• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Cover
 Abstract
 Table of Contents
 Characteristics of sample
 Definitions
 Statistical tables
 Bibliography
 Other citrus publications...














Group Title: Economics information report 76
Title: Citrus costs and returns in Florida, season ... with comparisons
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00028127/00004
 Material Information
Title: Citrus costs and returns in Florida, season ... with comparisons
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Publication Date: 1978-1979
Copyright Date: 1977
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00028127
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: electronic_aleph - 003333278
electronic_oclc - 61142049

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Note
    Cover
        Page i
    Abstract
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Characteristics of sample
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Definitions
        Page 3
    Statistical tables
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Bibliography
        Page 11
    Other citrus publications available
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Donald L. Brooke
R. Clegg Hooks


,' /
' Economic information
Report 138


Citrus C
Season


costss


and Returns in Florida,


1978-79


with


Comparisons


Food and Resource Economics Department
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


August 1980













ABSTRACT

Costs and returns for citrus were obtained on.136 groves during the
1978-79 season. This is the 48th year of citrus cost work. Yields were
down 10 percent in 1978-79 over the previous year. Operating costs per
box increased by 16 percent and returns from fruit were up 29 percent
from the 1977-78 season to 1978-79. Net returns to growers were the
highest on record in 1978-79 at $3.47 per box.

Key words: Economics, citrus, annual costs, returns, yields.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page


INTRODUCTION . . . . . . ...... . . . . 1

CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMPLE . . . . . . . . . 1

Location of Groves .......... .... .. 1
Acreage per Grove ..... .. . . . . . .. 2
Trees per Acre . . . . . . . . . .. .. 2
Age of Grove.. . . ........ . .. .. 2
Percent of Trees Grapefruit .. ... .... 2
Percent of Total Cost . . . . . ..... ... 3

DEFINITIONS . . .... ... . ... . . . 3

STATISTICAL TABLES . . . . . .. . . . . 4

BIBLI Y . . . . . . . . . . . 11

OTHER CITRUS PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE . . .. ...... 12


LIST OF TABLES


Table Page


I Location by counties of 136 citrus groves over 10
years of age, 1978-79 season . . . . . . . 4

2 Distribution of 136 groves over 10 years of age
according to acreage per grove 1978-79 season . . . 5

3 Distribution of all 136 groves over 10 years of age
according to number of trees per acre, 1978-79 season . 5

4 Distribution of 136 groves by average age, 1978-79
season . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

5 Specified cost items as percent of total operating
cost per acre for 136 groves over 10 years of age,
1978-79 season . . . . . . . . . 6







LIST OF TABLES--continued


Tabl Page


6 Distribution of yield per acre for groves over
10 years of age by seasonal average, 1931-79 . .. 7

7 Distribution of 136 groves, over 10 years of age,
according to fruit harvested per acre, 1978-79 season .. 7

8 Per acre and per box production costs, returns, and
other data by seasons for groves averaging over 10
years of age, 1978-79 . . . . ...... . 8

9 Distribution of 136 groves over 10 years of age
according to operating costs per acre, 1978-79 season .. 9

10 Distribution of 136 groves over 10 years of age
according to operating cost per box, 1978-79 season . 9

11 Average and range of operating cost items per season
for groves over 10 years of age, 1931-79 . . . .. 10












CITRUS PRODUCTION COSTS AND RETURNS IN FLORIDA,
SEASON 1978-79 WITH COMPARISONS


Donald L. Brooke and R. Clegg Hooks


INTRODUCTION


With the cooperation of interested citrus growers and caretaking
organizations, both cooperative and private, the Florida Cooperative
Extension Service, which includes directors in citrus producing counties,
and the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations have conducted citrus
costs and returns studies since 1931. Over the years the sample has
become concentrated in the interior counties of the State. It, there-
fore, does not accurately reflect Indian River production or the newer
plantings of southwest Florida. The averages of the records obtained
are, perhaps, more representative of the Ridge area.


CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMPLE


Location of Groves

From 75 to 93 percent of the groves included in this study have
been in the four counties of Polk, Lake, Orange and Highlands, varying
somewhat in different seasons. Location of the 136 groves over 10
years of age included in the 1978-79 season is shown in Table 1. During
this season 93 percent of the groves and 92 percent of the acreage were
in the four counties named. Six counties were represented in the study
this season.


DONALD L. BROOKE is a professor and R. CLEGG HOOKS is an assistant
in food and resource economics.







Acreage Per Grove

In.1978-79 the acreage for groves over 10 years of age was 46
acres per grove. Distribution by acreage groups is shown in Table 2.
About 43 percent of all groves included in this study contained less
than 30 acres per grove.


Trees Per Acre

Groves included in this study averaged 72 trees per acre in the
1978-79 season. Seventy-five percent of all groves in this study had
less than 80 trees per acre (see Table 3). All citrus bearing acreage
in Florida averaged 82 trees per acre in 1978 while non-bearing acreage
averaged 93 trees per acre [2].


Age of Grove

Age of tree from time of setting is the easiest and most convenient
method of designating groves when comparing yields, costs, returns and
other comparisons. In this work all groves are over 10 years of age.
Distribution according to average age of trees of the 136 groves
included in these data in 1978-79 is shown in Table 4. Average age of
all groves was 31 years and age of individual-groves varied from 11 to
62 years. Twenty-one percent of all groves were 11 to 20 years of age.


Percent of Trees Grapefruit

The proportion of the trees that were grapefruit influences yield,
costs and returns. Available data do not indicate significant differences
in per acre costs for grapefruit as compared with all round oranges.
There are, however, significant differences in yields per acre for the
two types of fruit. Costs of bearing ages of grapefruit trees were
somewhat lower per box than for-orange trees. By five year periods from
1931 to 1971 the percentage of grapefruit trees in record groves over 10
years of age declined from 32 to 11 percent [1]. In 1978-79 only 9.6
percent of the trees in record groves in the same age group were grape-
fruit (see.Table 8).







In 1978 about 14 percent of all bearing trees in Florida were
grapefruit [2, pp. 5 and 61.

Percent of Total Cost


Operating costs per acre averaged $335.48 for groves over 10
years of age for the season 1978-79 (see Table 8). The percentages
of each item making up operating costs of the groves is shown in
Table 5.

DEFINITIONS


Labor, power and equipment: includes all of the production labor
expended on the grove and all of the power and equipment charges
incurred. No meaningful division of labor and power items can be
given since caretaking firms' charges for most items are made on
a piece rate basis. It includes machine operator's wages as well
as machine and equipment costs.

Fertilizer materials: represents the cost of all the fertilizer
materials (N, P, K), soil amendments and minor elements applied
to the soil for fruit production.

Spray and dust materials: represents the cost of all insecticides,
fungicides and herbicides applied on the trees or in the grove
for the control of pests, diseases and weeds.

State and county taxes: represent the amount of real estate taxes
paid, including county government and school millages plus drainage
district assessments, where applicable. None of the groves pres-
ently in the sample are paying city taxes.

Miscellaneous expenses: includes frost protection, trees for resets,
plowing fire guards, soil testing, checking fruit and soil science
dues for a few groves.

Total operating costs: are the sum of all the items listed above.

Interest on grove valuation: is charged at a 6 percent annual rate on
an assumed value of the grove for its age and condition as an
agricultural asset, not as a speculative piece of real estate.
County tax assessment yardsticks are used in determining valuation.

Total cost without owner supervision: is the sum of total operating
cost plus interest on grove valuation. Owner supervision time is
not included in any of the above expenses.







Return from fruit: represents the amount of
grove owner after deduction of picking,
costs. It represents the on-tree value


Net returns:
expenses
interest


Returns above operating
of total operating
grove valuation is


money returned to the
hauling and processing
of the fruit produced.


the return to the grove owner after deduction of all
production, harvesting and marketing the crop including
grove valuation.


costs: is the amount remainingafter deduction
costs from returns from fruit. Interest on
not a deduction in this computation.


STATISTICAL TABLES


Table 1.--


Location by
groves over
79 season


counties
10 years


of 136 citrus
of age, 1978-


County Over 10 years of age

No. %

Polk 56 41.2
Lake 37 27.2
Orange 28 20.6
Highlands 6 4.4
Sumter 6 4.4
Marion 3 2.2

Total 136 100.0






Table 2.--Distribution of 136 groves over 10
years of age according to acreage
per grove, 1978-79-season

Acres Over 10 years of age
per
grove Groves Cumulative

No. % %

5 to 9 10 7.3 7.3
10 to 14 16 11.8 19.1
15 to 19 6 4.4 23.5
20 to 29 27 19.9 43.4

30 to 39 16 11.8 55.2
40;.to 49 19 14.0 69.2
50 to 59 16 11.8 81.0
60 to 99 13 9.5 90.5
100 & over 13 9.5 100.0

5 to 260 136 100.0 100.0


Table 3.--Distribution of 136 groves over 10
years of age according to number of
trees per acre, 1978-79 season

Trees Over 10 years of age
per
acre Groves Cumulative

No. % %

Under 50 7 5.2 5.2
50 to 59 23 16.9 22.1
60 to 69 46 33.8 55.9
70 to 79 26 19.1 75.0
80 to 89 6 4.4 79.4
90 to 99 13 9.6 89.0
100 & over 15 11.0 100.0

25 to 162 136 100.0 100.0







Table 4.--Distribution
age, 1978-79


of 136 groves by average
season


Average Groves Cumulative
age

Years No. % %

11 to 15 4 2.9 2.9
16 to 20 25 18.4 21.3
21 to 25 41 30.2 51.5
26 to 30 16 11.8 63.3
31 to 35 9 6.6 69.9

36 to 40 3 2.2 72.1
41 to 45 6 4.4 76.5
46 to 50 13 9.5 86.0
51 to 55 11 8.1 94.1
56 & over 8 5.9 100.0

11 to 62 136 100.0 -100.0-


Table 5.--Specified cost items as percent of
total operating cost per acre by
age of 136 groves over 10 years of
age, 1978-79 season

Item of cost 1978-79

Percent

Labor, power & equipment 51.0
Fertilizer materials 22.3
Spray & dust materials 17.5
State & county taxes 7.4
Miscellaneous 1.8

Total operating costs 100.0









Table 6.--Distribution of yield per acre for
groves over 10 years of age by
seasonal average, 1931-79

Boxes per acre Seasons Cumulative

No. % %

Less than 100 1 2.1 2.1
100 to 149 4 8.3 10.4
150 to 199 5 10.4 20.8
200 to 249 5 10.4 31.2
250 to 299 12 25.0 56.2

300 to 349 16 33.3 89.5
350 to 399 3 6.3 95.8
400 to 499 2 4.2 100.0

92 to 447 48 100.0 100.0




Table 7.--Distribution of 136 groves over 10
years of age according to fruit
harvested per acre, 1978-79 season

Boxes per acre Groves Cumulative

No. % %

Under 100 11 8.1 8.1
100 to 149 11 8.1 16.2
150 to 199 19 14.0 30.2
200 to 249 -17 12.5 42.7

250 to 299 14 10.3 53.0
300 to 349 14 10.3 63.3
350 to 399 14 10.3 73.6
400 to 449 8 5.9 79.5

450 to 499 10 7.3 86.8
500 to 549 4 2.9 89.7
550 to 599 6 4.4 94.1
600 & over 8 5.9 100.0

48 to 934 136 100.0 100.0














Table 8.--Per acre and per box production costs, returns, and other data by seasons for groves averaging over 10 years of age, 1971-79

Item 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79

Number of grove records 150 140 150 153 154 146 113 142 136
Total acres of records 5065 4688 5522 6145 6234 5835 4379 6430 6316
Average acres per grove 34 33 37 40 40 40 39 45 46
Average age 28 29 29 29 29 30 31 32 31
Number of trees per acre 73 72 72 72 73 72 73 73 72
Percent of trees grapefruit 9.6 10.0 8.6 9.0 9.0 9.5 10.6 9.6 9.6
Boxes harvested per acre 309 295 345 326 343 345 400 322 291

Cost per acre:
Labor, power & equipment $ 92.59 $101.58 $109.76 $120.45 $145.12 $142.68 $169.79 $158.72 $171.31
Fertilizer materials 41.51 36.32 50.86 46.16 61.41 69.50 64.41 74.45 74.72
Spray and dust materials 36.19 37.87 42.19 44.23 45.89 53.32 53.03 51.90 58.70
State and county taxes 23.65 27.73 24.91 24.62 24.15 23.82 25.18 25.00 24.74
Miscellaneous 11.27 16.80 8.16 3.56 9.57 7.19 10.80 9.47 6.01
Total operating costs 205.21 220.30 235.88 239.02 286.14 296.51 323.21 319.54 335.48
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% 90.40 89:88 95.66 109.91 110.29 112.20 114.21 123.31 127.23
Total cost without owner supervision 295.61 310.18 331.54 348.93 396.43 408.71 437.42 442.85 462.71

Returns per acre:
Returns from fruit 489.63 640.19 560.71 499.67 515.59 585.24 855.87 1258.39 1471.30
Net returns 194.02 330.01 229.17 150.74 -119.16 176.53 418.45 815.54 1008.59
Returns above operating costs 284.42 419.89 324.83 260.65 229.45 288.73 532.66 938.85 1135.82

Costs per box:
Labor, power,& equipment $ .30 $ .35 $ .32 $ .37 $ .42 $ .41 $ .43 $ .49 $ .59
Fertilizer materials .13 .12 .15 .14 .18 .20 .16 .23 .26
Spray and dust materials .12 .13 .12 .14 .13 .16 .13 .16 .20
State and county taxes .08 .09 .07 .08 .07 .07 .06 .08 .08
Miscellaneous .03 .06 .02 .01 .03 .03 .03 .03 .02
Total operating costs .66 .75 .68 .74 .83 .86 ,81 .99 1.15
Interest on grove valuation @ 6% .29 .30 .28 .34 .32 .33 .29 .39 .44
Total cost without owner supervision .95 1.05 .96 1.08 1,15 1.19 1.0 1.38 1.59

Returns per box:
Returns from fruit 1.58 2.17 1.62 1.54 1.50 1.70 2.14 3.91 5.06
Net returns .63 1.12 .66 .46 .35 .51 1.04 .2.53 3.47
Returns above operating costs .92 1.42 .94 .80 .67 .84 1.33 2.92 3.91









Table 9.--Distribution of 136 groves over 10
years of age according.to operating
costs per acre, 1978-79 season

Cost per acre- Groves Cumulative

No. % %

$150 to 199 9 6.6 6.6
200 to 249 20 14.7 21.3
250 to 299 23 16.9 38.2
300 to 349 23 16.9 55.1

350 to 399 31 22.8 77.9
400 to 449 15 11.0 88.9
450 to 499 8 5.9. 94.8
500 & over 7 5.2 100.0

$154.97 to
$571.22 136 100.0 100.0





Table 10.--Distribution of 136 groves over 10
years of age according to operating
cost per box, 1978-79 season

Cost per box Groves Cumulative

No. % %

Less than $0.40 1 0.7 0.7
$0.40 to .59 5 3.7 4.4
.60 to .79 24 17.7 22.1
.80 to .99 26 19.1 41.2
1.00 to 1.49 37 27.2 68.4

1.50 to 1.99 20 14.7 83.1
2.00 to 2.99 12 8.8 91.9
3.00 and over 11 8.1 100.0

$0.35 to $9.07 136 100.0 100.0






10


Table 11.--Average and range of operating cost items per season for groves
over 10 years of age, 1931-79

Per acre Per box
Cost item
Average Range Average Range

Labor, power
and equipment $ 81.71 .$17.33 to $171.31 $0.30 $0.11 to $0.59

Fertilizer
materials 47.10 17.74 to 74.72 .17 .11 to .28

Spray and
dust materials 22.83 2.99 to 58.70 .08 .02 to .20

State and
county taxes. 13.87 4.07 to 27.73 .05 .01 to .11

Miscellaneous 7.61 .53 to 22.23 .03 a to .08

Total operating
cost $173.12 $44.90 to $335.48 $0.63 $0.30 to $1.15


aLess than $0.005.













BIBLOGRAPHY


[1] Brooke, D. L. Citrus Production Costs and Returns in Florida,
Season 1972-73 with Comparisons. IFAS Economics Rpt. 67.
Gainesville: University of Florida, 1974.

[2] Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Florida Agricultural
Statistics--Commercial Citrus Inventory. Orlando: Nov. 1978.









OTHER CITRUS PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE


Economic Information Report


116



134


Agr. Ext. Ser. Circular


76 Citrus Production Costs and
Returns in Florida, Season
1975-76 with Comparisons

95 Citrus Costs and Returns in
Florida, Season 1976-77 with
Comparisons


Citrus Costs and Returns in
Florida, Season 1977-78 with
Comparisons

Estimated Costs of Picking
and Hauling Fresh Florida
Citrus 1978-79 Season

Factors to Consider in
Purchasing a Citrus Grove


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $1140.00
or $1.63 per copy to furnish the citrus industry with current and his-
torical data on costs of production by the Food and Resource Economics
Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida.


Ext. Service
DLB:sh


700 copies
August 1980




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs