• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Introduction
 Examples
 Lateral data
 Manifold data
 Emitter data
 Interpretion of output
 Appendix I






Title: Computer estimation of the hydraulic specifications of trickle irrigation systems
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027992/00001
 Material Information
Title: Computer estimation of the hydraulic specifications of trickle irrigation systems
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Zazueta, F. S.
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Publication Date: 1984
 Notes
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027992
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Examples
        Page 1
    Lateral data
        Page 2
    Manifold data
        Page 2
    Emitter data
        Page 3
    Interpretion of output
        Page 3
    Appendix I
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text



Circular 604
i | Florida Cooperative Extension Service









.of Trickle Irrigation Systems
-0 C












\. institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean


Introduction system differ from the average emitter operating
discharge due to: 1) changes in pressure due to fric-
Trickle irrigation consists of the frequent applica- tion, 2) elevation and, 3) manufacturing varia-
tion of small quantities of water on or below the soil tion.
surface as discrete or continuous drops, tiny streams Uniformity coefficients are difficult to interpret.
or miniature spray through an extensive hydraulic Thus, it is convenient also to know the average, the
network. The purpose of the irrigation system is to minimum and the maximum discharges that occur
maintain a zone of adequate dimensions and water within a concurrently operating section of the
content in order to achieve high levels of productivi- system. The computations of the uniformity coeffi-
ty. Water and the nutrients in solution that are clients, pressures, and discharges are difficult and are
necessary for plant growth are available to the plants greatly simplified by the use of a computer.
only if they are within the active root zone of the A computer program has been developed by the
crop. If water moves beyond the root zone, it can- authors and is available to the public on floppy disk
not be used by the crop thereby causing a reduction media for the CP/M 2.2 operating system. Alter-
in the efficiency of the system. Given 1) a design natively, the authors will run the program for anyone
emitter discharge rate at which water is to be applied who completes the attached form and mails it to:
through a trickle system, and, 2) a type of system
to be used, the success of the system depends on how Hydraulic Specifications of Tckle Subunits
close the actual discharge rates over a concurrently Agricultural Engineering Department
operating section of the system differ from the design Frazier-Rogers Hal
Gainesville, FL 32611
discharge. In general, poorly designed systems will ai to
have portions of the system which are overirrigated The data in the form will be used as input to a com-
have portions of the system which are overirrigated
and other portions that are underirrigated. In order puter and a printout with the computed specifica-
to compensate for the sections that are underir- tions will be returned to the applicant.
rigated it is necessary to operate the system for Exa
longer periods of time which may result in severe Examples
overirrigation in a significant portion of the system. Two examples of how to complete the form are in-
Poor design leads to a system that will be difficult clouded. Both of these systems were designed for
to manage and that may not produce the expected demonstration purposes by IFAS irrigation
benefits. specialists. The first system is a 40 acre citrus trickle
The criteria used in evaluating the hydraulic per- (spray jet) irrigation system. The second system is a
formance of trickle irrigation systems are uniformi- 24 acre pecan trickle (spray jet) irrigation system.
ty coefficients. A uniformity coefficients. ifomit is an in- The first example will be discussed in detail. For the
dictator of how equal (or unequal) the application second example, the completed form and computer
rates from the emitters are. It is in fact an overall output are shown in appendix 1 without any
measure of how much the emitter discharges in the discussion.

*Visiting Assistant Professor, Professor and Associate Professor, respectively; Agricultural Engineering Department, IFAS, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville.







Circular 604
i | Florida Cooperative Extension Service









.of Trickle Irrigation Systems
-0 C












\. institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / John T. Woeste, Dean


Introduction system differ from the average emitter operating
discharge due to: 1) changes in pressure due to fric-
Trickle irrigation consists of the frequent applica- tion, 2) elevation and, 3) manufacturing varia-
tion of small quantities of water on or below the soil tion.
surface as discrete or continuous drops, tiny streams Uniformity coefficients are difficult to interpret.
or miniature spray through an extensive hydraulic Thus, it is convenient also to know the average, the
network. The purpose of the irrigation system is to minimum and the maximum discharges that occur
maintain a zone of adequate dimensions and water within a concurrently operating section of the
content in order to achieve high levels of productivi- system. The computations of the uniformity coeffi-
ty. Water and the nutrients in solution that are clients, pressures, and discharges are difficult and are
necessary for plant growth are available to the plants greatly simplified by the use of a computer.
only if they are within the active root zone of the A computer program has been developed by the
crop. If water moves beyond the root zone, it can- authors and is available to the public on floppy disk
not be used by the crop thereby causing a reduction media for the CP/M 2.2 operating system. Alter-
in the efficiency of the system. Given 1) a design natively, the authors will run the program for anyone
emitter discharge rate at which water is to be applied who completes the attached form and mails it to:
through a trickle system, and, 2) a type of system
to be used, the success of the system depends on how Hydraulic Specifications of Tckle Subunits
close the actual discharge rates over a concurrently Agricultural Engineering Department
operating section of the system differ from the design Frazier-Rogers Hal
Gainesville, FL 32611
discharge. In general, poorly designed systems will ai to
have portions of the system which are overirrigated The data in the form will be used as input to a com-
have portions of the system which are overirrigated
and other portions that are underirrigated. In order puter and a printout with the computed specifica-
to compensate for the sections that are underir- tions will be returned to the applicant.
rigated it is necessary to operate the system for Exa
longer periods of time which may result in severe Examples
overirrigation in a significant portion of the system. Two examples of how to complete the form are in-
Poor design leads to a system that will be difficult clouded. Both of these systems were designed for
to manage and that may not produce the expected demonstration purposes by IFAS irrigation
benefits. specialists. The first system is a 40 acre citrus trickle
The criteria used in evaluating the hydraulic per- (spray jet) irrigation system. The second system is a
formance of trickle irrigation systems are uniformi- 24 acre pecan trickle (spray jet) irrigation system.
ty coefficients. A uniformity coefficients. ifomit is an in- The first example will be discussed in detail. For the
dictator of how equal (or unequal) the application second example, the completed form and computer
rates from the emitters are. It is in fact an overall output are shown in appendix 1 without any
measure of how much the emitter discharges in the discussion.

*Visiting Assistant Professor, Professor and Associate Professor, respectively; Agricultural Engineering Department, IFAS, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville.








Notice that the review of the specifications refers lateral irrigates 16 trees. Thus this data item is 16.
to a subunit in the system. A subunit is defined as If the laterals are not all the same length, a plan of
a single manifold with its corresponding pressure the irrigation system should be included with the
regulators (if any), laterals and emitters., form and this data item should be left blank.
From the reduction of the blueprint (Figure 1) of Pipe material
the 40 acre citrus irrigation system note that the
system is composed of four identical subunits (sets) This is the material that the lateral pipe is made
of 744 trees each and two subunits (sets) of 768 trees of. Specify the type of plastic that is used. Polyvinyl
each. The subunits with the larger number of trees chloride (PVC), Polyvinyl di-chloride (PVDC),
are the ones on the upper part of the plan. In the Polyethylene (PE), Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
irrigation subunits with 744 trees, half of the laterals (ABS). Most pipe is PVC or PE. In the 40 acre citrus
supply water to 15 trees while the other half supply grove the lateral is specified as PE, which is the data
16 trees. In the subunits with 768 trees all laterals entry in the form.
supply water to 16 trees. Otherwise, the subunits are Slope of lateral
identical, having the same lateral diameter and pipe
diameters and lengths of the manifold. The subunit The average change in elevation of the terrain
with the 768 trees will be used as an example. Figure along the lateral expressed in feet/100 feet. Specify
2 shows the filled form corresponding to the data in if it is upwards (+) or downwards (-) in the direc-
this example. tion of flow. The topography in which the example
is set is flat with no significant changes in elevation,
Lateral Data thus this data item is 0.

Discharge per tree Manifold Data
This is the average volume per unit time in gallons
per hour applied at each tree. Notice that it is not Number of laterals along manifold
the discharge per emitter but the sum of all the emit- This is the number of laterals that are fed by a
ter discharges at a given tree. The irrigation design single manifold. A lateral is the distribution pipe that
plan of the 40 acre citrus grove specifies that a single feeds the emitters. Notice that each lateral is con-
microjet operating at a discharge of 14.8 gph will be nected at one end to the manifold and that more than
used per tree, thus the value corresponding to this one lateral may be connected to the manifold at any
data item is 14.8 as is shown in the sample form. point along the manifold. (Rather than using the idea
of a 'center fed' lateral the lateral is defined as stated
above.) In the 40 acre citrus grove there are 24
Average number of emitters per tree computed laterals on each side of the manifold. Therefore this
from the emitters per lateral divided by the number data item is 24 x 2 = 48.
of trees. In the 40 acre citrus grove example a single
emitter per tree was used, thus this data item is 1. Pipe material
D r of l l This is the material that the manifold pipe is made
Diameter of lateral
of. Specify the type of plastic that is used. The plan
This is the internal pipe diameter in inches. Inter- for the 40 acre citrus grove specifies that the
nal diameters differ from nominal diameters and may manifold be constructed from PVC pipe. Thus, this
differ from manufacturer to manufacturer. This data item is PVC.
value should be obtained from the pipe manufac-
turer's specifications. The design plan of the 40 acre Slope of manifold,
citrus irrigation grove specifies that the pipe to be The average change in elevation of the terrain
used has an internal diameter of .700 inches, thus along the manifold expressed in feet/100 feet.
this data item is 0.700. Specify if it is upwards (+) or downwards (-) in the
Tree spacing along lateral. direction of flow. The topography in which the ex-
ample grove is set is flat with no significant changes
Average spacing in feet of trees along the lateral in elevation, thus this data item is 0.
pipe. In the 40 acre citrus grove example the trees
along the lateral line are spaced at an interval of 14 Laterals on both side of the manifold.
feet. Thus, this data item has a value of 14. Sometimes the manifold is set at the side of the
grove, having laterals only to one side, in which case
Number of trees along lateral answer NO. When the manifold supplies water to
This is the number of trees that are irrigated by a laterals on both sides answer YES. In the examples
single lateral. For the subunit in this example each give here the answer is YES.

2








Notice that the review of the specifications refers lateral irrigates 16 trees. Thus this data item is 16.
to a subunit in the system. A subunit is defined as If the laterals are not all the same length, a plan of
a single manifold with its corresponding pressure the irrigation system should be included with the
regulators (if any), laterals and emitters., form and this data item should be left blank.
From the reduction of the blueprint (Figure 1) of Pipe material
the 40 acre citrus irrigation system note that the
system is composed of four identical subunits (sets) This is the material that the lateral pipe is made
of 744 trees each and two subunits (sets) of 768 trees of. Specify the type of plastic that is used. Polyvinyl
each. The subunits with the larger number of trees chloride (PVC), Polyvinyl di-chloride (PVDC),
are the ones on the upper part of the plan. In the Polyethylene (PE), Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
irrigation subunits with 744 trees, half of the laterals (ABS). Most pipe is PVC or PE. In the 40 acre citrus
supply water to 15 trees while the other half supply grove the lateral is specified as PE, which is the data
16 trees. In the subunits with 768 trees all laterals entry in the form.
supply water to 16 trees. Otherwise, the subunits are Slope of lateral
identical, having the same lateral diameter and pipe
diameters and lengths of the manifold. The subunit The average change in elevation of the terrain
with the 768 trees will be used as an example. Figure along the lateral expressed in feet/100 feet. Specify
2 shows the filled form corresponding to the data in if it is upwards (+) or downwards (-) in the direc-
this example. tion of flow. The topography in which the example
is set is flat with no significant changes in elevation,
Lateral Data thus this data item is 0.

Discharge per tree Manifold Data
This is the average volume per unit time in gallons
per hour applied at each tree. Notice that it is not Number of laterals along manifold
the discharge per emitter but the sum of all the emit- This is the number of laterals that are fed by a
ter discharges at a given tree. The irrigation design single manifold. A lateral is the distribution pipe that
plan of the 40 acre citrus grove specifies that a single feeds the emitters. Notice that each lateral is con-
microjet operating at a discharge of 14.8 gph will be nected at one end to the manifold and that more than
used per tree, thus the value corresponding to this one lateral may be connected to the manifold at any
data item is 14.8 as is shown in the sample form. point along the manifold. (Rather than using the idea
of a 'center fed' lateral the lateral is defined as stated
above.) In the 40 acre citrus grove there are 24
Average number of emitters per tree computed laterals on each side of the manifold. Therefore this
from the emitters per lateral divided by the number data item is 24 x 2 = 48.
of trees. In the 40 acre citrus grove example a single
emitter per tree was used, thus this data item is 1. Pipe material
D r of l l This is the material that the manifold pipe is made
Diameter of lateral
of. Specify the type of plastic that is used. The plan
This is the internal pipe diameter in inches. Inter- for the 40 acre citrus grove specifies that the
nal diameters differ from nominal diameters and may manifold be constructed from PVC pipe. Thus, this
differ from manufacturer to manufacturer. This data item is PVC.
value should be obtained from the pipe manufac-
turer's specifications. The design plan of the 40 acre Slope of manifold,
citrus irrigation grove specifies that the pipe to be The average change in elevation of the terrain
used has an internal diameter of .700 inches, thus along the manifold expressed in feet/100 feet.
this data item is 0.700. Specify if it is upwards (+) or downwards (-) in the
Tree spacing along lateral. direction of flow. The topography in which the ex-
ample grove is set is flat with no significant changes
Average spacing in feet of trees along the lateral in elevation, thus this data item is 0.
pipe. In the 40 acre citrus grove example the trees
along the lateral line are spaced at an interval of 14 Laterals on both side of the manifold.
feet. Thus, this data item has a value of 14. Sometimes the manifold is set at the side of the
grove, having laterals only to one side, in which case
Number of trees along lateral answer NO. When the manifold supplies water to
This is the number of trees that are irrigated by a laterals on both sides answer YES. In the examples
single lateral. For the subunit in this example each give here the answer is YES.

2








Pipe diameters and lengths. Average design operating pressure
These are the lengths and the internal diameters The pressure in pounds per square inch correspon-
of the different sections of pipe that make up the ding to the average discharge per emitter that the
manifold. If the manifold is not tapered there will system is designed for. In the 40 acre citrus grove
be only one diameter and its corresponding length the design discharge per tree was selected to be 14.8
to be entered, if it is tapered there will be several gph using one spray jet. Notice that this discharge
diameters and their corresponding lengths to be from the emitter will occur at a pressure of 20 psi.
entered. A close analysis of the irrigation plan will Therefore the value of this data item is 20 psi.
yield the following data items:
Internal Diameters (inches) Length (feet) Interpretation of Output
4.15 322
3.23 168 The results of running the computer programs for
2.65 112 the 40 acre citrus irrigation subunit are shown in
1.53 56 Figure 3. The output consists of two pages. The first
page is a printout of all data input. The second page
Again notice that the pipe diameter values refer shows the results of the computations done by the
to internal diameter values. These values are computer. These include:
available from the manufacturer and can be found 1) Head losses in the lateral and in each section
in most commercial literature, of the manifold.
2) Design discharges in the lateral and in the
Emitter Data manifold. These are the average design flows
Emitter Trademark. entering the lateral and the manifold.
3) System pressures and discharges. These refer
Specify the emitter manufacturer and model to pressures and discharges of emitters in the
number. In this grove a .05 inch orifice green base. subunit and include the emitters with the max-
microjet was used. imum and minimum values. The percent varia-
Coefficient of variation tion with respect to average design values is
also shown.
This coefficient is sometimes available from the also shown.
Sce. fnt ie a /A te 4) The uniformity coefficients. These values, ex-
manufacturer. If not available answer N/A. In the
pressed in percent, are an indication of the
example this datum was not available from the pressed in percent, are an indication of the
manufacturer deviations of the emitter discharges from the
manufacturer.
average design discharge.
Discharge relationship
Discharge relationship For the citrus irrigation system, the design unifor-
These data are available from the manufacturer in mity is well above the recommended 90% for
the form of a table or a graph. Two pairs of pressure- uniform topography. (See AE-45, Glossary of Trickle
discharge are necessary. It is not critical what two Irrigation Terms, Ag. Eng. Dept, IFAS) Thus, if the
specific values are used, although it is desirable that necessary pressure at the head of the subunit is main-
they be close to the system's design operating tained, and good management techniques are prac-
pressure. The values for the 40 acre citrus grove are ticed to avoid clogging, the hydraulic performance
taken from the manufacturer supplied data are as of the irrigation system used in this grove will be ex-
follows: cellent. Both the 40 acre citrus system and the 24
Pressure (psi) Discharge (gph) acre pecan system shown in appendix 1 have been
15 13 installed as part of a research and extension
20 14.8 demonstration projects.


Disclaimer: The mention of trade names are only for information purposes or to illustrate a given point. Neither the authors or IFAS
make any explicit or implicit endorsements in relation to trade names.

APPENDIX I
24 Acre Pecan Grove Example
This appendix contains an example of the determination of the hydraulic specifications of a subunit for
a 24 acre pecan grove trickle irrigation system. Figure 4 shows a reduced blueprint of the irrigation system,
Figure 5 shows the data form with the corresponding information and, Figure 6 shows the computer generated
output.

3








Pipe diameters and lengths. Average design operating pressure
These are the lengths and the internal diameters The pressure in pounds per square inch correspon-
of the different sections of pipe that make up the ding to the average discharge per emitter that the
manifold. If the manifold is not tapered there will system is designed for. In the 40 acre citrus grove
be only one diameter and its corresponding length the design discharge per tree was selected to be 14.8
to be entered, if it is tapered there will be several gph using one spray jet. Notice that this discharge
diameters and their corresponding lengths to be from the emitter will occur at a pressure of 20 psi.
entered. A close analysis of the irrigation plan will Therefore the value of this data item is 20 psi.
yield the following data items:
Internal Diameters (inches) Length (feet) Interpretation of Output
4.15 322
3.23 168 The results of running the computer programs for
2.65 112 the 40 acre citrus irrigation subunit are shown in
1.53 56 Figure 3. The output consists of two pages. The first
page is a printout of all data input. The second page
Again notice that the pipe diameter values refer shows the results of the computations done by the
to internal diameter values. These values are computer. These include:
available from the manufacturer and can be found 1) Head losses in the lateral and in each section
in most commercial literature, of the manifold.
2) Design discharges in the lateral and in the
Emitter Data manifold. These are the average design flows
Emitter Trademark. entering the lateral and the manifold.
3) System pressures and discharges. These refer
Specify the emitter manufacturer and model to pressures and discharges of emitters in the
number. In this grove a .05 inch orifice green base. subunit and include the emitters with the max-
microjet was used. imum and minimum values. The percent varia-
Coefficient of variation tion with respect to average design values is
also shown.
This coefficient is sometimes available from the also shown.
Sce. fnt ie a /A te 4) The uniformity coefficients. These values, ex-
manufacturer. If not available answer N/A. In the
pressed in percent, are an indication of the
example this datum was not available from the pressed in percent, are an indication of the
manufacturer deviations of the emitter discharges from the
manufacturer.
average design discharge.
Discharge relationship
Discharge relationship For the citrus irrigation system, the design unifor-
These data are available from the manufacturer in mity is well above the recommended 90% for
the form of a table or a graph. Two pairs of pressure- uniform topography. (See AE-45, Glossary of Trickle
discharge are necessary. It is not critical what two Irrigation Terms, Ag. Eng. Dept, IFAS) Thus, if the
specific values are used, although it is desirable that necessary pressure at the head of the subunit is main-
they be close to the system's design operating tained, and good management techniques are prac-
pressure. The values for the 40 acre citrus grove are ticed to avoid clogging, the hydraulic performance
taken from the manufacturer supplied data are as of the irrigation system used in this grove will be ex-
follows: cellent. Both the 40 acre citrus system and the 24
Pressure (psi) Discharge (gph) acre pecan system shown in appendix 1 have been
15 13 installed as part of a research and extension
20 14.8 demonstration projects.


Disclaimer: The mention of trade names are only for information purposes or to illustrate a given point. Neither the authors or IFAS
make any explicit or implicit endorsements in relation to trade names.

APPENDIX I
24 Acre Pecan Grove Example
This appendix contains an example of the determination of the hydraulic specifications of a subunit for
a 24 acre pecan grove trickle irrigation system. Figure 4 shows a reduced blueprint of the irrigation system,
Figure 5 shows the data form with the corresponding information and, Figure 6 shows the computer generated
output.

3








Pipe diameters and lengths. Average design operating pressure
These are the lengths and the internal diameters The pressure in pounds per square inch correspon-
of the different sections of pipe that make up the ding to the average discharge per emitter that the
manifold. If the manifold is not tapered there will system is designed for. In the 40 acre citrus grove
be only one diameter and its corresponding length the design discharge per tree was selected to be 14.8
to be entered, if it is tapered there will be several gph using one spray jet. Notice that this discharge
diameters and their corresponding lengths to be from the emitter will occur at a pressure of 20 psi.
entered. A close analysis of the irrigation plan will Therefore the value of this data item is 20 psi.
yield the following data items:
Internal Diameters (inches) Length (feet) Interpretation of Output
4.15 322
3.23 168 The results of running the computer programs for
2.65 112 the 40 acre citrus irrigation subunit are shown in
1.53 56 Figure 3. The output consists of two pages. The first
page is a printout of all data input. The second page
Again notice that the pipe diameter values refer shows the results of the computations done by the
to internal diameter values. These values are computer. These include:
available from the manufacturer and can be found 1) Head losses in the lateral and in each section
in most commercial literature, of the manifold.
2) Design discharges in the lateral and in the
Emitter Data manifold. These are the average design flows
Emitter Trademark. entering the lateral and the manifold.
3) System pressures and discharges. These refer
Specify the emitter manufacturer and model to pressures and discharges of emitters in the
number. In this grove a .05 inch orifice green base. subunit and include the emitters with the max-
microjet was used. imum and minimum values. The percent varia-
Coefficient of variation tion with respect to average design values is
also shown.
This coefficient is sometimes available from the also shown.
Sce. fnt ie a /A te 4) The uniformity coefficients. These values, ex-
manufacturer. If not available answer N/A. In the
pressed in percent, are an indication of the
example this datum was not available from the pressed in percent, are an indication of the
manufacturer deviations of the emitter discharges from the
manufacturer.
average design discharge.
Discharge relationship
Discharge relationship For the citrus irrigation system, the design unifor-
These data are available from the manufacturer in mity is well above the recommended 90% for
the form of a table or a graph. Two pairs of pressure- uniform topography. (See AE-45, Glossary of Trickle
discharge are necessary. It is not critical what two Irrigation Terms, Ag. Eng. Dept, IFAS) Thus, if the
specific values are used, although it is desirable that necessary pressure at the head of the subunit is main-
they be close to the system's design operating tained, and good management techniques are prac-
pressure. The values for the 40 acre citrus grove are ticed to avoid clogging, the hydraulic performance
taken from the manufacturer supplied data are as of the irrigation system used in this grove will be ex-
follows: cellent. Both the 40 acre citrus system and the 24
Pressure (psi) Discharge (gph) acre pecan system shown in appendix 1 have been
15 13 installed as part of a research and extension
20 14.8 demonstration projects.


Disclaimer: The mention of trade names are only for information purposes or to illustrate a given point. Neither the authors or IFAS
make any explicit or implicit endorsements in relation to trade names.

APPENDIX I
24 Acre Pecan Grove Example
This appendix contains an example of the determination of the hydraulic specifications of a subunit for
a 24 acre pecan grove trickle irrigation system. Figure 4 shows a reduced blueprint of the irrigation system,
Figure 5 shows the data form with the corresponding information and, Figure 6 shows the computer generated
output.

3











S4. 4 4 ++ ++ + + + ++ + 4 + t t 1 1 t
+ 4 + ++4+ ++4++
+* + + + 4- + + + . + + + + + + *++ t .- . .
+ + + + + + 4.4 +4 44 -4 + t. + + + + + 4 +- + 4 4-+ + + + + + + + *+
+ + + + + t 4- + + 4 + 4+ + 4 4- + 4. + +4+ 4 + ,+ + + + +4 + +4 4 + + + + .
+ 4- 4+ 4 + + + + 4 +- + + 4 + 4 4- +4 + 4 + + + +*4 4 *- 4 + 4- 4 4
+ + : + + +- + 44 4 + + + 1- + + + +l- 1- 4-4-1- 4 + + + + + +
+ + ^ 1 + + + + + + + + 4-. <>- + + +* <.4 .i .- + 4 + t
+ + t 4- + + + + + + + + + 4.
444 4 4 4 + + + 1 4 4 + 4 t t + I
4 4 + +4+++ 44 + 4+
4-+ 44 + 4 + 4 -44 .44 +1- + -4+ 44 + 4-I- ++ + 41-1 -- 4- + 4 4 -
+ 4 + + + + 4 4-4 +4- + + + 4 + +4 4 + 34
+4444- + 4 44. .4 4+.+.4t + + + 4 4- + + + +4- 4+ + +-
,' : : t :
+ + + ,+ . .,e .t + . + -I- +-++--4--..-..--.--..-..--.--4 + +t
4 + 4- + 4- + + 4 + + + +* + 4 + + 4 4 4 + 4+ + + 4- + I+
+e
+ t 4+ *4 +1 +4+4 4 +4 +44 +44 +- + 44- +4+4444+4-4+4*44.1-1-44 + +(14-4ST

S4. + + t- +-l + +- I ,- +- + .l .-iXi I + +- r i + + +- +.<-' + + + +- + +- + T ++*- + i""-c '"
ft + + 4- 4 44 4+ + 4. + + + + 44+ 4- 4- + 4 4++4 + +4 t 4- .1 t
+J 4 4t + + +++ -4 + ++4 + + 4- + + t 4 + F + 4- &A l 4- (P
+ + +- 4- + + 4- + +zt t +4 -4 + + + + 4 +++ 44 +- + + +. + + + w.+ 'Trsii.
S+ 4+ + + + 4+ + + 4- ++++ ++ + + -+ 1- + +
4+4- 4-- 44-4
+ + + + +
4- 1 t ++: + + + + .
+ + 44- 4 + 4- 4 t + 4-44 + 4 1- + .+ 4 + 4 + *4 4+ + + 4 +
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110 7 t t e







FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Department of Agricultural Enginnering
Frazier-Rogers'Hall, Gainesville Fl.

HYDRAULIC SPECIFICATIONS OF TRICKLE
S, IRRIGATION SYSTEM SUBUNITS
(Flatwood Soils)

Name: .. .'__________
Address: *


Name of Grove: 40 Acre Citrus 1470






Discharge per tree: 14.8 Gallons per hour
Number of emitters per tree: 1
Diameter of lateral: 0.700 inches
Tree spacing along lateral: 14.0 feet
Number of trees along lateral: 16.0
Pipe material: PE
Slope of lateral: 0. ft/100ft

MANIFOLD DATA:

Number of tree rows along manifold: 48
Pipe material: PVC
Slope of manifold: 0 ft/100ft
Laterals on both sides of manifold? YES
Pipe diameters and lengths:

4.15 inches 322 feet
3.23 inches 168 feet
2.65 inches 112 feet
1.53 inches 56 feet
_inches feet
inches feet

EMITTER DATA:

Emitter Trademark: 0.05" green base, 3000 Microjet *
Coefficient of variation: N/A (If available)*
Discharge relationship:

13.0 gallons per hour 15.0 pounds p. sq. inch*
14.8 gallons per hour 20.0 pounds p. sq. inch*

Average design operating pressure: 20.0 pounds p. sq. inch

* These data are available from the manufacturer.
Figure 2. Sample Form for the 40-Acre Citrus Trickle Irrigation System
5










FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

Department of Agricultural Engineering
University of Florida, Gainesville.

HYDRAULIC SPECIFICATIONS OF TRICKLE
IRRIGATION SYSTEM SUBUNITS
Version 1.02

40 acre Citrus, 1470 June 6, 1983


LATERAL DATA:

Discharge per emitter: 14.80 gph
Discharge per tree: 14.80 gph
Number of emitters per tree: 1
Diameter of lateral (in): .70
Tree spacing (ft): 14.00
Number of trees per lateral: 16
Hazen-Williams constant of lateral: 140.00
Slope of the lateral (ft/100ft): 0.00



MANIFOLD DATA

Number of tree rows along manifold: 24-
Number of laterals per connection: 2
Hazen Williams constant of manifold: 150.00
Slope of the manifold (ft/100ft): 0.00
Diameter and lengths of pipes:
Diam (in) Length (ft)
4.15 322.00
3.23 168.00
2.65 112.00
1.53 56.00



EMITTER CHARACTERISTICS

Design pressure (psi): 20.00
Head-Discharge relationship:
Pressure (psi) Discharge (gph)
15.00 13.00
20.00 14.80






6










acre Citrus, 1470 June 6, 1983


HEAD LOSSES

- -1 head loss (ft): 6.32

Id losses:

I Diam (in) Length (ft) Head loss (ft)
1 4.15 322.00 3.08
2 3.23 168.00 1.51
3 2.65 112.00 .62
4 1.53 56.00 .46



DISCHARGES

B lateral discharge (gpm): 3.95

* Id discharge (gpm): 189.44


SYSTEM PRESSURES AND DISCHARGES

n pressure (psi): 19.33 Miminum discharge (gph): 14.57

n pressure (psi): 21.11 Maximum discharge (gph): 15.17

.-.-re variation (%): 8.92 Discharge variation (%) : 4.00


SYSTEM UNIFORMITIES

't design emission uniformity (%): 96.65

te design emission uniformity (%): 95.69










Figure 3. Sample Output Forty-Acre Citrus Trickle Irrigation System.





7















Sto0'_ ,MATERIALS ESTIMATE
seCT1OAJ I %BCTIOwI 5CTIOv 5 l ea. 4 in. Well
O_ _TEUES 1 S0 T2REs 1o0 T6._E 1 ea. 4 in. Submersible pump (59 gpm 9 110 ft. TOH -
assuming 60 ft. lift); Goulds UTM 30412,
+ f --- -- -t- --- .- -- --+-+- + ---_- +_ 10 stage, 1 p/230 V., 3 hp or equal
S- +substitute
1 ea. Filter 200 mesh. for 60 gpnm
4 +. _4. 4..--+-_- 4 +_ 4 -+ = + 4-- 2- 4 +-- -6-- (- ---- --- 960 ft. 4 in. PVC. Cl. 160, nsf, mainline pipe
2.760 ft. 21 in. PVC, Cl. 160. nsf, sub-main pipe
6 ea. 21 in. gate valves; or solenoid valves (for
I-I- |- |- +.-.-+. -- -- -+ ---- + + -L + ~- "" -- "- +- -- -- automatic operation)
S- 24.000 ft. 0.580 in. Pepco PE tubing or equal
S- 1,344 Ca. 0.05 in. Green base microjet spray jets
+f- 4-j --4. +- --4- -j-- 4 --4 -+-+-4. 3000. 14.8 gph @ 13.4' dia. or equal,
Swit h 8" risers
S1*I ea. 6 sta. controller & 6 solenoid valves (All
-t + --4- -+ +-+-+-+-4 --4- 4 +-+- --- -+ -- --- + mins, sub-mains laterals installed
below ground surface, as recommended;
I mains. 2' depth; sub-mains. 18 in.
-- +-+----+'t-+- --+ -- -- +- + + +- - depth and laterals, 6 in. depth.)

,1--4-+-+-4--+-+-+-- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-4-+-+-+-+++-+-+-+-+
S--+-+-+--'- +-+-+-+ +--+-+-+-++--+ +-+--+-++-+-+-+-+

-.-+-+--+- --+-+ -++--+-=---+- +----+-+ -+----+---t-- I --+-----+

,r t-4--+-+-+- +-+-+-l |-+-+-+--+---+- --+ +--T-- -+--+ +-+- --+-.

3 ^-#--4-+---+"+--+--- +-+-+-+-#-t --+-- -*---+--4-+-t-#-+- -+--- 41NOlML,. Wwll,' 6PMfr2s

00 3t--+-+-+--+ -+-+-+ ,-- +-----+ "+-- -+-- +4-----+-T--- t -- --+-- + --j


o__-- +-+-----+--+-+ +-+-+-+- 4- -+-+-t -t-+-+--++ T-+-+---+-+ O ,To
4 I NC. WEL.L; INCR LSUS se fjOr
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S-+- -*+ 4+.4-+- +-+- -+-+ -4- +- T -+-+-
FO RitisA-noN I' () seT 'or r'I ,
-II
S^ --- -4-. ~-4- -4- -44- 4-- .j _--_.4--4 = -.T_-o4T4-_ -4- E_ .




4 -T -+4- -- +- 4-=-l 4-o q+-O +-V- W 6 W C.-4 2 8 Ms s.A
I '--- PVC su6-Maa 'iVZ. Sub-MA1 C 14P ELEC. MOTOdt 6ieCC



3 -----+-+ ---+-t +-+-+-+-t -+- -t-- --~-|--+-+-'- + l-+-+- -*-+ 61M^ >ML!uE

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-t- .t-t- t-t ---+-t I|
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108 TEE5 106 E64 I TIE665


+ PecA+ Te+B
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--- PVC Mtas at Gul it4e rlf 1- 306PM/Tes WELL P4t sECTIMS LPM, Co 1-4



0P0. 89T4/. IT T4. P1 *. 5 M,4E-To 4- + -(t







FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Department of Agricultural Enginnering
Frazier-Rogers Hall, Gainesville Fl.

HYDRAULIC SPECIFICATIONS OF TRICKLE
IRRIGATION SYSTEM SUBUNITS
(Flatwood Soils)

Name:
Address:


Name of Grove: 24-Acre Under-tree Pecan FL1479

NOTE: In order for this form to be processed, ALL of the
information required must be completed.

LATERAL DATA:

Discharge per tree: 29.6 Gallons per hour
Number of emitters per tree: 2
Diameter of lateral: 0.58 inches
Tree spacing along lateral: 40- feet
Number of trees along lateral: 9
Pipe material: PE
Slope of lateral: 0 ft/100ft

MANIFOLD DATA:

Number of tree rows along manifold: 24
Pipe material: PVC
Slope of manifold: 0 ft/100ft
Laterals on both sides of manifold? YES
Pipe diameters and lengths:

2.68 inches 460 feet
inches feet
inches feet
inches feet
inches feet
inches feet

EMITTER DATA:

Emitter Trademark: 0.05" green base, Microjet *
Coefficient of variation: N/A (If available)*
Discharge relationship:

14.8 gallons per hour 20.0 pounds p. sq. inch*
13.0 gallons per hour 15.0 pounds p. sq. inch*

Average design operating pressure: 20.0 pounds p. sq. inch

* These data are available from the manufacturer.

Figure 5. Sample Form for the 24-Acre Under-tree Pecan Trickle Irrigation System
9











FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

Department of Agricultural Engineering
University of Florida, Gainesville.

HYDRAULIC SPECIFICATIONS OF TRICKLE
IRRIGATION SYSTEM SUBUNITS
Version 1.02

24 Acre undertree pecan FL1479 June 6, 1983



LATERAL DATA:

Discharge per emitter: 14.80 gph
Discharge per tree: 29.60 gph
Number of emitters per tree: 2
Diameter of lateral (in): .58
Tree spacing (ft): 40.00
Number of trees per lateral: 5
Hazen-Williams constant of lateral: 140.00
Slope of the lateral (ft/100ft): 0.00



MANIFOLD DATA

Number of tree rows along manifold: 12
Number of laterals per connection: 2
Hazen Williams constant of manifold: 150.00
Slope of the manifold (ft/100ft): 0.00
Diameter and lengths of pipes:
Diam (in) Length (ft)
2.68 460.00



EMITTER CHARACTERISTICS

Design pressure (psi): 20.00
Head-Discharge relationship:
Pressure (psi) Discharge (gph)
20.00 14.80
15.00 13.00









10








24 Acre undertree pecan FL1479 June 6, 1983


HEAD LOSSES

r l head loss (ft): 6.00

)ld losses:

)n Diam (in) Length (ft) Head loss (ft)
1 2.68 460.00 2.50



DISCHARGES

je lateral discharge (gpm): 2.47

Sld discharge (gpm): 59.20


SYSTEM PRESSURES AND DISCHARGES

im pressure (psi) : 19.57 Miminum discharge (gph) : 14.65

-im pressure (psi): 20.85 Maximum discharge (gph): 15.08

Pressure variation (%): 6.44 Discharge variation (%): 2.89


SYSTEM UNIFORMITIES

.it design emission uniformity (%): 97.83

Site design emission uniformity (%): 96.87













Figure 6. Sample Output 24-Acre Under-tree Pecan Trickle Irrigation System






11










FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Department of Agricultural Enginnering
Frazier-Rogers Hall, Gainesville Fl.

HYDRAULIC SPECIFICATIONS OF TRICKLE
IRRIGATION SYSTEM SUBUNITS
(Flatwood Soils)

Name:
Address:


Name of Grove:

NOTE: In order for this form to be processed, ALL of the
information required must be completed.

LATERAL DATA:

Discharge per tree: Gallons per hour
Number of emitters per tree:
Diameter of lateral: inches
Tree spacing along lateral: feet
Number of trees along lateral:
Pipe material:
Slope of lateral: ft/100ft

MANIFOLD DATA:

Number of tree rows along manifold:
Pipe material:-
Slope of manifold: ft/100ft
Laterals on both sides of manifold?
Pipe diameters and lengths:

inches feet
inches _feet
inches feet
inches _feet
inches feet
inches feet

EMITTER DATA:

Emitter Trademark: *
Coefficient of variation: (If available)*
Discharge relationship:

gallons per hour pounds p. sq. inch*
gallons per hour pounds p. sq. inch*

Average design operating pressure: pounds p. sq. inch

These data are available from the manufacturer.



This publication was promulgated at a cost of $603.03, or 34.3 cents per copy, to inform the public of computer esti-
mations of the hydraulic specifications of trickle irrigation systems. 5-1.76M-84


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertlller, director. In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to provide research, educa- IP
tional Information and other services only to Individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from I
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.




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