• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Board of trustees/Station...
 Content






Group Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station bulletin no. 72
Title: Feeding horses and mules on home-grown feed-stuffs
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00028160/00001
 Material Information
Title: Feeding horses and mules on home-grown feed-stuffs
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 113-126 : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conner, C. M ( Charles M )
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1904
 Subjects
Subject: Horses -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mules -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Chas. M. Conner.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00028160
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 18156683

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 113
    Board of trustees/Station staff
        Page 114
    Content
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









BULLETIN NO, 72


FLORIDA

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION






Feeding Horses and Mules





Home :Grown Feed -Stuffs,



By CHAS. M, CONNER.


'The bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon application
to the Directqr of the E i r i -rit Station, Lake City, Fla.


Jacksonville, Fla,,
INDUSTRIAL RECORD PUB. CO,
1904,


JUNE, 1904.












BOARD OF TRUSTEES.



GEO. W. WILSON, President ...................... Jacksonville.
C. A. CARsoN, Vice-President ......................Kissimmee.
F. L. STRINGER, Secretary ......................... Brooksville.
F. E. HARRIS ......... ...............................Oeala.
E. D. BEGGS .................................. Pensacola
J. R. PARROTT .................................. Jacksonville.
F. M. SIMONTON ....... ..............................Tampa.




STATION STAFF.



T. H. TALIAFERRO, C. E., Ph. D. ..................... Director.
--------- ..............Vice-Director and Chemist.
*--------- .......................... Entomologist.
---------- ........... .Botanist and Horticulturist.
CHAS. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S ..................Veterinarian.
**C. M. CONNER, B. S. ............ ......... Agriculturist.
A. W. BLAIR, M. A. .......... ............Assistant Chemist.
*--------- ..................... Assistant Chemist.
F. C. REIMER, B. S. .................. Assistant Horticulturist.
W. P. JERNIGAN ...................... Auditor and Bookkeeper.
A. L. CLAYTON ................... Stenographer and Librarian.
JOHN H. JEFFRIES .... ... Gardener, Horticultural Department.
F. E. WORTHINGTON ...........Assistant in Field Experiments.
*To be supplied.
**Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes.













Feeding HoIses and Mules

on Home/Grown Feed-Stuffs,

BY CHAS. M. CONNER.
The object of the experiment herein described was tt deter-
mine whether or not home-grown feed-stuffs could be substituted
for corn and oats, which are high priced. The all-important ques-
tion to the feeder of live stock is, "How may I reduce the cost of
feeding my animals ? Since Florida does not, as yet, raise
enough corn to supply home consumption, the deficiency must be
supplied by shipping corn from the corn belt. This, of necessity
makes the price of 'corn high.
Corn is the principal grain used in tte State for feeding
horses and mules, and, frequently the corn that is shippled in from
the West is of a very low grade, and is more or less injurious to
the health of the animals. Corii is what is known as a carbon-
aceous feed and its principal use is to supply heat and energy to
the animal; in other words it enables the animal to do work. The
animal also requires a certain amount of protein, or blood-building
and muscle-forming feed. This may be supplied to a certain ex-
tent bM corn but only -lightly, as will be noticed on looking up
the analysis of corn. B.-i\\.e.:1d hay Was used to supply protein.
The high price of corn led us to investigate the feeding value,
of sweet potatoes and cassava as a substitute for corn;
Sweet potatoes have been used, more or less, by the farmers
of the South as a food for their'work stock, but no data have been
collected on the subject. So far as we can learn, this crop has
been used to feed animals having only light work to do or none.










BULLETIN NO. 72.


at all. In the experiment herein detailed we used sweet potatoes
to feed animals that were doing rather hard farm work.
Cassava has been used more or less, but like the sweet potato,
no data were available.
Both of the above plants have been used extensively for feed-
ing cattle; but, in feeding horses, the fact that these crops have
high water contents, must be taken into consideration. The stom-
ach of the horse will hold about 20 quarts while that of the cow
will hold about 270 quarts; thus you see that it would be a physical
impossibility for a horse at hard work to eat enough of a bulky or
watery food to supply his system with enough digestible matter,
while the cow will do well on it.
In making up the rations for the teams the bulkiness of the
feed was taken into consideration,
The station has at its disposal eight head of horses and mules.
These were divided into two lots; one animal in each team being
in lot I, and the other in lot II. The division' was made in this
way in order that both should do the same amount of work and
receive the same attention, as grooming, watering, etc.
The animals were watered after feeding in the morning, and
at noon before and after feeding, and before feeding at night, as
is the practice on all farms. No record was kept of the amount of
water drunk, from the fact that the experiment was to run so long
and the amount of water consumed was not deemed of much im-
* portance.
The hay used in this experiment was what would be called Al
beggarweed. This was not all pure beggarweed for the reason
that in some parts of the field the beggarweed did not grow thick
enough to keep down the sand-spur; hence some of this grass was
mixed with the hay, as will be found in most eases where hay of
this character is saved on the farm. As yet we have no digestion









FEEDING HORSES AND MULES ON. HOME-GROWN FEED STUFFS. 117

coefficient for this plant hence we made up our rations on the
supposition that this hay had about the same feeding value as
good cow-pea hay. The hay was run through the shredder to
facilitate weighing, etc. The roots were run through a cutting
box, or cut by hand before feeding; this was found necessary be-
cause of the large size of most of the roots.
The rations were weighed up each day as per schedule given
below. The refuse was weighed back each day and the animal
charged with just what it ate.
The animals were weighed three times the first week and the
average taken as the initial weight. They were wighed once
every week thereafter until the last week when they were weighed.
'three times' again and the average taken as the final weight.
Weighing was done before watering in the morning.
The following is a description of the animals used:
Team No. I, Charley and George, was of medium weight, draft
horses, about nine years old, used for plowing and hauling through-
out the greater part of the experiment.
Team No. II, Peter and Kit, was of medium-weight, mules,
about eight years old, used for plowing and hauling.
Team No. III, Logan and Joe, was rather light, mules, about
five years old, used for plowing and hauling.
Team No. IV, Maude and Fanny, was rather light, about six
years old, did no regular work, but since each did the same amount
the rations are comparative.
The names will designate sex.
In calculating the price of rations we used what we consid-
ered the normal market price. All the feed was raised on the
College Farm.
Estimated price of feed:










BULLmTIN NO. 72.


Corn .......... $22.50 per ton. Sweet Potatoes, $6.00 per ton.
Hay ........... 15.00 per ton. Cassava ........ 6.00 per ton.
Rations offered:
Charley, initial weight, 1,193 lbs.
Corn ................. 7 lbs.)
Hay .............. ... 15 lbs.) Cost per day 23.62e.
Sweet potatoes ........15 lbs.)
George, initial weight, 1,096 lbs.
Corn .................12 lbs.)
Hay ................. 18 lbs.) Cost per day 27e.
Peter, initial weight, 1,071 lbs.
Corn ..................6 lbs.)
Hay .................. 17 lbs.) Cost per day 24c.
Sweet potatoes ........15 lbs.)
Kit, initial weight, 932 lbs.
Corn ...... ..........10 lbs.)
Hay ................. 15 lbs.) Cost per day 22.50c.
Logan, initial weight, 921 lbs.
Corn ................. 5 lbs.)
Hay .................17 lbs.) Cost per day 22.87c.
Sweet potatoes ........15 lbs.)
Joe, initial weight, 945 lbs.
Corn .................10 lbs.)
Hay .................15 lbs.) Cost per day 22.5e.
Maude, initial weight, 996 lbs.
Corn ............... 3.5 lbs.)
Hay ..................15 lbs.) Cost per day 18.79e.
Sweet potatoes .......12 lbs.)
Fanny, initial weight, 911 lbs.
Corn ................. 7 lbs.)
Hay .................15 lbs.) Cost per day 19.12c.
The above rations were made up after a two weeks preliminary
*The Hay was increased to 20 lbs. in second half of period.









FEEDING HORSES-AND MULES ON HOME-GROWN FEED STUFFS. 119

period in which we tried to determine the capacity of each animal.
We did not use the feeding standard, but rather allowed the
capacity of the animal to influence the'make-up of the riali.,i.
However, if the analysis of beggarweed hay is taken as equal
to that 'of cow-pea, we find that the rations are about up to the
standard for horses hard at work, which is as follows: "Standard
for a 1,000-lb. horse at hard work calls for 2.5 lbs. of protein, 13.3
lbs. "of carbohydrates and .8 lb. of ether extract."
The ration furnished Charley during the first half of period
contained 2.3 lbs of protein, 14.9 lbs. of carbohydrates and .69 lb.
of ether extract. On examining the table of feed given below, we
find that this ration was larger than he could conustune.
In feeding horses and mules we do not seek to make the ani-
mal gain in weight as we would a steer, but rather to keep him
From losing weight while at hard work. If we succeed in doing
this the, ration is sufficient. The weight of a horse or mule in
good condition should'be fairly constant; but, if the animal falls
off in weight, either it is doing more work than it can stand, or
the ration fed is not sufficient to maintain it-that is barring sick-
ness. An increase or decrease of a few pounds in the weight of
an animal does not signify anything as this gain or loss may be due
to the amount of water drunk by the animal the day before. On
a warm day an average mule or horse will drink from 50 to 110
Ibs. of water.
All animals were in good condition at the beginning of this
experiment.
The following table shows the weight of animal and amount
of feed consumed per week. It will be noticed that at the end of
the sixth week the rations were changed, that is, the animal get-
ting all corn ration gets sweet potatoes and corn. This change
was made gradually; one week being used in making the change.







TABLE 1.


CHARLEY

Feed-
Consumed,
T +ha


GEORGE

Consumed
Ti


98 3 105 1234 84179.8 ....


1096
1067
1069
1094
1108
1100


1089


PETER

Consumed
T.ha


2521443 6 3


73.8 195


1__ 111--- 11 I -I 1 -1I1-


KIT

Feed
Consu'd
TLbha.


LOGAN

Consumed
TLhH.


N99 .......2101342 606


JOE

Consumed
Lbs.


... 1412 174


MADE

Feed
Consumed
Lbs. I


E~ I P.
C W
C. B.


... 147 559 504


1081 6549.8. ..1942 35 57 101 930 168.6 79 .... 965 124.5193.11 84 1015 49


FANNY

Fe ed
Consumed
Lbs. I


0 '


.... 940


Dec. -r-
12-18 84 110 .... 1240 49104 105 1114 84 82 .... 1088 35 47 99 966 70 69 ... 938 35 79 105 974 49 89 .... 1016 24.5 77 84 960
19-25 84 116 .... 1240 49105 105 1120 84 67 .... 1092 32 36 88 972 70 93 .... 944 35 71 105 984 49 114 .... 1012 24.5 91 84 960
De 84 122.... 1242 49 89 105 1106 84 64 .... 1090 31 67 80 970 70 70 .... 956 35 82 105 986 49 127 .... 1028 24. 97 84 966
Jan. 1
2-8 84 126 .... 1220 49 81 105 1100 84 74 .... 1068 27 47 73 972 70 67 .... 940 35 82 105 960 49 131 .... 1028 24.5 81 84 964
9-15 84 107 .... 1192 49 94 105 1108 84 76 .... 1070 34 33 82 940 70 72 ... 948 35 74 105 977 49 132 .... 1040 24.5 92 84 964
16-22 84 105 .... 1186 49 90 10 10, 84 72 ... 1058 33 43 81 940 70 76 .... 928 35 68 105 964 49 133 .... 1036 24.5 93 84 960

Total, 504 686 .... .... 294563 63 .... 5C4435 .... .... 192273 503 ...420447 ...... 210 456 63 ...294 726 ........ 147 531 504 ..

Aveht, 84114.3.... 1220 4993.8 105 1108 8472.5.... 1078 3245.583.8960 774.5.... 942 35 '76 105 974 49 121 .... 1027 24.588.5 84 962


Oct.
24-80
Oct. 81
Nov. 6
7-13
14-20
21-27
Nov. 26
Dec. 4

Total,

Aver.


L .s Lb& --I


--- 1 11-1 1-- -1-1


1--1-1--1 1-1-1-1--1-1-1-1-1-1-









FEDING HORSES AND M SULES ON HOME-GROWN FEED STUFFS. 121

A careful survey of the table will show us that in every ease
but one, that .of George, the actual ration consumed by the ani-
mal cost less per day when sweet potatoes were used than when
an all corn ration/was used as noted below.
Charley consumed per day, during first half of period:
Corn ................. 7 lbs.)
Sweet potatoes ........15 lbs.) Cost, 22 87e.
H ay .................14 lbs.)
Second half-
Corn .............. 12 lbs.)
Hay ................ 16.3 lbs.) Cost, 25.72c.
George consumed per day during first half of period:
Corn ...............12 lbs.)
Hay ................ 11.4 lbs.) Cost, 22.05c.
Second half-
Corn ............... ..7 lbs.)
Sweet potatoes ......15 lbs.) Cost, 22 42c.
Hay .............. 13.4 .bs.)
Peter consumed per day during first half of period:
Corn ....:.......... 6 lbs.)
Sweet potatoes ..... 15 lbs.) Cost, 19.12c.
H ay ................ 10.5 lbs.)
Second half-
Corn / ............. .12 lbs.)
Hay .................. 10.3 lbs.) Cost, 21.22e.
Kit consumed per day during first half of period:
Corn ................9.3 lbs;)
Hay ................7.1 lbs.) Cost,. 15.78c.
Second half-
Corn ............... 4.6 lbs.)
Sweet potatoes ......11.9 lbs.) post, 13.60e,
Hay ................ 6.5 lbs.)









122 BULLETIN NO. 72.

Logan consumed per day during first half of period:
Corn ..............., 5 lbs.)
Sweet potatoes ......14.4 lbs.) Cost, 15.94c.
Hay ............... 8 lbs.)
Second half--
Corn ................10 lbs.)
Hay .................10.6 lbs.) Cost, 19.20e.
Joe consumed per day during first half of period:
Corn ............... 9.8 lbs.)
Hay ................11.3 lbs.) Cost, 19 5c.
Second half-
Corn ................. 5 lbs.)
Sweet potatoes ........15 lbs.) Cost, 18.37c.
Hay ................. 11 lbs.)
Maude consumed per day during first half of period:
Corn ............... 3.5 lbs.)
Sweet potatoes ......12.0 lbs.) Cost, 17.66c.
Hay ................ 18.5 Ibs.),
Second half-
Corn ............... 7 lbs.)
Hay ................. 117.3 lbs.) Cost, 20.85c.
Fanny consumed per day during first half of period:
Corn ................. 7 lbs.)
Hay ................ 12.3 lbs.) Cost, 17.10c.
Second half-
Corn ............... 3.5 lbs.)
Sweet potatoes ......12.0 lbs.) Cost, 16.84c.
Hay ............... 12.4 lbs.)
The amount of hay offered in all the ration was greater than
the needs of the animal, which accounts for the difference, in most
cases, of the cost of the ration offered and the cost of ration con-
sumed.









FEEDING HORSES AND MULES ON HOME-GROWN FEED STUFFS. 123

In looking over the weights of the animals, we see very little
variation.' In all but two cases, there was an increase in weight
when sweet potatoes were fed.
The most-important fact brought out in this experiment is
that sweet potatoes may be substituted for at least one-half of th4
corn ration, this substitution being at the rate of three pounds of
sweet potatoes for one of corn. This being the case, an acre of
sweet potatoes yielding 150 bushels is equal to a yield of 50 bushels
of corn, so far as feeding the work stock is concerned. We do not
think that a horse at hard work would do well on an all sweet
potato ration from the fact that the bulk would be too great for
the capacity of the stomach. We expect to .take this phase of
the question up later on and determine just how far this substi-
tution can take place. We have fed one mule for three months
on sweet potatoes, cassava and hay with good results. He was
used for' light work about the lot, such as hauling feed, bedding,
etc.
At the end of the sweet potato period cassava was substi-
tuted for sweet potatoes, and the feeding continued for six weeks
longer. Two of the teams were dropped, as the amount of cas-
sava was limited. We have no digestion coefficient for cassava,
hence we assumed that it had about the same feeding value as
sweet potatoes and fed accordingly. We soon found that the
animals did not take to the cassava as well as they did to the
sweet potatoes. By examining the cassava column in the table
below it will be seen that the amount of cassava consumed each
week. was not constant like it was when sweet potatoes were fed.
This was true of other animals fed on,cassava, which were not
in this experiment. The 'following table shows weight of ani-
mal and amount of feed consumed each week:










BULLETIN NO. 72.


TABLE 11.

LOGAN JOE FANNY MADE

DATE
co to
s se is 5s S $ a s

Jan.26 Feb.1...... 35 80 61 942 70 63 .... 97824 102 35 966 49 121 ....1088
Feb. 2-.8............. 35 72 72 932 70 65 .... 96024. 0 90 68 49 130 ....1042
" 9-15 ......... 35 85 81 968 70 86 .... 97224.5 102 64 968 49 133 ....1030
16-22.......... 35 76 73 932 70 68 ... 9624.5 99 53 64 49 137 ....1040
23. Mar, 1.... 35 84 73 932 70 72 .... 96024.5 110 54 970 49 128 ....1044
Mar. 2-8............. 35 87 67 940 70 87 .... 96424.5 106 46 976 49 130 ....10t4

Total............... 210 484 427 ....420 441 .... ... 14 609 20 .... 779 .. ....

Average .......... 35 80.66 71.16 941 70 73.5... 96624.6 101 53.3 96 49 129.....10


A careful survey of the above table shows that the cassava
was not as palatable as the sweet potatoes. The average amount
consumed per day was much less and more irregular than when
sweet potatoes were fed. The animals maintained their weights
throughout the experiment, which may go to show that cassava is
more concentrated than the sweet potatoes.
The large amount of hay consumed by Maude and Fanny
was due to the small amount of concentrates offered.

After the cassava experiment was finished Joe was fed for
six weeks on a ration of corn and cane syrup while Logan re-
ceived a regular corn ration. The syrup used was some that was
of low grade and had been around the place for two or three
years.
No record was kept of the hay consumed in this experiment,
as it ran fairly constant throughout the former experiments.
A low-grade syrup, which is a by product from the sugar











FEEDING HORSES AND MULES ON HOME-GROWN FEED STUFFS. 125

factories, is fed quite extensively on sugar plantations, and ap
the farmer sometimes has syrup left on hand which cannot be
sold, but might be used for horse or hog feed it was thought best
to make a test of its feeding value with what we had on hand.
Sugar is highly digestible and is one of the most concentrated
forms of carbohydrates. It is very soluble hence it is quickly
taken up into the system and has proven valuable for feeding
hard worked animals or for finishing a fat animal for the show
ring. Prof. Henry, an authority on feeding, says that the feeding
value of syrup is equal to that of corn, pound for pound. As our
'syrup was a little thin, 5 pounds was substituted for 4 pounds of
corn in the ration fed to Joe. We have used syrup in preliminary
tests with other animals and find that it is relished by all farm
animals. In feeding, the syrup was given at night and morning
and a larger corn ration given at noon.
The following table shows weight and amount of corn and
syrup consumed per week:

TABLE III,

JOE LOGAN
DATE
Corn Syrup Weight Corn Syrup Weight

March 12-18............. 42 35 967 70 ...... 985
19-25 ............ 42 35 976 70 ...... 939
March 26, April 1 ...... 42 35 971 70 ...... 950
April 8 ................ 42 35 982 70 ...... 940
9-15............... 42 35 982 70 ...... 951
16-22.............. 42 35 968 70 ...... "948

Total................... 252 210 .... 42 ...... ......

Average ................. 42 35 974 70 ...... 944










BULLETIN NO. 72.


Both mules remained in good condition during this experi-
ment in spite of the fact that they were doing hard plowing
throughout the entire time.
Considerable prejudice is held, by livery stable men and in
the log camps, against the use of native hay for feeding work
stock. We have used it exclusively for two years, and have never
had any cause to regret its use. The chemical analysis of some of
our native grasses is higher than that of Timothy, which is used
almost exclusively in feeding horses.
In conclusion we might sum up by saying that:
Sweet potatoes may be substituted for one-half of the corn
ration in feeding horses and mules doing hard work.
Cassava may also be used in about the same ratio as sweet
potatoes, but is not so palatable to the animal.
Syrup may be fed to the work stock, provided it is mixed
with chopped hay or something to give it bulk.















The following publications of the Florida Experiment Sta-

tion are available for free distribution, and may be secured by

addressing the director of the Experiment Statipn, University of

Florida, Lake City, Fla.:


22 Fertilizers .........................pp.' 48
24 Annual Report ................. 32
25 Leeches and eeching .......... 17
26 Big Head........................... 19
27 Pineapple .. ........... ........." 14
28 Liver Fluke Southern Cattle
Fever........................... 15
29 The San Jose Scale ..............." 28
80 The Qulture of Tobacco.......,..' 28
82 Cotton and Its Cultivation ........ 4
38 Orange Groves.................. 33
34 Insect Enemies .................... 96
386 Insects Injurious to Grain ........ 31
S7 Pineapple ...................... 15
38 Tobacco in Florida ............... 63
89 Strawberries ....................... 48
0 The Fall Army Worm............ 8
SThe San Jose Scale ............ 30
SSome Strawberry Insects....... 55
43 A Chemical Study of Some Typi-
cal Florida Soils..................pp.128


Some Common Florida Scales.... 24
Baking Powders.................. 15
Some Citrus Troubles............." 85
Pecan Culture..................... 31
Feeding With Florida Feed Stuffs 95
The Cottony Cushion Scale....... ". 48
Top-working of Pecans......... 124
Pomelos ....................... .. 43
Cauliflower......................... 20
Velvet Beans ...................... 24
TwoPeach Scales. ................ 32
Peen-to Peach Group.............. 22
Packing Citrus Fruits.............. Folio
Texas Fever and Salt Sick....... pp. 31
The Kumquats... ............. 14
The Mandarin Orange Group...... 32
The White Fly .................. 94
Pineapple Culture. I. Soils...... 85
Cultivation of Citrus Groves...... 30
Pineapple Culture. II. Varieties 32
Japanese Persimmons........... ", 48


PRESS BULLETINS.


1 Directions for Preparation of Bordeaux
SMixture.
2 Lime and Its Relation to Agriculture.
3 Seed Testing.
4 The White Fly.
5 Basic Slag. '
6 Nursery Inspection (part 1).
7 Nursery Inspection (part 2).
8 Care of Irish Potatoes Harvested in
the Spring and Held for Fall Planting.
9 Sore Head.
10 Plants Affected by Root Knot.
11 Vinegar.
18 Seed Beds and Their Management.
13 Treatment for San Jose Scale.
14 Beef from Velvet Beans and Cassava.
15 and 16 Some Poultry Pests.
17 Preservatives in Canned Goods.
18 Cantaloupe Blight.
19 Out Worms.
20 Hog Cholera and Swine Plague.
21 Parturient Paralysis.
22 Nitrogen as a Fertilizer.


28 Protection Against Drought.
24 Orange Mites.
25 op.
26 umpy Jaw.
27 over Crops.
28 Moon Blindness.
29 Food Adulteration.
30 Dehorning Cattle.
31 Coffee.
32 Foot and Mouth Disease.
33 Red Spldier Bug or Cotton Stainer.
34 Ox Warbles.
35 Butter.
36 Hook Worms in Cattle.
37 Velvet Bean.
38 Practical Results of Texas Fever Inoc-
ulations.
39 Lung Worms in Swine.
40 and 41 Glanders.
42 Food Adulterations-Spices and Con-
diments.
43 How to Feed a Horse.
44 Tree Planting.
45 The Sugar-cane Borer.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs