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 Title Page
 To help you
 Do they help or hurt?
 Five groups of pests
 Pest biology and IPM
 Glossary






Title: All about pests
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00028000/00001
 Material Information
Title: All about pests
Series Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circular 543
Alternate Title: IPM made easy
Physical Description: 19 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Boyles, C. A.
Koehler, Philip G. (Philip Gene)
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Florida Cooperative Extension Service -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Pests   ( lcsh )
Agricultural pests   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Notes
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00028000
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000401547
oclc - 10705290
notis - ACE7395

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    To help you
        Page 4
    Do they help or hurt?
        Page 5
    Five groups of pests
        Arthropods - insects, mites, ticks, and spiders
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Vertebrates - animals with backbones
            Page 10
            Page 9
        Weeds
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Pathogens - disease-causing organisms
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Nematodes
            Page 16
    Pest biology and IPM
        Page 17
    Glossary
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text
S'C Circular 543












ALL ABOUT PESTS

S---HUiE U LBRA1 R

OCT G0 1983

.F S.-Uni. of Forida

I -













Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension
































































By: Carolee Boyles, 4-H IPM Coordinator, Florida 4-H Department, and Dr. Philip G. Koehler, Extension Entomologist, Department of
Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
Revised By: Richard W. Gleason, Adjunct Assistant, Florida 4-H Department.
Principal Investigators: Dr. James C. Northrop, Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, Florida 4-H Department and Dr. Philip G. Koehler,
Extension Entomologist, Department of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida.
Acknowledgements

This publication was developed through educational grants provided by the United States Department of Agriculture, Florida Power
and Light and the Center for Environmental and Natural Resources, IFAS.
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dr. John Strayer and various Extension Specialists, IFAS, for reviewing this publication.
Jane Wells provided the illustration for this publication.
Sections of this unit adapted from Apply Pesticides Properly: A Guide for Pesticide Applications.



2


















All About Pests
C. A. Boyles and P. G. Koehler



























3








To Help You materials as gas and oil. Gas and oil are also
used to apply pesticides. Through IPM, wiser
As you use this publication, watch for words use of pesticides helps to save energy.
written in italics. Look in the glossary in the The purpose of this book is for you to learn
back for an explanation of these words. the basic ideas of IPM. You should be able to
manage pests safely, with less energy and lower
Statement of Purpose cost.
Statement of PurposeAll About Pests helps explain the kinds of
In the 1960's and 1970's, people began to pests we try to manage in IPM programs. It will
worry about the harmful effects of pesticides help you identify the beneficial as well as pest
and other poisons. Pesticides are needed to organisms.
manage many pests of man, his crops and For more information, check these
animals. To help protect soil, water and air (the publications, available from your County
environment), man no longer uses some Extension Agent:
pesticides. Pest Management Where to Start? -
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an Circular 548
effective but less harmful way of managing Using Natural Enemies to Manage Pests -
pests of all kinds. An IPM user looks at the Circular 545
whole picture the pest, the host, and the Cultural Practices to Manage Pests -
environment. Then following IPM methods, the Circular 547
user chooses one or several ways to manage Spraying Away Pests Circular 544
the pest. Plants Protected from Pests Circular 546
Most pesticides are made from the same The ABC's of IPM Circular 549
































4







Do They Help or Hurt?
Do They Help or Hurt? animal) that helps man. It may be a plant that
Do you know the difference between a gives us something like lumber (from trees) or
beneficial and a pest? fabric (from cotton plants). All of these plants
A beneficial is an organism (a plant or an are called crop plants.









Some beneficial are animals. Animals such as
chickens and cows give us food. Sheep provide
wool to keep us warm. Dogs protect us and
work for us.
(Some insects can also help us. They feed on
pests that damage our plants and animals.











A pest is an organism that man sees as
harmful or annoying. Pests many affect man,
animals, environment, or property.








5-
00








i oo
'4.__







Some pests live closer to us than the ones on The plants or animals that pests feed or live
our crops. Cockroaches live in and around our on are called hosts.
houses. Pests like mosquitoes and fleas actually
bite us.



LLM




-_ CRUNCHY-
CRACKERS _


f! -








When you think about pests, there is one 3. Weeds
important thing to remember. The organism is 4. Pathogens Disease-causing organisms
a pest because of how it affects man. For 5. Nematodes
instance, a rabbit eating plants in the garden is This section will tell you something about
a pest but a rabbit in the woods is not a pest. each of these groups.
Five Groups of Pests 1. Arthropods Insects, Mites,
Different kinds of pests cause different kinds Ticks, and Spiders
of damage. To understand what damage a pest
causes, it would help to be able to identify the Arthropod means jointed feet. (If you look at
pest. an insect's legs, you'll see why.)
Pests can be divided into five groups: Arthropods can live almost anywhere. Some
1. Arthropods Insects, Mites, Ticks and live above the ground, some live in soil, and
Spiders some live in water. They may live in forests, or
2. Vertebrates Animals with backbones the desert, in houses, or on animals.








aES&T I IS I 6ATE


6








Insects. The largest group of arthropods is insects from other arthropods. Adult insects
insects. Two things will help you tell adult have six legs and three body parts.















All insects are not alike. Some insects have
no wings. Some have one pair and some have
two pairs of wings.








Insect mouthparts may differ, too. Some
insects have mouthparts that chew. Others
have mouthparts that pierce and suck.

.- The adult lays eggs. A wingless nymph
_.-- hatches from each egg. The nymph feeds and
grows until it becomes an adult with wings.
Pests like these can do harm during all stages
of their lives except while they are eggs.
Grasshoppers, lice, termites, and stinkbugs
belong to this group.


ACdult lays eggs




Becomes adult
Nymph hatches
Almost all insects change shape and size
during their lives. This change is called
metamorphosis.
Some insects change size, and change shape
just a little or not at all. Nymph feeds


7








Other insects change completely. They go Insects of this kind cause most or all of their
through four stages. The adult lays eggs. A larva harm while they are larvae.
hatches from each egg. The larva grows in size Butterflies, moths, beetles, mosquitoes, bees,
without changing shape and then enters a pupa and wasps belong to this group of insects.
or changing stage. The adult emerges from the
pupa.





Adult lays eggs nl S5 (
Larva hatches





Adult






Pupa Larva grows



Mites, Ticks and Spiders. Mites, ticks, and of the period at the end of this sentence. They
spiders are all related to insects. They grow in do not have wings. Some mites feed on plants.
similar ways. Most mites are only about the size Some kinds feed on animals and others live and
feed on insects.
An adult mite lays eggs. A six-legged nymph
hatches from each egg. As the nymph grows, it
Egg develops two more legs. It grows until it
becomes an adult mite.
Ticks grow the same way mites do but they
are larger than mites. They live on animals,
Nymph including man. They suck blood. They need to
feed on blood to complete their life cycle.




Adult




Nymph grows




8








Only a few kinds of spiders are harmful to
man. Most of them eat insects. Some kinds of
spiders are very small, but others may grow to
six inches across. /
An adult spider lays eggs, usually in an egg Eggs
sac. Each egg hatches into a tiny spider that 7
looks like an adult. The spider grows in size
until it becomes an adult.

Adult


( \Young


2. Vertebrates put fish from other places into local lakes and
Animals With Backbones streams with native fish. Sometimes these
imported fish compete with the local fish that
Fish. Fish can be pests. However, most fish we eat. They may eat vegetation that local fish
problems have been caused by man. We have need for their food and homes.













Snakes, Alligators and Turtles. Alligators, can be a real problem sometimes. This is
certain kinds of turtles and poisonous snakes especially true where fish are being raised.














_-- ---"-9



9








Birds. Different kinds of birds can cause
different problems. Woodpeckers can damage
houses and other buildings. Some birds eat
seeds, nuts and fruit that people grow.









f^-N" !

I (

Mammals. Many different kinds of mammals
can cause problems. Rats and mice can
sometimes carry diseases that infect man. Some
of these diseases can be transferred by insects.










Many mammals can damage crops. Examples
are deer, rabbits, and squirrels. Some mammals
can also damage lawns. Moles dig tunnels
under the grass.














S10
46



10








Only a few kinds of spiders are harmful to
man. Most of them eat insects. Some kinds of
spiders are very small, but others may grow to
six inches across. /
An adult spider lays eggs, usually in an egg Eggs
sac. Each egg hatches into a tiny spider that 7
looks like an adult. The spider grows in size
until it becomes an adult.

Adult


( \Young


2. Vertebrates put fish from other places into local lakes and
Animals With Backbones streams with native fish. Sometimes these
imported fish compete with the local fish that
Fish. Fish can be pests. However, most fish we eat. They may eat vegetation that local fish
problems have been caused by man. We have need for their food and homes.













Snakes, Alligators and Turtles. Alligators, can be a real problem sometimes. This is
certain kinds of turtles and poisonous snakes especially true where fish are being raised.














_-- ---"-9



9








3. Weeds place. For example, grass in a lawn is where it
should be. Grass in a vegetable garden is a
A weed is a plant growing in the wrong weed.





VIA,




/



You should know about several groups of Grasses. Grasses have long, narrow leaves.
weeds. Each group needs different controls. The leaf veins are side-by-side. The stems are
The three most common groups of weeds are mostly hollow, except at the joints where they
grasses, sedges, and broadleaves. are solid.















Sedges. Sedges look a lot like grasses. They stems in three directions. The stems are solid
have long narrow leaves that stick out from the inside, and are triangular.

















11







Broadleaves. Broadleaves have leaves of
almost any shape. Leaf veins usually form a net-
like pattern. Broadleaf plants usually have
bright flowers.















Weeds can also be separated by life cycle.
The three most common groups are annuals,
biennials, and perennials.
Annuals. Annuals are plants that live for one
year. They grow from seed, bloom, make seeds
and die in one year or less.










Spring Fall




Examples of annual weeds are crabgrass and
Oxalis.











12








Biennials. These plants have a two-year life
cycle. The first year, the plant grows from seed. ,-
The second year, it blooms, makes seeds, and
dies.




.. ,. ,
I ." -. 4.






Spring Fall Spring wmme- Fall



Examples of biennial weeds are false
dandelion and cudweed.
















Perennials. These plants live two years or back during the winter.
longer. Examples of perennial weeds are dogfennel
Some grow from seeds. Others grow from and dollarweed.
large roots or underground stems. Many die












13








4. Pathogens Disease-Causing
Organisms
Organisms that cause diseases are called "' 'r.
pathogens. The three main groups of
pathogens are fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
Fungi. These are simple plants. They do not ;
have roots, stems, or leaves. They also do not
have the green coloring that most plants have.
Without this green coloring, called
chlorophyll, fungi cannot use sunlight to grow. .
Instead, fungi must get food from somewhere
else.
Some fungi live and feed on other organisms. Different kinds of fungi are all around us.
They are called parasites. Not all of them cause diseases. Mushrooms you
Some fungi live on dead plant or animal buy at the grocery store are one kind of fungus.
matter. They are called saprophytes. Mold or mildew on your shoes is another kind.













Some fungi are very important to us. For
example, some of the molds that spoil food also
can be used to produce drugs. These drugs
cure some of our diseases.
Bacteria. Bacteria are so tiny that you would e
need a microscope to see them. Bacteria are
everywhere. fArA
Bacteria can sometimes be a problem in the
house. They can get into food that is not
handled or stored properly. Some of them can ,
produce poisons in food. These poisons can
make you very sick. Some bacteria can cause
disease in man.












14








Viruses. Viruses are even smaller than When a pathogen attacks a plant, the plant
bacteria. Some viruses cause plant diseases. may change in some way. It may wilt, or get
Other kinds cause diseases of animals or man. spots on fruit, or turn yellow. We call these
In order for a virus to live and reproduce, it changes the symptoms of disease.
must be inside a living cell of its host.












Some kinds of plants have few disease environment must be right for the pathogen to
problems. One reason is that not all pathogens damage the plant.
affect all plants. Most kinds of pathogens affect For example, fungi need wet weather before
only one or a few kinds of plants. they damage a plant. They have seed-like
Even if a pathogen is on a plant that it can structures that need water before they
damage, it may not cause any harm. The germinate and begin to grow.











S/ / / / / / / / Bacteria also need wet weather. Wind and
/ / / / / rain can force them into the surface of the
/plant or, they may get into the plant through a
Damaged place.
S/ / / 15
15







Viruses need other organisms to move them viruses are called vectors. Viruses can also be
from place to place. Insects called aphids moved by tractors or other equipment and
sometimes move viruses. Insects that move tools.

00





























5. Nematodes
Nematodes are tiny worms. Some kinds live -.
in water, some kinds live in soil and some feed- '
on plants and damage them.
Plant nematodes are very small. Some are
smaller in diameter than a human hair.
Plant nematodes have a sharp hollow .
"needle" for feeding. They can poke a hole in .-
plant parts and suck the plant juices. Some \.
kinds feed on and in roots, some kinds feed on -
stems and some kinds feed on leaves.
Leaves may turn yellow or brown on plants
infested with nematodes. Some nematodes may
cause roots to develop knots or galls on them.
The plants may finally wilt and die.
Nematodes can increase the problems with -
diseases. Some kinds of diseases can get into
the plant through little holes the nematodes
make.

16







Viruses need other organisms to move them viruses are called vectors. Viruses can also be
from place to place. Insects called aphids moved by tractors or other equipment and
sometimes move viruses. Insects that move tools.

00





























5. Nematodes
Nematodes are tiny worms. Some kinds live -.
in water, some kinds live in soil and some feed- '
on plants and damage them.
Plant nematodes are very small. Some are
smaller in diameter than a human hair.
Plant nematodes have a sharp hollow .
"needle" for feeding. They can poke a hole in .-
plant parts and suck the plant juices. Some \.
kinds feed on and in roots, some kinds feed on -
stems and some kinds feed on leaves.
Leaves may turn yellow or brown on plants
infested with nematodes. Some nematodes may
cause roots to develop knots or galls on them.
The plants may finally wilt and die.
Nematodes can increase the problems with -
diseases. Some kinds of diseases can get into
the plant through little holes the nematodes
make.

16







Pest Biology and IPM much damage a pest could cause.
5. Decisions Using facts gathered from
Why do you need to know about pest the first four steps, the IPM user is able to
biology? In Pest Management Where to decide what to do based on facts.
Start, the six steps of IPM are presented. 6. Evaluation Throughout the program,
The six steps are: the treatment may be evaluated. This allows
1. Identification This means knowing as any necessary changes in the treatment.
much as possible about the pest. You need to Knowing about pest biology is important in
find out what kind of pest it is, where and how all of these steps. It will help you identify the
it lives. Even the kind of weather the pest likes pest and give you an idea of what to do to
is important information, prevent the pest from being a problem.
2. Prevention Sometimes pest problems Knowing about pest biology will also help you
can be prevented. This is done by changing know where to look for monitoring the pest
certain factors to make it difficult for the pest and help you predict whether the numbers of
to live. the pest will stay the same, or increase, or
3. Monitoring Keeping track of pests by decrease.
scouting. Scouting is done by counting the Then you will be able to make a decision
number of pests in a given area. If there are about what you need to do and evaluate how
enough pests in the area a decision can be well your management program is working.
made to treat. In other words, you need to know something
4. Prediction The facts from scouting about the pest or pests you have. The more you
are important. They can be used to predict how know, the better you can manage them.

STEP I. IDENTIFICATION STEP 2. PREVENTION








STEP 3. MONITORING STEP I-. PREDICTION








STEP 5. DECISION STSP 6. EVALUATION



monitor apply
cori2rol




17








Glossary

1. Arthropod An invertebrate animal with of plants. Nematodes may live in the soil,
jointed legs and segmented body parts. in water, in animals, or in plants.
Examples: insects, spiders and crabs. 15. Nymph An immature insect that is
2. Bacteria Microscopic organisms that live similar to the adult it will become.
in soil or water, on plants, or in the bodies 16. Organisms Living things; includes all
of animals or man. Sometimes bacteria animals and plants.
cause diseases. 17. Parasites An animal or plant that lives
3. Beneficial Helpful; something that is on or in another organism, from which it
good, or that helps something else. gets food and shelter. In IPM, a natural
4. Chlorophyll The green coloring matter enemy that kills pests. Parasites are usually
contained in leaves. It is needed for smaller than the pests. Example: fly
photosynthesis to provide plant food. maggots eating large caterpillars.
5. Compete, Competitors Two or more 18. Pathogen Very tiny organism that
plants or animals trying to use the same causes a disease. The three types of
resource. Each one reduces the amount of pathogens are fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
the resource that the other one can use. 19. Pest An organism that hurts-something
6. Environment Surroundings, including or is bad for something that belongs to
anything that affects man, other animals or man. A pest may be an insect, a plant, an
plants. animal, a disease, or any other kind of
7. Gall A hard, knobby swelling on some organism.
part of a plant. 20. Pesticides Poisons that are used to kill
8. Germinate (germinating) The sprouting organisms that man regards as pests.
of a seed, and early growth of the tiny Insecticides kill insects. Herbicides kill
plant below the soil. plants. Fungicides kill fungi.
9. Host Any plant or animal that shelters 21. Pupa One stage in the life of some
or gives a home to a parasite or other insects. Some pupae are also called
natural enemy. cocoons. A pupa is the resting stage in the
10. Larva One stage in the life of some insect's life. An adult insect will hatch from
insects. A larva hatches from an egg. When it. Pupae Plural of pupa.
it has grown as large as it is going to. It 22. Saprophyte An organism that lives on
becomes a pupa, and then an adult. Some dead or decaying organic matter.
kinds of larvae are caterpillars, maggots, or 23. Symptom An indication or evidence of
grubs, disease.
11. Metamorphosis The changes that an 24. Vector An organism that carries
insect or other arthropod goes through pathogens from one host to another.
from the time an egg is laid until it 25. Vertebrates Animals that have a
becomes an adult. backbone. Examples: fish, birds or
12. Mildew A soft, fuzzy growth, usually mammals.
whitish or gray. 26. Weed A plant that is growing in the
13. Mold A soft, fuzzy growth. Molds come wrong place. To a farmer, a flower in the
in many colors, middle of a cornfield may be a weed. To a
14. Nematode A tiny worm-like organism home gardener, the same flower may not
that lives in the soil and damages the roots be a weed at all, but a very desirable plant.












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This publication was promulgated at a cost of $979.20, or 35 cents per copy, to inform Florida residents
about IPM (Integrated Pest Management). 5-2.8M-83

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertlller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to provide research, educa-
tional Information and other services only to Individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Galnesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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