• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Introduction
 Botany
 Varieties
 Planting the new orchard
 Orchard management
 Fertilizer requirements of the...
 Cover crops in the orchard
 Rejuvenation of neglected...
 Spanish moss in pecan trees
 Insects and diseases
 Thinning orchards
 Pruning
 Yields and some common problems...
 Propagation by top-working older...
 Propagation in the pecan nurse...
 Marketing
 Summary
 Acknowledgement
 Appendix






Group Title: Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin no. 601
Title: Pecan growing in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00028133/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pecan growing in Florida
Physical Description: 67 p. : ill, map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sharpe, R. H ( Ralph Harold ), 1913-
Gammon, Nathan
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1958
 Subjects
Subject: Pecan -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by R.H. Sharpe and Nathan Gammon, Jr.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 66-67).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "A revision of Bulletin 437 and 191. Originally printed October 1947."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
General Note: Bulletin - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin ; 601
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00028133
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01728249

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Foreword
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Botany
        Page 4
    Varieties
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Planting the new orchard
        Page 18
        Location of the pecan orchard
            Page 18
        Time of planting
            Page 19
        Selecting trees for planting
            Page 19
        Soil preparation and tree spacing
            Page 20
        Transplanting
            Page 20
        Care of young trees
            Page 21
    Orchard management
        Page 22
        Management for pecans alone
            Page 23
        Management for production of in intercrop
            Page 23
        Management for pasture
            Page 24
            Page 25
    Fertilizer requirements of the orchard
        Page 26
        Nitrogen
            Page 26
        Potassium
            Page 27
        Phosphorus
            Page 27
        Lime, calcium and magnesium
            Page 28
        Zinc
            Page 29
        Manganese
            Page 30
        Boron
            Page 31
    Cover crops in the orchard
        Page 32
        Summer cover crop
            Page 33
        Winter cover crop
            Page 34
        Non-leguminous winter cover crops
            Page 35
    Rejuvenation of neglected orchards
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Spanish moss in pecan trees
        Page 37
    Insects and diseases
        Page 37
    Thinning orchards
        Page 37
    Pruning
        Page 38
    Yields and some common problems in crop production
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Propagation by top-working older trees
        Page 41
        Cleft grafting
            Page 42
        Inlay bark graft method
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Budding
            Page 44
            Page 45
    Propagation in the pecan nursery
        Page 46
        Planting the nuts
            Page 46
        Cultivation of nursery stock
            Page 47
        Fertilization of nursery stock
            Page 47
        Budding
            Page 48
            Ring budding
                Page 49
            Patch budding
                Page 49
        Grafting
            Page 50
            Grafting waxes and wrappings
                Page 51
        Digging and packing
            Page 52
    Marketing
        Page 53
        Harvesting
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Selling practices
            Page 57
        Grading and sizing
            Page 58
            Page 59
        Pecan shelling
            Page 60
            Page 61
        Storage
            Page 62
        Pecan by-products
            Page 63
    Summary
        Page 64
    Acknowledgement
        Page 65
    Appendix
        Page 66
        Page 67
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 601 October 1958
(A Revision of Bulletins 437 and 191. Originally Printed October 1947)


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA







PECAN GROWING IN FLORIDA


By R. H. SHARPE and NATHAN GAMMON, JR.
Associate Horticulturist and Soils Chemist


Fig. 1.-Pecan nuts nearly ready to be harvested.


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA







CONTENTS
Pag3
F OREW ORD ..... ...... .......................................................... ...... ...... 3
INTRODUCTION ..................... ....................................... .................... 3
B OTAN Y ....--- ... ... .. ........ ............. ............................. ........ ............ 4
VARIETIES ................... ......... ..................... ............ ............ ...... 5
PLANTING THE NEW ORCHARD ....................... ............ .........................1........ 18
Location of the Pecan Orchard ..................................... ... .....---....... 18
Tim e of Planting ........-.................-...................-.................................. 19
Selecting Trees for Planting .................................................................. 19
Soil Preparation and Tree Spacing ..........---- ---..------........... ................ 20
Transplanting ............................................... ........................... ........ 20
Care of Young Trees ..--- ............ ....... ............ ...... ... ...- .............. ........ 21
ORCHARD M ANAGEMENT ...............................................--...- .............................. 22
Management for Pecans Alone ...................................................... 23
Management for Production of an Intercrop ..................................... 23
M anagem ent for Pasture ................................ ........ .....-................... 24
FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS OF THE ORCHARD .................. ...................- 26
N nitrogen ......... .......................... .................................................. .......... 26
P otassium ....--......------.....---... ....................... .......... ............... ... 27
Phosphorus ................ ..........- ......- ..- --.....---- ... ......... ....................... .... 27
Lime, Calcium and Magnesium ...................................--- ............... 28
Z inc ............................................................................ ....... .............. ...... 29
M anganese ..... ........... ................. ................ ..... ... ... .. ...... ......... 30
B oron ...... ...................... ................................. ......... ............ 31
COVER CROPS IN THE ORCHARD .....--.... ............ ............................ ................ 32
Sum m er Cover Crop ...................... ........ ..................... ......................... 33
W inter Cover Crop ............................ ........... ............. ....--. ..-- .......... 34
Non-leguminous Winter Cover Crops .........................................-.... 35
REJUVENATION OF NEGLECTED ORCHARDS .. .................. ........................... 35
SPANISH MOSS IN PECAN TREES ...............-- ...... ....................... ..... 37
INSECTS AND D ISEASES ........................................ ...... .............................. 37
THINNING ORCHARDS ...........------ --...-............. ..... -...........-- ... 37
PRUNING ......-... ........... ....... ............. ---.. ...........-----...---.. --. ---- 38
YIELDS AND SOME COMMON PROBLEMS IN CROP PRODUCTION ...................-.... 39
PROPAGATION BY TOP-WORKING OLDER TREES ............. ......... .................... 41
Cleft Grafting .-..............-...---------- ........- ................................ ....... ...... 42
Inlay Bark Graft M ethod ...................-- ......... ........................................ 42
B adding ........... -..................... .........- ..- ........-.-- .......... .... .... ....... ...-......... 44
PROPAGATION IN THE PECAN NURSERY ........................................................... 46
Planting the N uts ........................ ............... ........ .......................... ......... 46
Cultivation of Nursery Stock .........................................-- ............-.......... 47
Fertilization of Nursery Stock .........................--..........-........................ 47
Budding ............. ................................................ .......... ............. ......... 48
R ing Budding ........................ -----.............................. ........... .............. 49
Patch Budding ........... ............................... ...................... ... ....-- 49
G rafting ................... ........ ..................................................................-- 50
Grafting Waxes and Wrappings ...............--- ....~..~-....-... .. ------ 51
Digging and Packing ...................... .............................. ............. 52
MARKETING ...- .................................--------...-... -----........- ...------ 53
H harvesting ......- .............. ......... ......................... ......... ........... ............... 53
Selling Practices ..--.......-- ............-- --..--....---.......-......... ------. ...-- 57
Grading and Sizing .................... ............----- ..............-----....... ....... 58
Pecan Shelling .................-- ...........-- ....... .......-- ........- --.......... ..........-- .. 60
Storage ..----- .....- ............------ ........-..---....-- .---- ...... ....-- ...... .............. 62
Pecan By-Products ...................... ....... ....... ..........................-.. 63
SUMMARY ....................... ---.-..... --. .----...-.-.. ------- .-- --- ------------ 64
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..........-........---- --- ---------------.----......-...-.... 65
APPENEIX ............. .....-..... -.----------.---------.------.---------.------- 66









PECAN GROWING IN FLORIDA

By R. H. SHARPE and NATHAN GAMMON, JR.

This bulletin is a revision of Bulletin 437, which is itself a
revision of Bulletin 191. Much of the basic information obtained
by the original author, G. H. Blackmon, is still fundamental for
pecan production in Florida, and the reader will find this infor-
mation included here in exactly the same words that Mr. Black-
mon used in his original publication. The present authors con-
sider themselves fortunate indeed to have such an excellent
foundation upon which to build. The revisions incorporated
herein reflect recent experiences with newer varieties, changes
in management practices, improved fertilization and similar fac-
tors that are currently influencing pecan production in Florida.

INTRODUCTION
The growing of pecans in Florida began in the first half of
the 19th century; early settlers grew trees to produce nuts for
home consumption. One of the first orchards was planted at old
Bagdad, south of Milton, about 1848, by John Hunt. Individual
trees growing in different parts of northern Florida evidently
were planted prior to this time, according to various records.
In 1887 another seedling orchard was planted at Monticello by
H. S. Kedney. Some of the trees still exist in these old plantings.
The Hunt orchard was important in the production of varie-
ties. In 1886 Dr. J. B. Curtis secured nuts from Arthur Brown,
who then owned the Hunt orchard, and planted them on his
farm at Orange Heights. The seedling trees varied widely, but
some produced nuts of better size, quality and thinness of shell
than others. As a result of these variations, Curtis, Kennedy,
Randall and Hume were named and introduced to the trade. Of
these, Curtis has become the most outstanding and has been
planted extensively in the northeastern section of Florida. It
has been widely disseminated to other parts of the state as well
as to other states, but Alachua and nearby counties are the larg-
est producers.
The Rising orchard in Bradford County was started by Mr.
Rising about five miles northeast of Starke. The oldest trees
were planted in a citrus grove in the early '80's. When the citrus
trees were killed in the 1894-95 freeze, the pecan trees were









PECAN GROWING IN FLORIDA

By R. H. SHARPE and NATHAN GAMMON, JR.

This bulletin is a revision of Bulletin 437, which is itself a
revision of Bulletin 191. Much of the basic information obtained
by the original author, G. H. Blackmon, is still fundamental for
pecan production in Florida, and the reader will find this infor-
mation included here in exactly the same words that Mr. Black-
mon used in his original publication. The present authors con-
sider themselves fortunate indeed to have such an excellent
foundation upon which to build. The revisions incorporated
herein reflect recent experiences with newer varieties, changes
in management practices, improved fertilization and similar fac-
tors that are currently influencing pecan production in Florida.

INTRODUCTION
The growing of pecans in Florida began in the first half of
the 19th century; early settlers grew trees to produce nuts for
home consumption. One of the first orchards was planted at old
Bagdad, south of Milton, about 1848, by John Hunt. Individual
trees growing in different parts of northern Florida evidently
were planted prior to this time, according to various records.
In 1887 another seedling orchard was planted at Monticello by
H. S. Kedney. Some of the trees still exist in these old plantings.
The Hunt orchard was important in the production of varie-
ties. In 1886 Dr. J. B. Curtis secured nuts from Arthur Brown,
who then owned the Hunt orchard, and planted them on his
farm at Orange Heights. The seedling trees varied widely, but
some produced nuts of better size, quality and thinness of shell
than others. As a result of these variations, Curtis, Kennedy,
Randall and Hume were named and introduced to the trade. Of
these, Curtis has become the most outstanding and has been
planted extensively in the northeastern section of Florida. It
has been widely disseminated to other parts of the state as well
as to other states, but Alachua and nearby counties are the larg-
est producers.
The Rising orchard in Bradford County was started by Mr.
Rising about five miles northeast of Starke. The oldest trees
were planted in a citrus grove in the early '80's. When the citrus
trees were killed in the 1894-95 freeze, the pecan trees were






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


just coming into bearing. One seedling produced the best nuts
of all and it was used in topworking the other trees and named
Rising. This variety has been propagated to some extent and
planted in the Starke area.
The orchards in Florida are generally of medium to small
acreage, although there are a number with 75 acres and more.
The number of successful varieties grown commercially is few,
although numerous ones have been tried in the state.
According to the 1950 U. S. Census of Agriculture, there
were 284,944 pecan trees of all ages in Florida, of which 95 per-
cent were recorded as grown in Alachua County and counties
north and west of Alachua. Production since 1922, as reported
by the Agricultural Marketing Service of the U. S. Department
of Agriculture, is given in Table 1.

TABLE 1.-PECAN PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA (IN POUNDS).

SVarieties Seedlings Total

1922-31 Average ..............-.... .... 998,000 443,000 1,441,000
1931-41 Average ............................. 1,548,000 1,059,000 2,607,000
1945-54 Average ....... ..................... 2,454,000 1,746,000 4,199,000
1955 ........... .................... 6,400,000 4,500,000 10,900,000


BOTANY
The pecan is the most important species of the genus Carya.
It has been given numerous names since 1785 when Marshall
designated it as Juglans pecan. In 1888 Britton gave it the name
of Hicoria pecan, but Standardized Plant Names (1942) lists the
genus as Carya and the species as illinoensis Engl. & Graeben.
The pecan is a native American species, being found in great
abundance along the lower Mississippi River and its tributaries,
and the rivers of Texas and northern Mexico. It grows to large
size and is cultivated extensively in all Southern states.
The pecan tree produces both pistillate and staminate flowers
(Fig. 2). Pistillate flowers are borne terminally on the current
season's growth and the nuts appear in clusters of two to eight
and sometimes 10, before there is any shedding. Staminate
flowers, catkins (Fig. 3), are borne on wood that grew the pre-
vious season and often appear at the base of the new shoots, but
may grow from lateral buds appearing along the two-year-old
shoot.






Pecan Growing in Florida


VARIETIES
Since the introduction of
named varieties, more than
175 different ones have been
advertised a n d publicized.
Only a few meet specifica-
tions of present standards.
A satisfactory variety must
come into bearing early and
be a prolific and consistent
producer. Nuts should be
medium to large in size, and
have shells that crack easily,
with plump straw-colored
kernels of good flavor and
quality. The variety should
be highly resistant to dis-
*ases or at least sufficiently
;o that it can be sprayed
economically Insects at-
tack most varieties and
;ause heavy losses. There-
'ore, a variety should be pro-









r.J


Fig. 2.-Pecan flowers and foliage:
(a) pistillate flowers; (b) staminate
flowers; (c) leaf.


Fig. 3.-Catkins are borne on the wood that grew the previous season.


Irl~






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


-. 'z lific, respond to good orchard
S, management and produce
profitable crops of nuts to
-' justify a suitable spraying
' -- program when necessary.
,, Under the best orchard
S4 v management, most varieties
require four to seven years
to begin bearing and seven
to 12 years to produce com-
mercial crops. It is, there-
fore, highly important that
a variety come into bearing
early (Fig. 4) and bear reg-
ular crops.
In the unshelled trade
highest market price may be
obtained for large thin-
shelled nuts with high quali-
ty kernels. These large fancy
nuts are in particular de-
mand for the in-shell trade.
Fig. 4.-A variety should come into man or the n
bearing early. However, the majority of pe-
cans now go to commercial
shelling plants where they are cracked and the kernels are sep-
arated from the shells. Consequently, prolific varieties which
produce small to medium-sized nuts of good quality are in de-
mand by sellers. Low quality nuts, regardless of size, bring
low prices and during the years of heavy production may not be
sold easily.
All of the varieties described below, as well as many others,
are being grown in some parts of Florida. However, prospec-
tive planters should select those that are giving best results in
their immediate localities and plant not more than three or
four well-chosen varieties. For the home or small orchard where
spraying would be very difficult, varieties should be selected that
are notably scab-resistant over wide areas. Curtis and Stuart
would be first choice, with Elliott and Desirable among the newer
varieties which appear promising.
Pecan varieties, in general, are designated as Western, or
those having their origin in the western part of the pecan belt,
and Eastern, or those originating from eastern Texas eastward.
It is not advisable generally to plant varieties of the Western





Pecan Growing in Florida 7
group in humid sections, as most of them are highly susceptible
to scab.
INCHE!
IlIl ITlrll! II 'I i I ,lI ll rI I ,' I I I it i I





Un U -


Fig. 5.-Nuts of Schley (above) and Stuart varieties.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Stuart is probably the most widely distributed variety
throughout the pecan belt. It is generally one of the most re-
sistant to scab, although it has recently scabbed quite seriously
in Mississippi. Tree is an upright grower, often attaining con-
siderable height with only slight spread of branches; twigs
are light gray; leaves are firm and not very dense; moderate
grower except on fertile locations where the length of the twigs
grown in one year may be two or three feet; often quite tardy
in quantity production but produces rather consistently as tree
attains age; moderately productive, and fairly regular in bear-
ing on the clay soils in northwestern Florida with adequate
nutrition.
Nuts medium to large, markings well defined, making it very
attractive; oblong, slightly obovate, regular in shape and shows
up well in commercial packages; shell is moderately thick but
cracks easily; plump kernel that has a good quality and flavor,
but breaks easily when being removed from the shell (Fig. 5).
Planted extensively over northern and western Florida. Orig-
inated in Jackson County, Mississippi.
Curtis, one of the important varieties, is prized highly in the
eastern part of the pecan belt.
The tree begins to bear at a fairly early age, but has a tenden-
cy to alternate bearing, which may be corrected to some extent
with adequate nutrition and insect control. It has not developed
scab to any extent. Crops in heavy years are sufficient to give
a good average yearly production. The tree is somewhat dwarf,
with a slight spreading upright growth, and the upper parts of
the branches gracefully bending outward (Fig. 6).
The nut is small to medium, larger at the base and tapering
to the apex, with a slight curve to one side (Fig. 7); has a thin
shell, cracks easily, yielding a plump kernel of high quality and
excellent flavor but sprinkled with dark specks on the surface,
which do not affect the quality. Originated in Alachua County,
Florida.
Desirable originated at Ocean Springs, Mississippi, and has
been quite widely disseminated by the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture. It has had only limited tests in Florida but appears
promising. The tree is rounded and makes a moderately open
type of growth; begins to bear at an early age, is prolific and
produces quite regularly. The nuts are large, crack easily,
usually fill well; its shape is characterized by the sides which are
slightly depressed and uneven (Fig. 8).







Pecan Growing in Florida


Elliott has been propagated for more than 20 years, but never
has been widely disseminated. It is being grown in a few or-
chards in the northern part of Walton County, where it is prized
highly. A few small plantings of young trees have been made
in Jefferson County and other locations during recent years.
The tree is thrifty, yet slow to attain large size; has rounded


^^X^^^ ^l *\^;^ ...*.r'-
* -m?.-....... ...... v.......... ..--.. -.-



Fig. 6.-Tree of the Curtis variety.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


symmetrical top with numerous terminal twigs; medium size
leaves with thin leaflets that are decidedly curved (Fig. 9);
apparently highly resistant to scab; fairly precocious, prolific
and generally bears consistently.

IIt I I I.I I i't I li s111 1 l l I .I-l f J:t ..l l I I Ii lil l LJ1J.itl.llrit.-llt4l1 I


P ^-^ gg


-T~1


Fig. 7.-Nuts of Curtis (above) and Moore varieties.







Pecan Growing in Florida


Fig. 8.-Nuts of Desirable (above) and Elliott varieties.
The nut is small with rounded base and pointed apex; partial
markings; plump, smooth, straw color; medium thick shell; of
excellent flavor and quality; very good for cracking purposes
(Fig. 8). Originated in Santa Rosa County, Florida.
Success meets with approval where it can be grown success-
fully, measuring up to all requirements except for resistance to
disease. It is generally quite subject to scab and requires a con-
trol spraying program to insure production. It should be planted
only on the heavier soils, with an adequate supply of plant food
and moisture, as it is variable when these requirements are not
met. It has been planted extensively over northern and western
Florida.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The tree is moderately vigorous, with a more or less funnel-
shaped top with branches coming out uniformly around the
trunk; begins to produce nuts early and is fairly regular and
consistent in bearing, with a tendency to overbear at times.


Fig. 9.-Tree


of the Elliott variety.


The nut is large, and wedge-shaped, with one lobe at the apex
slightly depressed, moderately thick shelled but cracks well and
the kernel is easily removed from the shell whole. When grown







Pecan Growing in Florida


under proper conditions the kernel is plump,
color, and good quality and flavor (Fig. 10).
son County, Mississippi.


and of satisfactory
Originated in Jack-


Fig. 10.-Nuts of Success variety.


Mahan is one of the later variety introductions commercially
propagated. Since 1926 it has been widely disseminated through-
out the pecan belt.
The tree is a vigorous grower with thick heavy foliage made
up of leaves with large leaflets; has a symmetrical, well shaped
top; and is fairly precocious, and a consistent producer when
grown under suitable conditions. It is susceptible to scab, which
may become severe during years when the weather is favorable
for scab development, and will require spraying.
The nut is very large (Fig. 11), with general shape and mark-
ings somewhat similar to Schley; thin shell, cracks easily; ker-
nel fairly plump and of good flavor and quality. Originated in
Attala County, Mississippi.
Moneymaker is popular because generally it is quite prolific.
It is planted in all parts of the state. It is somewhat susceptible
to scab and requires spraying in some areas.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 11.-Nuts of Mahan variety.
The tree is of upright, open, spreading type of growth and
usually begins to bear at a fairly early age, but is not consistent
in bearing unless soil fertility is maintained and the foliage is
preserved (Fig. 12).
The nut is medium in size, slightly wedge-shaped, rounding,
with medium thick shell that cracks satisfactorily (Fig. 13);
kernel is usually fairly plump and of good flavor and quality.
Originated in Madison Parish, Louisiana.
Schley is an outstanding variety, and if it were not highly
susceptible to scab, probably would be the most generally grown
variety east of the Mississippi River. However, scab can be
controlled with sprays and the nuts usually bring a price suffi-
cient to justify the extra expense, when the trees are maintained
in a productive condition.
The tree is a rather vigorous grower with thick foliage, made
up of closely set leaves containing large leaflets; twigs are gray-
slate color, smooth, turning rough with age; buds pointed and
brown; general form is symmetrical, round-topped in growth,
branches growing upward and outward; considered by many as
the most beautiful tree of all pecan varieties; begins to bear fairly


- 7r_


i ._rj;~L~_~$aas







Pecan Growing in Florida


young, and is moderately prolific and a regular bearer under
good management.
Nuts are medium to large, oblong, obovate, irregular in out-
line, opposite sides are slightly depressed, apex sharp-pointed
and flat with a blunt base; shell very thin, cracking easily; ker-
nel plump, straw-color, rich in oil, of excellent quality and flavor
(Fig. 5). Originated in Jackson County, Mississippi.
Moore is grown extensively in Jefferson and Duval counties
and planted to a limited extent in other counties.
The tree begins to bear at an early age and is prolific, gen-
erally consistent in annual production; not very large, inclined
to produce willowy twigs that often grow out and downward,
especially on the lower branches. It requires spraying to con-
trol scab in most areas of the state.
The nut is small to medium, elongated, brownish with dis-
tinct dark markings at the apex reaching about 1/3 its length
(Fig. 7); shell is of medium thickness, but cracks easily; kernel
is easily removed whole, fairly plump and of good quality and
flavor. Originated in Jefferson County, Florida.


Fig. 12.-A Moneymaker orchard in Jefferson County.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


INCHEb 2 .9 4


Fig. 13.-Nuts of Kennedy (above) and Moneymaker varieties.







Pecan Growing in Florida


Fig. 14.-Tree of the Kennedy variety.


Kennedy is a variety that has met with more or less favor in
Alachua and Bradford counties. It is similar to Curtis in many
ways, although the tree has slightly heavier foliage and the nut
is larger and more pointed. It produces fairly well and is some-
what susceptible to scab.
The tree is an upright grower of medium size, and begins to
bear at a comparatively early age, but often is inclined to bear ir-
regularly (Fig. 14). Trees often break badly with heavy crops.








18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The nut is medium in size, decidedly pointed at the apex,
straw colored set off by distinct markings at the apex, mod-
erately thin shelled, and cracks easily; kernel firm and easily
removed from the shell whole, fairly plump and of good flavor
and quality (Fig. 13). Originated in Alachua County, Florida.

PLANTING THE NEW ORCHARD

Location of the Pecan Orchard.-Pecan trees can be found
in practically every county in Florida; however, all areas of the
State are not adapted to commercial production. The major
commercial pecan producing areas lie in the north and north-
western parts of the State (Fig. 15). Tree growth is often very
satisfactory in the southern half of the peninsula, but nut pro-
duction is relatively light. Trees break dormancy later in the


55 46 66 2 A 45
67 rr 24





ALPHABETICAL LIST OF COUNTIES IN FLORIDA 38 18
NUMBERED TO AGREE WITH KEY MAP.
4262 64


1. Alachua 24. Hamilton 46. Okal6osa "
2. Baker 25. Hardee 47. Okeechobee 9\"
3.23 Bay 26. Hendry 48. Orange 60 5 5
4. Bradford 27. Hernando 49. Osceola 27 48
5A Brevard 28. Highlands 50. Palm Beach 5
6 e. Broward 29. Hillsboro 51. Pasco 5 49
7. Calhoun 30o. Holmes 52. Pinellas 9
8. Charlotte 31. Indian River 53. Polk 2- 29
9 Citrus 32. Jackson 54. Putnam 4 31
10. Clay 33. Jefferson 55. Santa Rosa
11. Collier 34. Lafayette 56. Sarasota 41 9 2 47
12. Columbia 35. Lake 57. Seminole 60
13. Dade 6. Lee 58. S. e Johns 49. O a 27 4
14. DeSoto 37. Leon 59. Pa Lucie B 5
15. BrardLy Sumo 51. Pasou r 225
16. Duval 39. Liberty 65. Suwanneel
17. soambiar 40. Madison 62. Taylor 52- 250
18. Flagler 41. Manatee 63. Union If6" -- 6
19. FraCklin 42. Marion 64. Volusiam
20. adsden 43. Martin 65. Wakulla R
21. Gilchrist 44. Monroe 66. Walton 1 25 1147
22. Glades 45. Nassau 67. Washingtonl
23. Gulf 6. Lee 58. St. Johns
13
Fig. 15.-Map of Florida showing: (A) the area in
which commercial pecan orchards are located; (B) some
orchards are located here but the area is not generally y
recommended for commercial plantings; (C) area in which
commercial plantings are not recommended.








18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The nut is medium in size, decidedly pointed at the apex,
straw colored set off by distinct markings at the apex, mod-
erately thin shelled, and cracks easily; kernel firm and easily
removed from the shell whole, fairly plump and of good flavor
and quality (Fig. 13). Originated in Alachua County, Florida.

PLANTING THE NEW ORCHARD

Location of the Pecan Orchard.-Pecan trees can be found
in practically every county in Florida; however, all areas of the
State are not adapted to commercial production. The major
commercial pecan producing areas lie in the north and north-
western parts of the State (Fig. 15). Tree growth is often very
satisfactory in the southern half of the peninsula, but nut pro-
duction is relatively light. Trees break dormancy later in the


55 46 66 2 A 45
67 rr 24





ALPHABETICAL LIST OF COUNTIES IN FLORIDA 38 18
NUMBERED TO AGREE WITH KEY MAP.
4262 64


1. Alachua 24. Hamilton 46. Okal6osa "
2. Baker 25. Hardee 47. Okeechobee 9\"
3.23 Bay 26. Hendry 48. Orange 60 5 5
4. Bradford 27. Hernando 49. Osceola 27 48
5A Brevard 28. Highlands 50. Palm Beach 5
6 e. Broward 29. Hillsboro 51. Pasco 5 49
7. Calhoun 30o. Holmes 52. Pinellas 9
8. Charlotte 31. Indian River 53. Polk 2- 29
9 Citrus 32. Jackson 54. Putnam 4 31
10. Clay 33. Jefferson 55. Santa Rosa
11. Collier 34. Lafayette 56. Sarasota 41 9 2 47
12. Columbia 35. Lake 57. Seminole 60
13. Dade 6. Lee 58. S. e Johns 49. O a 27 4
14. DeSoto 37. Leon 59. Pa Lucie B 5
15. BrardLy Sumo 51. Pasou r 225
16. Duval 39. Liberty 65. Suwanneel
17. soambiar 40. Madison 62. Taylor 52- 250
18. Flagler 41. Manatee 63. Union If6" -- 6
19. FraCklin 42. Marion 64. Volusiam
20. adsden 43. Martin 65. Wakulla R
21. Gilchrist 44. Monroe 66. Walton 1 25 1147
22. Glades 45. Nassau 67. Washingtonl
23. Gulf 6. Lee 58. St. Johns
13
Fig. 15.-Map of Florida showing: (A) the area in
which commercial pecan orchards are located; (B) some
orchards are located here but the area is not generally y
recommended for commercial plantings; (C) area in which
commercial plantings are not recommended.






Pecan Growing in Florida


spring in southern sections, as compared with north Florida,
indicating insufficient winter chilling may be a factor in poor
adaptation to south Florida.
The selection of soil is of major importance in planting com-
mercial orchards. Under Florida conditions the surface soil
should be of a sand to sandy loam texture and well-drained. The
best soils have 42 inches or more of well-drained light-textured
material in the surface. Soils with less than 36 inches of well-
drained light-textured material in the surface should be avoided
if possible, since trees growing on such soils may be damaged by
drought or excessive moisture in some seasons. Likewise, soils
with high water tables or with hardpan, hard plastic or tight
clay, or mottling at depths of less than 36 inches should be
avoided in commercial plantings. Pecans have been planted and
borne crops under the widest possible range of soil conditions in
Florida, but pecan roots do not penetrate hardpans, tight clays
or soil layers where water stands for long periods of time. Hence,
as a pecan orchard matures and its roots occupy an increasingly
larger volume of soil, adverse soil conditions will limit root
growth and result in poor top growth and reduced yield.
Good air drainage is not as important as good soil drainage in
pecan production. However, low spots subject to unusually
heavy dews or prolonged dampness are potential sources for the
beginning and spread of scab infection. Scab control in such
locations is usually more difficult. A pecan grove may be ex-
pected to have a very long life, so it is well to keep in mind that
an extended scab control program may cut heavily into future
profits.
Time of Planting.-Pecan trees are transplanted during the
dormant season, approximately December to March. They should
be set as early during this period as possible, so that the roots
will become partly established during the winter months. When
this is done, growth will start more vigorously in the spring
than with later plantings.
Selecting Trees for Planting.-Selecting varieties that have
every reasonable expectation of producing good yields of high
quality nuts, and will require a minimum of disease control is
of prime importance. The trees should be in good condition,
vigorous and thrifty.
In most commercial plantings grafted or budded trees with
one-year-old tops are used. Studies by Blackmon at Gainesville
showed that increases in trunk circumference, linear twig growth






Pecan Growing in Florida


spring in southern sections, as compared with north Florida,
indicating insufficient winter chilling may be a factor in poor
adaptation to south Florida.
The selection of soil is of major importance in planting com-
mercial orchards. Under Florida conditions the surface soil
should be of a sand to sandy loam texture and well-drained. The
best soils have 42 inches or more of well-drained light-textured
material in the surface. Soils with less than 36 inches of well-
drained light-textured material in the surface should be avoided
if possible, since trees growing on such soils may be damaged by
drought or excessive moisture in some seasons. Likewise, soils
with high water tables or with hardpan, hard plastic or tight
clay, or mottling at depths of less than 36 inches should be
avoided in commercial plantings. Pecans have been planted and
borne crops under the widest possible range of soil conditions in
Florida, but pecan roots do not penetrate hardpans, tight clays
or soil layers where water stands for long periods of time. Hence,
as a pecan orchard matures and its roots occupy an increasingly
larger volume of soil, adverse soil conditions will limit root
growth and result in poor top growth and reduced yield.
Good air drainage is not as important as good soil drainage in
pecan production. However, low spots subject to unusually
heavy dews or prolonged dampness are potential sources for the
beginning and spread of scab infection. Scab control in such
locations is usually more difficult. A pecan grove may be ex-
pected to have a very long life, so it is well to keep in mind that
an extended scab control program may cut heavily into future
profits.
Time of Planting.-Pecan trees are transplanted during the
dormant season, approximately December to March. They should
be set as early during this period as possible, so that the roots
will become partly established during the winter months. When
this is done, growth will start more vigorously in the spring
than with later plantings.
Selecting Trees for Planting.-Selecting varieties that have
every reasonable expectation of producing good yields of high
quality nuts, and will require a minimum of disease control is
of prime importance. The trees should be in good condition,
vigorous and thrifty.
In most commercial plantings grafted or budded trees with
one-year-old tops are used. Studies by Blackmon at Gainesville
showed that increases in trunk circumference, linear twig growth






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and the number of twigs were more numerous on the larger plant-
ing stock sizes. However, these stocks are more expensive and
their size also increases the cost of transplanting. Taking these
factors into consideration, he recommended using well grown,
four to five-foot trees with strong root systems for commercial
planting.
Older trees are frequently purchased by home owners for
dooryard planting. The increased expense of larger trees is
easily justified in such cases because of their ornamental value.
It is doubtful if the additional expense and care would justify
the use of these older trees in planting commercial orchards.
Soil Preparation and Tree Spacing.-The soil should be put
in good condition by plowing under all vegetation and thoroughly
disking. The field should be staked off, spacing the trees not
less than 50 feet apart each way-60 or even 75 feet often is
preferred. The orchard is generally laid out by the square
method, but where terracing is necessary it can be planted on
the contour. The number of trees to plant in one acre at various
distances is given in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-NUMBER OF TREES REQUIRED TO PLANT ONE ACRE.

Planting Distance in Feet No. Trees per Acre

50 x 50 ................................... 17
50 x 60 ........ ......... ..... ............... 14
50 x 70 .... ....................................... ........ ... 12
50 x 80 ..................-- ................ ............. 10
60 x 60 ...................... ...... ................. .. 12
60 x 70 -..................... ......... ................ 10
60 x 80 .......................... ........... 9
70 x 70 .................................................... 8
70 x 80 ............... ................... ............ 7
80 x 80 ............... ...... ............ 6
100 x 100.............. ................. ...... 4


Transplanting.-When ready to set, the bales or boxes of
trees are taken to the field. ,When removed from the boxes the
tree roots should not be permitted to dry out from exposure to
sun and wind. Holes 20 to 30 inches in diameter and 24 to 36
inches deep are necessary to accommodate the root systems.
Care should be exercised in setting and placing the roots and
filling in the hole, for it is best to place the roots in as near a
normal position as possible. Prune off broken and damaged roots
by making a smooth cut with a knife or pruning shears. A






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and the number of twigs were more numerous on the larger plant-
ing stock sizes. However, these stocks are more expensive and
their size also increases the cost of transplanting. Taking these
factors into consideration, he recommended using well grown,
four to five-foot trees with strong root systems for commercial
planting.
Older trees are frequently purchased by home owners for
dooryard planting. The increased expense of larger trees is
easily justified in such cases because of their ornamental value.
It is doubtful if the additional expense and care would justify
the use of these older trees in planting commercial orchards.
Soil Preparation and Tree Spacing.-The soil should be put
in good condition by plowing under all vegetation and thoroughly
disking. The field should be staked off, spacing the trees not
less than 50 feet apart each way-60 or even 75 feet often is
preferred. The orchard is generally laid out by the square
method, but where terracing is necessary it can be planted on
the contour. The number of trees to plant in one acre at various
distances is given in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-NUMBER OF TREES REQUIRED TO PLANT ONE ACRE.

Planting Distance in Feet No. Trees per Acre

50 x 50 ................................... 17
50 x 60 ........ ......... ..... ............... 14
50 x 70 .... ....................................... ........ ... 12
50 x 80 ..................-- ................ ............. 10
60 x 60 ...................... ...... ................. .. 12
60 x 70 -..................... ......... ................ 10
60 x 80 .......................... ........... 9
70 x 70 .................................................... 8
70 x 80 ............... ................... ............ 7
80 x 80 ............... ...... ............ 6
100 x 100.............. ................. ...... 4


Transplanting.-When ready to set, the bales or boxes of
trees are taken to the field. ,When removed from the boxes the
tree roots should not be permitted to dry out from exposure to
sun and wind. Holes 20 to 30 inches in diameter and 24 to 36
inches deep are necessary to accommodate the root systems.
Care should be exercised in setting and placing the roots and
filling in the hole, for it is best to place the roots in as near a
normal position as possible. Prune off broken and damaged roots
by making a smooth cut with a knife or pruning shears. A







Pecan Growing in Florida


shovelful or two of peat mixed into the hole at planting is sug-
gested as good practice on lighter soils. The soil should be
pressed firmly as the hole is filled, leaving it about as it was
when the trees were growing in the nursery. A planting board,
although not absolutely necessary, aids in setting trees at the
proper depth and in lining them up in the row. Use two or three
gallons of water around each tree when the hole is 3/4 full of
soil. If no water is used, the roots may be puddled in wet clay
just before setting. In filling the holes the soil is made firm to
the top, leaving a slight depression around the base of the tree.
During the first year after trees are transplanted it will be nec-
essary to water them several times if there is insufficient rainfall.
Remove 1/3 to 1/2 of the top of the tree when setting, to ap-
proach a balance between top and roots. This gives the tree a
better opportunity to live and simplifies the problem of proper
heading later. It is a good practice to wrap the trunks of newly-
set trees the first year. Special paper wraps are available from
nurseries.
Care of Young Trees.-Probably the highest percentage of
young tree losses the first summer after transplanting to the
field result from failure to water adequately or control weeds
and grass. Some provision should be made to insure adequate
water at all times during the first growing season. For an aver-
age year watering two or three times during the spring may be
sufficient, but much more frequent watering may be required.
After the first year the young pecans should be well enough
established to withstand anything but the most severe drought.
A heavy mulch of straw or other plant material placed in a
circle three to five feet in diameter around the base of the tree
for the first few years will help maintain the soil moisture and
reduce weed competition.
Over-fertilization can be a common fault in the manage-
ment of young trees. No fertilizer should be used at the time
of planting, but the young tree may be given an early summer
fertilization, between June 1 and July 1, of no more than one
pound of 8-8-8 spread evenly over the soil from the trunk out
to a distance of two or three feet. The second year the trees may
be fertilized with one pound of 8-8-8 in February and another
pound of 8-8-8 in early July. Late summer fertilization of young
trees should be avoided since it may stimulate a late flush of
growth which could result in serious freeze damage. After the







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


second year, fertilization of the young trees depends upon the
cropping system followed.

ORCHARD MANAGEMENT

Since pecan nuts are borne terminally on the current sea-
son's growth, it is highly desirable to manage pecans so that
vigorous twig growth is obtained which can produce good crops.
The maintenance of such growth requires a fairly high level of
soil fertility. Although the costs of maintaining an adequate
fertility for the pecans alone will be more than justified in a
good orchard over a period of years, returns are not always on
an annual basis. A number of years are required to get an
orchard into economic production. The advantages of manage-
ment systems that permit an annual net return from land planted
to pecans are obvious.
Over the years three rather distinct forms of management
have been developed for pecan orchards in Florida: (1) Man-
agement for pecans alone; (2) management for production of
an intercrop; and (3) management for pasture. The key to
successful operation of any one of these management programs
is maintaining the soil fertility level high enough to encourage
good nut yields.

Fig. 16.-Nine-year-old Moore pecan trees in an orchard
managed for pecans alone.


* -% -.-4w.
, *. rr.-
4--


-i? *
.3-







Pecan Growing in Florida


Management for Pecans Alone.-Because of the wide yearly
fluctuation in income from pecans, there are relatively few pecan
groves under this system of management in Florida, even though
some of the most productive groves are under it (Fig. 16). This
system of management may consist of simply fertilizing the
trees as required and controlling the native cover as necessary
for harvest and spray operation. Usually it includes a summer
or winter legume, or both. Summer legumes may include hairy
indigo, the crotalarias and begger weed; the principal winter
legumes are crimson clover, lupine, white clover and Hubam
clover.
The usual practice is to grow a winter legume fertilized with
300 to 400 pounds per acre of 0-10-20 on the sands and loamy
sands, or 400 to 500 pounds per acre of 0-14-14 on the sandy
loams or heavier-textured soils. The legume may or may not be
plowed down in the spring. A native cover is permitted to grow
in the summer, its density being largely dependent upon the
fertility of the soil and the amount of shade afforded by the
trees.
One very successful practice has been to apply 30 to 50
pounds per tree of 6-6-6 or 8-8-8 broadcast under the branch
spread in March, followed by a mixed summer legume cover.
Sometimes extra nitrogen is applied in the summer of heavy
crop years, and the total fertilizer reduced in years when only a
light crop is expected. Following nut harvest, the grove is disked
sufficiently to cover leaves and trash, and is kept clean cultivated
until late spring. This practice may have special merit in some
areas as a means of controlling diseases and insects.
Management for Production of an Intercrop.-This system
was originally recommended by Blackmon and others as an eco-
nomical way to take care of an orchard while bringing it into
production. Cotton, corn, truck crops (Fig. 17), small fruits,
pears, peaches and Satsuma oranges are frequently used as in-
tercrops. For the protection of the young trees it was recom-
mended that the annual intercrop be planted no closer than six
feet from the trees and, as the orchard matured, this distance
be widened until all of the space was allotted to the tree. Cur-
rently, cash crops are grown in some mature groves and are
planted as close to the trees as it is possible to operate the farm
equipment without damaging the trunks. This practice, where
the soil is worked to a depth of not more than five to seven
inches, apparently has had no adverse effect upon the trees.







Pecan Growing in Florida


Management for Pecans Alone.-Because of the wide yearly
fluctuation in income from pecans, there are relatively few pecan
groves under this system of management in Florida, even though
some of the most productive groves are under it (Fig. 16). This
system of management may consist of simply fertilizing the
trees as required and controlling the native cover as necessary
for harvest and spray operation. Usually it includes a summer
or winter legume, or both. Summer legumes may include hairy
indigo, the crotalarias and begger weed; the principal winter
legumes are crimson clover, lupine, white clover and Hubam
clover.
The usual practice is to grow a winter legume fertilized with
300 to 400 pounds per acre of 0-10-20 on the sands and loamy
sands, or 400 to 500 pounds per acre of 0-14-14 on the sandy
loams or heavier-textured soils. The legume may or may not be
plowed down in the spring. A native cover is permitted to grow
in the summer, its density being largely dependent upon the
fertility of the soil and the amount of shade afforded by the
trees.
One very successful practice has been to apply 30 to 50
pounds per tree of 6-6-6 or 8-8-8 broadcast under the branch
spread in March, followed by a mixed summer legume cover.
Sometimes extra nitrogen is applied in the summer of heavy
crop years, and the total fertilizer reduced in years when only a
light crop is expected. Following nut harvest, the grove is disked
sufficiently to cover leaves and trash, and is kept clean cultivated
until late spring. This practice may have special merit in some
areas as a means of controlling diseases and insects.
Management for Production of an Intercrop.-This system
was originally recommended by Blackmon and others as an eco-
nomical way to take care of an orchard while bringing it into
production. Cotton, corn, truck crops (Fig. 17), small fruits,
pears, peaches and Satsuma oranges are frequently used as in-
tercrops. For the protection of the young trees it was recom-
mended that the annual intercrop be planted no closer than six
feet from the trees and, as the orchard matured, this distance
be widened until all of the space was allotted to the tree. Cur-
rently, cash crops are grown in some mature groves and are
planted as close to the trees as it is possible to operate the farm
equipment without damaging the trunks. This practice, where
the soil is worked to a depth of not more than five to seven
inches, apparently has had no adverse effect upon the trees.







24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Production of cash intercrops in mature orchards is limited
largely to beans, sweet corn and other vegetables that can be
grown in the early spring before the trees come into leaf. Some
grove owners lease their orchards to other farmers for the pro-
duction of such intercrops. The most important term in the
lease is the quantity of fertilizer the vegetable grower guaran-
tees to use. Usually the amount used is adequate for both the
vegetable crop and the trees, especially when a summer or winter
legume is included in the cropping system.
Management for Pasture.-Pecan groves have long been used
as supplementary pastures, but when fertility requirements are
neglected the result is detrimental to the pecans. With proper
management practices, which includes growing legumes and ade-
quate fertilization for both pasture and trees, pecan orchards in
pastures can be a very profitable "two story" agriculture prac-
tice (Fig. 18).
In pecan orchards where heavy winter legume crops can be
grown annually, a good annual fertilization of the legume is all
that is necessary to maintain adequate soil fertility for both
grass and trees. Dry winters and light-textured soils in some
areas of Florida combine to cause occasional failures of the win-

Fig. 17.-An early spring intercrop of snap beans in a pecan orchard.




If
3` -


'$A M .. -* *
,i -


TAX 2o









^^^S.*~r:^^^







Pecan Growing in Florida


ter legume. When this occurs, it is necessary to supplement the
fertilization with additional nitrogen. The amount of fertilizer
nitrogen required will depend on the extent of the legume crop
loss, but may be as high as 100 pounds of nitrogen (equivalent
to 300 pounds of ammonium nitrate) per acre following a com-
plete failure.
A few pecan orchards have been planted to grass pasture
without legumes. This practice is usually detrimental to the
trees because the usual rate of fertilization is not high enough
to maintain a productive fertility level. If grass alone is grown
in the pecan grove, the minimum fertilizer program to keep the
trees reasonably productive would be annual fertilization with
8-8-8 at 400 pounds per acre, plus at least 100 pounds of nitrogen
per acre as supplemental topdressing.
During some seasons the owner may find it advantageous to
cut hay from his orchard. He must keep in mind that removing
hay removes far more minerals from his grove than does or-
dinary grazing or a crop of pecans. When the hay is removed,
he should plan to refertilize with at least the minerals equivalent
to those removed.
It has long been considered necessary to break up the sod
around pecan trees at least every second year. The stimulation

Fig. 18.-Pecan groves can be utilized as pastures when fertilized
adequately for both forage and trees.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of tree growth from this process was the result of reduced com-
petition with the grass and the release of nitrogen and other
nutrients from the dead plant material. More recent observa-
tions indicate that there is no advantage in breaking up this sod,
provided adequate fertilizer nutrients are available for both
the grass and the tree.

FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS OF THE ORCHARD
The fertilization of pecans may vary widely, depending upon
the general system of management selected. For young trees
a recommended fertilization is one and one-half to two pounds
of 8-8-8 for each year of tree age. This fertilizer should be ap-
plied in the early spring and spread evenly from two feet of the
trunk to just beyond the branch spread of the tree. As the trees
develop in size individual fertilization of the trees, in some sys-
tems of management, may be gradually discarded in favor of a
general fertilization of the entire area occupied by the grove.
Mature trees may also be fertilized with 8-8-8 or similar
mixed fertilizers at rates of 1000 to 1200 pounds per acre. How-
ever, experiments conducted in recent years indicate that the
fertilizer needs of a mature tree would be better met by a ferti-
lizer ratio such as 8-1-3. Such ratios are not commercially
available at this time and other factors in the management of
orchards influence their fertilizer requirements. Some growers
may prefer to consider the requirements of the individual ele-
ments in planning their fertilization and management programs.
The following discussion is based on the requirements of
fairly mature trees planted on a 50 by 50 foot spacing and occu-
pying the area without crowding. In general the fertilizer re-
quirements will be discussed on a per-acre basis, but may readily
be reduced to individual tree requirements since the spacing
specified will have a stand of 17 trees per acre.
Because of the wide variation in management practices, the
individual grower will have to determine foi himself whether his
current fertilization practices meet the minimum requirements
for the trees and, if not, how best to alter his practices to meet
them.
Nitrogen.-Deficiency of this element causes light green foli-
age, weak shoot growth and earlier fall defoliation. Work in
Florida and Alabama indicates that nitrogen is the element most
closely associated with yields. Many orchards are far below their
potential yielding capacity because they are deficient in this ele-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of tree growth from this process was the result of reduced com-
petition with the grass and the release of nitrogen and other
nutrients from the dead plant material. More recent observa-
tions indicate that there is no advantage in breaking up this sod,
provided adequate fertilizer nutrients are available for both
the grass and the tree.

FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS OF THE ORCHARD
The fertilization of pecans may vary widely, depending upon
the general system of management selected. For young trees
a recommended fertilization is one and one-half to two pounds
of 8-8-8 for each year of tree age. This fertilizer should be ap-
plied in the early spring and spread evenly from two feet of the
trunk to just beyond the branch spread of the tree. As the trees
develop in size individual fertilization of the trees, in some sys-
tems of management, may be gradually discarded in favor of a
general fertilization of the entire area occupied by the grove.
Mature trees may also be fertilized with 8-8-8 or similar
mixed fertilizers at rates of 1000 to 1200 pounds per acre. How-
ever, experiments conducted in recent years indicate that the
fertilizer needs of a mature tree would be better met by a ferti-
lizer ratio such as 8-1-3. Such ratios are not commercially
available at this time and other factors in the management of
orchards influence their fertilizer requirements. Some growers
may prefer to consider the requirements of the individual ele-
ments in planning their fertilization and management programs.
The following discussion is based on the requirements of
fairly mature trees planted on a 50 by 50 foot spacing and occu-
pying the area without crowding. In general the fertilizer re-
quirements will be discussed on a per-acre basis, but may readily
be reduced to individual tree requirements since the spacing
specified will have a stand of 17 trees per acre.
Because of the wide variation in management practices, the
individual grower will have to determine foi himself whether his
current fertilization practices meet the minimum requirements
for the trees and, if not, how best to alter his practices to meet
them.
Nitrogen.-Deficiency of this element causes light green foli-
age, weak shoot growth and earlier fall defoliation. Work in
Florida and Alabama indicates that nitrogen is the element most
closely associated with yields. Many orchards are far below their
potential yielding capacity because they are deficient in this ele-







Pecan Growing in Florida


ment. As long as the trees do not compete heavily with grasses
or non-leguminous weeds, an annual nitrogen supply of 100
pounds of N per acre (approximately 300 pounds of ammonium
nitrate) will meet the requirements of the trees. When heavy
grass sods are present, additional nitrogen will be needed to keep
both the trees and grass adequately supplied with this nutrient.
Nitrogen may be supplied to the trees through leguminous cover
crops, indirectly by fertilization of grass or other intercrops and
by direct application under the branch spread of the trees. There
is some evidence that excessive rates of nitrogen will cause in-
creased damage from diseases of pecans. However, as long as
the annual nitrogen supply is kept reasonably close to the recom-
mended rate, such damage is quite unlikely in Florida because
in the light-texture soils excess nitrogen is quickly leached
away. (See also discussion on cover crops.)
Potassium.-Annual applications of 25 to 50 pounds per acre
of K20 (40 to 80 pounds of 60 percent muriate of potash) will
probably adequately provide the potassium requirements of the
trees. Since more than this amount is required for a good legume
cover crop, additional fertilization of the trees with potassium is
usually considered unnecessary. Although never a problem un-
der good management systems, severe potassium deficiency does
occur in neglected trees. The deficiency rarely becomes so se-
vere that typical leaf scorch symptoms appear, but it does weak-
en the trees so that severe winter killing may take place. Fol-
lowing a particularly severe winter, up to 50 percent of the tree
may be killed back. Yields from trees suffering from winter
killing can be reduced drastically.
Phosphorus.-Deficiency of this element has been described
as causing unthrifty growth and chlorosis in pot cultures, but
no characteristic deficiency has been observed in field plantings
in Florida. In recent years no significant increases in yields have
been obtained from phosphate applications in mature groves.
Repeated fertilizations have resulted in a gradual build-up of
phosphorus in these soils, so that phosphorus applied to the cover
crop or intercrop is more than adequate to meet the requirements.
Phosphorus deficiency may still be a problem in young groves on
the red and yellow soils in West Florida, since these soils fix
phosphorus rather strongly. However, the recommended 8-8-8
fertilizer for young trees should supply all the phosphorus re-
quired.







Pecan Growing in Florida


ment. As long as the trees do not compete heavily with grasses
or non-leguminous weeds, an annual nitrogen supply of 100
pounds of N per acre (approximately 300 pounds of ammonium
nitrate) will meet the requirements of the trees. When heavy
grass sods are present, additional nitrogen will be needed to keep
both the trees and grass adequately supplied with this nutrient.
Nitrogen may be supplied to the trees through leguminous cover
crops, indirectly by fertilization of grass or other intercrops and
by direct application under the branch spread of the trees. There
is some evidence that excessive rates of nitrogen will cause in-
creased damage from diseases of pecans. However, as long as
the annual nitrogen supply is kept reasonably close to the recom-
mended rate, such damage is quite unlikely in Florida because
in the light-texture soils excess nitrogen is quickly leached
away. (See also discussion on cover crops.)
Potassium.-Annual applications of 25 to 50 pounds per acre
of K20 (40 to 80 pounds of 60 percent muriate of potash) will
probably adequately provide the potassium requirements of the
trees. Since more than this amount is required for a good legume
cover crop, additional fertilization of the trees with potassium is
usually considered unnecessary. Although never a problem un-
der good management systems, severe potassium deficiency does
occur in neglected trees. The deficiency rarely becomes so se-
vere that typical leaf scorch symptoms appear, but it does weak-
en the trees so that severe winter killing may take place. Fol-
lowing a particularly severe winter, up to 50 percent of the tree
may be killed back. Yields from trees suffering from winter
killing can be reduced drastically.
Phosphorus.-Deficiency of this element has been described
as causing unthrifty growth and chlorosis in pot cultures, but
no characteristic deficiency has been observed in field plantings
in Florida. In recent years no significant increases in yields have
been obtained from phosphate applications in mature groves.
Repeated fertilizations have resulted in a gradual build-up of
phosphorus in these soils, so that phosphorus applied to the cover
crop or intercrop is more than adequate to meet the requirements.
Phosphorus deficiency may still be a problem in young groves on
the red and yellow soils in West Florida, since these soils fix
phosphorus rather strongly. However, the recommended 8-8-8
fertilizer for young trees should supply all the phosphorus re-
quired.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Lime, Calcium and Magnesium.-For many years pecan grow-
ers in Florida and other Southeastern states have avoided the
use of lime because they feared an increase in pecan rosette, or
zinc deficiency. Recent experiments have indicated that a gen-
eral increase in soil fertility may stimulate tree growth and
the development of rosette far more than the addition of lime.
Proper precautions should be taken to guard against the develop-
ment of rosette, but the lack of zinc should not be used as an
excuse to permit general deterioration of other factors impor-
tant to maintaining soil condition and fertility.
The proper use of lime in the orchard is the key to the best
management practices, since it reduces the leaching of fertilizer
phosphorus and potassium, and increases the soil pH to levels
more suitable for maximum growth and nitrogen fixation by
leguminous cover crops. Lime reduces the solubility of manga-
nese, an essential element for growth, but that also is found in
near toxic quantities in some West Florida soils. Calcium and
magnesium are two essential plant nutrients found in limestone.
Deficiency of calcium in pot culture has caused small terminal
leaflets and weak growth. Calcium deficiency has not been identi-
fied in pecans in Florida, but calcium can replace much of the
potassium required in pecan leaves, especially in years of heavy
cropping. Magnesium deficiency has been observed frequently
in pecans growing on the sandier soils, and occasionally it be-
comes severe enough to cause defoliation with subsequent re-
duction in yield. Magnesium deficiency is characterized by mar-
ginal yellowing of leaves with interveinal chlorosis and necrosis
becoming more severe in late summer.
High calcic lime is an excellent source of calcium while dolo-
mitic lime contains both calcium and magnesium. When mag-
nesium levels are adequate, high calcic lime may be used to cor-
rect the soil acidity in pecan orchards, but dolomitic lime should
be used whenever magnesium levels are low. Dolomitic lime
has an additional advantage of being less soluble in the soil once
the pH reaches 6.0 or higher, and is therefore less likely to cause
overliming injury when an excessive amount is used.
Orchard soils should be limed to the range of pH 5.5 to 6.0
if no leguminous cover crop is grown and from pH 6.0 to 6.5 when
such a cover crop is used. In correcting the pH, the pecan grower
should arrange through his county agricultural agent for a soil
test so that the proper quantity of liming material is applied.







Pecan Growing in Florida


Zinc.-Rosette is a physiological disorder of pecan trees
caused by a lack of sufficient zinc to produce normal growth.
It is manifested by a bronzing and crinkling of the leaflets which
may become greatly reduced in size; shortening of the inter-
nodes which gives the effect of multiple bud development; and
thus causing the appearance of a rosette of leaves on the twigs.
In severe cases it causes twigs and, eventually, branches to die
back; growth and development of the trees are greatly retarded
and the trees produce no nuts on the badly affected parts
(Fig. 19).


Fig. 19.-A tree seriously affected by rosette.


This condition is corrected by the application of zinc in some
form that will become available to the tree. Zinc sulfate is used







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


most extensively because it gives a quicker response than other
forms. Zinc oxide can be used also in soil applications, but the
response of the trees to this form may be slower than with zinc
sulfate.
Zinc is mobile enough in most Florida soils to reach pecan
roots when applied directly to the soil surface. It can be applied
conveniently as part of the regular fertilizer or by separate ap-
plication. Time of application to the soil is relatively unimpor-
tant, but visual improvement of the tree usually will not be noted
before the new growth starts in the spring following the appli-
cation.
In correcting zinc deficiency symptoms in mature trees, two
and one-half pounds of zinc sulfate per tree spread evenly under
the branch spread is usually sufficient on the sandy soils. Sandy
loams and heavier-textured soils may require five to 10 pounds
of zinc sulfate per tree to accomplish the same result. For very
young trees two to four ounces of zinc sulfate may be sufficient.
Mature groves exhibiting only slight rosette may be protected
by including one or two percent of zinc in the regular fertilizer
application. Once the deficiency is corrected, additional zinc
applications should not be made oftener than once in five or ten
years, since high zinc levels are toxic to plants.
Rosette may also be corrected by direct sprays on the foliage.
Since trees respond more rapidly to zinc when it is sprayed on
the leaves than when it is applied to the soil, the use of a spray
is particularly desirable in cases of severe rosette, in order to
reduce the damage to the framework of the tree. Foliage sprays
should contain four pounds of zinc sulfate and two pounds of
lime per 100 gallons of water. Where the recommended bor-
deaux spray applications are being made, zinc sulfate can be
added at the rate of four pounds of zinc sulfate to each 100 gal-
lons of bordeaux. Spray applications of zinc should be made be-
tween May 25 and June 15 for best results, although fair re-
sults can be obtained later in the season.
Manganese.-A leaf deformity (Fig. 20) known as "mouse
ear" or "little leaf," observed primarily in dooryard plantings
and in coastal areas, has been identified as manganese deficiency.
It has little economic importance but may be of considerable
concern to home owners whose trees occasionally are severely
injured. It is usually found when leaf manganese levels are less
than 100 ppm. The manganese levels in normal pecan leaves in
Florida range from 300 to over 2,000 ppm. Associated with very







Pecan Growing in Florida


high soil pH values, "mouse eared" trees are often found near
limerock driveways, waste building materials or growing in soils
that naturally contain shell or marl.


Fig. 20.-Pecan leaves showing "mouse ear" symptoms, a sign of
manganese deficiency. Normal leaf on right.

Correction of mouse ear can be obtained by application of
manganese sulfate to the soil. Depending on tree size and se-
verity of symptoms, application of two to 10 pounds of manga-
nese sulfate plus three to 15 pounds of ammonium sulfate per
tree should correct the symptoms. Sulfur can be used in place
of the ammonium sulfate at the rate of one to five pounds per
tree in order to lower the soil pH and increase availability of the
manganese. All of these materials should be broadcast evenly
to the branch spread.
Boron.-Deficiency of boron on pecans has not been recog-
nized in Florida and no significant responses to boron have been
obtained. Normal boron content of leaves seems to range from
10 to 90 ppm. It should be pointed out, however, that the legume
cover crops have a relatively high boron requirement. Hence
it is often necessary to include boron in pecan fertilizer in order
to insure a good cover crop. Fertilizers which contain sufficient
boron to provide the equivalent of 10 to 15 pounds per acre of







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


borax will provide adequate boron in most areas where a defici-
ency is encountered.

COVER CROPS IN THE ORCHARD
Experiments by Blackmon and others have shown that grow-
ing and turning under leguminous cover crops in pecan orchards
is highly beneficial to the trees. In many of Blackmon's experi-
ments an additional increase in yield was obtained for extra
nitrogen above that produced by the cover crop. The inclusion
of a good leguminous cover crop will contribute materially to a
good management system, but many pecan growers in Florida
have not been able to consistently produce good leguminous cover
crops because of drought, insects and/or diseases. Also, as may
be seen from Table 3, few cover crops fix enough nitrogen to
meet the full requirements of the pecan orchard.

TABLE 3.-APPROXIMATE AMOUNTS OF NITROGEN FIXED BY SOME
COVER CROPS GROWN IN FLORIDA PECAN GROVES.

Nitrogen Fixed in
Winter Cover Crops Pounds per Acre

Lupine .............. ... ..... ....... ..................................... 75
Crim son Clover .......................................................... .. 80
W hite Clover .............................................................. 100
Hubam Clover ...................... ............................................. 100
Summer Cover Crops
Hairy indigo ................... ................ ........................... 70
Crotalaria ................................... ..................... 72


Since good legume cover crops cannot be produced consist-
ently in many Florida pecan orchards, and since nitrogen can
be purchased as mineral fertilizer almost as cheaply as it can
be grown, even when a good legume cover is obtained, the justifi-
cation for the legume cover crop must come from other consid-
erations. The main advantage of such crops is as additional pas-
ture for livestock. The other advantages, such as source of
nitrogen for the orchard, maintenance of soil organic matter
and protection of the soil against wind and/or water erosion,
are of secondary importance. In fact, these last advantages
could probably be supplied more cheaply through use of nitrogen
fertilizers and non-leguminous cover crops, when the average







Pecan Growing in Florida


success of legume cover crop in Florida pecan orchards is con-
sidered.
With few exceptions the Florida pecan grower will have to
consider the legume cover crop in his orchard primarily from the
standpoint of extra livestock feed. When properly managed to
avoid overgrazing, the legume will still fix about the same amount
of nitrogen as shown in Table 3. From 20 to 30 percent of the
nitrogen will be removed by the animals, but the rest will return
to the soil. When such a system of grazing is advantageous, it
also reduces the cost of fertilization of the trees since the only
additional fertilizer required would be the nitrogen difference
between the recommended rate and the estimated amount re-
turned to the soil by the livestock.
The history of leguminous cover crops in Florida is one of
constant change, as new covers were introduced, flourished a few
years and then succumbed to the ravages of insects and diseases.
Although some of our present covers seem to be more permanent,
the orchard owner should be prepared to seek new cover crops
if the ones he is currently growing begin to fail. Anything less
than a full stand with vigorous growth will hardly be worth the
effort to produce it. For recommended planting dates, seeding
rates, inoculation and fertilization of cover crops in your area,
consult your local county agricultural agent.
An ideal legume cover crop for the pecan orchard should have
the following characteristics:
1. Fix enough nitrogen to adequately maintain the annual
nitrogen requirement of the trees (about 100 pounds N per
acre).
2. Reseed itself.
3. Not interfere with harvesting:or other management oper-
ations.
4. Grow at soil pH and fertility levels that are compatible
with the requirements of the pecan orchard.
5. Not harbor insects or diseases that will spread to the
trees.
6. Non-toxic to animals and suitable for grazing.
It is unlikely that all of these properties will be found in a
single cover crop, but several comply with most of the require-
ments.
Summer Cover Crops.-The crotalarias and indigo are being
grown successfully in some orchards. These summer legumes
have the common disadvantage of reduced growth from shade







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in older orchards, and of being relatively late maturing. It is
often necessary to turn them under for the nut harvest before
they have reached their full growth and set seed. Since Crotala-
ria spectabilis Roth. is toxic to livestock it is not recommended
except in areas where it has already become well established;
C. intermedia Kotchy and C. lanceolata E. Mey. produce good
covers that can be safely grazed by livestock.
Winter Cover Crop.-Blue lupine has been one of the best
winter legumes for Florida pecan orchards but in recent years
insects and diseases have severely reduced its growth in some
areas. In areas where it produces a vigorous heavy growth it
is still recommended despite the need for reseeding and its lack
of palatability to cattle.
In recent years the use of clover for winter cover has gained
in favor. Crimson clover has been particularly successful in
orchards on heavier soils in west Florida. White clover has done
well on the more moist soils where adequate lime is used. Re-
cently Hubam clover, particularly the Florianna strain, has pro-
vided excellent cover on well drained, light-textured soils, limed
from pH 6.0 to 6.5 (Fig. 21). The white and Hubam clovers both

Fig. 21.-Hubam clover has promise as a cover crop for pecans.







Pecan Growing in Florida


require soil pH levels higher than have generally been main-
tained in Florida orchards, but no difficulties have been en-
countered with the growth of the trees at the higher pH when
provisions were made to supply additional zinc.
Non-leguminous Winter Cover Crops.-The use of non-legum-
inous crops, such as oats, rye and wheat, for cover and winter
grazing is generally detrimental to the growth and production
of pecan orchards. These plants come into their maximum
growth just as the trees are starting in the spring and compete
heavily for the soil nutrients, especially nitrogen. Such crops
are considered as relatively low-cost winter feeds but since "un-
derfertilization" is a big part of the "low cost," the damage to
the tree crop should be obvious. Fertilization at levels high
enough to supply the needs of the cover crop and the trees would
probably reduce or eliminate the damage of such crops, but no
experiments on this have been conducted.
















Fig. 22.-Rejuvenation is advisable when orchards are
properly located and contain suitable varieties.

REJUVENATION OF NEGLECTED ORCHARDS
A number of orchards in the pecan belt of Florida have been
neglected to such an extent that they are liabilities rather than
assets (Fig. 22). Some of them can be reclaimed and put into
profitable production by proper fertilization and management.
In selecting an orchard for rejuvenation the grower must first
determine that there is a reasonable chance that it can be made
productive. The soil must be examined to determine that there







Pecan Growing in Florida


require soil pH levels higher than have generally been main-
tained in Florida orchards, but no difficulties have been en-
countered with the growth of the trees at the higher pH when
provisions were made to supply additional zinc.
Non-leguminous Winter Cover Crops.-The use of non-legum-
inous crops, such as oats, rye and wheat, for cover and winter
grazing is generally detrimental to the growth and production
of pecan orchards. These plants come into their maximum
growth just as the trees are starting in the spring and compete
heavily for the soil nutrients, especially nitrogen. Such crops
are considered as relatively low-cost winter feeds but since "un-
derfertilization" is a big part of the "low cost," the damage to
the tree crop should be obvious. Fertilization at levels high
enough to supply the needs of the cover crop and the trees would
probably reduce or eliminate the damage of such crops, but no
experiments on this have been conducted.
















Fig. 22.-Rejuvenation is advisable when orchards are
properly located and contain suitable varieties.

REJUVENATION OF NEGLECTED ORCHARDS
A number of orchards in the pecan belt of Florida have been
neglected to such an extent that they are liabilities rather than
assets (Fig. 22). Some of them can be reclaimed and put into
profitable production by proper fertilization and management.
In selecting an orchard for rejuvenation the grower must first
determine that there is a reasonable chance that it can be made
productive. The soil must be examined to determine that there







36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

is ample light-textured soil above the clay and that no hardpans,
claypans or high water tables are present. The trees should be
checked to be certain that they are of prolific varieties known
to produce satisfactorily in the area. These two factors, varie-
ties and soil, are the most important in determining whether
rejuvenation can be successful. The trees should be planted at
a recommended spacing or planted in such a way that they can
be readily thinned or interplanted to the recommended spacing.
The condition of the trees must not have declined so far that
they cannot be brought back into profitable production.
In rejuvenating the neglected orchard the undergrowth of
briars, bushes and young forest trees must be removed. Then it
should be thoroughly disked to a depth of three or four inches.
Orchards on rolling land, subject to erosion, will require a sys-
tem of terraces or sod strips to prevent undue washing after
cultivation has been started.
The trees can be brought back slowly by initiating a regular
orchard management program, but it must be remembered that
trees in a neglected state are far below a productive level of fer-
tility. It may be desirable to use extra fertilizer to overcome the
deficiency in fertility and re-establish rapid vigorous growth as
quickly as possible. If this is the case, the trees should be ferti-
lized heavily the first year, especially with nitrogen. Neglected
trees with a trunk circumference of two to three feet should
be fertilized with eight to 10 pounds of nitrogen (24 to 30 pounds
of ammonium nitrate) and four or five pounds of potash (7 to 10
pounds of muriate of potash) per tree. This should be broad-
cast under the branch spread of the tree. The best time for this
initial fertilization is between December 15 and February 1. Since
neglected orchards are often zinc deficient, it would be well to
apply two and one-half pounds of zinc sulfate per tree at the
same time. Trees of larger or smaller trunk circumference
should be fertilized at proportionately heavier or lighter rates.
Usually standard management and fertilization practices may
be followed after the first year in an orchard undergoing rejuve-
nation. However, in some groves above average rates of fertili-
zation may be continued through the second and possibly the
third years.
As far as practicable, dead branches should be pruned out to-
gether with such other branches as necessary to aid in develop-
ment of a well branched symmetrical tree. All wounds should
be kept covered with a protective material until completely







Pecan Growing in Florida


grown over with new tissue. Early in the rejuvenation program
steps should be taken to free the tree of excessive quantities of
moss or mistletoe.
If the rejuvenated orchard contains some trees of unproduc-
tive varieties, these can be cut out to provide more space for
the remaining trees or top-worked to better varieties. Topwork-
ing should be delayed until tree growth becomes vigorous, be-
cause the percentage of "live" from grafts or buds is quite low
on trees in poor condition.

SPANISH MOSS IN PECAN TREES
Spanish moss causes trouble in pecans because of shading,
which retards growth, especially when trees become heavily
laden with it. The usual 6-2-1001 bordeaux mixture used as a
spray during the growing season in controlling pecan diseases has
killed Spanish moss. Moss is more commonly killed during the
dormant period by thoroughly wetting it with a 10-2-1001 bor-
deaux. Arsenate of lead at 2 pounds per 100 gallons of water
is also satisfactory for killing Spanish moss. This last material
is poisonous to livestock and must be used with caution. It is
necessary to apply all materials to pecan trees with a sprayer
of sufficient power and volume to effect a satisfactory coverage.
The dead moss will hang in the trees for some time but will
eventually be blown out. If the moss is hanging in heavy, thick
masses, it may require a second application to kill all of it.

INSECTS AND DISEASES
For complete information regarding the control of insects
and fungous diseases, see another Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station bulletin on the subject, now being revised.

THINNING ORCHARDS
When trees have attained large size and are crowding each
other in the orchard, growth and production will be reduced, and
disease and insect problems will increase. Under such condi-
tions it is advisable to provide more space by cutting out trees in
alternate diagonal rows. This will increase the space between
the bearing trees and will allow further growth and development,
thus increasing yields in a few years.

SPounds of copper sulfate and lime and gallons of water, respectively.







Pecan Growing in Florida


grown over with new tissue. Early in the rejuvenation program
steps should be taken to free the tree of excessive quantities of
moss or mistletoe.
If the rejuvenated orchard contains some trees of unproduc-
tive varieties, these can be cut out to provide more space for
the remaining trees or top-worked to better varieties. Topwork-
ing should be delayed until tree growth becomes vigorous, be-
cause the percentage of "live" from grafts or buds is quite low
on trees in poor condition.

SPANISH MOSS IN PECAN TREES
Spanish moss causes trouble in pecans because of shading,
which retards growth, especially when trees become heavily
laden with it. The usual 6-2-1001 bordeaux mixture used as a
spray during the growing season in controlling pecan diseases has
killed Spanish moss. Moss is more commonly killed during the
dormant period by thoroughly wetting it with a 10-2-1001 bor-
deaux. Arsenate of lead at 2 pounds per 100 gallons of water
is also satisfactory for killing Spanish moss. This last material
is poisonous to livestock and must be used with caution. It is
necessary to apply all materials to pecan trees with a sprayer
of sufficient power and volume to effect a satisfactory coverage.
The dead moss will hang in the trees for some time but will
eventually be blown out. If the moss is hanging in heavy, thick
masses, it may require a second application to kill all of it.

INSECTS AND DISEASES
For complete information regarding the control of insects
and fungous diseases, see another Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station bulletin on the subject, now being revised.

THINNING ORCHARDS
When trees have attained large size and are crowding each
other in the orchard, growth and production will be reduced, and
disease and insect problems will increase. Under such condi-
tions it is advisable to provide more space by cutting out trees in
alternate diagonal rows. This will increase the space between
the bearing trees and will allow further growth and development,
thus increasing yields in a few years.

SPounds of copper sulfate and lime and gallons of water, respectively.







Pecan Growing in Florida


grown over with new tissue. Early in the rejuvenation program
steps should be taken to free the tree of excessive quantities of
moss or mistletoe.
If the rejuvenated orchard contains some trees of unproduc-
tive varieties, these can be cut out to provide more space for
the remaining trees or top-worked to better varieties. Topwork-
ing should be delayed until tree growth becomes vigorous, be-
cause the percentage of "live" from grafts or buds is quite low
on trees in poor condition.

SPANISH MOSS IN PECAN TREES
Spanish moss causes trouble in pecans because of shading,
which retards growth, especially when trees become heavily
laden with it. The usual 6-2-1001 bordeaux mixture used as a
spray during the growing season in controlling pecan diseases has
killed Spanish moss. Moss is more commonly killed during the
dormant period by thoroughly wetting it with a 10-2-1001 bor-
deaux. Arsenate of lead at 2 pounds per 100 gallons of water
is also satisfactory for killing Spanish moss. This last material
is poisonous to livestock and must be used with caution. It is
necessary to apply all materials to pecan trees with a sprayer
of sufficient power and volume to effect a satisfactory coverage.
The dead moss will hang in the trees for some time but will
eventually be blown out. If the moss is hanging in heavy, thick
masses, it may require a second application to kill all of it.

INSECTS AND DISEASES
For complete information regarding the control of insects
and fungous diseases, see another Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station bulletin on the subject, now being revised.

THINNING ORCHARDS
When trees have attained large size and are crowding each
other in the orchard, growth and production will be reduced, and
disease and insect problems will increase. Under such condi-
tions it is advisable to provide more space by cutting out trees in
alternate diagonal rows. This will increase the space between
the bearing trees and will allow further growth and development,
thus increasing yields in a few years.

SPounds of copper sulfate and lime and gallons of water, respectively.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Trees can be cut out and the tops burned on the stump to kill
them, or they may be pushed out with a bulldozer. The latter
method is probably more economical.
Orchards can be thinned by chemical killing of the trees.
Sodium arsenite is effective when injected into the trunks. This
chemical can be applied in cuts in the trunk made with an axe,
using about 1/2 to 1 ounce in each incision. The cuts should be
made six to eight inches apart around the trunk and the sodium
arsenite applied in each place. The best time to make the appli-
cations is during the growing season.
Sodium arsenite is easily applied with a plunger type oil can
equipped with a long spout and convenient handle. The chemi-
cal should not come in contact with the skin, as it will have an
irritating effect. The cans should always be filled away from
valuable trees, since sodium arsenite spilled on the ground in
which roots are growing is likely to cause serious damage.
Sodium arsenite is poisonous and should be handled with
caution. Livestock must be kept away from treated trees for
at least four weeks, or until all danger of toxicity has passed.
Newer chemicals such as 2,4,5,-T, applied according to the man-
ufacturer's recommendations, can be used without danger to
livestock.
In some instances it may be possible to provide more space in
orchards by reducing the size of the tops of the trees. This
can be done by cutting back trees in alternate rows by the same
method that would be used in top-working. After a new top
has been grown sufficiently to bear nuts on these cut back trees,
the remaining trees can be cut back in the same manner. This
will not eliminate any of the trees, but will reduce the size of the
top to a point where there is room for further development.
It will require 10 to 15 years for the new tops to attain size that
will cause any serious crowding. Then the operation will have
to be repeated.
PRUNING
Pecan trees require little pruning, except to thin and remove
interfering, broken or dead branches. Nuts are borne on ter-
minal twigs and if these are not permitted to develop properly
the yielding ability of the tree is greatly reduced.
Branches should be cut back close to laterals or to the main
trunk so that no dead stubs remain. It is important that all
branches be cut off properly and the wound protected. Poorly
cut and unprotected wounds callous slowly, and so are more sub-







Pecan Growing in Florida


ject to infection by wood-decaying organisms (Fig. 23). Cuts
over two inches in diameter should be coated with a waterproof-
ing material to prevent the
entrance of decay-producing
organisms. A number of
commercial pruning paints
can be used, as well as com-
mon grafting wax and white
lead paint.

YIELDS AND SOME COM-
MON PROBLEMS IN CROP
PRODUCTION
The age at which trees
begin to bear will depend on
the variety and the care they
receive after transplanting.
Such varieties as Mahan,
Moore, Moneymaker, Curtis,
Elliott, Randall and Success,
under good conditions, may a
set and mature a few nuts in
two or three years after
transplanting, while Stuart
and Schley often will require
four to six years. However,
eight to 10 and 12 years will
be required for trees to be-
gin bearing crops of nuts in Fig. 23.-Decay will result when
wounds are not cared for properly.
sufficient quantities to be of
commercial importance. There are records of individual trees,
and of a few orchards, where production was sufficient in five or
six years to be profitable, but these are exceptions.
The yielding ability of bearing trees is dependent on several
factors, the most important being climate, variety, soils, nutri-
tion, insects, diseases and foliage condition. Yields vary tre-
mendously in different orchards, or with different varieties in
the same orchard. In experimental plots, good varieties on well
drained soil, and under good management, have averaged as
high as 1000 pounds per acre per year over a period of several
years. Such conditions are exceptional and a good average an-
nual production is more likely to be 600 to 700 pounds per acre.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


This contrasts with less than 200 pounds per acre average for
the state. Some experimental fertilizer plots with scabbing va-
rieties which could not be sprayed or where the soil was too shal-
low for good rooting have even averaged less than 200 pounds
per acre annually in spite of the best known cultural methods.
Prospective new growers should become informed on potential
yields and factors affecting yields. Some of the most important
factors are discussed below.
Trees must be located in the area of the state in which there
is enough cold during the winter months to break dormancy.
Pecans will not produce heavily in the warmer parts with mild
winters, although some trees in this area have grown rather
large.
Varieties are of great importance, since it will be possible to
obtain profitable production with an adapted prolific kind, where-
as those unadapted would show a loss. At present Curtis, Stuart
and a few other varieties can be grown without spraying for
scab. There is no assurance this may be true indefinitely, hence
varieties of good quality and productiveness are essential for the
long range outlook if spraying becomes necessary.
It will not be possible to maintain production unless the soils
are suitable for pecans. Trees on well-drained soils will respond
to approved orchard practices; on shallow soils, production is
limited by fluctuations between too wet or too dry conditions for
good root growth. Nutrition is of paramount importance in pecan
production, other factors being favorable. It must be maintained
at suitable levels so that the trees can make the vigorous annual
growth needed to produce high yields.
Insects and diseases cause heavy losses and they must be con-
trolled when necessary to obtain good yields. There are a large
number of pests, both insect and disease, which attack pecans
and several may reduce production seriously. In years of heavy
crops growers may not realize that there have been losses from
insects, while in light crop years the crop may be almost com-
pletely lost. Disease, especially scab, causes crop failures of
highly susceptible varieties and reduces yields and nut quality
on those partially susceptible during most years, unless held in
check with a suitable fungicide.
Pecan trees must retain their leaves throughout the spring,
summer and early fall if annual or heavy yields are to be ob-
tained. When trees are defoliated early they will force new
growth and this uses up the food reserves and reduces their







Pecan Growing in Florida


vitality to such an extent that it is impossible for them to bloom
and set a satisfactory crop the succeeding year. Premature leaf
shedding when trees are carrying a crop impairs the quality of
the nuts. Although severe droughts can cause premature leaf
fall, more common causes are downy spot, brown leaf spot, mites,
aphids and other problems.


Fig. 24.-Tree cut back for topworking
Fig. 24.-Tree cut back for topworking.


PROPAGATION BY TOP-WORKING OLDER TREES
Trees of undesirable seedlings and varieties can be changed
over to a desired type by top-working. Either budding or graft-
ing can be employed, but patch budding is used by most growers.
Cleft grafting is done during the dormant season, mostly from
late December to the middle of February. Bark grafting is done







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in April, and budding in the summer months when the trees are
in growth.
In grafting the trees are cut back and the scions inserted im-
mediately. For doing this the cleft or bark graft methods are
generally used.
Cleft Grafting.-Branches should be cut where they are not
more than four inch-
es in diameter (Fig.
24). After the scions
have been inserted
the entire cut sur-
face should be cov-
ered with grafting
wax (Fig. 25). It is
b often advisable to tie
in the scion with a
heavy cord or wire so
there will be no dan-
ger of the stock pull-
ing away and pre-
Si venting a union. It
Sb is important that the
Scambiums of stock
Island scion match on
Fig. 25.-Cleft grafting: (a) scion; (b) stock one side, otherwise
split and scions inserted; (c) scions tied and they will not unite.
waxed.
Trees which were
grafted, can be budded during the summer if the scions failed
to live.
Inlay Bark Graft Method.-Graftwood for this method is cut
in late February from strong one or two year old shoots in 12-
inch lengths and stored at 320 to 40' F. with suitable packing to
keep it from drying. Moist sawdust, peat and sphagnum are
good materials to pack around the sticks.
The grafts are placed in two- to four-inch diameter limbs dur-
ing April, using the methods illustrated in Fig. 26. When limbs
bleed badly, grafting should be delayed until about the time
pollen sheds. The sticks are usually cut five to six inches long
with a sloping cut about 13/4 inches long at the basal end. This
is placed against the limb and outline cuts are made through the
bark of the stock. This bark is then removed and the scion stick
should fit snugly in the groove. Two small cigar box nails (3/







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in April, and budding in the summer months when the trees are
in growth.
In grafting the trees are cut back and the scions inserted im-
mediately. For doing this the cleft or bark graft methods are
generally used.
Cleft Grafting.-Branches should be cut where they are not
more than four inch-
es in diameter (Fig.
24). After the scions
have been inserted
the entire cut sur-
face should be cov-
ered with grafting
wax (Fig. 25). It is
b often advisable to tie
in the scion with a
heavy cord or wire so
there will be no dan-
ger of the stock pull-
ing away and pre-
Si venting a union. It
Sb is important that the
Scambiums of stock
Island scion match on
Fig. 25.-Cleft grafting: (a) scion; (b) stock one side, otherwise
split and scions inserted; (c) scions tied and they will not unite.
waxed.
Trees which were
grafted, can be budded during the summer if the scions failed
to live.
Inlay Bark Graft Method.-Graftwood for this method is cut
in late February from strong one or two year old shoots in 12-
inch lengths and stored at 320 to 40' F. with suitable packing to
keep it from drying. Moist sawdust, peat and sphagnum are
good materials to pack around the sticks.
The grafts are placed in two- to four-inch diameter limbs dur-
ing April, using the methods illustrated in Fig. 26. When limbs
bleed badly, grafting should be delayed until about the time
pollen sheds. The sticks are usually cut five to six inches long
with a sloping cut about 13/4 inches long at the basal end. This
is placed against the limb and outline cuts are made through the
bark of the stock. This bark is then removed and the scion stick
should fit snugly in the groove. Two small cigar box nails (3/





Pecan Growing in Florida


to 7/8 inch long) are driven through the sticks to hold them firmly
in place on the limb, care being taken not to split or injure the
scion in the process.


[a


L''


I


I I(1*


Fig. 26.-Inlay bark grafting. A, stock and scion preparation;
B, scions in place; C, all cut surfaces waxed.
All cut surfaces are coated with melted wax using a small
brush. A wax melter is essential to keep the wax workable, and
care is necessary not to apply it when too hot. Standard formula
hard waxes may be used but one containing the following parts
by weight is preferred because it gives a harder finish and more
protection to the graft:
10 parts rosin
2 parts beeswax
1 part Celite 110 or talc
The rosin and beeswax are melted together first, then the
talc or Celite 110 added while stirring. This latter material is
used by many laundries as a filtering agent in dry cleaning and
is also sold as "Hi-flow Super-cell."






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


After-care of the grafts is similar to other grafting methods.
Sucker shoots are kept rubbed off and undesirable limbs of the
stock gradually removed over a one or two-year period. When
both grafts on a limb grow, one should be cut back about half
way the following winter so as to avoid bad crotches.
Budding.-Trees to be budded are cut back during the dor-
mant season, leaving several of the branches unmolested to in-
sure proper growth until the new buds are well established.
Small trees, not more than four to six inches in trunk diameter,
can be safely cut back to a single stub. Trees larger than six
inches in diameter are cut back by removing a part of the branches
where diameters will not be more than about six inches. Larger
limbs can be cut, but it is more difficult to obtain complete heal-
ing of the wound before decay sets in. Sloping cuts should be
made and covered with some good paint or wound dressing.
Grafting wax can be employed for this.
Shoots will force into growth in the spring where the branches
have been cut off. These will be large enough to bud by July,
but the work can be done up to the first part of September. Ring
and patch budding methods are used; the patch is preferred. (De-
tails are given in the following section on propagation and nurs-
ery methods.)
After bud growth starts it will be necessary to thin out the
shoots that were not budded. Part of these can be left for pro-
tection but they should be cut back to about 1/2 of their length
during the year following budding. Most of the buds will not
force into growth until the spring following their insertion, but
as growth progresses some type of support to prevent breaking
may be necessary. The shoots with live buds in them are cut
back to the bud before growth starts and the wraps may be re-
moved. However, they will require earlier removal if the ties
bind the stock sufficiently to create a constriction and prevent
normal growth. This will be indicated by a swelling that will
develop on the stock above the bud, which will retard normal
forcing of the bud into growth.
With a good "live" and subsequent growth of buds by the
end of the second year, part of the original branches that were
left on the trees can be removed. With a good top growth the
remaining original limbs can be cut out the third year. This
same procedure should be followed if trees are top-worked by
grafting.







Pecan Growing in Florida


In some instances recutting of the stubs will be necessary
where the cut surfaces did not grow over satisfactorily and decay
has set in. If the decayed portion of the branch is not removed,
the rotting will proceed into the trunk of the tree to such an ex-
tent that it will cause severe damage later.










I e I
"'



I ,






I I


























Fig. 27.-This topworked tree has developed a well balanced top.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Well developed tops can be produced by top-working if care
is exercised in placing the scions or buds so that they are prop-
erly distributed over the trees (Fig. 27). The new top develops
rapidly under suitable conditions and will begin to bear nuts in
two to four years, depending upon the variety. However, quan-
tity production should not be expected before the buds are five
to seven years old.

PROPAGATION IN THE PECAN NURSERY
The production of pecan trees for planting orchards is a
highly specialized business which requires capital, skill and close
study to insure success. The seedling pecan is the stock on which
known varieties are worked in the nursery. The stock is gen-
erally grown from small to medium-sized nuts produced by vig-
orous, thrifty trees, either seedlings or varieties.
Seedlings grown from nuts of varieties highly susceptible to
scab, and from nuts of seedling trees from the West often will
be highly susceptible to scab. Therefore, such nuts are not rec-
ommended. Nuts from trees of the Curtis variety are preferred
by a number of Florida nurserymen because they usually germi-
nate well and produce a uniform stock.
Soils with a sand to sandy loam texture are preferred for
growth of nursery stock. However, deep, well-aerated soils are
not as important as for trees being set in the permanent orchard
(see page 19). In fact, some nurserymen claim that soils with
mottled heavy textured layers at 18 to 24 inch depths are par-
ticularly desirable for nursery trees since such soil conditions
stop the development of a deep tap root and encourage the de-
velopment of extensive lateral roots. It is easier to dig a higher
percentage of the roots in such soils and the chance of tree sur-
vival on replanting should be improved.
Planting the Nuts.-Nuts should be planted in the fall as soon
after maturity as possible or in early winter at the latest. If
losses from rodents are excessive, stratification can be practiced
and the nuts planted in the field later. Nuts can be stratified in
a well drained location under a shed or in the open by placing
them in alternate layers of sand two inches thick with a top cov-
ering of eight inches of sand or soil. However, nuts generally
are planted in the field without stratification and this should be
completed by December 15 if possible. When kept at room tem-
perature and humidity until January or February, they should
be soaked for 36 to 72 hours before planting.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Well developed tops can be produced by top-working if care
is exercised in placing the scions or buds so that they are prop-
erly distributed over the trees (Fig. 27). The new top develops
rapidly under suitable conditions and will begin to bear nuts in
two to four years, depending upon the variety. However, quan-
tity production should not be expected before the buds are five
to seven years old.

PROPAGATION IN THE PECAN NURSERY
The production of pecan trees for planting orchards is a
highly specialized business which requires capital, skill and close
study to insure success. The seedling pecan is the stock on which
known varieties are worked in the nursery. The stock is gen-
erally grown from small to medium-sized nuts produced by vig-
orous, thrifty trees, either seedlings or varieties.
Seedlings grown from nuts of varieties highly susceptible to
scab, and from nuts of seedling trees from the West often will
be highly susceptible to scab. Therefore, such nuts are not rec-
ommended. Nuts from trees of the Curtis variety are preferred
by a number of Florida nurserymen because they usually germi-
nate well and produce a uniform stock.
Soils with a sand to sandy loam texture are preferred for
growth of nursery stock. However, deep, well-aerated soils are
not as important as for trees being set in the permanent orchard
(see page 19). In fact, some nurserymen claim that soils with
mottled heavy textured layers at 18 to 24 inch depths are par-
ticularly desirable for nursery trees since such soil conditions
stop the development of a deep tap root and encourage the de-
velopment of extensive lateral roots. It is easier to dig a higher
percentage of the roots in such soils and the chance of tree sur-
vival on replanting should be improved.
Planting the Nuts.-Nuts should be planted in the fall as soon
after maturity as possible or in early winter at the latest. If
losses from rodents are excessive, stratification can be practiced
and the nuts planted in the field later. Nuts can be stratified in
a well drained location under a shed or in the open by placing
them in alternate layers of sand two inches thick with a top cov-
ering of eight inches of sand or soil. However, nuts generally
are planted in the field without stratification and this should be
completed by December 15 if possible. When kept at room tem-
perature and humidity until January or February, they should
be soaked for 36 to 72 hours before planting.







Pecan Growing in Florida


After bringing the soil into a good state of cultivation, plant-
ing is done by opening furrows with a narrow plow to a depth of
4 to 6 inches. The nuts are then dropped by hand, 4 to 6 inches
apart in 31/ to 4 foot rows, and covered with a plow to a depth
of about 4 inches. The crust of the soil should be broken in the
early spring as the small seedlings begin to emerge. (A marker
that makes small holes along the bottom of the furrow, indicat-
ing the exact places where nuts are to be dropped, is convenient
where it is desired to give all the nuts the same spacing. Plant-
ing machines are available but, owing to the irregularity in spac-
ing, are not generally used.)
Cultivation of Nursery Stock.-Cultivation early in the spring
of the first year may be safely done with a weeder, run across the
rows. After this, and during subsequent years, any suitable
type of row cultivator that will keep the land clear of weeds may
be used. It is sometimes necessary to hand weed during seasons
of heavy rainfall. This is rather expensive, but when the seed-
lings are just coming through the surface it is almost impossible
to clean away the grass and weeds by hoeing without causing
considerable damage to the young trees. For keeping the soil
in good condition a 5-tooth cultivator or similar implement is
used throughout the growing season of each year. During the
early spring, after grafting has been completed, the worker must
be very careful, for any disturbance of the scions can kill them.
Fertilization of Nursery Stock.-Well developed, thrifty trees
will give best results. To produce these it will be necessary to
have a well defined and maintained fertilizer program that will
produce the desired type of nursery stock. A heavy tonnage of
summer legumes worked into the soil previous to planting the
nuts will prove profitable in growing pecan nursery stock.
Judicious use of fertilizers and proper cultivation will grow
healthy vigorous seedlings which will insure a higher percentage
of "live" from the budding or grafting operation and result in
subsequent production of a higher percentage of marketable
trees. On new land or land that has not been fertilized in recent
years, 500 to 800 lbs. per acre of 6-6-6 or 8-8-8 should be broad-
cast and worked thoroughly into the soil before planting the
nuts. This would not be necessary on land previously fertilized
for other crops. A 6-6-6 or 8-8-8 fertilizer applied at the rate of
about 500 lbs. per acre in bands at seeding time or in the spring
shortly after the young sprouts appear, will supply the young
seedlings with adequate plant food for their early stages of







Pecan Growing in Florida


After bringing the soil into a good state of cultivation, plant-
ing is done by opening furrows with a narrow plow to a depth of
4 to 6 inches. The nuts are then dropped by hand, 4 to 6 inches
apart in 31/ to 4 foot rows, and covered with a plow to a depth
of about 4 inches. The crust of the soil should be broken in the
early spring as the small seedlings begin to emerge. (A marker
that makes small holes along the bottom of the furrow, indicat-
ing the exact places where nuts are to be dropped, is convenient
where it is desired to give all the nuts the same spacing. Plant-
ing machines are available but, owing to the irregularity in spac-
ing, are not generally used.)
Cultivation of Nursery Stock.-Cultivation early in the spring
of the first year may be safely done with a weeder, run across the
rows. After this, and during subsequent years, any suitable
type of row cultivator that will keep the land clear of weeds may
be used. It is sometimes necessary to hand weed during seasons
of heavy rainfall. This is rather expensive, but when the seed-
lings are just coming through the surface it is almost impossible
to clean away the grass and weeds by hoeing without causing
considerable damage to the young trees. For keeping the soil
in good condition a 5-tooth cultivator or similar implement is
used throughout the growing season of each year. During the
early spring, after grafting has been completed, the worker must
be very careful, for any disturbance of the scions can kill them.
Fertilization of Nursery Stock.-Well developed, thrifty trees
will give best results. To produce these it will be necessary to
have a well defined and maintained fertilizer program that will
produce the desired type of nursery stock. A heavy tonnage of
summer legumes worked into the soil previous to planting the
nuts will prove profitable in growing pecan nursery stock.
Judicious use of fertilizers and proper cultivation will grow
healthy vigorous seedlings which will insure a higher percentage
of "live" from the budding or grafting operation and result in
subsequent production of a higher percentage of marketable
trees. On new land or land that has not been fertilized in recent
years, 500 to 800 lbs. per acre of 6-6-6 or 8-8-8 should be broad-
cast and worked thoroughly into the soil before planting the
nuts. This would not be necessary on land previously fertilized
for other crops. A 6-6-6 or 8-8-8 fertilizer applied at the rate of
about 500 lbs. per acre in bands at seeding time or in the spring
shortly after the young sprouts appear, will supply the young
seedlings with adequate plant food for their early stages of







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


growth. If additional growth stimulation seems desirable the
first year, this fertilization may be repeated in June or July, or
ammonium nitrate at 100 to 150 lbs. per acre may be used. Two
applications of 6-6-6 or 8-8-8 at 500 lbs. per acre each should be
made in February, and in June or July of the second year. Here
again ammonium nitrate may be substituted for the complete
fertilizer application in June or July. The trees are usually
grafted at the end of the second year and a fertilizer program
similar to that recommended for the second year should be suffi-
cient to produce a good size grafted tree. If necessary, more
growth can be encouraged by increasing the amount of fertilizer,
especially nitrogen, the third year. Application of fertilizer to
the young grafts after the end of July is not recommended as
the stimulation of late growth may result in formation of wood
that is immature at digging time.




















Fig. 28.-Placing bud on pecan seedling.

Budding.-Annular, or ring, and patch are the methods of
budding used. Many of the seedlings (Figs. 28 and 29) are large
enough to bud the second year. Budding is begun just as early
as mature buds are present, which is about June 15 to July 1
and may continue to September. The bark of buds and stock
generally will unite in growth in three or four weeks, at which)
time the wrap may be removed. If the wraps are not bindin;






Pecan Growing in Florida


they can be left on until late winter, when the stocks are cut
back to the buds. Seedling shoots will force along with the bud
and these must be removed to permit the growth of the young
buds. As the buds grow they will require staking for support
for several months.
















Fig. 29.-Budding pecan seedlings.

Ring Budding was once the principal method used on the
pecan but now many propagators use the patch bud. It can
be done any time during the growing season when there is suffi-
cient sap to permit the bark to slip freely.
This method consists in the removal of a ring of bark from
the smooth part of the stock, about one inch long, with a double-
bladed knife made especially for the purpose. A ring of bark
containing the bud, cut with the same knife so as to be the same
length, is taken from the bud stick of the same size and is placed
where the bark was removed from the stock (Fig. 28). The
bud must not be skidded after it is set and it must be held firmly
in place by being immediately wrapped completely with plastic
strips or waxed cloth covering all cuts. The tying is important
and must be done properly, as carelessness in this operation is
often the cause of failure.
Patch Budding, a modified form of ring budding, is done when
the bark will slip. The details in making the cut and inserting
the bud are similar in operation. The main difference is that
only enough bark is removed to accommodate the bud, the re-






Pecan Growing in Florida


they can be left on until late winter, when the stocks are cut
back to the buds. Seedling shoots will force along with the bud
and these must be removed to permit the growth of the young
buds. As the buds grow they will require staking for support
for several months.
















Fig. 29.-Budding pecan seedlings.

Ring Budding was once the principal method used on the
pecan but now many propagators use the patch bud. It can
be done any time during the growing season when there is suffi-
cient sap to permit the bark to slip freely.
This method consists in the removal of a ring of bark from
the smooth part of the stock, about one inch long, with a double-
bladed knife made especially for the purpose. A ring of bark
containing the bud, cut with the same knife so as to be the same
length, is taken from the bud stick of the same size and is placed
where the bark was removed from the stock (Fig. 28). The
bud must not be skidded after it is set and it must be held firmly
in place by being immediately wrapped completely with plastic
strips or waxed cloth covering all cuts. The tying is important
and must be done properly, as carelessness in this operation is
often the cause of failure.
Patch Budding, a modified form of ring budding, is done when
the bark will slip. The details in making the cut and inserting
the bud are similar in operation. The main difference is that
only enough bark is removed to accommodate the bud, the re-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


remaining bark being left to extend from the lower to the upper
cuts. By this method bud sticks smaller than the stocks can be
utilized (Fig. 30).
In patch budding, as in
ring budding, one should
work rapidly so that the
cambium layers will not be
exposed longer than is abso-
lutely necessary, for when
the tissues dry out they will
not unite. After the bud is
in place it is wrapped as de-
scribed in ring budding.
Grafting.-Seedlings too
H small to bud during the sec-
ond summer are grafted the
9 following winter, although
some year-old seedlings may
be large enough to graft at
the end of the first season.
The whip or tongue graft is
Fig. 30.-Patch budding: stock pre- used almost exclusively, in-
pared for the bud; bud in place and
wrapped with waxed cloth, serting scions just below soil


Fig. 31.-Grafting pecan seedlings.







Pecan Growing in Florida


surface (Figs. 31 and 32). Other methods are used only when
old stock, one or more inches in diameter, is to be worked, in
which case the cleft or side graft is used. The seedlings are
barred off with a small turning plow and the remaining soil re-
moved from the stock with hand rakes; then the part to receive
the scions is rubbed with a piece of burlap. January and Feb-
ruary are generally
the best months for
grafting. After the
scions are inserted
and tied in place with
waxed cord, the soil
is pulled up around
the grafts as soon as
possible for protec-
tion and to prevent
drying out. The fur-
rows are leveled,
leaving only the top i
bud of the scion a. -
showing. If fertili-
zers are used at this
time, they are ap-
plied just before this
work is done. It is
not necessary to re-
move the waxed cord
from the graft union.
In the spring there
will be numerous
shoots forced from
the stock and these Fig. 32.-Details of whip or tongue graft-
will have to be re- ing: (a) stock and scion cut; (b) fitted together;
moved, leaving only and (c) wrapped with waxed cloth, but waxed
moved, leaving onl cord is often employed also.
the scions. A well-
lealed union is shown in Fig. 33. Most trees should be well-
leveloped by fall and ready for digging (Fig. 34).
Grafting Waxes and Wrappings can be made from several
ormulas or commercially prepared materials can be purchased.
)ne wax in wide use is made with 4 pounds rosin, 2 pounds bees-
vax and 1 pound tallow. Put all of the materials in a pot and
lelt, stirring frequently to insure thorough mixing. For mak-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ing waxed cloth, a medium weight sheeting type of material is
used. The cloth is torn into convenient strips six to 10 inches
wide, dipped into the hot wax and then drawn out between two
boards pressed together to remove the surplus wax. The strips
are rolled on a stick for convenience in handling. When used,
the cloth is torn into one-half-inch strips, tearing across the
wide strip which provides the proper length for wrapping buds.
When grafting in the
nursery, scions are held in
place by wrapping with
waxed string. Number 18
knitting cotton thread is one
of the best materials for
making the waxed cord. The
balls of thread are soaked in
hot wax until thoroughly
saturated, then hung up to
allow the surplus wax to
drain off, after which they
are ready for use.
Owing to the long tap-
root of pecan trees, it is nec-
essary to dig them by hand
(Fig. 35). The trees are
left with soil thrown over the
roots in the holes where dug
until ready to be carried to
the packing shed. Here they
are graded into sizes accord-
ing to height above ground.
Sizes used by nurserymen
:are: 12 to 18 and 18 to 24
inches; 2 to 3, 3 to 4, 4 to 5,
Fig. 33.-Stock and scion properly inches; to3, t 4, to5,
united. 5 to 6, and 6 to 8 feet in one-
year tops. Occasionally larg-
er sizes for use as yard trees also are listed. After grading, the
trees are taken to the yard where they are "heeled in" if they
are not packed for shipment immediately (Fig. 36). They are
packed for shipment in paper-lined bales, in boxes or bulk in car,
using shingle tow or sawdust around the roots as protection and
to keep them moist and in good condition.







Pecan Growing in Florida


Fig. 34.-Pecan nursery trees in July that will be ready to be dug in the fall.

MARKETING

Harvesting.-Pecans are harvested mainly in October and
November after the nuts are fully mature, as indicated by the
husks splitting open (Fig. 1). While the nuts will fall to the
ground naturally if given time, most of them are gathered by
shaking, jarring or beating the branches (Fig. 37). Care should
be exercised to avoid damaging the buds and small twigs that
produce the next year's crop. The nuts are picked up by hand


'^ ^ ~ ~ -- .


Fig. 35.-Digging pecan nursery trees.


i


i;.

.~t~l \.i~r~-.i







Pecan Growing in Florida


Fig. 34.-Pecan nursery trees in July that will be ready to be dug in the fall.

MARKETING

Harvesting.-Pecans are harvested mainly in October and
November after the nuts are fully mature, as indicated by the
husks splitting open (Fig. 1). While the nuts will fall to the
ground naturally if given time, most of them are gathered by
shaking, jarring or beating the branches (Fig. 37). Care should
be exercised to avoid damaging the buds and small twigs that
produce the next year's crop. The nuts are picked up by hand


'^ ^ ~ ~ -- .


Fig. 35.-Digging pecan nursery trees.


i


i;.

.~t~l \.i~r~-.i







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and placed in sacks and carried into sheds or to the racks for
drying. Bamboo poles are used by men to knock the nuts off the
trees, but gathering from the ground is most often done by
women and children, who are usually paid by the pound. To
expedite gathering, it is best to have the ground under and
around the trees clean of grass and litter.


Fig. 36.-Pecan trees are kept heeled in after digging until
packed for shipment.

Mechanical tree shakers have been developed during the past
several years that are quite effective in shaking the nuts loose
from the twigs, thus eliminating the laborious task of beating
with bamboo poles. The pecan tree shaker is attached to the
front, side or rear part of the frame of any farm tractor. The
location of the attachment is determined by the type of tractor
and tree shaker. One type of shaker attachment is shown in
Fig. 38. It has an eccentric or off-center shaft driven by a belt
from the driving pulley on the tractor. The eccentric works a
pitman rod or a rocker arm, which produces the reciprocating
motion necessary to vibrate the tree.
A wire cable 50 to 75 feet in length (longer for large trees)
is attached to the machine on the tractor. The wire cable is








Pecan Growing in Florida


Fig. 37.-Ladder for convenience in knocking pecan nuts
from trees with poles.


_
-777 ''ir-" t
'' -__ ^ ( .* *_.^ ^j. T"* -^ -. -


.7 ^!


q~c;~ ~~---U


--jc:.s~ .
'
1.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


equipped with a large hook, or a grab hook, on the end away
from the tractor for convenience in fastening it to the branches
of the trees. To avoid injury to the trees, that part of the cable
or hook which is fastened around the limbs is padded with burlap
or other suitable material. A chain covered with a rubber hose,
a piece of belting or a section out of an old fire hose may be used
satisfactorily around the branch in fastening the cable.
The operation requires a tractor and driver, and a man to
climb the trees. The tractor is driven close enough to a tree to
permit the man to fasten the cable to one of the large branches,
then moved away from the tree until the cable is taut, the brake
set, clutch released and the pulley clutch engaged. The motor
is then speeded up for a short time and the jerking motion of
the cable produced by the eccentric shaft to which it is attached
vibrates the branches so vigorously that all of the ripe nuts are
shaken loose. With light weight tractors some kind of scotching
block may be necessary to hold the tractor in proper position;
otherwise it will be drawn toward the tree, which slacks the cable
and prevents doing a thorough job. After shaking one branch,
the cable is attached to another and the operation repeated, and

Fig. 38.-A pecan tree shaker. There are other types, but all
vibrate the branches to shake down the nuts.
J% I t, ,' .







Pecan Growing in Florida


so on until the entire tree has been shaken. With small trees
(those in the first few years of production) one anchoring of
the cable generally is all that is required to shake the nuts from
each tree.
A light ladder is used by the man handling the cable to ex-
pedite the work of fastening the cable to the branches.
Pecan shakers produce a violent vibration in the branches
of the trees but do not affect the trunks and root systems and
will not bruise the bark if care is exercised. Where used they
have not injured the trees, and no potential fruiting twigs were
damaged as is frequently the case where poles are used to knock
the nuts loose. Shakers get most of the nuts from the trees,
and less time is required to harvest the crop. By this method
it is possible to allow the nuts to become drier before harvesting
operations are started, as less time is required for removing the
nuts from the trees. Placing the nuts in sacks until only partially
filled, tied and held in rooms with free passage of air currents
will dry them satisfactorily.
Selling Practices.-Pecan nuts are marketed mostly through
auctions, private sales and cooperative associations (Fig. 39).
A limited number are sold direct to consumers in 5, 10, 25, 50

Fig. 39.-Pecan auction in the Florida State Farmers' Market at Starke
on a day when 54,000 pounds of nuts were sold.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and 100 pound packages. Nuts for such consumer sales are
graded, sized and cleaned before they are packaged for shipment.
Almost all growers who sell in bulk deliver the nuts as orchard-
run pecans classified only by varietal name. All other grading,
sizing and blending is left up to the distributors. In seasons of
a large price differential between grades or varieties, grading
prior to marketing might be a profitable process for growers,
(Fig. 40).
About 25 percent of the pecan production is sold as whole
nuts by the distributors, most of these prior to the Thanksgiving
and Christmas seasons. Growers attempt to market as many
nuts during this period as possible. Nuts sold in the shell by
distributors are cleaned, bleached and then processed to restore
the normal shell color before they are delivered for the retail
trade.
Grading and Sizing.-Pecan nuts are graded on size and
quality criteria, according to the specifications set up under
U. S. and Florida standards for unshelled pecans which are sum-

Fig. 40.-A home-made screen for cleaning pecans on the farm.







Pecan Growing in Florida


marized here. The sizes are determined by the diameter of the
nuts at right angle to the long axis of the nuts, which are varied
by 1/16 inch in machine sizing and range from 12/16 to 16/16
inch. The nuts which fall in these different sizes are generally
designated as small, medium, large, extra large and oversize,
as shown in Table 4.

TABLE 4.-SIZES AND WEIGHTS OF PECAN NUTS.

No. of 10 of the Machine Sized *
Nuts Smallest Nuts Width of Slot
Size I per in a Represent- Through Which Nut
Designation Pound ative 100-nut
Not More I Sample Must Will Will Not
Than IWeigh at Least Pass Pass
Oversize .......... 52 2.50 ounces I 15/16 in.
Extra large.... 60 2.25 ounces 15/16 in. 14/16 in.
Large ............. 61 to 73 1.75 ounces 14/16 in. 13/16 in.
Medium .......... 74 to 90 1.50 ounces 13/16 in. 12/16 in.
Small ............ 91 to 115 1.25 ounces 12/16 in. 11/16 in.

Pecans of similar shape to Stuart form the basis for these sizes; with pecans which
are long in type, like Schley, the diameter is usually 1/16 inch less, and with very short or
approximately spherical nuts like Moneymaker, it will be 1/16 inch more.

The grades set up are: U. S. No. 1, U. S. Commercial and
Unclassified. Unclassified is not a grade in the meaning of the
term as used in the two grades above, but indicates that there
has been no grading of the nuts at all. Growers generally sell
their crops as unclassified or orchard-run pecans after they have
been dried and cleaned. Distributors assemble all lots pur-
chased, and grade and classify the nuts on the basis of the re-
quirements for U. S. No. 1 and U. S. Commercial grades. In
pecans that fall below these classifications there are varying per-
centages with usable kernels; these are cracked and shelled, and
the marketable kernels recovered.
The quality of pecans is determined by their external and
internal conditions. Uniformity in color and shape of the nuts
as to variety, stains, adhering hulls, split or broken shells, loose
hulls and other foreign materials are the external factors con-
sidered in grading pecans. Internal factors have to do with the
kernel. Those considered are: Moisture, rancidity, mold, de-
cay, worm injury, shriveling, discoloration and others which
might affect quality.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


U. S. No. 1. Ninety percent of the nuts must be uniform in
color, fairly well shaped and free of any of the other external de-
fects caused by any of the factors considered in grading. Up
to 10 percent of the nuts in this grade may be off quality in
external appearance, but only three percent may show serious
damage caused by stains, adhering hulls and other factors.
There must be 85 percent of the kernels, by count, free from
internal defects that affect quality of the kernels as previously
set forth. But, of the 15 percent of kernels which are permitted
below the requirements for U. S. No. 1, only six percent may
have serious damage.
U. S. Commercial grade requires that 90 percent of the nuts
must be free from serious damage caused by stains, broken
shells and other factors considered under external qualifications.
At least 65 percent by count of the pecans must contain ker-
nels which meet the requirements of the U. S. No. 1 grade and
the remainder must be fairly good. However, 25 percent can
be below U. S. No. 1, but these must be usable, while 10 percent
can be so seriously damaged that they are practically worthless.
Pecan Shelling.-About 75 percent of the pecan production
eventually reaches commercial shelling plants, where the nuts
are cracked and the kernels removed. These shelled pecans are
sold to the trade as halves and pieces. The product is known
generally as shelled pecans, pecan meats and pecan kernels, and
is used in baking, confections, ice cream and other products.
Pecan shelling is highly mechanized in large plants (Figs.
41 and 42). However, a few small operators still use hand crack-
ers and pick out the kernels by hand. The machinery in large
plants consists of sizers, crackers, shakers, cleaners and picking
belts. The nuts from the storerooms are passed over sizers to
have quantities of nuts of similar diameters for convenience in
cracking and production of halves of uniform size. Before crack-
ing pecan nuts are generally sterilized in boiling water. This
process also softens the shells which makes cracking easier and
reduces the breaking of the kernels. Following sterilization they
go to the crackers in which a plunger applies pressure of suffi-
cient force to the ends of each nut to break the shell by a buck-
ling effect.
The cracked nuts are conveyed from the crackers to ma-
chines in which the kernels are loosened from any adhering shell
by a revolving and tumbling motion. They are next passed over
a cleaning machine which separates the kernels from most of the







Pecan Growing in Florida 61

shells. This equipment is of the vibrating perforated deck type,
similar to that used in cleaning small seed and handles the mass
of pecan shells and kernels in the same manner. Through the
perforated deck a blast of air is blown from below, and during
vibration the heavy particles travel to the outside. In this in-
stance the pecan kernels have the heaviest specific gravity and
they move to the end of the deck and are removed with a mini-
mum of shells adhering.
The kernels are next distributed uniformly over slowly mov-
ing belts from which laborers can detect and pick out the re-

Fig. 41.-Motor-driven crackers in a Florida pecan shelling plant.
To the right is shown a kernel grader.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


mining shells and faulty kernels. When the kernels have
reached the end of the belt they are clean and are placed in a
dehydrator and dried to a constant moisture content. They are
then ready to be packaged for shipment.


*- I..'


Fig. 42.-These machines in a Florida pecan shelling plant separate most
of the shells from the kernels after the nuts have been cracked.

Storage.-Pecan nuts hold up well in cool air storage during
the winter and early spring, but if they are to be carried over to
the next season they must be held in cold storage. During years
of heavy production large quantities of nuts are held in cold
storage to keep them fresh for deliveries during the summer and
early fall months.






Pecan Growing in Florida


Storage experiments have shown that 320 F. is about the
maximum safe storage temperature for carrying nuts from
one year to the next. Short periods of two or three months'
storage at 37 to 400 F. and 85 percent humidity will prove satis-
factory for early deliveries in the summer.
Tests have been conducted with kernels packed in glass con-
tainers sealed with air, vacuum, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and
oxygen. Containers made of cloth, cellophane and different
colored pliofilms also have been used in kernel experiments.
The oxygen packs were discarded because of the early de-
velopment of rancidity. All other packs tested held up well at
320 F., but at room temperature became rancid during the sum-
mer. The nitrogen pack was slightly better than the others,
with the vacuum second. All of the flexible containers were
satisfactory at storage temperatures of 320 F., but none would
keep kernels fresh for long periods in high temperatures. Stored
samples in good condition when removed from cold storage held
up satisfactorily at room temperatures for two to four weeks
during hot weather; under cool to normal temperatures there
should be no danger of rancidity developing in the kernels within
a reasonable period after removal from cold storage.
Pecan By-Products.-The oil in pecan kernels has been re-
covered successfully in the laboratory and found to have satis-
factory qualities for certain uses. In a number of tests it was
possible to expel an average of 77.0 percent of the oil by heat-
ing the kernel to about 2000 F. and applying 12 tons pressure
with a hand-operated hydraulic press.
Reports from a tung oil expressing plant show successful
recovery of oil from pecan kernel pieces and screenings which
accumulate at shelling plants. The screw type expeller was
used, but it was necessary to mix some of the pecan shells as a
binder so that the mass of materials would pass through the
press without the solids being forced out with the oil. With such
a procedure it was possible to recover approximately 75.0 percent
of the oil contained in the waste pieces of kernels that otherwise
would have been a complete loss.
Pecan oil is a good salad oil which can be used as a liquid or
emulsified into the desired consistency. It does not carry a great
amount of the distinctive pecan flavor, but has good keeping
qualities and does not become rancid as quickly at room tempera-
tures as do pecan kernels. It is a satisfactory cooking fat also,
especially for pecans, potato chips and other similar products.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Pecan cake from clean kernels that were not mixed with
shells can be manufactured into butters and meals. These have
been prepared in the laboratory and satisfactory products for
table use were obtained. They should be adaptable also for use
by the confection, baking and ice cream industries.
When shells are mixed with the kernel pieces, the residue or
cake cannot be used for human consumption. However, this
pecan cake might be used in some way as animal feed. A sample
of pecan cake from a commercial extraction process was analyzed
and contained 21.0 percent protein.
Pecan shells have been mixed equally (by volume) with build-
ers' sand to make a satisfactory medium in which to root green
wood cuttings. In general they produced a good mixture and
gave equally good results in root development of the cutting as
was obtained with the regular sand-peat mixture. It was found
that, for best mixtures, the shells should be ground or crushed
into coarse sizes of 1/2 inch and smaller in diameter.

SUMMARY
In 1950 there were 284,944 pecan trees of all ages in Florida.
The average annual production from 1945 to 1954 was 4,199,000
pounds, of which 2,454,000 pounds were from named varieties.
Varieties selected for planting should be precocious, prolific
and consistent in bearing and carry a high resistance to diseases.
Only a few of the many named varieties have proven profit-
able in Florida. It is recommended that prospective growers
plant not more than three or four well chosen varieties.
Trees are transplanted during the dormant season from De-
cember to March; early planting results in the most satisfactory
"live." Trees should not be set closer than 50 x 50 feet, a wider
distance being better.
The commercial pecan area in Florida is in the northern and
western part of the state, extending southward to about the
latitude of Gainesville.
The seedling pecan is the stock on which varieties are budded
and grafted. Nuts from trees of seedlings and varieties that
require 70 or more to the pound will give good results when
planted to produce stocks. The nuts are planted in the fall or
early winter 4 to 6 inches apart in 31/2- to 4-foot rows.







Pecan Growing in Florida


Budding is mostly done during July and August by ring and
patch budding methods. Grafts are made in January and Feb-
ruary, using the whip or tongue in the nursery.
Nursery stock should be kept in a thrifty growing condition
by adequate fertilization and cultivation.
Fertilization and cultivation of orchards are necessary for
successful production.
Zinc is used to correct rosette in pecans. It it generally ap-
plied as zinc sulfate, either to the soil or as a foliage spray.
Spanish moss can be killed in pecan trees by thoroughly wet-
ting it with a low lime bordeaux mixture, applied with a power
sprayer.
Neglected orchards can be rejuvenated when located on suit-
able soils and consisting of adapted prolific varieties.
Undesirable trees can be top-worked to desired varieties by
budding and grafting.
Pecans are harvested mostly in October and November. A
mechanical pecan tree shaker is best for removing the nuts from
the trees, but poles are still used by many.
Pecan nuts are mostly marketed through auction, cooperative
or private sales and to a limited extent direct to consumers.
Large quantities of nuts are processed by shelling plants by
removing the shells from the kernels which are packaged and
sold as pecan meats or kernels.
Pecan nuts can be stored at 320 F. or slightly lower tempera-
tures and kept in good condition for long periods.
Pecan oils, butter and meals are desirable products that have
been produced in the laboratory. The oil has been recovered in
limited commercial quantities from waste materials that accumu-
late in shelling plants.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to express their thanks to the many orchard
owners who have cooperated in past fertilizer trials and other
experiments. An incomplete list of these men who have assisted
on research includes Lee Mathis, D. J. Danielson, D. M. Schenck,
Harvey Brown, Ralph Carter, J. M. Brownlee and Curtis and
Clyde Griffin.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


APPENDIX
Pecan growers anxious to keep up with current developments
in pecan production research should consult the Proceedings of
the Southeastern Pecan Growers Association. This is an annual
publication containing recent research papers and discussions by
growers on current problems. H. S. Jennings, Dawson, Georgia,
is the Secretary-Treasurer of this association.
A list of technical papers which may be of interest to some
growers follows:
1. ALBEN, A. O., H. E. HAMMAR and B. G. SITTON. Some Nutrient Defi-
ciency Symptoms of the Pecan. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 41: 63-60,
1942.
2. GAMMON, NATHAN, JR., and RALPH H. SHARPE. Response of Pecans
to Lime and Rates of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilization. Soil
Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 15: 124-129, 1955.
3. GAMMON, NATHAN, JR., RALPH H. SHARPE and RALPH G. LEIGHTY.
Relationship Between Depth to Heavy-Textured Subsoil and
Drought Injury to Pecans. Soil Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 15: 31-34,
1955.
4. GAMMON, NATHAN, JR., and RALPH H. SHARPE. Mouse Ear-A Man-
ganese Deficiency of Pecans. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 68: 195-
200, 1956.
5. HAGLER, T. B., and W. A. JOHNSON. Relation of the Nutrient-Element
Content of Pecan Leaves to the Yield of Nuts. Proc. Southeastern
Pecan Growers Assoc. 48: 77, 1955.
6. HAGLER, T. B., R. L. LIVINGSTON and W. A. JOHNSON. Lime and Zinc
for Pecans. Proc. Southeastern Pecan Growers Assoc. 50: 92-94,
1957.
7. HUNTER, J. H. Variations in the Response of Pecan Trees to the
Drought of 1954. Proc. Southeastern Pecan Growers Assoc. 48:
6-19, 1955.
8. HUNTER, J. H. Summer Cultivation vs. Mowing. Proc. Southeastern
Pecan Growers Assoc. 50: 35-38, 1957.
9. HUNTER, J. H., and H. E. HAMMAR. Influence of Cultivation, Mulching
and Fertilization on Chemical Composition of Pecan Leaves and
Their Relation to Yield and Quality of Nuts. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.
Proc. 16: 346-349, 1952.
10. PHILLIPS, A. M., JOHN R. COLE and JOHN R. LARGE. Insects and Dis-
eases of the Pecan in Florida. Fla. Agri. Expt. Sta. Bul. 499, 1952.
11. POWELL, JULES V., and RICHARD S. BERBERICH. Marketing Tree Nuts,
Trends and Prospects, U.S.D.A. Marketing Research Report. 139:
1956.
12. SHARPE, RALPH H. Tests on Thinning of Heavy Pecan Crops with
Growth Regulators. Proc. Southeastern Pecan Growers Assoc.
48: 62-68, 1955.








Pecan Growing in Florida 67

13. SHARPE, RALPH H., G. H. BLACKMON and NATHAN GAMMON, JR. Prog-
ress Report of Potash and Magnesium Fertilization of Pecans. Proc.
Southeastern Pecan Growers Assoc. 43: 86-89, 1950.
14. SHARPE, RALPH H., G. H. BLACKMON and NATHAN GAMMON, JR. Mag-
nesium Deficiency of Pecans. Proc. Southeastern Pecan Growers
Assoc. 44: 23-27, 1951.
15. SHARPE, RALPH H., G. H. BLACKMON and NATHAN GAMMON, JR. Re-
lation of Potash and Phosphate Fertilization to Cold Injury of
Moore Pecans. Proc. Southeastern Pecan Growers Assoc. 45:
81-85, 1952.
16. SHARPE, RALPH H., and NATHAN GAMMON, JR. Sources of Error in
Foliar Analysis of Pecan. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 58: 120-124
1951.
17. WARE, L. M., and W. A. JOHNSON. Effect of Cultural and Fertilizer
Practices on the Nitrate and Moisture Levels of the Soil and on
the Growth of Young Pecan Trees. Proc. Southeastern Pecan
Growers Assoc. 50: 39-50, 1957.
18. WRIGHT, R. C. Investigations on the Storage of Nuts. U.S.D.A. Tech.
Bul. 770, 1941.




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