• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Location and soil preparation
 Propagation
 Container grown herbs
 Harvesting and curing
 Sources of seed and plants
 Herbs in the Florida garden






Title: Herbs in the Florida garden
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027986/00001
 Material Information
Title: Herbs in the Florida garden
Series Title: Florida Cooperative Extension Service circulars. Florida Cooperative Extension Service Circular 570.
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Stephens, James M.
Affiliation: University of Florida -- Florida Cooperative Extension Service -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1980?
 Notes
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027986
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Location and soil preparation
        Page 3
    Propagation
        Page 3
    Container grown herbs
        Page 3
    Harvesting and curing
        Page 4
    Sources of seed and plants
        Page 4
    Herbs in the Florida garden
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text







Circular 570












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James M. Stephens
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The National Garden Bureau provided the photographs of catnip, comfrey, dill, marjoram and savory. Marcie Oehler pro-
vided the photographs of basil, Italian basil, chervil, horehound and lemon balm.










Herbs in the Florida Garden


James M. Stephens *


Herbs are plants which are grown for the special flavor Propagation
and aroma of their various parts. They are used mainly to
season, enrich, or otherwise improve the taste or smell of Most of the annuals and biennials ordinarily are grown
certain foods. Since they are not primary dishes, they are from seed sown directly in place. Perennials generally are
not classified as vegetables. However, due to similarity of best started in plant beds or boxes using seed or cuttings,
their growth habits and cultural requirements, herbs are and then transplanted into the garden or growing con-
often included with vegetables for discussion. tainers.
Most of the common herbs can be grown seasonally in A few plants, such as sage, lemon balm and rosemary,
Florida in sufficient quantities for home use. In south can be propagated best by cutting. Stems from new growth
Florida, many herbs may be grown in the home garden or the upper parts of older stems make the best cuttings for
throughout the year. Since only a small portion of the plant easiest rooting. Cut the stems into 3 to 4 inch sections, each
is usually needed at any one time and because the plants are containing a set of leaves or leaf buds near the upper end.
generally small, herbs are adapted to container culture. To prevent wilting, place the cuttings in water as soon as
Their attractiveness as an ornamental plant makes them fit they are removed from the plant. A shallow box filled with
well into the home landscape, either in a border planting, 4 to 5 inches of a mixture of clean sand, peat, and perlite
or included in the flower garden. Specially designed formal makes a good rooting bed. Insert the cuttings to a depth of
herb gardens are both practical and attractive. Due to popular one-half to two-thirds their length in the moist mixture,
belief, herbs are sometimes planted among vegetables to then saturate the mix with water. Place the box in a protected
repel certain insects and other pests. While pest control place and keep moist (but not sopping wet) continuously
with herbs is undocumented in scientific journals, this until roots develop in about two weeks. Continue to water
practice will at least reward the gardener with a steady until the cuttings are ready to set out in pots or in the
supply of various herbs. garden.
Such plants as thyme, winter savory and marjoram can
Location and Soil Preparation be propagated by simple layering, which consists of covering
the lower portions of the side branches with soil, leaving
Since only a few plants of each herb are required for much of the top of the plant exposed. When the covered
family use, a small space such as a section of the vegetable parts of the stem have rooted, they can be cut from the
garden is sufficient. Some of the herbs live from year to parent plant and set as individual plants.
year (perennials), so should be grouped together to one side Older plants of chive, costmary and tarragon can be
of the garden where they will not interfere with the prepa- multiplied by dividing the crown clumps into separate
ration of the rest of the garden. The annual herbs also may parts. These subdivisions can be set as individual plants.
be grouped together, away from the vegetables. Such Mint spreads rapidly by means of surface or underground
grouping would allow specific cultural practices, such as runners that may grow several feet from the parent plant.
spraying for pest control, to be restricted to vegetables These runners, with roots attached, can be removed and
only. transplanted to other locations.
In general, most herbs will grow satisfactorily under the
same conditions of sunlight and soil, and with similar Container Grown Herbs
cultural techniques as are used for vegetables. Therefore,
check the appropriate vegetable gardening guides for details Most herbs can be successfully grown in containers
on soil preparation, liming, fertilizing and watering. Special attractively arranged outdoors along bordersof drives, walks
consideration should be given to the location and care of a and patios or on porches and balconies. Hanging baskets are
few of the herbs that are somewhat sensitive to soil moisture especially suitable for herbs. A few can be grown fairly
conditions. Sage, rosemary, and thyme require a well well indoors, with special care. Attention must be given to
drained, slightly moist soil, whereas parsley, chervil and providing plenty of sunlight. The culture of herbs in con-
mint grow best on soils retaining considerable moisture. tainers, including soil preparation and fertilizing, is similar
Additions of organic matter to sandy soils are particularly to that for vegetables.
beneficial to herbs since they are shallow rooting.

*James M. Stephens is an Associate Professor and Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist, Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS, University of
Florida, Gainesville.


3










Herbs in the Florida Garden


James M. Stephens *


Herbs are plants which are grown for the special flavor Propagation
and aroma of their various parts. They are used mainly to
season, enrich, or otherwise improve the taste or smell of Most of the annuals and biennials ordinarily are grown
certain foods. Since they are not primary dishes, they are from seed sown directly in place. Perennials generally are
not classified as vegetables. However, due to similarity of best started in plant beds or boxes using seed or cuttings,
their growth habits and cultural requirements, herbs are and then transplanted into the garden or growing con-
often included with vegetables for discussion. tainers.
Most of the common herbs can be grown seasonally in A few plants, such as sage, lemon balm and rosemary,
Florida in sufficient quantities for home use. In south can be propagated best by cutting. Stems from new growth
Florida, many herbs may be grown in the home garden or the upper parts of older stems make the best cuttings for
throughout the year. Since only a small portion of the plant easiest rooting. Cut the stems into 3 to 4 inch sections, each
is usually needed at any one time and because the plants are containing a set of leaves or leaf buds near the upper end.
generally small, herbs are adapted to container culture. To prevent wilting, place the cuttings in water as soon as
Their attractiveness as an ornamental plant makes them fit they are removed from the plant. A shallow box filled with
well into the home landscape, either in a border planting, 4 to 5 inches of a mixture of clean sand, peat, and perlite
or included in the flower garden. Specially designed formal makes a good rooting bed. Insert the cuttings to a depth of
herb gardens are both practical and attractive. Due to popular one-half to two-thirds their length in the moist mixture,
belief, herbs are sometimes planted among vegetables to then saturate the mix with water. Place the box in a protected
repel certain insects and other pests. While pest control place and keep moist (but not sopping wet) continuously
with herbs is undocumented in scientific journals, this until roots develop in about two weeks. Continue to water
practice will at least reward the gardener with a steady until the cuttings are ready to set out in pots or in the
supply of various herbs. garden.
Such plants as thyme, winter savory and marjoram can
Location and Soil Preparation be propagated by simple layering, which consists of covering
the lower portions of the side branches with soil, leaving
Since only a few plants of each herb are required for much of the top of the plant exposed. When the covered
family use, a small space such as a section of the vegetable parts of the stem have rooted, they can be cut from the
garden is sufficient. Some of the herbs live from year to parent plant and set as individual plants.
year (perennials), so should be grouped together to one side Older plants of chive, costmary and tarragon can be
of the garden where they will not interfere with the prepa- multiplied by dividing the crown clumps into separate
ration of the rest of the garden. The annual herbs also may parts. These subdivisions can be set as individual plants.
be grouped together, away from the vegetables. Such Mint spreads rapidly by means of surface or underground
grouping would allow specific cultural practices, such as runners that may grow several feet from the parent plant.
spraying for pest control, to be restricted to vegetables These runners, with roots attached, can be removed and
only. transplanted to other locations.
In general, most herbs will grow satisfactorily under the
same conditions of sunlight and soil, and with similar Container Grown Herbs
cultural techniques as are used for vegetables. Therefore,
check the appropriate vegetable gardening guides for details Most herbs can be successfully grown in containers
on soil preparation, liming, fertilizing and watering. Special attractively arranged outdoors along bordersof drives, walks
consideration should be given to the location and care of a and patios or on porches and balconies. Hanging baskets are
few of the herbs that are somewhat sensitive to soil moisture especially suitable for herbs. A few can be grown fairly
conditions. Sage, rosemary, and thyme require a well well indoors, with special care. Attention must be given to
drained, slightly moist soil, whereas parsley, chervil and providing plenty of sunlight. The culture of herbs in con-
mint grow best on soils retaining considerable moisture. tainers, including soil preparation and fertilizing, is similar
Additions of organic matter to sandy soils are particularly to that for vegetables.
beneficial to herbs since they are shallow rooting.

*James M. Stephens is an Associate Professor and Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist, Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS, University of
Florida, Gainesville.


3










Herbs in the Florida Garden


James M. Stephens *


Herbs are plants which are grown for the special flavor Propagation
and aroma of their various parts. They are used mainly to
season, enrich, or otherwise improve the taste or smell of Most of the annuals and biennials ordinarily are grown
certain foods. Since they are not primary dishes, they are from seed sown directly in place. Perennials generally are
not classified as vegetables. However, due to similarity of best started in plant beds or boxes using seed or cuttings,
their growth habits and cultural requirements, herbs are and then transplanted into the garden or growing con-
often included with vegetables for discussion. tainers.
Most of the common herbs can be grown seasonally in A few plants, such as sage, lemon balm and rosemary,
Florida in sufficient quantities for home use. In south can be propagated best by cutting. Stems from new growth
Florida, many herbs may be grown in the home garden or the upper parts of older stems make the best cuttings for
throughout the year. Since only a small portion of the plant easiest rooting. Cut the stems into 3 to 4 inch sections, each
is usually needed at any one time and because the plants are containing a set of leaves or leaf buds near the upper end.
generally small, herbs are adapted to container culture. To prevent wilting, place the cuttings in water as soon as
Their attractiveness as an ornamental plant makes them fit they are removed from the plant. A shallow box filled with
well into the home landscape, either in a border planting, 4 to 5 inches of a mixture of clean sand, peat, and perlite
or included in the flower garden. Specially designed formal makes a good rooting bed. Insert the cuttings to a depth of
herb gardens are both practical and attractive. Due to popular one-half to two-thirds their length in the moist mixture,
belief, herbs are sometimes planted among vegetables to then saturate the mix with water. Place the box in a protected
repel certain insects and other pests. While pest control place and keep moist (but not sopping wet) continuously
with herbs is undocumented in scientific journals, this until roots develop in about two weeks. Continue to water
practice will at least reward the gardener with a steady until the cuttings are ready to set out in pots or in the
supply of various herbs. garden.
Such plants as thyme, winter savory and marjoram can
Location and Soil Preparation be propagated by simple layering, which consists of covering
the lower portions of the side branches with soil, leaving
Since only a few plants of each herb are required for much of the top of the plant exposed. When the covered
family use, a small space such as a section of the vegetable parts of the stem have rooted, they can be cut from the
garden is sufficient. Some of the herbs live from year to parent plant and set as individual plants.
year (perennials), so should be grouped together to one side Older plants of chive, costmary and tarragon can be
of the garden where they will not interfere with the prepa- multiplied by dividing the crown clumps into separate
ration of the rest of the garden. The annual herbs also may parts. These subdivisions can be set as individual plants.
be grouped together, away from the vegetables. Such Mint spreads rapidly by means of surface or underground
grouping would allow specific cultural practices, such as runners that may grow several feet from the parent plant.
spraying for pest control, to be restricted to vegetables These runners, with roots attached, can be removed and
only. transplanted to other locations.
In general, most herbs will grow satisfactorily under the
same conditions of sunlight and soil, and with similar Container Grown Herbs
cultural techniques as are used for vegetables. Therefore,
check the appropriate vegetable gardening guides for details Most herbs can be successfully grown in containers
on soil preparation, liming, fertilizing and watering. Special attractively arranged outdoors along bordersof drives, walks
consideration should be given to the location and care of a and patios or on porches and balconies. Hanging baskets are
few of the herbs that are somewhat sensitive to soil moisture especially suitable for herbs. A few can be grown fairly
conditions. Sage, rosemary, and thyme require a well well indoors, with special care. Attention must be given to
drained, slightly moist soil, whereas parsley, chervil and providing plenty of sunlight. The culture of herbs in con-
mint grow best on soils retaining considerable moisture. tainers, including soil preparation and fertilizing, is similar
Additions of organic matter to sandy soils are particularly to that for vegetables.
beneficial to herbs since they are shallow rooting.

*James M. Stephens is an Associate Professor and Extension Vegetable Crops Specialist, Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS, University of
Florida, Gainesville.


3










Harvesting and Curing to flower and mature seed for planting each season. Seeds
should be thoroughly dry before storing, to prevent loss of
The seeds, leaves, flowering tops and occasionally the viability for planting and to prevent molding or loss of
roots of the herbs are used for flavoring purposes. Their quality. After curing for several days in an airy room, a day
flavor is due for the most part to a volatile or essential oil or two in the sun will insure safekeeping.
contained in leaves, seeds and fruits. The flavor is retained As soon as the herb leaves or seed are dry, they should
longer if the herbs are harvested at the right time and be cleaned by separating them from stems and other foreign
properly cured and stored. The young tender leaves can be matter and packed in suitable containers to prevent loss of
gathered and used fresh at any time during the season, but essential oils that give herbs their delicate flavor. Glass,
for later use they should be harvested when the plants begin metal or cardboard containers that can be closed tightly
to flower and should be dried rapidly in a well-ventilated, will preserve the aroma and flavor. Glass jars make satisfac-
darkened room. If the leaves are dusty or gritty, they tory containers, but they must be painted or stored in a
should be washed in cold water and thoroughly drained dark room to prevent bleaching of the green leaves by light.
before drying.
The tender-leaf herbs (basil, costmary, tarragon, lemon Sources of Seed and Plants
balm, and the mints) which have a high moisture content,
must be dried rapidly away from the light if they are to Seed and planting stock of the savory herbscan be obtain-
retain their green color. If dried too slowly, they will turn ed from a number of established herb gardens and seedsmen
dark and/or moldy. For this reason a well-ventilated, as well as from many vegetable seed mail order firms in
darkened room, such as an attic or other dry airy room, various parts of the country. Some dealers make a specialty
furnishes ideal conditions for curing these herbs in a short of handling rooted plants, while others handle both plants
time. The less succulent leaf herbs (sage, rosemary, thyme and seed. Usually the seed of the more common herbs-sage,
and summer savory) which contain less moisture, can be dill, fennel, parsley, celery and chive-can be obtained from
partially dried in the sun without affecting their color, but local seed retailers, while the less common ones can be pur-
excessive exposure should be avoided, chased only from those specializing in savory herbs. Most
The seed crops should be harvested when they are mature herb specialty businesses supply a free catalog of available
or when their color changes from green to brown or gray. A material and prices upon request. Herb transplants are
few plants of the annual varieties might be left undisturbed available at many local retail stores.


Herbs In The Florida Garden


Herb Growth Propagation Spacing Main When Herb Growth Propagation Spacing Main When
Cycle Part to Cycle Part to
Used Harvest Used Harvest


Anise annual seed 12" seed when ripe Garlic perennial cloves 6" bulb when mature
Basil annual seed 12" leaves as needed Ginger perennial root division 24" rhizome when mature
Borage annual seed 12" flowers as needed Ginseng perennial seed/seedlings 12" root when mature
Caraway biennial seed 12" seed slightly Horehound perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves before bloom
unripe Lemon balm perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves as needed
Cardamom perennial division 18" seed slightly Lovage perennial seed/plants 12" leaves as needed
unripe Marjoram perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves as needed
Catnip perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves as needed Mint perennial cuttings/ 12" leaves as needed
Chervil annual seed 12" leaves as needed division
Chives perennial seed/division 8" leaves as needed Oregano perennial division 24" leaves dry leaves
Comfrey perennial root cuttings 18" leaves as needed Parsley biennial seed 12" leaves dry leaves
Coriander annual seed 12" seed when ripe Rosemary perennial seed/cuttings 24" leaves as needed
Costmary perennial seed/division 12" leaves as needed Sage perennial seed/cuttings 18" leaves as needed
Cumin annual seed 1" seed when ripe Savory annual seed 12" leaves as needed
Dill annual seed 12" seed- as needed Tarragon perennial cuttings/ 12" leaves as needed
heads division
Fennel perennial seed 12" seed when ripe Thyme perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves/ as needed
leaves as needed flowers




4










Harvesting and Curing to flower and mature seed for planting each season. Seeds
should be thoroughly dry before storing, to prevent loss of
The seeds, leaves, flowering tops and occasionally the viability for planting and to prevent molding or loss of
roots of the herbs are used for flavoring purposes. Their quality. After curing for several days in an airy room, a day
flavor is due for the most part to a volatile or essential oil or two in the sun will insure safekeeping.
contained in leaves, seeds and fruits. The flavor is retained As soon as the herb leaves or seed are dry, they should
longer if the herbs are harvested at the right time and be cleaned by separating them from stems and other foreign
properly cured and stored. The young tender leaves can be matter and packed in suitable containers to prevent loss of
gathered and used fresh at any time during the season, but essential oils that give herbs their delicate flavor. Glass,
for later use they should be harvested when the plants begin metal or cardboard containers that can be closed tightly
to flower and should be dried rapidly in a well-ventilated, will preserve the aroma and flavor. Glass jars make satisfac-
darkened room. If the leaves are dusty or gritty, they tory containers, but they must be painted or stored in a
should be washed in cold water and thoroughly drained dark room to prevent bleaching of the green leaves by light.
before drying.
The tender-leaf herbs (basil, costmary, tarragon, lemon Sources of Seed and Plants
balm, and the mints) which have a high moisture content,
must be dried rapidly away from the light if they are to Seed and planting stock of the savory herbscan be obtain-
retain their green color. If dried too slowly, they will turn ed from a number of established herb gardens and seedsmen
dark and/or moldy. For this reason a well-ventilated, as well as from many vegetable seed mail order firms in
darkened room, such as an attic or other dry airy room, various parts of the country. Some dealers make a specialty
furnishes ideal conditions for curing these herbs in a short of handling rooted plants, while others handle both plants
time. The less succulent leaf herbs (sage, rosemary, thyme and seed. Usually the seed of the more common herbs-sage,
and summer savory) which contain less moisture, can be dill, fennel, parsley, celery and chive-can be obtained from
partially dried in the sun without affecting their color, but local seed retailers, while the less common ones can be pur-
excessive exposure should be avoided, chased only from those specializing in savory herbs. Most
The seed crops should be harvested when they are mature herb specialty businesses supply a free catalog of available
or when their color changes from green to brown or gray. A material and prices upon request. Herb transplants are
few plants of the annual varieties might be left undisturbed available at many local retail stores.


Herbs In The Florida Garden


Herb Growth Propagation Spacing Main When Herb Growth Propagation Spacing Main When
Cycle Part to Cycle Part to
Used Harvest Used Harvest


Anise annual seed 12" seed when ripe Garlic perennial cloves 6" bulb when mature
Basil annual seed 12" leaves as needed Ginger perennial root division 24" rhizome when mature
Borage annual seed 12" flowers as needed Ginseng perennial seed/seedlings 12" root when mature
Caraway biennial seed 12" seed slightly Horehound perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves before bloom
unripe Lemon balm perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves as needed
Cardamom perennial division 18" seed slightly Lovage perennial seed/plants 12" leaves as needed
unripe Marjoram perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves as needed
Catnip perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves as needed Mint perennial cuttings/ 12" leaves as needed
Chervil annual seed 12" leaves as needed division
Chives perennial seed/division 8" leaves as needed Oregano perennial division 24" leaves dry leaves
Comfrey perennial root cuttings 18" leaves as needed Parsley biennial seed 12" leaves dry leaves
Coriander annual seed 12" seed when ripe Rosemary perennial seed/cuttings 24" leaves as needed
Costmary perennial seed/division 12" leaves as needed Sage perennial seed/cuttings 18" leaves as needed
Cumin annual seed 1" seed when ripe Savory annual seed 12" leaves as needed
Dill annual seed 12" seed- as needed Tarragon perennial cuttings/ 12" leaves as needed
heads division
Fennel perennial seed 12" seed when ripe Thyme perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves/ as needed
leaves as needed flowers




4










Harvesting and Curing to flower and mature seed for planting each season. Seeds
should be thoroughly dry before storing, to prevent loss of
The seeds, leaves, flowering tops and occasionally the viability for planting and to prevent molding or loss of
roots of the herbs are used for flavoring purposes. Their quality. After curing for several days in an airy room, a day
flavor is due for the most part to a volatile or essential oil or two in the sun will insure safekeeping.
contained in leaves, seeds and fruits. The flavor is retained As soon as the herb leaves or seed are dry, they should
longer if the herbs are harvested at the right time and be cleaned by separating them from stems and other foreign
properly cured and stored. The young tender leaves can be matter and packed in suitable containers to prevent loss of
gathered and used fresh at any time during the season, but essential oils that give herbs their delicate flavor. Glass,
for later use they should be harvested when the plants begin metal or cardboard containers that can be closed tightly
to flower and should be dried rapidly in a well-ventilated, will preserve the aroma and flavor. Glass jars make satisfac-
darkened room. If the leaves are dusty or gritty, they tory containers, but they must be painted or stored in a
should be washed in cold water and thoroughly drained dark room to prevent bleaching of the green leaves by light.
before drying.
The tender-leaf herbs (basil, costmary, tarragon, lemon Sources of Seed and Plants
balm, and the mints) which have a high moisture content,
must be dried rapidly away from the light if they are to Seed and planting stock of the savory herbscan be obtain-
retain their green color. If dried too slowly, they will turn ed from a number of established herb gardens and seedsmen
dark and/or moldy. For this reason a well-ventilated, as well as from many vegetable seed mail order firms in
darkened room, such as an attic or other dry airy room, various parts of the country. Some dealers make a specialty
furnishes ideal conditions for curing these herbs in a short of handling rooted plants, while others handle both plants
time. The less succulent leaf herbs (sage, rosemary, thyme and seed. Usually the seed of the more common herbs-sage,
and summer savory) which contain less moisture, can be dill, fennel, parsley, celery and chive-can be obtained from
partially dried in the sun without affecting their color, but local seed retailers, while the less common ones can be pur-
excessive exposure should be avoided, chased only from those specializing in savory herbs. Most
The seed crops should be harvested when they are mature herb specialty businesses supply a free catalog of available
or when their color changes from green to brown or gray. A material and prices upon request. Herb transplants are
few plants of the annual varieties might be left undisturbed available at many local retail stores.


Herbs In The Florida Garden


Herb Growth Propagation Spacing Main When Herb Growth Propagation Spacing Main When
Cycle Part to Cycle Part to
Used Harvest Used Harvest


Anise annual seed 12" seed when ripe Garlic perennial cloves 6" bulb when mature
Basil annual seed 12" leaves as needed Ginger perennial root division 24" rhizome when mature
Borage annual seed 12" flowers as needed Ginseng perennial seed/seedlings 12" root when mature
Caraway biennial seed 12" seed slightly Horehound perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves before bloom
unripe Lemon balm perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves as needed
Cardamom perennial division 18" seed slightly Lovage perennial seed/plants 12" leaves as needed
unripe Marjoram perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves as needed
Catnip perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves as needed Mint perennial cuttings/ 12" leaves as needed
Chervil annual seed 12" leaves as needed division
Chives perennial seed/division 8" leaves as needed Oregano perennial division 24" leaves dry leaves
Comfrey perennial root cuttings 18" leaves as needed Parsley biennial seed 12" leaves dry leaves
Coriander annual seed 12" seed when ripe Rosemary perennial seed/cuttings 24" leaves as needed
Costmary perennial seed/division 12" leaves as needed Sage perennial seed/cuttings 18" leaves as needed
Cumin annual seed 1" seed when ripe Savory annual seed 12" leaves as needed
Dill annual seed 12" seed- as needed Tarragon perennial cuttings/ 12" leaves as needed
heads division
Fennel perennial seed 12" seed when ripe Thyme perennial seed/cuttings 12" leaves/ as needed
leaves as needed flowers




4









Anise Borage

Anise (Pimpinella an/sum) is a small (two feet or less) Borage (Borage off/cinalis) is also known as burrage and
annual plant grown for its seeds. Because of its many white common bugloss. It grows well in Florida, producing a large,
flowers, the plant is attractive in a flower garden or as a spreading plant with whitish hairy bristles. It has pretty
border plant. In Gainesville, it makes fair but slow growth blue or purple star-like flowers, and is attractive in a flower
with only a minimum of care. Start plants by seeding in the garden. The flowers are used fresh to garnish beverages and
spring or fall or grow in the winter in south Florida. Cover salads. In the spring or fall, seeds of this annual should be
seeds one-fourth inch deep, thin seedlings to leave 2 to 3 planted thickly one-fourth inch deep, and seedlings thinned
plants per foot in an 18 inch wide row (or seed one plant in to about 6 inches apart. The plant has a cucumber-like odor
a 6-inch pot if container grown). Harvest the seeds when and flavor.
they turn brown, separating the seeds from the fruiting
structures umbelss). Some drying of the umbels may be Cardamom
necessary first before seeds are separated, cleaned and
stored. Leaves may be used fresh. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is a tropical, peren-
nial herb whose top regrows each year from an underground
Basil rhizome. Little is known about culture of cardamom in
Florida, but normally it reaches 5 to 10 feet tall with
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a pleasant smelling two foot long sheathed/pointed leaves which are smooth
annual plant with a spicy taste. There are many types, some and dark-green above, pale and finely silky beneath. Small
large and some small, with a range of leaf colors from green yellowish flowers are produced near the ground, which then
to purple to variegated. Basil grows well in Florida, and form oblong ribbed capsules. Seeds contained in these dried
is attractive as a potted plant. Plant seeds of this annual capsules are used to flavor and give aroma to coffee, candies,
one-fourth inch deep, fairly thick and thin seedlings to cookies and other pastries. Dry the capsules in the sun for
about three inches apart in the row. Plant in the early three days.
spring or fall. The green tender leaves may be used fresh at
any time, or dried along with the white flowers.
I-"

Salad Basil "



Anisei '-

Italian Basil Basil ,
..."j d ,,-" '^ "" -; ^" -.
: *r '- ,-


,- '.. 1- T .9 "





-. ^ "- j._ _"



S .'. !- "''
'" j~~lt ;5

















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1.-... t : : .. .. '. , -,






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u1 -A -
'l a a c .- h 'm '. a t o .g i h c C an"








Catnip (Nepeta c-ataria), also called catmint, is little











ment properties. Cats like its aroma and taste. Catnip is a Chervil
perennial plant three to five feet high with square stems
covered with fine whitish hairs. The 1 to 2-inch long











heart-shaped leaves have scalloped notches around the.
margins. Leaf color is grayish green; flowers, formed in, .
small spikes, are whitish dotted with purple.
Catnip may be started from seed or cuttings. In Florida,
it grows well from seeds planted in the spring, but is slow to

plant. Thin plants to stand 12 inches apart. Plants may be .
transplanted to other areas or to pots. The leaves should be 1 1
picked as needed. ..

Chervil ...
--..




















Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) is an annual plant grown
for its aromatic, decorative leaves. It resembles parsley in
growth habit, but tastes and smells much like tarragon. perennial which grows 4 to 5 feet high. Leaves are 5 inches
Some forms have thick roots eaten like carrots. Not much wide by 12 inches long, covered on the top surface by
information is available on its adaptability to Florida, but many short hairy bristles. The leaves appearto be stacked
those wishing to try chervil should sow seeds one-fourth one upon the other, larger at the base than at the top,
inch deep in the spring or fall; thin to stand 3 inches apart forming a large clump. Drooping bell-shaped flowers are
in the row. Leaves should be picked as needed to garnish blue, white, purple, or pale yellow, depending on the
salads, soups, and other foods. species.
Comay be started from seed or cuttings. In Florida, frey does well in Florida gardens, growing year-round
Cower; thus, perhaps it would not be a desifrey and tolerating cold weather. The perennial plant should be
cut back yearly in January to reduce thatch and encourage
Cultivated co other amfrey (Sy or to phytum peregrinum), also new growth. Start cofrey in the spring from root or crown
called healing herb and knit-bone, is a hardy, herbaceous cuttings.


6
[ *., ''

for its aromatic, decorative leaves. It resembles parsley in









Comfrey nd tolerating cold weather. The perennial plant should be








Comfrey is used more for its medicinal value than as an Dill
herb or vegetable. Both the leaves and the long tap root are
used. Dill (Anethum graveolens) is the flavoring plant whose
young leaves and fully developed green fruits give dill
Coriander pickles their name. It is an erect, strong-smelling, fennel-like
annual plant reaching a height of 4 feet. Yellow flowers
Coriander sativum is a small-leaved flowering annual develop into fruiting structures. Dill grows well in Florida,
grown mainly for its aromatic seeds. It is attractive in the being produced commercially to a small extent and in many
flower garden or landscape due to its pretty flowers. Seeds home gardens. Seeds should be sown one-fourth inch deep,
should be planted in the fall, winter, or spring. Cover then seedlings thinned to 12 inches apart. November
seeds one-fourth to one-half inch deep and thin plants 3 to through December is the best planting time, although it
4 per foot. When the tiny fruits turn brown on maturity,
generally about three months after seeding, remove them .-.-- -*. i ..*."- -
from the plant and dry on a screen. Once dried, the seeds .
should be threshed from the fruiting structures and stored
in a dry, airtight container. The fresh foliage of coriander is 1'
also used in cooking. =-- i

Cumin ;
':. r \!1' 1,' ii ', '.'' ,- --, *.... ..
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a small annual plant of ". ''
the parsley family grown for its aromatic seeds. While --
seldom grown in Florida, it would appear to be adapted .
since it requires a long warm season. Plant seeds thickly in ",,a,''' '
rows 2 feet apart, in the spring in most of the state, or the ,, .
fall through spring in south Florida. Seeding structures are ; .
harvested upon turning brown, then dried; seeds are thresh- '
ed and stored. .... .
Dill
,- -....... .. ---- .1--' Comfrey


-, -: .. / I '
Coriander
.,-;.\.._._._. / ,-, ._. .*.!- .. -... :.
.- "..




.J I '


-.--. /,' '. ": i -'-^- . .,... , y,_ '-.' ,*" ,, .
.- ..,... ;'. '- ":- "




S ,. ... . ... / '" : ." ,
*f *t^ I '"- *.~ -


.-. I I
,",..' i T- ', .,-. i., ,. .... .:; i !'',: .
I~~ ='. '<. ". ..'' -'.. .. ','t '
i F. , .'. -- )" t P -' .. i 7_
..'f~~~i c ,-e l.- .-,,.,-,-i- l .. .








4.P7rfl .-wt1;r.1 < J' r 7- Tqj* r "''-. I I .
'7 *A. 45D4 A.F
*' -. 4. "l '' .. .. "" "+ ':
.. .. J
could be planted in the spring. Seeds usually are formed in























along with young leaves and portions of the stems.
.Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var dulce), also kno.



as sweet fennel, fetticus and finocchio, is grown mainly for
*.. '4 I, ,-* M '. l1 1 r ....... "





























the thickened, bulbous leaf base which is eaten as a cooked
4' '4' I






vegetable. Except for the swollen, above-gro d be of t .
















leaves on Florence fennel, the two are very similar in
'.,- -






























appearance and in their licorice-like flavoring. The plant
resembles dill, with narrow, finely feathered leaves, bright

structures. Sow seeds one-half inch deep in the fall or t
early winter, space pl ants 12 inches apart in rows three feet,
second year. ,
: a ' '
...... ... # '


.,,, %" 1 + \


















Garlic Ginger
Garlic (Aum sativum) is similar to onion, except Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a perennial plant which






instead of producing a single bulbous stem, it produces a produces well from Homestead to Pensacola. It is an erect



compound bulb consisting of groups of white or purplish perennial that grows from thick, white, tuberous, under-
loves enclosed by purplish membranous skin. The leaves ground rhizomes that are very aromatic. Flat, pointed,
..4. ,;|
Fe ne. .-;. ,-.,, -'


































reach 12 inches in height and are narrow but not hollow. sheathed leaves are about 1 foot long. Harvest the rhizomes
Fennel Cnig rr










Garlic could be planted in the similar to thats fusor oniuallyon arens. foSuggested inabout a year after planting when the stalks die down. After
labout n daeeys. Fruting tom ugh ue ued, Garlic is cleann, crai, boiig ad p i, dry te rio s i
oagate y division of loe s and pfinocion ting s s the hot su for t a w k..

























8
vegetable. Except for the swollen, above-ground base of the ..
Thleaves on Floren nel" is confusing sincere thery similar two "- -' '- .
appearits shoots, leaves and sein their licorice-liked as flavoring age nts in foods. ,' -
reas sweet fennedill, fetticus andarrow, finelyocchio, is f grown mainly for .. -. -- .," -...

ve getable. Except for then hollow swollenms, and umbrella-like bove-ground based of the -7- .. ,.'
leavstructures on Florence fenne-half, the two are very similall or in'' -- -, ...: ... '.'
appearlyance and in t hei r licorice-like flavort ing. rows three feeplant :.; ..-:''
reseonmbles dill, with narrow, finely feathered leaves, bright .. -.




Garlic Ginger
yellowish-green hollow single bulbous stem, it produces a produces well from Homestead to Pensacola. It is an erect
strucompound bulb consisting one-half oinch deep in the faor purplish perennial that grows from thick, white, tuberous, under-
early winter, space by purplisants 12 inches apart in rows three feet ground rhizomes that are very aromatic. Flat, pointed,
apart. Harvest, thresh and dare narrow but not hollow, sheathed leaves are about 1 foot long. Harvest the rhizomes





Garlic culture is similar to that for onions. Suggested about a year after planting when the stalks die down. After
planting dates are October through January. Garlic is cleaning, scraping, boiling and peeling, dry the rhizomes in
propagated by division of cloves and planting each as a set. the hot sun for about a week.


8









Ginseng thought to help relieve throat tickling and coughing. Curing
(drying) leaves in the shade preserves the color and flavor.
American ginseng (Paran quinquefolium) is also called
Chinese sang, ninsin, five fingers and seng. It is a fleshy-rooted Lemon Balm
herb native to cool and shady hardwood forests from Canada
to Northern Florida. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a perennial, lemon-
Reports indicate ginseng roots often decay when attempts scented herb belonging to the mint family. Since mint
are made to grow them under warm humid Florida summer grows so easily in Florida, lemon balm should do well also.
conditions. Ginseng plants are about 12 to 18 inches tall. The plants grow in clumps 2 feet high, with bright green,
Each stem has three or more compound leaves, with each lemon scented leaves. Plants are started from seeds or
leaf composed of five oblong-pointed leaflets. The fruit is a cuttings. Sow seeds shallow in the early spring, and space
bright crimson berry. The mature root, which is the part plants 18 inches apart. It may be two years before the plant
used, is spindle-shaped, 3 to 4 inches long, up to one inch forms a well-sized clump. Leaves and tender stems are used
thick, and usually forked with circular markings. fresh or dried to provide flavor and aroma to drinks, salads,
Ginseng must be grown in shade from seeds, seedlings, or or other dishes.
roots planted in the spring. From seeding to harvest usually
takes five to seven years. Lovage
The main users of ginseng are Orientals who believe the
dried roots have stimulative properties. Beverages, such as Lovage (Levisticum officinale) is a tall perennial herb
tea, are sometimes flavored with ground ginseng roots. which smells, tastes and looks like leaves of celery. Not much
information is available on its culture in Florida. Normally, it
Horehound

Horehound (Marrubium vulgare) is a perennial herb, 1 to Lemon Balm
3 feet in height, with hairy oval to near-round leaves. It
occurs as a weed in many parts of the United States, and
grows quite well in Florida herb gardens. Seed should be
planted in the spring one-fourth inch deep, with plants
spaced 12 to 18 inches apart. Seed germination may be
slow. Plants can be transplanted, or old plants divided and. ..
replanted. Leaves and stems are harvested as needed. One
of the main usages is in making horehound candy, which is


Horehound


E4F

'-- Lovage








'


L -- ...
L- -* -.' L L *

h 0- .i >- !'% ', ." ; :"
- ;* *. . '.























f I I V -

iL. -








is started from seeds or transplants, spaced 8 to 10 inches
apart in the row. The leaves and stems are used fresh as -
needed. Other useful parts are seeds and oil extracted from ofi,-
the roots.

Marjoram

There are three kinds of marjoram commonly used as sprigs for new plants. In Florida, many of the mints grow
herbs: Sweet marjoram (Origanum marjorana) pot marjoram profusely in shade or full sun. The leaves and flowering tops
(0. onites) and wild marjoram (0. vulgare) (see Oregano). are the useful parts, both fresh and dried.
Sweet and pot marjoram are the ones usually grown in
herb gardens. The perennial plants are very similar, except Oregano
sweet marjoram tends to grow upright while pot marjoram
runs along the ground. Space pot marjoram about 12 inches Oregano is recognized to be of two main types, Mexican
apart in the row and sweet marjoram 6 inches. Plants can be (Lippia graveolens) and European (Origanum vulgare). The
started early in the spring from seeds, cuttings or clump latter is also called wild marjoram. The two types are
divisions. The leaves are used fresh or dried. Marjoram is dissimilar in taste, but alike in usage. The European is
sufficiently attractive to make an excellent border planting much milder. Both types may be grown from seed sown in
for a flower garden. the spring or propagated by cuttings. Cut the tender tops of
both herbs just as flowering begins.
Mint
Parsley
The mints are some of the most easy-to-grow perennial
herbs for Florida gardens. Several species of Mentha are Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) grows well in Florida
represented in this group. Spearmint (Mentha spicata) and gardens. While the curly-leaf type is most commonly grown,
peppermint (M. piperita) are two of the more popular the plain-leaf and the rooting types are frequently included
along with apple and orange mints. Leaves are dark green, in gardens. Parsley is a cool-season vegetable, best planted
small and pointed, with slightly notched margins. Small in late fall or winter. Seeds should be sown one-fourth inch
flowers are whitish, bluish, or violet. Mint should be started deep, fairly thickly, then seedlings thinned to 6 inches
in moist soil, using surface or underground runners as apart. The leaves are used fresh or dried as flavoring or as a


10
sufiiety ttatie omae nexelet ore panig uc iler ot tps ayb gow ro se 10ni









decorative garnish. The rooting types are useful as a cooked flowers make it compatible with the flower garden. Winter
vegetable, particularly in soups, savory is a woody but weak-stemmed perennial herb with
narrow, pointed leaves. It branches considerably and forms
Rosemary blossoms less than one-fourth inch long. Summer savory is
started in the spring from seed, with plants spaced four
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a small half-hardy inches apart. Start winter savory likewise, except give each
perennial evergreen shrub with a very spicy aroma. Small,
narrow, dark-green leaves are borne on 2 to 3 foot long
spindly upright stems. Small pink flowers form in the
second or third year. Rosemary is better started from
cuttings than from seeds. Spot observations indicate that it ,' '
is adaptable to Florida. The fresh or dried mildly bitter- V,'.
tasting leaves are the parts used in cooking.

Sage / .

Sage (Salvia officinalis) is a medium-sized, 2-foot-tall
hardy perennial herb with grayish-green, oblong, pointed,, '
2 to 3-inch long leaves. Purple flowers bloom in the second "
year. While some difficulty may be experienced in starting- ;
sage, it grows well once established under Florida condi-
tions. Sage may be started in the fall through spring using --
seeds or cuttings. Young plants may be transplanted when -
small. As with most herbs, only a very few plants are '
needed for most families. Leaves are used fresh or dried. In .,, -
the landscape, sage is an attractive, low-growing border Win' Z* 'sx i i
plant. R O M .

Savory Rosemary
Sage
Savory is classified as summer savory (Satureja hortensis) .
and winter savory (Satureja montana). The annual summer
savory has been tried more in Florida with satisfactory
results, although seeds are slow to germinate. It averages 12
to 18 inches high, has upright, branching stems and gray-
green, pointed leaves. The small, pretty, pinkish-white

Curly Parsley and Broadleaf Parsley










1 1
,..-




N I A.-





















i r .










1_ -- -: _________
;Thyme


S .. .. Savory
't.. .' -A .













represented by a fairly wide variety of shapes and sizes.
.Savory







Tarragon Usually, it is a small growing plant less than 11/2 feet tall,
with very tiny, one-fourth inch long, gray-green leaves.
Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) is a perennial herb Purplish flowers are formed at the ends of the stems. In
with very narrow, pointed, dark-green leaves. The plant, Florida, start the plants from seeds sown one-fourth inch
which reaches a height of 2 feet, produces few flowers and deep in the fall or early spring, or even winter in south
should be killed back in the winter. Tarragon does not Florida. In Florida trials, seeds were slow to germinate,
fare well in Florida due to summer heat and humidity. It is and seedlings made slow initial growth. Space plants 12
not commonly grown from seed, but rather from root or inches apart. Replant thyme every three to four years for
crown divisions. In the spring, set them 1 foot apart. Fresh best growth. To use, remove the top one-third portion of
leaves may be used, or dry them rapidly away from light so the plant when in ful bloom and spread on newspaper in a
they will not turn dark. Store in tight jars to preserve the well-ventilated room to dry. Then, strip the leaves and
licorice aroma. flowering tops from the stem and store in tightly closed
containers.





This publication was promulgated at a cost of $3,077.50, or 17 cents per copy, to inform Florida gardeners about grow-
ing herbs. 10-18M-84.

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
SCIENCES, K. R. Tefertlller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this Infor-
mation to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to provide research, educa-
tional Information and other services only to individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or
national origin. Single cones of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are available free to Florida
residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from
C. M. Hinton, Publications Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Before publicizing this
publication, editors should contact this address to determine availability.


12




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