.u,0 .oltf manage pests
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville >
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension
By: Carolee Boyles, 4-H IPM Coordinator, Florida 4-H Department, and Dr. Philip G. Koehler, Extension Entomologist, Department of
Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
Principal Investigators: Dr. James C. Northrop, Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, Florida 4-H Department and Dr. Philip G. Koehler,
Extension Entomologist, Department of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
Revised by: Richard W. Gleason, Adjunct Assistant, Florida 4-H Department, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
This publication was developed through educational grants provided by the United States Department of Agriculture, Florida Power
and Light, and the Center for Environmental and Natural Resources.
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dr. John Strayer, Professor of Entomology, and various extension specialists, IFAS, for
reviewing this publication.
Jane Wells provided the illustrations for this publication.
Cultural Practices to Manage Pests
C. A. Boyles and P. G. Koehler
To Help You Most pesticides are made from the same
As you use this publication, watch for words materials as gas and oil. Gas and oil are also
written in italics. Look in the glossary in the used to apply pesticides. Through IPM, wiser
back for an explanation of these words, use of pesticides helps to save energy.
The purpose of this book is for you to learn
Statement of Purpose the basic ideas of IPM. It explains the basic
ways man can prevent pests from becoming a
In the 1960's and 1970's, people began to problem by changing the pests' environment.
worry about the harmful effects of pesticides You should be able to manage pests safely, with
and other poisons. Pesticides are needed to less energy and lower costs.
manage many pests of man, crops and animals. For more information, check these
To help protect soil, water and air (the publications, available from your County
environment), man no longer uses some Extension Agent.
pesticides. Pest Management Where to Start -
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an Circular 548
effective, but less harmful way of managing All About Pests Circular 543
pests of all kinds. An IPM user looks at the Using Natural Enemies to Manage Pests -
whole picture the pest, the host, and the Circular 545
environment. Then following IPM methods, the Spraying Away Pest Circular 544
user chooses one or several ways to manage Plants Protected from Pests Circular 546
the pest. The ABC's of IPM Circular 549
What Do I Need?
What kinds of things do you need in order to
live? Water? Food? Shelter? You also have some
other needs you might not have thought of.
The temperature of your surroundings must
not be too hot or too cold.
The kind of food you eat is just as important
as the amount.
Your food, water and the rest of the things
Around you are all parts of your environment.
5ar d yu ae al ps of yr
All living things have needs. Fish need water.
Penguins need cold. Rabbits need green plants
Each kind of living thing lives in an area that u
will supply what it needs. Fish live in lakes,
oceans, and rivers. Penguins live where it is
cold all year round. Rabbits live in woods and
fields where grass and other green plants grow.
If an organism does not have the things it
needs to live, it will get weak and die. For
example, if you don't give a plant any water, it
Pests Need the Same Things We Need By changing something in a pest's
Organisms that are pests have needs too. For surroundings, man can make it hard for some
instance, some caterpillars will eat only one kinds of pests to live. There are lots of ways to
kind of plant. If they don't have that kind of do this. Managing pests in this way is called
plant, the caterpillar will starve to death. using cultural methods.
S KATHER STAVE
THAN EAT THAT!
In order to live, a pest must have food. By
finding ways to take away a pest's foods, man
can reduce the number of pests in an area.
Sanitation. Sanitation means keeping things
clean. This can reduce what pests have to eat.
In the kitchen, sanitation includes washing
the dishes and taking out the garbage. This will
help reduce the number of roaches and ants
because they won't have as much food to eat.
On a farm, sanitation can be used where
crops are grown. After a crop is picked, the
plants that are left can be plowed into the Isolation. Isolation means keeping things
ground or removed. This can help prevent apart. On the farm, an animal that has a disease
many diseases like Southern Leaf Blight of corn. or pests can be kept by itself. This can help
Sanitation can also help prevent some insects keep the disease or pests from spreading to
from building up in large numbers, other animals.
Timing. Timing means changing the time you plant corn late, you may not have as much
when you plant a crop or the time when you of a problem with seedling diseases. So, if
irrigate or do something else to the crop to diseases have been a major problem, the
make it hard for a pest to damage a crop or farmer could plant later.
For example, if you plant corn early in the
spring, there may not be as many insects
around to damage the corn. So, if insects are a
major problem, the farmer could plant early. If
Pests, like other organisms, need moisture to
live. If an area is too dry or too wet, some
organisms will not do well there.
You can affect how well a pest grows in an
area by changing the moisture. For example,
some plant diseases are very damaging if an
area around the plant is damp. If you wet the
leaves when you water the plant, the disease
organisms will grow well.
If you wet just the ground around the plant,
Sthe area will not be as damp. The disease
organisms will not grow as well.
If you must wet the leaves, you can water in
the morning or the middle of the day. This
gives the leaves a chance to dry quickly. This is
related to timing.
Temperature soil can be heated to a high temperature. Soil is
usually sterilized with steam. These high
You can help manage pests by changing the temperatures can kill many pests in the soil. If
temperature where they live. these pests weren't killed, they might damage
This is often done to soil. Before planting, the plants grown in this soil.
You can also use temperature to control
pests around a vegetable garden. You can place
kitchen scraps, manure, leaves, and other
organic matter in a compost pile. The heat in
the compost pile will keep fly maggots from
growing there. The compost can be used later
to improve your garden.
There are many ways to change a pest's
Fertilization. Using fertilizer correctly can
reduce pest problems. Too much fertilizer can
increase pest problems. For example, too much
fertilizer on a lawn can attract armyworms.
\ Correct fertilization won't attract armyworms as
Sm to ch.
t 4ert izr
Mulching. This means placing a layer of help keep weeds from growing. It also helps
material on the ground around plants. Sawdust, save water. Less water evaporates from
cypress bark, pine needles, and leaves are some mulched plants.
things that can be used as mulches. Mulch can
no mulch mulchedI
Rotation. Rotation means changing the crops of any pest from building up because most
you plant from year to year. You might plant corn pests are not the same as soybean or
corn one year, soybeans the next year, and alfalfa pests.
alfalfa the next. This helps keep large numbers
orn soybeans alfalfa
Trap Crops. Trap crops are plants that attract plots are the trap crops. You can then spray the
pests away from the desired crops. For trap crop to kill the boll weevil. Later, when
example, small plots of cotton planted early in you plant cotton for production, it should not
the year will attract boll weevils. These small have as many boll weevils.
Strapcrop ..... .product. Co p trap crop.
:plant ay plant later- p anery-
Management of pests in these ways is called Think about pests on your crop or livestock.
cultural management. Some agricultural Can you think of other cultural methods you
practices change the pests' environment in can use that would save energy?
several ways. An example would be cultivation
for weed control. Turning the soil (and weeds) How Cultural Methods
changes the moisture content and habitat of
the weeds. This kills many weeds. Several Are Used in IPM
cultural methods can be used together. For These cultural methods are important tools in
instance, timing, sanitation, and mulching may an Integrated Pest Management program.
be used together to reduce pest problems. You learned about the IPM tools in Pest
These cultural methods have been used as Management Where to Start:
long as man has grown crops. However, when Mechanical methods
the use of pesticides increased, the use of Physical methods
cultural methods decreased. But now with IPM Regulatory methods
programs, cultural methods are again being Pesticides
used. Cultural practices
Host resistance methods
Cultural Methods Save Energy You also learned about the six-step IPM
Using cultural methods may save time and process:
energy. For example, you may not have to use Step 1. Identification
as much fertilizer on your plants if you use Step 2. Prevention
cultural methods. Step 3. Monitoring
By mulching, you may also save fertilizers Step 4. Prediction
from being washed too deep in the soil, thus Step 5. Decision
allowing plant food to stay where plant roots Step 6. Evaluation
are. Cultural practices are part of Step 2,
Proper watering of plants may reduce energy Prevention. All of the methods we have talked
use, too. It may cut down on the use of about can be used to help prevent a pest
electricity needed to pump the water, problem from developing.
STEP I. IDENTIFICATION STEP 2. PREVENTION
STEP 3. MONITORING STEP 4-. PREDICTION
STEP 5. DECISION STEP 6. EVALUATION
moni+or1 n9 apply
Using Tools Together natural enemies that are part of biological
control. Or, if you use cultural methods, you
When you use an IPM program, you need to may change the way you use pesticides. You
know how the different tools of pest may not need to use pesticides as often.
management will affect each other. For Pesticides then work better when you do need
example, using cultural methods may help to use them.
1. Compost Plant materials, like grass 8. Maggot The young or immature form of
clippings and vegetable trimmings from a fly. Maggots look like short, fat worms.
the kitchen. To make a compost, make a 9. Organic Having to do with plants or
pile of these things where it will be out of animals. Containing carbon.
the way and let it rot. Then add it to the 10. Organisms Living things; includes all
soil in the garden. animals and plants.
2. Cultivation Plowing or tilling to 11. Pest An organism that hurts something
improve soil for raising crops. or is bad for something that belongs to
3. Desired Wanted; wished for. man. A pest may be an insect, a plant, an
4. Environment Surroundings, including animal, a disease, or any other kind of or-
anything that affects man, other animals or ganism.
plants. 12. Pesticides Poisons that are used to kill
5. Evaporates Changing from a liquid to a organisms that man regards as pests.
gas or vapor such as water to steam. Insecticides kill insects. Herbicides kill
6. Habitat Where a plant or animal lives, plants. Fungicides kill fungi.
Examples: field, a forest, or the ocean. 13. Sterilized Made free from infecting
7. Host Any plant or animal that shelters agents or organisms. To make barren or
or gives a home to a parasite or other without pests, as to sterilize soil.
This publication was promulgated at a cost of $732.58, or 30 cents per copy, to inform Florida residents
about IPM (Integrated Pest Management). 5-2.4M-83
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to provide research, educa-
tional Information and other services only to Individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Galnesvllle, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.