• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Nursery entrance
 Nursery office and sale area
 Propagation area
 Media preparation and storage
 Production areas
 Service area
 Employee facilities
 Shipping area






Title: Layout and design considerations for a wholesale container nursery
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00028026/00001
 Material Information
Title: Layout and design considerations for a wholesale container nursery
Series Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service Circular 558
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Yeager, Thomas H.
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Florida Cooperative Extension Service -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00028026
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Nursery entrance
        Page 4
    Nursery office and sale area
        Page 4
    Propagation area
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Media preparation and storage
        Page 7
    Production areas
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Service area
        Page 13
    Employee facilities
        Page 13
    Shipping area
        Page 13
        Page 14
Full Text

(mudagi -
Coastal .- ..
south -
mutd.,
,a. Circulari 558
a -- -
I Layout and Design

Considerations :l

for a Wholesale
P i: ,

Sr- r Nursery



S.F. .S. i n
jr \lFASJ ~-Un -^I0------- *
L- commercial Use Only




Thomas H. Eager li ;'

i, Dewayne L. Ingram ,

-- il U < iS-



Florida Cooperative Extension Service i
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
1,ti| John T. Woesre, Dean for Extension [ ;

= ,1 F t- Z. .
-7 7--_--r- ^---------- it.







LAYOUT AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR A
WHOLESALE CONTAINER NURSERY
Thomas H. Yeager and Dewayne L. Ingram*


Many commercial nurseries begin as small backyard operations,
with little thought given to initial or future layout design. Nursery
managers are often anxious to realize a rapid return on their investment,
and overlook the need for thorough nursery layout planning. Nursery
managers may be apprehensive about nursery expansion or may not
have a clear perspective of nursery crop production systems. Conse-
quently, an inefficient, haphazard layout design may result which re-
quires a costly change later.
This publication provides the framework for planning and imple-
menting efficient nursery layouts. Visits to nurseries with similar produc-
tion systems will be valuable, and discussions with other managers
about how they would change their production systems will usually give
insight to an effective layout. A slight modification in the proposed
design may increase the flexibility for future expansion and increase
time and motion efficiency.
A nursery operation encompasses many different phases and com-
ponents of production. Proper timing of operations is essential, and effi-
cient use of land and resources is important. Layout design must be effi-
cient if the nursery is to be productive and compete in today's market.
Facilities or activity areas will vary with the type of nursery and specific
production scheme employed. For example, a nursery may produce
small plants or liners that only require greenhouse space. Other
nurseries may purchase liners so propagation areas are not needed. The
first requirement in planning is to determine the activities that are pro-
posed in the nursery, and the space needed for each immediately, and
as the nursery expands. Make a scaled drawing (Figure 1) to ensure that
required areas or facilities are well planned and integrated so that
nursery activities or operations progress efficiently (Figure 2). Appro-
priate judgement of distance and arrangement of areas can be achieved
when every element is seen on the same scale. Scales of 1 inch equals
50 to 200 ft are common, but the dimension of the property and the
available drawing supplies and equipment may dictate other scales.
An efficient arrangement of the 8 areas that should be considered for
a container nursery is seen in Figure 1. These activity areas must be ar-
ranged efficiently, considering constraints such as land form, slope, and
natural barriers. The container nursery layout in Figure 1 is adaptable to

*Assistant Professor and Associate Professor, respectively; Ornamental Horti-
culture Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

1











Entrance
a Service Area
Shipping Area Employee Facilities

SOfae Media Preparation
Sales and Storage

Production
Area Production
Propagation Area
Area


0



Production Production
Area Production Area
Area





800'

Figure 1. Layout and design of wholesale container nursery. Scale 1" = 183'




most land shapes, the exception being very narrow tracts. The layout for
narrow land tracts (Figure 3) requires more time to transport employees
to work sites, and plants must be transported greater distances, either to
and from potting areas or to shipping areas. Labor costs are 25% to 35%
of total production costs for the average nursery, and 60% of labor is
moving materials. Efficiency can also be improved by planning travel
routes. One way to evaluate equipment and personnel movement is to
plot the routes on a scaled drawing of the nursery layout so com-
parisons of alternative routes can be made.
Cost of travel time is of more concern for nursery operations located
on non-adjoining land. In this case, some reduction in travel time can
be achieved by strategically locating shipping and potting areas near
production areas.


2









PROGRESSION OF

PLANT PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES


Cuttings from
Existing Plants Purchase Cuttings

Greenhouse Flats
plastic PROPAGATION HOUSE Rooting media
Shading containers
material

Purchase Sale
Liners Liners
LINER PRODUCTION AREA



Fertilizer I Containers
Chemicals ~ 6 Media
CONTAINER PLANTS
IN PRODUCTION AREAS



Sales Area Shipping Area

Figure 2.



Entrance


Office Shipping Area Production
;S and Area
I I I Sales

Production Media Preparation Propagation Area
Area and Storage




Production Area

Production Area Production Area


1000'

Figure 3. Layout and design of wholesale container nursery. Scale 1"= 227'


3








Nursery Entrance
The organization and appearance of a nursery gives visitors and
customers an impression of the operation that directly influences sales.
The nursery entrance provides the first and most important opportunity
to present a good image. The entrance should be accessible to the
nursery office and shipping areas, and be landscaped with an attractive,
uncluttered arrangement of plants including those sold by the nursery.
The entrance planting should contain any special plant materials offered
by the nursery, or plant materials that need to be introduced or em-
phasized.

Nursery Office and Sales Area
The nursery office should be clearly identified and located close to
the nursery entrance (Figure 1). Customer parking for cars must be pro-
vided, and receiving trucks should be directed to the loading areas by
signs so drivers can proceed without delays. A sales area, located close
to the office and containing a representative display of salable plant
materials, enables customers to view salable plant material without
traveling through the nursery. This saves time for customers and sales
personnel.

Propagation Area
The propagation area is the heart of the nursery operation and must
be located in an area accessible to the production and potting areas. A
propagation area located close to the office helps in communication
between the office staff and the propagation managers who must make
long-range decisions regarding the number of specific plants to be pro-
duced. Propagation area size and design are determined by production
type, number of plants and species produced, and markets.
The propagation area may contain greenhouse structure designs
from A-frame steel and fiberglass to quonset PVC or galvanized pipe and
polyethylene. Steel frame, gutter-connected, or ridge-and furrow type
greenhouses usually cover more than 1000 sq ft. Conduit or PVC green-
houses usually cover less that 1000 sq ft and cost considerably less than
steel frame or ridge-and furrow-type houses. Plant species that require
different rooting environments may be segregated using smaller green-
houses. However, several small greenhouses will require more land
than 1 or 2 larger houses of equivalent square footage, and this should
be considered if less than ample land is available for the propagation
area and facilities.
Certain plant species, such as junipers, may be propagated outdoors
in small containers or raised ground beds and will not require special
propagation structures (Figure 4). Because of repeated mist cycles or fre-

4








Nursery Entrance
The organization and appearance of a nursery gives visitors and
customers an impression of the operation that directly influences sales.
The nursery entrance provides the first and most important opportunity
to present a good image. The entrance should be accessible to the
nursery office and shipping areas, and be landscaped with an attractive,
uncluttered arrangement of plants including those sold by the nursery.
The entrance planting should contain any special plant materials offered
by the nursery, or plant materials that need to be introduced or em-
phasized.

Nursery Office and Sales Area
The nursery office should be clearly identified and located close to
the nursery entrance (Figure 1). Customer parking for cars must be pro-
vided, and receiving trucks should be directed to the loading areas by
signs so drivers can proceed without delays. A sales area, located close
to the office and containing a representative display of salable plant
materials, enables customers to view salable plant material without
traveling through the nursery. This saves time for customers and sales
personnel.

Propagation Area
The propagation area is the heart of the nursery operation and must
be located in an area accessible to the production and potting areas. A
propagation area located close to the office helps in communication
between the office staff and the propagation managers who must make
long-range decisions regarding the number of specific plants to be pro-
duced. Propagation area size and design are determined by production
type, number of plants and species produced, and markets.
The propagation area may contain greenhouse structure designs
from A-frame steel and fiberglass to quonset PVC or galvanized pipe and
polyethylene. Steel frame, gutter-connected, or ridge-and furrow type
greenhouses usually cover more than 1000 sq ft. Conduit or PVC green-
houses usually cover less that 1000 sq ft and cost considerably less than
steel frame or ridge-and furrow-type houses. Plant species that require
different rooting environments may be segregated using smaller green-
houses. However, several small greenhouses will require more land
than 1 or 2 larger houses of equivalent square footage, and this should
be considered if less than ample land is available for the propagation
area and facilities.
Certain plant species, such as junipers, may be propagated outdoors
in small containers or raised ground beds and will not require special
propagation structures (Figure 4). Because of repeated mist cycles or fre-

4








Nursery Entrance
The organization and appearance of a nursery gives visitors and
customers an impression of the operation that directly influences sales.
The nursery entrance provides the first and most important opportunity
to present a good image. The entrance should be accessible to the
nursery office and shipping areas, and be landscaped with an attractive,
uncluttered arrangement of plants including those sold by the nursery.
The entrance planting should contain any special plant materials offered
by the nursery, or plant materials that need to be introduced or em-
phasized.

Nursery Office and Sales Area
The nursery office should be clearly identified and located close to
the nursery entrance (Figure 1). Customer parking for cars must be pro-
vided, and receiving trucks should be directed to the loading areas by
signs so drivers can proceed without delays. A sales area, located close
to the office and containing a representative display of salable plant
materials, enables customers to view salable plant material without
traveling through the nursery. This saves time for customers and sales
personnel.

Propagation Area
The propagation area is the heart of the nursery operation and must
be located in an area accessible to the production and potting areas. A
propagation area located close to the office helps in communication
between the office staff and the propagation managers who must make
long-range decisions regarding the number of specific plants to be pro-
duced. Propagation area size and design are determined by production
type, number of plants and species produced, and markets.
The propagation area may contain greenhouse structure designs
from A-frame steel and fiberglass to quonset PVC or galvanized pipe and
polyethylene. Steel frame, gutter-connected, or ridge-and furrow type
greenhouses usually cover more than 1000 sq ft. Conduit or PVC green-
houses usually cover less that 1000 sq ft and cost considerably less than
steel frame or ridge-and furrow-type houses. Plant species that require
different rooting environments may be segregated using smaller green-
houses. However, several small greenhouses will require more land
than 1 or 2 larger houses of equivalent square footage, and this should
be considered if less than ample land is available for the propagation
area and facilities.
Certain plant species, such as junipers, may be propagated outdoors
in small containers or raised ground beds and will not require special
propagation structures (Figure 4). Because of repeated mist cycles or fre-

4








quent watering, this area must be located on well-drained soil. Seeds
may also be germinated in outdoor beds, although structures built to ac-
commodate tiers or racks of seed germinating flats will use space more
efficiently (Figure 5). Outdoor propagation has the disadvantage of lack-
ing water control. Heavy rains may occur and pack the rooting media,
destroying aeration and contributing to soil-borne diseases.
The amount of land available for propagation may determine if plant
stock blocks are maintained to supply cuttings. Stock blocks are
generally 20% to 25% the size of container production areas and should
be located close to the propagation area. Limited land availability re-
quires taking cuttings from salable nursery plants and eliminating stock
blocks.




















Figure 4. juniper propagation in raised bed. (Photo courtesy of Imperial
Nurseries, Quincy, FL.)


Cutting preparation areas may be included in the propagation area
of the layout. A protective structure allows for cutting preparation dur-
ing inclement weather (Figure 6) and will be an advantage for the
nursery producing large numbers of junipers propagated during the
winter. A nursery producing primarily broadleaf evergreens, propagated
during the summer, may choose to exclude a cutting preparation area
from the layout and require that cuttings be prepared for sticking when
cut from the plant.

5




























Figure 5. Racks of seed germinating flats. (Photo courtesy of Blaser's Nur-
series, Inc. Tellevast, FL.)






















Figure 6. Cutting preparation in a protected structure. (Photo courtesy of
Imperial Nurseries, Quincy, FL.)






6








Media Preparation and Storage
Media mixing and potting may be accomplished at one central loca-
tion where potting media or media components are stored in bulk
quantities. Potting media or components are stored either in loose piles
or in open bins often constructed of concrete. Media components are
usually mixed by commercially available soil mixers, manure spreaders,
or front-end loaders that scoop and dump the media several times on a
concrete slab. A reinforced, raised slab, 4 inches thick and 3 x 5 yards
(2.7 x 4.6 m) will accommodate approximately 3 yd3 (2.3 m3) of media.
The raised concrete slab prevents incorporation of field soil into the
media during mixing, and eliminates contamination from diseases,
weed seeds, and nematodes transported by runoff water.
Motorized media mixing and transporting systems, and potting
machines should be covered by a structure that houses a permanent
potting area for the nursery. The permanent potting area may or may
not be sheltered if commercial soil mixers and potting machines are not
used, but in this case nurseries usually erect a permanent V-shaped hop-
per from which media falls onto a potting bench. Advantages and disad-
vantages of potting machines will depend on the particular operation;
however, most nursery operators agree that potting machines pace the
workers.
Locating the media mixing area and the potting area adjacent to
each other minimizes media handling. A very large nursery may have
soil mixing and pottings areas located throughout the nursery. This
reduces the distance traveled when placing newly potted plants in the
field.


Production Areas
Production or plant growing areas will occupy the largest percentage
of nursery land and should be adjacent to the potting area to ease the
orderly movement and placement of plants in the field. A small part of
the production area may be used for evaluating new plant materials
with market potential.
Transporting container plants efficiently to and from the field re-
quires a well-designed road system. Roads should be crowned or sloped
to one side and surfaced with gravel, seashells, or other materials to sup-
port equipment during wet periods. Firm road surfaces also prevent traf-
fic from splashing mud and debris on plants.
Number and size of production areas, roads, and walkways may
vary depending upon equipment used and type of production. Road
widths will depend on the equipment, but when farm tractors and
trailers are used, the perimeter roads should be about 30 ft (9.1 m) wide
to allow for turns from the narrower roads between plant beds.

7








Media Preparation and Storage
Media mixing and potting may be accomplished at one central loca-
tion where potting media or media components are stored in bulk
quantities. Potting media or components are stored either in loose piles
or in open bins often constructed of concrete. Media components are
usually mixed by commercially available soil mixers, manure spreaders,
or front-end loaders that scoop and dump the media several times on a
concrete slab. A reinforced, raised slab, 4 inches thick and 3 x 5 yards
(2.7 x 4.6 m) will accommodate approximately 3 yd3 (2.3 m3) of media.
The raised concrete slab prevents incorporation of field soil into the
media during mixing, and eliminates contamination from diseases,
weed seeds, and nematodes transported by runoff water.
Motorized media mixing and transporting systems, and potting
machines should be covered by a structure that houses a permanent
potting area for the nursery. The permanent potting area may or may
not be sheltered if commercial soil mixers and potting machines are not
used, but in this case nurseries usually erect a permanent V-shaped hop-
per from which media falls onto a potting bench. Advantages and disad-
vantages of potting machines will depend on the particular operation;
however, most nursery operators agree that potting machines pace the
workers.
Locating the media mixing area and the potting area adjacent to
each other minimizes media handling. A very large nursery may have
soil mixing and pottings areas located throughout the nursery. This
reduces the distance traveled when placing newly potted plants in the
field.


Production Areas
Production or plant growing areas will occupy the largest percentage
of nursery land and should be adjacent to the potting area to ease the
orderly movement and placement of plants in the field. A small part of
the production area may be used for evaluating new plant materials
with market potential.
Transporting container plants efficiently to and from the field re-
quires a well-designed road system. Roads should be crowned or sloped
to one side and surfaced with gravel, seashells, or other materials to sup-
port equipment during wet periods. Firm road surfaces also prevent traf-
fic from splashing mud and debris on plants.
Number and size of production areas, roads, and walkways may
vary depending upon equipment used and type of production. Road
widths will depend on the equipment, but when farm tractors and
trailers are used, the perimeter roads should be about 30 ft (9.1 m) wide
to allow for turns from the narrower roads between plant beds.

7








100'














20'
0













2' 8'








Figure 7. Layout and design of wholesale container nursery production areas.

The production area designs in Figures 7, 8, and 9 have walkways
that are 2 ft (0.6 m) wide and plant beds that are 8 ft (2.4 m) wide. The
designs contain the same amount of area in which to place plants;
however, the walkways and length of beds are 50%less for the design in
Figure 8 than those in Figure 7, and 50% less for the design in Figure 9
than in Figure 8. The maximum distance a plant must be carried is 100 ft
(30.5 m), 50 ft (15.2 m) and 25 ft (7.6 m) for designs in Figures 7, 8, and


8








100'














20'
o co 2o






















Figure 8. Layout and design of wholesale container nursery production areas.



9, respectively, with average walking distances of 50 ft (15.2 m), 25 ft
(7.6 m) and 12.5 ft (3.8 m), respectively. Thus, moving plants in or out of
the production beds can be done more efficiently with a design such as
Figure 9. Another advantage of the Figure 9 design is that roads perpen-
dicular to walk-ways are not flanked by drainage ditches that must be
crossed by personnel and graded periodically for rapid drainage of


9








50'









10' 10'

o
















Figure 9. Layout and design of wholesale container nursery production areas.

water. When growing plants in 5 gallon or larger containers, design effi-
ciency becomes more significant.
Production beds in Figure 9 should slope approximately 3% to 4%
from the edge of the 10-ft (3.0 m) wide road to the center of the 50-ft
(15.2 m) wide production area that slopes toward one end. Runoff water
flows on the surface material down the center of the 50-ft (15.2 m) wide
production area into a drainage ditch located parallel and beside the
30-ft (9.1 m) wide road. This design may be modified by crowning the
50-ft (15.2 m) wide production area in the center and placing a drainage
ditch down the center of the 10-ft (3.0 m) wide road for runoff. Severe
washing of the road may result if precautions are not taken.
Production areas in Figures 7 and 8 should be crowned 3% to 4% to
the center along the 200-ft (61.0 m) length so that runoff flows toward a
20-ft (6.1 m) wide road on either side of the production area. Ditches
between the roads and production areas drain the runoff.


10








An alternative to crowning the production area is to slope the area to
one side. The slope begins at the left side and progresses to the right so
the runoff flows into the ditch on the right side of the production area.
The road on the right side of a production area slopes toward the ditch
on the left side of the road. The ditch may slope to either end of the pro-
duction area.
Production areas are commonly surfaced with gravel, seashells,
porous polypropylene, or black plastic. Gravel consisting of a particle
mixture of 0.25 to 0.75 inches (0.6 to 2.0 cm) makes an excellent surface
to place plants, but is expensive since 100 tons of gravel will only cover
about one half acre. Smaller gravels wash away easily, and 1-gallon con-
tainers do not set level on larger gravel. Polypropylene and black plastic
must be secured around the edges to prevent wind displacement, and
equipment driven on these materials may result in tears. Despite
precautions, black plastic usually does not last more than 2 years in
Florida.
Natural shade areas on the nursery site may be used as production
space. Shade may also be provided by shade structures. Roads and
drainage ditches for production areas where shade houses are con-
structed are usually similar to those of nonshaded areas. Natural shade
areas cannot be graded because of possible damage to existing tree
roots, so care must be taken to select areas with a 1% to 2% slope.
Avoid areas subject to flooding.
Shade structures should accommodate tall pieces of equipment and
provide adequate turning space. This aspect is often overlooked. Limbs
and/or trees should be removed in natural shade areas to aid accessibility.
The layout and dimension of production areas must be known when
designing the irrigation system. Production areas and roads may be
modified to maximize irrigation efficiency. Most irrigation systems used
in nurseries are permanent overhead delivery systems with impulse
nozzles which deliver water in a circular pattern. It may be desirable to
locate roads where water distribution patterns meet to ensure elimina-
tion of dry spots. Aluminum irrigation pipes placed on the production
area surface are occasionally used. These pipes should be placed
parallel with roads for minimal interference with equipment.
The use of drip irrigation systems for container production has in-
creased in the last few years due to water shortages. Drip systems effi-
ciently deliver a specified amount of water to each container. A drip
system must be properly designed to ensure adequate delivery rates and
may require a specific production area design. Details of drip irrigation
design are available in OH Commercial Fact Sheet 5, and irrigation
design plans are available from the Extension Agriculture Engineer's of-
fice. The irrigation design of your nursery should be filed for future
reference should irrigation system repairs be necessary.

11

























Figure 10. Paper or polyethylene secured around crowded containers for cold
protection.

Provisions for winter protection should be considered when design-
ing container production areas. Winter protection may be provided by
pushing containers together during cold periods and placing a protec-
tive wrap of paper or polyethylene around the perimeter of the crowded
containers (Figure 10). Plants from 1 or 2 beds are usually crowded
together with the long axis of the group oriented in a north-south direc-
tion for minimum plant exposure to northerly winter winds. Placing
groups north and south is simplified if plant beds are oriented in a north-
south direction.
Location in the production area of quonset houses constructed for
cold protection should be based on house capacity and size of con-
tainer plants. For example, approximately 400 one-gallon plants are
placed on an 8 x 50-ft (2.4 x 15.2 m) production bed (spaced 1 ft (0.3 m)
on center) and could be crowded together inside a quonset 8 x 12.5-ft
(2.4 x 3.8 m). Therefore, an 8 x 25-ft quonset frame is erected for two 8 x
50-ft beds of plants. The use of wider quonset structures, which remain
in place throughout the year, could interfere with aisle traffic or equip-
ment designed to pass over the tops of plants. Small portable quonset
houses, usually 6 to 8 ft (1.8 to 2.4 m) wide, with variable lengths and
constructed of light-weight materials, can be moved to aid in traffic flow.
Sprinkling for cold protection does not require a special size produc-
tion area. However, many nurseries plan for only a portion of the pro-
duction area to receive sprinkling for cold protection. Width and length
of production areas might be adjusted to ensure proper irrigation
delivery rates and adequate coverage when sprinkling.


12








Service Area
Equipment storage and repair facilities, along with pesticide,
petroleum, and fertilizer storage facilities, comprise the nursery service
area (Figure 1). They are usually located close to the nursery office yet
accessible to supply trucks servicing these facilities. The type of equip-
ment and supplies needing shelter or storage determines the size and
type of facilities. Enclosed metal buildings are excellent for repair and
maintenance shops, and may be used for storage of small pieces of
equipment such as hand sprayers, chain saws and lawn mowers. Equip-
ment repairs by commercial businesses may be less expensive, and an
equipment repair facility in the nursery would be unnecessary. Storage
facilities for large pieces of equipment, i.e., tractors, forklifts and
sprayers, are often open sided "pole barn" type structures.
Pesticide storage facilities should be located in the service area and
have a water source which can deliver 20 to 50 gallons per minute to
permit rapid filling of pesticide tanks. This capacity may not be available
directly from a pressurized water source but can be achieved by a raised
storage tank from which water flows through a 2-to 3-inch (5 to 7.5 cm)
opening into the spray tank. A pesticide storage building must be prop-
erly designed and identified as containing poisons. Pesticide storage
building plans are available from the Extension Agriculture Engineer's
office.

Employee Facilities
Employee facilities are usually located adjacent to the service area
but should be positioned as far as possible from the pesticide storage
area (Figure 1). Restrooms, showers, personal lockers, refrigerators and
dining tables are usually provided for employees. Employee parking be-
tween the service area and the employee facilities is a convenient ar-
rangement.

Shipping Area
Some nurseries load plants directly from production areas while
other operations have designated loading areas within the nursery
where plants are placed prior to shipment. Shipping areas within the
nursery require access roads 20-to 25-ft (6.1 to 7.6 m) wide with firm sur-
face material and turning space to accommodate 30-ft (9.1 m) long
trucks. Placing plants in this area before customer arrival reduces
loading time, but irrigation and shade must be provided. Another
loading alternative is to build a loading dock. A covered loading dock is
preferable since it would permit loading trucks during inclement
weather. Most loading docks are 4 ft (1.2 m) high and constructed of
concrete. The docks should be large enough to accommodate tractors,

13








Service Area
Equipment storage and repair facilities, along with pesticide,
petroleum, and fertilizer storage facilities, comprise the nursery service
area (Figure 1). They are usually located close to the nursery office yet
accessible to supply trucks servicing these facilities. The type of equip-
ment and supplies needing shelter or storage determines the size and
type of facilities. Enclosed metal buildings are excellent for repair and
maintenance shops, and may be used for storage of small pieces of
equipment such as hand sprayers, chain saws and lawn mowers. Equip-
ment repairs by commercial businesses may be less expensive, and an
equipment repair facility in the nursery would be unnecessary. Storage
facilities for large pieces of equipment, i.e., tractors, forklifts and
sprayers, are often open sided "pole barn" type structures.
Pesticide storage facilities should be located in the service area and
have a water source which can deliver 20 to 50 gallons per minute to
permit rapid filling of pesticide tanks. This capacity may not be available
directly from a pressurized water source but can be achieved by a raised
storage tank from which water flows through a 2-to 3-inch (5 to 7.5 cm)
opening into the spray tank. A pesticide storage building must be prop-
erly designed and identified as containing poisons. Pesticide storage
building plans are available from the Extension Agriculture Engineer's
office.

Employee Facilities
Employee facilities are usually located adjacent to the service area
but should be positioned as far as possible from the pesticide storage
area (Figure 1). Restrooms, showers, personal lockers, refrigerators and
dining tables are usually provided for employees. Employee parking be-
tween the service area and the employee facilities is a convenient ar-
rangement.

Shipping Area
Some nurseries load plants directly from production areas while
other operations have designated loading areas within the nursery
where plants are placed prior to shipment. Shipping areas within the
nursery require access roads 20-to 25-ft (6.1 to 7.6 m) wide with firm sur-
face material and turning space to accommodate 30-ft (9.1 m) long
trucks. Placing plants in this area before customer arrival reduces
loading time, but irrigation and shade must be provided. Another
loading alternative is to build a loading dock. A covered loading dock is
preferable since it would permit loading trucks during inclement
weather. Most loading docks are 4 ft (1.2 m) high and constructed of
concrete. The docks should be large enough to accommodate tractors,

13








Service Area
Equipment storage and repair facilities, along with pesticide,
petroleum, and fertilizer storage facilities, comprise the nursery service
area (Figure 1). They are usually located close to the nursery office yet
accessible to supply trucks servicing these facilities. The type of equip-
ment and supplies needing shelter or storage determines the size and
type of facilities. Enclosed metal buildings are excellent for repair and
maintenance shops, and may be used for storage of small pieces of
equipment such as hand sprayers, chain saws and lawn mowers. Equip-
ment repairs by commercial businesses may be less expensive, and an
equipment repair facility in the nursery would be unnecessary. Storage
facilities for large pieces of equipment, i.e., tractors, forklifts and
sprayers, are often open sided "pole barn" type structures.
Pesticide storage facilities should be located in the service area and
have a water source which can deliver 20 to 50 gallons per minute to
permit rapid filling of pesticide tanks. This capacity may not be available
directly from a pressurized water source but can be achieved by a raised
storage tank from which water flows through a 2-to 3-inch (5 to 7.5 cm)
opening into the spray tank. A pesticide storage building must be prop-
erly designed and identified as containing poisons. Pesticide storage
building plans are available from the Extension Agriculture Engineer's
office.

Employee Facilities
Employee facilities are usually located adjacent to the service area
but should be positioned as far as possible from the pesticide storage
area (Figure 1). Restrooms, showers, personal lockers, refrigerators and
dining tables are usually provided for employees. Employee parking be-
tween the service area and the employee facilities is a convenient ar-
rangement.

Shipping Area
Some nurseries load plants directly from production areas while
other operations have designated loading areas within the nursery
where plants are placed prior to shipment. Shipping areas within the
nursery require access roads 20-to 25-ft (6.1 to 7.6 m) wide with firm sur-
face material and turning space to accommodate 30-ft (9.1 m) long
trucks. Placing plants in this area before customer arrival reduces
loading time, but irrigation and shade must be provided. Another
loading alternative is to build a loading dock. A covered loading dock is
preferable since it would permit loading trucks during inclement
weather. Most loading docks are 4 ft (1.2 m) high and constructed of
concrete. The docks should be large enough to accommodate tractors,

13









conveyors, plant racks and other equipment used in the loading pro-
cess. Loading docks should be accessible from the public highway and
adjacent to the office (Figure 1) due to the interaction between the ship-
ping foreman and sales personnel.
Once the nursery layout design has been implemented, adjustments
in the system that would expedite certain production processes is not
uncommon. Alterations of the system should only be done after careful
examination of the available options, since corrections in the existing
layout design are often difficult to accomplish without interrupting ex-
isting production practices. Examine the cost-benefit relationship of the
alteration before taking action, and if alterations are not feasible at the
time, make written notes of the suggested changes and incorporate
them at a later date in the existing operation or in the next phase of
nursery expansion.






















This publication was promulgated at a cost of $1429.13, or 28.6 cents
per copy, to inform present and future nurserymen of layout and
design considerations for a wholesale container nursery. 5-5M-85

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORI-
DA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K. R.
Tefertlller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department IFAS
of Agriculture, publishes this Information to further the purpose of the
May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to pro-
vide research, educational Information and other services only to Indi-
viduals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national ori-
gin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are
available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk
rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from C. M. Hinton, Publications
Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to deter-
mine availability.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs