are meant, at this point, to
support the research mission of the center. These include long term environmental monitoring,
training, outreach, and involvement on advisory groups and with consultancies that impact the
Delta.

4.2.1 Research gap analysis
As noted in Section 2.1, the research emphasis over the past few years has shifted, due largely to
the presence of a number of externally funded projects and the resultant shift in staffing. We
also note that some areas of activity entitled "research" are, in some cases, more of a support or
advisory service. In fact, there is some confusion in the various documents where sometimes a
unit is a support unit and other times, it is a research unit or theme of its own. HOORC's Five
Year Development Plan listed 11 strategic goals yet a comparison of those goals with
current/proposed projects and types of staffing indicate a disconnect between the goals and the
projects meant to serve those goals. As an example, most of the strategic goals include mention
of working with local communities and community participation, yet a mere handful of projects
are doing such. The shifting research paradigm apparently caused by the increased level of
outside funded projects and presence of international researchers has meant a real decline or
omission of some research areas, primarily those related to social science, tourism, community
participation, and ecological processes writ large. This is not to say that outside projects should
be discouraged; on the contrary, the richness of the various projects contribute mightily to
HOORC's research portfolio.

Table 4.1, Research Gap Analysis, is a list of current and past projects as near as we can compile
them from the data we had available. Projects are in ascending order by their funding date. We
have suggested which of the academic units that projects fall under and then have tried to match
the objectives of each project with HOORC's Strategic Goals as given in "Future Direction of
the HOORC: Mission, Objectives, Activities, Resource Requirements (a five year academic
development plan 2000-2004)", dated 15 February 2000. Shaded cells under each goal indicate
how well the objectives of the project meet that goal. Dark shading means that a particular goal
is well met by the project, while light shading means a goal is only partially met by the project.
The intermediate shading means that the goal is moderately met by the project.

Based on our categorization of projects into Academic Units, of the total current and past
projects ten are/were within the Ecology Unit, nine are/were within the Hydrology and Water
Management Unit, and 11 are/were within Natural Resources Management Unit. We could
identify only one project that was within the Tourism Management Unit.

The gap analysis shows that Strategic Goal #1 is well covered by research at HOORC. This goal
is "to enhance the understanding of the natural systems of the Okavango River Basin." If we
assume that information learned in each of the research projects is well disseminated, then
Strategic Goal #8 (To document and disseminate information and knowledge on the Okavango
River Basin) is well covered.


22















Table 4.1. Research gap analysis


Current Project Titles

Building capacity for sustainable
management of natural resources
Dynamics of foodplain \egeation
in the Oka\ango Delia
Impact of Inmasise grass species on
the structure and function of coaxial
and inland sand dune ecosN stems in
southern Africa
Carbon and \ after balances as
influenced b) climate in sa\anna
\ oodlands and wetlands (SABISA
Pr jc. ....... ... ..... .. .... .
Dust deposition over the Okaango
Delta
The role of aquatic plant propagules
on the biodiversittv of floodplains


Academic Year
Unit


Administration
n
Ecology

Ecology



Ecology



Ecology

Ecology


2000

1996


1997


1999


1999
1999


Ecology of large herbivores in the Ecology 2000
Delta
9 .ka &. n e. .. ... -...............- ............ ........................................................... ....
Herbivore assemblages and habitat Ecology 2000
fragmentationin the Okavango Delta
Elephant habitat mapping project Ecology 2001
Preparatory Environmental Ecology 2001
monitoring of Tsete spraying
Ecological change in the Okavango Ecology 2002
Delta
H)drology and ecology of the. HH... W 1997
Oka\ango Della Floodplain
Long term environmental chemistry HWM 1998
monitoring of a season floodplain
Safari 2000 HWM 2000
Surface water groundwater HWM 2000
interactions within Okavango Delta;
their role in water balance and their
ecological implications
Groundwater resources miestigation HWMN 2001
in the Bolen Area
Groundwater resources nmvestiganon HWM 2001
in the Maun Area
Hyperspectral mapping of Okavango HWM 2001
Environments
Petrological and geological HWM 2001
investigation of the sediments of the
Okavango Inland Delta: Paleo-
environmental mp liations


Isotope dating of the Okavango
Inland Delta sediments, assessing
the rate of environmental change...
Biomass production and influential
factors in different ecological zones
of Botswana
Southern Africian savannas.
Susainable management of natural
resources


HWM


NRM


NRM


2002


1996


1998


Strategic Goals


23


9


10


11


-4----


I


''"'""~'~'~~""~"~`~""'~'~''""""


1 1


I


I













Water demand management in rural
Boti ana
As.essmenl and evaluation of the
participation process in natural
resource management in the
Cka ango Delta
Communita bahed % wildlife
management in crisis or in process:
devolution of properrN nghts in the
Okaango Delia and the mid-
Zambezi Valle%
Strategies for afterr management in
the Ockaango Rier Basin
Development oftan integrated
management plan for the Okaiango
Delta
The impact of sulpher dioxide
pollution on vegetation around the
Selibe-Phikwe mining town
Towards an integrated sustainable
haresting management and
consernanon of Phane and Mophane
Woodland
Impacts of climate change.
\ulnerabilir and adaptation capacity
in the Limpopo Basin of semi-ard
southern Afnca the case of eastern
Bolswana
Water and Ecoy stem Resources in
Regional De\elopment balancing
societal needs and \'ants in
international ri!,er basin s stem
The socio-economic impacts of
tourism in the Oka\ango Delta


NRM


1999


NRNM ..I. 2000


NRM


NRM

NRM


NRM


NRMi


NRIM 00I 2;


NRMN



TM


2000




2000

2001


2001


2001


2000


Current Academic Units
Hydrology and water management (HWM)
Natural Resource Management (NRM)
Tourism Management (TM)
Ecology

Strategic goals
1. To enhance the understanding of the natural systems of the Okavango River Basin.
2. To explain the relationships between human activity and the functioning of those natural systems.
3. To initiate and facilitate conflict resolution processes amongst stakeholders in the Okavango River Basin.
4. To assess, evaluate, monitor and, if needed, facilitate community based natural resource management activities.
5. To develop recommendations on enhanced planning and management of natural resource use and economic and settlement activity in
the Okavango Region.
6. To investigate the needs such as health, education and economy of the population in the region and produce recommendations on
policies and programs that will enhance local standards of living.
7. To investigate historical, cultural and linguistic characteristics of the populations in order to determine their interaction with the
physical environment.
8. To document and disseminate information and knowledge on the Okavango River Basin.
9. To monitor environmental, social and attitudinal change.
10. To develop regional and citizen expertise with the ambition and ability to convey this mission and these objectives into the future.
11. To establish supplementary financial and administrative mechanisms for the achievement of these goals.


24


I











We recognize that we have not seen all HOORC documents, so may have missed some projects
or activities. However, the following is a summary of our findings. Several of the Strategic
Goals are moderately addressed by the current and past suite of projects including:
2. To explain the relationships between human activity and the functioning of those
natural systems.
4. To assess, evaluate, monitor and, if needed, facilitate community based natural
resource management activities.
5. To develop recommendations on enhanced planning and management of natural
resource use and economic and settlement activity in the Okavango Region.

The gap analysis suggests that several goals are not well met by the suite of projects HOORC
now has or has had in the past. Based on our analysis, the following strategic goals are only
minimally addressed:

3. To initiate and facilitate conflict resolution processes amongst stakeholders in the
Okavango River Basin.
6. To investigate the needs such as health, education and economy of the population
in the region and produce recommendations on policies and programs that will enhance
local standards of living.
7. To investigate historical, cultural and linguistic characteristics of the populations in
order to determine their interaction with the physical environment.
10. To develop regional and citizen expertise with the ambition and ability to convey this
mission and these objectives into the future.
11. To establish supplementary financial and administrative mechanisms for the
achievement of these goals.

Finally, our analysis of research themes and academic units is summarized in Table 4.2. There is
some confusion between academic units and research themes. Documents suggest that there are
five themes and an overarching theme of natural resource management, while there are four
academic units, one of which is natural resource management. We believe that this leads to
some confusion of stated objectives and organizational structure.

Table 4.2 Current Academic Units and Research Themes

Current Academic Units Research Themes
Hydrology and water management Theme 1. Hydrology and water management,
Ecology Theme 2. Ecology and Ecosystems
Theme 3. International resource policy, and law
Theme 4. Social aspects of natural resource
management
Tourism Management Theme 5. Tourism management
Natural Resource Management


Since many of HOORC's stated objectives and goals revolve around social issues of natural
resource management, capacity building in local communities, natural resource public policy


25











issues, it is imperative that more attention be directed toward the social sciences. This attention
should be not only in the research project portfolio, but also in staffing patterns.

4.2.2 A reconfiguration of the research portfolio
To better address the complexity of social aspects of HOORC's stated Strategic Goals, a
reconfiguration of the academic units and research agenda should be undertaken. To accomplish
this we suggest reorganization of current "research themes" into research areas and cross cutting
themes. This more traditional organization of research areas is based along major systems of the
Delta. The cross cutting themes represent the means of organizing the various research areas into
action oriented research teams where members are pulled from the various disciplines. We
envision that each research area has a team leader, and that each cross cutting theme has a theme
coordinator. The organization, then, dictates the disciplines/positions necessary to round out
each research area in light of current and planned staffing.

Our proposed organization for HOORC follows:

Areas of Research Emphasis (Units)
Research Area 1. Hydrology and water management
Research Area 2. Ecosystem management
Research Area 3. Resource policy, planning, and law
Research Area 4. Social systems
Research Area 5. Tourism and parks
Cross Cutting Themes
Natural Resource Management
Environmental Monitoring
Outreach/community education
Research Services (support)
GIS and Remote Sensing
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory
Biological Laboratory
Library and Information Resources
Information Technology

4.2.3 Linking national, regional and international priorities into the portfolio
While HOORC was clearly set up as a research center by the Government of Botswana to work
in the Okavango Delta, there seems to be a widespread assumption that HOORC will work
across borders as necessary, given that the Delta is a transboundary body. Further, there also
seems to be a widespread assumption and acceptance that HOORC works with international
researchers sharing common research interests, e.g., wetlands management issues. HOORC
researchers participate on regional and international advisory groups, collaborate with regional
and international researchers, and in general act as advocates and experts on the Okavango Delta.
This regional and international set of activities is not, however, explicitly mentioned in any of
HOORC's documents and for some stakeholders, the external focus may be detracting from
research that more specifically focuses on national research needs. We did not find evidence of
this but stakeholder perceptions are such that attention should be paid to the question of how best
to link, and communicate such links, on national, regional and international levels. Part of the


26











issues, it is imperative that more attention be directed toward the social sciences. This attention
should be not only in the research project portfolio, but also in staffing patterns.

4.2.2 A reconfiguration of the research portfolio
To better address the complexity of social aspects of HOORC's stated Strategic Goals, a
reconfiguration of the academic units and research agenda should be undertaken. To accomplish
this we suggest reorganization of current "research themes" into research areas and cross cutting
themes. This more traditional organization of research areas is based along major systems of the
Delta. The cross cutting themes represent the means of organizing the various research areas into
action oriented research teams where members are pulled from the various disciplines. We
envision that each research area has a team leader, and that each cross cutting theme has a theme
coordinator. The organization, then, dictates the disciplines/positions necessary to round out
each research area in light of current and planned staffing.

Our proposed organization for HOORC follows:

Areas of Research Emphasis (Units)
Research Area 1. Hydrology and water management
Research Area 2. Ecosystem management
Research Area 3. Resource policy, planning, and law
Research Area 4. Social systems
Research Area 5. Tourism and parks
Cross Cutting Themes
Natural Resource Management
Environmental Monitoring
Outreach/community education
Research Services (support)
GIS and Remote Sensing
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory
Biological Laboratory
Library and Information Resources
Information Technology

4.2.3 Linking national, regional and international priorities into the portfolio
While HOORC was clearly set up as a research center by the Government of Botswana to work
in the Okavango Delta, there seems to be a widespread assumption that HOORC will work
across borders as necessary, given that the Delta is a transboundary body. Further, there also
seems to be a widespread assumption and acceptance that HOORC works with international
researchers sharing common research interests, e.g., wetlands management issues. HOORC
researchers participate on regional and international advisory groups, collaborate with regional
and international researchers, and in general act as advocates and experts on the Okavango Delta.
This regional and international set of activities is not, however, explicitly mentioned in any of
HOORC's documents and for some stakeholders, the external focus may be detracting from
research that more specifically focuses on national research needs. We did not find evidence of
this but stakeholder perceptions are such that attention should be paid to the question of how best
to link, and communicate such links, on national, regional and international levels. Part of the


26











problem most likely lies with the poor communication and outreach coming from HOORC to the
local communities and general public. This will be addressed later.

4.2.4 The need for strategic, long-term planning
The research gap analysis and the stakeholder analyses point to seven variables that affect
HOORC's ability to accomplish its stated research objectives and that impact administration and
management of the center as a research institution. They are as follows:
1. The "drop in" nature of outside funded projects that bring resources to HOORC;
2. The concomitant shift in staffing with heavier emphasis on narrow disciplinary foci in
the environmental sciences and decreased emphasis on multidisciplinary research in
natural resource management, ecosystems, and social sciences;
3. Pressures from Government to take on consultancies that may or may not coincide
with strategic objectives;
4. Pressures from Government, UB, and the general populace to become a teaching
facility, whether as a second/satellite campus or to add new academic units (e.g.,
agriculture, hotel management, applied arts, desert technology, and Basarwa studies);
5. Pressures from UB to do research in other geographic areas;
6. Pressure from UB to use the facilities to add a public education center and
amphitheatre;
7. An under-active Faculty Board comprised of UB staff who may or may not
understand the HOORC context.

Further, there are several conditions that add to our concerns about the need for long term
strategic planning. As noted earlier, many of the strategic goals are not being met with the
current mix of projects. In most of the HOORC documents, it is not clear if the authorship is
solely that of the Director or if a consultative process lead to their development, especially the
five-year plan. We also understand that the Executive Committee is made up of the heads of
units and that decisions there are usually majority decisions, which could skew, for example,
decisions on new staff. As HOORC is pressured to take on important, urgent Government
consultancies (e.g., the tsetse fly spraying project), staff may be drawn away from their own
important research. The impact of these variables can be to prevent HOORC from meeting long
term strategic objectives.

HOORC's ability to remain focused on its mission as a natural resource management research
center is impacted by several other variables as well. For instance, outside pressure to do more
than natural resource management research including adding teaching, other areas of research,
taking on more public activities, and satisfying a Faculty Board that has an academic, not a
research, bent. We again stress that HOORC cannot do it all, given current levels of resources.

4.3 Academics and Students
Considerable pressure is being exerted on HOORC to take on more of an academic teaching role.
The propositions range from a second campus on HOORC grounds, offering first and second
year courses, to expanding the academic areas of research far beyond the current HOORC
mission. Other propositions include training and short courses (as in their current portfolio),
offering post-graduate courses, supporting summer field research by UB undergraduates, and a


27











problem most likely lies with the poor communication and outreach coming from HOORC to the
local communities and general public. This will be addressed later.

4.2.4 The need for strategic, long-term planning
The research gap analysis and the stakeholder analyses point to seven variables that affect
HOORC's ability to accomplish its stated research objectives and that impact administration and
management of the center as a research institution. They are as follows:
1. The "drop in" nature of outside funded projects that bring resources to HOORC;
2. The concomitant shift in staffing with heavier emphasis on narrow disciplinary foci in
the environmental sciences and decreased emphasis on multidisciplinary research in
natural resource management, ecosystems, and social sciences;
3. Pressures from Government to take on consultancies that may or may not coincide
with strategic objectives;
4. Pressures from Government, UB, and the general populace to become a teaching
facility, whether as a second/satellite campus or to add new academic units (e.g.,
agriculture, hotel management, applied arts, desert technology, and Basarwa studies);
5. Pressures from UB to do research in other geographic areas;
6. Pressure from UB to use the facilities to add a public education center and
amphitheatre;
7. An under-active Faculty Board comprised of UB staff who may or may not
understand the HOORC context.

Further, there are several conditions that add to our concerns about the need for long term
strategic planning. As noted earlier, many of the strategic goals are not being met with the
current mix of projects. In most of the HOORC documents, it is not clear if the authorship is
solely that of the Director or if a consultative process lead to their development, especially the
five-year plan. We also understand that the Executive Committee is made up of the heads of
units and that decisions there are usually majority decisions, which could skew, for example,
decisions on new staff. As HOORC is pressured to take on important, urgent Government
consultancies (e.g., the tsetse fly spraying project), staff may be drawn away from their own
important research. The impact of these variables can be to prevent HOORC from meeting long
term strategic objectives.

HOORC's ability to remain focused on its mission as a natural resource management research
center is impacted by several other variables as well. For instance, outside pressure to do more
than natural resource management research including adding teaching, other areas of research,
taking on more public activities, and satisfying a Faculty Board that has an academic, not a
research, bent. We again stress that HOORC cannot do it all, given current levels of resources.

4.3 Academics and Students
Considerable pressure is being exerted on HOORC to take on more of an academic teaching role.
The propositions range from a second campus on HOORC grounds, offering first and second
year courses, to expanding the academic areas of research far beyond the current HOORC
mission. Other propositions include training and short courses (as in their current portfolio),
offering post-graduate courses, supporting summer field research by UB undergraduates, and a


27











greatly expanded public outreach role. Each of these options and propositions has both positive
and negative consequences.

4.3.1 Academics
First, despite the perceptions of UB staff (i.e., that HOORC staff have an "easy" time of it in
Maun), HOORC researchers are fully engaged in their research activities and do not have the
time and may or may not have an interest in taking on any major teaching efforts. with the
exception of teaching advanced level courses.

Second, if it is the decision of UB and the Government that the HOORC campus site become a
satellite campus of UB, the funds for construction and staffing must not come from HOORC's
budget. An influx of 1000-2000 students (numbers that have been mentioned) onto the HOORC
campus could severely and adversely impact the research programs. Giving an occasional guest
lecture and providing space for construction of classroom and housing facilities is within
HOORC's manageable interests; any greater role or participation is problematic. NDP9, as of
this writing, does not promote HOORC as the administrative manager of a UB campus in Maun.

Third, the proposition to add more academic units at HOORC appears to serve interests other
than HOORC's. While certainly some justification could be made for the proposed academic
additions as being relevant to the area, if not the HOORC's research mission, without
considerable influx of resources (physical plant, research and administrative staff, and funding),
it would be untenable to pursue this line of thinking.

Fourth, staffing for any of the propositions remains problematic. Already, UB is short of staff in
Gabarone. Citizens readily admit they do not want to live in Maun yet some of the heaviest
stakeholder criticism is leveled at HOORC for not hiring citizens and not having adequate
numbers of Batswana students. Thus, a plan that pushes for adding more academic units without
also addressing in serious fashion the staffing issues is merely an exercise in futility.

Fifth, an expanded public outreach role and facilities at HOORC to entertain and inform the
public is certainly commendable but not necessarily a part of an academic program. HOORC
research can inform public outreach but the research programs and researchers are perhaps not
the best purveyors of such knowledge to the public. Hence, this will be discussed later.

Sixth, and related to the next section, is the issue of supervision of students. Apparently there is
confusion as to whether UB regulations allow HOORC researchers to supervise graduate
students directly or whether there must be a UB supervisor while the HOORC researcher can
only be the co-supervisor. Is this is so, it can be problematic, as the UB supervisor may never
even visit the research station or have enough knowledge of the complexities and details of the
student's research to be able to advise him/her adequately. All of HOORC's research staff have
the academic qualifications to supervise graduate students. These regulations are apparently
being revised.

4.3.2 Student issues
Student issues form a matrix that consists of issues related to undergraduate and graduate
students and whether the students are from Botswana or elsewhere. At the top of the list for all


28











greatly expanded public outreach role. Each of these options and propositions has both positive
and negative consequences.

4.3.1 Academics
First, despite the perceptions of UB staff (i.e., that HOORC staff have an "easy" time of it in
Maun), HOORC researchers are fully engaged in their research activities and do not have the
time and may or may not have an interest in taking on any major teaching efforts. with the
exception of teaching advanced level courses.

Second, if it is the decision of UB and the Government that the HOORC campus site become a
satellite campus of UB, the funds for construction and staffing must not come from HOORC's
budget. An influx of 1000-2000 students (numbers that have been mentioned) onto the HOORC
campus could severely and adversely impact the research programs. Giving an occasional guest
lecture and providing space for construction of classroom and housing facilities is within
HOORC's manageable interests; any greater role or participation is problematic. NDP9, as of
this writing, does not promote HOORC as the administrative manager of a UB campus in Maun.

Third, the proposition to add more academic units at HOORC appears to serve interests other
than HOORC's. While certainly some justification could be made for the proposed academic
additions as being relevant to the area, if not the HOORC's research mission, without
considerable influx of resources (physical plant, research and administrative staff, and funding),
it would be untenable to pursue this line of thinking.

Fourth, staffing for any of the propositions remains problematic. Already, UB is short of staff in
Gabarone. Citizens readily admit they do not want to live in Maun yet some of the heaviest
stakeholder criticism is leveled at HOORC for not hiring citizens and not having adequate
numbers of Batswana students. Thus, a plan that pushes for adding more academic units without
also addressing in serious fashion the staffing issues is merely an exercise in futility.

Fifth, an expanded public outreach role and facilities at HOORC to entertain and inform the
public is certainly commendable but not necessarily a part of an academic program. HOORC
research can inform public outreach but the research programs and researchers are perhaps not
the best purveyors of such knowledge to the public. Hence, this will be discussed later.

Sixth, and related to the next section, is the issue of supervision of students. Apparently there is
confusion as to whether UB regulations allow HOORC researchers to supervise graduate
students directly or whether there must be a UB supervisor while the HOORC researcher can
only be the co-supervisor. Is this is so, it can be problematic, as the UB supervisor may never
even visit the research station or have enough knowledge of the complexities and details of the
student's research to be able to advise him/her adequately. All of HOORC's research staff have
the academic qualifications to supervise graduate students. These regulations are apparently
being revised.

4.3.2 Student issues
Student issues form a matrix that consists of issues related to undergraduate and graduate
students and whether the students are from Botswana or elsewhere. At the top of the list for all


28











students is the lack of protocols and staff to advise students of their responsibilities and rights.
All students must be able to contribute to a research program, they should be getting practical
training, and they should have guidance from of a supervisor or advisor. All students must also
follow standard safety procedures involved in working in a laboratory or field situation. Further,
and especially for international students, all students should have health insurance and medical
evacuation insurance. These "risk management" protocols need to be developed for students.
Many of the problems that were cited by stakeholders regarding students could be resolved by
instituting the above.

For undergraduate students, issues break down as follows. UB students are bereft of
opportunities for practical skills training; this negatively impacts their ability to obtain
employment after graduation, especially in the environmental sciences area. HOORC could
accommodate some UB undergraduates during the long winter break or summer but UB does not
provide any funds for students to work "off campus", whether in Gabarone or Maun or elsewhere
in the country. There is no housing for students at HOORC. Some research units at HOORC
(e.g., Environmental Chemistry) have overcome this problem by recruiting UB students who are
from Maun (to solve the housing problem) and paying them a small stipend from project funds.
Nevertheless, these individual efforts cannot serve the large undergraduate population well.

Undergraduate foreign students are sometimes seen as a nuisance. They often arrive unprepared
for life in Maun, they are often not linked to any research project, at times they can be culturally
insensitive and they are seen as "tourists" and not serious. Exceptions do exist, of course, but
these are the perceptions about most international undergraduates.

Graduate students, as a rule, fare better at HOORC, especially the international graduate
students. They most often arrive with a project in mind, having identified a HOORC researcher
to work with, and fit into one of the research projects or bring their own project. However, they
sometimes expect a level of support that is not warranted especially when many of them do not
pay any fees to HOORC. The treatment of international graduate students is uneven and it is not
clear why some pay fees and some don't. UB has regulations for international students; students
must be made aware of these. Housing is a problem for graduate students as well as is the entire
issue of risk management.

Botswana graduate students face special problems. First, to attract a Motswana student is a
difficult process. Apparently, the Government may not pay students to do their research in
country so the Batswana students at HOORC either are paying their own way or they have gone
to another university and have external funding (including Government funding) to return to
Botswana for research. Additionally, there appears to be a perpetual problem of enticing
Batswana to leave the capital to work in Maun. There is no housing for graduate students at
HOORC and town housing is not conducive to studying.

The criticisms leveled at HOORC regarding the perceived notion that it caters more to
international and overseas universities and students may be unfounded. In light of the fact that
there is confusion as to whether academic faculty can chair graduate committees of UB graduate
students, and that funds are not easily available for citizen graduate students to do their research


29











at HOORC, and housing problems border on the impossible, it is no wonder that there are fewer
Botswana students than international students.

Finally, we noted the need for individual student supervision, whether undergraduate or graduate
level. This relates to the research programs. Administratively, however, all students need a
consistent source of information in the form of a website that has all of the relevant information
and in the form of a student liaison person. A single individual on the academic staff at HOORC
should be in charge of student liaison, rather than spreading this responsibility to whomever is
available. This position should be rotated annually.

4.4 Staffing
Staffing issues are at several different levels of concern. First and foremost there are numerous
positions that are unfilled, and as a result, the stress and strain on current operations, from
administration to maintenance suggest that meeting research objectives and timelines could
easily be compromised. It appears that there are difficulties in coordinating HOORC staffing
needs with the advertising, recruiting, and hiring functions of UB Human Relations. The length
of time between the opening of a position and the hiring of an individual to fill the position is
unacceptably long.

Second, (somewhat related to the first issue) staffing decisions appear to have been made years
in advance of current development plans, and in some cases, current "already filled" positions
have become vacant before planned future staff have been hired. As the research direction of
HOORC has matured over the past several years, the proposed staffing pattern, especially for
academic staff, should have been flexible enough to accommodate these changes. Yet, because
of the difficulties and "lead time" necessary to advertise positions, we believe that HOORC is
reluctant to change directions and alter planned staffing patterns. A clear staff development
fellows policy does not appear to be in effect or if it is, staff at HOORC appear unaware of its
existence..

Third, it was readily apparent that support staff had issues regarding their perceived importance
to the Center and its mission, goals and operation. Staff wanted a more active voice in the
Center's activities and wished to be more informed of activities that affected them directly (i.e.
field monitoring methods, research design, project deadlines, etc). It would seem that two things
would be necessary to help alleviate these concerns: first, a forum where concerns and issues can
be heard and acted upon and second, a liaison person to hear grievances and who possesses the
authority, mutual respect, and access to all levels of the administration to bring issues to the
Center at large for resolution.

Fourth, current and proposed staffing should more closely reflect the strategic goals and
objectives of the Center. We understand the difficulties in hiring new staff, and the flux in staff
that happens naturally as individuals leave seeking other positions. Our interest at this juncture
is not so much filling of positions, but in organizing a staffing pattern and rationale for hiring
that supports the research objectives of the Center.

Fifth, the whole area of staff welfare needs to be addressed. A main concern is the serious
housing shortage in Maun and, just as importantly, is a lack of secondary schooling


30











opportunities. Many citizen staff are living alone in Maun while their families remain in other
parts of Botswana. Wide spread recognition of these problems negatively impacts recruitment
efforts. While the situation is not as critical for internationally recruited staff, it is still of
significant concern for them as well.

Sixth, some staff are assigned or take on administrative responsibilities which contribute to the
various functions of the Center. Staffing responsibilities that are above and beyond research
program responsibilities (e.g., organizing staff meetings, liaison with students, etc.) should be
recognized and rotated annually amongst all academic staff. This will alleviate the impact on
individuals' research efforts.

4.5 Administration and Management
We fully believe that Dr. Ramberg is doing an outstanding job as Center Director. He wears
many hats and is well engaged in the duties of directing the Center. Under his guidance the
Center has grown and matured, increasing its research, infrastructure, staff, national and
international standing. In a fast growing institution like HOORC so many of the mundane tasks
of administration fall on the shoulders of the Director that he/she often has no time to
contemplate and focus attention and energies on the larger perspective or issues outside the realm
of day to day management.

It is obvious that administration of the Center is more than two fully engaged individuals can
handle. We believe that administration and management of the Center has grown to such an
extent that an Deputy or Associate Director should be hired, leaving the Director the time and
energy to "direct" and to address major issues like fund raising, international liaison, and
advocacy for the Center and its staff at the University, national and international levels. We have
identified several issues that seem to require additional administrative support as follows:
Support staff concerns about their role and value to the center,
Develop and implement policies related to visiting faculty and students,
Effective communication with Campus on administrative and personnel matters ,
Internal cost accounting to recover funds for expendables and equipment,
Liaison with visiting faculty and students especially during initial weeks of residence

With regard to "individual vs. institutional" response of the Center, we believe that there is a
need for an Associate Director for better coordination of HOORC activities. The Associate
Director would provide a unified single representation of the institution in all aspects of Center
institutional communication, whether to meet visitors, coordinate advisory committee service,
work with government officials, coordinate responses to requests for proposals or respond to
requests for information. All outreach functions of the Center should be coordinated by the
Associate Director and the Outreach Director. The Associate Director and the Center
Administrator should develop protocols for accepting students, researchers, and research projects
and coordinate development of web presence and newsletters.

Individuals from outside the University cannot be members of HOORC's "Faculty Management
Board" according to Statute 59(I) of the UB regulations. A "Research Advisory Board' should be
formed that would enable HOORC to bring on board those various constituencies that care about
and participate in HOORC activities. There is increasing use of advisory boards throughout


31











academia -from peer program review of academic programs, to research advisory boards for
research institutions. These boards are composed of knowledgeable and committed individuals
from peer institutions, users of the outputs of an academic unit, former members, well known
scientists and academicians from the discipline, and representatives of major donors. The
functions of the advisory board would be to help set research priorities, frame strategic goals and
objectives, review progress, and help with fund raising. The Faculty Management Board would
oversee matters of University /HOORC interface that include coordination of academic and
research policies, administrative aspects like hiring policies and budgetary matters.

Additionally, it is clear that HOORC must raise much of its future funding from external sources.
To accomplish this they will need a Development Officer. This person should be jointly funded
by UB and the UB foundation. His/her responsibility will be to work with donors and the
research units for external funding. We recommend that the Development Officer be based in
Maun. There will be a need, in the future, to have two external advisory boards: the Research
Advisory Board noted above and one that solely focuses on fund-raising from the international
community of donors, i.e., a Development Board.

Finally, it is apparent that communication between HOORC and the main campus of UB leaves a
lot to be desired. Steps have been taken to improve communications but both individual as well
as institutional change will have to take place soon to effect permanent improvement in the
relationship between HOORC and UB.

4.6 Infrastructure
The current infrastructure of HOORC is impressive and the commitment shown by all involved
in seeking, obtaining and committing funds for the building and equipment is truly outstanding.
Yet we could not help but notice that the phases of development approved in NDP8 have not
constructed. Missing are administrative space, library, and housing. It is our belief that the
overall research function of the Center is being compromised by the fact that these parts of the
overall development plan have not been constructed. NDP9 is apparently making no provisions
for infrastructure construction at HOORC. In almost every stakeholder interview of staff,
students, visiting faculty, HOORC administrators, and UB Deans, directors and faculty, the issue
of housing was emphasized and the suggestion was made that HOORC's ability to function was
in some way impaired by the lack of housing and other service facilities. Housing is required for
short term students, longer-term postgraduate students, staff and visiting faculty.

Other aspects of infrastructure have been raised in the various memoranda issued by HOORC,
presumably in response to inquiries concerning infrastructure needs. Yet small items like storage
and sitting area for cleaning staff, a staff lounge with kitchen area, and a student workshop with
an adequate number of computer stations seem important to mention here.

At every type of institution, research or otherwise, maintenance and replacement of equipment
inevitably seems to be a problem. With so many individuals using the same equipment it often
suffers from a form of the "tragedy of the commons." While the Center began with an
impressive array of lab, computer, and field equipment, time and use will take their toll. It will
soon become apparent that much equipment will need to be replaced either because it is out of
date or because it is failing. Many research programs develop mechanisms for project cost


32











reimbursement of equipment and expendable material use so that research that uses equipment
and materials can be charged for its eventual replacement. Without such a mechanism, the time
will come when equipment must be replaced and funds will not be available.


33











5.0 Recommendations: Options and Scenarios for HOORC


The following vision and mission statements from the University of Botswana's Annual
Report are used as an overall framework for our recommendations for development of
HOORC over the next 5 years:
Vision: The University of Botswana will be a leading academic center of
excellence in Africa and the world.
Mission: To advance the intellectual and human resource capacity of the
nation and the international community.

5.1 Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
In Vision 2016, the Presidential Task Group defined a framework and strategies for achieving
the Vision. Two key elements of the vision were education and environment. Specifically the
Task Force recognized the importance of the Okavango Delta and while not stated explicitly, it
also set the framework for an operational policy and main objective of HOORC with the
following statement:
The Okavango Delta is a fragile ecosystem, which has been the subject of
numerous research efforts by both private individuals and institutions
outside Botswana. There has been very little research generated within the
country...as a result the knowledge within Botswana needs to be improved.
[Vision 2016]

The following is the most recent summation ofHOORC's mission and vision:
Multi-disciplinary in approach, the Centre initiates, coordinates and
promotes research and assists with environmental monitoring. It aims to
develop and implement educational strategies for the sustainable use of the
Delta's resources in order to promote the Okavango's long term
conservation.

At the conclusion of this consultancy, and as result of engagement in consultative workshops
with HOORC staff, University of Botswana, and other stakeholders, a vision, mission, and
strategic objectives have been developed to provide a framework for this five year development
plan.

VISION: To be internationally recognized as a leading Centre in wetland research.

MISSON: promote sustainable use and development of natural resources of
the Okavango River Basin and other wetlands.

Research goal: To enhance understanding of the natural, socio-cultural,
political and economic systems of the Okavango River Basin and other wetlands
that will lead to effective long-term planning and management.

Research objectives
1. To enhance the understanding of natural resource systems with particular emphasis
on spatial/temporal changes and human activities,


34











5.0 Recommendations: Options and Scenarios for HOORC


The following vision and mission statements from the University of Botswana's Annual
Report are used as an overall framework for our recommendations for development of
HOORC over the next 5 years:
Vision: The University of Botswana will be a leading academic center of
excellence in Africa and the world.
Mission: To advance the intellectual and human resource capacity of the
nation and the international community.

5.1 Overall objectives, operational policy, and mission of HOORC
In Vision 2016, the Presidential Task Group defined a framework and strategies for achieving
the Vision. Two key elements of the vision were education and environment. Specifically the
Task Force recognized the importance of the Okavango Delta and while not stated explicitly, it
also set the framework for an operational policy and main objective of HOORC with the
following statement:
The Okavango Delta is a fragile ecosystem, which has been the subject of
numerous research efforts by both private individuals and institutions
outside Botswana. There has been very little research generated within the
country...as a result the knowledge within Botswana needs to be improved.
[Vision 2016]

The following is the most recent summation ofHOORC's mission and vision:
Multi-disciplinary in approach, the Centre initiates, coordinates and
promotes research and assists with environmental monitoring. It aims to
develop and implement educational strategies for the sustainable use of the
Delta's resources in order to promote the Okavango's long term
conservation.

At the conclusion of this consultancy, and as result of engagement in consultative workshops
with HOORC staff, University of Botswana, and other stakeholders, a vision, mission, and
strategic objectives have been developed to provide a framework for this five year development
plan.

VISION: To be internationally recognized as a leading Centre in wetland research.

MISSON: promote sustainable use and development of natural resources of
the Okavango River Basin and other wetlands.

Research goal: To enhance understanding of the natural, socio-cultural,
political and economic systems of the Okavango River Basin and other wetlands
that will lead to effective long-term planning and management.

Research objectives
1. To enhance the understanding of natural resource systems with particular emphasis
on spatial/temporal changes and human activities,


34











2. To investigate the hydrological systems and geo-chemical cycles of the Okavango
River Basin,
3. To investigate the ecological and wildlife systems of the Okavango River Basin,
4. To establish long term environmental monitoring programs including effects of
human activities,
5. To research national and international plans, policies, and laws regarding
transboundary natural resource management (TBNRM) activities,
6. To investigate the needs and wants of the population and facilitate community based
natural resource management (CBNRM),
7. To investigate historical, cultural and indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) of the
population to determine environmental and policy impacts,
8. To investigate social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts of tourism,
9. To value the cost and benefits of natural resources use in the Okavango River Basin.

Education/outreach goal: To develop the intellectual and human resource
capacity to conduct research and to effectively collect, communicate and
disseminate information to all stakeholders.

Education objectives
1. To develop regional and citizen expertise with adequate knowledge of national and
regional natural resources management and sustainable development issues,
2. To provide information and outreach to stakeholders (local, national, and
international) that illustrates the work of HOORC and improves understanding of the
Okavango River Basin.

Service goal: To provide expertise, information, and knowledge to
governments, NGOs, schools, and citizens at large

Service objectives
1. To develop recommendations on enhanced planning, sustainable management, and
natural resource use including economic and settlement activity,
2. To provide recommendations on policies and programs for poverty alleviation,
3. To provide information in support of conflict resolution (including CBNRM and
TBNRM) among stakeholders,
4. To provide information and technical expertise to policy makers to support planning
for the sustainable use and management of the Okavango River Basin,
5. To coordinate, document, disseminate and make available information, research, and
knowledge on the Okavango River Basin.

Administration goal: To provide the framework, ensure effective management,
and secure the resources necessary to carry out the mission of the Center


Administration objectives
1. To establish financial and administrative mechanisms to achieve HOORC's
objectives,


35











2. To promote and facilitate international collaborative research and effective,
sustainable partnerships,
3. To coordinate research between HOORC, NGOs, other researchers and government.

The foregoing goals, organized within functional categories, are broad and long term, while the
objectives under each are more specific. In addition, we suggest the following.

Recommendations:
> HOORC should remain true to its vision and mission as a research center dedicated to
research and human capacity building related to sustainable use of the resources of the
Okavango River Basin.
> To accomplish this, HOORC needs to:
Meet regularly with its Faculty Management Board,
Establish an Research Advisory Board comprised of stakeholders external
to UB and HOORC,
> Meet regularly as a "Center" to review and adjust the overall mission and strategic
objectives in order to remain a dynamic and flexible research center,
> Hold regular reviews of research projects and their alignment with strategic objectives (e.g.,
research gap analysis) in annual strategic planning exercises.

5.2 Research
The Vision 2016 acknowledges the importance of science and technology capacity in the
development of Botswana.
Botswana must recognize the rapid international development in the sciences and
technology that are re-shaping the societies of the world...The existing Centers ...for
research and development will need to be strengthened and focused so that their output is
as relevant as possible to the development needs of the country. [Vision 2016]

Recommendations:

> Reconfigure current "research themes" into research areas and cross cutting themes as well
as support services as follows (see Tables 5.1 and 5.2):

Areas of Research Emphasis (Units)
Research Area 1. Hydrology and water management
Research Area 2. Ecosystem management
Research Area 3. Resource policy, planning, and law
Research Area 4. Social systems
Research Area 5. Tourism and parks
Cross Cutting Themes
Natural Resource Management
Environmental Monitoring
Outreach/community education
Research Services (support)
GIS and Remote Sensing
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory


36











Biological Laboratory
Library and Information Resources

> Remain committed to research on the Okavango River Basin,
> Continue to develop and implement a transboundary and international focus of research and
service while remaining a national research center.
> The comparative studies of major wetland systems across the tropics and sub-tropics and
development of resource management options should be a high priority
> HOORC should institute a policy that all researchers, including students, who participate in
research through the Center, leave behind a report.
> We recommend that the Center accept consultancies, but that it look very carefully at the
"costs and benefits" and determine if current levels of staffing and facilities are adequate.
Should a consultancy require it, outside consultants, or academics on leave from UB (or
other institutions) could be "incorporated' into the Center's personnel pool for short periods
to staff and manage it.

5.3 Academics and Students
The long term vision for Botswana is to develop educated and informed nation as exemplified by
the following quote:
By the year 2016, Botswana will have a system of quality education that is able to adapt
to the changing needs of the country as the world around us changes. [Vision 2016]

HOORCs role in educating Batswana should be in providing a research environment wherein
relevant research topics for both graduate and undergraduate students are accessible and
encouraged.

Academic Recommendations:
> HOORC's primary role as a research center should be fostered and supported
and not be diluted by having to take on major teaching responsibilities, however,
> HOORC could provide much needed hands on training opportunities as well
as "re-training" opportunities in latest methods, concepts and applications of
natural resource management.
> HOORC does not have the resources to become the parent structure for other
institutes and research/academic areas but should remain focused on resource,
management, research, outreach and service related to the Okavango River Basin,
> It is essential that staff at UB become more engaged in research at HOORC,
> Qualified HOORC staff should be allowed to directly supervise graduate
students.

Student Recommendations
> Every effort must be made to find and encourage Batswana students to do research
work at HOORC, this includes:
Funding for undergraduate student research,
Funding for in country graduate research,
Providing the necessary infrastructure for students.


37











SStudents coming to HOORC must have a research supervisor and be attached to a
research unit with explicit research objectives.
> HOORC should assign the responsibility of student liaison on a rotating basis to
academic staff,
> Risk management procedures and protocols must be established for all students,
> International students should pay a research fee that is based on a sliding scale
depending on whether they are regional or international students.

5.4 Staffing
Vision 2016 recognizes, as we do, that effective endeavors require a committed and engaged
workforce.
In the world of tomorrow, we will have to compete with the best...[Vision 2016]

Recommendations:
> Augment current staffing as proposed in Table 5.1 (at the end of Section 5),
> The proposed reorganization and staffing plans will require an additional 13 research
staff to complete the proposed research teams
> Based on the proposed reorganization and staffing plans, 10 additional non-academic
staff is required by some research and support units,
> Insure that future staffing patterns and rationale support the research objectives of the
Center,
> HOORC must have a streamlined and flexible hiring process that works in consultation
with UB Human Resources,
> Research fellows and support staff should be represented on the Executive Committee,
> The position of Associate Director should be filled as soon as possible HOORC should
propose inclusion of this position in its next budget request,
> HOORC and UB should enter into serious dialogue related to solving the issues
surrounding staff welfare which significantly hamper Batswana staff. These include:
housing, schooling, and maintaining an active Staff Development Fellows program.

5.5 Administration and Management
Effective administration and management of the Center is essential to compete in the global
research community, and to compete effectively, organizations and institutions must be nimble
and able to change. As the Vision 2016 document suggests...
A challengefor the future will be to adapt to the changing and competitive
world... Change can be liberating, but it must be managed and adapted to fit our
requirements. [Vision 2016]

Recommendations:
> Develop and implement policies for visiting researchers and students, this includes
identification of an administrative staff person to act as student liaison,
> Institute and maintain effective communication with Campus on administrative and
personnel matters,
> Consistently use the University indirect cost rate and develop a policy for overhead
return to HOORC as per University policy,


38











SStudents coming to HOORC must have a research supervisor and be attached to a
research unit with explicit research objectives.
> HOORC should assign the responsibility of student liaison on a rotating basis to
academic staff,
> Risk management procedures and protocols must be established for all students,
> International students should pay a research fee that is based on a sliding scale
depending on whether they are regional or international students.

5.4 Staffing
Vision 2016 recognizes, as we do, that effective endeavors require a committed and engaged
workforce.
In the world of tomorrow, we will have to compete with the best...[Vision 2016]

Recommendations:
> Augment current staffing as proposed in Table 5.1 (at the end of Section 5),
> The proposed reorganization and staffing plans will require an additional 13 research
staff to complete the proposed research teams
> Based on the proposed reorganization and staffing plans, 10 additional non-academic
staff is required by some research and support units,
> Insure that future staffing patterns and rationale support the research objectives of the
Center,
> HOORC must have a streamlined and flexible hiring process that works in consultation
with UB Human Resources,
> Research fellows and support staff should be represented on the Executive Committee,
> The position of Associate Director should be filled as soon as possible HOORC should
propose inclusion of this position in its next budget request,
> HOORC and UB should enter into serious dialogue related to solving the issues
surrounding staff welfare which significantly hamper Batswana staff. These include:
housing, schooling, and maintaining an active Staff Development Fellows program.

5.5 Administration and Management
Effective administration and management of the Center is essential to compete in the global
research community, and to compete effectively, organizations and institutions must be nimble
and able to change. As the Vision 2016 document suggests...
A challengefor the future will be to adapt to the changing and competitive
world... Change can be liberating, but it must be managed and adapted to fit our
requirements. [Vision 2016]

Recommendations:
> Develop and implement policies for visiting researchers and students, this includes
identification of an administrative staff person to act as student liaison,
> Institute and maintain effective communication with Campus on administrative and
personnel matters,
> Consistently use the University indirect cost rate and develop a policy for overhead
return to HOORC as per University policy,


38











>Implement a cost accounting procedure to recoup, on a recurring basis, expendable
materials and for the maintenance and replacement of equipment,
> Working with ORD and the UB Foundation, hire a development officer who will secure
external resources for HOORC,
> Establish a Development Board composed of international donors, patrons, and
renowned researchers.

Figure 5.1 is an organization chart that outlines administrative structure, reporting authority and
staffing patterns based on our recommendations.

5.6 Infrastructure
It is imperative that investments in infrastructure be appropriate, efficient, and timely as
recognized by Vision 2016...
With Botswana's sound economy, reserves, and past investment in infrastructure
and human resources we have a window of opportunity in the next few years. It is
vital that this opportunity is used wisely by putting the appropriate measure in
place.[Vision 2016]

Recommendations:
> Complete the administrative space, library, and housing that comprise the already
approved Phase II building plan.
> As a result of future staffing patterns, including the proposed reorganization and staffing
plan, as well as the increasing number of international partnerships, the following
infrastructure is needed:
1 lecture theatre (seating capacity 200)
25 academic offices
17 Non-academic offices
2 Student work area for 10 students each
Storeroom
Kitchen
Computer Support Lab
Classroom with seating for 50
Seminar room with seating for 50
Housing:
52 Staff housing units
20 self catering student housing units for graduate students
15 dormitory style housing units for undergraduate students
> Construct a database accessible to all HOORC staff with research information. In
addition, the HOORC website should contain links to HOORC reports and related sites
and publications
> Maximize the EDDI projects contributions in Information Technology so as to
encourage HOORC's full integration into the global research community by video
conferencing, joint seminars and workshops, and collaborative research.


39












Table 5.1 Proposed organization and staffing for Harry Oppenheimer Okavango
Research Center

Function/Position Current Planned Current Planned Proposed


Academ Nonaca Academ Nonaca Academ Nonaca
ic d. ic d. ic d.
Administration
Director L. Ramberg
Associate Director 1
Center Administrator J.C. Nthele 1
Development Officer 1
** Training & Dev. Officer 1
Outreach/community Education Advertised
** Sr Layout Technician 1
Security Officer E. Tshegofatso seconded _
Accounts Officer D. Orapeleng seconded 1
** Store's Officer _
Personal Secretary K. Kandji leave
Personal Secretary
Switchboard Operator E. Kenosi 1
Personal Assistant S. Chilume 1
Driver E. Diepo 1
Admin Assistant 02/03 1
Leading Hand J. Temane 1
Cleaner Mokotedi 1
Cleaner Baithapi 1
Cleaner Ketlogetswe 1
Maintenance Officer 03/04 1
Laborer 02/03 1
Laborer 02/03 1

Areas of Research Emphasis (Units) _
Research Area 1. Hydrology and Water Mana ement
Socio-economic D. Kgathi 1
Management
Hydrology P.Wolski 1
River Basin Dynamics 03/04 1
** Geochemist 1
** Geophysicist 1
** Geomorphologist 1
Groundwater/Pollutant Transport 1
Nutrient Dynamics 03/04 1
Water Engineer 1
Senior Instrument Technician 02/03 1
Senior Field Technician 1
Field Technician 1
Field Assistant B. Mogojwa 1
Field Assistant planned 1
Tech. Management 03/04 1


40










Research Area 2. Ecosystems Management


Nat. Resource Economist B. Mmopelwa 1
Landscape Dynamics S, Ringrose 1
Range Management 04/05 1
Forestry M.B.M. Sekhwela 1
Fisheries Management K. Mosepele 1
Wildlife Management 02/03 1
Plant Ecology advertised 1
Wetland Ecology 02/03 1
Biodiversity 03/04 1
Herbivore Dynamics C. Bonyongo 1
Aquatic Ecology I
Ecosystem Modeling 1
Toxicologist 1
Senior Field Technician I. Mosie
Field Technician 03/04 1
Field Assistant planned 1
Field Assistant planned 1
Research Officer 02/03 1


Research Area 3. Resource policy, planning, and law
International Policy and Law 02/03
Land Use Planning H. Bendsen 1
Participatory (Regional) L. Magole 1
Planning
Local Governance 1
Economic Policy 1

Research Area 4. Social systems
** Natural Res Economist
Anthropologist Advertised _
Human Geographer 1
Farming Systems 1
Social Technician M. Motsholapheko
Field Technician

Research Area 5. Tourism and parks
Tourism Management J. Mbaiwa
(soc.dynamics)
Tourism Planning 02/03 1
Macroeconomics 03/04 1
Interpretation/Env. Educ. 03/04 1

Research Support Services
GIS and Remote Sensing
GIS specialist ? 1
Environmental Monitoring 02/03 1
Senior Map Technician 03/04 1
Environmental Data Management 02/03 1


41


I I
















































I I I I I I I I I


* Proposed function/position (consultants)
** Proposed function/position (HOORC Exec. Comm.)


42


GIS Technician 1
GIS Technician 1

Anal tical Chemistry Laboratory
Analytical Chemist Shortlisted 1
Environmental Chemist P. Huntsman-Mapila 1
Chief Technician advertised 1
Senior Technician promotion 1
Technician K. Kgokong 1
Lab Assistant shortlisted 1

Biolo ical Laboratory
Senior Biologist 1
Botanist 1
Curator Natural Collection 1
Herbarium Assistant Shortlisted
Senior Lab Technician 1
Lab Technician 1
Lab Assistant 1

Library and Information Resources
Senior Librarian B. Nkatha 1
Library Officer 02/03 1
Library Officer 02/03 1

Information Technology
Computer Technician Seconded 1
Senior IT Technician Seconded 1

13 17 12 22 13 10













Table 5.2 Proposed staff assignments into Research Units, Themes and
Support Services

Function/Position Current Staff


Areas of Research Emphasis (Units)
Research Area 1. Hydrology and Water Management
Socio-economic Management D. Kgathi
Hydrology P.Wolski
River Basin Dynamics
** Geochemist
** Geophysicist
** Geomorphologist
Groundwater/Pollutant Transport
Nutrient Dynamics
Water Engineer
Senior Instrument Technician
Senior Field Technician
Field Technician
Field Assistant B. Mogojwa
Field Assistant
Tech. Management
Research Area 2. Ecosystem Management
Natural Resource Economist B. Mmopelwa
Landscape Dynamics S. Ringrose
Range Management
Forestry M.B.M. Sekhwela
Fisheries Management K. Mosepele
Wildlife Management
Plant Ecology
Wetland Ecology
Biodiversity
Herbivore Dynamics C. Bonyongo
Aquatic Ecology
Ecosystem Modeling
Toxicologist
Senior Field Technician I. Mosie
Field Technician
Field Assistant
Field Assistant
Research Officer
Research Area 3. Resource Policy, Planning, and Law
International Policy and Law
Land Use Planning H. Bendsen
Participatory (Regional) Planning L. Magole
Local Governance
Economic Policy
Research Area 4. Social Systems


43












Anthropologist
Human Geographer (Land use
systems)
Farming Systems
Social Technician M. Motshola
Field Technician
Research Area 5. Tourism and Parks
Tourism Management J. Mbaiwa
(soc.dynamics)
Tourism Planning
Macroeconomics
Interpretation/Env. Educ.
Cross-Cutting Themes
Natural Resource Management H. Bendsen
Environmental Monitoring S. Ringrose
Outreach/ Education
Research Support Services
GIS and Remote Sensing
GIS specialist
Environmental Monitoring
Senior Map Technician
Environmental Data Management
GIS Technician
GIS Technician
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory
Analytical Chemist
Environmental Chemist P. Huntsman
Chief Technician
Senior Technician
Technician K. Kgokong
Lab Assistant
Biological Laboratory
Senior Biologist
Botanist
Curator Natural Collection


pheko


-Mapila


Herbarium Assistant
Senior Lab Technician
Lab Technician
Lab Assistant
Library and Information Resources
Senior Librarian B. Nkatha
Library Officer
Library Officer
Information Technology
Computer Technician Seconded
Senior IT Technician Seconded
* Proposed function / position (consultants)
**Proposed function / position (HOORC Exec. Committee))


44



































Support Services


Hydrology & Water
Management


Ecosystem
Management


Resource Policy.
Planning, and Law


Social Systems


Tourism and Parks


Chemistry
Lab



Biology
Lab


Geo. Info. Sys
Lab


Info. Tech.
Services


Library &
Info. Services


Figure 1. Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center Organization Chart


r- 0
-
g.,





0
a,-,

. E












|.,
CI
c
E










U)
UO


z
o-











Appendix 1: Persons Contacted


University of Botswana
Vice-Chancellor, Prof. Sharon Siverts
DVC-AA, Dr. Brian Mokopakgosi
DVC-SA, Dr. Burton S. Mguni
Director, ORD, Prof. Cliff Studman
Deputy Director, Dr. Isaac Mazonde
Mr. Thaelo Kebaagetse
Deputy Director, Institutional Research, Richard Neil
Mr. Phonan Jackalas
Dean of Science, Prof. Sisai Mpuchane
Dean of Social Sciences, Prof. Bojosi Otlhogile
Dean of Humanities, Dr. Joe Tsonope
Head, Biology, Dr. Hilary Musundire
Head, Environmental Science, Dr. E. Segosebe
Dean, College of Agriculture, Dr. Chabo
Dean of Graduate Studies, Prof. Sheldon Weeks

HOORC
Director, Dr. Lars Ramberg
Center Administrator, Mr. C. Nthele
Dr. Donald L. Kgathi
Prof. Sue Ringrose
Mrs. Hannelore Bendsen
Mrs. Phillipa Mapila-Huntsman
Dr. Mogodisheng Sekhwela
Mr. Casper Bonyongo
Mr. Buzhanani Tacheba
Mr. G. Mmopelwa
Mr. Moseki Motsholapheko
Mr. I. Mosie
Ms. Keaboletse Kgokong
Mr. Bright Nkhata
Mr. Joseph Mbaiwa
Mr. Ketlhatlogile Mosepele
Ms. Lupa ???

Visiting staff
Prof. Ted Bernard
Prof. Ray Calloway

Students
Mr. Hamisai Hamandawana
Floor Boerwinkel


46











Mr. Brian Mantlana
Mario Lieder
Falco Meyer
Catja Orford
Thoralf Meyer
Jens Kipping
Kristin Brubaker
Lauren Baker
Rachel Prunier

Government

Dept. of Wildlife and National Parks, Gaborone
Mrs. Rapelang Mojaphoko
Mr. Joseph Matlhare
Mr. Jan Broekhuis

DWNP, Maun
Mrs. Elsie Mvimi
Mr. Mophutholodi Modise
Mr. Thuso Jonas
Mr. Daniel Mughogho

Tourism
Mr. Wazha Tema

District Administration, Maun
Acting DC, Ms J. Molebatsi
Mr Dick Chikuba
Mrs. Rachel Jeremia
Mrs. Margaret Mokgethe

Dept. of Water Affairs, Maun
Dr. Naidu Kurungundla
Mr. B.S. Majatsie
Mr. Ken Motsweke ?????
Mr. Lethebe Zambo
Mr L. Manga

DAHP, Tsetse Program
Dr. P. Motsu
Mr. S. Modo

Paramount Chief
Mr. Tawana II


47










Botswana Wildlife Training Institute
Principal, Mr Kgoberego Nkawana
Mr. Julius Mangubuli
Ms. Chandida Monyadzwe

U.S. Government
Ambassador John E. Lange
Mario E. Merida, US Embassy
Patrick Fleuret, Mission Director, USAID RCSA
Oliver Chapeyama, RCSA
Morse Nanchegwa, RCSA

NGOs
Kalahari Conservation Society, Gaborone, Mr. Neil Fitt
Conservation International, Maun


48











Appendix 2: References


L. Cassidy. 1997. OKACOM. Diagnostic Assessment. Human Environment. Prepared for the
Permanent Okavango River Basin Commission.

Dept. of Tourism. n.d. DRAFT NDP9.

Dept. of Wildlife and National Parks. September 1993. Strategic Plan for Wildlife Research in
Botswana.

Department of Wildlife. 2001. Strategic Plan for Research, Priority Areas for Ngamiland.
Preliminary Draft.

HOORC. June 1995. Development of the Okavango Research Centre Project Memorandum.

HOORC. February 2000. Future Direction of the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research
Centre, University of Botswana. Mission, Objectives, Activities, Resource Requirements: A
Five Year Academic Development Plan. 2000-2004.

HOORC. 12 March 2001. Required Education Facilities at HOORC.

HOORC. 14 July 2001. Development of the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center in
Maun 2003-2000.

HOORC. 14 July 2001. Development of the HOORC, 2003-2009. DRAFT NDP9

HOORC Annual Report. 13 August 2001

HOORC. 20 November 2001. Development of the Resource Centre at HOORC: All information
under one roof. Summary of the Request

HOORC. Board Meeting briefing materials. 4 March, 2002. Development of HOORC 2002/2004
Doc#2002/01

IUCN and Symbiosis Consulting. October 2001. Botswana National Ecotourism Strategy. 2nd
Draft.

KCS. 1995. Proposal for the development of the Okavango Research Center.

J.E. Mbaiwa. 2001. The Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in The
Okavango Delta, Botswana, Draft Report 1. The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research
Center, University of Botswana, Maun.

Ministry of Finance and Development Planning. August 1997. National Development Plan:
1197/98-2002/03.


49











M. Murray-Hudson and D. Parry. 1997. OKACOM. Biophysical Environment (Botswana
Sector). Prepared for the Permanent Okavango River Basin Commission.

NCSA. February 2002. Project Proposal: Okavango Delta Management Plan.

Presidential Task Group for a Long Term Vision for Botswana. 1997. A Framework for a Long
Term Vision for Botswana.

Research and Development Unit, UB. February 2002. Workshop on Vision for the Future of
HOORC.

N.O.H. Setidisho. Sept. 1979. University Education in Botswana: Its Contribution to National
Development. Problems and Prospects.

University of Botswana Act, 1982. No. 11 of 1982. Pp. 519-557.

University of Botswana. June 1995. Development of the Okavango Research Centre. Project
Memorandum.

University of Botswana Maun Campus. February 2002. Discussions on Vision for the Future
of HOORC (Notes from a workshop dated 7 February 2002)

University of Botswana. No date. Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre.


50




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