Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
John T. oeste Dean for Extension
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension
By: Carolee Boyles, 4-H IPM Coordinator, Florida 4-H Department, Dr. Philip G. Koehler, Extension Entomologist, Department of Entomology
and Nematology, and Richard W. Gleason, Adjunct Assistant, Florida 4-H Department, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
Principal Investigators: Dr. James C. Northrop, Extension 4-H Youth Specialist, Florida 4-H Department and Dr. Philip G. Koehler,
Extension Entomologist, Department of Entomology and Nematology, IFAS, University of Florida.
This publication was developed through educational grants provided by the United States Department of Agriculture,Florida Power and
Light and the Center for Environmental and Natural Resources, IFAS.
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dr. John R. Strayer, Professor of Entomology, and various Extension Specialists, IFAS, for
reviewing this publication.
Jane Wells and Karen A. McFayden provided the illustrations for this publication.
Sections of this unit were adapted from Apply Pesticides Properly: A Guide for Pesticide Applicators, Florida Cooperative Extension
Spraying Away Pests
C. A. Boyles, P. G. Koehler, and R. W. Gleason
Most pesticides are made from the same
To Help You materials as gas and oil. Gas and oil are also
As you use this publication, watch for words used to apply pesticides. Through IPM, wiser
written in italics. Look in the glossary in the use of pesticides helps to save energy.
back for an explanation of these words. The purpose of this book is for you to learn
the basic ideas of IPM. You may learn about the
Statement of Purpose safe use of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides,
nematicides, and rodenticides. You should be
In the 1960's and 1970's, people began to able to manage pests safely, with less energy
worry about the harmful effects of pesticides and lower costs.
and other poisons. Pesticides are needed to For more information, check these
manage many pests of man, crops and animals. publications, available from your County
To help protect soil, water and air (the Extension Agent.
environment), man no longer uses some Pest Management Where to Start -
pesticides. Circular 548
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an All About Pests Circular 543
effective, but less harmful way of managing Using Natural Enemies to Manage Pests -
pests of all kinds. An IPM user looks at the Circular 545
whole picture the pest, the host, and the Plants Protected from Pests Circular 546
environment. Then following IPM methods, the The ABC's of IPM Circular 549
user chooses one or several ways to manage Cultural Practices to Manage Pests -
the pest. Circular 547
The Value of Pesticides
Take a bite into an apple or another piece of Insecticides are used to kill insects.
fruit. Do you ever wonder if you are going to
find a worm? Are you sure that what you eat
won't have bugs in it?
When your neighbor put in a lawn, did you
wonder why more grass came up than weeds?
Have you ever bought vegetables in the
grocery store? Did you wonder why they were
so healthy looking and appetizing?
These are examples of the benefits of a very
common type of chemical pesticides. -
Pesticides are poisons used to kill pests. There
are many different types of pesticides.
* Nematicides are used to kill nematodes.
Fungicides are used to kill fungi (mold and
* Rodenticides are used to kill rodents
(rats and mice).
Herbicides are used to kill weeds.
There are many other pesticides in addition
to those listed.
Man has benefited greatly from the use of
pesticides. Pesticides have helped to control
diseases which affect man, animals and crops.
Insecticides kill mosquitoes, fleas, and other
insects that carry diseases. This has helped
prevent the spread of disease.
Pesticides have also been of great value in
agriculture. Pesticides have enabled farmers to
produce more and better food than they ever
could in the past.
'/' When pests damage crops, they are using the
same resources man uses. In this way, these
pests are competing with man. Pesticides can
-: --->" I reduce the number of pests on the crop. This
helps save the crop. Fewer pests may increase
the amount of food farmers can grow.
Pesticides can improve crops in another way. Pesticides have one big advantage over other
Some pests do not destroy the crop. They just methods of pest management. When a
damage it so that it cannot be used. By pesticide is applied, it usually kills the pest
reducing the number of pests on the crop, rapidly. Other methods may require a longer
pesticides can reduce damage to the crop. In period of time to take effect.
this way, pesticides can improve the quality of
food farmers can grow. /
Where Do Pesticides Come From? and sulfur. An example would be copper
fungicide. The other main group is organic.
When you walk into a garden center or farm They are either botanical or synthetic. Examples
store, you'll probably see shelves full of of botanical pesticides are pyrethrins and
pesticides. Hundreds of different products nicotine. Synthetic pesticides are man-made,
made by many companies are for sale. Did you usually from petroleum (oil). They all contain
ever wonder where all of these came from? the elements hydrogen and carbon and one or
Pesticides can be grouped according to what more other elements. This is by far the largest
they are made from. One group is inorganic, group of pesticides. Examples are 2, 4-D,
They are made from minerals like copper, zinc, Captan@, and Malathion@.
Making and selling pesticides is not an easy costly. Many are just not effective.
task. Manufacturers can spend years of testing In order to be sold, a pesticide must be
and millions of dollars just to get a single tested and registered by the U.S. Government.
product on the market. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has
Many chemicals look promising as pesticides been established to do this. Once all of the
at first. Most don't make it to the garden store necessary testing and reviewing is completed,
shelf. They turn out to be too hazardous or the pesticide can then be sold.
Pesticide Regulations also study how long it remains on food crops
and animals after it is applied. The EPA also
Only pesticides that the EPA approves can be studies how hazardous the pesticide is to man,
sold in the U.S. The EPA must decide whether animals, and the environment. Based on these
or not to approve each new pesticide. tests, the EPA must decide whether or not to
Scientists test each new pesticide to learn approve the pesticide. The EPA does not
many things about it. Some of the things they approve all pesticides.
find out are what it will and won't kill. They
If the pesticide is approved, it will be
classified in one of two ways:
1. General use These are not as
dangerous as restricted use pesticides. Anyone
who walks into a store can buy general use
pesticides. When used properly, they should
not cause any harm to people.
2. Restricted use These are dangerous
poisons. Only persons with special training in
handling and applying pesticides can buy these.
These pesticides may be harmful even when
used as the label states.
The EPA can also remove some pesticides
from use. This has happened to some that used
to be sold.
Pesticide Labels be in certain places. This information helps
people use pesticides safely and correctly.
The information on pesticide labels is Refer to the sample label as you read the
carefully controlled. Labels must have certain explanation of a pesticide label:
information on them, and the information must
HAZARDS TO HUMANS
(& DOMESTIC ANIMALS) PRO DUCTROP
PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL _
ACTIVE INGREDIENT %
SI INERT INGREDIENTS %
DIRECTIONS FOR USE
THIS PRODUCT CONTAINS LBS. OF PER GALLON
It is a iolation of Federal law to use this KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN _____
product In a manner inconsistent with
(If Applicable) CAUTION
STORAGE AND STATEMENT OF MEDICAL TREATMENT
DISPOSAL IF SWALLOWED CROP
STORAGE IF INHALED
IF ON SKIN
DISPOSAL IF IN EYES
SEE SIDE PANEL FOR ADDITIONAL PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS WARRANTY STATEMENT
CROP MFG BY
EPA REGISTRATION NO.
1. Name The name of the pesticide is ingredients are necessary for carrying the
placed in this block on the label. A short poison. This means that they give the pesticide
statement of what the pesticide is for may be the properties necessary to kill the pest. Inert
included here. ingredients may also cover or change the smell
2. Ingredients Active ingredients are of the pesticide. By themselves, inert
those which are actually poisonous. Inert ingredients are not pesticides.
X AN PCr_~ V I 9 ,
3. Signal Words Signal words indicate poisonous as one labeled "danger." A pesticide
how poisonous the pesticide is. The words that labeled "caution" is less poisonous than either
are used as signal words are "danger," of the other two. ALL OF THEM ARE
"warning," or "caution." If the word is POISONOUS! The statement, "Keep out of
"danger," the pesticide is very poisonous and reach of children" must appear on all pesticide
only a small amount will kill a person. A labels.
pesticide labeled "warning" is not as
.fao 11 DANGER
4. Precautions This section of the label Pesticide Forms
lists information about possible dangers.
5. Directions for Use The pesticide Some pesticides can come in a ready-to-use
should be used exactly as these directions state, form. Others may require dilution in water. The
6. Storage and Disposal This includes directions for use will tell you how to use the
instructions about the storage of the pesticide, pesticide. Some common ways pesticides are
and instructions on the disposal of unneeded made and used are listed below.
pesticide or empty containers.
7. Use Approved uses of the pesticide Lid
are listed. Liquid Forms.
Warranty Statement This is an 1. Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC or C)
8. Warranty Statement This is an These are very common forms of liquid
explanation of what the manufacturers promise These are very common forms of liquid
that the pesticide will or will not do. pesticides. They are mixed with water to form
9. Manufacturer The name, address, emulsions. They don't need much agitation in
and EPA number of the manufacturer. These the spray tank.
regulations and laws are for the safety and 2. Flowables (F or L)
protection of people who use pesticides. These are finely ground solids mixed with a
liquid so they can be poured. When mixed with
water, these form suspensions, not emulsions.
They require moderate agitation. These are also
Applied as liquid sprays.
S3. Aerosols (A)
E The liquid pesticide is forced out of the
container by a propellant. These are used a lot
as indoor insect bombs or foggers.
4. Liquid Gases (Fumigants)
These are generally gases that turn to liquid
form under pressure. When they are released,
they turn back into a gas. These are commonly
Sued to sterilize soil or fumigate houses.
Dry Forms. 4. Soluble Powders (SP)
1. Dusts (D) These are also dry but meant to be mixed
These are ready to use, finely ground, dry with water. However, when mixed, these
particles. They are put on dry. dissolve to form solutions.
2. Granules (G) 5. Poisonous Baits (B)
These are similar to dust, but not as finely A bait is a poison mixed with an attractive,
ground. These also are meant to be put on or edible substance. The bait attracts and the
used dry, not mixed with water, poison kills the pest. Baits are often used for
3. Wettable Powders (WP) rodents (rats and mice). Some baits can be
These are dry, but are meant to be mixed mixed with water, but most are meant to be
with water. When mixed, they form a used dry.
suspension. These need a lot of agitation in a
spray tank. --------
/ A /wSP
Respiratory Protective Devices These
protect your lungs. They may be used when:
Handling Pesticides You are in an enclosed area,
You may need to wear protective clothing The pesticide you are using is highly poisonous,
when you use or handle pesticides. If so, wear or
long-sleeved shirts and long-legged trousers or You will be exposed to the pesticide
a coverall-type garment. The pesticide label for a long time.
may tell you to wear additional protective There are several types of respiratory
clothing such as: protective devices. They are:
Gloves Wear gloves when you handle 1. Chemical cartridge respirator
concentrated or highly poisonous materials.
Gloves should be unlined neoprene (rubber)
unless the pesticide label says otherwise.
Hat A wide brimmed water-proof hat is
best. It will help protect your face and neck. Be
sure it does not have a cloth or leather
sweatband which is too hard to clean if
chemicals get on it.
Boots Wear unlined, neoprene boots
unless the pesticide label says otherwise.
Goggles or Face Shield Wear goggles or a
face shield if there is any chance of getting
pesticides in your eyes or mouth.
2. Chemical cannister respirator (gas mask) 4. Self-contained breathing apparatus
3. Supplied air respirator
Reading the pesticide label will help you wear protective clothing when working in the
decide whether or not you need to protect pesticide storage area.
your lungs. You may ask your county extension Following these rules should help prevent
agent or other authority if you need more storage problems.
information on pesticides. You also must use extreme care when getting
Wear clean clothing daily. If clothes get wet rid of pesticides. This is to keep from
with spray, change them IMMEDIATELY. Don't contaminating the air, water, and soil. It is
wash pesticide contaminated clothes with important to read the label for disposal of
home laundry. Wash and dry them separately, leftover or spilled pesticides and empty
Always use plenty of soap and water. pesticide containers. Check with the chemical
manufacturer or your county extension agent if
Pesticide Storage and Disposal you need help in disposing of pesticides. They
may have information about local, state and
Unused pesticides must be stored properly to federal laws.
prevent damage to:
People (especially children) PONT NEED
The environment THIS A'YrOREE
Pets and domestic animals J
The containers themselves
Always store pesticides in the original
containers, making sure they are tightly closed.
Keep the labels attached. Read the pesticide
label. There may be additional storage
information there. Always store pesticides in a
dry, weather-proof place. It is best to have a
separate building just for storing large amounts
of pesticides. Lock this area to keep out
unwanted people. Post warning signs to keep
people away. Keep fire away from the storage
area. Do not permit smoking there. Allow for
good ventilation in the area. You may need to
Problems with Pesticides
Pesticides are easy to get and to use. Their
effectiveness is easy to see. But many people
have forgotten that there are other ways to
manage pests. Pesticides have caused some
Misuse of pesticides. Pesticides can be
misused in several ways. If you apply a pesticide
without reading the label, you may apply too / AING PESTICIDE IW' THE.
much or not enough pesticide. You may
choose the wrong pesticide or may apply it at MIDMPLE OF A HOT PAY IS USUALLU
the wrong time. The pesticide may not kill the A IG6 MISTAKE-.!
pests. It may kill what you are trying to protect.
Even someone who reads the label may not
follow the directions. Some people may decide
that if what the label says to use is good, twice ,_ ,
as much pesticide would be twice as good. P '
Applying more pesticide than the
recommended amount is wrong. It endangers
the applicator and the environment. The
misuse of pesticides can also lead to other
Contamination of the environment.
Pesticides can pollute streams, rivers, lakes, and
even the ocean where they can kill fish and
other aquatic life. Rain may wash pesticides
into the water from fields that have been
sprayed. Careless pesticide users may .
accidentally contaminate streams and lakes.
Pesticides in the water can be returned to land
when the water is used by man.
Pesticides applied to crops may contaminate
other nearby fields and crops if they are
applied on a windy day.
"" j--- -
Some pesticides may be dangerous to
wildlife. Small animals in or near sprayed fields
may be poisoned. Flesh-eating birds, like
vultures or eagles, may eat small animals
poisoned by pesticides. Some pesticides can
cause these birds' egg shells to be very thin.
The egg shells break before they hatch, and the
young birds inside die.
Resistance to pesticides. Some pests may of the pests may be left alive. The pesticide may
become resistant to some pesticides. For have lost its effectiveness to kill the pest. The
instance, the first time pests are sprayed with a pesticide has not changed, but the pest has
pesticide, most of the pests may be killed. developed resistance to the pesticide.
However, the next time they are sprayed, some
Nontarget organisms. Some organisms help
manage certain pests. For example, ladybugs
and praying mantis eat other insects that may
Cats around farms can help manage rats and a
mice. These are beneficial or good organisms.
Pesticides used to kill pests may also kill
beneficial organisms. In some cases, the /-aryu
beneficial organisms would be able to manage
the pest if the pesticide were not applied.
Killing nontarget beneficial organisms is
For more information on beneficial
organisms, see Circular 545, Using Natural
Enemies to Manage Pests or contact your local
county extension agent.
Secondary pest outbreaks. Once in a while, spraying with an insecticide. The insecticide
using a pesticide can cause some other may also kill a wasp that feeds on another
organism to become a pest. Here is an example insect called snow scale. Then there are fewer
of how this happens, wasps to eat the snow scale. The number of
In some areas, an insect called soft brown snow scale insects can increase. Then snow
scale is a pest on citrus. It is often controlled by scale can cause damage to citrus.
Resurgence. The resurgence of a pest be as bad or worse than they were before the
population may also occur. When pests are pesticide was used.
sprayed with a pesticide, many of the pests are An example was the resurgence of fire ants
killed. However, the pest population doesn't after they had been treated with the insecticide
remain small for long. Other organisms which Mirex. Before an area was treated, there were
compete with or eat the pest may be killed too. only a few fire ant nests per acre. When the
Then the number of pests increases very area was treated with Mirex, not only fire
quickly. Soon theproblems with the pest can ants, but many other ants were killed. Some of
the other ants were competitors with fire ants.
Later, fire ants from outside the area moved
..:. back in. They built new nests much faster than
other species of ants. Soon there were many
.... more fire ant nests per acre instead of just a
4 .... ..- .-
Energy. Energy is used in making and
applying pesticides. Most of this energy comes
from petroleum products. Petroleum energy is -_
becoming more expensive. Pesticide users are
looking for less expensive ways to manage
Pesticide Poisoning .......
Pesticides can cause severe injury or death if
misused. They are poisons and must be used :.
carefully. They can enter the body in three
1. Dermally Pesticides can be absorbed \K ..
right through the skin.
2. Orally Pesticides can be swallowed.
3. Inhaled Pesticides can be breathed into
Routes of Entry. The most common entry is
through the skin. However, most accidental ..
pesticide deaths are from eating or drinking the
poison. In some cases, the poison had been put
into a different container without a label.
Everyone who uses pesticides should know signs. SYMPTOMS are feelings that only the
what kinds of sickness may be caused by person who has been poisoned can notice like
pesticide poisoning. There are two kinds of headache and nausea. SIGNS, like vomiting,
clues to pesticide poisoning symptoms and can be noticed by someone else.
Sdizzi ness seair constriction
dzzess sweat of pupils
headache fever ivoniing breahUing trouble
nausea skin SJIU6NS twitches
fast heartbeat weakness rcstlessness
I /hot feel3 unable to walk
Signs or symptoms of pesticide poisoning You should also remember something else.
may be mild or severe. It depends on the Other kinds of sickness may have similar signs
pesticide and the amount absorbed. Many and symptoms. Having some of the signs and
pesticides injure the nervous system. Typical symptoms does not always mean that you have
signs and symptoms are nausea, headache, been poisoned. But, get medical advice quickly
vomiting, and muscle twitching. These are only if you suspect a pesticide poisoning. Take the
a few of the possible signs and symptoms. Your label and/or pesticide container to the
county extension agent or other authority on physician.
pesticides can provide you with a more
How Pesticides Are Used In IPM The six steps are:
Step 1. Identification
Pesticides are an important tool in an Step 2. Prevention
Integrated Pest Management program. They Step 3. Monitoring
are used with the other tools: Step 4. Prediction
Mechanical methods Step 5. Decision
Physical methods Step 6. Evaluation
Biological methods At Step 5, you, as a homeowner or
Cultural practices agricultural producer must decide what pest
Regulatory methods management method to use. You must
Host resistance methods consider all of the tools of IPM. You must then
In Circular 548, Pest Management Where choose the one that will work best in your
to Start the six-step IPM process was explained, situation.
Pesticides should only be used as they are
needed. When you consider using a pesticide
you need to ask the following questions:
Will another tool solve the problem?
If so, when do I need to use it?
--- How will using a pesticide affect the
other tools, especially beneficial
suicide then you Which pesticide will have the fewest side
If you decide to us pea pesticiplye, .e you may effects?
mut also decide which one to apply. You mayThe pesticide that kills the pest with the
ask* Which pest am I trying to kill? fewest side effects is the best choice.
Which pest am I trying to kill?
WhcS WORMSl ( O IK5
Where to apply the pesticide Fo example, example, you can put poison bait out for some
Where to apply the pesticide. For example, pests to eat. This will k the pest without
you may wish to control flies in manure in a pests to eat. This will kill the pest without
barn. If you spray the pile directly, you will kill having to spray at all.
many beneficial organisms as well as the flies. Other methods of making the pesticide more
However, if you spray the ceiling, the flies will effective. You may reduce the amount of
walk in the poison and die. Nothing else will be pesticide needed. For example, mowing the
lawn before applying a pesticide will make
killed. ion more effective.
What form of the pesticide to use. Pesticides application moe e ive.
can be put out in a wet or dry form. For
As you can see, using a pesticide requires
careful thought and preparation. Not only must
you know the pest, but you must select the
right pesticide. You must then use this pesticide
Remember, pesticides are only one tool of an
IPM program. They are necessary and
important, but often are not essential.
Sometimes, we can do without pesticides. Use
pesticides only when you must. When you do
use them, read their labels and use them safely.
1. Agitation Shaking or mixing up. something undesirable or unclean enters
2. Agriculture Growing food and fiber. an area. For example a pesticide may
Agriculture includes both growing crops contaminate streams and rivers, or
like corn, wheat, peaches, and cotton and anything else it may contact.
raising livestock like chickens, cattle, and 10. Dilution To make weaker or less strong
hogs. by adding a liquid such as water.
3. Applicator Someone who uses or 11. Effective, effectiveness, effectively -
applies something, in this case, pesticide. Producing the results wanted, working
4. Aquatic Refers to water or to a plant or properly.
animal that lives in water. 12. Emulsion A mixture in which one liquid
5. Beneficial Organism A plant or animal dispersed as tiny drops, floats in another
that helps control a pest species, or helps liquid. An example is oil in water.
plants or animals in some way. 13. Environment Surroundings, including
6. Botanical Pesticide A pesticide made anything that affects man, other animals or
from plants. They are also called plant- plants.
derived pesticides. 14. Fumigant A pesticide that is applied as a
7. Carbon An element found in all organic gas instead of a liquid. Instead of being
substances. In chemistry, it is represented sprayed like a liquid, it is held in a
by the symbol C. confined space (in a house or in the soil,
8. Compete, Competitors Two or more for example). The vapors or fumes (smell)
plants or animals trying to use the same are poisonous to the pest.
resource. Each one reduces the amount of 15. Host Any plant or animal that shelters
the resource that the other one can use. or gives a home to a parasite or other
9. Contamination, Contaminating When natural enemy.
16. Hydrogen The lightest of all chemical ingredient from the container.
elements. With oxygen, it forms water. It is 25. Resistant, Resistance Withstanding
also found in combination with other attack, offering opposition to pests. Able
elements. In chemistry, it is represented by to withstand infection or contamination.
the symbol H. The ability of a pest population to stay
17. Inorganic Not organic; not being alive after it has been treated with a
animal or plant. pesticide.
18. Nematode A tiny worm-like organism 26. Resurgence The ability of a pest
that lives in the soil and damages the roots population to recover and increase in
of plants. Nematodes may live in the soil, number after it has been treated with a
in water, in animals, or in plants. pesticide.
19. Nontarget An organism a pesticide kills 27. Solution Mixture of one or more
that is not supposed to be killed. substances in another in which all
20. Organic Having to do with plants or ingredients are completely dissolved.
animals, containing carbon. 28. Sterilized Made free from infecting
21. Pest An organism that hurts something agents or organisms. To make barren or
or is bad for something that belongs to without pests, as to sterilize soil.
man. A pest may be an insect, a plant, an 29. Suspension Finely divided solid particles
animal, a disease, or any other kind of mixed in a liquid.
organism. 30. Synthetic Artifically produced by man,
22. Pesticides Poisons that are used to kill man-made. Example: alcohol for gasohol
organisms that man regards as pests. is produced from corn. Nitrogen fertilizer
Insecticides kill insects. Herbicides kill can be man-made from chemicals.
plants. Fungicides kill fungi. 31. Ventilation Circulating and adding fresh
23. Pollute, Pollution Similar to air.
contamination, but the term pollution 32. Wildlife Wild animals, including animals
refers mainly to the environment, like birds and squirrels you might see in
24. Propellant The liquid in pressurized your own backyard.
pesticide products that forces the active
This publication was printed at a cost of $1072.30, or 47 cents per copy, to inform Florida residents about
IPM (Integrated Pest Management). 5-2.4M-83
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertller, director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress;and is authorized to provide research, educa- IA
tional information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.