• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 The earth
 Definitions
 Western hemisphere
 Natural divisions
 Western hemisphere
 Eastern hemisphere
 North America
 United States
 Eastern states
 Middle states
 Southern states
 Western states
 South America
 Europe
 Asia
 Africa
 Plants
 General review
 Back Cover






Group Title: National geographical series ;, no. 1
Title: First lessons in geography
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00028266/00001
 Material Information
Title: First lessons in geography on the plan of object teaching : designed for beginners
Series Title: National geographical series
Alternate Title: Monteith's first lessons in geography
Physical Description: 68 p. : ill., col. maps ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Monteith, James
A.S. Barnes & Company ( Publisher )
Russell & Struthers ( Engraver )
Publisher: A.S. Barnes & Company
Place of Publication: New York
Chicago
New Orleans
Publication Date: 1875
Copyright Date: 1873
 Subjects
Subject: Geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1875   ( rbgenr )
Catechisms -- 1875   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1875   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations -- 1875   ( local )
Bldn -- 1875
Genre: Textbooks   ( rbgenr )
Catechisms   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Hand-colored illustrations   ( local )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
United States -- Louisiana -- New Orleans
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by James Monteith.
General Note: Illustrations engraved by Russell & Struthers.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements on back cover.
General Note: Maps are hand-colored
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00028266
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002234518
notis - ALH4950
oclc - 19116940

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
    The earth
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Definitions
        Page 12
    Western hemisphere
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Natural divisions
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Western hemisphere
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Eastern hemisphere
        Page 20
        Page 21
    North America
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    United States
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Eastern states
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Middle states
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Southern states
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Western states
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    South America
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Europe
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Asia
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Africa
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Plants
        Page 66
        Page 67
    General review
        Page 68
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES.


FIRST LESSONS

IN


GEOGRAPHY:

ON THE


PLAN OF OBJECT


TEACHING.


DESIGNED FOR BEGINNERS.


BY JAMES MONTEITH,
AUTHOR OF A SERIES OF GEOGRAPHIES, MAPS, AND GLOBES.



A. S. BARNES & COMPANY,
NEW YORK, CHICAGO AND NEW ORLEANS.
1875.









CONTENTS.

PAGE
DEFINITIONS ............................................. 12


MAI
PAGE
WESTERN HEMISPHERE ....... 13
EASTERN HEMISPHERE........ 20
NORTH AMERICA ............ 22
UNITED STATES.............. 26
EASTERN STATES............. 34
MIDDLE STATES.............. 38


PAGE
SOUTHERN STATES ... ....... 42
WESTERN STATES ........... 46
SOUTH AMERICA ............. 50
EUROPE ..................... 54
A SIA ........................ 58
AFRICA ..................... 62


OBJECT LESSONS.
PAGE PAGE
THE EARTH ...............6-11 WESTERN STATES ............ 49
NATURAL DIVISIONS ........15, 6 SOUTH AMERICA ............ 53
NORTH AMERICA............. 25 EUROPE .................... 57
UNITED STATES.............32, 33 ASIA........................ 61
EASTERN STATES............. 37 AFRICA ..................... 6
MIDDLE STATES.............. 41 PLANTS ............. .....66, 67
SOUTHERN STATES ........... 45 GENERAL REVIEW ............. 68

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year z862, by
JAMES MONTEITH,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District
of New York.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by
JAMES MONTEITH,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.










PREFACE.


THE plan of this little work is such, that the subject is pre-
sented in the most simple form.
It treats of GENERAL FEATURES, such as the locality and
description of Continents, Countries, States, Rivers, Mountains,
&c., without dwelling prematurely upon details which embarrass
the learner in his first effort.
The MAPS are free from all meridians, parallels of latitude,
and any superabundance of names; thereby giving a greater
prominence to the general divisions of land and water.
The plan of Object Teaching, by which the mind re-
ceives impressions through the medium of the eye, is here so
combined with the Map Exercises, that a child just able to read
is at once interested and instructed.




NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES.
MONTEITH'S FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.
MONTEITH'S INTRODUCTION TO MANUAL
MONTEITH'S MANUAL OF GEOGRAPHY.
Those children who have mastered the First Lessons" may, if the teacher elect, be
put at once into the Manual of Geography."
MONTEITH'S COMPREHENSIVE GEOGRAPHY
is a new work for intermediate and higher classes. It contains Relief Maps, Map
Drawing, and Globe Segments.
MONTEITH'S PHYSICAL AND POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
also for intermediate and higher grades, makes Physical Geography a prominent feature,
and treats it as a science.
MONTEITH'S CLASS-ROOM MAPS.
With names all laid down. By varying their distance from the pupils, they may be used
as reference, or as outline maps. A large and a small series.
MONTEITH'S COMPLETE SCHOOL GLOBES,
6, 9, and 12 inches in diameter, mounted.
MONTEITH'S UNITED STATES HISTORY.
Plan of the author's Manual," for beginners.
i i









31n the '13eginning


don CreateD trbe Omcaen


_


I ~
___ __


anD the eartb.











FIRST


LESSONS


IN

GEOGRAPHY.



LESSON I.
THIS is a picture of the WORLD or EARTH upon
which we live. It is a GREAT BALL. The part you see
is the outside or SURFACE, and is either land or water.
The parts of this picture which appear smooth and
light represent the WATER; the rough and dark parts,
the LAND; and you may know that on the Earth's
surface, there is MORE WATER than land.
Look at the picture, and you will observe ships
sailing on the water. That great body of water is
called an OCEAN, and ships can sail on any part of
it, and in any direction. The spots you see in the
Ocean are portions of land, called ISLANDS, because
there is water all around them.
If you look at the land, on this picture, you will
notice black, rough places in it: these are the highest


_
__






8 LESSON II.

parts of the land, and are called MOUNTAINS. The
low places between the mountains are called VAL-
LEYS.
On the land, you will see white places; these rep-
resent LAKES, which are bodies of water surrounded
by the land; and RIVERS, which are streams of water
flowing through the land.
The land is higher than the rivers, and the rivers
are higher than the ocean; therefore, the rain that
falls on the land runs into the rivers, and the rivers
flow toward the ocean.
There are FIVE OCEANS on the Earth, named the
PACIFIC, ATLANTIC, INDIAN, NORTHERN or ARCTIC,
and SOUTHERN or ANTARCTIC. The largest is the
Pacific or mild Ocean, which is the one you see be-
fore you in the picture.
The water shown at the upper part of the picture
is the Northern or Arctic Ocean, and that at the
lower part, the Southern or Antarctic.
There are two oceans on the side of the Earth
not shown in the picture; they are the Atlantic
Ocean, and the Indian Ocean.
Ships sail on all these oceans, as you see them
here on the Pacific-just as flies travel around an
orange. A fly travels on the outside or SURFACE of
an orange; people and ships move on the SURFACE






LESSON III. 9

of the Earth. The fields, hills, roads, rivers, and
ponds, are parts of the Earth's SURFACE.
Look again at the picture, and you will see land
all along the right hand side, stretching from the
upper part of the picture almost to the lower, or
from the NORTH to the SOUTH. That land is AMER-
ICA. At the middle, or CENTER, the land is very
narrow, and because it is a narrow neck of land it is
called an ISTHMUS. The land from this isthmus
toward the north is NORTH AMERICA, and that from
the isthmus toward the south is SOUTH America.
North America and South America are joined to
each other by the ISTHMUS OF DARIEN or PANAMA.
Point to North America,-to South America.
On the right hand side of this picture or illustra-
tion you may observe a steamship sailing on the
Atlantic Ocean. That is but a small part of the
Atlantic. From what land does the steamship ap-
pear to be sailing? To what land is it sailing? Is
it sailing north, or south ?
The land which you see on the left hand side of
this picture is a part of Asia. The other part of
Asia is on the side of the earth opposite that which
is here represented; also Europe and Africa. North
America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa
are GRAND DIVISIONS of the land on the Earth.






io LESSON IV.


ABOUT DAY AND NIGHT.

The right hand side of the picture appears light,
and the left hand side, dark. That is because the
Sun is represented to be shining on the right hand
side, where it is DAY; the opposite side being in the
shade, has NIGHT.
On the picture, in North and South America, it is
day; in Asia, it is night. To cause day in Asia, the
Earth must turn around so as to bring Asia toward
the Sun. Now, any little boy or girl can tell whether
America will have day or night, when Asia has day.
The side of the Earth which is toward the Sun has
day, and the opposite side has night; therefore, as the
Earth turns around, or whirls like a top, every place
will have day, then night, then day again, and so on
continually. The Sun shines on one half of the Earth
at a time. If the Earth did not whirl about, it would
be day continually on the side toward the Sun, and
continual night in all countries on the opposite side.
As God caused the Sun to shine upon the Earth to
give day, what change would take place with day and
night, if He should cause the Sun to cease shining?
Look again at the picture, and you will notice the
Sun shining on one side of the Earth, and the Moon
shining on the opposite side, where it is night. The






LESSON V. ii

world is at that time between the Sun and Moon,
which is always the case when you see the Moon full
and bright. The STARS you see at night are large
shining bodies like the Sun, but appear smaller than
the Moon or the Sun, because they are much further
from us. The Earth is larger than the Moon, and
the Sun is much larger than the Earth. The Moon
is nearer to us than the Sun.
On the picture you see CLOUDS. Very few little
children know what clouds are, and how rain comes
from them. So a few words will be here said about
them. You have all seen rising from boiling water,
something that appears like smoke. It is not smoke,
but VAPOR, to which the water is changed by the heat;
and if you would hold a cold basin over that vapor,
you would see the vapor turn again to water. In the
same way, heat causes vapor to rise from the ocean,
lakes, rivers, ponds, etc., and float in the air, until it
meets cold air, when it is changed back to water, and
returns in the form of drops, and is called RAIN.
So the VAPOR rises from the water; and, while in
the form of clouds, the wind blows it over the dry
ground, until it is turned into drops, when it comes
down to water the grain, the grass, and the flowers;
which, by their bright looks and sweet odors, express
their joy and thankfulness to God, who alone can do
such wonders.







12 LESSON VI.


Cr-
CTyj-4


What is Geography?
A description of the Earth's surface.
What is the Earth ?
The planet or body on which we live.
What is the shape of the Earth ?
Round, like a ball.
Of what is the Earth's surface composed?
Land and water
What is a Continent?
The largest division of the land.
How many Continents are there?
Two; the Eastern and the Western.
On which Continent do we live? *
On the Western Continent.


T 1
i:,
'' I








LESSON VII. 13


What are the divisions of the Western Continent?
North America and South America.
What are the divisions of the Eastern Continent ?
Europe, Asia, and Africa.
What is an Ocean?
The largest division of the water.
How many Oceans are there?
Five; Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern or
Antarctic, Northern or Arctic.
Which is the largest Ocean?
The Pacific Ocean.
What is an Island?
A portion of land entirely surrounded by water.
What is a Peninsula?
A portion of land almost surrounded by water.
What is a Lake?
A body of water almost surrounded by land.
f I-







14 LESSON VIII.

What is an Isthmus?
A neck joining two larger portions of land.
What is a Strait?
A passage connecting two larger bodies of water.
What is a Cape?
A point of land extending into the water.
What is a Mountain?
A vast elevation of land.
What is a Hill?
A small elevation of land.
What is a Volcano?
A mountain which sends out fire, smoke, and lava.
What is a Valley?
The low land between hills or mountains.
What is a Plain?
A level tract of land.
What is a Desert?
A barren region of country.
What is a Sea?
The division of water next in size to an ocean.
What is a Gulf or Bay?
A body of water extending into the land.
What is a River?
A stream of water flowing through the land.
By what are Rivers formed?
By Springs.
What is a Cataract or Waterfall?
Water flowing over a precipice.








LESSON IX. 15


The pupils will, upon this illustration, point out
the different divisions of land and water.
Point to a MOUNTAIN. Why? Ans. Because it is
a vast elevation of land. Point to a VOLCANO. Why?
Ans. Because it is a Mountain which sends out fire,
smoke, and lava. Point out the following, and give
the reason:-A HILL-VALLEY-ISLAND-PENIN-
SULA- LAKE- ISTHMUS-STRAIT-CAPE-PLAIN-
BAY-RIVER. In which of these do you see a church ?
Show which house stands on a hill-on a mountain.
On which division are the cattle grazing?


"
1-,
-i-~-
--







16 LESSON X.

















What is a Map?
A picture of the whole, or a part, of the Earth's
Surface.
What are the directions on a Map?
Toward the top, North; toward the bottom,
South; to the right, East; to the left, West.

In what direction from the center of the picture is the Island ?
North.
In what direction is the Volcano? The Cape?
The Bay? The Lake? The Strait? The Mountains?
The Isthmus?
What is in the East? In the West? In the South? In the
North? In the Northwest? In the Scatheast? In the
Northeast? In the Southwest?






LESSON XI. 17




-- --- -








Here is shown a part of a RIVER with a sail-boat
on it. A man is sitting in the stern of the boat, and,
by means of the helm or rudder, he steers it in any
direction. The forward part of a boat is called the
bows. A sloop has one mast; a schooner, two.
On the BANK or edge of this river is a windmill,
with its long arms spread, which, being broad and
light, are blown by the wind round and round, like a
great wheel. In the mill are two large flat stones,
one of which is moved against the other, face to face,
by the arms; so that whatever the miller places be-
tween the stones is ground fine like flour.
Corn when ripe and dry is ground into Indian
meal or corn meal; oats when ground we call oat
meal; wheat or rye ground, is flour. Tell how corn
is planted, and when it ripens.









WESTERN HEMISPHERE.





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LESSON XII. 19


In what Division of the Earth do
we live?
In North America.

What Division south of North
America ?
South America.

When you look at the rising
Sun, what Ocean is before
you?
The Atlantic Ocean.

Where does the Sun rise ?
In the East.


Where, then, is the Atlantic
Ocean ?
East of America.
When you look at the setting Sun,
what Ocean is before you?
The Pacific Ocean.
Where does the Sun set?
In the West.
Where is the Pacific Ocean?
West of America.
What Ocean north of America?
The Northern Ocean.


LESSON XIII.


What Strait connects the Pacific
Ocean with the Northern
Ocean?
What Ocean south of America?
What Isthmus joins South Ame-
rica to North America?
Which is the most northern
Country of North America?
What Bay west of Greenland ?
What Mountains in N. America?
What Mountains in S. America?


Do yo" live in North America or
in South America?
What Ocean east of America?
What Ocean west of America?
Where is the Northern Ocean?
Where is the Southern Ocean?
In what Ocean are the Sandwich
Islands? The Cape Verd
Islands?
Mention the principal products
of North America,-of South
America.







EASTERN HEMISPHERE.


-\


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SOUTHEPfr NC.rCr







LESSON XIV.


What are th6e Divisions of the
Eastern Continent?
Europe, Asia, and Af-
rica.
Which is the largest?
Asia.
Which is the smallest?
Europe.
Which is furthest to the right, or
east ?
Asia.


Which is furthest south?
Africa.
What Ocean east of Asia?
Pacific Ocean.
What Ocean south of Asia?
Indian Ocean.
What Ocean west of Africa?
Atlantic Ocean.
What Sea south of Europe?
Mediterranean Sea.


LESSON XV.

What Seas southeast of Europe ? What Oceans do you find on the
What Sea northeast of Africa? Eastern Hemisphere?
What Desert in Africa? What Division between the At-
lantic and Indian Oceans?
What Country in the southeast
of Asia? What Division west of Asia?
What Country in the southwest What Division south of Europe?
of Asia? Between what Divisions is the
Mediterranean Sea ? Red Sea?
What Islands in the west of Eu- Mediterranean Sea? Red Sea?
rope? Where is Cape of Good Hope?
Which is the largest Island in What do we get from Asia? Af-
the World? Australia. rica? Europe?



















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NORTH AMERICA







LESSON XVI. 23


What three Oceans around
North America?
Arctic, Atlantic, and Pa-
cific.

What Country furthest north ?
Greenland.

What Country furthest south?
Central America.

In what Country do we live?
In the United States.


What Country north
United States ?
British America.
What Country south
United States?
Mexico.


of the



of the


What Territory in the north-
western part of N. America.
Alaska.
What Peninsula in the south?
Yucatan.


LESSON XVII.

Between what two Oceans is the Name the Countries of North
United States? America and their products


What Bay west of Greenland?

What Bay in British America?
What large Gulf south of the
United States?
What large Sea southeast of
North America?
What Mountains in North
America?
What Isthmus south of North
America ?


Which are the largest two Coun-
tries of North America?
Between what two Countries is
the United States?
In what country is Hudson
Bay?
Between what two Countries is
Baffin Bay?
What large Island southeast of
the United States?
Where is Cape Farewell?


is -







24 LESSON XVIII.


NORTH AMERICA.


COLUMBUS DISCOVERED AMERICA, OCT. 12TH, 1492.


By whom was America discovered?
By Columbus; about 380 years ago.
What kind of People did he find here ?
Dark-colored Savages.
What did Columbus name them ?
Indians.
After whom was America named ?
A man named Americus, or Amerigo.
What can you say of the Northern part of N. America?
It is very cold.
What of the Southern part of N. America ?
It is very warm.
.... -.







LESSON XIX. 25


*; -.- _-. -


-.. .
- : .- '








ICEBERGS NEAR GREENLAND.


This picture represents icebergs, and ships near
them. Icebergs are great bodies of solid ice, reach-
ing much higher than the masts of a ship, and ex-
tending downward to a great distance below the
surface of the water. They will float in the water,
and every year some ships are wrecked by coming
in contact with them.
Icebergs are most numerous in the Arctic Ocean.
Men have sailed through Baffin's Bay, as far north
as the ship you see in the map.
The names of those men who have become famous
for their adventures in the frozen regions north of
North America, are Sir John Franklin, Dr. Kane,
Dr. Hayes, and Captain Hall.
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LESSON XX.
What is this Country called?
The United States, or the Union.
How many States are there? 38.
How are they divided?
Into Eastern, Middle, Western,
and Southern States.
Which is the largest State?
Texas.
Which is the smallest State ?
Rhode Island.
Which is furthest south?
Florida.
Which is furthest northeast? Maine.
What States border on the Pacific Ocean?
California and Oregon.
What State in the north is almost surrounded
by Lakes?
Michigan.
Which is the largest of those Lakes?
Lake Superior.


LESSON XXI.
What large River flows south into the Gulf
of Mexico ?
What large Rivers flow into the Mississippi?
Which is the largest of those Rivers?
What Rivers flow into the Missouri River?
Into what does the Ohio River flow?
What River between Texas and Mexico?
What Mountains extend through the Western
part of the United States?
What Mountains nearer the Pacific Coast?
What Ocean east of the United States? West?
What Country north ?
What Country and Gulf south?
In what State do you live?
What States surround your State ?
Mention the great Lakes.
Where is Lake Superior?
What Lake in Utah? North of Minnesota? N


I


I
IDi~--~s~ ----~-~I~-----R--~----___~I_ __~~








LESSON XXII.

What State is furthest northeast? South?
West?
Between what Ocean and Gulf is Florida?
What three States touch Lake Superior?
What four States touch Lake Michigan?
What four States touch Lake Erie?
What States border on the Pacific Ocean?
What States border on the Gulf of Mexico?
What States border on the Atlantic Ocean?
What States on the east side of Mississippi
River?
What States on the west side?
What three States on the north side of the
Ohio River?
What two on the south side?
Through what Territories do the Rocky
Mountains extend?


LESSON XXIII.

What Country east of Maine?
What Dominion north of New York? Canada.
What three States east of New York?
What two south?
What State and lake north of Ohio?
What River south? State east? West?
What State north of Iowa? South?
What State north of Virginia?
What State south? West? Northwest?
What State north of Louisiana?
What State east? West?
What States north of Kentucky?
What State west? East ? Northeast? South?
What Cape east of North Carolina?
What Cape south of Florida?
What large Island south of Florida?
What Strait between Florida and Cuba?


__ ~ __ ~~ ___


I __ ~I~ ~_ __







LESSON XXIV. 29

THE UNITED STATES.
~F- Pl;& & Al,-


GEORGE WASHINGTON.
Who governed this country about 1oo years ago?
The king of England.
How did the Americans obtain their freedom?
By a war which lasted nearly eight years.
What great man led the American army?
George Washington, who became the first Presi-
dent of the United States.
\








30 LESSON XXV.


CAPITALS.



CAPITAL OF THE UNITED STATES.


WASHINGTON,


on the


Potomac River.


States.
MAINE,
NEW HAMPSHIRE,
VERMONT,
MASSACHUSETTS,

RHODE ISLAND,

CONNECTICUT,*


EASTERN STATES.
Capitals.
Augusta, on the
Concord, on the
Montpelier, on the
Boston, on
Providence, on
Newport, on
Hartford, on the


Situation.
Kennebec River.
Merrimac.
Onion.
Baston Harbor.
Providence Bay.
Narragansett Bay.
Connecticut.


LESSON XXVI.

MIDDLE STATES.


States.
NEW YORK,
NEW JERSEY,
PENNSYLVANIA,
DELAWARE,


Capitals.
Albany,
Trenton,
Harrisburg,
Dover,


on the
on the
on the
on


Situation.
Hudson River.
Delaware.
Susquehanna.
zones' Cre:k.


*kon-net'e-kut.









LESSON XXVII. tI


SOUTHERN STATES.


States.
MARYLAND,
VIRGINIA,
NORTH CAROLINA,
SOUTH CAROLINA,
GEORGIA,
FLORIDA,
ALABAMA,
MISSISSIPPI,
LOUISIANA,
TEXAS,
WEST VIRGINIA,


Capitals.
Annapolis,
Richmond,
Raleigh,
Columbia,
Atlanta,
Tallahassee,
Montgomery,
Jackson,
New Orleans,
Austin,
Wheeling,


on the
on the
near the
on the
near the

on the
on the
on the
on the
on the


LESSON XXVIII.

WESTERN STATES.


States.
ARKANSAS,
TENNESSEE,
KENTUCKY,
OHIO,
MICHIGAN,
INDIANA,
ILLINOIS, (oy)
WISCONSIN,
IOWA,
MISSOURI,
CALIFORNIA,
MINNESOTA,
OREGON,
KANSAS,
NEVADA,
NEBRASKA,
COLORADO,


Capitals.
Little Rock,
Nashville,
Frankfort,
Columbus,
Lansing,
Indianapolis,
Springfield,
Madison,
Des Moines,
Jefferson City,
Sacramento,
St. Paul,
Salem,
Topeka,
Carson City,
Lincoln,
Denver,


on the
on the
on the
on the
on the
on the
near the
on
on the
on the
on the
on the
on the
on the
or the
on
on


Situation.
Arkansas River.
Cumberland.
Kentucky.
Scioto.
Grand.
W. Fork of White R.
Sangamon.
Fourth Lake.
Des Moines.
Missouri.
Sacramento.
Mississippi.
Willamette.
Kansas River.
Carson River.
Salt Creek.
Cherry Creek.


NoTE.-The capital of a state or a country is the city in which its laws are made.


Situation.
Severn River.
James.
Neuse.
Congaree.
Chattahoockee.
Inland.
Alabama.
Pearl.
Mississippi.
Colorado.
Ohio.






32 LESSON XXIX.









I Il




More than 200 years ago, this country, now called
the United States, was a wilderness, inhabited by
Indians, who subsisted upon fish, and the flesh of
wild animals which they killed in hunting, and who
lived in huts made of bark and the skins of animals.
No cities were built until the country was settled
by white men, who came from Europe; and, proba-
bly, where your house now stands, Indians have
chased the buffalo, bear, or some other wild animal.
Many of the white settlers of this country suffered
great cruelties from the Indians, who burned their
houses, and murdered men, women, and children, as
you see in the picture. At present, there are no
savages east of the Mississippi.
The first inhabitants of a place are called settlers,
or colonists.






LESSON XXX. 33


The people of the United States are famous for
perseverance and inventive genius. A few years ago,
people rode in stage-coaches over rough and hilly
roads; but now they travel by steamboat or railroad.
A STEAMBOAT is moved along by the two large
wheels revolving in the water. The wheels are
moved by STEAM, which rises from boiling water.
Traveling by steamboat began about sixty years
ago; and by railroad, about forty years ago.
A STEAMSHIP differs from a Steamboat in having
sails besides the steam power. A SAILING VESSEL is
moved by the wind blowing against the sails.
The TELEGRAPH you see in the picture is a long
iron wire supported by tall poles. At each end of
the wire there is an instrument, by which men send
messages with lightning velocity. The telegraph was
invented by Prof. Morse, about thirty years ago.













Quebec

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Bangor









Ml~ANCCHE ER

L.TON

r / ,Cape Cod
ENC 4












ENGLANDHEER

tate is printed in large capital S'
al is designated by a *







LESSON XXXI. 35


How many Eastern or New Eng-
land States are there ? Six.
What two States north of Massa-
chusetts?
New Hampshire and
Vermont.
What two States south of Massa-
chusetts ?
Connecticut and Rhode
Island.
What State west?
New York.


What large River between Ver-
mont and New Hampshire?
Connecticut River.
Through what States does it
floor ?
Massachusetts and Con-
necticut.
What Rivers in Maine?
Kennebec and Penob-
scot.
What River in New Hampshire?
Merrimac River.


LESSON XXXII.


Which of the Eastern States
touch the Atlantic Ocean?
Which touch New York?
What Lake between Vermont
and New York?
What Country north of the East-
ern States?
What Country east of Maine ?
What large Island south of Con-
necticut?
What water between Connecti-
cut and Long Island?


Name the Eastern States.
Which is the largest?
Which is the smallest?
Where are the Green Mountains?
Where are the White Moun-
tains?
Wnat large River flows into
Long Island Sound?
Wnat Cape in the eastern part
of Massachusetts ?
What three Rivers flow into the
Atlantic Ocean?







LESSON XXXII


SHIP-BUILDING IN MAINE.-The ship with flags flying is about to be LAUNCHED, or slid down on
a wooden track into the water; after which it will receive its masts and sails. There are
more ships built in Maine than in any other State.
What are these six States together called?
New England.
Who first came to New England?
People from England, called Puritans, also Pil-
grims.
In what does Massachusetts excel every other State?
In the manufacture of cotton and woolen goods,
and of boots and shoes.
Where was the first cotton-mill in the United States built?
In Rhode Island.
For what is Connecticut noted?
For the manufacture of woolen and cotton goods,
iron and wooden wares, clocks and buttons.


_ __ ~~


_I






LESSON XXXIV. 37




i
- -i



-s-a



This is a view of a canal and a manufactory In
the foreground are sheep and cattle, which are raised
in Vermont in large numbers.
COTTON is a soft, white substance obtained from the
cotton-plant, which grows in the Southern States. It
is brought in bales to the manufactories of the East-
ern States; where, by means of machinery, it is drawn
out and twisted into threads, and then it is woven into
cloth. It can be dyed or printed in colors. Muslins
and calicoes for ladies' dresses are made of cotton.
WOOL grows upon sheep, and is cut in warm wea-
ther. It is made into threads by spinning, then woven.
Blankets and winter clothing are made of wool. So,
cotton is obtained from a plant; wool, from an animal.
A CANAL is like a great ditch filled with water, so
that boats may be drawn along by horses or mules
which walk on a TOW-PATH at the side of the canal.
cotn sotand rma lnt;wol ro nanml









N







LESSON XXXV. s


How many Middle States are
there? Four.
Which is the largest?
New York.
Which is next in size?
Pennsylvania.
Which is next?
New Jersey.
Which is the smallest?
Delaware.


What Country north of New
York?
Canada.
What two Lakes on the West?
Ontario and Erie.
What large River in the eastern
part of New York?
Hudson River.
What large River in the west-
ern part of New York?
Genesee River.


LESSON XXXVI.


What River between Pennsyl-
vania and New Jersey?
What large River flows through
the eastern part of Pennsyl-
vania?
What two Rivers meet in the
western part?
What large River flows north-
east from Lake Ontario?
What Mountains in Pennsyl-
vania?
What Mountains in New
York?


What Bay between New Jersey
and Delaware?
Name the Middle States?
What States south of New York ?
What States east of New York?
Where is Lake Erie?
Where is Lake Ontario?
Where is the Hudson River?
Where is the St. Lawrence?
Into what Lake does the Gene-
see River flow?
What Lake northeast of New
York?








40 LESSON XXXVII.


TRAIN OF CARS IN FULL SPEED.


For what are the Middle States noted ?
For Canals and Railroads.
What can you say of New York ?
It has more inhabitants than any other State.
For what is Pennsylvania celebrated ?
For Coal and Iron.
What does New Jersey produce ?
Fine fruits and vegetables.
What does Delaware produce?
Excellent wheat, Indian corn, and peaches.
What does the word Pennsylvania mean ?
Penn's Woods.
---






LESSON XXXVIII. 41















WILLIAM PENN, a Quaker, came from England to
this country, about two hundred years ago, with
many other Quakers, and formed a colony or set-
tlement in Pennsylvania.
Penn was very wise and kind in his dealings with
the Indians, and paid them for all the land which his
people occupied; consequently, the Indians respect-
ed and loved the Quakers very much; and Pennsyl-
vania was the only American colony formed without
bloodshed. It has now more inhabitants than any
other State in the Union, except New York.
On the left of the picture are Indian women called
SQUAWS, carrying their PAPPOOSES, or babies, which
hang on their backs like soldiers' knapsacks.








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LESSON XXXIX. 43


How many Southern States are
there? Eleven.
Which is the largest?
Texas.

Which is furthest south?
Florida.
What division of land is Florida?
A Peninsula.
What Island south of Florida?
Cuba.


What States north of Florida?
Georgia and Alabama.
What Bay east of Virginia?
Chesapeake Bay.

What River flows through the
northern part of Alabama?
Tennessee River.

Into what River does the Ten-
nessee flow?
Into the Ohio River.


LESSON XL.


What River between South Caro-
lina and Georgia?
Into what Ocean and Gulf do
the Rivers of the Southern
States flow?
In what Mountains do most of
them rise?
What three ranges of Mountains
on this map?
Which are the most mountainous
of the Southern States?
What two Western States be-


tween the Southern States
and the Ohio River?
Name the Southern States.
Which of them touch the Atlan-
tic Ocean.
Name the States that touch the
Gulf of Mexico.
What two Southern States touch
the Mississippi River?
Between what Ocean and Gulf
is Florida?
Where is Cape Sable?


I '
'Ds








AA LESSON XLI.


- "~S-,;-'-~----



--~- ~ ;;~-,.-'-.;i;~-

~ *-LP1
lT~- -
it~;; ,


HARPER'S FERRY is the village shown in this picture. The river on the left, running under
the bridge, and disappearing in the distance, is the POTOMAC, on the left of which is Mary-
land, and on the right is Virginia. The river running from the right and meeting the Poto-
mac is the SHENANDOAH. You see MARYLAND HEIGHTS on the left side of the Potomac,
and LOUDON HEIGHTS on the right.

What is the Climate of the Southern States?
Very warm.

What are raised on the plantations of the Southern States ?
Cotton, Corn, Sugar-cane, and Tobacco.

What State excels in the production of Sugar?
Louisiana.

What Presidents were born in Virginia?
W ashington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Harri-
son, Taylor, and Tyler.







LESSON XLII. 45






kV- _. -







On the right of this picture you see the tall SUGAR-
CANE growing; in the front, C ON; and in the cen-




ter, TOBAcco. The sugar-cane is cut and taken to the
o c* : *, ---_. .. .. :- -a




crushing-mill,where the juice is pressed out,and after-




wards boiledethe sugar settling to the bottom of the
kettles, and the MOLASSE remaining at the top.
On the leavright of this picture you see the tall Sbefore
CANE growing; in the front, COTTON; and in the cen-



they are ready for use. (esugar-cane is cut and taken to the67



Cotton is a plant which is extensively cultivated in
crushin-mill, where the juice is pressed out, and after-
wardsshell, which bursts, andr settling to the cotton appears. It is the
kettles, and from the MOLASSES remaining at the mill, to be
The leaves of the tobaseeds co-plantained inside. It is after-
they ards spun into thready for us, then woven into cloth. The67.)
soft, white subst a plant which is extensively cultivated seen groin
othe Southern States. It is formed cotton a kind of nut-
shell, which bursts, and the cotton appears. It is then
picked from the covering, and taken to the mill, to be
separated from the seeds contained inside. It is after-
wards spun into threads, then woven into cloth. The
soft, white substance which you have seen growing
on the top of a thistle, resembles cotton on the plant.











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LESSON

How many Western States are
there? Sixteen.
What three are furthest north?
Minnesota, Michigan,
and Wisconsin.
What four are on the west side
of the Mississippi River?
Minnesota, Iowa, Mis-
souri, and Arkansas.
What three lie on the north side
of the Ohio River?
Ohio, Indiana, Illin s.


I XLIII. 47

What two south of the Ohio?
Kentucky and Tennes-
see.
What Lake north of Michigan?
Lake Superior.
What Lake east of Michigan?
Lake Huron.
What Lake west of Michigan?
Lake Michigan.
What Lake north of Ohio?
Lake Erie. .


LESSON XLIV.


Into what River do nearly, all
the other Rivers of the
Western States flow?
Which flow into the western side
of the Mississippi?
Which into the eastern side?
In what State does the Missis-
sippi rise?
What Rivers flow into the
Ohio River?
What Western States do not ap-
pear on this map? (See p. 31.)


What States border on Lake
Superior? On Lake Michi-
gan? On Lake Erie?
What River in Ohio? In Illinois?
What River between Indiana
and Illinois?
What States south of Tennes-
see?
What States east of Kentucky?
Which is the coldest, or most
northern, of the Western
States ?
Which is the warmest?


_ _I __


........~.







48 LESSON XLV.

-. .. _. .
















AN APPLE-ORCHARD IN THE WEST.
Which is the largest section of the Union ?
The Western States.
In what are the people chiefly engaged?
In Farming.
What are raised on their extensive farms?
Corn, wheat, oats, rye, and fruit; besides horses,
cattle, sheep, and hogs, in large numbers.
What State is noted for gold?
California.
Which are the most populous of the Western States?
Ohio and Illinois.
What State is noted for corn, wheat, and oats ?
Illinois.






LESSON XLVI.


This is a picture of an overflow of the Mississippi
River. Look at your map of the United States,
and observe that the greater part of our country is
drained by that river; that is, the rain that falls in
the States and Territories between the Alleghany
and Rocky Mountains, runs into rivers which flow
directly or indirectly into the Mississippi. This is
caused by the land sloping downward from these
two chains of mountains where the land is highest,
to the Mississippi River where it is lowest.

To prevent inundations or freshets, which do great
damage to houses, farms, and cattle, the people have
raised banks, called LEVEES, along the river.
L--- -


_ _


49







CARIBBEAN SEA
NORTH .

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II U TS f 7 -7---


,] .. ... 1..._,IA. IN .. A"
C,:o -, ,' ; l . .r


Horn


SOUTH
AMERICA
* M 'IPul


Russell & Struther,N







LESSON XLVII. 51


What natural division of land is
South America?
A Peninsula.
What Division of the Earth is
north of South America?
North America?
What Ocean east?
Atlantic Ocean.
What Ocean west?
Pacific Ocean.
What Sea north?
Caribbe'an Sea.






LESSON

Into what Ocean do nearly all
the Rivers of South America
flow?
Which is the largest Country in
South America?
Which are further north ?
Which further south?
What great chain of Mountains
in South America?
Near what Coast do they extend?
What Mountains in Brazil?
What precious stones are found
there ?


What Bay northwest?
Bay of Panama.
Which is the largest River in
South America?
Amazon River.
How long is the Amazon?
Four thousand miles.
What River further north than
the Amazon?
Orinoco River.
What Rivers in the southeast?
Parana and La Plata.






XLVIII.

Between what two Oceans Is
South America?
Where is the Caribbe'an Sea?
What Countries border on that
Sea?
What Countries border on the
Atlantic ?
Which on the Pacific?
Which is inland?
What Cape on the North?
East? South?
What Strait between Patagonia
and Terra-del-Fuego?







2 LESSON XLIX.


SOUTH AMERICA.

i ?_ -- -=


For what is South America noted ?
For the largest rivers and longest mountain-chain
in the world.
What precious stones are found in Brazil?
Diamonds.
What has been obtained in Bolivia?
Silver in large quantities.
What animals roam over the vast grassy plains of South America?
Horses and cattle in immense numbers.
What remarkable species of serpent in South America ?
The Boa Constrictor, which is able to destroy
animals as large as deer or buffaloes.






LESSON L. 53















ever saw; they are so high that their tops are contin-
. ...... --- -











ually covered with snow. Some are volcanoes.

cities, killing many of the inhabitants. An earthquake
is a violent shaking of a part of the Eart h.
1jj







whsixtyimes as higmuch safer than horighest church steeple you



plaever saw; they are so hig. Indians, with that theirs fastened on their backsn-
EARTHQUAKES sometimes occur, and destroy whole
cities, killing many of the inhabitants. An earthquake
is a violent shaking of a part of the Earth.
Travelers cross the Andes on the backs of mules,
which are much safer than horses in such dangerous
places. Indians, with chairs fastened on their backs,
sometimes carry travelers over the mountains with
safety.
Immense birds, called CONDORS, are found here,
which often destroy sheep and cattle, tearing them
with beak and claws.








ARC T /

EUROPE
OCEAN
0 C E A N
North Cape

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LESSON LI.


What Ocean north of Europe ?
The Arctic Ocean.
What Ocean west of Europe ?
The Atlantic Ocean.
What Sea south of Europe ?
The Mediterranean Sea.
What is the Mediterranean Sea?
The largest Sea in the
world.
What Bay west of France ?
The Bay of Biscay.


Which is the largest Country in
Europe?
Russia.

Which is the smallest?
Switzerland.
What two Countries touch Rus-
sia on the southwest?
Austria and Turkey.
What Country south of Tur-
key?
Greece.


LESSON LII.


What two Countries west of the
North Sea?
What Country west of England?
What Country south of England?
What Country south of France?
What Country west of Spain ?
Where are the Alps Mountains?
Where are the Pyrenees Mount-
ains?
Where is the coldest part of Eu-
rope?
Where is the warmest part?


What two Oceans touch Europe ?
What five large Seas do you find
on the map of Europe?
What four Rivers?
What Strait connects the Mediter-
ranean Sea with the Atlantic.
What Cape in the northern part
of Europe ?
What Sea east of Italy ?

Where is the White Sea?
Mention all the Countries of Eu-
rope.


--- I --








6 LESSON LIII.


^ k


-,



WILLIAM TELL, a heroic Swiss, in his efforts to obtain liberty for his country, was captured;
and, for punishment, was cruelly ordered to shoot an apple placed on the head of his own
little son. The arrow cut the apple in two, without injuring the child. This occurred
more than 500 years ago.

What can you say of Europe?
It is the smallest Grand Division of the Earth.
Which are the most important divisions of Europe ?
England, Germany, Russia, and France.
What are the inhabitants of Europe called ?
Europeans.
What does the southern part of Europe produce extensively ?
Grapes, Oranges, Lemons, Figs, and Olives.
What important School-law in Prussia and some other countries ?
All the boys and girls are compelled to attend
school regularly.







LESSON LIV.


Here is a view in the northern part of Europe,
which is noted for the great length of its winters,
and of its winter nights and summer days.
For several weeks in winter, the people there do
not see the sun; but for the same length of time in
summer, the sun does not set.
The men you see in the picture are called Lap-
landers, because they live in Lapland. They travel
from place to place in sleds drawn rapidly by rein-
deer. The milk and flesh of these animals are used
for food, and their skins for clothing. A Laplander's
wealth is known by the number of reindeer he owns.
In the southern part of Europe the climate is
mild and pleasant; oranges, lemons, figs, olives,
grapes, and other fruits being raised in abundance.


_ __I __
I


57





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LESSON LV.
What Ocean north of Asia?
Arctic Ocean.
What Ocean east?
Pacific Ocean.

What Ocean south?
Indian Ocean.

What Grand Division west?
Europe.
What Grand Division southwest?
Africa.

What Sea and Bay south?
Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.
What four Seas east?
Kamtschatka, Okhotsk, Japan,
and Yellow.

What Sea southeast?
China Sea.


LESSON LVI.
What Sea between Arabia and Africa?
Which is the largest Sea west of Asia?
What two Seas between Asia and Europe?
What Sea east of the Caspian Sea?
What large Country in the northern part of
Asia?
To what Empire does Siberia belong?
What Empire south of Siberia?
What Country in the southeastern part of the
Chinese Empire?
What Country west of Chinese Empire?
What two Countries of Asia furthest west?
What Country between the Arabian Sea and
Bay of Bengal?
What two Countries northwest of Hindoostan?
Between what two Countries is the Persian
Gulf?
What Mountains between Chinese Empire and
Siberia? Between Hindoostan and Thibet?
Between Asia and Europe ?


_ __I I ~ ~
I~ I


I
_ _ I ~s








LESSON LVII.


THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA was built more than two thousand years ago, to protect the
Chinese from their enemies on the north. It extends over hills and plains, is about
thirty feet high, and so broad that six horses can walk abreast on the top of it. Its
length is 1,500 miles, or about the distance between Maine and Texas. It is strength-
ened by large square towers.
What can you say of Asia ?
Asia is the largest and the first inhabited Grand
Division of the Earth.
Who were our first parents ?
Adam and Eve, who lived in Asia.
Where was our Saviour born ?
In the western part of Asia.
Of what does the Empire of Japan consist?
Of Islands, the largest of which is Hondo.
What articles come from Asia?
Furs from Siberia, Tea from China, and Coffee
from Arabia and Java.
-- i F


_ ___ _







LESSON LVIII. 61















This is a picture of a HEATHEN TEMPLE or place of
worship. It contains frightful looking objects, be-
fore which you see people falling on their knees and
faces. They are IDOLS, or false gods, which these
people worship. They are made chiefly of stone or
wood. Such people are called IDOLATERS, PAGANS,
or HEATHENS. They believe these idols can hear
their prayers, and grant what they ask.
You will be surprised to learn that there are mil-
lions of idolaters. They live in Asia, Africa, and the
islands of the Pacific Ocean.
Missionaries have been sent from the United
States and Europe to teach those ignorant people
about the TRUE GOD who says, in his command-
ments, THOU SHALT HAVE NO OTHER GODS BUT ME."












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AFRICA

Russell & Struthers NY.







LESSON LIX. 63


What Division of land is Africa?
A Peninsula.
Between what two Oceans is
Africa ?
Atlantic and Indian.
What Division of the Earth
north of Africa?
Europe.
What Sea north of Africa?
Mediterranean Sea.
What Sea northeast of Africa ?
Red Sea.


What Division of the Earth?
Asia.
What Isthmus between Africa
and Asia?
The Isthmus of Suez.
What Gulf west of Africa?
Gulf of Guinea.
What large Island southeast of
Africa?
Madagascar.
What Cape in the south?
Cape of Good Hope.


LESSON LX.


Which are the largest Rivers in
Africa ?
What Plain in the north?
What Region south of the Great
Desert?
What Country west of Soudan?
What Region east of Guinea?
What Mountains in the eastern
part of Africa?
What Lake in Soudan?
What Cities in Africa?


With what Ocean is the Mediter-
ranean Sea connected?
With what Ocean is the Red Sea
connected?
What three Countries of Africa
touch the Red Sea?
What large River flows through
them into the Mediterranean
Sea?
What large River flows into the
Gulf of Guinea?
On which side of Africa is Gui-
nea?







64 LESSON LXI.





- .
-_--:~ ~~-- ----_-
o -! -: ; -- --i









A SAND-STORM IN THE DESERT. The travelers and camels lie on the ground for a few minutes,
until the storm has passed over.

What can you say of Africa?
It is the hottest Grand Division of the Earth.
What Animals in Africa?
The Elephant, Lion, Leopard, Hyena, Zebra,
and others.
WhatLangerous Reptiles in Africa?
Crocodiles, and Serpents of enormous size.
What Trees abound in the forests?
The Cocoa-nut, Date, and other Palm-trees.
Palm-oil is used in making soap and candles.
What storms sometimes overtake Caravans in the Great Desert?
Storms of scorching sand, raised by the wind.






LESSON LXII. 65


Africa is noted for its extreme heat, ferocious ani-
mals, and Great Desert.
The Great Desert is about 3,000 miles long, and
I,ooo miles wide. It contains vast sandy plains
which are dry, hot, and barren, except in some green
places, called OASES. People cross the desert in
large companies, called CARAVANS, in order to de-
fend themselves from robbers. Camels are used in
crossing the desert.
Lions, elephants, and other wild animals are found
in Africa as well as Asia.
Elephants are hunted for the ivory, of which their
tusks are composed. Many have been tamed, and
are very gentle.








66 LESSON LXIII.


COFFEE TREE.


TEA PLANT.


The Tea
Plant grows
to the height
of five or six
feet, and is cul-
tivated in Chi-
na and Japan.
The leaves are
gathered when
green, and dried
on heated pans.
The color of
green tea is due
to a coloring
matter that is
dusted over it
in the pans.
The branches of the Coffee Tree are loaded with berries, which look
like red cherries. Each berry contains two grains or seeds of a light green
color, which resemble beans cut into halves. These are roasted and ground
before the coffee is ready for ise.
Coffee comes from Arabia, Java, South America, and the West Indies.


'I,/





lb /






WE


WHEAT..


W heat,
Rye and Oats
grow on the top
of the plants or
stalks. When
ripe they are cut
something like
grass; then the
grain is removed
from the husk,
by being thrash-
ed or beaten.
The stems or
stalks we call
straw.


OATS.








LESSON LXIV. 67


Indian Corn, or
Maize, grows upon
a stalk higher and
thicker than that of
the other grains. It
is found in ears on
the plant. When
ripe and dry, the
grain is ground into
Indian, or corn meal.
The Tobacco
Plant, when fully

a d

grown, is cut, and
hung up to dry. From
the leaves are made
smoking and chewing
tobacco, cigars, and
snuff. Tobacco was
first used in America.
r-


The Cotton Plant
produces a pod which
contains the white,
downy substance called
cotton, which is spun
into threads, then wov-
en into cloth.


SPINNING-WHEEL.


Flax is a plant
which has a slender
stalk, and grows to the
height of two or three
feet. The skin or bark
consists of fine fibers
that may be separated
and spun into thread,
then woven or made in-
to cloth, called Linsn,
Cambric, Lawn, Lace,
&c. The seeds yield
an oil called Linseed
Oil.


THE COTTON-PLANT. FLAX.


INDIAN CORN.


TOBACCO-PLANT.


THE COTTON-PLANT.


FLAX.








68 GENERAL REVIEW.


COUNTRIES,
Where situated Bound them.
United States? Brazil?
Greenland ? Spain?
Russia? Siberia?
China? Mexico ?
England? Persia ?
Venezuela ? Central America ?
Hindoostan ? German Empire ?
Arabia? Scotland ?
Turkestan ? Ireland?
Patagonia? Turkey?
Austria? Argentine Republic?
France ? Italy ?
British America? Egypt?

MOUNTAINS,
Where are they situated?
Rocky? Blue Ridge?
Himalaya? White?
Andes? Altai?
Alleghany? Pyrenees?
Sierra Nevada? Ural?

C4PES.
Where ar they? Into what waters do
they project?
Cod? Farewell?
Good Hope ? Horn?
Hatteras? St. Roque?

ISLANDS.
Where are they? By what waters are
they surrounded?
Greenland? Iceland ?
Australia ? Madagascar?
West Indies ? Japan Is. ?
Cuba? Sicily?
Terra del Fuego?

SE4S, GULFS 4ND B4YS.
Where are they? Into what waters do
they open ?
Mediterranean S. ? G. of Guinea?
G. of Mexico? B. of Panama?
Arabian S. ? G. of California?
Hudson B.? Yellow S.?
Black S.? S. of Kamtschatka ?
China S.? BaffinB. ?
B. of Biscay? Delaware B.?
S. of Japan ? G. of St. Lawrence?
White S.? Baltic S.?


STRAITS.
Between what lands are they ? What waters
do they connect?
Davis' ? Hudson?
Magellan? Behring ?
Florida? Gibraltar?

RIVERS.
Where do they rise? What courses do they
take f Into what waters do they low ?
Amazon? Mississippi ?
Nile? 'Delaware?
Missouri? Rio Grande?
Susquehanna? Ohio ?
Genesee? Hudson?
Mackenzie? Savannah?
St. Lawrence? La Plata?
Potomac? Columbia?
Kennebec? Tennessee?
Niger? Cumberland?
Orinoco? Danube?
Connecticut? Arkansas?

L4KES.
Where ar y Waare they hat are heir outlets
Superior? Huron?
Great Bear? Champlain?
Great Salt? Maravi ?
Ontario ? Michigan?
Great Slave ? Erie ?

CITIES,
In what Countries or States are they ? On
or near what waters?


London?
New York?
Constantinople?
Mexico ?
Lima?
Lisbon ?
Boston?
Washington ?
Paris ?
Buffalo ?
Montgomery?
Madrid ?
Dublin?
Albany?
St. Petersburg?
Montreal ?
New Orleans?
Philadelphia?
Cairo?
Richmond ?


Rio Janeiro?
St. Louis?
Galveston ?
St. Paul?
Atlanta ?
Montpelier?
Harrisburg?
Havana?
Cincinnati?
Charleston ?
Nashville ?
San Francisco?
New Haven?
Calcutta ?
Jefferson City?
Annapolis ?
Trenton?
Santa Fe ?
Tallahassee ?
Pittsburg ?








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