• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Selection of plants
 Climatic limitations
 Planting and care
 Species and varieties of plants...
 Index of common names






Group Title: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station bulletin no. 323
Title: Ornamental hedges for Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00028151/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ornamental hedges for Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 32 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mowry, Harold
Dickey, R. D ( Ralph Davis ), 1904-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1938
 Subjects
Subject: Hedges -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Ornamental -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Harold Mowry and R.D. Dickey.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "A revision of Bulletin 172."
General Note: Includes index.
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00028151
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 18213984

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Selection of plants
        Page 4
    Climatic limitations
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Planting and care
        Page 6
        Time of planting
            Page 6
        Preparation of the soil
            Page 6
        Handling and setting the plants
            Page 6
        Pruning or shearing
            Page 7
        Kinds of outline
            Page 8
    Species and varieties of plants for hedges
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Index of common names
        Page 32
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 323


(A Revision of Bulletin 172)


August, 1938


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
WILMON NEWELL, Director


UbrsW


ORNAMENTAL HEDGES

FOR FLORIDA

By
HAROLD MOWRY and R. D. DICKEY


Fig. 1.-Hedge group on horticultural grounds of the Florida
Experiment Station.


Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA








EXECUTIVE STAFF BOARD OF CONTROL
John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of R. P. Terry, Acting Chairman, Miami
the University Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director W. M. Palmer, Ocala
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Asst. Dir., Research H. P. Adair, Jacksonville
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm. Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Cl d B 1 A B I -i- t dji


Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate*
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
L. M. Thurston, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
O.IW. Anderson, M.S., Asst. Poultry Hush.
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husbandman
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Assistant
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
L. H. Rogers, M.A., Spectroscopic Analyst
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist**
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. .H Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D.,Ph. Specialist**
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist**
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist and
Head of Department
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Spec., Fumigation Res.
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold. M.S.. Assistant Botanist


BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. W, Lawless, B. S., Asst. Horticulturist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Associate Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Horticul.
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman
W. T. Foresee, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer*
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifleld, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge*

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist

Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
Sam O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist*
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist, Celery Inv.
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist*
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist*
In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
** Head of Department.









ORNAMENTAL HEDGES

FOR FLORIDA

By HAROLD MOWRY and R. D. DICKEY

CONTENTS
PAGE PAGE
INTRODUCTION ............................. .. ...... 3 Handling and Setting the Plants ........ 6
SELECTION OF PLANTS ............... ......... 4 Pruning or Shearing ............................ 7
CLIMATIC LIMITATIONS .................................... 4 Kinds of Outline .................................. 8
PLANTING AND CARE ........................................ 6 SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF PLANTS FOR
Tim e of Planting ................................... 6 H EDGES ............................... .. .......... 8
Preparation of the Soil ........................ 6 INDEX OF COMMON NAMES .......................... 32

INTRODUCTION

Ornamental hedges under some conditions are desirable and
should be given due consideration in the planting plan through-
out Florida. Often they can be substituted for unsightly fences,
which are frequently seen where no actual barrier is needed.
The very low hedges are decidedly more ornamental than the
larger ones, but the latter can be used on larger properties,
and to enclose playgrounds, gardens, clothes-drying yards, etc.,
as well as to screen unsightly objects.
Few states are so favored as Florida with a climate that
will permit the growing of such a wide assortment of plants for
hedge purposes. Realizing this splendid opportunity for utilizing
hedge plants in Florida, and their possibilities to the landscape
gardener, Dr. P. H. Rolfs, former director of this Experiment
Station, instituted several years ago a series of experiments
with hedge plants on the Horticultural Grounds at Gainesville.
These experiments have been continued and the results secured
form the. basis for a large part of the present bulletin.
Numerous hedge plants are suited to Florida conditions. Not
only can many plants grown farther north be used, but also
many others found only in tropical and sub-tropical climates.
The range of varieties includes, besides those with the usual
green foliage, shrubs, which during the season of bloom are a
mass of color, and others with foliage of various hues. There
is also a wide range in size and habit of growth of the plants
available. Some of the more dwarfed varieties can be trimmed
to one foot or less, while the heavier growing ones can be .trained
to almost any desired height.









ORNAMENTAL HEDGES

FOR FLORIDA

By HAROLD MOWRY and R. D. DICKEY

CONTENTS
PAGE PAGE
INTRODUCTION ............................. .. ...... 3 Handling and Setting the Plants ........ 6
SELECTION OF PLANTS ............... ......... 4 Pruning or Shearing ............................ 7
CLIMATIC LIMITATIONS .................................... 4 Kinds of Outline .................................. 8
PLANTING AND CARE ........................................ 6 SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF PLANTS FOR
Tim e of Planting ................................... 6 H EDGES ............................... .. .......... 8
Preparation of the Soil ........................ 6 INDEX OF COMMON NAMES .......................... 32

INTRODUCTION

Ornamental hedges under some conditions are desirable and
should be given due consideration in the planting plan through-
out Florida. Often they can be substituted for unsightly fences,
which are frequently seen where no actual barrier is needed.
The very low hedges are decidedly more ornamental than the
larger ones, but the latter can be used on larger properties,
and to enclose playgrounds, gardens, clothes-drying yards, etc.,
as well as to screen unsightly objects.
Few states are so favored as Florida with a climate that
will permit the growing of such a wide assortment of plants for
hedge purposes. Realizing this splendid opportunity for utilizing
hedge plants in Florida, and their possibilities to the landscape
gardener, Dr. P. H. Rolfs, former director of this Experiment
Station, instituted several years ago a series of experiments
with hedge plants on the Horticultural Grounds at Gainesville.
These experiments have been continued and the results secured
form the. basis for a large part of the present bulletin.
Numerous hedge plants are suited to Florida conditions. Not
only can many plants grown farther north be used, but also
many others found only in tropical and sub-tropical climates.
The range of varieties includes, besides those with the usual
green foliage, shrubs, which during the season of bloom are a
mass of color, and others with foliage of various hues. There
is also a wide range in size and habit of growth of the plants
available. Some of the more dwarfed varieties can be trimmed
to one foot or less, while the heavier growing ones can be .trained
to almost any desired height.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SELECTION OF PLANTS
Careful consideration should be given to the individual loca-
tion, the variety of plants to be used, and the type of hedge to
be grown. If the lot is small a low hedge can be used effectively,
or if the lot is larger one or more hedges in combination with
other plantings can be used to advantage.
On properties where ample room is available the informal
or unsheared hedge should be given preference. Such a hedge
fits in well with the present tendency toward a more natural
grouping of materials instead of the old formal or "geometrical"
method of planting. Hedges planted in the front or on the sides
toward the front of a lot usually should be of the smaller sizes.
The taller and larger kinds should be reserved for use toward
the rear.
In selecting plants for hedge planting the following points
should be considered:
Hardiness of the plant in question in the locality where plant-
ing is to be made. Tender or sub-tropical varieties should not
be selected for planting in the northern portions of the state.
Type of soil-whether high or low, well drained or wet, sand
or muck. Plants should be suited to the soils on which they
are to be set. The possibility of increasing soil fertility makes
this of minor importance, except in regard to moisture condi-
tions. Some varieties thrive on light, dry soils where others
require irrigation.
Location-whether in the sun or partial shade, or whether
exposed to winds from salt water. Some varieties will thrive
in partial shade where others will perish, and few will with-
stand exposure to salt winds or spray.
Size of hedge desired.-Plants which will normally attain the
height desired should be selected. A thrifty, large-growing type
can be kept pruned down to the desired size, but a naturally
dwarfed plant may not reach the height wanted.

CLIMATIC LIMITATIONS
A plant to be satisfactory for hedging should be well adapted
to the environment in which it is to be grown, so that a vigorous,
thrifty growth will be obtained. Some plants growing in colder
regions fail to adapt themselves to warmer climates; also, there
is considerable variation in hardiness of the plants used. Be-
cause of differences in winter temperature minimums between






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SELECTION OF PLANTS
Careful consideration should be given to the individual loca-
tion, the variety of plants to be used, and the type of hedge to
be grown. If the lot is small a low hedge can be used effectively,
or if the lot is larger one or more hedges in combination with
other plantings can be used to advantage.
On properties where ample room is available the informal
or unsheared hedge should be given preference. Such a hedge
fits in well with the present tendency toward a more natural
grouping of materials instead of the old formal or "geometrical"
method of planting. Hedges planted in the front or on the sides
toward the front of a lot usually should be of the smaller sizes.
The taller and larger kinds should be reserved for use toward
the rear.
In selecting plants for hedge planting the following points
should be considered:
Hardiness of the plant in question in the locality where plant-
ing is to be made. Tender or sub-tropical varieties should not
be selected for planting in the northern portions of the state.
Type of soil-whether high or low, well drained or wet, sand
or muck. Plants should be suited to the soils on which they
are to be set. The possibility of increasing soil fertility makes
this of minor importance, except in regard to moisture condi-
tions. Some varieties thrive on light, dry soils where others
require irrigation.
Location-whether in the sun or partial shade, or whether
exposed to winds from salt water. Some varieties will thrive
in partial shade where others will perish, and few will with-
stand exposure to salt winds or spray.
Size of hedge desired.-Plants which will normally attain the
height desired should be selected. A thrifty, large-growing type
can be kept pruned down to the desired size, but a naturally
dwarfed plant may not reach the height wanted.

CLIMATIC LIMITATIONS
A plant to be satisfactory for hedging should be well adapted
to the environment in which it is to be grown, so that a vigorous,
thrifty growth will be obtained. Some plants growing in colder
regions fail to adapt themselves to warmer climates; also, there
is considerable variation in hardiness of the plants used. Be-
cause of differences in winter temperature minimums between






Ornamental Hedges for Florida


the northern and southern sections of the state, comparatively
few plants are entirely adapted to planting throughout Florida.
Differences between low temperatures in various parts of the
state are not great, but within that range there is a critical
point for many tropical plants that are more or less severely
damaged or are killed when exposed for several hours to tem-
perature below freezing. Duration of freezing temperatures
has considerable bearing on the amount and severity of injury,
and this necessarily varies considerably for different sections
of the state. Some of the plants growing in colder climates
apparently require a period of dormancy induced by or coinci-
dent with low temperatures and short day lengths and are,
consequently, not climatically adapted to the warm winters of
the sub-tropics.
It is difficult to make a classification showing the exact range
to which any given species may be adapted, due to the various
factors involved such as latitude, elevation, water protection,
proximity to the coast, as well as factors affecting temperatures
in a given locality.
On the basis of normal prevailing winter temperatures, the
state may be divided into three regions, designated as northern,
central and southern, to which certain plants are climatically
adapted. The limits of these areas cannot be exactly defined
because local conditions of elevation, water protection, and
proximity to the coast influence temperatures. At the same
time any delimitation of these areas according to a specified
temperature minimum would fluctuate from year to year with
seasonal variation so that their boundaries are necessarily vague
and broad rather than exact. The northern area includes gen-
erally that part of the state lying north of a line through Marion
County and subject to the heaviest frosts; the southern, that
of the extreme south having the warmest winter temperatures
and extending northward along the coasts approximately to
Palm Beach and Punta Gorda; and the central, that lying be-
tween the northern and southern sections.
The ornamental value of any plant used for hedging is greatly
impaired if it is subject to damage by frost, or is not otherwise
climatically adapted to the locality in which it is to be grown.
Care should be taken in the selection of a plant to be used for
this purpose, to choose only a variety that meets these require-
ments.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PLANTING AND CARE
The use of young thrifty plants is recommended-the cost
of plants is less and better results usually are obtained. How-
ever, if special attention can be given the use of larger plants
may be advisable. The planting of larger plants does not always
hasten the growth of the hedge to the desired size because it
is necessary to cut back severely, and some large plants when
so treated are slow in recovering. This results in an unequal
growth along the hedge row. The use of old hardened plants
generally should be avoided.
Time of Planting.-Many varieties of hedge plants and espe-
cially those of tropical origin may be set at any time during
the year except during periods of drought. The cooler months,
however, are preferable because at this time most plants are
in a more dormant condition and the danger of loss from trans-
planting is less. Deciduous plants should be moved during the
winter months only.
Preparation of the Soil.-A good way to prepare the soil for
planting is to cultivate thoroughly a strip four or five feet in
width and incorporate in it a heavy application of well rotted
stable manure. Another method which can be used where it
is not feasible to cultivate a strip of this width is to dig a trench
from 18 inches to two feet in depth and fill it with a mixture
of top soil and stable manure. Fresh manure is undesirable
for this purpose as it is likely to heat and injure the plants.
If available, humus in the form of leaves, dead grass or straw
should be mixed with the soil used in filling the trench. The
fertility of the soil on which the planting is made should serve
as a guide to the size of the trench and the amount of fertilizing
materials used.
Handling and Setting the Plants.-Soil preparation should be
completed prior to the receipt of the plants so that setting can
begin immediately upon their arrival. Before planting, trim
off long or broken roots with a sharp knife. In setting the
plants dig a trench in the center of the previously prepared
strip sufficiently large to hold the roots without bending or
breaking them. Extended exposure of the roots to wind or
to direct rays of the sun is injurious and should be avoided.
Set the plants in a straight line at the same depth that they
were in the nursery row, being careful to see that the roots are
well spread out. Soil should be well packed about the roots
and the plants should be thoroughly watered after planting.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PLANTING AND CARE
The use of young thrifty plants is recommended-the cost
of plants is less and better results usually are obtained. How-
ever, if special attention can be given the use of larger plants
may be advisable. The planting of larger plants does not always
hasten the growth of the hedge to the desired size because it
is necessary to cut back severely, and some large plants when
so treated are slow in recovering. This results in an unequal
growth along the hedge row. The use of old hardened plants
generally should be avoided.
Time of Planting.-Many varieties of hedge plants and espe-
cially those of tropical origin may be set at any time during
the year except during periods of drought. The cooler months,
however, are preferable because at this time most plants are
in a more dormant condition and the danger of loss from trans-
planting is less. Deciduous plants should be moved during the
winter months only.
Preparation of the Soil.-A good way to prepare the soil for
planting is to cultivate thoroughly a strip four or five feet in
width and incorporate in it a heavy application of well rotted
stable manure. Another method which can be used where it
is not feasible to cultivate a strip of this width is to dig a trench
from 18 inches to two feet in depth and fill it with a mixture
of top soil and stable manure. Fresh manure is undesirable
for this purpose as it is likely to heat and injure the plants.
If available, humus in the form of leaves, dead grass or straw
should be mixed with the soil used in filling the trench. The
fertility of the soil on which the planting is made should serve
as a guide to the size of the trench and the amount of fertilizing
materials used.
Handling and Setting the Plants.-Soil preparation should be
completed prior to the receipt of the plants so that setting can
begin immediately upon their arrival. Before planting, trim
off long or broken roots with a sharp knife. In setting the
plants dig a trench in the center of the previously prepared
strip sufficiently large to hold the roots without bending or
breaking them. Extended exposure of the roots to wind or
to direct rays of the sun is injurious and should be avoided.
Set the plants in a straight line at the same depth that they
were in the nursery row, being careful to see that the roots are
well spread out. Soil should be well packed about the roots
and the plants should be thoroughly watered after planting.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PLANTING AND CARE
The use of young thrifty plants is recommended-the cost
of plants is less and better results usually are obtained. How-
ever, if special attention can be given the use of larger plants
may be advisable. The planting of larger plants does not always
hasten the growth of the hedge to the desired size because it
is necessary to cut back severely, and some large plants when
so treated are slow in recovering. This results in an unequal
growth along the hedge row. The use of old hardened plants
generally should be avoided.
Time of Planting.-Many varieties of hedge plants and espe-
cially those of tropical origin may be set at any time during
the year except during periods of drought. The cooler months,
however, are preferable because at this time most plants are
in a more dormant condition and the danger of loss from trans-
planting is less. Deciduous plants should be moved during the
winter months only.
Preparation of the Soil.-A good way to prepare the soil for
planting is to cultivate thoroughly a strip four or five feet in
width and incorporate in it a heavy application of well rotted
stable manure. Another method which can be used where it
is not feasible to cultivate a strip of this width is to dig a trench
from 18 inches to two feet in depth and fill it with a mixture
of top soil and stable manure. Fresh manure is undesirable
for this purpose as it is likely to heat and injure the plants.
If available, humus in the form of leaves, dead grass or straw
should be mixed with the soil used in filling the trench. The
fertility of the soil on which the planting is made should serve
as a guide to the size of the trench and the amount of fertilizing
materials used.
Handling and Setting the Plants.-Soil preparation should be
completed prior to the receipt of the plants so that setting can
begin immediately upon their arrival. Before planting, trim
off long or broken roots with a sharp knife. In setting the
plants dig a trench in the center of the previously prepared
strip sufficiently large to hold the roots without bending or
breaking them. Extended exposure of the roots to wind or
to direct rays of the sun is injurious and should be avoided.
Set the plants in a straight line at the same depth that they
were in the nursery row, being careful to see that the roots are
well spread out. Soil should be well packed about the roots
and the plants should be thoroughly watered after planting.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


PLANTING AND CARE
The use of young thrifty plants is recommended-the cost
of plants is less and better results usually are obtained. How-
ever, if special attention can be given the use of larger plants
may be advisable. The planting of larger plants does not always
hasten the growth of the hedge to the desired size because it
is necessary to cut back severely, and some large plants when
so treated are slow in recovering. This results in an unequal
growth along the hedge row. The use of old hardened plants
generally should be avoided.
Time of Planting.-Many varieties of hedge plants and espe-
cially those of tropical origin may be set at any time during
the year except during periods of drought. The cooler months,
however, are preferable because at this time most plants are
in a more dormant condition and the danger of loss from trans-
planting is less. Deciduous plants should be moved during the
winter months only.
Preparation of the Soil.-A good way to prepare the soil for
planting is to cultivate thoroughly a strip four or five feet in
width and incorporate in it a heavy application of well rotted
stable manure. Another method which can be used where it
is not feasible to cultivate a strip of this width is to dig a trench
from 18 inches to two feet in depth and fill it with a mixture
of top soil and stable manure. Fresh manure is undesirable
for this purpose as it is likely to heat and injure the plants.
If available, humus in the form of leaves, dead grass or straw
should be mixed with the soil used in filling the trench. The
fertility of the soil on which the planting is made should serve
as a guide to the size of the trench and the amount of fertilizing
materials used.
Handling and Setting the Plants.-Soil preparation should be
completed prior to the receipt of the plants so that setting can
begin immediately upon their arrival. Before planting, trim
off long or broken roots with a sharp knife. In setting the
plants dig a trench in the center of the previously prepared
strip sufficiently large to hold the roots without bending or
breaking them. Extended exposure of the roots to wind or
to direct rays of the sun is injurious and should be avoided.
Set the plants in a straight line at the same depth that they
were in the nursery row, being careful to see that the roots are
well spread out. Soil should be well packed about the roots
and the plants should be thoroughly watered after planting.







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


After setting, most plants should be cut back to within five
or six inches of the ground. This will tend to cause more side-
branching and give a denser hedge from the ground up. A
mulch of leaf mold, straw or rotted manure completes the plant-
ing. To insure against loss of plants and to stimulate early
growth regular watering should not be neglected until the plants
become well established. Periodical fertilization and cultiva-
tion should be given. An annual application of stable manure,
in addition to other fertilizers, will help. Vigor and beauty
of the plants are largely dependent upon the amount of care
given.
No set rule can be given as to the exact distance apart to
set the plants, because of their varied nature and the height
of hedge desired. A good rule for a very low, compact hedge
is to space the plants six inches. The average distance of spac-
ing is about 12 inches. The higher the hedge is to be the more
space there should be between the plants.
It is not the best practice to set other shrubbery immediately
adjacent to the hedge line because eventually one of the two
will suffer. A narrow strip on each side of the hedge should be
kept cultivated to conserve moisture and permit the hedge to
have full benefit of all plant food within this area.
Pruning or Shearing.-Pruning or shearing should be done
annually, or more often if needed, although with some plants
shaping is necessary for only the first two or three years. Those
of the flowering type should be pruned after they have bloomed.
Summer pruning usually is accomplished with less labor as the
plants are in the flush of growth and the parts to be removed
are young and tender. Frequent pruning or shearing will reduce
the amount of bloom. The bloom, however, in most sheared
hedges is of secondary importance, since the growing of a heavy
mass of foliage is the primary objective. The plants do not
suffer so severely from frequent shearing as they do when a
large portion of the plant is cut off. This becomes necessary
when the hedge has been allowed to grow entirely out of bounds.
When large twigs or branches are removed, the cutting should
be made well inside the sheared lines of the hedge. This puts
the stubs well out of the way and leaves only the finer growth
to make up the outlines of the hedge. The desired condition
is a soft outline of foliage from end to end. By shearing regu-
larly during the growing season this, with most varieties, is
easily secured and retained.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Kinds of Outline.-Types of outline generally used in sheared
or formal hedges are the rectangular, triangular and curvilinear,
as shown in Figure 2.
Choosing the outline is a matter of personal taste. Advocates
of the triangular and curvilinear forms argue that by use of
these outlines the foliage will better cover the ground and that
sunlight can more easily penetrate to the interior and base of
the plant, consequently resulting in less dying out. The rect-
angular and curvilinear forms are giving satisfaction and are
not difficult to maintain (Fig. 2).





Rectangular Triangular Curvilinear
Fig. 2.-Diagram showing outlines for trimmed hedges.

A hedge should not be trimmed in varied, fantastic shapes,
even though a topiary effect may at first be considered pleasing.
A novelty soon wears itself out and a hedge so treated can easily
ruin the effect of an otherwise well kept and well arranged
planting.

SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF PLANTS FOR HEDGES
Of plants suitable for hedge planting in Florida, the follow-
ing list covers most species and varieties. No attempt, however,
has been made to include all plants which may be used as sub-
jects for hedging.
Because of the multiplicity of common names and their vari-
able use, the arrangement is alphabetical according to botanical
name. Throughout, for each, genus and species are given first,
followed in order by the family to which the plant belongs, the
common name, the section to which apparently best adapted
and, lastly, its native habitat. In some instances the botanical
synonym is included, in parentheses directly after the scientific
name. The common names are indexed.
Abelia grandiflora Rehd. Caprifoliaceae. Glossy Abelia.
Northern area. Native.
The glossy abelia is a hardy evergreen, with small dark green
glossy leaves and small white flower clusters. It blooms through-
out the summer months, is a vigorous grower, and will succeed







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Kinds of Outline.-Types of outline generally used in sheared
or formal hedges are the rectangular, triangular and curvilinear,
as shown in Figure 2.
Choosing the outline is a matter of personal taste. Advocates
of the triangular and curvilinear forms argue that by use of
these outlines the foliage will better cover the ground and that
sunlight can more easily penetrate to the interior and base of
the plant, consequently resulting in less dying out. The rect-
angular and curvilinear forms are giving satisfaction and are
not difficult to maintain (Fig. 2).





Rectangular Triangular Curvilinear
Fig. 2.-Diagram showing outlines for trimmed hedges.

A hedge should not be trimmed in varied, fantastic shapes,
even though a topiary effect may at first be considered pleasing.
A novelty soon wears itself out and a hedge so treated can easily
ruin the effect of an otherwise well kept and well arranged
planting.

SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF PLANTS FOR HEDGES
Of plants suitable for hedge planting in Florida, the follow-
ing list covers most species and varieties. No attempt, however,
has been made to include all plants which may be used as sub-
jects for hedging.
Because of the multiplicity of common names and their vari-
able use, the arrangement is alphabetical according to botanical
name. Throughout, for each, genus and species are given first,
followed in order by the family to which the plant belongs, the
common name, the section to which apparently best adapted
and, lastly, its native habitat. In some instances the botanical
synonym is included, in parentheses directly after the scientific
name. The common names are indexed.
Abelia grandiflora Rehd. Caprifoliaceae. Glossy Abelia.
Northern area. Native.
The glossy abelia is a hardy evergreen, with small dark green
glossy leaves and small white flower clusters. It blooms through-
out the summer months, is a vigorous grower, and will succeed






Ornamental Hedges for Florida


anywhere with ordinary care. It is especially suited to low
formal hedges, but is also very attractive when grown with
but little pruning. More bloom is obtained when little pruning
is done, but less foliage will result,
and if a compact hedge is desired this
pruning must be continued. (Figs.
3 and 4.)
Acacia longifolia Willd. Legumino-
sae. Sydney Golden Wattle. Southern
and Central areas. Australia.
This acacia is a hardy evergreen
willowy plant suitable for a large in-
formal hedge or screen. It succeeds
well under adverse conditions such as I
exposed locations and poor soils. Ow-
ing to the nature of the plant it can- i
not be trimmed to formal shape but
some pruning can be given to advant-
age. The flowers are golden yellow in
color, blooming in late winter.L
Arundinarianitida Mitf. Gramineae. Fig. 3.-Abelia grandi-
flora showing leaves and
Bamboo. Southern and Central areas, blossoms.
warmer parts of Northern area. China.
Recent taxonomic information indicates that the plant listed
under this name is, in reality, a variety of Bambusa multiplex.
A dwarf bamboo having slender dark canes and a luxuriant
mass of foliage. This variety stands trimming well and makes
a very dense growth from ground to top. It is hardy and a
vigorous grower. With care and shaping it makes a hedge
which is decidedly attractive. However, like other bamboos,
it is a voracious feeder and cannot be planted close to other
plants without injuring them. Its root system can be kept
within bounds by annually digging a trench between the hedge
and the plants to be protected. This severs all roots, but they
are vigorous growers and this operation must be repeated yearly
(Fig. 5).
Azalea spp. Ericaceae. Azalea. Central and Northern areas.
China, Japan and Korea.
Azaleas are very desirable for use as a flowering hedge and
warrant a greater popularity for this purpose than they now
enjoy. The varieties that can be used for this purpose in Flor-
ida are not derived from a single species but are those belonging






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to two principal groups, the Indian azaleas and the Kurume
azaleas. Many varieties, which afford a wide range in size of
plant and in size and color of flowers, are available. The more
heavily foliaged varieties are best suited for this purpose. They
should be grown informally with a minimum of pruning so
that flower pro-
duction will be
inhibited as little
as possible.
Bignonia venu-
sta Ker. (Pyro-
stegia venusta

aceae. Flame
Vine. Golden
Shower. South-
ern and Central
areas. Brazil.
The flame vine
requires support
like the buginvil-
laea (bougainvil-
lea). It is a semi-
hardy vigorous
grower which is
strikingly attrac-
tive when in
bloom. Tubular,
orange-red flow-
ers, from which
Fig. 4.-Left, cherry laurel; right, Abelia
grandiflora. it derives its
name "flame
vine", are produced in abundance. The blooming period is from
mid-winter to early spring.
Breynia nivosa Small. (Phyllanthus nivosus Bull.). Euphor-
biaceae. Snow-Bush. Joseph's Coat. Southern and Central
areas. South Sea Islands.
For the warmer sections, the snow-bush makes an attractive
low hedge. The leaves are from 1 to 2 inches in length, are
broad and mottled or speckled green and white. The variety
atropurptrea has attractive dark purple leaves. Another vari-
ety, roseopicta, has a pink and red mottling in the foliage, in







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


addition to the white and green of the first mentioned type.
The ornamental value of these plants is often impaired, due
to the injury frequently produced to the foliage, branches and
trunks by the larvae of a species of Lepidoptera.


Fig. 5.-Bamboo, Arundinaria nitida (Bambusa multiplex).

Buddleia officinalis Maxim. Loganiaceae. Butterfly Bush.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. China.
The butterfly bush is a vigorous growing hardy evergreen
shrub. It is very desirable for use as a screen or informal
hedge of large size. The lilac-like flowers are borne in profu-
sion and are very attractive to butterflies. It cannot be trimmed
to formal shape. In early spring before growth starts the
plants should be pruned back to within 12 to 18 inches of the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ground. This results in a more dense and firmer growth of
foliage and prevents the plant from assuming a tree shape.
Summer pruning should consist in pinching back tips to en-
courage lateral branching.
B. asiatica Lour. may be used in the same manner as the above
species, which it resembles in general habit. As this species,
is not hardy, it is better adapted to the southern portion of the
state. The white flowers, borne in drooping spikes, are pro-
duced in, profusion.
Buginvillaea (Bougainvillea) spp. Nyctaginaceae. Southern
and Central areas. South America.
The buginvillaea, although hardly a true hedge plant, is strik-
ingly effective if trained along a wall fence or trellis. It flowers
profusely in winter, until late spring, and can be obtained in
shades of mauve, magenta, purple, pink, red and orange. The
plants are usually vigorous growers but are only semi-hardy
and can be grown only in the central and southern portions of
the state.
The more common purple flowered variety, B. glabra Sander-
iana, or Sander buginvilleae, is more of a shrub in habit than
the other varieties and will form a low hedge when planted
close together and pruned frequently.
Callistemon spp. Myrtaceae, Bottle-brush. Southern and,
Central areas, warmer parts of Northern area. Australia.
Several species of bottle-brush are suitable for hedge plant-.
ing, and when in bloom make a hedge of unusual, attractiveness.
The flower clusters are scarlet or crimson in color and resemble
bottle-brushes in shape, from which the plants derive their com-
mon name. They, cannot be cut to formal shape but should be
pruned enough to keep them within bounds. Early fall pruning l
w:ill tendlto increase the quantity of bloom the following season.,
After becoming established they succeed well with little atten-'
tion and are adapted to a variety of soils.
Camellia japonica Linn. Theaceae. Camellia. Northern
area.': China and Japan.
The camellia is a slow growing shrub or small tree with
smooth, dark green, glossy foliage. Its period of bloom is dur-
ing-the winter months. At this time it is very beautiful, which
makes it a desirable subject for a flowering hedge. A large
number of varieties which afford flowers in .many colors, white,
shades of red and pink and variegated, and double and single
formsare available.







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


Carissa grandiflora A. DC. Apocynaceae. Carissa. Natal-
Plum. Southern and Central areas. South Africa.
The carissa, an evergreen spiny shrub, is well adapted to a
wide variety of Florida soils and is used extensively in southern
Florida as a hedge plant. The dark green leathery foliage and
the shrubby dense habit of growth make it particularly desir-
able for that purpose. The branches are heavily armed with
strong two-pointed spines. The flowers, white, solitary, 2 inches
across, are very conspicuous against the background of dark
green foliage. It should be sheared to formal shape.
C. arduina Lam. Hedge-Thorn. In appearance this plant is
similar to the above, but both fruit and flowers are smaller.
It is used in the same manner.
Casuarina spp. Casuarinaceae. Australian Pine. Beefwood.
She-Oak. Southern and Central areas. Australia and Tropical
Asia.
The Casuarinas are adapted to a wide range of ornamental
uses. Some of these are: For closely-clipped hedges, for
trimmed and untrimmed specimens, screens and windbreaks
(Fig. 6). They are strong, vigorous growers and thrive under
a wide range of soil conditions. About the only factor limiting
their growth is low temperature. However, there is consider-
able variability in the ability of species to withstand cold.


Fig. 6.-Seashore planting of Australian pine, Casuarinia i q,,, t;f.olia.
The hedge, formally pruned trees, and trees in the backgrounds. a!re all uf
this species.. : ..






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


C. Cunninghamiana Miq. is one of the most widely grown
species and is considered to be the most resistant to cold. It
has withstood a temperature of 160 Fahrenheit at Gainesville.
As it is not injured by severe pruning, it can be shaped to suit
the grower's desires. It will not withstand salt spray. C. lepi-
dophloia is as desirable as the above species. It has much thicker
foliage but is somewhat less hardy. C. equisetifolia is particu-
larly desirable for plating on the sea coast, as it withstands
brackish soils and salt spray without apparent injury.
Cephalotaxus drupacea var. fastigiata S T. Taxaceae. Plum-
Yew. Northern area. Japan.
In general habit of growth and appearance of foliage this
species is similar to podocarpus. It is particularly desirable
for use as a low formal hedge, due to its very slow growth, and
for this purpose warrants a greater popularity. It is quite
hardy and is well adapted to the northern sections.
Cinnamonum camphora L. Lauraceae. Camphor Tree. South-
ern, Central, and Northern areas. China and Japan.
The camphor tree is a hardy, broad-leaved evergreen which
forms a dense hedge when properly pruned. It grows well on
poor soils. As a hedge this plant is attractive during the active
growing season but presents a rather poor appearance during
the late winter months.
Duranta repens Linn. (D. Plumieri Jacq.). Verbenaceae.
Golden Dewdrop. Sky-Flower. Southern and Central. areas.
Native and Brazil.
When planted as a high informal hedge or screen and ample
room is available, the golden dewdrop will be found satisfactory.
In such instances rather close planting is required as the plants
will help to support each other. This plant is a strong grower
and very attractive but cannot be trimmed to formal shape.
The lilac flowers, borne in racemes, and yellow berries are in
evidence several months of the year.
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. Elaeagnaceae. Elaeagnus. North-
ern area. Japan and China.
Elaeagnus is a vigorous growing, hardy, evergreen shrub.
The leaves are oval to oblong 2 to 4 inches long, are silvery
beneath dotted with brown scales, becoming smooth and dark
green above. The silvery-brown effect, produced by the foliage
and branches, particularly when young, gives the plant an un-
usual appearance. It makes an attractive hedge if kept well
trimmed. It is a good hedge plant for the northern area as






Ornamental Hedges for Florida


it is well adapted to a variety of soils found there, and is quite
hardy (Fig. 7).


Fig. 7.-Elaeagnus hedge.


Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae. Surinam-Cherry. Pitanga.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Brazil.
The surinam-cherry is particularly well adapted to the south-
ern half of the state, since it is subject to injury by heavy frosts.
It is used extensively in that area as a hedge plant. The leaves
are small and are a light glossy green color. It is well suited
to hedge plantings as continued shearing does not injure it
(Fig. 8).
E. paniculata (E. hookeri Hort.), the Australian bush cherry,
is a small, vigorous growing tree, with oblong-lanceolate leaves
up to three inches or more long. The leaves are a glossy green
and tinged with red when young. The white flowers with con-
spicuous stamens are borne in terminal clusters. The flowers
are followed by showy rose-purple fruit. Well adapted to a
variety of soils, particularly sandy types. A desirable subject
for a formal or informal hedge or screen. The variety australis,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


which is commonly known as E. myrtifolia, because of its smaller
foliage and bushy habit of growth, is a more desirable subject
for this purpose.


Fig. 8.-Surinam cherry, Eugenia uniflora.


Euonymus (Evonymus) japonicus Linn. Celastraceae. Ever-
green Burning Bush. Northern area. Japan.
This hardy evergreen shrub with its thick leathery green
leaves may be used as a hedge plant but cannot be trimmed to
formal shape. The plants, being upright in habit of growth,
should be planted rather closely and given enough pruning to
keep to the desired height. Plants also are obtainable with
a yellow border or variegation in the leaves.
Feijoa sellowiana Berg. Myrtaceae. Feijoa, Pineapple Guava.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. South America.
Feijoa is a hardy evergreen plant that has shown itself well
adapted to all parts of Florida. It is a shrubby plant, slow of
growth, and for that reason lends itself well to use as a hedging
plant. It is satisfactory for a formal hedge of medium height,
as it stands shearing well. The foliage and bark are grayish,
the leaves small, not over 21/2 inches in length, light shiny green







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


on the surface and gray tomentose beneath. Though as yet
not much used for hedges, this plant undoubtedly deserves a
much greater popularity. The grayish-green effect produced
by the branches and foliage provides a pleasing contrast to
the normal dark
green foliage of
most plants (Fig.
9).
Hibiscus Rosa-
sinensis Linn. (H.
sinensis Hort.).
Malvaceae. Rose-
of-China. Chinese
Hibiscus. South-
ern and Central
areas. Asia.
For central
and southern
Florida the hibis-
cus, a broad-
leaved evergreen,
will make a beau-
tiful informal
hedge of the larg-
er type. It should
not be sheared to
not be sheared to Fig. 9.-Left, feijoa, Feijoa sellowiana; right,
formal shape, but Poncirus trifoliata.
should be cut
back just enough to keep the plants dense and well shaped. It
grows vigorously and flowers freely, the blossoms being from
three to five inches in diameter. Several shades of color, in
both single and double bloom, are obtainable.
Ilex opaca Ait. Aquifoliaceae. American Holly. Central and
Northern areas. Native.
By heading back moderately low and with a small amount
of pruning the American holly will make a hedge of unusual
type. The plant is a hardy native and has few troublesome
insect pests or diseases. The red berries, which hang for sev-
eral months, and the dark green glossy leaves make a pleasing
combination (Fig. 10). The Chinese holly, I. cornuta Lindl.,
can be used to good advantage. Its chief difference for the
purpose lies in the attractive quadrangular shape of the leaves.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The yaupon, I. vomitoria Ait., makes a dense formal hedge
which, after becoming established, is one of the most desirable
grown from
native stock.
Close trim-
ming does not
injure it and,
when so treat-
ed, it will
make a solid
bank of green.
A well drain-
ed soil is re-
quired. As on
Sthe American
holly, red ber-
ries hang dur-
ing the fall
S- and winter
months. All
Fig. 10.-American holly, Ilex opaca. of the hollies
are slow growing (Fig. 11).
Juniperus chinensis Linn.
(J. sinensis Hort.). Chinese
Juniper. Northern Area.
Himalayas, China and Japan.
The Chinese juniper is
well adapted to the northern
area and can be used simi-
larly to the red cedar. There
are a number of varieties
and these differ in size, form
and color of foliage. Of these,
pyramidalis is one of the
best suited for this purpose.
Juniperus virginiana L.
Fig. 11.-Yaupon, Ilex vomitoria. Pinaceae. Red Cedar. North-
ern area. Native.
For a formal hedge the red cedar can be used effectively, since
it shears well and makes a dense wall of foliage. Without prun-
ing or shearing it serves well as a windbreak or large screen.
The growth is slow. Like the thujas its use probably should







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


be restricted, since there are many other plants adapted to
Florida which do not grow in other areas.
Lagerstroemia indica L. Lythraceae. Crape Myrtle. South-
ern, Central and Northern areas. China.
Crape myrtle is a rapid-growing hardy deciduous plant which,
when not pruned back too severely, flowers profusely for sev-
eral weeks during early summer. Flower types are available
in white, purple, scarlet or crimson, and pink. Owing to its
vigorous nature it cannot be used for low plantings and is not
suited for use in small areas (Fig. 12).


















Fig. 12.-Left, crape myrtle; right, Myrtus communis Yar. microphylla.

Lantana spp. Verbenaceae. Lantana. Southern, Central and
Northern areas. Tropical America and South America.
The dwarfed varieties of Lantana spp. are very satisfactory
for use where a flowering border is wanted. They are ever-
green and bloom almost the entire year. Flower colors in red,
white, yellow and combinations are obtainable. The weeping
lantana, L. Sellowiana L. & O., has deep lilac flowers and is a
vigorous grower and profuse bloomer. All of them are half
hardy, and if killed back by frosts will come again from the
roots. They should be cut back annually, in late winter, to
prevent the plants from becoming coarse and straggly in ap-
pearance (Fig. 13).







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Ligustrum spp. Oleaceae. Privet.
The privets have long been regarded as the dominant hedge
plants because of their rapid growth, large mass of foliage
and ability to
withstand
heavy shear-
Sing, as well as
.neglect. A l
o of them are
8 hardy and
thrifty grow-
ers.
L. amurense
Carr., the
Amoor River
privet from
China, is
probably the
most widely
planted spe-
cies of any of
W the privets in
the South.
The leaves are
small and the
plants pro -
duce dense
foliage from
the ground to
the top of the
hedge. It can
be shaped as
desired, since
it is not in-
jured by clip-
ping. It is
particularly
Fig. 13.-Lantana hedge. adapted to the
northern part
of the state, and to heavy clay soils. An objection to its use
is its susceptibility to attack by whitefly, which will make the
plants unsightly if not controlled (Fig. 14).







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


L. ovalifolium Hassk., California privet, and L. Quihoui Carr.,
Quihoui privet, are others of the smaller-leaved species that
may be used for hedges. They are not, however, considered
as satisfactory as the Amoor River privet, and likewise are
subject to attack by whitefly.
L. japonicum Thunb. Wax Privet. Central and Northern
areas. Japan and Korea. Through an error of some sort, it
seems that the two species japoni-
cum and lucidum were confused at ',.. ,
some time in the past, and the cor-
rect names transposed, each now
being commonly known by the
name of the other. This species
is commonly known in the trade
as L. lucidum. A vigorous grow-
ing, compact evergreen, with thick,
dark, glossy green leaves. One of
the most popular plants for use as
a formal hedge in the areas where
it is adapted (Figs. 15 and 16).
This plant is attacked by the root-
knot nematode, which is a limiting
factor in its successful growth in
many localities, particularly .in
sandy locations. This trouble may
be overcome by obtaining this
plant budded or grafted on L. Qui-
houi, which is highly resistant to
root-knot attack.
The nepal privet, L. nepalense
Wall., is another species of the
broad-leaved evergreen type which L
S effective hedge. T Fig. 14.-Amoor River privet,
makes an effective hedge. The Ligustrum amurense.
nepal privet and wax privet are
less susceptible to the 'whitefly than are the smaller-leaved
species.
Malvaviscus grandiflorus HBK. Malvaceae. Turk's Cap. Wax-
mallow. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.
Mexico.
Turk's cap is a rapid growing flowering shrub, of good foli-
age,, which.is .closely related to the hibiscus. Its red, drooping
flowers are borne freely throughout the .year and this makes







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


it desirable where a flowering hedge is wanted. A pink flowered
variety is to be had. Like hibiscus, this plant is possibly best used
as an informal high hedge or screen. However, it may be trained
to formal shape, but when this is done the number of flowers
will be reduced, depending upon the severity of the pruning.
In localities
where it is sus-
ceptible to fre-
a quent injury by
cold there are
other plants
Which are
much more
acceptable for
this purpose
and should
largely replace
it.
Murraea ex-
otica L. (Chal-
cas exotica
Millsp.). Rut-
aceae. Orange-
Jessamine.
Southern area
and warmer
parts of central
-; area. India.
This member
Fig. 15.-Foliage of the wax privet, Ligustrum
japonicum (L. lucidwm). of the citrus
family is an
attractive evergreen shrub or small tree with glossy green
pinnately-compound leaves. The white, very fragrant flowers
are produced at intervals throughout the year. They are fol-
lowed by clusters of red ovoid fruit. It is a vigorous grower
and may be used as an informal high hedge or screen, or may
be trimmed to a formal shape, and when so treated is sug-
gestive of boxwood in an area where that plant is out of the
question.
Myrica cerifera L. Myricaceae. Wax-Myrtle. Southern, Cen-
tral and Northern areas. Native.






Ornamental Hedges for Florida


The wax-myrtle is a vigorous growing native evergreen, which
can be utilized for hedge planting. It may be used as a formal
or informal high hedge or screen. The foliage is not large and
it shears well. It is of value for planting in proximity to the
coasts, as salt winds do not seem to injure it. Likewise, it will
make a good hedge on land that is not well drained.




















Fig. 16.-Hedges of wax privet, Ligustrum japonicum (L. lucidum).

Myrtus communis L. Myrtaceae. Myrtle. Sweet Myrtle.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. Mediterranean Region.
The foliage of the myrtle is small, dark green, dense and
fragrant. It is a fairly rapid grower and shears perfectly. The
plant is a hardy evergreen. It is not suited to shade, but rather
prefers full sunlight (Fig. 17). The varieties microphylla,
which has small, overlapping leaves (Fig. 12), and italica, with
small sharp-pointed leaves, are particularly suitable for growing
in very small formal hedges.
Nerium Oleander L. Apocynaceae. Oleander. Southern and
Central areas and warmer parts of Northern area. Mediter-
ranean Region.
The oleander is another flowering plant which can be used
for informal hedge planting where ample room is available. It
is a vigorous grower and thrives in almost any soil. It will






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 17.-Sweet myrtle, Myrtus communis.


withstand exposure to salt spray with only slight injury to the
foliage. Numerous varieties, having a wide range in character
and color of bloom, are available. Careful pruning will over
come its rangy nature to ,
f marked extent. Unfortun
ately this plant is often at
tacked by the larvae of the
oleander caterpillar which
i: produces an unsightly condi-
tion.
Pittosporum Tobira Ait.
Pittosporaceae. Japanese
SPittosporum. Pittosporum.
Southern, Central and North-
ern areas. China and Japan.
Pittosporum is a hardy
evergreen which is one of
the best of plants for hedge
planting if given proper
Fig. 18.-Pittosporum, Pittosperum trimming and fertilization.
Tobira. It thrives in either sunny or







Ornamental Hedges for Florida


partially shaded locations and can be used for planting near
the coast, since salt air does not seem to injure it. The leaves
are a dark glossy green in color and grow in clusters or rosettes
(Fig. 18). This plant is subject to attack by a fungus which
may severely spot the foliage, thus greatly reducing its orna-
mental value.
P. Tobira var. variegatum Hort., the Whitespot tobira, has
light green foliage with white variegation and can be used to
advantage where contrast is desired, or in brightening up a
shaded location.
The pittosporums are rather slow in growth but their attrac-
tiveness amply repays for the time required in growing them.
Pruning should be started early with these plants in order to
force branching near the ground. Their natural tendency is
toward an upright habit of growth which results in a leggy
appearance if pruning is neglected.
Plumbago capensis Thunb. Plumbaginaceae. Cape Plumbago.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. South Africa.


Fig. 19.-Cape plumbago, Plumbago capensis.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The plumbago is a flowering plant with small light-green
foliage and makes a desirable informal hedge of medium height.
The small flowers, light blue in color, are in evidence most of
the year. The variety alba has white flowers. No attempt
should be made to trim to formal shape and little pruning is
required. If severely damaged by frosts the plants should be
cut to the ground. They will quickly recover and within a few
months attain their normal size (Fig. 19).
Podocarpus macrophylla var. Maki Sieb. Taxaceae. Podo-
carpus. Yew. Central and Northern areas. Japan and China.
This is an excellent subject for hedging, as it becomes very
compact after clipping. The leaves are lanceolate 1/ to 21/
inches long. The
dark green, rigid
foliage is very at-
tractive. A pleas-
ing contrast is
provided by the
lighter shades of
the new growth
(Fig. 20).
Poncirus tri-
foliata Raf. (Cit- r
rus trifoliata L.). f
Rutaceae. Trifo-
liate Orange. Tri-
foliata. Northern
area. China.
Trifoliata is a
hardy deciduous -
plant of truly de-
fensive type. Its
branches are
heavily armed
with strong sharp ,
spines. The leaves
are trifoliate and Fig. 20.-Left, Rosedale arbor-vitae; right,
Podocarpus macrophylla var. Maki.
dark green in
color. When kept pruned it makes an almost impenetrable
barrier. Although it cannot be recommended as a plant for
ornamental purposes, it is not undesirable during the summer
months when in foliage (Fig. 9).






Ornamental Hedges for Florida


Prunus caroliniana Ait. (Laurocerasus caroliniana Reichenb.).
Rosaceae. Cherry Laurel. Mock Orange. Central and North-
ern areas. Native.
Cherry laurel is a native, hardy, broad-leaved evergreen suit-
able for a medium or high hedge. It thrives in nearly all well
drained soils and situations and seems to be practically immune
to disease and insect injury. Usually it is trimmed into a formal
hedge and will stand heavy shearing. These advantages make
it one of the desired varieties. It is slow growing but vigorous
when once established (Figs. 4 and 21).



















Fig. 21.-Left, Rosedale arbor-vitae; right, cherry laurel.

Psidium cattleianum Sabine. Myrtaceae. Cattley Guava.
Strawberry Guava. Southern and Central areas. Brazil.
The Cattley guava is a broad-leaved evergreen plant that can
be used to advantage for hedging material. It may be allowed
to grow naturally with the exception of enough pruning to
prevent a rangy appearance, or may be sheared to formal shape.
The leaves are dark glossy green, and the plant makes a heavy,
dense growth. It will succeed in dry locations but, being only
semi-hardy, its general use is restricted to the lower half of
the peninsula (Fig. 22).
Punica granatum L. Punicaceae. Pomegranate. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Southern Asia.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The pomegranate has attractive foliage with reddish orange
colored blossoms. It is hardy and bears trimming fairly well.
However, it is at its best when grown as an informal hedge
with only a small amount of pruning. It cannot be particularly
recommended as a hedge plant, but when planted in the heavier
clay soils it makes a fairly attractive informal planting.


Fig. 22.-Cattley guava hedge.


Schinus terebinthefolius Radd. Anacardiaceae. Brazilian
Pepper Tree. Southern and Central areas and warmer parts
of Northern area. Brazil.
The Brazilian pepper tree is a desirable subject for a formal
or informal hedge or screen. It has dark green foliage, and
when not too closely clipped, clusters of small bright red fruits
are produced for an extended period during the winter months,
adding to its attractiveness. A vigorous growing small shrub
or tree well adapted to a variety of soils.
Severinia buxifolia Tenore. Rutaceae. Severinia. Southern
and Central areas and warmer parts of Northern area. South-
ern China and Formosa.
The severinia is an attractive plant for a low formal or in-
formal type of hedge. It belongs to the citrus group but bear
little resemblance to it. The plant, somewhat dwarfed in growth






Ornamental Hedges for Florida


is armed with short spines and has small dark green leaves.
It is fairly hardy and somewhat reclining in habit of growth
(Fig. 23).


Fig. 23.-Hedge of Severinia buxifolia.


Thea sinensis L. (Camellia Thea Link.). Theaceae. Tea.
Southern area. China and India.
The tea plant with its evergreen foliage and white or pink
flowers will make a good hedge of pleasing appearance. The
season of bloom is mid-winter. Formal shaping may be prac-
ticed as the plant stands pruning well.
Thuja orientalis L. (Biota orientalis Endl.). Oriental Arbor-
Vitae. Central and Northern areas. North China and Korea.
Although less desirable for hedges than some of the broad-
leaved evergreens, several varieties of arbor-vitae are used for
this purpose, particularly in northern Florida. The range in






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


size afforded by the different varieties gives forms which are
adaptable to the various uses to which hedges are put. The
varieties most commonly grown are: aurea conspicua Hort.,
aurea nana Hort., pyramidalis Endl., compact Beiss, Blue Green
and Biota.
Rosedale (Rosedale hybrid). This plant, a hybrid between
T. orientalis var. aurea and Chamaecyparis pisifera var. squar-
rosa, is one of the varieties most commonly grown in Florida,
of the oriental group. It is one of the smaller varieties having
delicate blue-green foliage, which turns more or less bronze
during the winter months. Where ample room is available and
a hedge of this kind is wanted, Rosedale is perhaps one of the
best to use (Figs. 20 and 21).
All of these arbor-vitae are hardy and relatively slow in
growth. After becoming well established, however, they will
withstand long periods of drought and require little care. They
can be sheared or trimmed but are more attractive in their
natural shapes. Trimming tends to give them an unnatural
or artificial appearance. Arbor-vitae should be used sparingly
for hedge purposes in this state as there are many other plants,
less common in latitudes farther north, which are as well
adapted and more suggestive of a tropical and sub-tropical
Florida.
Trachelospermum jasminoides Lem. (Rhynchospermum jas-
minoides Lindl.). Apocynaceae. Star Jasmine. Confederate
Jasmine. Central and Northern areas. China.
This vine, like the flame vine and buginvillaea, requires sup-
port. It is an evergreen woody vine that is quite hardy and
which thrives on a wide range of soils, but is somewhat slow
growing until it becomes well established. A dense mass of
dark green foliage is produced. The white star-shaped flowers,
which are borne in profusion during April and May, make it
a desirable subject for this purpose.
Viburnum Tinus L. Caprifoliaceae. Laurestinus. Northern
area. Mediterranean region.
The laurestinus is a winter-blooming evergreen with very
attractive foliage that can be utilized effectively as a hedge
plant. Too much pruning should be avoided, so that the large
fragrant white flowers will not be lost. The growth is relatively
slow.
Additional plants that may be planted in hedge formation
include the Acalypha or copper-leaf, Acalypha Wilkesiana Muell.;






Ornamental Hedges for Florida 31

Anthony Waterer Spirea, a variety of Spiraea Bumalda Bury.;
cape-jasmine, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis; chaste tree or blue
Vitex, Vitex Agnus castus L.; Nandina, Nandina domestic
Thunb.; firethorn, Pyracantha spp.; and Photinia glabra Maxim.
All of these, with the exception of firethorn and Photinia, should
be grown informally; that is, without shearing and with enough
pruning to keep well shaped. All of those grown informally,
with the exception of the Anthony Waterer Spirea, which should
not exceed two feet in height, and Nandina, require consider-
able space and should not be grown as hedges on small prop-
erties.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

INDEX OF COMMON NAMES


Page
A belia ........................................ ...... 8
A calypha .......................................... 30
Anthony Waterer Spirea .............. 31
A rbor-vitae ...................................... 29
Australian bush cherry ................ 15
Australian pine .............................. 13
A zalea .............................................. 9

Bam boo ............................................ 9
Beefwood ......................................... 13
Blue Vitex......................................... 31
Bottle-brush ................................... 12
Brazilian pepper tree .................... 28
Buginvillaea .................................... 12
Butterfly bush ................................ 11

Cam ellia ............................................ 12
Cam phor .......................................... 14
Carissa ........................................ 13
Cape-jasm ine .................................. 31
Cape plum bago ................................ 25
Chaste tree ...................................... 31
Cherry laurel .................................. 27
Chinese juniper .............................. 18
Confederate jasm ine ...................... 30
Copper-leaf ...................................... 30
Crape m yrtle --............. .................. 19

Elaeagnus ........................................ 14
Evergreen burning bush ................ 16

Feijoa ........................ .................. 16
Firethorn .................................. ..... 31
Flam e vine ................... .................. 10

Gardenia ................... .................... 31
Golden dewdrop ............................. 14
Golden show er ................................ 10
Guava, Cattley ............................... 27
Guava, Strawberry ........................ 27

H edge-thorn .................................... 13
H ibiscus .......................................... 17
H olly ...................................... ..... 17

Joseph's coat .................................... 10


Page
Lantana ............................................ 19
Laurestinus ...................................... 30

Mock orange .................................... 27
Myrtle ............................................. 23

Nandina .................................. ......... 31
Natal-plum ...:.................................. 13

Oleander ......................................... 23
Orange-jessamine ............................ 22

Photinia ............................................ 31
Pineapple guava .............................. 16
Pitanga ............................................ 15
Pittosporum .................................... 24
Plum-yew .............................---- ........ 14
Plumbago, cape .............................. 25
Podocarpus ...................................... 26
Pomegranate .................................... 27
Privet ....................... .................... 20

Red cedar ........................................ 18
Rose-of-China ...................._............ 17
Rosedale ........................................ 30

Severinia .......-........... _...... ..-...... ... 28
She-oak ............................ ............ 13
Sky-flower ............................. .......... 14
Snow-bush ........................................ 10
Star-jasmine ................................... 30
Surinam cherry .............................. 15
Sweet myrtle ............... ............. 23
Sydney golden wattle .................. 9

Tea ........................ ................. 29
Trifoliata ..-..................................... 26
Turk's cap ........................ ............ 21

W axmallow ........ ......................... 21
W ax-myrtle .................................... 22
W ax privet .................................... --- 21
W hitespot Tobira .......................... 25

Yaupon ..................-........ .......... 18
Yew ..................................... ..... 26




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