The History of Sandford and Merton

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Material Information

Title:
The History of Sandford and Merton a book for the young
Uncontrolled:
Sandford and Merton
Physical Description:
429 p., 3 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 18 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Day, Thomas, 1748-1789
Thomas Nelson & Sons ( Publisher )
Publisher:
T. Nelson and Sons
Place of Publication:
London
Edinburgh
New York
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1872

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Boys -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Boys -- Education -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Friendship -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Country life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Courage -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Friendship -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Prejudices -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Dialogues -- 1872   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1874
Genre:
novel   ( marcgt )
Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Dialogues   ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
United States -- New York -- New York

Notes

Summary:
Under the tutelage of Mr. Barlow, two boys, one rich, one poor, are familiarized with the emerging bourgeois values of eighteenth-century England.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Thomas Day.
General Note:
Added title-page and plates printed in colors.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
notis - ALK0532
oclc - 14341781
alephbibnum - 002248807
System ID:
UF00027950:00001

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THE HISTORY

OF


SANDFORD AND MERTON:



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BY

THOMAS DAY.






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LONDON:
T NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW;
EDINBULGII; AND NEW YORiK.
S1872.















THE HISTORY

OF

SANDFORD AND MERTON.

----------

IN the western part of England lived a gentleman of
great fortune, whose name was Merton. lie had a
large estate in the island of Jamaica, where he had
passed the greater part of his life, and was master of
many servants, who cultivated sugar and other valua-
ble things for his advantage. He had only one son, of
whom he was excessively fond; and to educate this
child properly, was the reason of his determining to
stay some years in England. Tommy Merton, who, at
the time he came from Jamaica, was only six years
old, was naturally a very good-natured boy, but unfor-
tunately had been spoiled by too much indulgence.
While he lived in Jamaica, he had several black ser-
vants to wait upon him, who were forbidden upon any
account to contradict him. If he walked, there always
went two negroes with him; one of whom carried a
large umbrella to keep the sun from him, and the other
was to carry him in his arms whenever he was tired.
Besides this, he was always dressed in silk or lace
clothes, and had a fine gilded carriage, which was
borne upon men's shoulders, in which he made visits
to his play-fellows. His mother was so excessively
fond of him, that she gave him everything he cried for





10 THlE HISTORY o01

and would never let him learn to read, because lie coml-
plained that it made his head acle.
The consequence of this was, that though Master
Merton had everything he wanted, he became very
fretful and unhappy. Sometimes he ate sweetmeats
till he made himself sick, and then he suffered a great
deal of pain, because he would not take bitter physic
to make him well. Sometimes he cried for things that
it was impossible to give him, and then, as he had
never been used to be contradicted, it was many hours
before he could be pacified. When any company came
to dine at the house, he was always to be helped first,
and to have the most delicate parts of the meat, other-
wise he would make such a noise as disturbed the
whole company. When his father and mother were
sitting at the tea-table with their friends, instead of
waiting till they were at leisure to attend him, he would
scramble upon the table, seize the cake and bread and
butter, and frequently overset the tea-cups. By these
pranks he not only made himself disagreeable to every
body else, but often met with very dangerous accidents.
Frequently did he cut himself with knives, at other
times throw heavy things upon his head, and once he
narrowly escaped being scalded to death by a kettle of
boiling water. He was also so delicately brought up,
that he was perpetually ill; the least wind or rain gave
him a cold, and the least sun was sure to throw him
into a fever. Instead of playing about, and jumping
and running like other children, he was taught to sit
still for fear of spoiling his clothes, and to stay in the
house for fear of injuring his complexion. By this kind
of education, when Master Merton came over to Eng-
land, he could neither write, nor read, nor cipher; he
could use none of his limbs with ease, nor bear any
degree of fatigue; but he was very proud, fretful, and
impatient.





SANDFORD AND MERTON 11
Very near to Mr. Merton's seat lived a plain, honest
farmer, whose name was Sandford. This man had, like
Mr. Merton, an only son, not much older than Master
Merton, whose name was Harry. Harry, as he had
been always accustomed to run about in the fields, to
follow the labourers while they were ploughing, and
to drive the sheep to their pasture, was active, strong,
lardy, and fresh-coloured. He was neither so fair, nor
so delicately shaped as Master Merton; but he had an
honest, good-natured countenance, which made every
body love him; was never out of humour, and took
the greatest pleasure in obliging everybody. If little
Harry saw a poor wretch who wanted victuals while
lie was eating his dinner, he was sure to give him half,
and sometimes the whole: nay, so very good-natured
was he to everything, that he would never go into the
fields to take the eggs of poor birds, or their young
ones, nor practise any other kind of sport which gave
pain to poor animals; who are as capable of feeling as
we ourselves, though they have no words to express
their sufferings. Once, indeed, Harry was caught
twirling a cockchafer round, which he had fastened by
a crooked pin to a long piece of thread: but then this
was through ignorance and want of thought: for, as
soon as his father told him that the poor helpless in-
sect felt as much, or more than he would do, were a
knife thrust through his hand, he burst into tears, and
took the poor animal home, where he fed him during
a fortnight upon fresh leaves; and, when he was per-
fectly recovered, turned him out to enjoy liberty and
the fresh air. Ever since that time, Harry was so care-
ful and considerate, that he would step out of the way
for fear of hurting a worm, and employed himself in
doing kind offices to all the animals in the neighbour-
hood. He used to stroke the horses as they were at
work, and fill his pockets with acorns for the pigs: if






12 TIE HISTORY 0O1
I)e walked in the fields, he was sure to gather green
boughs for the sheep, who were so fond of him, that
they followed him wherever he went. In the winter
time, when the ground was covered with frost and
snow, and the poor little birds could get at no food, he
would often go supperless to bed, that he might feed
the robin-redbreasts. Even toads, and frogs, and spi-
ders, and such kind of disagreeable animals, which
most people destroy wherever they find them, were
perfectly safe with Harry: he used to say, they had a
right to live as well as we, and that it was cruel and
unjust to kill creatures, only because we did not like
them.
These sentiments made little Harry a great favourite
with every body; particularly with the clergyman of
the parish, who became so fond of him, that he taught
him to read and write, and had him almost always
with him. Indeed, it was not surprising that Mr. Bar-
low showed so particular an affection for him; for be-
sides learning, with the greatest readiness, every thing
that was taught him, little Harry was the most honest,
obliging creature in the world. He was never discon-
tented, nor did he ever grumble, whatever he was de-
sired to do. And then you might believe Harry in
everything he said; for though he could have gained
a plumb-cake by telling an untruth, and was sure that
speaking the truth would expose him to a severe whip-
ping, he never hesitated in declaring it. Nor was he
like many other children, who place their whole hap-
piness in eating; for give him but a morsel of dry
bread for his dinner, and he would be satisfied, though
you placed sweetmeats and fruit, and every other
nicety, in his way.
With this little boy did Master Merton become ac-
quainted in the following manner:-As he and the
maid were once walking in the fields on a fine summer's











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SANDFORD AND MERTON, 1i
morning, diverting themselves with gathering different
kinds of wild flowers, and running after butterflies, a
large snake, on a sudden, started up from among some
long grass, and coiled itself round little Tommy's leg.
You may imagine the fright they were both in at this
accident: the maid ran away shrieking for help, while
the child, who was in an agony of terror, did not dare
to stir from the place where he was standing. Harry,
who happened to be walking near the place, came run-
ning up, and asked what was the matter! Tommy, who
was sobbing most piteously, could not find words to
tell him, but pointed to his leg, and made Harry sensi-
ble of what had happened. Harry, who, though young,
was a boy of a most courageous spirit, told him not to
be frightened; and instantly seizing the snake by the
neck with as much dexterity as resolution, tore him
from Tommy's leg, and threw him to a great distance
off.
Just as this happened, Mrs. Merton and all the family,
alarmed by the servant's cries, came running breathless
to the place, as Tommy was recovering his spir-ts, and
thanking his brave little deliverer. Her first emotions
were to catch her darling up in her arms, and, after
giving him a thousand kisses, to ask him whether he
had received any hurt ?--" No," said Tommy, indeed
I have not, mamma; but I believe that nasty, ugly beast
would have bitten me, if that little boy had not come
and pulled him off."-" And who are you, my dear,"
said she, to whom we are all so obliged ? "-" Harry
Sandford, madam."-" Well, my child, you are a dear,
brave little creature, and you shall go home and dine
with us."-" No, thank you, madam; my father will
want me."-" And who is your father, my sweet boy ?"
-" Farmer Sandford, madam, that lives at the bottom
of the hill."-" Well, my dear, you shall be my child
henceforth; will you ? "-" If you please, madam, if I
may have my own father and mother too."
Jn






14 TIE HISTORY OF
Mrs. Merton instantly despatched a servant to the
Farmer's; and, taking little Harry by the hand, she led
him to the mansion-house, where she found Mr. Mer-
ton, whom she entertained with a long account of
Tommy's danger and Harry's bravery.
Harry was now in a new scene of life. He was car-
ried through costly apartments, where everything tlat
could please the eye, or contribute to convenience, was
assembled. He saw large looking-glasses in gilded
frames, carved tables and chairs, curtains made of the
finest silk, and the very plates, and knives, and forks,
were silver. At dinner he was placed close to Mrs.
Merton, who took care to supply him with the choicest
bits, and engaged him to eat, with the most endearing
kindness; but, to the astonishment of everybody, he
neither appeared pleased nor surprised at anything
he saw. Mrs. Merton could not conceal her disap-
pointment; for, as she had always been used to a great
degree of finery herself, she had expected it should
make the same impression upon everybody else. At
last, seeing him eye a small silver cup with great at-
tention, out of which he had been drinking, she asked
him, whether he should not like to have such a fine
thing to drink out of ? and added, that, though it was
Tommy's cup, she was sure he would, with great plea-
sure, give it to his little friend.--" Yes, that I will,"
says Tommy ; for you know, mamma, I have a much
finer one than that, made of gold, besides two large
ones made of silver."-" Thank you with all my heart,"
said little Harry ; "but I will not rob you of it, for I
have a much better one at home."-" How !" said Mrs.
Merton, "does your father eat and drink out of silver ?"
-" I don't know, madam, what you call this; but we
drink at home out of long things made of horn, just
such as the cows wear upon their heads."-" The child
is a simpleton, I think," said Mrs. Merton : "and why






SANDFORD AND MERTON'. 15
is that better than silver ones ?"-" Because," said
Harry, "they never make us uneasy."-" Make you
uneasy, my child !" said Mrs. Merton, what do you
mean ?"-" Why, madam, when the man threw that
great thing down, which looks just like this, I saw
that you were very sorry about it, and looked as
if you had been just ready to drop. Now, ours at
home are thrown about by all the family, and nobody
minds it."-" I protest," said Mrs. Merton to her hus-
band, "I do not know what to say to this boy, he makes
such strange observations."
The fact was, that, during dinner, one of the servants
had thrown down a large piece of plate, which, as- it
was very valuable, had made Mrs. Merton not only look
very uneasy, but give the man a very severe scolding
for his carelessness.
After dinner, Mrs. Merton filled a large glass of
wine, and giving it to Harry, bade him drink it up;
but he thanked her, and said he was not dry.-" But,
my dear," said she, this is very sweet and pleasant,
and, as you are a good boy, you may drink it up."-
"Ay! but, madam, Mr. Barlow says, that we must only
eat when we are hungry, and drink when we are dry;
and that we must only eat and drink such things as are
easily met with; otherwise we shall grow peevish and
vex'd when we can't get them."
Upon my word," said Mr. Merton, "this little man
is a great philosopher; and we should be much obliged
to Mr. Barlow, if he would take our Tommy under his
care; for he grows a great boy, and it is time that he
should know something. What say you, Tommy, should
you like to be a philosopher ?"-" Indeed, papa, I don't
know what a philosopher is; but I should like to be a
king; because he's finer and richer than anybody else,
and has nothing to do, and everybody waits upon him,
and is afraid of him."-" Well said, my .dear," replied






16 ThE HISTORY
Mrs. Merton; and rose and kissed him; and a kinll
you deserve to be with such a spirit; and here's a glass
of wine for you for making such a pretty answer.-And
should not you like to be a king too, little Harry ?"-
" Indeed, madam, I don't know what that is; but I hope
I shall soon be big enough to go to plough, and get my
own living; and then I shall want nobody to wait
upon me."
"1 What a difference there is between the children of
farmers and gentlemen !" whispered Mrs. Merton to
her husband, looking rather contemptuously upon
Harry.-" I am not sure," said Mr. Merton, that for
this time the advantage is on the side of our son:-But
should not you like to be rich, my dear?" said lie, turn-
ing to Harry.--"No, indeed, sir."-"No, simpleton !"
said Mrs. Merton; "and why not ?"--" Because the only
rich man I ever saw, is Squire Chase, who lives hard
by; and he rides among people's corn, and breaks down
their hedges, and shoots their poultry, and kills their
dogs and lames their cattle, and abuses the poor; and
they say he does all this because he's rich; but every-
body hates him, though they dare not tell him so to his
face:-and I would not be hated for anything in thl
world."-"But should you not like to have a fine laced
coat, and a coach to carry you about, and servants to wait
upon you ?"-" As to that, madam, one coat is as good
as another, if it will but keep one warm; and I don't
want to ride, because I can walk wherever I choose;
and, as to servants, I should have nothing for them to
do, if I had a hundred of them." Mrs. Merton continued
to look at him with a sort of contemptuous astonish-
ment, but did not ask him any more questions.
In the evening, little Harry was sent home to his
father; who asked him what he had seen at the great
house, and how he liked being there -" Why," replied
Harry, "they were all very kind to me, for which I'm





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 17
much obliged to them: but I had rather have been at
home, for I never was so troubled in all my life to get
a dinner. There was one man to take away my plate,
and another to give me drink, and another to stand
behind my chair, just as if I had been lame or blind,
and could not have waited upon myself: and then
there was so much to do with putting this thing on, and
taking another off, I thought it would never have been
over: and, after dinner, I was obliged to sit two whole
hours without ever stirring, while the lady was talking
to me, not as Mr. Barlow does, but wanting me to love
fine clothes, and to be a king, and to be rich, that I may
be hated like Squire Chase."
But, at the mansion-house, much of the conversation,
in the mean time, was employed in examining the
merits of little Harry. Mrs. Merton acknowledged
his bravery and openness of temper; she was also
struck with the general good nature and benevolence
of his character ; but she contended that he had a cer-
tain grossness and indelicacy in his ideas, which dis-
tinguish the children of the lower and middling classes
of people from those of persons of fashion.-Mr. Mer-
ton, on the contrary, maintained that he had never
before seen a child whose sentiments and disposition
would do so much honour even to the most elevated
situations. Should I appear more warm than usual
upon this subject, you must pardon me," said he, "and
attribute it to the interest I feel in the welfare of our
little Tommy. I am too sensible, that our mutual fond-
ness has hitherto induced us to treat him with too much
indulgence. While we have been over-solicitous to
remove from him every painful and disagreeable im-
pression, we have made him too delicate and fretful:
our desire of constantly consulting his inclinations has
made us gratify even his caprices and humours; and,
while we have been too studious to preserve him from






18 THE HISTORY OF
restraint and opposition, we have in reality been our-
selves the cause that he has not acquired even the
common attainments of his age and situation. All this
I have long observed in silence; but have hitherto
concealed, both from my fondness for our child, and
my fear of offending you: but at length a considera-
tion of his real interests has prevailed over every other
motive, and has compelled me to embrace a resolution,
which I hope will not be disagreeable to you,-that of
sending him directly to Mr. Barlow, provided he would
take the care of him: and I think this accidental
acquaintance with young Sandford may prove the luck-
iest thing in the world, as he is so nearly of the age
and size of our Tommy. I will therefore propose to
the Farmer, that I will for some years pay for the
board and education of his little boy, that he may be a
constant companion to our son."
As Mr. Merton said this with a certain degree of
firmness, and the proposal was in itself so reasonable
and necessary, Mrs. Merton did not make any objection
to it, but consented, although very reluctantly, to part
with her son. Mr. Barlow was accordingly invited to
dinner the next Sunday, and Mr. Merton took an oppor-
tunity of introducing the subject, and making the pro-
posal to him; assuring him, at the same time, that,
though there was no return within the bounds of his
fortune which he would not willingly make, yet the
education and improvement of his son were objects of
so much importance to him, that he should always con-
sider himself as the obliged party.
To this, Mr. Barlow, after thanking Mr. Merton for
the confidence and liberality with which he treated
him, answered in the following manner:-" I should be
little worthy of the distinguished regard with which
you treat me, did I not with the greatest sincerity
assure you, that I feel myself totally unqualified for





SANDF0RD AND MERTON. 19
such a task. I am, sir, a minister of the Gospel, and I
would not exchange that character, and the severe
duties it enjoins, for any other situation 'in life. But
you must be sensible, that the retired manner of life
which I have led for these twenty years, in consequence
of my profession, at a distance from the gaieties of the
capital and the refinements of polite life, is little adapt-
ed to form such a tutor as the manners and opinions of
the world require for your son. Gentlemen in your
situation of life are accustomed to divide the world
into two general classes; those that are persons of
fashion, and those that are not. The first class con-
tains everything that is valuable ii. life; and therefore
their manners, their prejudices, their very vices, must
be inculcated upon the minds of children from the ear-
liest period of infancy: the second comprehends the
great body of mankind, who, under the general name
of the Vulgar, are represented as being only objects of
contempt and disgust, and scarcely worthy to be put on
a footing with the very beasts that contribute to the
pleasure and convenience of their superiors."
Mr. Merton could not help interrupting Mr. Barlow
here, to assure him, that though there was too much
truth in the observation, yet he must not think that
either he or Mrs. Merton, carried things to that ext. -
vagant length; and that, although they wished their
son to have the manners of a man of fashion, they
thought his morals and religion of infinitely more con-
sequence.
"If you think so, sir," said Mr. Barlow, "it is more
than a noble Lord did, whose written opinions are now
considered as the oracles of polite life, and more than,
I believe, most of his admirers do at this time. But if
you allow what I have just mentioned, to be the com-
mon distinctions of genteel people, you must at one
glance perceive how little I must be qualified to educate






20 THE HISTORY OF
a young gentleman intended to move in that irphere; I,
whose temper, reason, and religion, equally combine to
make me reject the principles upon which those dis-
tinctions are founded.-The Christian religion, though
not exclusively, is, emphatically speaking, the religion
of the poor. Its first ministers were taken from the
lower orders of mankind, and to the lower orders of
TVnkiind was it first proposed; and in this, instead of
feeling myself mortified or ashamed, I am the more
inclined to adore the wisdom and benevolence of that
Power, by whose command it was first promulgated.
Those who engross the riches and advantages of this
world, are too much ein loyed with their pleasures and
ambition, to be much interested about any system,
either of religion or of morals: they too frequently
feel a species of habitual intoxication, which excludes
every serious thought, and makes them view with in-
difference everything but the present moment. Those,
on the contrary, to whom all the hardships and miser-
ies of this world are allotted as their natural portion,-
those who eat the bread of bitterness, and drink the
waters of affliction, have more interest in futurity, and
are therefore more prepared to receive the promises of
the Gospel. Yes, sir; mark the disingenousness of
many of our modern philosophers; they quarrel with
the Christian religion, because it has not yet penetrated
the deserts of Africa, or arrested the wandering hordes
of Tartary ; yet they ridicule it for the meanness of its
origin, and because it is the gospel of the poor : that is
to say, because it is expressly calculated to inform the
judgments, and alleviate the miseries, of that vast pro-
miscuous body, which constitutes the Majestic species
of Man.-But for whom would these philosophers have
Heaven itself interested, if not for the mighty whole
which it has created ? Poverty, that is to say, a state
of labour and frequent self-denial, is the natural statc





SANDFORD AND METON. 21
of man ; it is the state of all, in the happiest and most
equal governments, the state of nearly all in every
country; it is a state in which all the faculties both of
body and mind are always found to develop them-
sieves with the most advantage, and in which the moral
feelings have generally the greatest influence. The
accumulation of riches, on the contrary, can never in-
crease, but by the increasing poverty and degradation
of those whom Heaven has created equal: a thousand
cottages are thrown to afford space for a single palace.
How benevolently therefore has Heaven acted, in thus
extending its blessings to all who do not disqualify
themselves for the reception by voluntary hardness of
heart! how wisely, in thus opposing a continual bound-
ary to human pride and sensuality; two passions the
most fatal in their effects, and the most apt to desolate
the world !-And shall a minister of that Gospel, con-
scious of these great truths, and professing to govern
himself by their influence, dare to preach a different
doctrine, and flatter those excesses, which he must
know are equally contrary both to reason and religion?
shall he become the abject sycophant of human great-
ness, and assist it in trampling all relations of humanity
beneath its feet, instead of setting before it the severe
duties of its station, and the account which will one
day be expected of all the opportunities of doing good,
so idly, so irretrievably lost and squandered ?-But I
beg pardon, sir, for that warmth which has transported
me so far, and made me engross so much of the con-
versation. But it will at least have this good effect,
that it will demonstrate the truth of what I have beer
saying; and show, that, though I might undertake the
education of a farmer, or a mechanic, I shall never
succeed in that of a modern gentleman,"
Sir," replied Mr. Merton, there is nothing which
I now hear from you, which does not increase my






"22 THE HISTORY OF
esteem of your character, and my desire to engage
your assistance. Permit me only to ask, whether, in
the present state of things, a difference of conditions
and an inequality of fortune are not necessary, and, if
necessary, I should infer, not contrary to the spirit of
Christianity ?"
"1 So it is declared, sir, that offences must come : but
that does not prevent a severe denunciation against the
offenders. But, if you wish to know, whether I am
one of those enthusiasts, who are continually preaching
up an ideal state of perfection, totally inconsistent with
human affairs, I will endeavour to give you every satis-
faction upon the subject.-If you mean by difference of
conditions and inequality of fortunes, that the present
state of human affairs, in every society we are ac-
quainted with, does not admit that perfect equality
which the purer interpretations of the Gospel inculcate,
I certainly shall not disagree with you in opinion. He
that formed the human heart certainly must be ac-
quainted with all the passions to which it would be
subject; and if, under the immediate dispensation of
Christ himself, it was found impossible for a rich man
to give his possessions to the poor, that degree of purity
will hardly be expected now, which was not found in
the origin.-But here, sir, permit me to remark, how
widely the principles of genuine Christianity differ
from that imaginary scheme of ideal perfection, equally
inconsistent with human affairs and human characters,
which many of its pretended friends would persuade
us to believe it: and, as comparisons sometimes throw
a new and sudden light upon a subject, give me leave
to use one here, which I think bears the closest analogy
to what we are now considering.-Were some physi-
cian to arise, who, to a perfect knowledge of all pre-
ceding medical facts, had added, by a more than human
skill, a knowledge of the most secret principles of the





SANFFORD AND MERTON. 23
human frame; could he calculate, with an accuracy that
never was deceived, the effect of every cause that could
act upon our constitutions; and, were he inclined, as
the result of all his science and observation, to leave a
rule of life that might remain unimpeached to the
latest posterity, I ask, what kind of one would he
form ?"
"I suppose one,' said Mr. Merton, "that was the
most adapted to the general circumstances of the hu-
man species, and which observed, would confer the
greatest degree of health and vigour."
"Right !" said Mr. Barlow : "I ask again, whether,
observing the common luxury and intemperance of the
rich he would take his directions from the usages of a
polite table, and recommend that heterogeneous assem-
blage of contrary mixtures, high seasonings, poignant
sauces, fermented and distilled poisons, which is con-
tinually breeding diseases in their veins, as the best
means of preserving, or regaining health ?"
"Certainly not. That were to debase his heart, and
sanction abuses, instead of reforming them."
Would he not, then, recommend simplicity of diet,
light repasts, early slumbers, and moderate exercise in
the open air, if he judged them salutary to human na-
ture, even though fashionable prejudice had stamped
all these particulars with the mark of extreme vul-
garity ?"
Were lie to act otherwise, lie must forfeit all pre-
tensions either to honesty or skill."
Let us then apply all this to the mind, instead of
the body, and suppose for an instant, that some legis-
lator, either human or divine, who comprehended all
the secret springs that govern the mind, was preparing
a universal code for all mankind; must he not imitate
the physician, and deliver general truths, however un-
palatable, however repugnant to particular prejudices,






24 THE HISTORY OF

since upon the observance of these truths alone the
happiness of the species must depend ?"
"(I think so, indeed."
"6 Should such a person observe, that an immoderate
desire and accumulation of riches, a love of ostentatious
trifles, unnecessary splendour in all that relates to hu-
man life, and an habitual indulgence of sensuality,
tended not only to produce evil in all around, but even
in the individual himself, who suffered the tyranny of
these vices; how would you have the legislator act '
Should he be silent ?"
"( No certainly: he should arraign these pernicious
habitudes by every mean within his power; by pre-
cept, by example."
"Should he also observe, that riches employed in
another manner, in removing the real miseries of hu-
lnanity, in cherishing, comforting, and supporting all
around, produced a contrary effect, and tended equally
to make the obliged and obliger happy; should he
conceal this great eternal truth, or should he divulge
it with all the authority he possessed, conscious, that
in whatever degree it became the rule of human life,
in the same degree would it tend to the advantage of
all the world ?"
"There cannot be a doubt upon the subject."
But, should he know, either by the spirit of pro.
phecy, or by intuitive penetration, that the majority of
mankind would never observe these rules to any great
degree, but would be blindly precipitated by their
passions into every excess against which he so bene-
volently cautioned them; should this be a reason for
his withdrawing his precepts and admonitions, or foi
seeming to approve what was in its own nature most
pernicious ?
"As prudent would it be to pull off the bridle when
we mounted an impetuous horse, because we doubted





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 25
of our power to hold him in; or to increase his mad-
ness by the spur, when it was already too great before.
Thus, sir, you will perceive, that the precepts of the
Christian religion are founded upon the most perfect
knowledge of the human heart, as they furnish a con-
tinual barrier against the most destructive passions,
and the most subversive of human happiness. Your
own concessions sufficiently prove, that it would have
been equally derogatory to truth, and the common in-
terests of the species, to have made the slightest con-
cessions, in favour either of human pride or sensuality.
Your extensive acquaintance with mankind will suffi-
ciently convince you, how prone the generality are to
give an unbounded loose to these two passions: neither
the continual experience of their own weakness, nor of
the fatal effects which are produced by vicious indul-
gences, has yet been capable of teaching them either
humility or moderation. What then could the wisest
legislator do, more useful, more benevolent, more ne-
cessary, than to establish general rules of conduct,
which have a continual tendency to restore moral and
natural order, and to diminish the wild inequality pro-
duced by pride and avarice ? Nor is there any greater
danger that these precepts should be too rigidly ob-
served, than that the bulk of mankind should injure
themselves by too abstemious a temperance. All that
can be expected from human weakness, even in work-
ing after the most perfect model, is barely to arrive at
mediocrity ; and, were the model less perfect, or the
duties less severe, there is the greatest reason to think
that even that mediocrity would never be attained.
Examine the conduct of those who are placed at a dis-
tance from all labour and fatigue, and you will find the
most trifling exertions act upon their imaginations with
the same force as the most insuperable difficulties.
"





2d- THE HISTORY OF
ine principles of Christian morality, I apprehend it will
not be difficult to deduce the duty of one who takes
upon him the office of its minister and interpreter. He
can no more have a right to alter the slightest of its
principles, than the magistrate can be justified in giv-
ing false interpretations to the laws. The more the cor-
ruptions of the world increase, the greater the obliga-
tion that he should oppose himself to their course; and
lie can no more relax in his opposition, than the pilot
can abandon the helm, because the winds and the waves
begin to augment their fury. Should he be despised,
or neglected by all the rest of the human species, let
him still persist in bearing testimony to the truth, both
in his precepts and example: the cause of virtue is not
desperate while it retains a single friend; should it
even sink for ever, it is enough for him to have dis-
charged his duty.-But, although he is thus restricted
as to what he shall teach, I do not assert, that it is im-
proper for him to use his understanding and experi-
ence as to the manner of his instructions. He is strictly
bound never to teach anything contrary to the purest
morality ; but he is not bound always to teach that
morality in its greatest extent. In that respect, he may
use the wisdom of the serpent, though guided by the
innocence of the dove. If, therefore, he sees the reign
of prejudice and corruption so firmly established, that
men would be offended with the genuine simplicity of
the Gospel, and the purity of its primeval doctrines, he
may so far moderate their rigour, as to prevent them
from entirely disgusting weak and luxurious minds. If
we cannot effect the greatest possible perfection, it is
still a material point to preserve from the grossest
vices. A physician that practises amongst the great,
may certainly be excused, though he should not be
continually advising the exercise, the regimen of the
poor; not, that the doctrine is not true, but that there





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 27
would not be the smallest probability of its ever being
adopted. But, although he never assents to that luxu-
rious method of life, which he is continually obliged to
see, he may content himself with only inculcating those
restrictions, which even the luxurious may submit to,
if they possess the smallest portion of understanding.
Should he succeed thus far, there is no reason for his
stopping in his career, or not enforcing a superior
degree of temperance ; but, should it be difficult to
persuade even so slight a restriction, he could hope for
no success, were he to preach up a Spartan or a Roman
diet. Thus the Christian minister may certainly use
his own discretion in the mode of conveying his in-
structions; and it is permitted him to employ all his
knowledge of the human heart in reclaiming men from
their vices, and winning them over to the cause of
virtue. By the severity of his own manners, he may
sufficiently evince the motives of his conduct; nor can
he, by any means, hope for more success, than if he
shows that he practises more than he preaches, and
uses a greater degree of indulgence to the failings of
others, than lie requires for his own."
"Nothing," said Mr. Merton, "can be more rational
or moderate than these sentiments; why then do you
persist in pleading your incapacity for an employment
which you can so well discharge ?"
Because," said Mr. Barlow, he that undertakes the
education of a child, undertakes the most important
duty in society, and is severally answerable for every
voluntary omission. The same mode of reasoning,
which I have just been using, is not applicable here.
It is out of the power of any individual, however stren-
uous may be his endeavours, to prevent the mass of
mankind from acquiring prejudices and corruptions;
and, when he finds them in that state, he certainly may
use all the wisdom he possesses for their reformation.






28 THE HISTORY OF
But this rule will never justify him, for an instant, in
giving false impressions where he is at liberty to instil
truth, and in losing the only opportunity which he per-
haps may ever possess, of teaching pure morality and
religion.-How will such a man, if he has the least feel-
ing, bear to see his pupil become a slave, perhaps, to the
grossest vices; and to reflect, with a great degree of
probability, that this catastrophe has been owing to his
own inactivity and improper indulgence ? May not all
human characters frequently be traced back to impres-
sions made at so early a period, that none but discern-
ing eyes would ever suspect their existence! Yet
nothing is more certain; what we are at twenty depends
upon what we were at fifteen; what we are at fifteen
upon what we were at ten: where shall we then place
the beginning of the series ?-Besides, sir, the very pre-
judices and manners of society, which seem to be an
excuse for the present negligence in the early education
of children, act upon my mind with a contrary effect.
Need we fear that, after every possible precaution has
been taken, our pupil should not give a sufficient loose
to his passions, or should be in danger of being too
severely virtuous? How glorious would be such a
distinction, how much to be wished for, and yet how
little to be expected by any one who is moderately
acquainted with the world! The instant he makes his
entrance there, he will find a universal relaxation and
indifference to everything that is serious; everything
will conspire to represent pleasure and sensuality as
the only business of human beings, and to throw a
ridicule upon every pretence to principle or restraint.
This will be the doctrine that he will learn at theatres,
from his companions, from the polite circles into which
he is introduced. The ladies too will have their share
in the improvement of his character : they will criticise
the colour of his clothes, his method of making a bow,





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 29
and of entering a room. They will teach him that the
great object of human life is to please the fair; and
that the only method of doing it is to acquire the graces.
Need we fear that, thus beset on every side, he should
not attach a sufficient importance to trifles, or grow
fashionably languid in the discharge of all his duties .
-Alas sir, it seems to me that this will unavoidably
happen in spite of all our endeavours. Let us then not
lose the important moment of human life, when it is
possible to flatter ourselves with some hopes of success
in giving good impressions: they may succeed; they
may either preserve a young man from gross immoral-
ity, or have a tendency to reform him, when the first
ardour of youth is past. If we neglect this awful
moment, which can never return ; with the view which,
I must confess, I have of modern manners, it appears
to me like launching a vessel in the midst of a storm,
without a compass and without a pilot."
Sir," said Mr. Merton, I will make no other answer
to what you have now been saying, than to tell you, it
adds, if possible, to my esteem of your character; and
that I will deliver my son into your hands, upon your
own conditions. And as to the terms--"
Pardon me," replied Mr. Barlow, "if I interrupt you
here, and give you another specimen of the singularity
of my opinions. I am contented to take your son for
some months under my care, and to endeavour by every
means within my power to improve him. But there is
one circumstance which is indispensable, that you per-
mit me to have the pleasure of serving you as a friend.
If you approve of my ideas and conduct, I will keep
him as long as you desire. In the mean time, as there
are, I fear, some little circumstances, which have grown
up by too much tenderness and indulgence, to be altered
in his character, I think that I shall possess more of the
necessary influence and authority, if I, for the present,






30 TlE HISTORY OP
appear to him and your whole family, rather in the
light of a friend than that of a schoolmaster."
However disagreeable this proposal was to the gene-
rosity of Mr. Merton, he was obliged to consent to it ;
and little Tommy was accordingly sent the next day to
the vicarage, which was at the distance of about two
miles from his father's house.
The day after Tommy came to Mr. U;3rlow's; as soon
as breakfast was over, he took him and Harry into the
garden: when he was there, he took a spade into his
own hand, and giving Harry a hoe, they both began to
work with great eagerness.-" Everybody that eats,"
said Mr. Barlow, ought to assist in procuring food:
and therefore little Harry and I begin our daily work:
this is my bed, and that other is his; we work upon it
every day, and he that raises the most out of it, will
deserve to fare the best.-Now, Tommy, if you choose
to join us, I will mark you out a piece of ground, which
you shall have to yourself, and all the produce shall be
your own."-"No, indeed," said Tommy, very sulkily,
"I am a gentleman, and don't choose to slave like a
ploughboy."-" Just as you please Mr. Gentleman," said
Mr. Barlow: "but Harry and I, who are not above
being useful, will mind our work."
In about two hours, Mr. Barlow said it was time to
leave off; and, taking Harry by the hand, he led him
into a very pleasant summer house, where they sat
down; and Mr. Barlow, taking out a plate of very fine
ripe cherries, divided them between Harry and himself.
Tommy, who had followed, and expected his share,
when he saw them both eating without taking any
notice of him, could no longer restrain his passion, but
burst into a violent fit of sobbing and crying.-" What
is the matter ?" said Mr. Barlow very coolly to him.
Tommy looked upon him very sulkily, but returned no
answer.--" Oh sir, if you don't choose to give me an





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 31
answer, you may be silent; nobody is obliged to speak
here." Tommy became still more disconcerted at this,
and, being unable to conceal his anger, ran out of the
summer-house, and wandered very disconsolately about
the garden; equally surprised and vexed to find that
he was now in a place where nobody felt any concern
whether he was pleased, or the contrary.
When all the. cherries were eat, little Harry said,
"You promised to be so good as to hear me read when
we had done working in the garden; and, if it is agree-
able to you, I will now read the story of the Flies and
the Ants."-" With all my heart," said Mr. Barlow:
remember to read it slowly and distinctly, without
hesitating or pronouncing the words wrong; and be
sure to read it in such a manner as to show that you
understand it."
Harry then took up the book and read as follows :-


THE FLIES AND THE ANTS,

IN a corner of a farmer's garden, there was once a large
nest of Ants, who, during the fine weather of the sum-
mier, were employed all day long in drawing little seeds
and grains of corn into their hole. Near them there
happened to be a bed of flowers, upon which a great
quantity of Flies used to be always sporting, and hum-
"ming, and diverting themselves by flying from one
flower to another.-A little boy, who was the farmer's
son, used frequently to observe the different employ
ments of these animals ; and, as he was very young
and ignorant, he one day thus expressed himself:-
Can any creature be so simple as these Ants ? All
day long they are working and toiling, instead of en-
joying the fine weather, and diverting themselves like
these Flies, who are the happTest creatures in the






32 THE HISTORY OF

world."-Some time after he had made this observa-
tion, the weather grew extremely cold, the sun was
scarcely seen to shine, and the nights were chill and
frosty. The same little boy, walking then in the gar-
den, did not see a single Ant, but all the Flies lay scat-
tered up and down, either dead or dying. As he was
very good-natured, he could not help pitying the un-
fortunate animals, and asking, at the same time, what
had happened to the Ants that he used to see in the
same place ? The father said, "The Flies are all dead,
because they were careless animals, who gave them-
selves no trouble about laying up provisions, and were
too idle to work: but the Ants, who had been busy all
the summer, in providing for their maintenance during
the winter, are all alive and well; and you will see
them again as soon as the warm weather returns."

"Very well, Harry," said Mr. Barlow, "we will now
take a walk."-They accordingly rambled out into the
fields, where Mr. Barlow made Harry take notice of
several kinds of plants, and told him the names and
nature of them. At last, Harry, who had observed
some very pretty purple berries upon a plant that bore
a purple flower, and grew in the hedges, brought them
to Mr. Barlow, and asked whether they were good to
eat? It is very lucky," said Mr. Barlow, young man,
that you asked the question before you put them into
your mouth; for, had you tasted them, they would
have given you violent pains in your head and sto-
mach, and perhaps have killed you, as they grow upon
a plant called Nightshade, which is a rank poison."-
"6 Sir," said Harry," I take care never to eat anything
without knowing what it is; and I hope, if you will be
so good as to continue to teach me, I shall very soon
know the names and qualities of all the herbs which
grow.'





SANDFORD AND MIERTON. J3
As they were returning home, Harry saw a very
large bird, called a Kite, upon the ground, who seemed
to have something in his claws, which he was tearing
to pieces. Harry, who knew him to be one of those
ravenous creatures which prey upon others, ran up to
him, shouting as loud as he could; and the bird, being
frightened, flew away, and left a chicken behind him,
very much hurt indeed, but still alive.-" Look, sir,"
said Harry, if that cruel creature has not almost
killed this poor chicken! see how he bleeds and hangs
his wings! I will put him into my bosom to recover
him, and carry him home; and he shall have part of
my dinner every day, till he is well, and able to shift
for himself."
As soon as they came home, the first care of little
Harry was to put his wounded chicken into a basket
with some fresh straw, some water, and some bread;
after that Mr. Barlow and he went to dinner.
In the meantime, Tommy, who had been skulking
about all day, very much mortified and uneasy, came
in, and, being very hungry, was. going to sit down to
table with the rest; but Mr. Barlow stopped him, and
said, No, sir; as you are too much of a gentleman to
work, we, who are not so, do not choose to work for
the idle." Upon this Tommy retired into a corner,
crying as if his heart would break, but more from grief
than passion, as he began to perceive that nobody
minded his ill temper.
But little Harry, who could not bear to see his friend
so unhappy, looked up half crying into Mr. Barlow's
face, and said, Pray, sir, may I do as I please with
my share of the dinner ?" "Yes, to be sure, child ?"
"( Why, then," said he, getting up, I will give it all to
poor Tommy, who wants it more than I do." Saying
this, he gave it to him as he sat in the corner; and
Tommy took it, and thanked him, without ever turning






34 THE HISTORY OF
his eyes from off the ground. I see," says Mr. Bar-
low, "that though gentlemen are above being of any
use themselves, they are not above taking the bread
that other people have been working hard for. At this
Tommy cried still more bitterly than before.
The next day, Mr. Barlow and Harry went to work
as before; but they had scarcely begun before Tommy
came to them and desired that he might have a hoe too,
which Mr. Barlow gave him ; but as he had never be-
fore learned to handle one, he was very awkward in
the use of it, and hit himself several strokes upon the
legs. Mr. Barlow then laid down his own spade, and
showed him how to hold and use it; by which means,
in a short time, he became very expert, and worked
with the greatest pleasure. When their work was over,
they retired all three to the summer-house; and Tommy
felt the greatest joy imaginable when the fruit was
produced, and he was invited to take his share, which
seemed to him the most delicious he had ever tasted,
because working in the air had given him an appetite.
As soon as they had done eating, Mr. Barlow took
up a book, and asked Tommy whether he would read
them a story out of it ? but he, looking a little ashamed,
said he had never learned to read. "I am very sorry
for it," said Mr. Barlow, because you lose a, vorv
great pleasure : then Harry shall read to you." Harry
accordingly took up the book, and read the following
story -

THE GENTLEMAN AND THE BASKET-MAKER.

THERE was, in a distant part of the world, a rich man,
who lived in a fine house, and spent his time in eating,
drinking, sleeping, and amusing himself. As he had a
great many servants to wait upon him, who treated
him with the greatest respect, and did whatever they






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 35
were ordered, and, as he had never been taught the
truth, nor accustomed to hear it, he grew very proud,
insolent, and capricious, imagining that he had a right
to command all the world, and that the poor were only
born to serve and obey him.
Near this rich man's house there lived an honest and
industrious poor man, who gained his livelihood by
making little baskets out of dried reeds, which grew
upon a piece of marshy ground close to his cottage
But though he was obliged to labour from morning to
night to earn food enough to support him, and though
he seldom fared better than upon dry bread, or rice, or
pulse, and had no other bed than the remains of the
rushes of which he made baskets, yet was he always
happy, cheerful, and contented; for his labour gave
him so good an appetite, that the coarsest fare appeared
to him delicious; and he went to bed so tired, that he
would have slept soundly even upon the ground. Be-
sides this, he was a good and virtuous man, humane to
everybody, honest in his dealings, always accustomed
to speak the truth, and therefore beloved and respected
hv all his neighbours.
The rich man, on the contrary, though he lay upon
the softest bed, yet could not sleep, because he had
passed the day in idleness; and though the nicest dishes
were presented to him, yet could he not eat with any
pleasure, because he did not wait till nature gave him
an appetite, nor use exercise, nor go into the open air.
Besides this, as he was a great sluggard and glutton,
he.was almost always ill; and, as he did good to nobody,
he had no friends; and even his servants spoke ill of
him behind his back, and all his neighbours, whom he
oppressed, hated him. For these reasons, he was sul-
len, melancholy, and unhappy, and became displeased
with all who appeared more cheerful than himself.
When he was carried out in his palanquin, (a kind of
*






36 THE HISTORY OF
bed borne upon the shoulders of men), he frequently
passed by the cottage of the poor basket-maker, who
was always sitting at the door, and singing as he wove
the baskets. The rich man could not behold this with-
out anger. "What !" said he, shall a wretch, a pea-
sant, a low-born fellow, that weaves bulrushes for a
scanty subsistence, be always happy and pleased, while
I, that am a gentleman, possessed of riches and power,
afid of more consequence than a million of reptiles like
him, am always melancholy and discontented." This
reflection arose so often in his mind, that at last he
began to feel the greatest degree of hatred towards the
poor man; and, as he had never been accustomed to
conquer his own passions, however improper or unjust
they might be, he at last determined to punish the
basket-maker for being happier than himself.
With this wicked design, he one night gave orders
to his servants (who did not dare to disobey him) to
set fire to the rushes which surrounded the poor man's
house. As it was summer, and the weather in that
country extremely hot, the fire soon spread over the
whole marsh, and not only consumed all the rushes,
but soon extended to the cottage itself, and the poor
basket-maker was obliged to run out almost naked, to
save his life.
You may judge of the surprise and grief of the poor
man when he found himself entirely deprived of his
subsistence by the wickedness of his rich neighbour,
whom he had never offended ; but, as he was unable
to punish him for this injustice, he set out and walked
on foot to the chief magistrate of that country, to whom,
with many tears, he told his pitiful case. The magis-
trate, who was a good and just man, immediately or-
dered the rich man to be brought before him: and
when he found that he could not deny the wickedness
of which he was accused, he thus spoke to the poor






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 37
man : As this proud and wicked man has been puffed
up with the opinion of his own importance, and at-
tempted to commit the most scandalous injustice from
his contempt of the poor, I am willing to teach him of
how little value he is to anybody, and how vile and
contemptible a creature he really is : but, for this pur-
pose, it is necessary that you should consent to the
plan I have formed, and go along with him to the plabe
whither I intend to send you both."
The poor man replied, I never had much, but the
little I once had is now lost by the mischievous dispo-
tion of this proud and oppressive man : I am entirely
ruined; I have no means left in the world of procur-
ing myself a morsel of bread the next time I am hun-
gry; therefore I am ready to go wherever you please
to send me: and, though I would not treat this man
as he has treated me, yet should I rejoice to teach him
more justice and humanity, and to prevent his injuring
the poor a second time."
The magistrate then ordered them both to be put on
board a ship, and carried to a distant country, which
was inhabited by a rude and savage kind of men, who
lived in huts, were strangers to riches, and got their
living by fishing.
As soon as they were set on shore, the sailors left
them, as they had been ordered; and the inhabitants
of the country came round them in great numbers. The
rich man, seeing himself thus exposed, without assist-
ance or defence, in the midst of a barbarous people,
whose language he did not understand, and in whose
power he was, began to cry and wring his hands in the
most abject manner; but the poor Basket-maker, who
had always been accustomed to hardship and dangers
from his infancy, made signs to the people, that he was
their friend, and was willing to work for them and be
their servant. Upon this the natives made signs to
3






S3 THE HISTORY OF
them that they would do them no hurt, but would
make use of their assistance in fishing and carrying
wood.
Accordingly, they led them both to a wood at some
distance, and showing them several logs, ordered them
to transport them to their cabins. They both immedi-
ately set about their tasks ; and the poor man, who was
strong and active, very soon had finished his share;
while the rich man, whose limbs were tender and deli-
cate, and never accustomed to any kind of labour, had
scarcely done a quarter as much. The savages, who
were witnesses to this, began to think that the Basket-
maker would prove very useful to them; and, therefore,
presented him a large portion of fish, and several of
their choicest roots; while to the rich man they gave
scarcely enough to support him, because they thought
him capable of being of very little service to them:
however, as he had now fasted several hours, he ate
what they gave him with a better appetite than he had
ever felt before at his own table.
The next day they were set to work again; and as
the Basket-maker had the same advantage over his com-
panion, he was highly caressed and well treated by the
natives; while they showed every mark of contempt
toward the other, whose delicate and luxurious habits
had rendered him very unfit for labour.
The rich man now began to perceive with how little
reason he had before valued himself, and despised his
fellow-creatures : and an accident that fell out shortly
after, tended to complete his mortification.--It hap-
pened that one of the savages had found something like
a fillet, with which he adorned his forehead, and seemed
to think himself extremely fine: the Basket-maker,
who had perceived this appearance of vanity, pulled up
some reeds, and, sitting down to work, in a very short
time finished a very elegant wreath, which he placed





SANDFORD AND MERTON.
upon the head of the first inhabitant lie chanced to
meet. The man was so pleased with his new acquisi-
tion, that he danced and capered for joy, and ran away
to seek the rest, who were all struck with astonishment
at this new and elegant piece ot finery. It was not
long before another came to the Basket-maker, making
signs that he wanted to be ornamented like his com-
panion; and, with such pleasure were these chaplets
considered by the whole nation, that the Basket-maker
was released from his former drudgery and continually
employed in weaving them In return for the pleasure
which he conferred upon them, the grateful savages
brought him every kind of food their country afforded,
built him a hut, and showed him every demonstration
of gratitude and kindness.-But the rich man, who pos-
sessed neither talents to please, nor strength to labour,
waa; condemned to be the Basket-maker's servant, and
to cut him reeds to supply the continual demand for
chaplets.
After having passed some months in this manner,
they were again transported to their own country, by
the orders of the magistrate, and brought before him.-
He then looked sternly upon the rich man, and said :
Having now taught you how helpless, contemptible,
and feeble a creature you are, as well as how inferior
to the man you insulted, I shall proceed to make repar-
ation to him for the injury you have inflicted upon
him. Did I treat you as you deserve, I should take
from you all the riches that you possess, as you wantonly
deprived this poor man of his whole subsistence; but,
hoping that you will become more humane for the
future, I sentence you to give half your fortune to this
man, whom you endeavoured to ruin."
Upon this, the Basket-maker said, after thanking the
magistrate for his goodness: I, having been bred up
in poverty, and accustomed to labour, have no desire






40 THE HISTORY OF
to acquire riches, which I should not know how to use :
all, therefore, that I require of this man is, to put me
into the same situation I was in before, and to learn
more humanity."
The rich man could not help being astonished at this
generosity; and, having acquired wisdom by his mis-
fortunes, not only treated the Basket-maker as a friend
during the rest of his life, but employed his riches in
relieving the poor, and benefiting his fellow-creatures.

The story being ended, Tommy said it was very
pretty; but that, had he been the good Basket-maker,
he would have taken the naughty rich man's fortune
and kept it.-" So would not I," said Harry, for fear
of growing as proud, and wicked, and idle, as the other."
From this time forward, Mr. Barlow and his two
little pupils used constantly to work in their garden
every morning; and, when they were fatigued, they
retired to the summer-house, where little Harry, who
improved every day in reading, used to entertain them
with some pleasant story or other, which Tommy al-
ways listened to with the greatest pleasure. But little
Harry going home for a week, Tommy and Mr. Barlow
were left alone.
The next day, after they had done work, and were
retired to the summer-house as usual, Tommy expected
Mr. Barlow would read to him ; but, to his great dis-
appointment, found that he was busy and could not.
The next day, the same accident was renewed ; and the
day after that. At this, Tommy lost all patience, and
said to himself, Now, if I could but read like Harry
Sandford, I should not need to ask anybody to do it for
me, and then I could divert myself: and why (thinks
he) may not I do what another has done ? To be sure,
little Harry is very clever ; but he could not have read
if he had not been taught; and if I am taught, I dare





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 41
say I shall learn to read as well as he. Well, as soon
as ever he comes home, I am determined to ask him
about it."
The next day little Harry returned, and as soon as
Tommy had an opportunity of being alone with him;
Pray Harry," said Tommy, how came you to be able
to read ?"
Harry. Why, Mr. Barlow taught me my letters, and
then spelling; and then, by putting syllables together,
I learned to read.-Tommy. And could not you show
me my letters ?-Hlarry. Yes, very willingly.
Harry then took up a book, and Tommy was so eager
and attentive, that at the very first lesson he learned
the whole alphabet. He was infinitely pleased with
this first experiment, and could scarcely forbear run-
ning to Mr. Barlow to let him know the improvement
lie had made ; but he thought he should surprise him
more if he said nothing about the matter till he was
able to read a whole story. He therefore applied him-
self with such diligence, and little Harry, who spared
no pains to assist his friend, was so good a master, that
in about two months he determined to surprise Mr.
Barlow with a display of his talents. Accordingly, one
day, when they were all assembled in the summer-
house, and the book was given to Harry, Tommy stood
up and said, that, if Mr. Barlow pleased, he would try
to read. "Oh very willingly," said Mr. Barlow; "but
I should as soon expect you to fly as to read." Tommy
smiled with a consciousness of his own proficiency, and
taking up the book, read with great fluency,

THE HISTORY OF THE TWO DOGS.

IN a part of the world where there are many strong
and fierce wild beasts, a poor man happened to bring
up two puppies of that kind which is most valued for






42 THE HISTORY OF
size and courage. As they appeared to possess more
than common strength and agility, he thought that he
should make an acceptable present to his landlord,
who was a rich man, living in a great city, by giving
him one of them, which was called Jowler; while lie
brought up the other, named Keeper, to guard his own
flocks.
From this time, the manner of living was entirely
altered between the brother whelps. Jowler was sent
into a plentiful kitchen, where he quickly became the
favourite of all the servants, who diverted themselves
with his little tricks and wanton gambols, and rewarded
him with great quantities of pot-liquor and broken
victuals; by which means, as he was stuffing from
morning till night, he increased considerably in size,
and grew sleek and comely: he was, indeed, rather
unwieldy, and so cowardly, that he would run away
from a dog only half as big as himself: he was much
addicted to gluttony, and was often beaten for the
thefts he committed in the pantry; but, as he had
learned to fawn upon the footmen, and would stand
upon his hind legs to beg, when he was ordered, and,
besides this, would fetch and carry, he was mightily
caressed by all the neighbourhood.
Keeper, in the meantime, who lived at a cottage in
the country, neither fared so well, looked so plump,
nor had learned all these pretty little tricks to recom-
mend him ; but, as his master was too poor to maintain
anything but what was useful, and was obliged to be
continually in the air, subject to all kinds of weather,
and labouring hard for a livelihood, Keeper grew hardy,
active, and diligent: he was also exposed to continual
danger from the wolves, from whom he had received
many a severe bite, while he was guarding the flocks.
These continual combats gave him that degree of intre-
pidity, that no enemy could make him turn his back.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 48
His care and assiduity so well defended the sheep of
his master, that not one had ever been missing since
they were placed under his protection. His honesty,
too, was so great, that no temptation could overpower
it; and though he was left alone in the kitchen while
the meat was roasting, he never attempted to taste it,
but received with thankfulness whatever his master
chose to give him. From a continual life in the air, he
was become so hardy, that no tempest could drive him
to shelter when he ought to be employed in watching
the flocks; and he would plunge into the most rapid
river, in the coldest weather of the winter, at the slight-
est sign from his master.
About this time it happened that the landlord of the
poor man went to examine his estate in the country,
and brought Jowler with him to the place of his birth.
At his arrival there, he could not help viewing with
great contempt the rough, ragged appearance of Keeper,
and his awkward look, which discovered nothing of the
address for which he so much admired Jowler. This
opinion, however, was altered by means of an accident
which happened to him. As he was one day walking
in a thick wood, with no other company than the two
dogs, a hungry wolf, with eyes that sparkled like fire,
bristling hair, and a horrid snarl that made the gentle-
man tremble, rushed out of a neighboring thicket, and
seemed ready to devour him. The unfortunate man
gave himself over for lost, more especially when he saw
that his faithful Jowler, instead of coming to his assist-
ance, ran sneaking away, with his tail between his legs,
howling with fear. But, in this moment of despair,
the undaunted Keeper, who had followed him humbly
and unobserved, at a distance, flew to his assistance,
and attacked the wolf with so much courage and skill,
that he was compelled to exert all his strength in his
own defence. The battle was long and bloody, but, in






44 THE HISTORY OF

the end, Keeper laid the wolf dead at his feet, though
not without receiving several severe wounds himself,
and presenting a bloody and mangled spectacle to the
eyes of his master, who came up at that instant. The
gentleman was filled with joy for his escape, and gra-
titude to his valiant deliverer; and learned by his own
experience, that appearances are not always to be
trusted, and that great virtues and good dispositions
may sometimes be found in cottages, while they are
totally wanting among the great.

"Very well indeed," said Mr. Barlow, "I find that
when young gentlemen choose to take pains, they can do
things almost as well as other people. But what do you
say to the story you have been reading, Tommy ? Would
you rather have owned the genteel dog that left his
master to be devoured, or the poor, rough, ragged,
m1eagre, neglected cur, that exposed his own life in his
defence ?"-" Indeed sir," said Tommy,1 "I would rather
have had Keeper; but then I would have fed him, and
washed him, and combed him, till he had looked as well
as Jowler."-- But then, perhaps, he would have grown
idle, and fat, and cowardly, like him," said Mr. Barlow:
"but here is some more of it; let us read to the end of
the story."-Tommy then went on thus :

The gentleman was so pleased with the noble beha.
viour of Keeper, that he desired the poor man to make
him a present of the dog; which, though with some
reluctance, he complied with.-Keeper was therefore
taken to the city, where he was caressed and fed by
everybody; and the disgraced Jowler was left at the
cottage, with strict injunctions to the man to hang him
up, as a worthless, unprofitable cur.
As soon as the gentleman had departed, the poor
man was going to execute his commission ; but, con-





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 45
sidering the noble size and comely look of the dog, and,
above all, being moved with pity for the poor animal,
who wagged his tail, and licked his new master's feet,
just as he was putting the cord about his neck, he de-
termined to spare his life, and see whether a different
treatment might not produce different manners.-From
this day, Jowler was in every respect treated as his
brother Keeper had been before. He was fed but
scantily; and, from this spare diet, soon grew more
active and fond of exercise. The first shower he was
in, he ran away as he had been accustomed to do, and.
sneaked to the fire-side : but the farmer's wife soon
drove him out of doors, and compelled him to bear the
rigour of the weather. In consequence of this, he daily
became more vigorous and hardy, and, in a few months,
regarded cold and rain no more than if he had been ,
brought up in the country.
Changed as he already was, in many respects, for
the better, he still retained an insurmountable dread of
wild beasts; till one day, as he was wandering through
a wood alone, he was attacked by a large and fierce
wolf, who, jumping out of a thicket, seized him by the
neck with fury. Jowler would fain have run, but
his enemy was too swift and violent to suffer him to
escape. Necessity makes even cowards brave. Jowler
being thus stopped in his retreat, turned upon his
enemy, and, very luckily seizing him by the throat;
strangled him in an instant. His master then coming
up, and being witness of his exploit, praised him, and
stroked him with a degree of fondness he had never
done before. Animated by this victory, and by the ap-
probation of his master, Jowler, from that time, became
as brave as he had before been pusillanimous; and
there was very soon no dog in the country who was so
great a terror to beasts of prey.
In the meantime, Keeper, instead of hunting wild






46 THE HISTORY OF

beasts, or looking after sheep, did nothing but eat and
sleep, which he was permitted to do from a remem-
brance of his past services. As all qualities both of
mind and body are lost, if not continually exercised, he
soon ceased to be that hardy, courageous animal, he
was before; and acquired all the faults which are the
consequences of idleness and gluttony.
About this time, the gentleman went again into the
country, and, taking his dog with him, was willing that
he should exercise his prowess once more against his
ancient enemies the wolves. Accordingly the country-
people having quickly found one in a neighboring
wood, the gentleman went thither with Keeper, ex-
pecting to see him behave as he had done the yeai
before. But how great was his surprise, when, at the
first onset, he saw his beloved dog run away with every
mark of timidity At this moment, another dog sprang
forward, and seizing the wolf with the greatest intre-
pidity, after a bloody contest, left him dead upun the
ground. The gentleman could not help lamenting the
cowardice of his favourite, and admiring the noble
spirit of the other dog, whom, to his infinite surprise,
he found to be the same Jowler that he had discarded
the year before.-" I now see," said he to the farmer,
"that it is in vain to expect courage in those who live
a life of indolence and repose; and that constant
exercise and proper discipline are frequently able to
change contemptible characters into good ones."

"Indeed," said Mr. Barlow, when the story was
ended, I am sincerely glad to find that Tommy has
made this acquisition. He will now depend upon no-
body, but be able to divert himself whenever he pleases.
All that has ever been written in our own language
will be from this time in his power; whether he chooses
to read little entertaining stories like what we have





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 47
heard to-day, or to read the actions of great and good
men in history, or to make himself acquainted with the
nature of wild beasts and birds, which are found in
other countries, and have been described in books: in
short, I scarcely know of anything which from this
moment will not be in his power; and I do not despair
of one day seeing him a very sensible man, capable of
teaching and instructing others.'
"Yes," said Tommy, something elated by all this
praise, "I am determined now to make myself as clever
as anybody; and I don't doubt, though I am such a
little fellow, that I know more already than many
grown-up people; and I am sure, though there are no
less than six blacks in our house, that there is not one
of them who can read a story like me." Mr. Barlow
looked a little grave at this sudden display of vanity;
and said rather coolly, "Pray, who has attempted to
teach them anything ?" "Nobody, I believe," said
Tommy. Where is the great wonder then, if they
are ignorant ?" replied Mr. Barlow; you would
probably have never known anything, had you not
been assisted; and even now, you know very little."
In this manner did Mr. Barlow begin the education
of Tommy Merton, who had naturally very good dis-
positions, although he had been suffered to acquire
many bad habits, that sometimes prevented them from
appearing. He was, in particular, very passionate, and
thought he had a right to command everybody that
was not dressed as fine as himself. This opinion often
led him into inconveniences, and once was the occasion
of his being severely mortified.
This accident happened in the following manner:--
One day, as Tommy was striking a ball with his bat, he
struck it over a hedge into an adjoining field, and see-
ing a little ragged boy walking along on that side, he
ordered him, in a very peremptory tone, to bring it to






48 THE HISTORY OF
him. The little boy, without taking any notice of what
was said, walked on, and left the ball; upon which,
Tommy called out more loudly than before, and asked
if he did not hear what was said ?-" Yes," said the boy,
" for the matter of that, I am not deaf."-" Oh are
you not?" replied Tommy; "then bring me my ball
directly."-" I don't choose it," said the boy.-" Sirrah,"
said Tommy, "If I come to you, I shall make you
choose it."-" Perhaps not, my pretty little master,"
said the boy.-" You little rascal," said Tommy, who
now began to be very angry, "if I come over the hedge,
I will thrash you within an inch of your life." To this
the other made no answer but by a loud laugh; which
provoked Tommy so much, that he clambered over the
hedge, and jumped precipitately down, intending to
have leaped into the field; but unfortunately his foot
slipped, and down he rolled into a wet ditch, which was
full of mud and water; there poor Tommy tumbled
about for some time, endeavouring to get out; but it
was to no purpose, for his feet stuck in the mud, or
slipped off from the bank: his fine waistcoat was dir-
tied all over, his white stockings covered with mire,
his breeches filled with puddle water; and, to add to
his distress, he first lost one shoe, and then the other;
his laced hat tumbled off from his head, and was com-
pletely spoiled. In this distress he must probably
have remained a considerable time, had not the little
ragged boy taken pity on him, and helped him out.
Tommy was so vexed and ashamed, that he could not
say a word, but ran home in such a dirty plight, that
Mr. Barlow, who happened to meet him, was afraid he
had been considerably hurt; but, when he heard the
accident which had happened, he could not help smil-
ing, and he advised Tommy to be more careful for
the future, how he attempted to thrash little ragged
boys.





SANDFORD AND MERTON 49
The next day Mr. Barlow desired Harry, when they
were all together in the arbour, to read the following
story of

ANDROCLES AND THE LION.

THERE was a certain slave named Androcles, who was
so ill-treated by his master, that his life became insup-
portable. Finding no remedy for what he suffered, he
at length said to himself: It is better to die, than to
continue to live in such hardships and misery as I ai
obliged to suffer. I am determined therefore to run
away from my master. If I am taken again, I know
that I shall be punished with a cruel death: but it is
better to die at once, than to live in misery. If I escape,
I must betake myself to deserts and woods, inhabited
only by wild beasts: but they cannot use me more
cruelly than I have been used by my fellow-creatures:
Therefore I will rather trust myself with them, than
continue to be a miserable slave."
Having formed this resolution, he took an opportu-
nity of leaving his master's house, and hid himself in a
thick forest, which was at some miles' distance from
the city. But here the unhappy man found that he
had only escaped from one kind of misery to experience
another. He wandered about all day through a vast
and trackless wood, where his flesh was continually
torn by thorns and brambles; he grew hungry, but
could find no food in this dreary solitude; at length
he.was ready to die with fatigue, and lay down in de-
spair in a large cavern which he found by accident.-

"P oor man !" said Harry, whose little heart could
scarcely contain itself at this mournful recital, I wish
I could have met with him; I would have given him
all my dinner, and he should have had my bed. But






50 THtE HISTORY OF

pray, sir, tell me, why does one man behave so cruelly
to another, and why should one person be the servant
of another, and bear so much ill treatment?"
As to that," said Tommy, "some folks are born
gentlemen, and then they must command others; and
some are born servants, and then they must do as they
are bid. I remember, before I came hither, that there
were a great many black men and women, that my
mother said were only born to wait upon me; and I
used to beat them, and kick them, and throw things at
them, whenever I was angry; and they never dared
strike me again, because they were slaves."
"And pray, young man," said Mr. Barlow, how
came these people to be slaves ?"
Tommy. Because my father bought them with his
money.-Mr. Barlow. So then, people that are bought
with money are slaves, are they ?-T. Yes.-Mr. B.
And those that buy them have a right to kick them,
and beat them, and do as they please with them ?-
T. Yes.--Mr. B. Then, if I was to take you and sell you
to Farmer Sandford, he would have a right to do what
he pleased with you.-No, sir, said Tommy, somewhat
warmly; but you would have no right to sell me, nor
he to buy me.-Mr. B. Then it is not a person's being
bought or sold that gives another a right to.use him
ill; but one person's having a right to sell another,
and the man who buys, having a right to purchase ?-
T. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. And what right have the people
who sold the poor negroes to your father, to sell them I
or what right has your father to buy them ?-Here
Tommy seemed to be a good deal puzzled; but, at
length he said, They are brought from a country that
is a great way off, in ships, and so they become slaves.
-Then, said Mr. Barlow, if I take you to another
country, in a ship, I shall have a right to sell you ?-T.
No, but you won't, sir, because I was born a gentleman.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 61
-Mr. B. What do you mean by that, Tommy ?-Why
(said Tommy, a little confounded), to have a fine house,
and fine clothes, and a coach, and a great deal of money,
as my papa has.-Mr. B. Then, if you were no longer
to have a fine house, nor fine clothes, nor a great deal
of money, somebody that had all these things, might
make you a slave, and use you ill, and beat you, and
insult you, and do whatever he liked with yout---T.
No; sir, that would not be right neither, that anybody
should use me ill.-Mr. B. Then one person should not
use another ill ?-T. No, sir.--Mr. B. To make a slave
of anybody is to use him ill, is it not?-T. I think so.
"--Mr. B. Then no one ought to make a slave of you!
-T. No, indeed, sir.-M-r. B. But if no one should use
another ill, and making a slave of a person is using him
ill, neither ought you to make a slave of any one else
--T. Indeed, sir, I think not; and for the future I never
will use our black William ill; nor pinch him, nor kick
him, as I used to do.-Mr. B. Then you will be a very
good boy. But let us now continue our story.

This unfortunate man had not lain long quiet in the
cavern, before he heard a dreadful noise, which seemed
to be the roar of some wild beast, and terrified him
very much. He started up with a design to escape,
and had already reached the mouth of the cave, when
he saw coming towards him a lion of prodigious size,
who prevented any possibility of retreat.-The unfor-
tunate man now believed his destruction to be inevit-
able; but, to his great astonishment, the beast advanced
towards him with a gentle pace, without any mark of
enmity or rage, and uttered a kind of mournful voice,
as if he demanded the assistance of the man.
Androcles, who was naturally of a resolute disposi-
tion, acquired courage, from this circumstance, to ex-
amine his monstrous guest, wh'o gave him sufficient






52 THE HISTORY OF
leisure for that purpose. He saw, as the lion approach.
ed him, that he seemed to limp upon one of his legs,
and that the foot was extremely swelled as if it had
been wounded. Acquiring still more fortitude from the
gentle demeanour of the beast, he advanced up to him,
and took hold of the wounded paw, as a surgeon would
examine a patient. He then perceived that a thorn of
uncommon size had penetrated the ball of the foot,
and was the occasion of the swelling and lameness
which he had observed. Androcles found that the
beast, far from resenting this familiarity, received it
with the greatest gentleness, and seemed to invite him
by his blandishments to proceed. He therefore ex-
tracted the thorn, and, pressing the swelling, discharged
a considerable quantity of matter, which had been the
cause of so much pain and uneasiness.
As soon as the beast felt himself thus relieved, he
began to testify his joy and gratitude by every expres-
sion within his power. He jumped about like a wanton
spaniel, wagged his enormous tail, and licked the feet
and hands of his physician. Nor was he contented
with these demonstrations of kindness : from this mo-
ment Androcles became his guest; nor did the lion
ever sally forth in quest of prey without bringing
home the produce of his chase, and sharing it with his
friend. In this savage state of hospitality did the man
continue to live during the space of several months;
at length, wandering unguardedly through the woods,
he met with a company of soldiers sent out to appre-
hend him, and was by them taken prisoner, and con-
ducted back to his master. The laws of that country
being very severe against slaves, he was tried, and
found guilty of having fled from his master, and, as a
punishment for his pretended crime, he was sentenced
to be torn in pieces by a furious lion, kept many days
without food, to inspire him with additional rage.










,Il k












4i.


















































ANDR CLES AND THE L N
t/--
q, *C. ..





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 53
When the destined moment arrived, the unhappy
man was exposed, unarmed, in the midst of a spacious
area, enclosed on every side, round which many thou-
sand people were assembled to view the mournful
spectacle.
Presently a dreadful yell was heard, which struck the
spectators with horror; and a monstrous lion rushed
out of a den, which was purposely set open; and darted
forward with erected mane, and flaming eyes, and jaws
that gaped like an open sepulchre.-A mournful silence
instantly prevailed All eyes were turned upon the
destined victim, whose destruction now appeared in-
evitable. But the pity of the multitude was soon con-
verted into astonishment, when they beheld the lion,
instead of destroying his defenceless prey, crouch sub-
missively at his feet; fawn upon him as a faithful dog
would do upon his master, and rejoice over him as a
mother that unexpectedly recovers her offspring. The
governor of the town, who was present, then called
out with a loud voice, and ordered Androcles to ex-
plain to them this unintelligible mystery ; and how a
savage of the fiercest and most unpitying nature should
thus in a moment have forgotten his innate disposi-
tion, and be converted into a harmless and inoffensive
animal.
Androcles then related to the assembly every cir-
cumstance of his adventures in the woods, and conclud-
ed by saying, that the very lion which now stood before
them, had been his friend and entertainer in the woods.
All the persons present were astonished and delighted
with the story, to find that even the fiercest beasts are
capable of being softened by gratitude, and moved by
humanity ; and they unanimously joined to entreat for
the pardon of the unhappy man from the governor of
the place. This was immediately granted to him ; and
he was also presented with the lion, who had in this
manner twice saved the life of Androcles.
4






54 THE HISTORY OF
"Upon my word," said Tommy," this is a very pretty
story: but I never should have thought that a lion
could have grown so tame; I thought that they, and
tigers, and wolves, had been so fierce and cruel, that
they would have torn everything they met to pieces."
When they are hungry," said Mr. Barlow, they
kill every animal they meet : but this is to devour it;
for they can only live upon flesh, like dogs and cats,
and many other kinds of animals. When they are not
hungry, they seldom meddle with anything, or do
unnecessary mischief; therefore they are much less
cruel than many persons that I have seen, and even
than many children, who plague and torment animals,
without any reason whatsoever."
Indeed, sir," said Harry, I think so. And I re-
member, as I was walking along the road, some days
past, I saw a little naughty boy that used a poor jack-
ass very ill indeed. The poor animal was so lame, that
he could hardly stir ; and yet the boy beat him with a
great stick as violently as he was able, to make him go
on faster."-"And what did you say to him ?" said Mr.
Barlow.-Harry. Why, sir, I told him, how naughty
and cruel it was; and I asked him, how he would like
to be beaten in that manner by somebody that was
stronger than himself ?-Mr. B. And what answer did
he make you ?-H. He said, that it was his daddy's
ass, and so that he had a right to beat it; and that if
I said a word more, he would beat me.-Mr. B. And
what answer did you make; any ?-H. I told him, if
it was his father's ass, he should not use it ill; for
that we were all God's creatures, and that we should love
each other, as He loved us all; and that as to beating
me, if he struck me, I had a right to strike him again,
and would do it, though he was almost as big again
as I was.-M-lr. B. And did he strike you ?-_H, Yes, sir.
He endeavoured to strike me upon the head with his





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 55
stick, but I dodged, and so it fell upon my shoulder;
and he was going to strike me again, but I darted at
him, and knocked him down, and then he began blub-
bering, and begged me not to hurt him.-Mr. B. It is
not uncommon for those who are most cruel, to be at
the same time most cowardly : but what did you ?-H.
Sir, I told him, I did not want to hurt him; but that,
as he had meddled with me, I would not let him rise
till he had promised me not to hurt the poor beast
any more : which he did, and then I let him go about
hiis business.
You did very right," said Mr. Barlow; and I
suppose the boy looked as foolish, when he was rising,
as Tommy did the other day, when the little ragged
boy that he was going to beat, helped him out of the
ditch."-" Sir," answered Tommy, a little confused, I
should not have attempted to beat him, only he would
not bring me my ball."-Mr. B. And what right had
you to oblige him to bring your ball ?-.T. Sir, he was
a little ragged boy, and I am a gentleman.-Mr. B. So,
then, every gentleman has a right to command little
ragged boys ?-T. To be sure, sir.-Mr. B. Then if
your clothes should wear out and become ragged,
every gentleman will have a right to command you ?
Tommy looked a little foolish, and said, But he
might have done it, as he was on that side of the
hedge?.-Mr. B. And so he probably would have done
if you had asked him civilly to do it; but when per-
sons speak in a haughty tone, they will find few in-
clined to serve them. But as the boy was poor and
ragged, I suppose you hired him with money to fetch
your ball.-T. Indeed, sir, I did not; I neither gave him
anything, nor offered him anything.-Mr. B. Probably
you had nothing to give him ?- T. Yes, I had, though ;
I had all this money (pulling out several shillings).-
Mr. B. Perhaps the boy was as rich as you.-T. No, he






56 THE HISTORY OF

was not, sir, I am sure; for he had no coat, and his
waistcoat and breeches were all tattered and ragged;
besides, he had no stockings, and his shoes were full
of holes.--Mr. B. So, now I see what constitutes a
gentleman. A gentleman is one that, when he has
abundance of everything, keeps it all to himself;
beats poor people, if they don't serve him for nothing;
and, when they have done him the greatest favour, in
spite of his insolence, never feels any gratitude, or does
them any good in return. I find that Androcles's lion
was no gentleman.
Tommy was so affected with this rebuke, that he
could hardly contain his tears; and, as he was really a
boy of a generous temper, he determined to give the
little ragged boy something the very first time he
should see him again.-He did not long wait for an
opportunity; for, as he was walking out that very af-
ternoon, he saw him at some distance gathering black-
berries, and, going up to him, he accosted him thus:
"9 Little boy, I want to know why you are so ragged;
have you no other clothes "-"No, indeed," said the
boy; "I have seven brothers and sisters, and they are
all as ragged as myself: but I should not much mind
that, if I could have my belly full of victuals."-
Tommy. And why cannot you have your belly full of
victuals ?-Little Boy. Because daddy's ill of a fever,
and can't work this harvest; so that mammy says we
must all starve, if God Almighty does not take care of
US.
Tommy made no answer, but ran full speed to the
house, whence he presently returned, loaded with a
loaf of bread, and a complete suit of his own clothes.
"-- Here, little boy," said he, "you were very good-
natured to me; and so I will give you all this, because
I am a gentleman, and have many more."
Nothing could equal the joy which appeared in the





SANDFPOD AND MERTON. 67
boy's countenance at receiving this present, excepting
what Tommy himself felt the first time at the idea of
doing a generous and grateful action. He strutted away
without waiting for the little boy's acknowledgment
and, happening to meet Mr. Barlow, as he was return-
ing home, told him, with an air of exultation, what he
had done. Mr. Barlow cooly answered, "You have
done very well in giving the little boy clothes, because
they are your own: but what right have you to give
away my loaf of bread without asking my consent ?"-
Tommy. Why, sir, I did it because the little boy said
lie was very hungry, and had seven brothers and sisters,
and that his father was ill, and could not work.-Mr.
B. This is a very good reason why you should give
them what belongs to yourself; but not why you
should give away what is another's. What would you
say, if Harry were to give away all your clothes, with-
out asking your leave ?-T. I should not like it at all;
and I will not give away your things any more without
asking your leave.-" You will do well," said Mr. Bar-
low; and here is a little story you may read upon this
very subject."

THE STORY OF CYRUS.

CYRus was a little boy of very good dispositions, and
a very humane temper. He had several masters, who
endeavoured to teach him everything that was good;
and he was educated with several little boys about his
own age. One evening his father asked him what he
had done, or learned that day. Sir," said Cyrus, "I
was punished to-day for deciding unjustly,"-"How
so ?" said his father.-Cyrus. There were two boys,
one of whom was a great, and the other a little boy.
Now it happened that the little boy had a coat that was
much too big for him ; but the great boy had one that





58 THE HISTORY OF
scarcely reached below his middle, and was too tight
for him in every part; upon which, the great boy pro-
poped to the little boy to change coats with him, "be-
cause then," said he, "we shall be both exactly fitted;
for your coat is as much too big for you, as mine is too
little for me."-The little boy would not consent to
the proposal; on which, the great boy took his coat
away by force, and gave his own to the little boy in
exchange. While they were disputing upon this sub-
ject, I chanced to pass by, and they agreed to make
me judge of the affair. But I decided that the little
boy should keep the little coat, and the great boy the
great one; for which judgment my master punished
me.
"Why so I" said Cyrus's father; "was not the little
coat most proper for the little boy, and the large coat
for the great boy 1"---" Yes, sir," answered Cyrus; but
my master told me, I was not made judge to examine
which coat best fitted either of the boys, but to decide,
whether it was just that the great boy should take
away the coat of the little one against his consent;
and therefore I decided unjustly, and deserved to be
punished."

Just as the story was finished, they were surprised to
see a little ragged boy come running up to them, with
a bundle of clothes under his arm: his eyes were
black, as if he had been severely beaten, his nose was
swelled, his shirt was bloody, and his waistcoat did but
just hang upon his back, so much was it torn. He
came running up to Tommy, and threw down the
bundle before him, saying, "Here, master, take your
clothes again; and I wish that they had been at the
bottom of the ditch I pulled you out of, instead of
upon my back :-but I never will put such frippery on
again as long as I have breath in my body.F





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 59
"What is the matter ?" said Mr. Barlow; who per.
ceived that some unfortunate accident had happened
in consequence of Tommy's present.
"Sir," answered the little boy, "my little master
here was going to beat me, because I would not fetch
his ball. Now as to the matter of that, I would have
brought his ball with all my heart, if he had but asked
me civilly. But though I am poor, I am not bound
to be his slave, as they say black William is; and so
I would not: upon which, little master here was jump-
ing over the hedge to lick me; but, instead of that, he
soused into the ditch and there he lay rolling about
till I helped him out: and so he gave me these clothes
here, all out of good will; and I put them on, like a
fool as I was: for they are all made of silk, and look
so fine, that all the little boys followed me, and hal.
looed as I went; and Jack Dowset threw a handful
of dirt at me, and dirtied me all over.-' Oh !' says I,
'Jacky, are you at that work ?'-and with that I hit him
a, punch in the belly, and sent him roaring away. But
Billy Gibson and Ned Kelly came up, and said I looked
like a Frenchman; and so we began fighting, and I
beat them till they both gave out: but I don't choose
to be hallooed after wherever I go, and to look like
a Frenchman; and so I have brought master his
clothes again."
Mr. Barlow asked the little boy where his father
lived ; and he told him that his father lived about two
miles off, across the common, and at the end of Runny-
lane : on which, Mr. Barlow told Harry, that he would
send the poor man some broth and victuals, if he would
carry it when it was ready.-" That I will," said Harry,
"if it were five times as far." So Mr. Barlow went
into the house to give orders about it.
In the mean time Tommy, who had eyed the little
boy for some time in silence,. said, "So, my poor boy






60 THE HISTTORY OF
you have been beaten and hurt till you are all ovet
bloody, only because I gave you my clothes: I am
really very sorry for it."-" Thank you, little master,"
said the boy, but it can't be helped ; you did not in-
tend me any hurt, I know; and I am not such a chicken
as to mind a beating: so I wish you a good afternoon
with all my heart."
As soon as the little boy was gone, Tommy said, "I
wish I had but some clothes that the poor boy could
wear, for he seems very good-natured; I would give
them to him."-" That you may very easily have," said
Harry; for there is a shop in the village hard by,
where they sell all manner of clothes for the poor
people: and, as you have money, you may easily buy
some."
Harry and Tommy then agreed to go early the next
morning to buy some clothes for the poor children.
They accordingly set out before breakfast, and had
proceeded nearly half way, when they heard the noise
of a pack of hounds that seemed to be running full cry
at some distance. Tommy then asked Harry if he knew
what they were about.--" Yes," said Harry, "I know
well enough what they are about; it is Squire Chase
and his dogs worrying a poor hare. But I wonder they
are not ashamed to meddle with such a poor inoffen-
sive creature, that cannot defend itself: if they have
a mind to hunt, why don't they hunt lions and tigers,
and such fierce mischievous creatures, as I have read
they do in other countries ?"-" Oh dear," said Tommy,
"how is that ? it must surely be very dangerous."-
'Why, you must know," said Harry, the men are ac-
customed in some places to go almost naked; and that
makes them so prodigiously nimble, that they can run
like a deer; and, when a lion or tiger comes into their
neighbourhood, and devours their sheep or oxen, they
go out six or seven together, armed with javelins; and





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 61
they run over all the woods, and examine every place
till they have found him; and they make a noise to
provoke him to attack them : then he begins roaring
and foaming, and beating his sides with his tail, till in
a violent fury, he springs at the man that is nearest
to him."-" Oh dear," said Tommy, "he must certainly
be torn to pieces."-"No such thing," answered Harry;
he jumps like a greyhound out of the way, while the
next man throws his javelin at the lion, and perhaps
wounds him in the side: this enrages him still more;
he springs again, like lightning, upon the man that
wounded him ; but this man avoids him like the other;
and at last the poor beast drops down dead, with the
number of wounds he has received."-" Oh !" said
Tommy, "it must be a very strange sight; I should like
to see it out of a window, where I was safe."--" So
should not I," answered Harry; for it must be a great
pity to see such a noble animal tortured and killed ;
but they are obliged to do it in their own defence.
But these poor hares do nobody any harm, excepting
the farmers, by eating a little of their corn sometimes."
As they were talking in this manner, Harry, casting
his eyes on one side, said, "As I am alive, there is the
poor hare skulking along I hope they will not be able
to find her; and, if they ask me, I will never tell them
which way she is gone."
Presently up came the dogs who had now lost all
scent of their game, and a gentleman mounted upon a
fine horse, who asked Harry, if he had seen the hare ?
Harry made no answer ; but, upon the gentleman's
repeating the question in a louder tone of voice, he
answered that he had.-- And which way is she gone ?"
said the gentleman.-" Sir, I don't choose to tell you,"
answered Harry, after some hesitation.--" Not choose !"
said the gentleman leaping off his horse; but I'll
make you choose it in an instant ;"-and, coming up to





G2 'THE HISTORY OF
Harry, who never moved from the place where he had
been standing, began to lash him in a most unmerciful
manner with his whip, continually repeating, "Now,
you little rascal do you choose to tell me now ?"-To
which, Harry made no other answer than this: "If I
would not tell you before, I won't now, though you
should kill me."
But this fortitude of Harry, and the tears of Tommy,
who cried in the bitterest manner to see the distress
of his friend, made no impression on this barbarian,
who continued his brutality till another gentleman rode
up full speed, and said, "For God's sake, Squire, what
are you about ? You will kill the child if you do not
take care."--" And the little dog deserves it," said the
other; he has seen the hare, and will not tell me
which way she is gone."-" Take care," replied the
gentleman, in a low voice, "you don't involve yourself
in a disagreeable affair; I know the other to be the
son of a gentleman of great fortune in the neighbour-
hood:"-and then, turning to Harry, he said, Why,
my dear, would not you tell the gentleman which way
the hare had gone, if you saw her?"-" Because,"
answered Harry, as soon as he had recovered breath
enough to speak, "I don't choose to betray the unfor-
tunate:.-" This boy," said the gentleman, is a pro.
digy; and it is a happy thing for you, Squire, that
his age is not equal to his spirit. But you are always
passionate-".... At this moment the hounds recovered
the scent, and bursting out into a full cry, the Squire
mounted his horse, and galloped away, attended by all
his company nSs.
When they were gone, Tommy came up to Harry
in the most affectionate manner, and asked him how
he did ?-" A little sore," said Harry; but that doea
not signify."-Tommy. I wish I had had a pistol or a
sword !-Harry. Why, what would you have done with





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 613
it ?-T. I would have killed that good-for-nothing man
who treated you so cruelly.-H. That would have been
wrong, Tommy; for I am sure he did not want to kill
me. Indeed if I had been a man he should not have
used me so ; but it is all over now, and we ought to for-
give our enemies, as Mr. Barlow tells us Christ did;
and then perhaps they may come to love us, and be
sorrow for what they have done.-T. But how could
you bear to be so severely whipped, without crying
out ?-II. Why, crying out would have done me no
good at all, would it ? And this is nothing to what
many little boys have suffered without ever flinching
or bemoaning themselves.-T. Well, I should have
thought a great deal.-H. Oh it's nothing to what the
young Spartans used to suffer.-T. Who were they ?--
H. Why, you must know they were a very brave set
of people, that lived a great while ago : and, as they
were but few in number, and were surrounded by a
great many enemies, they used to endeavour to make
their little boys very brave and hardy : and these little
boys used to be always running about, half naked, in
the open air, and wrestling and jumping, and exercis-
ing themselves; and then had very coarse food, and
hard beds to lie upon, and were never pampered and
indulged: and all this made them so strong and hardy
and brave, that the like was never seen.-T. What,
and had they no coaches to ride in, nor sweetmeats,
nor wine, nor anybody to wait upon them ?-H. Oh I
dear, no ; their fathers thought that would spoil them;
and so they all fared alike, and ate together in great
rooms; and there they were taught to behave orderly
and decently; and, when dinner was over, they all
went to play together; and, if they committed any
faults, they were severely whipped; but they never
minded it, and scorned to cry out, or make a wry face.
As they were conversing in this manner, they ap-





64 THE HISTORY OF
preached the village ; where Tommy laid out all his
money, amounting to fifteen shillings and sixpence, in
buying some clothes for the little ragged boy and his
brothers, which were made up in a bundle and given
to him : but he desired Harry to carry them for him.-
" That I will," said Harry; "but why don't you choose
to carry them yourself ?"-Tommy. Why, it is not fit for
a gentleman to carry things himself.-Harry. Why,
what hurt does it do him, if he is but strong enough ?
-T. I do not know ; but I believe it is that he may not
look like the common people.-H. Then he should not
have hands, or feet, or eyes, or ears, or mouth, because
the common people have the same.--T No, no; he
must have all these because they are useful.-H. And
is it not useful to be able to do things for ourselves ?-
T. Yes; but gentlemen have others to do what they
want for them.-H. Then I should think it must be a
bad thing to be a gentleman.-T. Why so ?-H. Be-
cause if all were gentlemen, nobody would do anything,
and then we should be all starved.-'. Starved !-H.
Yes; why, you could not live, could you, without
bread ?-T. No, I know that very well.-H. And bread
is made of a plant that grows in the earth, and is called
wheat.-T. Why, then, I would gather it and eat it.-
H. Then you must do something for yourself: but that
would not do; for wheat is a small hard grain, like
the oats which you have sometimes given to Mr.
Barlow's horse; and you would not like to eat them.-
T. No, certainly; but how comes bread then ?-H.
Why, they send the corn to the mill. -T. What is a
mill ?--H. What, did you never see a mill ?-T. No,
never; but I should like to see one, that I may know
how they make bread.-H. There is one at a little dis-
tance ; and if you ask Mr. Barlow, he will go with you,
for he knows the miller very well.--I. That I will, for
I should like to see them make bread.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 65
As they were conversing in this manner, they heard
a great outcry, and, turning their heads, saw a horse
that was galloping violently along, and dragging his
rider along with him, who had fallen off, and, in falling,
hitched his foot in the stirrup. Luckily for the person,
it happened to be wet ground, and the side of a hill,
which prevented the horse from going very fast, and
the rider from being much hurt. But Harry, who was
always prepared to do an act of humanity, even with
the danger of his life, and, besides that, was a boy of
extraordinary courage and agility, ran up towards a
gap which he saw the horse approaching, and just as
he made a little pause before vaulting over, caught
him by the bridle, and effectually stopped him from
proceeding. In an instant, another gentleman came
up with two or three servants, who alighted from their
horses, disengaged the fallen person, and set him upon
his legs. He stared wildly around him for some time:
as he was not materially hurt, he soon recovered his
senses, and the first use he made of them, was to swear
at his horse, and to ask who had stopped the con-
founded jade ?--" Who ?" said his friend: "why, the
very little boy you used so scandalously this morn-
ing: had it not been for his dexterity and courage,
that numskull of yours would have had more flaws in
it than it ever had before."
The Squire considered Harry with a countenance in
which shame and humiliation seemed yet to struggle
with his natural insolence; but at length, putting his
hand into his pocket, he pulled out a guinea, which he
offered to Harry, telling him at the same time, he was
very sorry for what had happened; but Harry, with a
look of more contempt than he had ever been seen to
assume before, rejected the present, and, taking up
the bundle which he had dropped at the time he had
seized the Squire's horse, walked away, accompanied
by his companion.





6G THE HISTORY OF

As it was not far out of their way, they agreed to call
at the poor man's cottage, whom they found much
better, as Mr. Barlow had been there the preceding
night, and given him such medicines as he judged
proper for his disease. Tommy then asked for the
little boy, and on his coming in, told him that he had
no brought him some clothes, which he might weat
without fear of being called aFrenchman, as wells some
more for his little brothers. The pleasure with which
they were received, was so great, and the acknowledg-
ments and blessings of the good woman and the poor man,
who had just begun to sit up, were so many, that little
Tommy could not help shedding tears of compassion,
in which he was joined by Harry.-As they were re-
turning, Tommy said that he had never spent any
money with so much pleasure as that with which he
had purchased clothes for this poor family; and that
for the future he would take care of all the money that
was given him, for that purpose, instead of laying it
out in eatables, and play-things.
Some days after this, as Mr. Barlow and the tww
boys were walking out together, they happened to pass
near a windmill; and on Harry's telling Tommy what
it was, Tommy desired leave to go into it, and look at
it. Mr. Barlow consented to this; and, being acquainted
with the miller, they all went in, and examined every
part of it with great curiosity: and there little Tommy
saw, with astonishment, that the sails of the mill, being
constantly turned round by the wind, moved a great
flat stone, which, by rubbing upon another stone, bruis-
ed all the corn that was put between them, till it be-
came a fine powder.-" Oh, dear!" said Tommy, "is this
the way they make bread ?"-Mr. Barlow told him, this
was the method by which the corn was prepared for
making bread; but that many other things were neces-
sary, before it arrived at that state:-" you see that





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 67
what runs from these mill-stones is only a fine powder,
very different from bread, which is a solid and toler-
ably hard substance."
As they were going home, Harry said to Tommy, "So
you see now, if nobody chose to work, or do any-
thing for himself, we should have no bread to eat: but
you could not even have the corn to make it of, with.
out a great deal of pains and labour.-Tommy. Why
not? loes not corn grow in the ground of itself ?-
Harry. Corn grows in the ground; but then first it is
necessary to plough the ground, to break it to pieces.
--T. What is ploughing?-H. Did you never see three
or four horses drawing something along the fields in a
straight line, while one man drove and another walked
behind, holding the thing by two handles ?-T. Yes, I
have, and is that ploughing ?-H. It is: and there is a
sharp iron underneath, which runs into the ground,
and turns it up all the way it goes.--T. Well, and what
then ?-H. When the ground is thus prepared, they
sow the seed all over it, and then they rake it over to
cover the seed ; and then the seed begins to grow, and
shoots up very high; and at last the corn ripens, and
they reap it, and carry it home.-T. I protest it must
be very curious, and I should like to sow some seed
myself, and see it grow: do you think I could ?-H.
Yes, certainly; and if you will dig the ground to-mor-
row, I will go home to my father, in order to procure
some seed for you.
The next morning, Tommy was up almost as soon as
it was light, and went to work in a corner of the gar-
den, where he dug with great perseverance till break-
fast: when he came in he could not help telling Mr.
Barlow what he had done, and asking him, whether he
was not a very good boy for working so hard to raise
corn ?-" That," said Mr. Barlow," depends upon the use
you intend to make of it when you have raised it:






68 THE HISTORY OF
what is it you intend doing with it ?-" Why, sir," said
Tommy, "I intend to send it to the mill that we saw,
and have it ground into flour; and then I will get you
to show me how to make bread of it; and then I will
sat it, that I may tell my father that I have eaten
bread out of corn of my own sowing."-" That will be
very well done," said Mr. Barlow; "but where will
be the great goodness that you sow corn for your own
eating ? that is no more than all the people round con-
tinually do; and if they did not do it, they would be
obliged to fast."-- But then," said Tommy, "they are
not gentlemen as I am."-" What then," answered Mr.
Barlow, "must not gentlemen cat as well as others,
and therefore is it not for their interest to know how
to procure food as well as other people ?"-" Yes, sir,"
answered Tommy ; "but they can have other people to
raise it for them, so that they are not obliged to work
for themselves." How does that happen ?" said Mr.
Barlow.-Tommy. Why, sir, they pay other people to
work for them, or buy bread when it is made, as much
as they want.-Mr. B. Then they pay for it with
money ?-T. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. Then they must have
money before they can buy corn?-T. Certainly, sir.-
Mr. B. But have all gentlemen money ?-Tommy hesi-
tated some time at this question : at last he said, "I
believe not always, sir."--fr. B. Why, then, if they
have not money, they will find it difficult to procure
corn, unless they raise it for themselves.-" Indeed,"
said Tommy, "I believe they will; for perhaps they
may not find anybody good-natured enough to give it
them."-" But," said Mr. Barlow, "as we are talking
upon this subject, I will tell you a story that I read a
little time past, if you choose to hear it."-Tommy said
lie should be very glad if Mr. Barlow would take the
trouble of telling it to him ; and Mr. I arlow told him
the following history of





SANDFORD AND MERTON,


THE TWO BROTHERS.

ABOUT the time that many people went over to South
America, with the hopes of finding gold and silver,
there was a Spaniard, whose name was Pizarro, who
had a great inclination to try his fortune like the rest :
but, as he had an elder brother, for whom he had a
very great affection, he went to him, told him his de-
sign, and solicited him very much to go along with
him, promising him that he should have an equal share
of all the riches they found.-The brother, whose name
was Alonzo, was a man of a contented temper, and
a good understanding; he did not therefore much ap-
prove of the project, and endeavoured to dissuade Piz-
arro from it, by setting before him the danger to which
he exposed himself, and the uncertainty of his succeed-
ing; but, finding all that he said was vain, he agreed to
go with him, but told him at the same time, that he
wanted no part of the riches which he might find, and
would ask no other favour than to have his baggage
and a few servants taken on board the vessel with
him. Pizarro then sold all that he had, bought a vessel,
and embarked with several other adventurers, who had
all great expectations, like himself, of soon becoming
rich.-As to Alonzo, he took nothing with him but a
few ploughs, harrows, and other tools, and some corn,
together with a large quantity of potatoes, and some
seeds of different vegetables. Pizarro thought this a
very odd preparation for a voyage; but, as he did not
think proper to expostulate with his brother, he said
nothing.
After sailing for some time with prosperous winds,
they put into the last port where they were to stop,
before they came to the country where they were to
search for gold. Here Pizarro bought a great number
5






70 THE HISTORY OF
more of pickaxes, shovels, and various other tools for
digging, melting, and refining the gold he expected to
find, besides hiring an additional number of labourers
to assist him in the work. Alonzo, on the contrary,
bought only a few sheep, and four stout oxen, with
their harness, and food enough to subsist them till they
should arrive at land.
As it happened, they met with a favourable voyage;
and all landed in perfect health in America. Alonzo
then told his brother, that, as he had only come to ac-
company and serve him, he would stay near the shore
with his servants and cattle, while he went to search
for gold; and, when he had acquired as much as he
desired, should be always ready to embark for Spami
with him.
Pizarro accordingly set out,.not without feeling so
great a contempt for his brother, that he could not
help expressing it to his companions.-" I always
thought," said he, "that my brother had been a man
of sense; he bore that character in Spain, but I find
people were strangely mistaken in him. Here he is
going to divert himself with his sheep and his oxen,
as if he was living quietly upon his farm at home, and
had nothing else to do than to raise cucumbers and
melons. But we know better what to do with our time :
so come along, my lads, and if we have but good luck,
we shall soon be enriched for the rest of our lives."
-All that were present applauded Pizarro's speech,
and declared themselves ready to follow wherever he
went; only one old Spaniard shook his head as he
went, and told him he doubted whether he would find
his brother so great a fool as he thought.
They then travelled on several days' march into the
country, sometimes obliged to cross rivers, at others to
pass mountains and forests, where they could find no
paths; sometimes scorched by the violent heat of the





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 71
sun, and then wetted to the skin by violent showers of
rain. These difficulties, however, did not discourage
them so much as to hinder them from trying in several
places for gold, which they were at length lucky enough
to find in a considerable quantity. This success ani-
mated them very much, and they continued working
upon that spot till all their provisions were consumed;
they gathered daily large quantities of ore, but then
they suffered very much from hunger. Still, however,
they persevered in their labours, and sustained them-
selves with such roots and berries as they could find.
At last even this resource failed them; and, after
several of their company had died from want and hard-
ship, the rest were just able to crawl back to the place
where they had left Alonzo, carrying with them the
gold, to acquire which they had suffered so many
miseries.
But, while they had been employed in this manner,
Alonzo, who foresaw what would happen, had been in-
dustriously toiling to a very different purpose. His
skill in husbandry had easily enabled him to find a spot
of considerable extent and very fertile soil, which he
ploughed up with the oxen he had brought with him,
and the assistance of his servants. He then sowed
the different seeds he had brought, and planted the
potatoes, which prospered beyond what he could have
expected, and yielded him a most abundant harvest.
His sheep he had turned out in a very fine meadow
near the sea, and every one of them had brought him a
couple of lambs. Besides that, he and his servants, at
leisure times, employed themselves in fishing; and the
fish they had caught were all dried, and salted with
salt they had found upon the sea-shore; so that by the
time of Pizarro's return, they had laid up a very con-
siderable quantity of provisions.
When Pizarro returned, his brother received him





72 THE HISTORY OF

with the greatest cordiality, and asked him what suc-
cess he had had? Pizarro told him that they had
found an immense quantity of gold; but that several
of his companions had perished, and that the rest were
almost starved from the want of provisions; he then
requested that his brother would immediately give
him something to eat, as he assured him he had tasted
no food for the last two days, excepting the roots and
bark of trees. Alonzo then very cooly answered that
he should remember, that when they set out they had
made an agreement, that neither should interfere with
the other; that he had never desired to have any share
of the gold which Pizarro might acquire; and there-
fore he wondered that Pizarro should expect to be sup-
plied with the provisions that he had procured with
so much care and labour.-" But," added he, if you
choose to exchange some of the gold you have found,
for provisions, I shall perhaps be able to accommodate
you."-Pizarro thought this behaviour very unkind in
his brother, but, as he and his companions were almost
starved, they were obliged to comply with his demands,
which were so exorbitant, that in a very short time
they parted with all the gold they had brought with
them, merely to purchase food. Alonzo then proposed
to his brother to embark for Spain in the vessel which
had brought them thither, as the winds and weather
seemed to be most favourable; but Pizarro, with an
angry look, told him, that, since he had deprived him
of everything he had gained, and treated him in so
unfriendly a manner, he should go without him; for,
as to himself, he would rather perish upon that desert
shore, than embark with so inhuman a brother. But
Alonzo, instead of resenting these reproaches, em-
braced his brother with the greatest tenderness, and
spoke to him in the following manner: Could you
then believe, my dearest Pizarro, that I really meant





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 71
to deprive you of the fruits of all your labours, which
you have acquired with so much toil and danger?
Rather may all the gold in the universe perish, than I
should be capable of such behaviour to my dearest
brother But I saw the rash, impetuous desire you
had of riches, and wished to correct this fault in you,
and serve you at the same time. You despised my
prudence and industry, and imagined that nothing
could be wanting to him that had once acquired wealth;
but you have now learned, that without that foresight
and industry, all the gold you have brought with you
would not have prevented you from perishing miser-
ably. .You are now, I hope, wiser : and therefore take
back your riches, which I hope you have now learned
to make a proper use of.'-Pizarro was equally filled
with gratitude and astonishment at this generosity of
his brother, and he acknowledged from experience,
that industry was better than gold. They then em-
barked for Spain, where they all safely arrived: dur-
ing the voyage, Pizarro often solicited his brother to
accept of half his riches, which Alonzo constantly
refused, telling him, that he that could raise food
enough to maintain himself, was in no want of gold.

Indeed," said Tommy, when Mr. Barlow had finish-
ed the story," I think Alonzo was a very sensible man;
and, if it had not been for him, his brother and all his
companions must have been starved; but then this was
only because they were in a desert uninhabited country.
This could never have happened in England; there
they could always have as much corn or bread as they
choose for their money."-" But," said Mr. Barlow, is
a man sure to be always in England, or some place
where he can purchase bread ?"-Tommy. I believe so,
sir.-M-r. B. Why, are there not countries in the world
where there are no inhabitants, and where no corn is






74 THE HISTORY OF
raised ?-T. Certainly, sir : this country which the two
brothers went to was such a place.--Mr. B. And there
are many other such countries in the world.-T. But
then a man need not go to them ; he may stay at home.
-Mrr. B. Then he must not pass the seas in a ship,-
T. Why so, sir ?-Mr. B. Because the ship may happen
to be wrecked upon some such country where there are
no inhabitants; and then, although he should escape
the danger of the sea, what will he do for food ?-T.
And have such accidents sometimes happened ?--Mr.
B. Yes, several: there was, in particular, one Selkirk,
who was shipwrecked, and obliged to live several years
upon a desert island.-T. That was very extraordinary
indeed; and how did he get victuals ?-MJr. B. He
sometimes procured roots; sometimes fruits: he also
at last became so active, that he was able to pursue and
catch wild goats, with which the island abounded.-T.
And did not such a hard, disagreeable way of life kill
him at last ?--Mr. B. By no means; he never enjoyed
better health in his life: and you have heard that he
became so active as to be able to overtake the very
wild beasts. But a still more extraordinary story is
that of some Russians, who were left on the coast of
Spitzbergen, where they were obliged to stay several
years.-T. Where is Spitzbergen, sir ?-M-r. B. It is a
country very far to the north, which is constantly co-
vered with snow and ice, because the weather is unre-
mittingly severe. Scarcely any vegetables will grow
upon the soil, and scarcely any animals are found in
the country. To add to this, a great part of the year
it is covered with perpetual darkness, and is inacces-
sible to ships: so that it is impossible to conceive a
more dreary country, or where it must be more difficult
to support human life. Yet four men were capable of
struggling with all these difficulties during several
years, and three of them returned at last safe to their





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 75
own country.--T. This must be a very curious story
indeed; I would give anything to be able to see it.-
Mr. B. That you may very easily. When I read it, I
copied over several parts of it, I thought it so curious
and interesting, which I can easily find, and will show
you. Here it is: but it is necessary first to inform you,
that those northern seas, from the intense cold of the
climate, are so full of ice, as frequently to render it
extremely dangerous to ships, lest they should be
crushed between two pieces of immense size, or so
completely surrounded as not to be able to extricate
themselves. Having given you this previous informa-
tion, you will easily understand the distressful situa-
tion of a Russian ship, which, as it was sailing in those
seas, was on a sudden so surrounded by ice, as not to
be able to move. My extracts begin here; and you
may read them.

Extractsfrom a Narrative of the extraordinary A dven-
tures of Four Russian Sailors, who were cast away on
the Desert Island of East Spitzbergen.

-IN this alarming state (that is, when the ship was
surrounded with ice), a council was held; when the
mate, Alexis Hinkof, informed them, that he recollected
to have heard, that some of the people of Mesen, some
time before, having formed a resolution of wintering
upon this island,- had carried from that city timber pro-
per for building a hut, and had actually erected one at
some distance from the shore. This information in.
diced the whole company to resolve on wintering
there, if the hat, as they hoped, still existed; for they
clearly perceived the imminent danger they were in,
and that they must inevitably perish, if they continued
in the ship. They despatched, therefore, four of their
crew in search of the hut, or any other succour they






76 THE HISTORY OP
could meet with. These were Alexis Hinkof the mate,
Iwan Hinkof his godson, Stephen Scarassof, and Feodor
Weregin.
"1 As the shore on which they were to land was un-
inhabited, it was necessary that they should make some
provision for their expedition. They had almost two
miles to travel over those ridges of ice, which being
raised by the waves, and driven against each other by
the wind, rendered the way equally difficult and dan-
gerous; prudence, therefore, forbade their loading
themselves too much, lest, by being overburthened,
they might sink in between the pieces of ice, and
perish. Having thus maturely considered the nature
of their undertaking, they provided themselves with a
musket and powder-horn, containing twelve charges of
powder, with as many balls, an axe, a small kettle, a
bag with about twenty pounds of flour, a knife, a tin-
der-box and tinder, a bladder filled with tobacco, and
every man his wooden pipe.
Thus accoutred, these four sailors quickly arrived
on the island, little suspecting the misfortunes that
would befall them. They began with exploring the
country, and soon discovered the hut they were in
search of, about an English mile and a half from the
shore. It was thirty-six feet in length, eighteen feet in
height, and as many in breadth; it contained a small
anti-chamber, about twelve feet broad, which had two
doors, the one to shut it up from the outer air, the
other to form a communication with the inner room:
this contributed greatly to keep the large room warm
when once heated. In the large room was an earthen
stove, constructed in the Russian manner; this is, a
kind of oven without a chimney, which served occa-
sionally either for baking, for heating the room, or, as
is customary among the Russian peasants in very cold
weather, for a place to sleep upon. Our adventurers





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 77
rejoiced greatly at having discovered the hut; which
had, however, suffered much from the weather, it hav-
ing now been built a considerable time: they, however,
contrived to pass the night in it.
Early next morning they hastened to the shore,
impatient to inform their comrades of their success,
and also to procure from their vessel such provision,
ammunition, and other necessaries, as might better
enable them to winter on the island. I leave my readers
to figure to themselves the astonishment and agony of
mind these poor people must have felt, when, on reach-
ing the place of their landing, they saw nothing but an
open sea, free from the ice, which but a day before
had covered the ocean. A violent storm, which had
arisen during the night, had certainly been the cause
of this disastrous event: but they could not tell whether
the ice, which had before hemmed in the vessel, agi-
tated by the violence of the waves, had been driven
against her, and shattered her to pieces; or, whether
she had been carried by the current into the main,' a
circumstance which frequently happens in those seas.
Whatever accident had befallen the ship, they saw her
no more: and, as no tidings were ever afterward re-
ceived of her, it is most probable that she sunk, and
that all on board of her perished.
This melancholy event depriving the unhappy
wretches of all hope of ever being able to quit the
island, they returned to the hut, whence they had
come, full of horror and despair."-

Oh dear," cried Tommy at this passage, what a
dreadful situation these poor people must have been
in To be in such a cold country, covered with snow
and frozen with ice, without anybody to help them, or
give them victuals: I should think they must all have
died."--That you will soon see," said Mr. Barlow,





78 THIE HISTORY OF
" when you have read the rest of the story: but tell
me one thing, Tommy, before you proceed. These
four men were poor sailors, who had always been ac-
cus tomed to danger and hardships, and to work for
their living; do you think it would have been better
for them to have been bred up gentlemen; that is, to
do nothing, but to have other people wait upon them
in everything ?"-Why, to be sure," answered Tommy,
"it was much better for them that they had been used
to work; for that might enable them to contrive and
do something to assist themselves; for, without doing
a great deal, they must certainly all have perished."-

"T Their first attention was employed, as may easily
be imagined, in devising means of providing subsistence
and for repairing their hut. The twelve charges of
powder which they had brought with them, soon pro-
cured them as many rein-deer, the island, fortunately
for them, abounding in these animals. I have before
observed, that the hut, which the sailors were so for-
tunate as to find, had sustained some damage, and it
was this: there were cracks in many places between
the boards of the building, which freely admitted the
air. This inconveniency was, however, easily reme-
died, as they had an axe, and the beams were still
sound (for wood in those cold climates continues
through a length of years unimpaired by worms or
decay); so it was easy for them to make the boards
join again very tolerably; besides, moss growing in
great abundance all over the island, there was more
than sufficient to stop up the crevices, which wooden
houses must always be liable to. Repairs of this kind
cost the unhappy men less trouble, as they were Rus.
sians : for all Russian peasants are known to be good
carpenters; they build their own houses, and are very
expert in handling the axe. The intense cold which





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 79
makes these climates habitable to so few species of
animals, renders them equally unfit for the production
of vegetables. No species of tree or even shrub is
found in any of the islands of Spitzbergen : a circum-
stance of the most alarming nature to our sailors.
"Without fire, it was impossible to resist the rigour
of the climate ; and, without wood, how was that fire
to be produced or supported ? However, in wandering
along the beach, they collected plenty of wood, which
had been driven ashore by the waves, and which at
first consisted of the wrecks of ships, and afterward of
whole trees with their roots, the produce of some more
hospitable (but to them unknown) climate, which the
overflowing of rivers, or other accidents, had sent into
the ocean. Nothing proved of more essential service
to these unfortunate men, during the first year of their
exile, than some boards they found upon the beach,
having a long iron hook, some Lails of about five oe
six inches long, and proportionably thick, and other
bits of old iron, fixed in them; the melancholy relics
of some vessels, cast away in those remote parts. These
were thrown ashore by the waves, at the time when
the want of powder gave our men reason to apprehend
that they must fall a prey to hunger, as they had nearly
consumed those rein-deer they had killed. This lucky
circumstance was attended with another equally fortu-
nate : they found on the shore the root of a fir tree
which nearly approached to the figure of a bow. As
necessity has ever been the mother of invention, so
they soon fashioned this root to a good bow by the
help of a knife: but still they wanted a string and
arrows. Not knowing how to procure these at present,
they resolved upon making a couple of lances, to defend
themselves against the white bears, by far the mount
ferocious of their kind, whose attacks they had great
reason to dread. Finding they could neither make the





80 THE HISTORY OF
heads of their lances nor of their arrows, without the
help of a hammer, they contrived to form the above-
mentioned large iron hook into one, by beating it, and
widening a hole it happened to have about its middle,
with the help of one of their largest nails; this received
the handle, and a round button at one end of the hook
served for the face of the hammer. A large pebble
supplied the place of an anvil, and a couple of rein-
deer's horns made the tongs. By the means of such
tools, they made two heads of spears; and, after polish-
ing and sharpening them on stones, they tied them, as
fast as possible, with thongs made of rein-deer skins,
to sticks about the thickness of a man's arms, which
they got from some branches of trees that had been
cast on shore. Thus equipped with spears, they re-
solved to attack a white bear; and, after a most danger-
ous encounter, they killed the formidable creature, and
thereby made a new supply of provisions. The flesh of
this animal they relished exceedingly, as they thought
it much resembled beef in taste and flavour. The ten-
dons, they saw with much pleasure, could with little or
no trouble, be divided into filaments of what fineness
they thought fit. This perhaps was the most fortunate
discovery these men could have made; for, besides other
advantages, which will be hereafter mentioned, they
were hereby furnished with strings for their bow.
The success of our unfortunate islanders in making
the spears, and the use these proved of, encouraged
them to proceed, and to forge some pieces of iron into
heads of arrows of the same shape, though somewhat
smaller in size than the spears above-mentioned. Hav-
ing ground and sharpened these like the former, they
tied them with the sinews of the white bears to pieces
of fir, to which, by the help of fine threads of the same,
they fastened feathers of sea-fowl; and thus became.
possessed of a complete bow and arrows. Their in.





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 81
genuity in this respect was crowned with success far
beyond their expectation; for, during the time of their
continuance upon the island, with these arrows they
killed no less than two hundred and fifty rein-deer, be-
sides a great number of blue and white foxes. The
flesh of these animals served them also for food, and
their skins for clothing, and other necessary preserva-
tives against the intense coldness of a climate so near
the Pole. They killed, however, not more than ten
white bears in all, and that not without the utmost
danger; for those animals, being prodigiously strong,
defended themselves with astonishing vigour and fury.
The first our men attacked designedly; the other nine
they slew in defending themselves from their assaults;
for some of these creatures even ventured to enter the
outer room of the hut, in order to devour them. It is
true, that all the bears did not show (if I may be al-
lowed the expression) equal intrepidity, either owing
to some being less pressed by hunger, or to their being
by nature less carnivorous than the others; for some
of them which entered the hut immediately betook
themselves to flight, on the first attempt of the sailors
to drive them away. A repetition, however, of these
ferocious attacks, threw the poor men into great terror
and anxiety; as they were in almost a perpetual danger
of being devoured."

"Sure," exclaimed Tommy, "such a life as that must
have been miserable and dreadful indeed."-"Why so ?"
said Mr. Barlow.-Tommy. Because, being always in
danger of being devoured by wild beasts, those men
must have been always unhappy.--Mr. B. And yet they
never were devoured.-T. No, sir; because they made
weapons to defend themselves.-Mr. B. Perhaps, then,
a person is not unhappy, merely because he is exposed
to danger : for he may escape from it; but because he





82 THE HISTORY OF
does not know how to defend himself.-T. I do not
exactly understand you, sir.-Mr. B. I will give you an
instance. Were you not very unhappy when the snake
coiled itself round your leg, because you imagined it
would bite you ?-T. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. But Harry was
not unhappy.-T. That is very true, sir.-Mr. B. And
yet he was more in danger of being bitten than your-
self ; because he took hold of it.-T. Indeed he did.-
Mr. B. But he knew that by boldly seizing it, and fling-
ing it away, he was in very little danger; had you,
therefore, known the same, you probably, would neither
have feared so much, nor have been so unhappy as you
were.-T. Indeed, sir, that is true ; and, were such an
accident to happen again, I think I should have courage
enough to do the same.-Mr. B. Should you, then, be
as unhappy now, as you were the first time !-T. By no
means; because I have a great deal more courage.-
Mr. B. Why, then, persons that have courage are not
so unhappy as those that are cowardly, when they are
exposed to danger ?-T. Certainly not, sir.--rM. B. And
that must be equally true in every kind df Cnger ?-
T. Indeed it must; for I have sometimes heard d y
mother shriek out when she was passing in a coach
through a small stream of water, while my father only
laughed at her.-iMr. B. Why then, if she had possessed
as much courage, perhaps she would have laughed too.
-T. Indeed I believe she might; for I have sometimes
seen her laugh at herself when it was over, for being
so cowardly.-Mr. B. Why then it is possible, that
when these men found they were so well able to defend
themselves against the bears, they might no longer be
afraid of them ; and, not being afraid, they would not
be unhappy.-T. Indeed, I believe so.-Mr. B. Let us
now continue.

"The three different kinds of animals above men.
tioned, namely, tle rein-dccr, the blue and white foxes,





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 83
and the white bears, were the only food these wretched
mariners tasted during their continuance in this dreary
abode.--We do not at once see every resource : it is
generally necessity which quickens our invention, open-
ing by degrees our eyes, and pointing out expedients
which otherwise might never have occurred to our
thoughts. The truth of this observation our four sai-
lors experienced in various instances. They were for
some time reduced to the necessity of eating their
meat almost raw, and without either bread or salt; for
they were quite destitute of both. The intenseness of
the cold, together with the want of proper conveni-
ences, prevented them from cooking their victuals in a
proper manner. There was but one stove in the hut,
and that, being set up agreeably to the Russian taste,
was more like an oven, and, consequently, not well
adapted for boiling anything. Wood, also, was too
precious a commodity to be wasted in keeping up two
fires; and the one they might have made out of their
habitation, to dress their victuals, would in no way
have served to warm them. Another reason against
their cooking in the open air, was the continual danger
of an attack from the white bears. And here, I must
observe, that suppose they had made the attempt, it
would still have been practicable for only some part of
the year; for the cold, which, in such a climate, for
some months scarcely ever abates, from the long
absence of the sun, then enlightening the opposite
hemisphere ; the inconceivable quantity of snow which
is continually falling, through the greatest part of the
winter; together with the almost incessant rains, at
certain seasons; all these were almost insurmountable
to that expedient. To remedy, therefore, in some de-
gree, the hardship of eating their meat half raw, they be-
thought themselves of drying some of their provisions,
during the summer, in the open air; and afterwards of





84 THE HISTORY OF
hanging it up in the upper part of the hut, which, as I
mentioned before, was continually filled with smoke
down to the windows : it was thus dried thoroughly
by the help of that smoke. This meat, so prepared,
they used for bread, and it made them relish their
other flesh the better, as they could only half-dress it.
Finding this experiment answer in every respect to
their wishes, they continued to practice it during the
whole time of their confinement upon the island ; and
always kept up, by that means, a sufficient stock of
provisions. Water they had in summer from small
rivulets that fell from the rocks, and in winter from
the snow and ice thawed. This was of course their
only beverage; and their small kettle was the only
vessel they could make use of for this and other pur-
poses. I have mentioned above, that our sailors
brought a small bag of flower with them to the island.
Of this they had consumed about one half with their
meat; the remainder they employed in a different
manner, equally useful.-They soon saw the necessity
of keeping up a continual fire in so cold a climate, and
found that, if it should unfortunately go out, they had
no means of lighting it again; for though they had a
steel and flints, yet they wanted both match and tinder.
In their excursions through the island, they had met
with a slimy loam, or a kind of clay, nearly in the
middle of it: out of this they found means to form a
utensil which might serve for a lamp, and they pro-
posed to keep it constantly burning with the fat of the
animals they should kill. This was certainly the most
rational scheme they could have thought of; for, to be
without a light, in a climate where, during winter,
darkness reigns for several months together, would
have added much to their other calamities."
Tommy. Pray, sir, stop. What! are there countries
in the world where it is night continually for several





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 8
months together ?-Mr. Barlow. Indeed there are.--T
How can that be ?-Mr. B. How happens it that
there is night at all ?-T. How happens it! It must
be so: must it not ?-Mr. B. That is only saying that
you do not know the reason. But do you observe no
difference here, between the night and day ?-T. Yes,
sir, it is light in the day, and dark in the night.-Mr. B.
And why is it dark in the night.-T. Really I do not
know.-Mr. B. What! does the sun shine every night
-T. No, sir, certainly.-Mr. B. Then it only shines
on some nights, and not on others ?-T. It never
shines at all in the night.-Mr. B. And does it in the
day ?- '. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. Every day ?-T. Every
day, I believe ; only sometimes the clouds prevent you
from seeing it.-Mr. B. And what becomes of it in
the night.-T. It goes away, so that we cannot see it.-
Mr. B. So, then, when you can see the sun, it is never
night ?-T. No, sir.-Mr. B. But when the sun goes
away, the night comes on.-T. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. And
when the sun comes again, what happens ?-T. Then
it is day again; for I have seen the day break, and the
sun always rises presently after.-Mr. B. Then if the
sun were not to rise for several months together, what
would happen ?-T. Sure, it would always remain
night, and be dark.-Mr. B. That is exactly the case
with the countries we are reading about.

Having therefore fashioned a kind of lamp, they
filled it with rein-deers' fat, and stuck into it some
twisted linen, shaped into a wick: but they had the
mortification to find, that as soon as the fat melted, it
not only soaked into the clay, but fairly ran out of it
on all sides. The thing, therefore, was to devise some
means of preventing this inconvenience, not arising
from cracks, but from the substance of which the lamp
was made, being too porous. They made, therefore,
6





0d THE HISTORY OF
a new one, dried it thoroughly in the air, then
heated it red hot, and afterwards quenched it in their
kettle, wherein they had boiled a quantity of flour
down to the consistence of thin starch. The lamp
being thus dried, and filled with melted fat, they now
found, to their great joy, that it did not leak : but, for
greater security, they dipped linen rags in their paste,
and with them covered all its outside.-Succeeding in
this attempt, they immediately made another lamp, for
fear of an accident, that, at all events, they might not
be destitute of light ; and when they had done so much,
they thought proper to save the remainder of their flour
for similar purposes. As they had carefully collected
whatever happened to be cast on shore, to supply them
with fuel, they had found amongst the wrecks of
vessels, some cordage, and a small quantity of oakum
(a kind of hemp used for caulking ships), which served
them to make wicks for their lamps. When these
stores began to fail, their shirts and their drawers
(which are worn by almost all Russian peasants) were
employed to make good the deficiency. By these
means, they kept their lamp burning without inter-
mission, from the day they first made it (a work they
set about soon after their arrival on the island) until
that of their embarkation for their native country.
"6The necessity of converting the most essential part
of their clothing, such as their shirts and drawers, to
the use above specified, exposed them the more to the
rigour of the climate. They also found themselves in
want of shoes, boots, and other articles of dress ; and,
as winter was approaching, they were again obliged to
have recourse to that ingenuity which necessity sug-
gests, and which seldom fails in the trying hour of dis-
tress. They had skins of rein-deer and foxes in plenty,
that had hitherto served them for bedding, and which
they now thought of employing in some more essential





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 87
service : but the question was how to tan them. After
deliberating on this subject, they took to the following
method: they soaked the skins for several days in
fresh water, till they could pull off the hair pretty
easily ; they then rubbed the wet leather with their
hands till it was nearly dry, when they spread some
melted rein-deer fat over it, and again rubbed it well.
By this process the leather became soft, pliant, and
supple, proper for answering every purpose they
wanted it for. Those skins which they designed for
furs, they only soaked for one day, to prepare them
for being wrought; and then proceeded in the manner
before-mentioned, except only that they did not remove
the hair. Thus they soon provided themselves with
the necessary materials for all the parts of dress they
wanted.-But here another difficulty occurred : they
had neither awls for making shoes or boots, nor needles
for sewing their garments. This want, however, they
soon supplied by means of the pieces of iron they had
occasionally collected. Out of these they made both,
and by their industry even brought them to a certain
degree of perfection. The making eyes to their needles
gave them indeed no little trouble, but this they also
performed with the assistance of their knife; for, hav-
ing ground it to a very sharp point, and heated red-hot
a kind of wire forged for that purpose, they pierced a
hole through one end, and, by whetting and smoothing
it on stones, brought the other to a point; and thus
gave the whole needle a very tolerable form. Scissors
to cut out the skin were what they next had occasion
for; but having none, their place they supplied with
the knife: and, though there was neither shoemaker
nor tailor amongst them, yet they had contrived to
cut out their leather and furs well enough for their
purpose. The sinews of the bears and the rein-deer,
which, as I mentioned before, they had found means





83 THE HISTORY OF

to split, served them for thread : and, thus provided
with the necessary implements, they proceeded to
make their new clothes."

"These," said Mr. Barlow, "are the extracts which
I have made from this very extraordinary story; and they
are sufficient to show both the many accidents to which
men are exposed, and the wonderful expedients which
may be found out, even in the most dismal circum-
stances."-" It is very true, indeed," answered Tommy;
"c but pray what became of these poor men at last ?"-
After they had lived more than six years upon this
dreary and inhospitable coast," answered Mr. Barlow,
"aa ship arrived there by accident, which took three of
them on board, and carried them in safety to their own
country."-" And what became of the fourth ?" said
Tommy.-" He," said Mr. Barlow, "was seized with a
dangerous disease, called the scurvy; and, being of an
indolent temper, and therefore not using the exercise
which was necessary to preserve his life, after having
lingered some time, died, and was buried in the snow
by his companions."
Here little Harry came in from his father's house,
and brought with him the chicken, which, it has been
mentioned, he had saved from the claws of the kite.
The little animal was now perfectly recovered of the
hurt it had received, and showed so great a degree of
affection to its protector, that it would run after him
like a dog, hop upon his shoulder, nestle in his bosom,
and eat crumbs out of his hand. Tommy was ex-
tremely surprised and pleased to remark its tameness
and docility, and asked by what means it had been
made so gentle. Harry told him he had taken no par-
ticular pains about it; but that, as the poor little crea.
ture had been sadly hurt, he had fed it every day till
it was well; and that, in consequence of that kind-





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 63
ness, it had conceived a great degree of affection to-
wards him.
"Indeed," said Tommy, that is very surprising; for
I thought all birds had flown away whenever a man
came near them; and that even the fowls which are
kept at home would never let you touch them."--M1r.
B. And what do you imagine is the reason of that 2-
T. Because they are wild.-Mr. B. And what is a fowl's
being wild ?-T. When he will not let you come near
him.-M-r. B. Then a fowl is wild, because he will not
let you come near him; and will not let you come
near him, because he is wild. This is saying nothing
more than that when a fowl is wild, he will not let you
approach him. But I want to know what is the reason
of his being wild ?-T. Indeed, sir, I cannot tell, unless
it is because they are naturally so.-Mr. B. But if they
were naturally so, this fowl could not be fond of
Harry.-T. That is because he is so good to it.-Mr. B.
Very likely. Then it is not natural for an animal to
run away from a person that is good to him.-T. No,
sir, I believe not.-Mr. B. But when a person is not
good to him, or endeavours to hurt him, it is natural
for an animal to run away from him, is it not ?-T.
Yes.--JMr. B. And then you say that he is wild, do you
not ?-T. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. Why then it is probable
that animals are only wild because they are afraid of
being hurt, and that they only run away from the fear
of danger. I believe you would do the same from a
lion or a tiger.-T. Indeed I would, sir.-Mr. B. And
yet you do not call yourself a wild animal ?-Tommy
laughed heartily at this, and said, No.--"Therefore,"
said Mr. Barlow, "if you want to tame animals, you
must be good to them, and treat them kindly, and then
they will no longer fear you, but come to you and love
you."--"Indeed," said Harry, "that is very true : for I
knew a little boy that took a great fancy to a snake









90 THE HISTORY OF
that lived in his father's garden; and, when he had his
milk for breakfast, he used to sit under a nut-tree and
whistle, and the snake would come to him, and eat out
of his bowl."-T. And did it not bite him ?-H. No;
he sometimes used to give it a pat with his spoon, if it
ate too fast; but it never hurt him.
Tommy was much pleased with this conversation;
and, being both good-natured and desirous of making
experiments, he determined to try his skill in taming
animals. Accordingly, he took a large slice of bread
in his hand, and went out to seek some animal that he
might give it to.-The first thing that he happened to
meet was a sucking pig that had rambled from its
mother, and was basking in the sun. Tommy would
not neglect the opportunity of showing his talents: he
therefore called, Pig, pig, pig come hither, little pig I
But the pig, who did not exactly comprehend his in-
tentions, only grunted, and ran away.-" You little un-
grateful thing," said Tommy, "do you treat me in this
manner, when I want to feed you? If you do not
know your friends, I must teach you." Saying this, he
sprang at the pig, and caught him by the hind-leg, in-
tending to have given him the bread which he had in
his hand: but the pig, who was not used to be treated in
that manner, began struggling and squeaking to that
degree, that the sow, who was within hearing, came
running to the place, with all the rest of the litter at
her heels. As Tommy did not know whether she
would be pleased with his civilities to her young one,
or not, he thought it most prudent to let it go; and
the pig, endeavouring to escape as speedily as possibly,
unfortunately ran between his legs, and threw him
down. The place where this accident happened was
extremely wet; therefore, Tommy, in falling, dirtied
himself from head to foot; and the sow, who came up
at that instant, passed over him as he attempted to
rise, and rolled him back again into the mire.





SANDFORD AND MERTON 91
Tommy, who was not the coolest in his temper, was
extremely provoked at this ungrateful return for his
intended kindness, and, losing all patience, he seized
the sow by the hind-leg, and began pommelling her with
all his might, as she attempted to escape. The sow, as
may be imagined, did not relish such treatment, but
endeavoured with all her force to escape; but, Tommy
still keeping his hold, and continuing his discipline,
she struggled with such violence as to drag him seve-
ral yards, squeaking at the same time, in the most
lamentable manner; in which she was joined by the
whole litter of pigs.
During the heat of this contest, a large flock of geese
happened to be crossing the road, into the midst of
which the affrighted sow ran headlong, dragging the
enraged Tommy at her heels. The goslings retreated
with the greatest precipitation, joining their mournful
cackling to the general noise; but, a gander of more
than common size and courage, resenting the unpro-
voked attack which had been made upon his family,
flew at Tommy's hinder parts, and gave him several
severe strokes with his bill.
Tommy, whose courage had hitherto been uncon-
querable, being thus unexpectedly attacked by a new
enemy, was obliged to yield to fortune, and not knowing
the precise extent of his danger, he not only suffered
the sow to escape, but joined his vociferations to the
general scream. This alarmed Mr. Barlow, who, com-
ing up to the place, found his pupil in the most woeful
plight, daubed from head to foot, with his face and
hands as black as those of any chimney-sweeper. He
inquired what was the matter? and Tommy, as soon as
he had recovered breath enough to speak, answered in
this manner : "Sir, all this is owning to what you told
me about taming animals: I wanted to make them tame
and gentle, and to love me; and you see the conse-





02 TH E HISTORY OF

quences."-" Indeed," said Mr. Barlow, "I see you have
been very ill-treated, but I hope you are not hurt;
and, if it is owing to anything I have said, I shall feel
the more concern."'-"No," said Tommy, "I cannot say
that I am much hurt."-" Why then," said Mr. Barlow,
"you had better go and wash yourself; and, when you
are clean, we will talk over the affair together."
When Tommy had returned, Mr. Barlow asked him
how the accident had happened ? and when he had
heard the story, he said, I am very sorry for your
misfortune: but I do not perceive that I was the cause
of it : for I do not remember that I ever advised you
to catch pigs by the hinder legs."-Tommy. No, sir;
but you told me, that feeding animals was the way to
make them love me; and so I wanted to feed the pig.
-Mr. B. But it was not my fault that you attempted
it in a wrong manner. The animal di.' not know your
intentions, and therefore, when you seized him in so
violent a manner, he naturally attempted to escape;
and his mother, hearing his cries, very naturally came
to his assistance. All that happened was owing to
your inexperience. Before you meddle with any ani-
mal, you should make yourself acquainted with his
nature and disposition; otherwise, you may fare like
the little boy, that, in attempting to catch flies, was
stung by a wasp; or like another, that seeing an adder
sleeping upon a bank, took it for an eel, and was bitten
by it; which had nearly cost him his life.--T. But
sir, I thought Harry had mentioned a little boy that
used to feed a snake without receiving any hurt from
it.-Mr. B. That might very well happen; there is
scarcely any creature that will do hurt, unless it is
attacked or wants food; and some of these reptiles are
entirely harmless, others not: therefore the best way,
is not to meddle with any till you are perfectly ac-
quainted with its nature. Had you observed this rule





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 93
you never would have attempted to catch the pig by
the hinder leg, in order to tame it: and it is very
lucky that you did not make the experiment upon a
larger animal, otherwise you might have been as badly
treated as the Tailor was by the elephant.-T. Pray,
sir, what is this curious story ? But first tell me, if you
please, what an elephant is.
An Elephant," said Mr. Barlow, "is the largest
land animal that we are acquainted with. It is many
times thicker than an ox, and grows to the height of
eleven or twelve feet. Its strength, as may be easily
imagined, is prodigious ; but it is, at the same time, so
very gentle, that it rarely does hurt to anything, even
in the woods where it resides. It does not eat flesh,
but lives upon the fruits and branches of trees. But
what is most singular about its make is, that instead of
a nose, it has a long, hollow piece of flesh, which grows
over its mouth to the length of three or four feet: this
is called the trunk of the Elephant; and he is capable
of bending it in every direction. When he wants to
break off the branch of a tree, he twists his trunk round
it, and snaps it off directly; when he wants to drink,
he lets it down into the water, sucks up several gallons
at a time, and then, doubling the end of it back, dis-
charges it all into his mouth."
But if he is so large and strong," said Tommy, I
should suppose it must be impossible ever to tame
him."-" So perhaps it would," replied Mr. Barlow,
did they not instruct those that have been already
tamed to assist in catching others."-T. How is that,
sir ?-.3Mr. B. When they have discovered a forest
where these animals resort, they make a large enclo-
sure with strong pales and a deep ditch, leaving only
one entrance to it, which has a strong gate left pur-
posely open. They thtn let one or two of their tame
elephants loose, who join the wild ones, and gradually





94 THE HISTORY OF
entice them into the enclosure. As soon as one of
these has entered, a man who stood ready shuts the
gates, and takes him prisoner. The animal finding
himself thus entrapped, begins to grow furious, and at-
tempts to escape : but immediately two tame ones, of
the largest size and greatest strength, who had been
placed there on purpose, come up to him, one on each
side, and beat him with their trunks till he becomes
more quiet. A man then comes behind, ties a very
large cord to each of his hind legs, and fastens the
other end of it to two great trees. He is then left
without food for some hours, and in that time gene-
rally becomes so docile, as to suffer himself to be con-
ducted to the stable that is prepared for him, where he
lives the rest of his life like a horse, or any other sort
of domestic animal.-T. And pray, sir, what did the
elephant do to the tailor ?-" There was," said Mr.
Barlow, at Surat, a city where many of these ele-
phants are kept, a tailor, who used to sit and work in
his shed, close to the place to which these elephants
were led every day to drink. This man contracted a
kind of acquaintance with one of the largest of these
beasts, and used to present him with fruits and other
vegetables whenever the elephant passed by his door.
The elephant was accustomed to put his long trunk in
at the window, and to receive in that manner whatever
his friend chose to give. But one day, the tailor hap-
pened to be in a more than ordinary ill-humour, and
not considering how dangerous it might prove to pro-
voke an animal of that size and strength, when the
elephant put his trunk in at the window as usual, in-
stead of giving him anything to eat, he pricked him
with his needle. The elephant instantly withdrew his
trunk, and, without showing any marks of resentment,
went on with the rest to drink; but, after he had
quenched his thirst, he collected a large quantity of





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 95
the dirtiest water he could find in his trunk, which I
have already told you is capable of holding many gal-
lons; and, when he passed by the tailor's shop in his
return, he discharged it full in his face, with so true an
aim, that he wetted him all over, and almost drowned
him ; thus justly punishing the man for his ill-nature
and breach of friendship."
Indeed," said Harry, considering the strength of
the animal, he must have had a great moderation and
generosity, not to have punished the man more severely;
and, therefore, I think it is a very great shame to men
ever to be cruel to animals, when they are so affection-
ato and humane to them."
You are very right," said Mr. Barlow, and I re-
member another story of an elephant, which, if true,
is still more extraordinary.-These animals, although
in general they are as docile and obedient to the per-
son that takes care of them, as a dog, are sometimes
seized with a species of impatience which makes them
absolutely ungovernable. It is then dangerous to come
near them, and very difficult to restrain them. I
should have mentioned, that in the eastern parts of the
world, where elephants are found, the kings and princes
keep them to ride upon as we do horses: a kind of
tent or pavilion is fixed upon the back of the animal, in
which one or more persons is placed : and the keeper
that is used to manage him sits upon the neck of the
elephant, and guides him by means of a poln with an
iron hook at the end. Now, as these animals are of
great value, the keeper is frequently severely punished
if any accident happens to the animal by his careless-
ness. But one day, one of the largest elephants being
seized with a sudden fit of passion, had broken loose;
and, as the keeper was not in the way, nobody was
able to appease him, or dared to come near him.
While, therefore, he was running about in this manner,





96 THE HISTORY OF
he chanced to see the wife of his keeper (who had
often fed him as well as her husband), with her young
child in her arms, with which she was endeavouring to
escape from his fury. The woman ran as fast as she
was able ; but, finding that it was impossible for her to
escape, because these beasts, although so very large,
are able to run very fast, she resolutely turned about,
and throwing her child down before the elephant, thus
accosted him, as if he had been capable of understand.
ing her :-' You ungrateful beast, is this the return
you make for all the benefits we have bestowed ? Have
we fed you, and taken care of you, by day and night,
during so many years, only that you may at last destroy
us all ? Crush, then, this poor innocent child and me, in
return for the services that my husband has done you "
-While she was making these passionate exclamations,
the elephant approached the place where the little in-
fant lay, but, instead of trampling upon him, or hurting
him, he stopped short, and looked at him with earnest-
ness, as if he had been sensible of shame and confusion ;
and, his fury from that instant abating, he suffered
himself to be led without opposition to his stable."
Tommy thanked Mr. Barlow for these two stories
and promised, for the future, to use more discretion in
his kindness to animals.
The next day Tommy and Harry went into the garden
to sow the wheat which Harry had brought with him,
upon a bed which Tommy had dug for that purpose.
While they were at work, Tommy said, "Pray, Harry,
did you ever hear the story of the men that were
obliged to live six years upon that terrible cold country
(I forget the name of it), where there is nothing but
snow and ice, and scarcely any other animals but great
bears, that are ready to eat men up ?"-Harry. Yes, I
have.-T. And did not the very thoughts of it frighten
you dreadfully ?-H. No, I cannot say they did.-T.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 97
Why, should you like to live in such a country ?-H.
No, certainly; I am very happy that I was born in such
a country as this, where the weather is scarcely ever
too hot or too cold: but a man must bear patiently
whatever is his lot in this world.-T. That is true. But
should you not cry, and be very much afflicted, if you
were left upon such a country ?-H. I should certainly
be very sorry, if I was left there alone, more especially
as I am not big enough, or strong enough, to defend
myself against such fierce animals: but the crying
would do me no good : it would be better to do some-
thing, and endeavour to help myself.-T. Indeed I think
it would: but what could you do ?-H. Why, I would
endeavour to build myself a house if I could find any
materials.-T. And what materials is a house made of?
I thought it had been impossible to make a house with-
out having a great many people of different trades, such
as carpenters and bricklayers.-H. You know there are
houses of different sizes. The houses that the poor
people live in, are very different from your father's
house.-T. Yes, they are little, nasty, dirty, disagreeable
places; I should not like to live in them at all.-H.
And yet the poor are in general as strong and healthy
as the rich. But if you could have no other, you would
rather live in one of them than be exposed to the
weather ?- T. Yes, certainly. And how would you
make one of them ?-H. If I could get any wood, and
had hatchet, I would cut down some branches of
trees, and stick them upright in the ground, near to
each other.-T. And what then ?-H. I would then get
some other branches, but more full of small wood;
and these I would interweave between them, just
as we make hurdles to confine the sheep: and then,
as that might not be warm enough to resist the wind
and cold, I would cover them over, both within and
without, with clay.-T. Clay! what is that ?-H. It is






9 8 THE HISTORY OF
a particular kind of earth, that sticks to your feet when
you tread upon it, or to your hands when you touch it.
--T. I declare I did not think it had been so easy to
make a house. And do you think that people could
really live in such houses ?-H. Certainly they might,
because many persons live in such houses here ; and I
have been told, that in many parts of the world they
have not any other.-T. Really, I should like to try to
make a house; do you think, Harry, that you and I
could make one ?--I. Yes, if I had wood and clay
enough, I think I could; and a small hatchet to sharpen
the stakes, and make them enter the ground.
iMr. Barlow then came to call them in to read; and
told Tommy, that as he had been talking so much about
good-nature to animals, he had looked him out a very
pretty story upon the subject, and begged that he would
read it well.-" That I will," said Tommy; "for I begin
to like reading extremely: and I think that I am hap-
pier too since I learned it; for now I can always divert
myself."-' Indeed," answered Mr. Barlow, "most peo-
ple find it so. When any one can read, he will not
find the knowledge any burden to him : and, it is his
own fault, if he is not constantly amused. This is an
advantage, Tommy, which a gentleman, since you are
so fond of the word, may more particularly enjoy, be-
cause he has so much time at his own disposal: and it
is much better that he should distinguish himself by
having more knowledge and improvement than others,
than by fine clothes, or any such trifles, which any one
may have that can purchase them, as well as himself."
Tommy then read, with a clear and distinct voice,
the following story of

THE GOOD-NATURED LITTLE BOY,
A LITTLE Boy went out, one morning, to walk to a
village about five miles from the place where he lived,





Full Text
222 THE HISTORY OF
Mr. Barlow. But, how are you sure that it is the
stars which move every night, and not the earth itself ?
Tommy considered and said, "But then I should see
the earth move, and the stars stand still.
Mr. Barlow. What, did you never ride in a coach
Tommy. Yes, sir, very often.
Mr. Barlow. And did you then see that the coach
moved, as you sat still and went along a level road ?
Tommy. No, sir, I protest I have often thought that
the houses and trees, and all the country, glided swiftly
along by the windows of the coach.
Mr. Barlow. And did you never sail in a boat ?
Tommy. Yes, I have; and I protest, I have observed
the same thing : for I remember, I have often thought
the shore was running away from the boat, instead of
the boat from the shore.
Mr. Barlow. If that is the case, it is possible, even
though the earth should move, instead of the stars,
that you might only see what you do at present, and
imagine that the earth you are upon was at rest.
Tommy. But is it not more likely, that such little
things as the stars and sun should move, than such a
large thing as the earth ?
Mr. Barlow. And how do you know that the stars
and sun are so small ?
Tommy. I see them to be so, sir. The stars are so
small, that they are hardly to be seen at all; and the
sun itself, which is much larger, does not seem bigger
than a small round table.
The day after this conversation, as the weather was
bright and clear, Mr. Barlow went out to walk with
Harry and Tommy. As, by this time, Tommy was
inured to fatigue, and able to walk many miles, they
continued their excursion over the hills, till at last they
came in sight of the sea.-As they were diverting them-
selves with the immense prospect of water that was





188 THE HISTORY OF

Tommy. Is it not the East where the sun rises?
Mr. Barlow. Yes : but there is no sun to direct you
fow.
Tommy. Then, sir, I cannot find it out.
Mr. Barlow. Do not you know, Harry ?
Harry. I believe, sir, that if you turn your face to
the North, the East will be on the right hand, and the
West on the left.
Mr. Barlow. Perfectly right.
Tommy. That is very clever, indeed: so then by
knowing the Pole-star, I can always find North, East,
West, and South. But you said that the Pole-star
never moves: do the other stars, then, move out of
their places ?
Mr. Barlow. That is a question you may learn to
answer yourself, by observing the present appearance
of the heavens; and then examining whether the stars
change their places at any future time.
Tommy. But, sir, I have thought that it would be a
good contrivance, in order to remember their situa-
tions, if I were to draw them upon a bit of paper.
Mr. Barlow. But how would you do that ?
Tommy. I would make a mark upon the paper for
every star in Charles's Wain; and I would place the
marks just as I see the stars placed in the sky; and I
would entreat you to write the names for me; and this
I would do till I was acquainted with all the stars in
the heavens.
Mr. Barlow. That would be an excellent way; but
you see a paper is flat; is that the form of the sky?
Tommy. No; the sky seems to rise from the earth
on every side, like the dome of a great church.
Mr. Barlow. Then if you were to have some round
body, I should think it would correspond to the differ-
ent parts of the sky, and you might place your stars
with more exactness.





SANDFORD AND MERTON.
upon the head of the first inhabitant lie chanced to
meet. The man was so pleased with his new acquisi-
tion, that he danced and capered for joy, and ran away
to seek the rest, who were all struck with astonishment
at this new and elegant piece ot finery. It was not
long before another came to the Basket-maker, making
signs that he wanted to be ornamented like his com-
panion; and, with such pleasure were these chaplets
considered by the whole nation, that the Basket-maker
was released from his former drudgery and continually
employed in weaving them In return for the pleasure
which he conferred upon them, the grateful savages
brought him every kind of food their country afforded,
built him a hut, and showed him every demonstration
of gratitude and kindness.-But the rich man, who pos-
sessed neither talents to please, nor strength to labour,
waa; condemned to be the Basket-maker's servant, and
to cut him reeds to supply the continual demand for
chaplets.
After having passed some months in this manner,
they were again transported to their own country, by
the orders of the magistrate, and brought before him.-
He then looked sternly upon the rich man, and said :
Having now taught you how helpless, contemptible,
and feeble a creature you are, as well as how inferior
to the man you insulted, I shall proceed to make repar-
ation to him for the injury you have inflicted upon
him. Did I treat you as you deserve, I should take
from you all the riches that you possess, as you wantonly
deprived this poor man of his whole subsistence; but,
hoping that you will become more humane for the
future, I sentence you to give half your fortune to this
man, whom you endeavoured to ruin."
Upon this, the Basket-maker said, after thanking the
magistrate for his goodness: I, having been bred up
in poverty, and accustomed to labour, have no desire





SANDFORD AND MERTON 91
Tommy, who was not the coolest in his temper, was
extremely provoked at this ungrateful return for his
intended kindness, and, losing all patience, he seized
the sow by the hind-leg, and began pommelling her with
all his might, as she attempted to escape. The sow, as
may be imagined, did not relish such treatment, but
endeavoured with all her force to escape; but, Tommy
still keeping his hold, and continuing his discipline,
she struggled with such violence as to drag him seve-
ral yards, squeaking at the same time, in the most
lamentable manner; in which she was joined by the
whole litter of pigs.
During the heat of this contest, a large flock of geese
happened to be crossing the road, into the midst of
which the affrighted sow ran headlong, dragging the
enraged Tommy at her heels. The goslings retreated
with the greatest precipitation, joining their mournful
cackling to the general noise; but, a gander of more
than common size and courage, resenting the unpro-
voked attack which had been made upon his family,
flew at Tommy's hinder parts, and gave him several
severe strokes with his bill.
Tommy, whose courage had hitherto been uncon-
querable, being thus unexpectedly attacked by a new
enemy, was obliged to yield to fortune, and not knowing
the precise extent of his danger, he not only suffered
the sow to escape, but joined his vociferations to the
general scream. This alarmed Mr. Barlow, who, com-
ing up to the place, found his pupil in the most woeful
plight, daubed from head to foot, with his face and
hands as black as those of any chimney-sweeper. He
inquired what was the matter? and Tommy, as soon as
he had recovered breath enough to speak, answered in
this manner : "Sir, all this is owning to what you told
me about taming animals: I wanted to make them tame
and gentle, and to love me; and you see the conse-





82 THE HISTORY OF
does not know how to defend himself.-T. I do not
exactly understand you, sir.-Mr. B. I will give you an
instance. Were you not very unhappy when the snake
coiled itself round your leg, because you imagined it
would bite you ?-T. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. But Harry was
not unhappy.-T. That is very true, sir.-Mr. B. And
yet he was more in danger of being bitten than your-
self ; because he took hold of it.-T. Indeed he did.-
Mr. B. But he knew that by boldly seizing it, and fling-
ing it away, he was in very little danger; had you,
therefore, known the same, you probably, would neither
have feared so much, nor have been so unhappy as you
were.-T. Indeed, sir, that is true ; and, were such an
accident to happen again, I think I should have courage
enough to do the same.-Mr. B. Should you, then, be
as unhappy now, as you were the first time !-T. By no
means; because I have a great deal more courage.-
Mr. B. Why, then, persons that have courage are not
so unhappy as those that are cowardly, when they are
exposed to danger ?-T. Certainly not, sir.--rM. B. And
that must be equally true in every kind df Cnger ?-
T. Indeed it must; for I have sometimes heard d y
mother shriek out when she was passing in a coach
through a small stream of water, while my father only
laughed at her.-iMr. B. Why then, if she had possessed
as much courage, perhaps she would have laughed too.
-T. Indeed I believe she might; for I have sometimes
seen her laugh at herself when it was over, for being
so cowardly.-Mr. B. Why then it is possible, that
when these men found they were so well able to defend
themselves against the bears, they might no longer be
afraid of them ; and, not being afraid, they would not
be unhappy.-T. Indeed, I believe so.-Mr. B. Let us
now continue.

"The three different kinds of animals above men.
tioned, namely, tle rein-dccr, the blue and white foxes,





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 265

eyes; though several of the young ladies by their sig-
nificant looks and gestures, treated it with ineffable
contempt.
After this, Miss Matilda, who was allowed to be a
perfect mistress of music, played and sang several cele-
brated Italian airs; but as these were in a language
totally unintelligible to Harry, he received very little
pleasure, though all the rest of the company were in
raptures. She then proceeded to play several pieces
of music, which were allowed by all connoisseurs to re-
quire infinite skill to execute. The audience seemed
all delighted, and either felt, or pretended to feel, inex-
pressible pleasure; even Tommy himself, who did not
know one note from another, had caught so much of
the general enthusiasm, that he applauded as loud as
the rest of the company: but Harry, whose temper was
not quite so pliable, could not conceal the intolerable
weariness that overpowered his senses during this long
exhibition. He gaped, he yawned, he stretched, he
even pinched himself, in order to keep his attention
alive; but all in vain; the more Miss Matilda exer-
cised her skill in playing pieces of the most difficult
execution, the more did Harry's propensity to drowsi-
ness increase. At length, the lateness of the hour,
which much exceeded Harry's time of going to bed,
conspiring with the opiate charms of music, he could
resist no longer, but insensibly fell back upon his chair,
fast asleep.-This unfortunate accident was soon re-
marked by the rest of the company, and confirmed them
very much in the opinion they had conceived of Harry's
vulgarity; while he, in the mean time, enjoyed the
most placid slumber, which was not dissipated till Miss
Matilda had desisted from playing.
Thus was the first day passed at Mr. Merton's, very
little to the satisfaction of Harry; the next, and the
next after, were only repetitions of the same scene,





428 THE II ISTOtY OF
upon; and, I can assure you, they are the true Suffollk
sorrels, the first breed of working horses in the king-
dom ; and these are some of the best of their kind.-
"Such as they are', answered Mr. Merton, they are
yours : and I cannot think, after the obligations I am
under to your family, that you will do me so great a
displeasure as to refuse."
Mr, Sandford stood for some time in mute astonish-
ment; but, at length, he was beginning the civilest
speech lie could think of, to refuse so great a present;
when Tommy coming up, took him by the hand, and
begged him not to deny to his father and himself the
first favour they had ever asked. "Besides," said he,
this present is less to yourself than to little Harry ;
and, surely, after having lived so long in your family,
you will not turn me out with disgrace, as if I had mis-
behaved."-Here Harry himself interposed, and con-
sidering less the value of the present than the feelings
and intentions of the giver, he took his father by the
hand, and besought him to oblige Master Merton and
his father. Were it any one else, I would not say a
word," added he : "but I know the generosity of Mr.
Merton and the goodness of Master Tommy so well,
that they will receive more pleasure from giving, than
you from taking the horses: though I must confess,
they are such as would do credit to anybody; and they
beat farmer Knowles's all to nothing, which have long
been reckoned the best team in all the country."
This last reflection, joined with all that had preceded,
overcame the delicacy of Mr. Sandford; and he at
length consented to order the horses to be led into his
stable.
And now Mr. Merton, having made the most affec-
tionate acknowledgments to all this worthy and happy
filnily, among whom he did not forget the honest
Black, whom he promised to provide for, summoned





288 THIE HISTORY OF
Tommy and all the rest against him. But Harry, who
was conscious of his own innocence, and began to feel
the pride of injured friendship, disdained to give an
explanation of his behaviour, since his friend was not
sufficiently interested about the matter to demand one.
While they were walking slowly along the common,
they discovered at a distance a prodigious crowd of
people, all moving forward in the same direction. This
attracted the curiosity of the little troop; and, on in-
quiry, they found there was going to be a bull-baiting.
Instantly an eager desire seized upon all the little
gentry to see the diversion. One obstacle alone pre-
sented itself, which was, that their parents, and parti-
cularly Mrs. Merton, had made them promise that they
would avoid every species of danger. This objection
was, however, removed by Master Billy Lyddal, who
remarked, that there could be no danger in the sight,
as the bull was to be tied fast, and could therefore do
them no harm. Besides," added he, smiling, "what
occasion have they to know that we have been at all?
I hope we are not such simpletons as to accuse our-
selves, or such tell-tales as to inform against one an-
other."--" No! no! no !" was the universal exclamation
fi-om all but Harry, who had remained profoundly
silent on the occasion.--" Master Harry has not said a
word," said one of the little folks; sure he will not
tell of us."-"Indeed," said Harry, I don't wish to tell
of you ; but if I am asked where we have been, how
can I help telling ?-"What !" answered Master Lyddal,
"can't you say that we have been walking along the
road, or across the common, without mentioning any-
thing farther ?"-" No," said Harry; that would not
be speaking truth: besides, bull-baiting is a very cruel
and dangerous diversion, and therefore none of us
should go to see it; particularly Master Merton, whose
mother loves him so much, and is so careful about him."





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 105
knocked him down. He immediately began to cry, in
concert with his dog, and perceiving a man coming to-
wards them, who he fancied might be the owner of the
sheep, he thought it most prudent to escape as speedily
as possible.
But he had scarcely recovered from the smart which
the blow had occasioned, before his former mischievous
disposition returned, which he determined to gratify to
the utmost. He had not gone far, before he saw a lit-
tle girl standing by a stile with a large pot of milk at
her feet.--- Pray," said the little girl, "help me up
with this pot of milk: my mother sent me out to fetch
it this morning, and I have brought it above a mile
upon my head; but I am so tired that I have been
obliged to stop at this stile to rest me ; and if I don't re-
turn home presently, we shall have no pudding to-day,
and, besides, my mother will be very angry with me."
"-( What," said the boy, you are to have a pudding
to-day, are you miss ?"-" Yes," said the girl, and a
fine piece of roast beef, for there's uncle Will, and uncle
John, and grandfather, and all my cousins to dine with
us; and we shall be very merry in the evening, I can
assure you, so pray help me up, as speedily as possible."
"-(" That I will, miss," said the boy; and, taking up the
jug, he pretended to fix it upon her head : but just as
slhe had hold of it, he gave it a little push, as if he had
stumbled, and overturned it upon her. The little girl
began to cry violently ; but the mischievous boy ran
away laughing heartily, and saying, Good bye, little
miss; give my humble service to uncle Will, and
grandfather, and the dear little cousins."
This prank encouraged him very much; for he
thought that now he had certainly escaped without
any bad consequences ; so he went on, applauding his
own ingenuity, and came to a green, where several
little boys were at play. He desired leave to play with






54 THE HISTORY OF
"Upon my word," said Tommy," this is a very pretty
story: but I never should have thought that a lion
could have grown so tame; I thought that they, and
tigers, and wolves, had been so fierce and cruel, that
they would have torn everything they met to pieces."
When they are hungry," said Mr. Barlow, they
kill every animal they meet : but this is to devour it;
for they can only live upon flesh, like dogs and cats,
and many other kinds of animals. When they are not
hungry, they seldom meddle with anything, or do
unnecessary mischief; therefore they are much less
cruel than many persons that I have seen, and even
than many children, who plague and torment animals,
without any reason whatsoever."
Indeed, sir," said Harry, I think so. And I re-
member, as I was walking along the road, some days
past, I saw a little naughty boy that used a poor jack-
ass very ill indeed. The poor animal was so lame, that
he could hardly stir ; and yet the boy beat him with a
great stick as violently as he was able, to make him go
on faster."-"And what did you say to him ?" said Mr.
Barlow.-Harry. Why, sir, I told him, how naughty
and cruel it was; and I asked him, how he would like
to be beaten in that manner by somebody that was
stronger than himself ?-Mr. B. And what answer did
he make you ?-H. He said, that it was his daddy's
ass, and so that he had a right to beat it; and that if
I said a word more, he would beat me.-Mr. B. And
what answer did you make; any ?-H. I told him, if
it was his father's ass, he should not use it ill; for
that we were all God's creatures, and that we should love
each other, as He loved us all; and that as to beating
me, if he struck me, I had a right to strike him again,
and would do it, though he was almost as big again
as I was.-M-lr. B. And did he strike you ?-_H, Yes, sir.
He endeavoured to strike me upon the head with his





276 THE HISTORY OF
good young woman saw that her parents were in such
distress, she left her place and went to live with them,
on purpose to take care of them; and she works very
hard, whenever she can get work, and fares very hard,
in order to maintain her parents ; and though we assist
them all we can, I know that sometimes they can hardly
get food and clothes. Therefore, madam, as you were
so kind to say, that I should dispose of this money for
you, I ran over this morning to these poor people, and
gave them all the money in your name : and I hope
you will not be displeased at the use I have put it to."
"-" Indeed," answered the young lady, "I am much
obliged to you for the good opinion you have of me ;
and the application of it does me a great deal of
lionour : I am only sorry you did not give it in your
own name."-" That," replied Harry, "I had not any
right to do; it would have been attributing to myself
what did not belong to me, and equally inconsistent
with truth and honesty."
In this manner did the time pass away at Mr. Mer-
ton's; while Harry received very little satisfaction
from his visit, except in conversing with Miss Simmons.
The affability and good sense of this young lady, had
entirely gained his confidence; while all the other
young ladies were continually intent upon displaying
their talents and importance, she alone was simple and
unaffected : but what disgusted Harry more than ever
was, that his refined companions seemed to consider
themselves, and a few of their acquaintance, as the
only beings of any consequence in the world. The
most trifling inconvenience, the being a little too hot,
a little too cold, the walking a few hundred yards, the
waiting a few minutes for their dinner, the having a
trifling cold, or a little head-ache, were misfortunes so
feelingly lamented, that he would have imagined they
were the most tender of the human species, had he not





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 165
to my constitution : but I am so troubled with a plaguy
flatulency and heartburn, that I am scarcely able to
close my eyes all night: or if I do, I find myself almost
strangled with wind; and wake in agonies."-" That is
a very alarming symptom, indeed," replied the doctor;
"c:I wonder so many restless nights do not entirely
wear you out."-" They would, indeed," answered the
gentleman, if I do not make shift to procure a little
sleep two or three times a-day, which enables me to
hold out a little longer." -" As to exercise," conti-
nued the doctor, I fear you are not able to use a
great deal."-" Alas !" answered the sick man, while
I was able, I never failed to go out in my carriage
once or twice a week; but, in my present situation, I
can no longer bear the gentlest motion: besides disor-
dering my whole frame, it gives me such intolerable
twitches in my limbs, that you would imagine I was
absolutely falling to pieces."-" Your case," answered
the physician, "is indeed bad, but not quite desperate :
and if you could abridge the quantity of your food and
sleep, you would in a short time find yourself much
better."-" Alas !" answered the sick man, I find you
little know the delicacy of my constitution, or you
would not put me upon a method which will infallibly
destroy me. When I rise in the morning, I feel as if
all the powers of life were extinguished within me;
my stomach is oppressed with nausea, my head with
aches and swimming, and, above all, I feel such an into-
lerable sinking in my spirits, that without the assist-
ance of two or three cordials, and some restorative
soup, I am confident I never could get through the
morning. Now, doctor, I have such confidence in your
skill, that there is no pill or potion you can order me,
which I will not take with pleasure : but, as to a change
in my diet, that is impossible."-" That is," answered
the physician, you wish for health, without being at
11






32 THE HISTORY OF

world."-Some time after he had made this observa-
tion, the weather grew extremely cold, the sun was
scarcely seen to shine, and the nights were chill and
frosty. The same little boy, walking then in the gar-
den, did not see a single Ant, but all the Flies lay scat-
tered up and down, either dead or dying. As he was
very good-natured, he could not help pitying the un-
fortunate animals, and asking, at the same time, what
had happened to the Ants that he used to see in the
same place ? The father said, "The Flies are all dead,
because they were careless animals, who gave them-
selves no trouble about laying up provisions, and were
too idle to work: but the Ants, who had been busy all
the summer, in providing for their maintenance during
the winter, are all alive and well; and you will see
them again as soon as the warm weather returns."

"Very well, Harry," said Mr. Barlow, "we will now
take a walk."-They accordingly rambled out into the
fields, where Mr. Barlow made Harry take notice of
several kinds of plants, and told him the names and
nature of them. At last, Harry, who had observed
some very pretty purple berries upon a plant that bore
a purple flower, and grew in the hedges, brought them
to Mr. Barlow, and asked whether they were good to
eat? It is very lucky," said Mr. Barlow, young man,
that you asked the question before you put them into
your mouth; for, had you tasted them, they would
have given you violent pains in your head and sto-
mach, and perhaps have killed you, as they grow upon
a plant called Nightshade, which is a rank poison."-
"6 Sir," said Harry," I take care never to eat anything
without knowing what it is; and I hope, if you will be
so good as to continue to teach me, I shall very soon
know the names and qualities of all the herbs which
grow.'






236 THE HISTORY OF
proportion. When he swims along the seas, he appears
rather like a large vessel floating upon the waters, than
a fish. He has two holes in his head, through which
he blows out water to a great height in the air; im-
mense fins, and a tail with which he almost raises a
tempest when he lashes the sea with it. Would you
not believe that such an animal was the most dreadful
of the whole brute creation ?
Tommy. Indeed, sir, I should! I should think that
such a fish would overset whole ships, and devour the
sailors.
Mr. Barlow. Far from it; it is one of the most inno-
cent in respect to man that the ocean produces; nor
does he ever do him the least hurt, unless by acciden-
tally overturning vessels with his enormous bulk. The
food he lives upon is chiefly small fish, and particularly
herrings. These fish are bred in such prodigious shoals,
amid the ice of those northern climates, that the sea is
absolutely covered with them for miles together. Then
it is that the hungry whale pursues them, and thins
their numbers, by swallowing thousands of them in
their course.
Harry. What numbers indeed must such a prodi-
gious fish devour of those small animals !
Mr. Barlow. The whale in his turn falls a prey to
the cruelty and avarice of man. Some, indeed, are
caught by the Greenlanders, who have a sufficient ex-
cuse for persecuting him with continual attacks, in
their total want of vegetables and every species of food
which the earth affords. But the Europeans, who are
too nice and squeamish to eat his flesh, send out great
numbers of ships every year to destroy the poor whale
merely for the sake of the oil which his body contains,
and the elastic bones, which are known by the name of
whale-bone, and applied to several purposes.-Whnc
those that go upon this dangerous expedition discern a





2G2 THE HISTORY OF

manners or their government : and when respectable
foreigners choose to visit us, I see no reason why they
should not take the trouble of learning the langua,'e
of the country."
Such had been the education of Miss Sinnions, who
was the only one of all the genteel company at Mr.
Merton's, that thought Harry deserving the least at-
tention. This young lady, who possessed an uncommon
degree of natural benevolence of character, came up to
him, and addressed him in such a manner as set him
perfectly at his ease. Harry was destitute of the arti-
ficial graces of society; but he possessed that natural
politeness and good nature, without which all artificial
graces are the most disgusting thiings in the world,
Harry had an understanding naturally strong; and Mr.
Barlow, while he had with the greatest care preserved
him from all false impressions, had taken great pains
in cultivating the faculties of his mind. Harry, indeed,
never said any of those brilliant things which render a
boy the darling of the ladies; he had not that vivacity,
or rather impertinence, which frequently passes for
wit with superficial people; but he paid the greatest
attention to what was said to him, and made the most
judicious observations upon subjects he understood.
For this reason, Miss Simmons, although much older
and more improved, received great satisfaction from
conversing with him, and thought little Harry infinitely
more agreeable and judicious, than any of the smart
young gentlemen she had hitherto seen at Mr. Mer-
ton's.
But now the company was summoned to the import-
ant business of dinner. Harry could not help sighing,
when he reflected on what he had to undergo; how-
ever, he determined to bear it with all imaginable for-
titude for the sake of his friend Tommy. The dinner
indeed was, if possible, more dreadful than anything





286 THE HISTORY OF

but, if they do, they ought to submit to the laws of it
without repining : and, I have always observed among
the little boys whom I am acquainted with, that wher-
ever this disposition prevails, it is the greatest proof of
a bad and contemptible temper."
As Harry was conversing in this manner, the'little
company had left off dancing, and were refreshing
themselves with a variety of cakes and agreeable
liquors, which had been provided for the occasion.
Tommy Merton and the other young gentlemen were
now distinguishing themselves by their attendance
upon the ladies, whom they were supplying with every-
thing they chose to have ; but no one thought it worth
his while to wait upon Miss Simmons. When Harry
observed this, he ran to the table, and upon a large
waiter brought her cakes and lemonade; which he
presented, if not with a better grace, with a more sin-
cere desire to oblige than any of the rest.-But, as he
was stooping down to offer her the choice, Master
Mash unluckily passed that way, and, elated by the suc-
cess of his late piece of ill-nature, determined to attempt
a second still more brutal than the first. For this rea-
son, just as Miss Simmons was helping herself to some
wine and water, Mash, pretending to stumble, pushed
Harry in such a manner, that the greater part of the
contents of the glasses was discharged full into her
bosom. The young lady coloured at the insult; and
Harry, who instantly perceived that it had been done
on purpose, being no longer able to contain his indig-
nation, seized a glass that was only half-emptied, and
discharged the contents full into the face of the aggres-
sor. Mash, who was a boy of violent passion, exasper-
ated at this retaliation, which he so well deserved,
instantly caught up a drinking-glass, and flung it full
at the head of Harry. Happy was it for him, that it
only grazed his head without taking the full effect: it





292 THE HISTORY OF
the blows that were aimed at him: till seeing that his
antagonist was almost exhausted by his own impetu-
osity, he darted at him with all his force, and, by one
successful blow levelled him with the ground.
An involuntary shout of triumph now burst from the
little assembly of spectators : for such is the temper of
human beings, that they are more inclined to consider
superiority of force than justice; and the very same
boys who just before were loading Harry with taunts
and outrages, were now ready to congratulate him upon
his victory. He, however, when he found his antagon-
ist no longer capable of resistance, kindly assisted him
to rise, and told him, C he was very sorry for what had
happened ;" but Mash, oppressed at once with the pain
of his bruises and the disgrace of his defeat, observed
an obstinate silence.
Just in this moment, their attention was engaged by
a new and sudden spectacle. A bull of the largest size
and greatest beauty was led across the plain, adorned
with ribands of various colours. The majestic animal
suffered himself to be led along an unresisting prey,
till he arrived at the spot which was destined for the
theatre of his persecutions. Here he was fastened to
an iron ring, which had been strongly let into the
ground, and whose force they imagined would be suffi-
cient to restrain him, even in the midst of his most
violent exertions. An innumerable crowd of men, of
women, of children, then surrounded the place, waiting
with eager curiosity for the inhuman sport which they
expected. The little party which had accompanied
Master Merton, were now no longer to be restrained:
their friends, their parents, admonition, duty, promises,
were all forgotten in an instant, and, solely intent upon
gratifying their curiosity, they mingled with ,the sur-
rounding multitude.
Harry, although reluctantly, followed them at a dis-





94 THE HISTORY OF
entice them into the enclosure. As soon as one of
these has entered, a man who stood ready shuts the
gates, and takes him prisoner. The animal finding
himself thus entrapped, begins to grow furious, and at-
tempts to escape : but immediately two tame ones, of
the largest size and greatest strength, who had been
placed there on purpose, come up to him, one on each
side, and beat him with their trunks till he becomes
more quiet. A man then comes behind, ties a very
large cord to each of his hind legs, and fastens the
other end of it to two great trees. He is then left
without food for some hours, and in that time gene-
rally becomes so docile, as to suffer himself to be con-
ducted to the stable that is prepared for him, where he
lives the rest of his life like a horse, or any other sort
of domestic animal.-T. And pray, sir, what did the
elephant do to the tailor ?-" There was," said Mr.
Barlow, at Surat, a city where many of these ele-
phants are kept, a tailor, who used to sit and work in
his shed, close to the place to which these elephants
were led every day to drink. This man contracted a
kind of acquaintance with one of the largest of these
beasts, and used to present him with fruits and other
vegetables whenever the elephant passed by his door.
The elephant was accustomed to put his long trunk in
at the window, and to receive in that manner whatever
his friend chose to give. But one day, the tailor hap-
pened to be in a more than ordinary ill-humour, and
not considering how dangerous it might prove to pro-
voke an animal of that size and strength, when the
elephant put his trunk in at the window as usual, in-
stead of giving him anything to eat, he pricked him
with his needle. The elephant instantly withdrew his
trunk, and, without showing any marks of resentment,
went on with the rest to drink; but, after he had
quenched his thirst, he collected a large quantity of





254 THE HISTORY OF
extending the chair flat upon the ground, fastened him
to it with great care and ingenuity. Casar, who did
not understand the new purpose to which he was going
to be applied, suffered himself to be harnessed without
opposition; and Tommy mounted triumphantly his
seat, with a whip in his hand, and began his operations.
A crowd of little boys, the sons of the labourers within,
now gathered round the young gentleman, and by their
admiration very much increased his ardour to distin-
guish himself. Tommy began to use the common ex-
pressions which he had heard coachmen practice to
their horses, and smacked his whip with all the confi-
dence of an experienced charioteer. Caesar meanwhile,
who did not comprehend this language, began to be a
little impatient, and expressed his uneasiness by mak-
ing several bounds, and rearing up like a restive horse.
This added very much to the diversion of the spectators;
and Tommy, who considered his honour as materially
concerned in achieving the adventure, began to grow
a little more warm; and, proceeding from one experi-
ment to another, at length applied a pretty severe lash
to the hinder part of his steed. This Cesar resented
so much, that he instantly set off at three-quarters speed,
and dragged the chair, with the driver upon it, at a
prodigious rate. Tommy now looked round with an
infinite air of triumph, and kept his seat with surpris-
ing address and firmness.
Unfortunately, there happened to be at no great dis-
tance a large horse-pond, which went shelving down to
the depth of three or four feet. Hither, by a kind of
natural instinct, the affrighted Caesar ran, when he
found that he could not disengage himself from his
tormentor; while Tommy, who now began to repent
of his success, endeavoured to pacify and restrain him.
But all his expostulations were vain; for Caesar pre-
cipitately rushed into the pond, and in an instant






1CS TH1E HISTORY OF
that gratitude could inspire, and bade him, as they
thought, an eternal adieu.
Many years had now elapsed since the departure of
Hamet into his own country; without their seeing him.
or receiving any intelligence from him. In the inean-
time, the young Francisco, the son of the Merchant,
grew up to manhood; and as he had acquired every
accomplishment which tends to improve the mind, or
form the manners, added to an excellent disposition,
he was generally beloved and esteemed.
It happened that some business about this time made
it necessary for him and his father to go to a neigh-
bouring maritime city; and as they thought a passage
by sea would be more expeditious, they both embarked
in a Venetian vessel, which was on the point of sailing
to that place. They set sail, therefore, with favourable
winds, and every appearance of a happy passage; but
they had not proceeded more than half their intended
voyage, before a Turkish corsair (a ship purposely fitted
out for war) was seen bearing down upon them: and
as the enemy exceeded them much in swiftness, they
soon found that it was impossible to escape. The
greater part of the crew belonging to the Venetian
vessel, was struck with consternation, and seemed al-
ready overcome by fear: but the young Francisco,
drawing his sword, reproached his comrades with their
cowardice, and so effectually encouraged them, that
they determined to defend their liberty by a desperate
resistance. The Turkish vessel now approached them
in awful silence; but in an instant the dreadful noise
of the artillery was heard, and the heavens were ob-
scured with smoke, intermixed with transitory flashes
of fire. Three times did the Turks leap, with horrid
shouts, upon the deck of the Venetian vessel, and three
times were they driven back by the desperate resist-
ance of the crew, headed by young Francisco. At





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 177

return as speedily as possible : but, unfortunately, in
passing through a wood, they entirely missed the track,
and lost themselves. To add to their distress, the wind
began to blow most bitter from the north, and a vio-
lent shower of snow coming on, obliged them to seek
the thickest shelter they could find. They happened
fortunately to be near an aged oak, the inside of which
gradually decaying, was worn away by time, and
afforded an ample opening to shelter them from the
storm. Into this the two little boys crept safe, and en-
deavoured to keep each other warm, while a violent
shower of snow and sleet fell all around, and gradually
covered the earth. Tommy, who had been little
used to hardships, bore it for some time with fortitude,
and without uttering a complaint; at length hunger
and fear took entire possession of his soul, and, turning
to Harry with watery eyes and a mournful voice, he
asked him what they should do ?" Do ?" said Harry,
we must wait here, I think, till the weather clears up
a little ; and then we will endeavour to find the way
home."
Tommy. But what if the weather should not clear up
at all.
Harry. In that case we must either endeavour to find
our way through the snow, or stay here, where we are
so conveniently sheltered.
Tommy. But, oh what a dreadful thing it is to be
here all alone in this dreary wood And then I am so
hungry, and so cold : oh that we had but a little fire
to warm us!
Harry. I have heard that shipwrecked persons, when
they have been cast away upon a desert coast, have
made a fire to warm themselves by rubbing two pieces
of wood together till they caught fire; or, here is a
better thing; I have a large knife in my pocket, and,
if I could but find a piece of flint, I could easily strike
fire with the back of it.





396 THE HISTORY OF

more unequal efforts of the defenders. The veterans
of Tigranes perceived their advantage, and pressed the
enemy with redoubled vigour.
This was the decisive moment which Chares had
foreseen and provided for: in an instant the bands of
Lebanon retreat by the orders of Sophron, with a pre-
cipitation bordering upon flight. Tigranes, supposing
himself certain of victory, orders his troops to advance
and decide the fortune of the battle; but, while they
are rashly preparing to obey, a sudden noise is heard
that equals the loudest thunders : the earth itself trem-
bles with a convulsive motion under their feet, then
bursts asunder with a violence that nothing can resist !
Hundreds are in an instant swallowed up, or dashed
against rocks, and miserably destroyed Meanwhile,
all nature seems to be convulsed around: the rocks
themselves are torn from their solid base, and, with
their enormous fragments, crush whole bands of miser-
able wretches beneath! Clouds of smoke obscure the
field of battle, and veil the combatants in a dreadful
shade; which is, from time to time, dispelled by flashes
of destructive fire! Such a succession of horrors
daunted even the most brave : scarcely could the
troops of Lebanon, who had been prepared to expect
some extraordinary interposition, maintain their post,
or behold the spectacle of their enemy's ruin; but the
bands of Tigranes were struck with the wildest con-
sternation, and fled with trembling steps over the field.
And now these prodigies were succeeded by an awful
interval of quiet; the peals of bursting thunder were
no longer heard, the lightning ceased to flash, the
mists that darkened the scene were rolled away, and
discovered the various fortunes of the fight. Then the
voice of Sophron was heard, exhorting his companions
to pursue the fugitives and complete their victory. They
rushed forward like angry lions to tile chase, hut Ili





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 169
to himself, if Signor Ramozini treats the poor in such
an hospitable manner, he will spare nothing for the
entertainment of a man of my importance. I have
heard there are delicious trouts and ortolons in this
part of Italy; I make no doubt but the Doctor keeps
an excellent cook, and I shall have no reason to repent
the dismission of my servants."
With these ideas he kept himself some time amused;
at length, his appetite growing keener and keener
every instant, from fasting longer than ordinary, he lost
all patience, and, calling one of the servants of the
house, inquired for some little nice thing to stay his
stomach till the hour of supper.-" Sir," said the ser-
vant, I would gladly oblige you; but it is as much as
my place is worth: my master is the best and most
generous of men; but so great is his attention to his
house patients, that he will not suffer one of them to
eat, unless in his presence. However, sir, have pa-
tience; in two hours more, the supper will be ready,
and then you may indemnify yourself for all."
Thus was the gentleman compelled to pass two hours
more without food: a degree of abstinence he had not
practised for almost twenty years. He complained
bitterly of the slowness of time, and was continually
inquiring what was the hour.
At length the doctor returned punctual to his time;
and ordered the supper to be brought in. Accordingly
six dishes were set upon the table with great solemnity,
all under cover; and the gentleman flattered himself
he should now be rewarded for his long abstinence. As
they were sitting down to table, the learned Ramozini
thus accosted his guest: "Before you give a loose to
your appetite, sir, I must acquaint you, that as the most
effectual method of subduing this obstinate disease, all
your food and drink will be mixed up with such medi-
cinal substances as your case requires. They will not





412 THE HISTORY OF
Such were the conversations which Mr. Barlow fre-
quently held with Tommy, and which never failed to
inspire him with new resolutions to persevere. Nor
could he help being frequently affected by the com-
parison of Harry's behaviour with his own; no cloud
seemed ever to shade the features of his friend, or
alter the uniform sweetness of his temper; even the
repeated provocations he had received, were either
totally obliterated, or had made no disagreeable im-
pressions. After discharging the necessary duties of
the day, he gave up the rest of his time to the amuse-
ment of Tommy, with so much zeal and affection, that
he could not help loving him a thousand times better
than before.
During the evening, too, Tommy frequently con-
versed with the honest Negro concerning the most re-
markable circumstances of the country where he was
born. One night that he seemed peculiarly inquisi-
tive, the Black gave him the following account of him-
self :--
I was born," said he, "in the neighbourhood of the
river Gambia in Africa. In this country people are
astonished at my colour, and start at the sight of a
Black man, as if he did not belong to their species:
but there everybody resembles me, and, when the first
White men landed upon our coast, we were as much
surprised with their appearance as you can be with
ours. In some parts of the world I have seen men of
a yellow hue; in others, of a copper colour: and all
have the foolish vanity to despise their fellow-crea-
tures, as infinitely inferior to themselves. There, in-
deed, they entertain these conceits from ignorance, but
in this country, where the natives pretend to superior
reason, I have often wondered they could be influ-
enced by such a prejudice. Is a black horse thought
to be inferior to a white one in speed, in strength, or





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 17
much obliged to them: but I had rather have been at
home, for I never was so troubled in all my life to get
a dinner. There was one man to take away my plate,
and another to give me drink, and another to stand
behind my chair, just as if I had been lame or blind,
and could not have waited upon myself: and then
there was so much to do with putting this thing on, and
taking another off, I thought it would never have been
over: and, after dinner, I was obliged to sit two whole
hours without ever stirring, while the lady was talking
to me, not as Mr. Barlow does, but wanting me to love
fine clothes, and to be a king, and to be rich, that I may
be hated like Squire Chase."
But, at the mansion-house, much of the conversation,
in the mean time, was employed in examining the
merits of little Harry. Mrs. Merton acknowledged
his bravery and openness of temper; she was also
struck with the general good nature and benevolence
of his character ; but she contended that he had a cer-
tain grossness and indelicacy in his ideas, which dis-
tinguish the children of the lower and middling classes
of people from those of persons of fashion.-Mr. Mer-
ton, on the contrary, maintained that he had never
before seen a child whose sentiments and disposition
would do so much honour even to the most elevated
situations. Should I appear more warm than usual
upon this subject, you must pardon me," said he, "and
attribute it to the interest I feel in the welfare of our
little Tommy. I am too sensible, that our mutual fond-
ness has hitherto induced us to treat him with too much
indulgence. While we have been over-solicitous to
remove from him every painful and disagreeable im-
pression, we have made him too delicate and fretful:
our desire of constantly consulting his inclinations has
made us gratify even his caprices and humours; and,
while we have been too studious to preserve him from





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 237
whale floating at a distance, they instantly send out a
large boat to pursue him. Some of the men row along.
as gently as possible, while the person that is appointed
to attack the fish stands upon the fore part of the boat,
h lding in his hand a sharp harpoon, with which he is
prepared to wound his prey. This is fastened to a long
cord which lies ready coiled up in the boat, so that they
may let it out in an instant, when the fish is struck; for
such is his prodigious force, that, should the least impe-
diment occur to stop the rope in its passage, he would
instantly draw the boat after him down to the bottom
of the sea. In order to prevent these dangerous acci-
dents, a man stands constantly ready to divide the rope
with a hatchet, in case it should happen to tangle ; and
another is continually pouring water over it, for fear
the swiftness of the motion should make it take fire,
The poor whale being thus wounded, darts away with
inconceivable rapidity, and generally plunges to the
bottom of the sea. The men have a prodigious quan-
tity of eord ready to let out; and when their store is
exhausted, there are generally other boats ready to
supply more. Thus is the poor animal overpowered
and killed in spite of his immense bulk and irresistible
strength; for, gradually wearied with his own efforts
and loss of blood, he soon relaxes in his speed, and
rises again to the top of the water. Then it is that the
fishers, who have pursued him all the time with the
hopes of such an opportunity, approach him anew, and
attack him with fresh harpoons; till in the end his
strength is entirely exhausted, the waves themselves
are tinged with a bloody colour from his innumerable
wounds, and he writhes himself about in strong con-
vulsions and unutterable pain. Then the conflict is
soon at an end; in a short time he breathes his last;
and, turning upon his back, floats like some large ves-
sel upon the surface of the sea. The fishers then ap-






312 THE HISTORY OF

Mr. Barlow. Then, according to your last account, the
goodness of the rich consists in taking from the poor,
houses, clothes, and food, and giving them in return
little bits of silver and gold, which are really good for
nothing.
Tommy. Yes, sir; but then the poor can take these
pieces of money, and purchase everything which they
want.
Mr. Barlow. You mean, that if a poor man has
money in his pocket, he can always exchange it for
clothes, or food, or any other necessary ?
Tommy. Indeed I do, sir.
Mr. Barlow. But whom must he buy them of? for,
according to your account, the rich never produce any
of these things : therefore the poor, if they want to pur-
chase them, can only do so of each other.
Tommy. But, sir, I cannot think that is always the
case for I have been along with my mamma to shops,
where there were fine powdered gentlemen and ladies
that sold things to other people, and livery-servants,
and young ladies that played upon the harpsichord like
Miss Matilda.
Mr. Barlow. But, my good little friend, do you ima-
gine that these fine powdered gentlemen and ladies
made the things which they sold ?
Tommy. That, sir, I cannot tell ; but I should rather
imagine not; for, all the fine people I have ever seen
are too much afraid of spoiling their clothes to work.
Mr. Barlow. All that they do, then, is to employ poorer
persons to work for them, while they only sell what is
produced by their labour. So that still you see we
reach no farther than this; the rich do nothing and
produce nothing, and the poor everything that is really
useful. Were there a whole nation of rich people,
they would all be starved like the Spaniard in the
story, because no one would condescend to produce





SANDFORD AND MERTON 11
Very near to Mr. Merton's seat lived a plain, honest
farmer, whose name was Sandford. This man had, like
Mr. Merton, an only son, not much older than Master
Merton, whose name was Harry. Harry, as he had
been always accustomed to run about in the fields, to
follow the labourers while they were ploughing, and
to drive the sheep to their pasture, was active, strong,
lardy, and fresh-coloured. He was neither so fair, nor
so delicately shaped as Master Merton; but he had an
honest, good-natured countenance, which made every
body love him; was never out of humour, and took
the greatest pleasure in obliging everybody. If little
Harry saw a poor wretch who wanted victuals while
lie was eating his dinner, he was sure to give him half,
and sometimes the whole: nay, so very good-natured
was he to everything, that he would never go into the
fields to take the eggs of poor birds, or their young
ones, nor practise any other kind of sport which gave
pain to poor animals; who are as capable of feeling as
we ourselves, though they have no words to express
their sufferings. Once, indeed, Harry was caught
twirling a cockchafer round, which he had fastened by
a crooked pin to a long piece of thread: but then this
was through ignorance and want of thought: for, as
soon as his father told him that the poor helpless in-
sect felt as much, or more than he would do, were a
knife thrust through his hand, he burst into tears, and
took the poor animal home, where he fed him during
a fortnight upon fresh leaves; and, when he was per-
fectly recovered, turned him out to enjoy liberty and
the fresh air. Ever since that time, Harry was so care-
ful and considerate, that he would step out of the way
for fear of hurting a worm, and employed himself in
doing kind offices to all the animals in the neighbour-
hood. He used to stroke the horses as they were at
work, and fill his pockets with acorns for the pigs: if





114 THE HISTORY OF
length the little boy took such a fancy to the slave, that
he used to visit him several times in the day, and
brought him such little presents as he had it in his
power to make, and which he thought would be of use
to his friend.
But though Hamet seemed always to take the great-
est delight in the innocent caresses of his little friend;
yet the child could not help remarking that Hamet was
frequently extremely sorrowful, and he often surprised
him on a sudden when tears were trickling down his
face, although he did his utmost to conceal them. The
little boy was at length so much affected with the re-
petition of this sight, that he spoke of it to his father,
and begged him, if he had it in his power, to make poor
Hamet happy. The father, who was extremely fond of
his son, and besides had observed that he seldom re-
quested anything which was not generous and humane,
determined to see the Turk himself, and talk to him.
Accordingly, he went to him the next day; and ob-
serving him for some time in silence, was struck with
the extraordinary appearance of mildness and honesty
which his countenance discovered. At length, he said
to him, "Are you that Hamet of whom my son is so
fond, and of whose gentleness and courtesy I have so
often heard him talk ."-" Yes," said the Turk, I am
that unfortunate Hamet, who have now been for three
years a captive : during that space of time, your son (if
you are his father) is the only human being that seems
to have felt any compassion for my sufferings; there-
fore, I must confess, he is the only object to which I am
attached in this barbarous country; and night and
morning I pray that Power, who is equally the God of
Turks and Christians, to grant him every blessing he
deserves, and to preserve him from all the miseries I
suffer."
"Indeed, Hamet," said the Merchant, "he is much











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148 THE HISTORY OF

which he found of no great consequence; and told
Tommy, that he was sorry for his accident, and ima-
gined that he was now too courageous to be daunted
by a trifling hurt. Tommy assured him he was; and
proceeded to ask some questions concerning the nature
of the monkey; which Mr. Barlow answered in the
following manner: "The monkey is a very extraordi-
nary animal, which closely resembles a man in his
shape and appearance, as perhaps you may have ob-
served. He is always found to inhabit hot countries,
the forests of which, in many parts of the world, are
filled with innumerable bands of these animals. He is
extremely active, and his fore-legs exactly resemble the
arms of a man; so that he not only uses them to walk
upon, but frequently to climb trees, to hang by the
branches, and to take hold of his food with. He sup.
ports himself upon almost every species of wild fruit
which is found in those countries; so that it is neces.
sary he should be continually scrambling up and down
the highest trees, in order to procure himself a subsis-
tence.-Nor is he contented always with the diet which
he finds in the forest where he makes his residence.
Large bands of these creatures will frequently sally out
to plunder the gardens in the neighbourhood; and
many wonderful stories are told of their ingenuity and
contrivance."-" What are these ?" said Tommy.-" It
is said," answered Mr. Barlow, "that they proceed with
all the caution and regularity which could be found in
men themselves. Some of these animals are placed as
spies to give notice,to the rest, in case any human being
should approach the garden; and, should that happen,
one of the sentinels informs them by a peculiar chatter-
ing ; and they all escape in an instant."-" I can easily
believe that," answered Harry; for I have observed,
that when a flock of rooks alight upon a farmer's field
of corn, two or three of them always take their station





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 83
and the white bears, were the only food these wretched
mariners tasted during their continuance in this dreary
abode.--We do not at once see every resource : it is
generally necessity which quickens our invention, open-
ing by degrees our eyes, and pointing out expedients
which otherwise might never have occurred to our
thoughts. The truth of this observation our four sai-
lors experienced in various instances. They were for
some time reduced to the necessity of eating their
meat almost raw, and without either bread or salt; for
they were quite destitute of both. The intenseness of
the cold, together with the want of proper conveni-
ences, prevented them from cooking their victuals in a
proper manner. There was but one stove in the hut,
and that, being set up agreeably to the Russian taste,
was more like an oven, and, consequently, not well
adapted for boiling anything. Wood, also, was too
precious a commodity to be wasted in keeping up two
fires; and the one they might have made out of their
habitation, to dress their victuals, would in no way
have served to warm them. Another reason against
their cooking in the open air, was the continual danger
of an attack from the white bears. And here, I must
observe, that suppose they had made the attempt, it
would still have been practicable for only some part of
the year; for the cold, which, in such a climate, for
some months scarcely ever abates, from the long
absence of the sun, then enlightening the opposite
hemisphere ; the inconceivable quantity of snow which
is continually falling, through the greatest part of the
winter; together with the almost incessant rains, at
certain seasons; all these were almost insurmountable
to that expedient. To remedy, therefore, in some de-
gree, the hardship of eating their meat half raw, they be-
thought themselves of drying some of their provisions,
during the summer, in the open air; and afterwards of





194 THE HISTORY OF
mer ?"-"Not even in the summer. The valleys be-
tween these mountains are inhabited by a brave and
industrious people ; the sides of them too are cultivated;
but the tops of the highest mountains are so extremely
cold that the ice and snow never melt, but go on con-
tinually increasing. During a great part of the winter,
the weather is extremely cold, and the inhabitants con-
fine themselves within their houses, which they have
the art to render very comfortable. Almost all the
roads are then impassable, and snow and ice afford
the only prospect. But when the year begins to grow
warmer, the snow is frequently thawed upon the sides
of the mountains, and undermined by the torrents of
water which pour down with irresistible fury. Hence
it frequently happens, that such prodigious masses of
snow fall down, as are sufficient to bury beasts and
houses, and even villages themselves, beneath them.
"It was in the neighbourhood of these prodigious
mountains, which are called the Alps, that on the 19th
of March, 1755, a small cluster of houses was entirely
overwhelmed by two vast bodies of snow that tumbled
down upon them from a greater height. All the inhabi-
tants were then within doors, except one Joseph Rochia,
and his son, a lad of fifteen, who were on the roof of
their house clearing away the snow which had fallen
for three days incessantly. A priest going by to church,
advised them to come down, having just before ob-
served a body of snow tumbling from the mountain
towards them. The man descended with great preci-
pitation, and fled with his son, he knew not whither:
but scarcely had he gone thirty or forty steps, before
his son, who followed him, fell down: on which, look-
ing back, he saw his own and his neighbours' houses,
in which were twenty-two persons in all, covered with
a high mountain of snow. He lifted up his son, and,
reflecting that his wife, his sister, two children, and all





136 THE HISTORY OF

chair with a kind of convulsive motion. Her husband,
who was in the next room, seeing her in this condition,
ran up to her, and, catching her in his arms, asked her
with the greatest tenderness, what was the matter but
she, springing on a sudden from his embraces, threw
herself upon her knees before the little boy, sobbing
and blessing with a broken, inarticulate voice, embrac-
ing his knees and kissing his feet. The husband, who
did not know what had happened, imagined that his
wife had lost her senses; and the little children, who
had before been skulking about the room, ran up to
their mother, pulling her by the gown, and hiding their
faces in her bosom. But the woman, at sight of them,
seemed to recollect herself, and cried out, "Little
wretches, who must all have been starved without the
assistance of this little angel, why do you not join with
me in thanking him ?"-At this, the husband said,
" Surely, Mary, you must have lost your senses. What
can this young gentleman do for us, or to prevent our
wretched babes from perishing ?"-- Oh William,"
said the woman, I am not mad, though I may appear
so: but look here, William, look what Providence has
sent us by the hands of this little angel: and then
wonder not that I should be wild." Saying this, she
held up the money, and at the sight her husband looked
as wild and astonished as she. But Tommy went up
to the man, and taking him by the hand, said, My
good friend you are very welcome to this; I freely
give it you ; and I hope it will enable you to pay what
you owe, and to preserve these poor little children."
But the man, who had before appeared to bear his
misfortunes with silent dignity, now burst into tears,
and sobbed like his wife and children: but Tommy,
who now began to be pained with this excess of grati-
tude, went silently out of the house, followed by Harry;
and before the poor family perceived what was become
of him, was out of sight.





200 THE HISTORY OF
should anybody wish to live for, who has no friends ?
Besides, there is not a field upon my father's farm, that
I do not prefer to every town I ever saw in my life.
Tommy. And have you ever been in any large town
Harry. Once I was in Exeter: but I did not much
like it; the houses seemed to me to stand so thick and
close, that I think our hog-sties would be almost as
agreeable places to live: and then there are little nar-
row alleys where the poor live; and the houses are so
high, that neither light nor air can ever get to them; and
they most of them appeared so dirty and unhealthy,
that it made my heart ache to look at them. And then
I walked along the streets, and peeped into the shops
-and what do you think I saw?
Tommy. What?
Harry. Why, I saw great hulking fellows, as big as
our ploughmen and carters, with their heads all frizzled
and curled like one of our sheep's tails, that did nothing,
but finger ribands and caps for the women! This
diverted me so, that I could not help laughing ready to
split my sides. And then, the gentlewoman at whose
house I was, took me to a place, where there was a
large room full of candles, and a great number of fine
ladies and gentlemen all dressed out and showy, who
were dancing about as if they were mad. But at the
door of this house there were twenty or thirty ragged
half-starved women and children, who stood shivering
in the rain, and begged for a bit of bread: but nobody
gave it to them, or took any notice of them. So then
I could not help thinking that it would be a great deal
better, if all the fine people would give some of their
money to the poor, that they might have some clothes
and victuals in their turn.
Tommy. That is indeed true. Had I been there, I
should have relieved the poor people ;-for you know I
am very good-natured and generous: but it is necessary
for gentlemen to be fine and to dress well.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 159
Harry. You must know then, Master Toommy, that
in the greatest part of this country, which is called
Lapland, the inhabitants neither sow nor reap; they
are totally unacquainted with the use of corn, and
know not how to make bread: they have no trees
which bear fruit, and scarcely any of the herbs which
grow in our gardens in England; nor do they possess
either sheep, goats, hogs, cows or beasts.
Tommy. That must be a disagreeable country in-
deed! What then have they to live upon ?
Harry. They have a species of deer, which is bigger
than the largest stags which you may have seen in the
gentleman's parks in England, and very strong. These
animals are called rein-deer, and are of so gentle a
nature, that they are easily tamed, and taught to live
together in herds, and to obey their masters. In the
short summer which they enjoy, the Laplanders lead
them out to pasture in the valleys, where the grass
grows very high and luxuriant. In the winter, when
the ground is all covered over with snow, the deer
have learned to scratch away the snow, and find a sort
of moss which grows underneath it, and upon this they
subsist. These creatures afford not only food, but rai-
ment, and even houses to their masters.-In the sum-
mer, the Laplander milks his herds, and lives upon the
produce: sometimes he lays by the milk in wooden
vessels, to serve him for food in winter. This is soon
frozen so hard, that when they would use it, they are
obliged to cut it in pieces with a hatchet.-Sometimes
the winters are so severe, that the poor deer can scarcely
find even moss; and then the master is obliged to kill
part of them, and live upon the flesh. Of the skins he
makes warm garments for himself and his family, and
strews them thick upon the ground, to sleep upon.-
Their houses are only poles stuck slanting into the
ground, and almost joined at top, except a little hole






346 THE HISTORY OF
discover the cause of this strange appearance, and be-
held, with equal horror and astonishment, that the
whole country behind was in flames. In order to ex-
plain this event, I must observe that all the plains in
America produce a rank, luxuriant vegetation, the
juices of which are exhausted by the heat of the sum-
mer's sun: it is then as inflammable as straw or fodder,
and, when a casual spark of fire communicates with it,
the flame frequently drives before the wind for miles
together, and consumes everything it meets. This was
actually the case at present: far as my eye could reach,
the country was all in flames; a powerful wind added
fresh fuel to the fire, and drove it on with a degree of
swiftness which precluded all possibility of flight. I
must confess, that I was struck with horror at the sud-
den approach of a death so new, so dreadful, so unex-
pected I saw it was in vain to fly; the flaming line
extended for several miles on every side, and advanced
with such velocity, that I considered my fate as inevi-
table. I looked round me with a kind of mute despair,
and began to envy the fate of my comrades who had
fallen by honourable wounds in battle. Already did
the conflagration scorch me in its approach, accompa-
nied by clouds of smoke that almost suffocated me with
their baneful vapour. In this extremity, Providence
presented to my mind an instantaneous thought, which
perhaps was the only possible method of escape. I
considered that nothing could stop the conflagration
but an actual want of matter to continue it; and there-
fore, by setting fire to the vegetables before me, I might
follow my own path in safety. (I hope, gentlemen, that
during the course of a long life, you will never have
occasion to experience the pleasure which the first
glance of this expedient afforded to my mind.) I saw
myself snatched, beyond expectation, from a strange
and painful death, and instantly pulled out, with a





SANDFORD AND MERTON 351
they had nearly approached the hunting grounds of
their enemies, they happened to be discovered upon
their march by four warriors of another nation, who
instantly suspected their design, and, running with
greater diligence than it was possible so large a body
could make, arrived at the encampment of the Saukies,
and informed them of the near approach of their ene-
mies. A great council was instantly assembled to deli-
berate upon the choice of proper measures for their
defence. As they were incumbered with their fami-
lies, it was impracticable to retreat with safety; and it
seemed equally difficult to resist so large a force with
inferior numbers.
While they were in this uncertainty, I considered
the nature of their situation, and had the good fortune
to find out a resource, which being communicated to
my friend and chief, and adopted by the nation, was
the means of their safety. I observed that the passage
to the Saukie camp, for the Iroquese, lay along a nar-
row slip of land which extended for near a mile between
two lakes. I therefore advised the Saukies to cast up
a strong barrier at the end of the passage, which I
showed them how to strengthen with ditches, palisades,
and some of the improvements of European fortifica-
tion. Their number of warriors amounted to about
four hundred; these I divided into equal parts, and,
leaving one to defend the lines, I placed the other in
ambuscade along the neighboring woods. Scarcely
were these dispositions finished, before the Iroquese
appeared, and, imagining they were rushing upon an
unguarded foe, entered the defile without hesitation.
As soon as the whole body was thus imprudently
engaged, the other party of the Saukies started from
their hiding-places, and, running to the entrance of the
strait, threw up in an instant another fortification, and
had the satisfaction to see the whole force of their





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 253
them no more than is absolutely necessary for that
purpose. On the contrary, whatever may be his rank
or importance, he will plainly prove, by the courtesy
and benevolence of his manners, that he laments the
necessity of his own elevation, and, instead of wishing
to mount still higher, would willingly descend nearer
to an equality with his fellow-creatures.
Tommy was very much diverted with the ceremonies
of this festal day. He had lost a great part of his West-
Indian pride during his residence with Mr. Barlow, and
had contracted many acquaintances among the families
of the poor. After the example of Mr. Barlow, he con-
descended to go about from one to the other, and make
inquiries about their families; nor was he a little grati-
fied with the extreme respect with which he found him-
self treated, both on the account of Mr. Barlow, and the
reputation of his own liberality.
Thus did the morning pass away in the most agreed
able and auspicious manner : but, after dinner, an un-
expected incident arrived, which clouded all the merri-
ment of the unfortunate Tommy Merton.
Mr. Barlow happened to have a large Newfoundland
dog, equally famous for his good-nature and his love of
the water. With this dog Tommy had long been form-
ing an acquaintance; and he used to divert himself
with throwing sticks into the water, which Cesar
would instantly bring out in his mouth, however great
might be the distance. Tommy had been fired with
the description of the Kamtschatkan dogs, and their
method of drawing sledges, and meditated an enter-
prise of this nature upon Caesar. This very day, find-
ing himself unusually at leisure, he chose for the
execution of his project. He therefore furnished him-
self with some rope and a kitchen chair, which he
destined for his vehicle instead of a sledge. He then
inveigled Cmsar into a large yard behind the house, and,





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 225
as the sun now does ; just as the snn would dwindle
away to the size of a star, were it to be removed to a
still greater distance ?
Tommy. Indeed, I think it might.
Mr. Barlow. What then do you imagine must hap-
pen, could the sun approach a great deal nearer to us .
Would its size remain the same ?
Tommy. No ; I plainly see that it must appear bigger
and bigger, the nearer it comes.
Mr. Barlow. If that is the case, it is not so very cer-
tain that the earth we inhabit is bigger than the sun
and stars. They are at a very great distance from us;
therefore, if anybody could go from the earth towards
the sun, how do you think the earth would appear to
him as he journeyed on ?
Tommy. Really, I can hardly tell.
Mr. Barlow. No Why, is it not the same thing,
whether an object goes from you, or you from the ob-
ject ? Is there any difference between the ship's sail-
ing away from us, and our walking away from the ship ?
Tommy. No, sir.
Mr. Barlow. Did you not say, that if the sun could be
removed farther from our eyes, it would appear less ?
Tommy. To be sure it would.
Mr. Barlow. Why then, if the earth were to sink down
from under our feet, lower and lower, what would hap-
pen ? would it have the same appearance ?
Tommy. No, sir ; I think it must appear less and less,
like the ship when it is sailing away.
Mr. Barlow. Very right, indeed.-But now attend to
what I asked you just now: If a person could rise
slowly into the air, and mount still higher and higher,
towards the sun ; what would happen ?
Tommy. Why, the same as if the earth were to sink
from under us : it would appear less and less.
Mr. Barlow. Might not the earth then, at least, ap-
pear as small as the sun or moon does '





1 8 THE HISTORY OF
If," added he, you choose to put yourself under my
care, I will employ all the secrets of my art for your
assistance : but one condition is absolutely indispen-
sable; you must send away all your servants, and
solemnly engage to follow my prescriptions for at least
a month; without this compliance I would not under-
take the cure even of a monarch."-" Doctor," an-
swered the gentleman, "what I have seen of your pro-
fession, does not, I confess, much prejudice me in their
favour; and I should hesitate to agree to such a pro-
posal from any other individual."--" Do as you like,
sir," answered the physician, the employing me or
not, is entirely voluntary on your part: but as I am
above the common mercenary views of gain, I never
stake the reputation of so noble an art without a ra-
tional prospect of success : and what success can I hope
for in so obstinate a disorder, unless the patient will
consent to a fair experiment of what I can effect ?"-
" Indeed," replied the gentleman, "what you say is so
candid, and your whole behaviour so much interests
me in your favour, that I will immediately give you
proofs of the most unbounded confidence."
He then sent for his servants, and ordered them to
return home, and not to come near him till a whole
month was elapsed. When they were gone, the physi-
cian asked him how he supported the journey ?-" Why
really," answered he, much better than I could have
expected. But I feel myself unusually hungry; and,
therefore, with your permission, shall beg to have the
hour of supper a little hastened."--" Most willingly,"
answered the doctor, "at eight o'clock everything shall
be ready for your entertainment. In the meantime
you will permit me to visit my patients.'
While the physician was absent, the gentleman was
pleasing his imagination with the thoughts of the ex-
cellent supper he should make.-" Doubtless," said he





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 303

Alas? sir," answered Mr. Barlow, what is the
general malady of human nature, but this very insta-
bility which now appears in your son ? Do you imagine
that half the vices of men arise from real depravity of
heart ? On the contrary, I am convinced that human
nature is infinitely more weak than wicked; and that
the greater part of all bad conduct springs rather from
want of firmness, than from any settled propensity to
evil."
Indeed," replied Mr. Merton, "what you say is
highly reasonable ; nor did I ever expect that a boy so
long indulged and spoiled should be exempt from fail-
ings. But what particularly hurts me is, to see him
proceed to such disagreeable extremities without any
adequate temptation; extremities that I fear imply a
defect of goodness and generosity, virtues which I
always thought he had possessed in a very great de-
gree."
Neither," answered Mr. Barlow, "am I at all con-
vinced that your son is deficient in either. But you are
to consider the prevalence of example, and the circle
to which you have lately introduced him. If it is so
difficult even for persons of a more mature age and
experience to resist the impressions of those with whom
they constantly associate, how can you expect it from
your son ? To be armed against the prejudices of the
world, and to distinguish real merit from the splen-
did vices which pass current in what is called society,
is one of the most difficult of human sciences. Nor do
I know a single character, however excellent, that
would not candidly confess he has often made a wrong
election, and paid that homage to a brilliant outside,
which is only due to real merit."
You comfort me very much," said Mr. Merton:
"but such ungovernable passion such violence and
impetuosity---"





278 THE HISTORY OF
and spoke to him thus: "I was so much pleased with
the account you gave me the other day, of that poor
young woman's duty and affection towards her parents,
that I have for some time employed myself in prepar-
ing for them a little present, which I shall be obliged to
you, Master Harry, to convey to them. I have, unfor-
tunately, never learned either to embroider, or to paint
artificial flowers; but my good uncle has taught me,
that the best employment I can make of my hands, is
to assist those who cannot assist themselves." Saying
this, she put into his hands, a parcel that contained
some linen, and other necessaries for the poor old
people; and bade him tell them, not to forget to call
upon her uncle, when she was returned home ; as he
was always happy to assist the deserving and industri-
ous poor. Harry received her present with gratitude,
and almost with tears of joy: and, looking up in her
face, imagined that he saw the features of one of those
angels which he had read of in the Scriptures: so
much does real disinterested benevolence improve the
expression of the human countenance.
But all the rest of the young gentry were employed
in cares of a very different nature; the dressing their
hair, and adorning their persons. Tommy himself had
now completely resumed his natural character, and
thrown aside all that he had learned during his resi-
dence with Mr. Barlow; he had contracted an infinite
fondness for all those scenes of dissipation which his
new friends daily described to him ; and began to be
convinced, that one of the most important things in
life, is a fashionable dress. In this most rational sen-
timent he had been confirmed by almost all the young
ladies with whom he had conversed since his return
home. The distinctions of character, relative to virtue
and understanding, which had been with so much pains
inculcated upon his mind, seemed here to be entirely





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 301
burst into such a violent transport of crying, that Mrs.
Merton, who seemed to feel the severity of Mr. Mer-
ton's conduct with still more poignancy than her son,
caught her darling up in her arms, and carried him
abruptly out of the room, accompanied by most of the
ladies, who pitied Tommy's abasement, and agreed,
that there was no crime he could have been guilty of,
which was not amply atoned for by such a charming
sensibility.
But Mr. Merton, who now felt all the painful interest
of a tender father, and considered this as the critical
moment, which was to give his son the impression of
worth or baseness for life, was determined to examine
this affair to the utmost. He therefore took the first
opportunity of drawing the little boy aside who had
mentioned Master Merton's striking Harry; and ques-
tioned him on the subject. But he, who had no par-
ticular interest in disguising the truth, related the cir-
cumstances nearly as they had happened; and, though
he a little softened the matter in Tommy's favour, yet,
without intending it, he held up such a picture of his
violence and injustice, as wounded his father to the soul.
While Mr. Merton was occupied by these uneasy
feelings, he was agreeably surprised by a visit from
Mr. Barlow, who came accidentally to see him, with a
perfect ignorance of all the great events which had so
recently happened.
Mr. Merton received this worthy man with the sin-
cerest cordiality: but there was such a gloom diffused
over all his manners, that Mr. Barlow began to suspect
that all was not right with Tommy; and therefore pur-
posely inquired after him, to give his father an oppor-
tunity of speaking. This Mr. Merton did not fail to do;
and, taking Mr. Barlow affectionately by the hand, he
said, "( Oh my dear sir, I begin to fear that all my
hopes are at an end in that boy, and all your kind en-





394 THE HISTORY OF

minerals, which surround us, to the violence of all-
consuming fires; I have examined their structure, and
the different principles which compose them, with the
patient labour and perseverance of a long life. In the
course of these inquiries, I have made many curious
and important discoveries, but one above the rest,
which I will now impart under the promise of eternal
and inviolable secrecy. Know, then, that I have found
out an easy and expeditious combination of common
materials, the effect of which is equal or superior to
the most potent and destructive agents in nature.
Neither the proudest city can maintain its walls, nor
the strongest castle its bulwarks, against the irresist-
ible attacks of this extraordinary composition. In-
crease but the quantity, and the very rocks and moun-
tains will be torn asunder with a violence that equals
that of earthquakes. Whole armies, proud of their
triumphs, may be in an instant scattered and destroyed,
like the summers dust before the whirlwind; and,
what increases the prodigy, a single man may securely
give death to thousands. This composition I have
hitherto concealed, in pity to the miseries of mankind;
but, since there appears no other method of preserving
the virtuous inhabitants of these mountains from sla-
very and ruin, I am determined to employ it in their
defence. Give orders, therefore, that a certain num-
ber of your countrymen provide me with the ingredi-
ents that I shall indicate, and expect the amplest suc-
cess from your own valour, assisted by such powerful
auxiliaries."
Sophron said everything to Chares which such an
unexpected mark of confidence deserved, and instantly
received his orders, and prepared to execute them with
the greatest alacrity. Chares, meanwhile, was indefa-
tigable in the execution of his project; and it was not
long before he had prepared a sufficient quantity to
provide for the common defence.





418 THE HISTORY OF

and tinge their little weapons in his blood. All utter
joyful exclamations, and feasts are made in every house,
to which the victors are invited as the principal guests.
These are intended at once to reward those who have
performed so gallant an achievement, and to encourage
a spirit of enterprise in the rest of the nation."
What a dreadful kind of hunting must this be !"
said Tommy, but I suppose if any one meets a lion
alone, it is impossible to resist him."
Not always," answered the Black: I will tell you
what I once was witness to myself. My father was
reckoned not only the most skilful hunter, but one of
the bravest of our tribe : innumerable are the wild
beasts which have fallen beneath his arm. One even-
ing, when the inhabitants of the whole village were
assembled at their sports and dances, a monstrous lion,
allured, I suppose, by the smell of human flesh, burst
unexpectedly upon them, without warning them of
his approach by roaring, as he commonly does. As they
were unarmed, and unprepared for defence, all but my
father instantly fled, trembling, to their huts: but he,
who had never yet turned his back upon any beast of
the forest, drew from his side a kind of knife or dagger,
which he constantly wore, and placing one knee and
one hand upon the ground, waited the approach of his
terrible foe. The lion instantly rushed upon him with
a fury not to be described ; but my father received him
upon the point of his weapon with so steady and com-
posed an aim, that he buried it several inches in his
belly. Tile beast attacked him a second time, and a
second time received a dreadful wound ; not, however,
without laying bare one of my father's sides with a
sudden stroke of his claws. The rest of the village
then rushed in, and soon despatched the lion with in-
numerable wounds.
This exploit appeared so extraordinary, that it





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 309
He affected, indeed, to despise the virtuous moderation
of his friend, and ridiculed it with some of his looser
comrades as an abject pusillanimity; but he felt him-
self humbled whenever he was in his company, as be-
fore a superior being, and therefore gradually estranged
himself from his society.
Sophron, on the contrary, entertained the sincerest
regard for his friend; but he knew his defects, and
trembled for the consequences which the violence and
ambition of his character might one day produce,
Whenever Tigranes abandoned his flocks, or left his
rustic tasks undone, Sophron had the goodness to sup-
ply whatever he had omitted. Such was the vigour of
his constitution, that he was indefatigable in every
labour; nor did he ever exert his force more willingly
than in performing these voluntary duties to his absent
friend. Whenever he met with Tigranes, he accosted
him in the gentlest manner, and endeavoured to win
him back to his former habits and manners. He repre-
sented to him the injury he did his parents, and the
disquietude he occasioned in their minds, by thus aban-
doning the duties of his profession. He sometimes, but
with the greatest mildness, hinted at the coldness with
which Tigranes treated him ; and reminded his friend
of the pleasing intercourse of their childhood. But all
his remonstrances were vain : Tigranes heard him at
first with coolness, then with impatience or contempt,
and, at last, avoided him altogether.
Tigranes at length left the neighbourhood to enter
the army of Arsaces, the great Scythian chief, while
Sophron remained in the enjoyment of the virtues of
pastoral simplicity. The story, as it proceeded, made
a strong impression on Master Tommy, and led to many
questions and remarks. At length, on hearing a most
pleasing description of the simple virtues of the wild
Arabs. the impatience of Tommy, which had been in-
20





416 THE HISTORY OF
elder part of the society are accustomed to meet in the
shade of the evening, and converse upon a variety of
subjects; the young and vigorous divert themselves
with dances and other pastimes, and the children of
different ages amuse themselves with a thousand sports
and gambols adapted to their age: some aim their
little arrows at marks, or dart their light and blunted
javelins at each other, to form themselves for the exer-
cises of war and the chase ; others wrestle naked upon
the sand, or run in sportive races with a degree of
activity which I have never seen among the Europe-
ans, who pretend to be our masters.
"I have described to you the building of our houses:
simple as they are, they answer every purpose of
human life: and every man is his own architect. A
hundred -or two of these edifices compose our towns,
which are generally surrounded by lofty hedges of
thorns to secure us from the midnight attacks of wild
beasts, with only a single entrance, which is carefully
closed at night."
"You talk," said Tommy, "of wild beasts; pray,
liave you many in your country ?"
"Yes, master," said the Black," we have them of
many sorts, equally dreadful and ferocious. First, we
have the lion, which I daresay you have heard of, and
perhaps seen. He is bigger than the largest mastiff,
and infinitely stronger and more fierce; his paws alone
"are such, that with a single blow he is able to knock
down a man, and almost every other animal : but these
paws are armed with claws so sharp and dreadful, that
nothing can resist their violence.- When he roars,
every beast of the forest betakes himself to flight, and
even the boldest hunter can scarcely hear it without
dismay. Sometimes, the most valiant of our youth
assemble in bands, arm themselves with arrows and
javelins, and go to the chase of these destructive ani-






60 THE HISTTORY OF
you have been beaten and hurt till you are all ovet
bloody, only because I gave you my clothes: I am
really very sorry for it."-" Thank you, little master,"
said the boy, but it can't be helped ; you did not in-
tend me any hurt, I know; and I am not such a chicken
as to mind a beating: so I wish you a good afternoon
with all my heart."
As soon as the little boy was gone, Tommy said, "I
wish I had but some clothes that the poor boy could
wear, for he seems very good-natured; I would give
them to him."-" That you may very easily have," said
Harry; for there is a shop in the village hard by,
where they sell all manner of clothes for the poor
people: and, as you have money, you may easily buy
some."
Harry and Tommy then agreed to go early the next
morning to buy some clothes for the poor children.
They accordingly set out before breakfast, and had
proceeded nearly half way, when they heard the noise
of a pack of hounds that seemed to be running full cry
at some distance. Tommy then asked Harry if he knew
what they were about.--" Yes," said Harry, "I know
well enough what they are about; it is Squire Chase
and his dogs worrying a poor hare. But I wonder they
are not ashamed to meddle with such a poor inoffen-
sive creature, that cannot defend itself: if they have
a mind to hunt, why don't they hunt lions and tigers,
and such fierce mischievous creatures, as I have read
they do in other countries ?"-" Oh dear," said Tommy,
"how is that ? it must surely be very dangerous."-
'Why, you must know," said Harry, the men are ac-
customed in some places to go almost naked; and that
makes them so prodigiously nimble, that they can run
like a deer; and, when a lion or tiger comes into their
neighbourhood, and devours their sheep or oxen, they
go out six or seven together, armed with javelins; and






212 THE HISTORY OF
the gentleman, although he admired the horse, would
not consent to give it; and they were just on the point
of parting. As the man was turning his back, the
gentleman called out to him, and said, "Is there no
possible way of our agreeing? for I would give you
anything in reason for such a beautiful creature."-
" Why," replied the dealer, who was a shrewd fellow,
and perfectly understood calculation, "if you do not
like to give me two hundred guineas, will you give me
a farthing for the first nail the horse has in his shoe,
two farthings for the second, four for the third, and so
go doubling throughout the whole twenty-four? for
there are no more than twenty-four nails in all his
shoes." The gentleman gladly accepted the condition,
and ordered the horse to be led away to his stables.
Tommy. This fellow must have been a very great
blockhead, to ask two hundred guineas, and then to
take a few farthings for his horse.
Mr. Barlow. The gentleman was of the same opinion;
however, the horse-courser added, I do not mean, sir,
to tie you down to this last proposal, which, upon con-
sideration, you may like as little as the first; all that
I require is, that if you are dissatisfied with your bar-
gain, you will promise to pay me down the two hun-
dred guineas which I first asked." This the gentleman
willingly agreed to, and then called the steward to cal-
culate the sum, for he was too much of a gentleman to
be able to do it himself. The steward sat down with
his pen and ink, and after some time gravely wished his
master joy, and asked him, in what part of England
the estate was situated that he was going to purchase ?"
"-- Are you mad ?" replied the gentleman : it is not
an estate, but a horse, that I have just bargained for:
and here is the owner of him, to whom I am going to
pay the money."-" If there is any madness, sir," re-
plied the steward, it certainly is not on my side : the





SANDFORD AND MERTON 317
cernment of the man, who could distinguish his import-
ance in spite of the dirtiness of his clothes, and there-
fore mildly answered, No, friend, there is not much
the matter. I have a little obstinate horse that ran
away with me, and, after trying in vain to throw mo
down, he plunged into the middle of that great bog
there, and so I jumped off for fear of being swallowed
up, otherwise I should soon have made him submit, for
I am used to such things, and don't mind them in the
least."
Here the child that the man was carrying began to
cry bitterly, and the father endeavoured to pacify him,
but in vain. Poor thing," said Tommy, he seems to
be unwell: I am heartily sorry for him !"--- Alas, mas-
ter," answered the man, he is not well, indeed; he has
now a violent ague fit upon him, and I have not had a
morsel of bread to give him, or any of the rest, since
yesterday noon."
Tommy was naturally generous, and now his mind
was unusually softened by the remembrance of his
own recent distresses: he, therefore, pulled a shilling
out of his pocket, and gave it to the man, saying,
Here, my honest friend, here is something to buy
your child some food, and I sincerely wish he may soon
recover."-" God bless your sweet face !" said the man,
you are the best friend I have seen this many a day;
but for this kind assistance we might have been all
lost." He then, with many bows and thanks, struck
across the common into a different path, and Tommy
went forward, feeling a greater pleasure at this little
act of humanity, than he had long been acquainted
with among all the fine acquaintance he had lately
contracted.
But he had walked a very little way with these re-
flections, before he met with a new adventure. A flock
of sheep was running with all the precipitation which





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 151
length understood the secret of their son's generosity,
they seemed to be scarcely less affected than the woman
herself; and, shedding tears of transport and affection,
they embraced their son, without attending to the crowd
that surrounded them: but immediately recollecting
themselves, they took their leave of the poor woman.
and hurried to their coach with such sensations as it is
more easy to conceive than to describe.
The summer had now completely passed away, and
the winter had set in with unusual severity; the water
was all frozen into a solid inass of ice; the earth was
bare of food, and the little birds, that used to chirp
with gladness, seemed to lament in silence the incle.
mency of the weather.
As Tommy was one day reading the Life of Napo-
leon Buonaparte, particularly the famous anecdote of
the fortress of snow, in which Napoleon is described
as undertaking the siege, and giving directions to his
schoolfellows how to make the attack, he was sur-
prised to find a pretty bird flying about the cham-
ber in which he was reading. He immediately went
down stairs and informed Mr Barlow; who, after he
had seen the bird, told him it was called a Robin Red-
breast; and that it was naturally more tame, and dis-
posed to cultivate the society of men than any other
species; "but, at present," added he, "the little fel-
low is in want of food, because the earth is too hard
to furnish him any assistance, and hunger inspires him
with this unusual boldness'.-" Why then, sir," said
Tommy, if you will give me leave, I will fetch a
piece of bread and feed him."-" Do so," answered Mr.
Barlow; "but first set the window open, that he may
see you do not intend to take him prisoner." Tommy
accordingly opened his window; and, scattering a few
crumbs of bread about the room, had the satisfaction
of seeing his guest hop down, and make a very hearty






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 219
Pharnabazus was so struck with the truth and just-
ness of these remarks, that, from that very hour, he
determined to contend no more with such invincible
troops; but bent all his cares towards making peace
with the Spartans; by which means he preserved him-
self and country from destruction.

"You see by the story," said Mr. Barlow, that fine
clothes are not always of the consequence you imagine,
since they are not able to give their wearers either
more strength or courage than they had before, nor to
preserve them from the attacks of those whose appear-
ance is more homely.-But since you are so little ac-
quainted with the business of a soldier, I must show
you a little more clearly in what it consists. Instead,
therefore, of all this pageantry, which seems so strongly
to have acted upon your mind, I must inform you that
there is no human being exposed to suffer a greater
degree of misery and hardship : he is often obliged to
march whole days in the most violent heat, or cold, or
rain, and frequently without victuals to eat, or clothes
to cover him; and when he stops at night, the most
that he can expect is a miserable canvas tent to shelter
him, which is penetrated in every part by the wet, and
a little straw to keep his body from the damp, unwhole-
some earth. Frequently he cannot meet with even
this, and is obliged to lie uncovered upon the ground,
by which means he contracts a thousand diseases, which
are more fatal than the cannon and weapons of the
enemy. Every hour he is exposed to engage in com-
bats at the hazard of losing his limbs, of being crippled
or mortally wounded. If he gain the victory, he gene-
rally has only to begin again and fight anew, till the
war is over; if he be beaten, he may probably lose his
life on the spot, or be taken prisoner by the enemy; in
which case he may languish several months in a dreary
prison, in want of all the necessaries of life."





SANDFORD AND MERTON 355
my father, and consequently uncle to myself. It is no
wonder that the memory of such a man should be vene-
rated by his relations. Ihave often heard my uncle speak
of his untimely death as the greatest misfortune which
ever happened to our family ; and I have often seen him
read, with tears in his eyes, many of his brother's let-
ters, in which he speaks with the greatest affection of
his faithful Highlander, Andrew Campbell."
At these words the poor Highlander, unable to re-
press the strong emotions of his mind, sprang forward
in a sudden transport of joy, and, without considera-
tion of circumstances, caught Miss Simmons in his arms,
exclaiming at the same time, Praised be God for this
happy and unexpected meeting Blessed be my ship-
wreck itself, that has given me an opportunity of see-
ing, before I die, some of the blood of my dear and
worthy colonel !"-and, perceiving Miss Simmons con-
fused at this abrupt and unexpected salutation, he
added, in the most respectful manner, Pardon me, my
honoured young lady, for the improper liberty I have
taken; but I was not master of myself, to find, at a
time when I thought myself the most forlorn and
miserable of the human race, that I was in company
with the nearest relation of the man, whom, after my
own father, I have always loved and reverenced most."
Miss Simmons answered with the greatest affability,
that she freely excused the warmth of his affection,
and that she would that very day acquaint her uncle
with this extraordinary event; who, she did not doubt,
would come over with the greatest expedition to see a
person whom he knew so well by name, and who
could inform him of so many particulars of her uncle.
And now, the company being separated, Tommy,
who had listened with silent attention to the story of
the Highlander, took an opportunity of following Mr.
Barlow, who was walking out; and, when he perceived






126 THE HISTORY OF
of twenty or thirty feet."-" That is very large," said
Tommy, and does it do any harm ?"-" Yes," said Mr.
Barlow, it is a very voracious animal, and devours
everything it can seize. It frequently comes out of the
water, and lives upon the shore, where it resembles a
large log of wood; and if any animal unguardedly
comes near, it snaps at it on a sudden, and, if it can
catch the poor creature, devours it."-T. And does it
never devour men ?-Mr. B. Sometimes, if it surprises
them: but those who are accustomed to meet with
them frequently, easily escape. They run round in a
circle, or turn short on a sudden ; by which means the
animal is left far behind; because, although he can
run tolerably fast in a straight line, the great length of
his body prevents him from turning with ease.-T.
This must be a very dreadful animal to meet with : is
it possible for a man to defend himself against it.-Mr.
B. Everything is possible to those that have courage
and coolness: therefore, many of the inhabitants of
those countries carry long spears in their hands, in
order to defend themselves from those animals. The
crocodile opens his wide voracious jaws, in order to
devour the man; but the man takes this opportunity,
and thrusts the point of his spear into the creature's
mouth; by which means he is generally killed upon
the spot. Nay, I have even heard, that some will carry
their hardiness so far, as to go into the water, in order
to fight the crocodile there. They take a large splinter
of wood, about a foot in length, strong in the middle,
and sharpened at both ends; to this they tie a long
and tough cord; the man who intends to fight the cro-
codile, takes this piece of wood in his right hand, and
goes into the river, where he wades till one of these
creatures perceives him. As soon as that happens, the
animal comes up to him, to seize him, extending his
wide and horrid jaws, which are armed with several





8X0 THE HISTORY OF

to come here for ? Have you not insulted and abused
him without reason ; and at last proceeded so far as to
strike him, only because he was giving you the best
advice, and endeavouring to preserve you from danger ?
Can you imagine that any human being will come to
you in return for such treatment, at least till you have
convinced him that you are ashamed of your passion
and injustice, and that he may expect better usage for
'lie future?
Tommy. What then must I do, sir ?
Mr. Barlow. If you want any future connection with
HIarry Sandford, it is your business to go to him and
tell him so.
Tommy. What, sir! go to a farmer's, to expose my-
self before all his family?
_Mr. Barlow. Just now you told me you were ready
to do everything, and yet you cannot take the trouble
of visiting your friend at his own house. You then
imagine that a person does not expose himself by act-
ing wrong, but by acknowledging and amending his
faults ?
Tommy. But what would everybody say if a young
gentleman like me was to go and beg pardon of a
farmer's son ?
Mr. Barlow. They would probably say, that you have
more sense and gratitude than they expected. How-
ever, you are to act as you please ; with the sentiments
you still seem to entertain, Harry will certainly be a
very unfit companion; and you will do much better to
cultivate the new acquaintance you have made.
Mr. Barlow was then going away, but Tommy burst
again into tears, and begged him not to go; upon
which Mr. Barlow said, I do not want to leave you,
Tommy, but our conversation is now at an end. You
have asked my advice, which I have given you freely,
I have told you how you ought to act, if you wold






16 ThE HISTORY
Mrs. Merton; and rose and kissed him; and a kinll
you deserve to be with such a spirit; and here's a glass
of wine for you for making such a pretty answer.-And
should not you like to be a king too, little Harry ?"-
" Indeed, madam, I don't know what that is; but I hope
I shall soon be big enough to go to plough, and get my
own living; and then I shall want nobody to wait
upon me."
"1 What a difference there is between the children of
farmers and gentlemen !" whispered Mrs. Merton to
her husband, looking rather contemptuously upon
Harry.-" I am not sure," said Mr. Merton, that for
this time the advantage is on the side of our son:-But
should not you like to be rich, my dear?" said lie, turn-
ing to Harry.--"No, indeed, sir."-"No, simpleton !"
said Mrs. Merton; "and why not ?"--" Because the only
rich man I ever saw, is Squire Chase, who lives hard
by; and he rides among people's corn, and breaks down
their hedges, and shoots their poultry, and kills their
dogs and lames their cattle, and abuses the poor; and
they say he does all this because he's rich; but every-
body hates him, though they dare not tell him so to his
face:-and I would not be hated for anything in thl
world."-"But should you not like to have a fine laced
coat, and a coach to carry you about, and servants to wait
upon you ?"-" As to that, madam, one coat is as good
as another, if it will but keep one warm; and I don't
want to ride, because I can walk wherever I choose;
and, as to servants, I should have nothing for them to
do, if I had a hundred of them." Mrs. Merton continued
to look at him with a sort of contemptuous astonish-
ment, but did not ask him any more questions.
In the evening, little Harry was sent home to his
father; who asked him what he had seen at the great
house, and how he liked being there -" Why," replied
Harry, "they were all very kind to me, for which I'm





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 197
eat. The sister said she had fifteen chesnuts in her
pockets; the children said they had breakfasted, and
should want no more that day. They remembered there
were thirty-six or forty cakes in a place near the stable,
and endeavoured to get at them; but were not able for
the snow. They called often for help, but were heard
by none. The sister gave the chesnuts to the wife, and
ate two herself; and they drank some snow water. The
ass was restless, and the goats kept bleating for some
days; after which, they heard no more of them. Two
of the goats, however, being left alive, and near the
manger, they felt them, and found that one of them was
big, and would kid, as they recollected, about the middle
of April; the other gave milk, wherewith they preserved
their lives. During all this time, they saw not one ray
of light; yet for about twenty days they had some notice
of night and day from the crowing of the fowls, till
they died.
The second day, being very hungry, they ate all the
chesnuts, and drank what milk the goat yielded, being
very near two pounds a-day at first; but it soon de-
creased. The third day they attempted again, but in
vain, to get at the cakes; so resolved to take all possi-
ble care to feed the goats; for just above the manger
was a hay-loft, where, through a hole, the sister pulled
down hay into the rack, and gave it to the goats, as
long as she could reach it; and then, when it was be-
yond her reach, the goats climbed upon her shoulders,
and reached it themselves.
"On the sixth day the boy sickened, and six days
after desired his mother, who all this time had held
him in her lap, to lay him at his length in the manger.
She did so, and taking him by the hand, felt it was very
cold; she then put her hand to his mouth, and finding
that cold likewise, she gave him a little milk; the boy
then cried, 'Oh my father is in the snow Oh father!
father !' and then expired.









90 THE HISTORY OF
that lived in his father's garden; and, when he had his
milk for breakfast, he used to sit under a nut-tree and
whistle, and the snake would come to him, and eat out
of his bowl."-T. And did it not bite him ?-H. No;
he sometimes used to give it a pat with his spoon, if it
ate too fast; but it never hurt him.
Tommy was much pleased with this conversation;
and, being both good-natured and desirous of making
experiments, he determined to try his skill in taming
animals. Accordingly, he took a large slice of bread
in his hand, and went out to seek some animal that he
might give it to.-The first thing that he happened to
meet was a sucking pig that had rambled from its
mother, and was basking in the sun. Tommy would
not neglect the opportunity of showing his talents: he
therefore called, Pig, pig, pig come hither, little pig I
But the pig, who did not exactly comprehend his in-
tentions, only grunted, and ran away.-" You little un-
grateful thing," said Tommy, "do you treat me in this
manner, when I want to feed you? If you do not
know your friends, I must teach you." Saying this, he
sprang at the pig, and caught him by the hind-leg, in-
tending to have given him the bread which he had in
his hand: but the pig, who was not used to be treated in
that manner, began struggling and squeaking to that
degree, that the sow, who was within hearing, came
running to the place, with all the rest of the litter at
her heels. As Tommy did not know whether she
would be pleased with his civilities to her young one,
or not, he thought it most prudent to let it go; and
the pig, endeavouring to escape as speedily as possibly,
unfortunately ran between his legs, and threw him
down. The place where this accident happened was
extremely wet; therefore, Tommy, in falling, dirtied
himself from head to foot; and the sow, who came up
at that instant, passed over him as he attempted to
rise, and rolled him back again into the mire.





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 231
situation indeed, tost about on such an immense place
as the sea, in the middle of a dark night, and not able
even to guess at their situation.
Mr. Barlow. For this reason they seldom dared to
venture out of sight of shore, for fear of losing their
way : by which means, all their voyages were long and
tedious; for they were obliged to make them several
times as long as they would have done, could they have
taken the straight and nearest way. But soon after the
discovery of this admirable property of the loadstone,
they found that the needle, which had been thus pre-
pared, was capable of showing them the different points
of the heavens, even in the darkest night. This en-
abled them to sail with greater security, and to venture
boldly upon the immense ocean, which they had always
feared before.
Tommy. How extraordinary, that a little stone should
enable people to cross the sea, and to find their way
from one country to the other! But I wonder why
they take all these pains.
Mr. Barlow. That you need not wonder at, when you
consider that one country frequently produces what an-
other does not; and, therefore, by exchanging their
different commodities, both may live more conveniently
than they did before.
Harry. But does not almost every country produce
all that is necessary to support the inhabitants of
it ? and therefore they might live, I should think,
even though they received nothing from any other
country.
Mr. Barlow. So might your father live, perhaps, upon
the productions of his own farm; but he sometimes sells
his cattle, to purchase clothes; sometimes his corn, to
purchase cattle. Then he frequently exchanges with
his neighbours one kind of grain for another: and thus
their mutual convenience is better promoted, than if





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 117
perhaps astonish you: but I am now come to discourse
the matter more calmly with you, and I doubt not,
when you have heard my reasons- "
Christian !" interrupted Hamet, with a severe but
composed countenance, "cease at length to insult the
miserable with proposals more shocking than even
these chains. If thy religion permit such acts ,as
those, know that they are execrable and abominable
to the soul of every Mahometan : therefore, from this
moment, let us break off all further intercourse, and
be strangers to each other."
"No," answered the Merchant, flinging himself into
the arms of Hamet, "let us from this moment be more
closely linked than ever! Generous man, whose vir-
tues may at once disarm and enlighten thy enemies!
Fondness for my son first made me interested in thy
fate; but from the moment that I saw thee yesterday,
I determined to set thee free: therefore, pardon me
this unnecessary trial of thy virtue, which has only
raised thee higher in my esteem. Francisco has a soul
which is as averse to deeds of treachery and blood, as
even Hamet himself. From this moment, generous
man, thou art free; thy ransom is already paid, with
no other obligation than that of remembering the affec-
tion of this thy young, and faithful friend; and per-
haps, hereafter, when thou seest an unhappy Christian
groaning in Turkish fetters, thy generosity may make
thee think of Venice."
It is impossible to describe the ecstacies or the gra-
titude of Hamet at this unexpected deliverance: I
will not therefore attempt to repeat what he said to
his benefactors; I will only add, that he was that day
set free; and Francisco embarked him on board a
ship which was going to one of the Grecian islands,
took leave of him with the greatest tenderness, and
forced him to accept a purse of gold to pay his ex-
8





10 THlE HISTORY o01

and would never let him learn to read, because lie coml-
plained that it made his head acle.
The consequence of this was, that though Master
Merton had everything he wanted, he became very
fretful and unhappy. Sometimes he ate sweetmeats
till he made himself sick, and then he suffered a great
deal of pain, because he would not take bitter physic
to make him well. Sometimes he cried for things that
it was impossible to give him, and then, as he had
never been used to be contradicted, it was many hours
before he could be pacified. When any company came
to dine at the house, he was always to be helped first,
and to have the most delicate parts of the meat, other-
wise he would make such a noise as disturbed the
whole company. When his father and mother were
sitting at the tea-table with their friends, instead of
waiting till they were at leisure to attend him, he would
scramble upon the table, seize the cake and bread and
butter, and frequently overset the tea-cups. By these
pranks he not only made himself disagreeable to every
body else, but often met with very dangerous accidents.
Frequently did he cut himself with knives, at other
times throw heavy things upon his head, and once he
narrowly escaped being scalded to death by a kettle of
boiling water. He was also so delicately brought up,
that he was perpetually ill; the least wind or rain gave
him a cold, and the least sun was sure to throw him
into a fever. Instead of playing about, and jumping
and running like other children, he was taught to sit
still for fear of spoiling his clothes, and to stay in the
house for fear of injuring his complexion. By this kind
of education, when Master Merton came over to Eng-
land, he could neither write, nor read, nor cipher; he
could use none of his limbs with ease, nor bear any
degree of fatigue; but he was very proud, fretful, and
impatient.





SANDFORD AND MERTON 371
of the maritime cities of Asia, of opulent parents, who
died while I was yet a youth. The loss of my parents
made so deep an impression on my mind, that I deter-
mined to seek relief in travel. The first place which I
visited was Egypt; and, after spending a long time
there, my curiosity led me to visit the neighboring
tribes of Arabia. I passed several months among
them, delighted with the simplicity of their life and
the innocence of their manners; and would to hea-
ven," added he, with a sigh, that I had accepted their
friendly invitations, and never quitted the silence of
their hospitable deserts How many scenes should I
have avoided which fill these aged eyes with tears, and
pierce my soul with horror as often as I recollect them!
I should not have been witness to such a waste of
human blood, nor traced the gradual ruin of my coun-
try. I should not have seen our towns involved in
flames, nor our helpless children the captives of fell
barbarians. But it is in vain for human beings to re-
pine at the just decrees of Providence, which have
consigned every people to misery and servitude that
abandon virtue, and attach themselves to the pursuit
of pleasure.
"6 I left Arabia, with a heart penetrated with grati-
tude and admiration for its virtuous and benevolent
inhabitants. They dismissed me with every mark of
kindness and hospitality, guided me over their dreary
deserts, and at parting presented me with one of those
beautiful horses which are the admiration of all the
surrounding nations. (I will not trouble you with an
account of the different countries which I wandered
over in search of wisdom and experience.) At length
I returned to my native city, determined to pass the
rest of my life in obscurity and retirement; for the
result of all my observations was, that he is happiest
who passes his time in innocent employment and the





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 145
and a generous mind would at any time rather spare
an enemy than destroy him."
While they were conversing in this manner, they
beheld a crowd of women and children running away
in the greatest trepidation ; and, looking behind them,
saw that one of the bears had broken his chain, and
was running after them, growling all the time in a very
disagreeable manner.-Mr. Barlow, who had a good
stick in his hand, and was a man of an intrepid charac-
ter, perceiving this, bade his pupils remain quiet; and
instantly ran up to the bear, who stopped in the middle
of his career, and seemed inclined to attack Mr. Barlow
for his interference : but this gentleman struck him
two or three blows, rating him at the same time in a
loud and severe tone of voice, and seizing the end of
the chain with equal boldness and dexterity, the ani-
mal quietly submitted, and suffered himself to be taken
prisoner. Presently the keeper of the bear came up;
into whose hands Mr. Barlow consigned him, charging
him for the future to be more careful in guarding so
dangerous a creature.
While this was doing, the boys had remained quiet
spectators at a distance : but, by accident, the monkey,
who used to be perched upon the head of the bear, and
was shaken off when the beast broke loose, came run-
ning that way, playing a thousand antic grimaces as he
passed. Tommy, who was determined not to be out-
done by Mr. Barlow, ran very resolutely up, and seized
a string, which was tied round the loins of the animal :
but he, not choosing to be taken prisoner, instantly
snapped at Tommy's arm, and almost made his teeth
meet in the fleshy part of it. Yet Tommy, who was
now greatly improved in courage and the use of his
limbs, instead of letting his enemy escape, began
thrashing him very severely with the stick which he
had in his hand; till the monkey, seeing he had so





336 THIE HISTORY OF
of provisions, in the various animals which they kill
by the chase. When they are near their enemies, they
frequently lurk all day in thickets, for fear of a dis-
covery, and pursue their march by night. Hundreds
of them sometimes pursue their course in the same
line, treading only in each other's steps, and the last
of the party carefully covers over the impressions
which his fellows have made. When they are thus
upon the point of accomplishing their purpose, the
very necessities of nature are unheeded : they cease to
fire upon the beasts of the forest, lest it should alarm
the foe; they feed upon the roots or the bark of trees,
or pass successive days in a perfect abstinence from
food. All this our colonel represented to the general,
and conjured him, with the strongest entreaties, not to
hazard the safety of our army by an incautious pro-
gress. He advised him to send out numerous detach-
ments to beat the bushes and examine the woods: and
offered himself to secure the march of the army. But
presumption is always blind: our general was unac-
quainted with any other than European warfare, and
could not conceive that naked savages would dare to
attack an army of two thousand disciplined troops.
"One morning, the way before us appeared more
intricate and obscure than common; the forests did
not, as usual, consist of lofty trees, which afford a tol-
erably clear prospect between their trunks, but were
composed of creeping bushes and impervious thickets.
The army marched as usual, with the vain ostentation
of military discipline, but totally unprepared for the
dreadful scene which followed. At length we entered
a gloomy valley, surrounded on every side by the
thickest shade, and rendered swampy by the overflow-
ings of a little rivulet. In this situation it was impos-
sible to continue our march without disordering our
ranks; and part of the army extended itself beyond the





242 THE HISTORY OF

convinced of. The Greenlanders, for instance, see that
the Europeans who visit them are much inferior to
themselves in the art of managing a boat or catching
seals; in short, in everything which they find most
useful to support life. For this reason, they consider
them all with very great contempt, and look upon them
as little better than barbarians.
Tommy. That is very impertinent indeed; and I
should like to convince them of their folly.
Mr. Barlow. Why, do not you look upon yourself
as much superior to your black servants; and have I
not often heard you express great contempt for them ?
Tommy. I do not despise them now, so much as I
used to do. Besides, sir, I only think myself some-
thing better, because I have been brought up like a
gentleman.
Mr. Barlow. A gentleman! I have never exactly
understood what a gentleman is, according to your
notions.
Tommy. Why, sir, when a person is not brought up
to work, and has several people to wait upon him, like
my father and mother; then he is a gentleman.
Mr. Barlow. And then he has a right to despise
others, has he.
Tommy. I do not say that, sir, neither. But he is,
however, superior to them.
Mr. Barlow. Superior, in what? In the art of cul-
tivating the ground to raise food, and making clothes
or houses ?
Tommy. No, sir, not that; for gentlemen never
plough the ground or build houses.
Mr. Barlow. Is he then superior in knowledge ?
Were you, who have been brought up a gentleman,
superior to all the rest of the world, when you came
here ?
Tommy. To be sure, sir, when I came here, I did not
know as much as I do now.






834 THE HISTORY OF
they entertained us at a public festival in their cabins;
and, when we departed, dismissed us with these expres-
sive wishes: they prayed that the Great Spirit would
favour us with a prosperous voyage; that he would
give us an unclouded sky and smooth waters by day,
and that we might lie down at night on a beaver
blanket, enjoying uninterrupted sleep and pleasant
dreams; and that we might find continual protection
under the great pipe of peace. I have been thus par-
ticular (said the Highlander) in describing the circum
stances of this embassy, because you have not disdained
to hear the story of my adventures : and I thought that
this description of a people so totally unlike all you
have been accustomed to in Europe, might not prove
entirely uninteresting.'
"We are much obliged to you," said Mr. Barlow,
for all these curious particulars, which are perfectly
conformable to all I have heard and read upon the sub-
ject. Nor can I consider, without a certain degree of
admiration, the savage grandeur of man in his most
simple state. The passion for revenge, which marks
the character of all uncivilized nations, is certainly to
be condemned. But it is one of the constant prejudices
of their education; and many of those that call them-
selves refined, have more to blush at, in that respect,
than they are aware of. Few, I am afraid, even in the
most refined state of society, have arrived at that
sublime generosity, which is able to forgive the injuries
of his fellow-creatures, when it has the power to repay
them; and I see many around me that are disgraced
by the vices of uncivilized Americans, without a claim
to their virtues."
I will not fatigue your ears," continued the High-
lander, with the recital of all the events I was en-
gaged in during the progress of the war. The descrip-
tion of blood and carnage is always disagreeable to a





132 THE HISTORY OF

pounds to Richard Gruff "--" Alas!" answered the
man, "I do not know the exact sum: but when your
brother Peter failed, and his creditors seized all that
he had, this Richard Gruff was going to send him to
jail, had not I agreed to be bound for him; which en-
abled him to go to sea: he indeed promised to remit
his wages to me, to prevent my getting into any trouble
upon that account; but you know it is now three years
since he went; and in all that time, we have heard
nothing about him."---" Then," said the woman, burst-
ing into tears, "you and all your poor dear children are
ruined for my ungrateful brother; for here are two
bailiffs in the house, who are come to take possession
of all you have, and to sell it."
At this, the man's face became red as scarlet; and,
seizing an old sword which hung over the chimney, he
cried out, "No, it shall not be ;--I will die first ;-I will
make these villains know what it is to make honest
men desperate."-He then drew the sword, and was
going out in a fit of madness, which might have proved
fatal either to himself or to the bailiffs; but his wife
flung herself upon her knees before him, and, catching
hold of his legs, besought him to be more composed.-
Oh for heaven's sake, my dear, dear husband," said
she, consider what you are doing! You can do
neither me nor your children any service by this vio-
lence; instead of that, should you be so unfortunate as
to kill either of these men, would it not be murder ?
and would not our lot be a thousand times harder than
it is at present ?"
This remonstrance seemed to have some effect upon
the farmer: his children, too, although too young to
understand the cause of all this confusion, gathered
round him, and hung about him, sobbing in concert
with their mother. Little Harry, too, although a
stranger to the poor man before, yet with the tenderest





246 THE HISTORY OF
is capable of producing the greatest change, as I will
immediately prove to you." Mr. Barlow then took a
small earthen basin, and, putting a half-crown at the
bottom, desired Tommy gradually to go back, still look-
ing at the basin, till he could distinguish the piece of
money no longer. Tommy accordingly retired, and
presently cried out, that "he had totally lost sight of
the money;"-" Then," said Mr. Barlow, "I will enable
you to see it, merely by putting water into it." So he
gradually poured water into the basin, till, to the new
astonishment of Tommy, he found that he could plainly
see the half-crown, which was before invisible.
Tommy was wonderfully delighted with all these
experiments, and declared, that from this day for-
ward, he would never rest till he had made himself
acquainted with everything curious in every branch of
knowledge.
"I remember reading a story," said Mr. Barlow,
"where a telescope (for that is the name of the glass
which brings distant objects so much nearer to the eye,)
was used to a very excellent purpose indeed."-" Pray
how was that ?" said Tommy.
"In some part of Africa," said Mr. Barlow, "there
was a prince, who was attacked by one of his most
powerful neighbours, and almost driven out of his
dominions. He had done everything he could to defend
himself, with the greatest bravery; but was over-
powered by the numbers of his enemy, and defeated
in several battles. At length he was reduced to a
very small number of brave men, who still accompanied
him, and had taken possession of a steep and difficult
hill, which he determined to defend to the last extre-
mity; while the enemy was in possession of all the
country around. While he lay with his little army in
this disagreeable situation, he was visited by an Euro-
pean, whom he had formerly received and treated with





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 55
stick, but I dodged, and so it fell upon my shoulder;
and he was going to strike me again, but I darted at
him, and knocked him down, and then he began blub-
bering, and begged me not to hurt him.-Mr. B. It is
not uncommon for those who are most cruel, to be at
the same time most cowardly : but what did you ?-H.
Sir, I told him, I did not want to hurt him; but that,
as he had meddled with me, I would not let him rise
till he had promised me not to hurt the poor beast
any more : which he did, and then I let him go about
hiis business.
You did very right," said Mr. Barlow; and I
suppose the boy looked as foolish, when he was rising,
as Tommy did the other day, when the little ragged
boy that he was going to beat, helped him out of the
ditch."-" Sir," answered Tommy, a little confused, I
should not have attempted to beat him, only he would
not bring me my ball."-Mr. B. And what right had
you to oblige him to bring your ball ?-.T. Sir, he was
a little ragged boy, and I am a gentleman.-Mr. B. So,
then, every gentleman has a right to command little
ragged boys ?-T. To be sure, sir.-Mr. B. Then if
your clothes should wear out and become ragged,
every gentleman will have a right to command you ?
Tommy looked a little foolish, and said, But he
might have done it, as he was on that side of the
hedge?.-Mr. B. And so he probably would have done
if you had asked him civilly to do it; but when per-
sons speak in a haughty tone, they will find few in-
clined to serve them. But as the boy was poor and
ragged, I suppose you hired him with money to fetch
your ball.-T. Indeed, sir, I did not; I neither gave him
anything, nor offered him anything.-Mr. B. Probably
you had nothing to give him ?- T. Yes, I had, though ;
I had all this money (pulling out several shillings).-
Mr. B. Perhaps the boy was as rich as you.-T. No, he






52 THE HISTORY OF
leisure for that purpose. He saw, as the lion approach.
ed him, that he seemed to limp upon one of his legs,
and that the foot was extremely swelled as if it had
been wounded. Acquiring still more fortitude from the
gentle demeanour of the beast, he advanced up to him,
and took hold of the wounded paw, as a surgeon would
examine a patient. He then perceived that a thorn of
uncommon size had penetrated the ball of the foot,
and was the occasion of the swelling and lameness
which he had observed. Androcles found that the
beast, far from resenting this familiarity, received it
with the greatest gentleness, and seemed to invite him
by his blandishments to proceed. He therefore ex-
tracted the thorn, and, pressing the swelling, discharged
a considerable quantity of matter, which had been the
cause of so much pain and uneasiness.
As soon as the beast felt himself thus relieved, he
began to testify his joy and gratitude by every expres-
sion within his power. He jumped about like a wanton
spaniel, wagged his enormous tail, and licked the feet
and hands of his physician. Nor was he contented
with these demonstrations of kindness : from this mo-
ment Androcles became his guest; nor did the lion
ever sally forth in quest of prey without bringing
home the produce of his chase, and sharing it with his
friend. In this savage state of hospitality did the man
continue to live during the space of several months;
at length, wandering unguardedly through the woods,
he met with a company of soldiers sent out to appre-
hend him, and was by them taken prisoner, and con-
ducted back to his master. The laws of that country
being very severe against slaves, he was tried, and
found guilty of having fled from his master, and, as a
punishment for his pretended crime, he was sentenced
to be torn in pieces by a furious lion, kept many days
without food, to inspire him with additional rage.





348 THE HISTORY OF
must either be favourable to Great Britain, or at least
indifferent to the war: and in either case, from the ex-
perience I possessed of the manners of the natives, I
did not think I had much to fear. I therefore deter-
mined to hazard everything upon the probability of a
favourable reception, and, collecting all my resolution,
I marched boldly forward, and soon arrived at the en-
campment.
As soon as I entered the village, the women and
children gathered round me with the curiosity natural
to mankind at the sight of an unaccustomed object. I
formed a favourable conjecture from this apparent
ignorance of Europeans, and walking on with a composed
step and steady countenance, I at length entered into
one of the largest cabins I could find. When I was
within, I saw a venerable old man, whom I took to be
a chief from his appearance, sitting at his ease upon
the ground, and smoking. I saluted him with all the
courtesy I was able, and placed myself upon the ground,
at some little distance, waiting with inward anxiety,
but external composure, for him to begin the conversa-
tion. After he had eyed me for some time with fixed
attention, but without either sternness or anger, he took
the pipe from his mouth, and presented it to me. I
received it with infinite satisfaction: for, as I have be-
fore remarked, this is always with the American tribes
the firmest pledge of peace and a friendly reception.
"When we had thus been seated for some time in
mutual contemplation of each other, he asked me, in a
dialect which I understood tolerably well, to eat. I did
not think it prudent to refuse any offered civility, and
therefore accepted the offer; and, in a little time, a
young woman, who was in the back part of the hut;
set before me some broiled fish and parched maize,
After I had eaten, my friendly host inquired into my
country, and the reasons of my visit. I was just enough





218 THE HISTORY OF
As he approached nearer, and beheld the simple
manners of the Spartan king and his soldiers, he could
not help scoffing at their poverty, and making com-
parisons between their mean appearance and his own
magnificence. All that were with him, seemed to be
infinitely diverted with the wit and acute remarks of
their general, except a single person, who had served
in the Grecian armies, and therefore was better ac-
quainted with the manners and discipline of these
people. This man was highly valued by Pharnabazus,
for his understanding and honesty, and, therefore, when
he observed that he said nothing, he insisted upon his
declaring his sentiments as the rest had done.--" Since
then," replied he, "you command me to speak my opi-
nion, O Pharnabazus, I must confess that the very cir-
cumstance which is the cause of so much mirth to the
gentlemen that accompany you, is the reason of my
fears. On our side, indeed, I see gold, and jewels, and
purple, in abundance; but when I look for men, I can
find nothing but barbers, cooks, confectioners, fiddlers,
dancers, and everything that is most unmanly, and un-
fit for war: on the Grecian side, I discern none of these
costly trifles, but I see iron that forms their weapons,
and composes impenetrable arms. I see men who have
been brought up to despise every hardship, and face
every danger; who are accustomed to observe their
ranks, to obey their leader, to take every advantage of
their enemy, and to fall dead in their places rather
than to turn their backs. Were the contest about who
should dress a dinner, or curl hair with the greatest
nicety, I should not doubt that the Persians would gain
the advantage : but, when it is necessary to contend in
battle, where the prize is won by hardiness and valour,
I cannot help dreading men who are inured to wounds,
and labours, and suffering; nor can I ever think that
the Persian gold will be able to resist the Grecian
iron."






70 THE HISTORY OF
more of pickaxes, shovels, and various other tools for
digging, melting, and refining the gold he expected to
find, besides hiring an additional number of labourers
to assist him in the work. Alonzo, on the contrary,
bought only a few sheep, and four stout oxen, with
their harness, and food enough to subsist them till they
should arrive at land.
As it happened, they met with a favourable voyage;
and all landed in perfect health in America. Alonzo
then told his brother, that, as he had only come to ac-
company and serve him, he would stay near the shore
with his servants and cattle, while he went to search
for gold; and, when he had acquired as much as he
desired, should be always ready to embark for Spami
with him.
Pizarro accordingly set out,.not without feeling so
great a contempt for his brother, that he could not
help expressing it to his companions.-" I always
thought," said he, "that my brother had been a man
of sense; he bore that character in Spain, but I find
people were strangely mistaken in him. Here he is
going to divert himself with his sheep and his oxen,
as if he was living quietly upon his farm at home, and
had nothing else to do than to raise cucumbers and
melons. But we know better what to do with our time :
so come along, my lads, and if we have but good luck,
we shall soon be enriched for the rest of our lives."
-All that were present applauded Pizarro's speech,
and declared themselves ready to follow wherever he
went; only one old Spaniard shook his head as he
went, and told him he doubted whether he would find
his brother so great a fool as he thought.
They then travelled on several days' march into the
country, sometimes obliged to cross rivers, at others to
pass mountains and forests, where they could find no
paths; sometimes scorched by the violent heat of the





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 335

humane mind; and, though the perversity of mankind
may sometimes render war a necessary evil, the remem-
brance of its mischiefs is always painful. I will only
mention one event continually lamented in the annals
of this country, because it is connected with the un-
timely fate of my noble friend and gallant leader.
It was determined by those who governed, that we
should march through the woods upon a distant expe-
dition against the French. The conduct of this enter-
prise was given to a brave but rash commander, totally
unacquainted with the people he had to oppose, and
unskilled in the nature of a savage war; we therefore
began our march through the same trackless wilds I
have described; and proceeded for several days with-
out any other difficulties than the nature of the country
itself produced, and without seeing the face of an
enemy. It was in vain that officers of the greatest
experience, and particularly my worthy colonel, sug-
gested to our commander the necessity of using every
precaution against a dangerous and insidious foe.
War is not managed, amid the forests of America,
in the same manner as it is conducted upon the plains
of Europe. The temper of the people there conspires
with the nature of the country to render it a continual
scene of stratagems and surprise. Unincumbered with
tents, or baggage, or numerous trains of artillery, the
hostile warriors set out in small and chosen parties,
with nothing but their arms, and are continually upon
the watch to deceive their enemies. Long experience
has taught them a degree of sagacity in traversing the
woods, which to us is inconceivable. Neither the
widest rivers, nor the most extensive forests, can re-
tard them for an instant. A march of a thousand miles
is scarcely to them a greater difficulty than the passage
of an European army between two neighboring towns.
The woods themselves afford them a continual supply





284 THE HISTORY OF

Why, madam," answered Harry, since you are so
good as to talk to me upon the subject, I must confess
that I have been very much surprised at many things
I have seen at Mr. Merton's. All these young ladies
and gentlemen are continually talking about genteel
life and manners; and yet they are frequently doing
things which surprise me. Mr. Barlow has always
told me that politeness consisted in a disposition to
oblige everybody around us, and to say or do nothing
which can give them disagreeable impressions. Yet I
continually see these young gentlemen striving to do
and say things, for no other reason than to give pain.
For, not to go any farther than the present instance,
what motive can Masters Compton and Mash have had,
but to mortify you by giving you such a partner ; you,
madam, too, who are so kind and good to everybody,
that I should think it impossible not to love you ?"
"Harry," answered the young lady, what you say
about politeness is perfectly just: I have heard my
uncle and many sensible people say the same : but, in
order to acquire this species of it, both goodness of
heart and a just way of thinking are required; and
therefore many people content themselves with aping
what they can pick up in the dress, or gestures, or cant
expressions of the higher classes: just like the poor
ass, which, drest in the skin of a lion, was taken for the
lion himself, till his unfortunate braying exposed the
cheat."
But now their attention was called towards the com-
pany, who had ranged themselves by pairs for country-
dancing. Miss Simmons, who was very fond of this
exercise, then asked Harry, if he had never practised
any of these dances ? Harry said, It had happened
to him three or four times at home: and, that he
believed he should not be puzzled about any of the
figures?.-" Well then," said the young lady. "to show






154 THE HISTORY OF

cat has killed, was never guilty of such a cruelty.
Mr. Barlow. I will not answer for that. Let us ob-
serve what they live upon in the fields; we shall then
be able to give a better account.
Mr. Barlow then went to the window, and desired
Tommy to come to him, and observe a Robin which
was then hopping upon the grass with something in its
mouth, and asked him what he thought it was.
Tommy. I protest, sir, it is a large worm. And now
he has swallowed it! I should never have thought
that such a pretty bird could have been so cruel.
Mr. Barlow. Do you imagine that the bird is con-
scious of all that is suffered by the insect ?
Tommy. No, sir.
Mr. Barlow. In him, then, it is not the same cruelty
which it would be in you, who are endowed with rea-
son and reflection. Nature has given him a propensity
for animal food, which he obeys in the same manner as
the sheep and ox when they feed upon grass, or the
ass when he browses upon the furze or thistles.
Tommy. Why, then, perhaps the cat did not know
the cruelty she was guilty of in tearing that poor bird
to pieces ?
Mr. Barlow. No more than the bird we have just
seen is conscious of his cruelty to the insect. The na-
tural food of cats consists in rats, mice, birds, and such
small animals as they can seize by violence, or catch
by craft. It was impossible she should know the value
you set upon your bird, and therefore she had no more
intention of offending you, than had she caught a
mouse.
Tommy. But if that is the case, should I have another
tame bird, she would kill it as she has done this poor
fellow.
Mr. Barlow. That, perhaps, may be prevented;-
I have heard people that deal in birds affirm there





190 THE HISTORY OF
had reached the heath the evening grew extremely
dark.
Tommy. And was not you frightened to find your-
self all alone upon such a dismal place ?
Harry. No; I knew the worst that could happen
would be that I should stay there all night: and as
soon as ever the morning shone, I should have found
my way home. But, however, by the time that I had
reached the middle of the heath, there came on such a
violent tempest of wind, blowing full in my face, ac-
companied with such a shower, that I found it impos-
sible to continue my way. So I quitted the track,
which is never very easy to find, and ran aside to a
holly-bush that was growing at some distance, in order
to seek a little shelter. Here I lay, very conveniently,
till the storm was almost over ; then I rose, and at-
tempted to continue my way; but, unfortunately, I
missed the track, and lost myself.
Tommy. That was a very dismal thing indeed.
Harry. I wandered about a great while ; but still to
no purpose. I had not a single mark to direct me, be-
cause, the common is so extensive, and so bare either
of trees or houses, that one may walk for miles and see
nothing but heath and furze. Sometimes I tore my
legs in scrambling through great thickets of furze; now
and then I plumped into a hole full of water, and should
have been drowned if I had not learned to swim: so
that at last, I was going to give it up in despair, when
looking on one side, I saw a light at a little distance,
which seemed to be a candle and lantern that some-
body was carrying across the moor.
Tommy. Did not that give you very great comfort ?
"You shall hear," answered Harry, smiling.-" At
first I was doubtful whether I should go up to it; but
I considered that it was not worth anybody's pains to
hurt a poor boy like me, and that no person who was





366 THE HISTORY OF

himself for the civilities he had shown you ? Was that
right ?
Harry. Oh dear sir, I have cried about it several
times, for I think it must appear very rude and un-
grateful to Mr. Merton. But as to Master Tommy, I
did not leave him while I thought I could be of any
use. He treated me, I must say, in a very unworthy
manner ; he joined with all the other fine little gentle-
men in abusing me, only because I endeavoured to
persuade them not to go to a bull-baiting; and then at
last he struck me. I did not strike him again, because
I loved him so much, in spite of all his unkindness ;
nor did I leave him, till I saw he was quite safe in the
hands of his own servants. And, then, how could I go
back to his house, after what he had done to me ? I
did not choose to complain of him to Mr. Merton; and
how could I behave to him as I had done before, with-
out being guilty of meanness and falsehood? And,
therefore, I thought it better to go home, and desire
you to speak to Mr. Merton, and entreat him to forgive
my rudeness.
Mr. Barlow. Well, Harry, I can inform you that Mr.
Merton is perfectly satisfied on that account. But
there is one circumstance you have not mentioned, my
little friend, and that is your saving Tommy's life from
the fury of the enraged bull.
Harry. As to that, sir, I hope I should have done
the same for any human creature. But I believe that
neither of us would have escaped, if it had not been
for the poor courageous Black that came to our assist-
ance.
Mr. Barlow. I see, Harry, that you are a boy of a
noble and generous spirit, and I highly approve of
everything you have done; but, are you determined to
forsake Tolnmmy Merton forever, because he has once
behaved ill ?






48 THE HISTORY OF
him. The little boy, without taking any notice of what
was said, walked on, and left the ball; upon which,
Tommy called out more loudly than before, and asked
if he did not hear what was said ?-" Yes," said the boy,
" for the matter of that, I am not deaf."-" Oh are
you not?" replied Tommy; "then bring me my ball
directly."-" I don't choose it," said the boy.-" Sirrah,"
said Tommy, "If I come to you, I shall make you
choose it."-" Perhaps not, my pretty little master,"
said the boy.-" You little rascal," said Tommy, who
now began to be very angry, "if I come over the hedge,
I will thrash you within an inch of your life." To this
the other made no answer but by a loud laugh; which
provoked Tommy so much, that he clambered over the
hedge, and jumped precipitately down, intending to
have leaped into the field; but unfortunately his foot
slipped, and down he rolled into a wet ditch, which was
full of mud and water; there poor Tommy tumbled
about for some time, endeavouring to get out; but it
was to no purpose, for his feet stuck in the mud, or
slipped off from the bank: his fine waistcoat was dir-
tied all over, his white stockings covered with mire,
his breeches filled with puddle water; and, to add to
his distress, he first lost one shoe, and then the other;
his laced hat tumbled off from his head, and was com-
pletely spoiled. In this distress he must probably
have remained a considerable time, had not the little
ragged boy taken pity on him, and helped him out.
Tommy was so vexed and ashamed, that he could not
say a word, but ran home in such a dirty plight, that
Mr. Barlow, who happened to meet him, was afraid he
had been considerably hurt; but, when he heard the
accident which had happened, he could not help smil-
ing, and he advised Tommy to be more careful for
the future, how he attempted to thrash little ragged
boys.






36 THE HISTORY OF
bed borne upon the shoulders of men), he frequently
passed by the cottage of the poor basket-maker, who
was always sitting at the door, and singing as he wove
the baskets. The rich man could not behold this with-
out anger. "What !" said he, shall a wretch, a pea-
sant, a low-born fellow, that weaves bulrushes for a
scanty subsistence, be always happy and pleased, while
I, that am a gentleman, possessed of riches and power,
afid of more consequence than a million of reptiles like
him, am always melancholy and discontented." This
reflection arose so often in his mind, that at last he
began to feel the greatest degree of hatred towards the
poor man; and, as he had never been accustomed to
conquer his own passions, however improper or unjust
they might be, he at last determined to punish the
basket-maker for being happier than himself.
With this wicked design, he one night gave orders
to his servants (who did not dare to disobey him) to
set fire to the rushes which surrounded the poor man's
house. As it was summer, and the weather in that
country extremely hot, the fire soon spread over the
whole marsh, and not only consumed all the rushes,
but soon extended to the cottage itself, and the poor
basket-maker was obliged to run out almost naked, to
save his life.
You may judge of the surprise and grief of the poor
man when he found himself entirely deprived of his
subsistence by the wickedness of his rich neighbour,
whom he had never offended ; but, as he was unable
to punish him for this injustice, he set out and walked
on foot to the chief magistrate of that country, to whom,
with many tears, he told his pitiful case. The magis-
trate, who was a good and just man, immediately or-
dered the rich man to be brought before him: and
when he found that he could not deny the wickedness
of which he was accused, he thus spoke to the poor





SANDFORD AND MERTON 261
excellent character, accompanied, however, with some
dispositions, which disqualified her almost as much as
Harry for fashionable life. She was acquainted with
all the best authors in our own language, nor was she
ignorant of those in French, although she could not
speak the language. Her uncle, who was a man of
sense and knowledge, had besides instructed her in
several parts of knowledge, which rarely fall to the lot
of ladies, such as the established laws of nature, and a
small degree of geometry. She was, besides, brought
up to every species of household employment, which
is now exploded by ladies in every rank and station, as
mean and vulgar; and taught to believe that domestic
economy is a point of the utmost consequence to every
woman who intends to be a wife or mother. As to
music, though Miss Simmons had a very agreeable
voice, and could sing several simple songs in a very
pleasing manner, she was entirely ignorant of it; her
uncle used to say, that human life is not long enough
to throw away so much time upon the science of making
a noise. I have never seen any good" he would say,
from the importation of foreign manners; every vir-
tue may be learned and practised at home; and it is
only because we do not choose to have either virtue or
religion among us, that so many adventurers are yearly
sent out to smuggle foreign graces. As to various
languages, I do not see the necessity of them for a
woman. My niece is to marry an Englishman, and to
live in England. To what purpose then sl.ould I labour
to take off the difficulty of conversing with foreigners,
and to promote her intercourse with barbers, valets,
dancing-masters, and adventurers of every description,
that are continually doing us the honour to come among
us ? As to the French nation, I know and esteem it on
many accounts; but I am very doubtful whether the
English will ever gain much by adopting either their
17






318 THE HISTORY OF

fear could inspire, from the pursuit of a large dog;
and just as Tommy approached, the dog had overtaken
a lamb, and seemed disposed to devour it. Tommy
was naturally an enemy to all cruelty, and, therefore,
running towards the dog, with more alacrity than pru-
dence, he endeavoured to drive him from his prey; but
the animal, wlio probably despised the diminutive size
of his adversary, after growling a little while and show-
ing his teeth, when he found that this was not sufficient
to deter him from intermeddling, entirely quitted the
sheep, and, making a sudden spring, seized upon the
skirt of Tommy's coat, which he shook with every
expression of rage. Tommy behaved with more intre-
pidity than could have been expected; for he neither
cried out, nor attempted to run, but made his utmost
efforts to disengage himself from his enemy. But as the
contest was so unequal, it is probable he would have
been severely bitten had not the honest stranger, whom
he had relieved, come running up to his assistance, and,
seeing the danger of his benefactor, laid the dog dead
at his feet by a furious stroke of his broadsword.
Tommy, thus delivered from impending danger,
expressed his gratitude to the stranger in the most
affectionate manner, and desired him to accompany
him to his father's house, where he and his wearied
children should receive whatever refreshment they
wished. He then turned his eyes to the lamb which
had been the cause of the contest, and lay panting upon
the ground, bleeding and wounded, but not to death,
and remarked, with astonishment, upon his fleece, the
well-known characters of H. S., accompanied with a
cross. "As I live," said Tommy, "I believe this is the
very lamb which Harry used to be so fond of, and
which would sometimes follow him to Mr. Barlow's. I
am the luckiest fellow in the world, to have come in
time to deliver him; and now, perhaps, Harry may





338 THE HISTORY OF

exposed to equal danger; those who kept their rank,
and endeavoured to repel the enemy, exposed their
persons to their fire, and were successively shot down,
as happened to most of our unfortunate officers: while
those who fled frequently rushed headlong upon the
very death they sought to avoid.
Pierced to the heart at the sight of such a carnage
of my gallant comrades, I grew indifferent to life, and
abandoned myself to despair; but it was a despair that
neither impaired my exertions, nor robbed me of the
faculties of my mind. Imitate me," I cried, "my gal-
lant countrymen, and we shall yet be safe." I then
directly ran to the nearest tree, and sheltered myself
behind its stem ; convinced that this precaution alone
could secure me from the incessant vollies which darted
on every side. A small number of Highlanders fol-
lowed my example, and, thus secured, we began to fire
with more success at the enemy, who now exposed
themselves with less reserve. This check seemed to
astonish and confound them, and, had not the panic
been so general, it is possible that this successful effort
might have changed the fortune of the fight, for, in
another quarter, the provincial troops that accompanied
us behaved with the greatest bravery, and, though de-
serted by the European forces, effected their own re-
treat.
"But it was now too late to hope for victory or even
safety; the ranks were broken on every side, the greater
part of our officers slain or wounded, and our unfortu-
nate general himself had expiated with his life his fatal
rashness. I cast my eyes around, and saw nothing but
images of death, and horror, and frantic rage. Yet even
then the safety of my noble colonel was dearer to me
than my own. I sought him for some time in vain,
amid the various scenes of carnage which surrounded
me. At length I discovered him at a distance, almost





68 THE HISTORY OF
what is it you intend doing with it ?-" Why, sir," said
Tommy, "I intend to send it to the mill that we saw,
and have it ground into flour; and then I will get you
to show me how to make bread of it; and then I will
sat it, that I may tell my father that I have eaten
bread out of corn of my own sowing."-" That will be
very well done," said Mr. Barlow; "but where will
be the great goodness that you sow corn for your own
eating ? that is no more than all the people round con-
tinually do; and if they did not do it, they would be
obliged to fast."-" But then," said Tommy, "they are
not gentlemen as I am."-" What then," answered Mr.
Barlow, "must not gentlemen cat as well as others,
and therefore is it not for their interest to know how
to procure food as well as other people ?"-" Yes, sir,"
answered Tommy; but they can have other people to
raise it for them, so that they are not obliged to work
for themselves." "How does that happen ?" said Mr.
Barlow.-Tomm2y. Why, sir, they pay other people to
work for them, or buy bread when iL is made, as much
as they want.-Mr. B. Then they pay for it with
money ?-T. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. Then they must have
money before they can buy corn ?-T. Certainly, sir.-
Mr. B. But have all gentlemen money ?-Tommy hesi-
tated some time at this question : at last he said, "I
believe not always, sir.--Mr. B. Why, then, if they
have not money, they will find it difficult to procure
corn, unless they raise it for themselves.-" Indeed,"
said Tommy, "I believe they will; for perhaps they
may not find anybody good-natured enough to give it
them."-" But," said Mr. Barlow, "as we are talking
upon this subject, I will tell you a story that I read a
little time past, if you choose to hear it.--Tommy said
he should be very glad if Mr. Barlow would take the
trouble of telling it to him; and Mr. Barlow told him
the following history of





02 TH E HISTORY OF

quences."-" Indeed," said Mr. Barlow, "I see you have
been very ill-treated, but I hope you are not hurt;
and, if it is owing to anything I have said, I shall feel
the more concern."'-"No," said Tommy, "I cannot say
that I am much hurt."-" Why then," said Mr. Barlow,
"you had better go and wash yourself; and, when you
are clean, we will talk over the affair together."
When Tommy had returned, Mr. Barlow asked him
how the accident had happened ? and when he had
heard the story, he said, I am very sorry for your
misfortune: but I do not perceive that I was the cause
of it : for I do not remember that I ever advised you
to catch pigs by the hinder legs."-Tommy. No, sir;
but you told me, that feeding animals was the way to
make them love me; and so I wanted to feed the pig.
-Mr. B. But it was not my fault that you attempted
it in a wrong manner. The animal di.' not know your
intentions, and therefore, when you seized him in so
violent a manner, he naturally attempted to escape;
and his mother, hearing his cries, very naturally came
to his assistance. All that happened was owing to
your inexperience. Before you meddle with any ani-
mal, you should make yourself acquainted with his
nature and disposition; otherwise, you may fare like
the little boy, that, in attempting to catch flies, was
stung by a wasp; or like another, that seeing an adder
sleeping upon a bank, took it for an eel, and was bitten
by it; which had nearly cost him his life.--T. But
sir, I thought Harry had mentioned a little boy that
used to feed a snake without receiving any hurt from
it.-Mr. B. That might very well happen; there is
scarcely any creature that will do hurt, unless it is
attacked or wants food; and some of these reptiles are
entirely harmless, others not: therefore the best way,
is not to meddle with any till you are perfectly ac-
quainted with its nature. Had you observed this rule










,Il k












4i.


















































ANDR CLES AND THE L N
t/--
q, *C. ..






110 THE HISTORY OF
who was frightened at the noise, began galloping with
all his might, and presently bore him from the reach
of his enemies. But he had but little reason to rejoice
at this escape, for he found it impossible to stop the
animal, and was every instant afraid of being thrown
off, and dashed upon the ground. After he had been
thus hurried along a considerable time, the ass on a
sudden stopped short at the door of a cottage, and be-
gan kicking and prancing with so much fury, that the
little Boy was presently thrown to the ground, and
broke his leg in the fall. His cries immediately brought
the family out, among whom was the very little girl
he had used so ill in the morning. But she, with the
greatest good-nature, seeing him in such a pitiable
situation, assisted in bringing him in, and laying him
upon the bed. There this unfortunate Boy had leisure
to recollect himself, and reflect upon his own bad be-
haviour, which in one day's time had exposed him to
such a variety of misfortunes; and he determined with
great sincerity, that, if ever he recovered from his
present accident, he would be as careful to take every
opportunity of doing good, as he had before been to
commit every species of mischief.
When the story was ended, Tommy said it was very
surprising to see how differently the two little boys
fared.-The one little boy was good-natured; and there-
fore everything he met, became his friend, and assisted
him in return: the other, who was ill-natured, made
everything his enemy, and therefore he met with
nothing but misfortunes and vexations, and nobody
seemed to feel any compassion for him, excepting the
poor little girl that assisted him at last; which was
very kind indeed of her, considering how ill she had
been used.
That is very true, indeed," said Mr. Barlow, no-
body is loved in this world, unless he loves others and





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 195
his effects, were thus buried, he fainted away; but, soon
reviving, got safe to a friend's house at some distance.
Five days after, Joseph, being perfectly recovered,
got upon the snow, with his son and two of his wife's
brothers, to try if he could find the exact place where
his house stood; but after many openings made in the
snow, they could not discover it. The month of April
proving hot, and the snow beginning to soften, he again
used his utmost endeavours to recover his effects, and
to bury, as he thought, the remains of his family. He
made new openings, and threw in earth to melt the
snow, which, on the 24th of April, was greatly dimin-
ished. He broke through ice six English feet thick,
with iron bars, thrust down a long pole and touched the
ground; but, evening coming on, he desisted.
"The next day, the brother of his wife, who had heard
of the misfortunes of the family, came to the house
where Joseph was; and, after resting himself a little,
went with him to work upon the snow, where they
made another opening, which led them to the house
they searched for; but, finding no dead bodies in its
ruins, they sought for the stable, which was about two
hundred and forty English feet distant; which having
found, they heard the cry of Help, my dear brother !'
Being greatly surprised as well as encouraged by these
words, they laboured with all diligence till they had
made a large opening, through which the brother im-
mediately went down, where the sister, with an agoniz-
ing and feeble voice, told him, 'I have always trusted
in God and you, that you would not forsake me.' The
other brother and the husband then went down, and
found, still alive, the wife about forty-five, the sister
about thirty-five, and the daughter about thirteen years
old. These they raised on their shoulders to men
above, who pulled them up as if from the grave, and
carried them to a neighboring house: they were un-





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 255
plunged into the middle, with his charioteer behind
him. The crowd of spectators had now a fresh subject
of diversion ; and all their respect for Master Tommy
could not hinder them from bursting into shouts of
derision. The unfortunate hero was equally discom-
posed at the unmannerly exultation of his attendants,
and at his own ticklish situation. But he did not long
wait for the catastrophe of his adventure : for, after a
little floundering about in the pond, Caesar by a vigor-
ous exertion overturned the chair, and Tommy came
roughly into the water. To add to his misfortune, the
pond was at that time neither ice nor water; for a sud-
den thaw had commenced the day before, accompanied
with a copious fall of snow. Tommy, therefore, as
soon as he had recovered his footing, floundered on
through mud and water, and pieces of floating ice, like
some amphibious animal, to the shore. Sometimes his
feet slipped, and down he tumbled; then he struggled
up again, shaking the water from his hair and clothes ;
now his feet stuck fast in the mud, and now by a des-
perate effort he disengaged himself with the loss of both
his shoes : thus labouring on, with infinite pain and
difficulty, he reached the land. The whole troop of
spectators were now incapable of stifling their laughter,
which broke forth in such redoubled peals, that the
unfortunate hero was irritated to an extreme of rage;
so that, forgetting his own sufferings and necessities,
as soon as he had struggled to the shore, he fell upon
them in a fury, and dealt his blows so liberally on
every side, that he put the whole company to flight.
Tommy was now in the situation of a warrior that pur-
sues a routed army. Dismay and terror scattered all
his little associates a hundred different ways; while
passion and revenge animated him to the pursuit, and
made him forgetful of the wetness of his clothes, and
the uncomfortableness of his situation. Whatever un-





SANDFORD AND MERTON 389
the neighboring nations crowded to our ports, at-
tracted by the order and justice which were enforced
in every part of Arsaces' dominions: and even the van-
quished themselves, defended from oppression and
protected in their possessions, considered the success
of the Scythians rather as a salutary revolution than as
a barbarian conquest.
Such was the pleasing prospect of affairs, when an
unexpected disease, the consequence of unremitted
exertions, put an end to the glorious life of our con-
queror; and with him perished all hopes of safety or
happiness to the Syrians. His authority alone was
capable of restraining so many needy chieftains, so
many victorious barbarians: the spirit of rapine and
plunder, so long represt, began now to spread through
all the army: every officer was an independent tyrant,
that ruled with despotic authority, and punished, as
rebellion, the least opposition to his will. The fields
were now ravaged, the cities plundered, the industrious
peasants driven away like herds of cattle, to labour for
the caprice of unfeeling masters, or sold in distant re-
gions as slaves. Now it was that the miserable and
harassed Syrians began to find, that the riches which
they so much esteemed *ere but the causes of their
ruin, instead of being instrumental to their safety. The
poor, accustomed to hardship, have little to fear amid
the vicissitudes of life; the brave can always find a
refuge in their own valour; but all the bitterness of
existence is reserved for those who have neither cour-
age to defend what they most value, nor fortitude to
bear the loss.
"To increase the weight of our misfortunes, new
tribes of barbarians, attracted by the success of their
countrymen, issued from their deserts, and hastened
to share the spoil. But rapine admits not faith or
partnership; and it was not long before the vanquished
25





SANDFORD AND MERTON 311
Tommy. Yes, sir, but that was only for my amuse-
ment; it was not intended for anybody to live in.
Mr. Barlow. So you still think it is the first qualifi-
cation of a gentleman never to do anything useful; and
he that does anything with that design ceases to be a
gentleman ?
Tommy looked a little ashamed at this; but he said
it was not so much his own opinion, as that of the other
young ladies and gentlemen with whom he had con-
versed.
But," replied Mr. Barlow, "you asked just now,
which were the best, the rich or the poor ? But if the
poor provide food and clothing, and houses, and every-
thing else, not only for themselves, but for all the rich,
while the rich do nothing at all, it must appear that
the poor are better than the rich.
Tommy. Yes, sir; but then the poor do not act in
that manner out of kindness, but because they are
obliged to it.
Mr. Barlow. That, indeed, is a better argument than
you sometimes use. But tell me which set of people
would you prefer; those that are always doing use-
ful things because they are obliged to it, or those
who never do anything useful at all ?
Tommy. Indeed, sir, I hardly know what to say: but,
when I asked the question, I did not so much mean the
doing useful things. But now I think on't, the rich do
a great deal of good, by buying the things of the poor,
and giving them money in return.
Mr. Barlow. What is money ?
-Tommy. Money, sir, money is I believe, little
pieces of silver and gold, with a head upon them.
Mr. Barlow. And what is the use of those little pieces
of silver and gold ?
Tommy. Indeed, I do not know that they are of any
use; but everybody has agreed to take them : and there-
fore you may buy with them whatever you want.






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 109
ing this, he lashed him more severely than before, in
spite of all his cries and protestations. At length,
thinking he had punished him enough, he turned him
out of the orchard,-bade him go home, and frighten
sheep again, if he liked the consequences.
The little Boy slunk away, crying very bitterly (for
he had been very severely beaten); and now began to
find that no one can long hurt others with impunity:
so he determined to go quietly home, and behave better
for the future.
But his sufferings were not yet at an end; for as he
jumped down from a stile, he felt himself very roughly
seized, and, looking up, found that he was in the power
of the lame beggar whom he had thrown upon his face.
It was in vain that he now cried, entreated, and begged
pardon : the man, who had been much hurt by his fall,
thrashed him very severely with his stick, before he
would part with him. He now again went on, crying
and roaring with pain, but at least expected to escape
without farther damage. But here he was mistaken;
for as he was walking slowly through a lane, just as he
turned a corner, he found himself in the middle of the
very troop of boys that he had used so ill in the morn-
ing. They all set up a shout as soon as they saw theii
enemy in their power without his dog, and began per-
secuting him a thousand various ways. Some pulled
him by the hair, others pinched him; some whipped
his legs with their handkerchiefs, while others covered
him with handfuls of dirt. In vain did he attempt to
escape; they were still at his heels, and, surrounding
him on every side, continued their persecutions. At
length, while he was in this disagreeable situation, he
happened to come up to the same jack-ass he had seen
in the morning, and, making a sudden spring, jumped
upon his back, hoping by these means to escape. The
boys immediately renewed their shouts, and the ass,





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 171
ing to his guest, "it is with inexpressible reluctance
that I contradict you; but wine would be at present a
mortal poison; therefore, please to content yourself,
for one night only, with a glass of this most excellent
and refreshing mineral water."
The gentleman was again compelled to submit, and
drank the water with a variety of strange grimaces.
After the cloth was removed, Signor Ramozini enter-
tained the gentleman with some agreeable and im-
proving conversation for about an hour, and then pro-
posed to his patient that he should retire to rest. This
proposal the gentleman gladly accepted, as he found
himself fatigued with his journey, and unusually dis-
posed to sleep. The Doctor then retired, and ordered
one of his servants to show the gentleman to his
chamber.
He was accordingly conducted into a neighboring
room, where there was little to be seen but a homely
bed, without furniture, with nothing to sleep upon but
a mattress almost as hard as the floor. At this, the
gentleman burst into a violent passion again: Villain !"
said he to the servant, "it is impossible your master
should dare to confine me to such a wretched dog-hole !
show me into another room immediately !"-" Sir" an-
swered the servant with profound humility, "I am
heartily sorry the chamber does not please you; but I
am morally certain I have not mistaken my master's
order; and I have too great a respect for you to think
of disobeying him in a point which concerns your pre-
cious life." Saying this, he went out of the room, and
shutting the door on the outside, left the gentleman to
his meditations. They were not very agreeable, at
first; however, as he saw no remedy, he undressed
himself and entered the wretched bed, where he pre-
sently fell asleep, while he was meditating revenge
upon the doctor and his whole family.





352 THE HISTORY OF

enemies thus circumvented and caught in a trap. The
Iroquese soon perceived the difficulty and danger of
escape. They, however, behaved with that extraordi-
nary composure which is the peculiar characteristic of
this people on every occasion. The lakes were at that
time frozen over, yet not so hard as to permit them to
effect a passage over the ice ; and though a thaw suc-
ceeded in a short time, it was equally impracticable to
pass by swimming, or on rafts. Three days, therefore,
the Iroquese remained quiet in this disagreeable situa-
tion ; and, as if they had nothing to apprehend, diverted
themselves all this time with fishing. On the fourth
morning, they judged the ice sufficiently dissolved to
effect their escape; and therefore, cutting down some
trees which grew upon the strait, they formed them
into rafts, and embarked their whole force. But this
could not be done without the knowledge of the Sau-
kies, who despatched a considerable body of warriors to
oppose their landing. It is unnecessary to relate all
the horrid particulars of the engagement which en-
sued; I will only mention that the Iroquese at length
effected their landing with the loss of half their num-
ber, and retreated precipitately to their own country,
leaving behind them all the furs and skins which they
had taken in their hunting. The share I had had in this
success, gained me the friendship of all the nation, and
they took their leave of me with every expression of
esteem, and a considerable present of valuable furs.
These, gentlemen, (with the exception of one adven-
ture, when I was attacked by three desperate-looking
fellows, two of whom I killed, and the other fled,) are
the most important and interesting events of my life;
and as I have already trespassed too long upon your
patience, I shall now hasten to draw my story to a con-
clusion. After this, I was employed in various parts of
America and the West Indies, during the rest of th"





400 THE HISTORY OF
tlemen that were lately here: I think it would have
made a great impression upon their minds, and would
have prevented their feeling so much contempt for
poor Harry, who is better and wiser than them all,
though he does not powder his hair, or dress so gen-
teelly.
"Tommy," said Mr. Merton, with a kind of con-
temptuous smile, "why should you believe that the
hearing of a single story would change the characters
of all your late friends, when neither the good instruc-
tions you have been so long receiving from Mr. Bar-
low, nor the intimacy you have had with Harry, were
sufficient to restrain your impetuous temper, or pre-
vent you from treating him in the shameful manner
you have done ?"
Tommy appeared very much abashed with his fa-
ther's rebuke. He hung down his head in silence a
considerable time; at length he faintly said:" Oh,
sir, I have, indeed, acted very ill; I have rendered
myself unworthy the affection of all my best friends;
but do not, pray do not give me up entirely. You
shall see how I will behave for the future: and if
ever I am guilty of the same faults again, I consent
that you shall abandon me for ever." Saying this he
silently stole out of the room, as if intent upon some
extraordinary resolution. His father observed his
motions, and, smiling, said to Mr. Barlow, What can
this portend ? This boy is changeable as a weather-
cock: every blast whirls him round and round upon
his centre, nor will he ever fix, I fear, in any direc-
tion."-'- At least," replied Mr. Barlow, "you have the
greatest reason to rejoice in his present impressions,
which are good and estimable : and I fear it is the lot
of most human beings to exhaust almost every species
of error before they fix in truth and virtue."
Tommy now entered the room, but with a remark-





58 THE HISTORY OF
scarcely reached below his middle, and was too tight
for him in every part; upon which, the great boy pro-
posed to the little boy to change coats with him, "be-
cause then," said he, "we shall be both exactly fitted;
for your coat is as much too big for you, as mine is too
little for me."-The little boy would not consent to
the proposal; on which, the great boy took his coat
away by force, and gave his own to the little boy in
exchange. While they were disputing upon this sub-
ject, I chanced to pass by, and they agreed to make
me judge of the affair. But I decided that the little
boy should keep the little coat, and the great boy the
great one; for which judgment my master punished
me.
"Why so 1" said Cyrus's father; was not the little
coat most proper for the little boy, and the large coat
for the great boy i"-" Yes, sir," answered Cyrus; but
my master told me, I was not made judge to examine
which coat best fitted either of the boys, but to decide,
whether it was just that the great boy should take
away the coat of the little one against his consent;
and therefore I decided unjustly, and deserved to be
punished.'

Just as the story was finished, they were surprised to
see a little ragged boy come running up to them, with
a bundle of clothes under his arm: his eyes were
black, as if he had been severely beaten, his nose was
swelled, his shirt was bloody, and his waistcoat did but
just hang upon his back, so much was it torn. He
came running up to Tommy, and threw down the
bundle before him, saying, Here, master, take your
clothes again; and I wish that they had been at the
bottom of the ditch I pulled you out of, instead of
upon my back :-but I never will put such frippery on
again as long as I have breath in my body"





SANDFORD AND MERTON 321

attended with the most fatal consequences, the fracture
of his limbs, or even the loss of his life ; and desired
him for the future to be more cautious. They then re-
"turned to the house, and Mr. Merton ordered the ser-
vants to supply his guests with plenty of the most
nourishing food.
After breakfast they sent for the unhappy stranger
into the parlour, whose countenance now bespoke his
satisfaction and gratitude: and Mr, Merton, who, by his
dress and accent, discovered him to be an inhabitant of
Scotland, desired to know by what accident he had
thus wandered so far from home with these poor help-
less children, and had been reduced to so much misery?
Alas your honour," answered the man, "I should
ill deserve the favours you have shown me, if I at-
tempted to conceal anything from such worthy bene-
factors. My tale, however, is simple and uninteresting,
and I fear there can be nothing in the story of my dis-
tress, the least deserving of your attention."
"Surely," said Mr. Merton, with the most benevolent
courtesy, "there must be something in the distress of
every honest man which ought to interest his fellow-
creatures: and if you will acquaint us with all the cir-
cumstances of your situation, it may perhaps be within
our power, as it certainly is in our inclinations, to do
you farther service."
The man then bowed to the company with an air of
dignity which surprised them all; and thus began:---I
was born in the North of Scotland. The race of men
which inhabit these dreary wilds are accustomed to a
life of toil and hardship, their bodies are braced by the
incessant difficulties they have to encounter, and their
minds remain untainted by the example of their more
luxurious neighbours. These circumstances expand
and elevate the mind, and attach the highlanders to
their native mountains with a warmth of affection
W(





SANDFORD AND MERTON 285
how little I regard their intended mortification, I will
stand up, and you shall be my partner." So they rose,
and placed themselves at the bottom of the whole com-
pany, according to the laws of dancing, which appoint
that place for those who come last.
And now the music began to strike up in a more
joyous strain : the little dancers exerted themselves
with all their activity : and the exercise diffused a
glow of health and cheerfulness over the faces of the
most pale and languid. Harry exerted himself here with
much better success than he had lately done in the
minuet. He had great command over all his limbs,
and was very well versed in every play that gives ad-
dress to the body; so that he found no difficulty in
practising all the varied figures of the dances; particu-
larly with the assistance of Miss Simmons, who ex-
plained to him everything that appeared embarrassing.
But now, by the continuance of the dance, all who
were at first at the upper end had descended to the
bottom; where, by the laws of the diversion, they
ought to have waited quietly, till their companions,
becoming in their turn uppermost, had danced down
to their former places. But when Miss Simmons and
Harry expected to have had their just share of the
exercise, they found that almost all their companions
had deserted them, and retired to their places. Harry
could not help wondering at this behaviour; but Miss
Simmons told him with a smile, that it was only of a
piece with the rest : and that she had often remarked
it at country assemblies, where all the gentry of a
country had been gathered together. "This is fre-
quently the way," added she, "that those who think
themselves superior to the rest of the world, choose to
show their importance."--" This is a very bad way, in-
deed," replied Harry: "people may choose whether
they will dance or practise any particular diversion ;





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 393
of slaughter; they join to a courage, which defies every
danger, a knowledge of every fraud and subtility which
can confound or baffle an adversary. In bodily strength,
in numbers, your countrymen are superior; even in
courage, and the contempt of danger, they are probably
not inferior to their enemies; but such are the fatal
effects of military skill and discipline, that I dread the
event of a combat with such an army and such a
leader."
Alas !" answered Sophron, how well do the mature
reflections of your wisdom accord with my presaging
fears I know that my countrymen will perform every-
thing that can be effected by men in their situation,
and that thousands will generously sacrifice their lives
rather than abandon the cause they have undertaken to
defend; yet, when I consider the superior advantages
of our enemies, my fears are no less active than your
own. This consolation, however, remains, that I shall
either see my country victorious, or avoid the miseries
which will attend her ruin."
Hear me, then," replied Chares. "The virtues of
your friends, my own obligations to yourself, and the
desire I feel to oppose the career of mad ambition, con-
spire to wrest from me a dreadful secret, which I have
hitherto buried in my own bosom, and had determined
to conceal from the knowledge of mankind. I have
already told you that much of my life has been dedi-
cated to the acquisition of knowledge, and the investi-
gation of the laws of nature. Not contented with
viewing the appearance of things as they strike our
senses, I have endeavoured to penetrate into the
deeper recesses of nature, and to discover those secrets
which are concealed from the greater part of mankind.
For this purpose I have tried innumerable experiments
concerning the manner in which bodies act upon each
other: I have submitted the plants, the stones, the





THE HISTORY OF
preached the village ; where Tomnm laid out all his
money, amounting to fifteen shillings and sixpence, in
buying some clothes for the little ragg ed boy and his
brothers, which were made up in a bundle and given
to him : but he desired Harry to carry them for him.-
"That I will," said Harry ; "but why d don't you choose
to carry them yourself ?"-Tommy. Why, it is not fit for
a gentleman to carry things himself.-Harry. Why,
what hurt does it do him, if he is but strong enough ?
-T. I do not know ; but I believe it is that he may not
look like the common people.-H. Then he should not
have hands, or feet, or eyes, or ears, or mouth, because
the common people have the same.-T. No, no; he
must have all these because they are useful.-H. And
is it not useful to be able to do things for ourselves ?-
T. Yes; but gentlemen have others to do what they
want for them.-H. Then I should think it must be a
bad thing to be a gentleman.-T. Why so ?-H. Be-
cause if all were gentlemen, nobody would do anything,
and then we should be all starved.--T. Starved !-H.
Yes; why, you could not live, could you, without
bread ?-T. No, I know that very well.-H. And bread
is made of a plant that grows in the earth, and is called
wheat.-T. Why, then, I would gather it and eat it.-
H. Then you must do something for yourself: but that
would not do; for wheat is a small hard grain, like
the oats which you have sometimes given to Mr.
Barlow's horse; and you would not like to eat them.-
T7. No, certainly; but how comes bread then ?-H.
Why, they send the corn to the mill. -T What is a
mill ?--. What, did you never see a mill ?-T. No,
never; but I should like to see one, that I may know
how they make bread.-H, There is one at a little d s-
tance; and if you a.ask Mr. Barlow, he v-ill go with you,
for he knows the miller very well.-T. That I will, for
I should like to see them make bread.





420 THE HISTORY OF

pected shipwreck. All the day he chiefly hides him-
self in the water, and preys upon fish ; but, during the
gloom of night, he issues from the river, and invades
the fields of standing corn, which he would soon lay
desolate, were he not driven back by the shouts and
cries of those who are stationed to defend them.
"1 At this work I had assisted several successive
nights, till we were almost wearied with watching. At
length, one of the most enterprising of our young men
proposed, that we should no longer content ourselves
with driving back the enemy, but boldly attack him,
and punish him for his temerity. With this purpose,
we concealed ourselves in a convenient spot, till we had
seen one of the river-horses issue from the water, and
advance a considerable way into our plantations : then
we rushed from our hiding-place with furious shouts
and cries, and endeavoured to intercept his return : but
the beast, confiding in his superior strength, advanced
slowly on, snarling horribly, and gnashing his dreadful
tusks; and in this manner he opened his way through
the thickest of our battalions. In vain we poured upon
him on every side our darts and arrows, and every
missive weapon; so well defended was he in an im-
penetrable hide, that every weapon either rebounded
as from a wall, or glanced aside without in the least
annoying. At length, one of the boldest of our youth
advanced unguardedly upon him, and endeavoured to
wound him from a shorter distance; but the furious
beast rushed upon him with an unexpected degree of
swiftness, ripped up his body with a single stroke oi
his enormous tusk ; and then, seizing him in his furious
jaws, lifted up his mangled body as if in triumph, and
crushed him into a bleeding and promiscuous mass.
Fear instantly seized upon all our company ; all
involuntarily retreated, and seemed inclined to quit
the unequal combat; all but myself, who, inflamed





168 THE HISTORY OF
spring, they will enliven our walks by their agreeable
songs."
Tommy. How dreary.and uncomfortable is this sea-
son of winter; I wish it were always summer.
Mr. Barlow. In some countries it is so; but there
the inhabitants complain more of the intolerable heat
than you do of the cold. They would with pleasure
be relieved by the agreeable variety of cooler weather,
when they are panting under the violence of a scorcn-
ing sun.
Tommy. Then I should like to live in a country that
was never either disagreeably hot or cold.
Mr. Barlow. Such a country is scarcely to be found;
or if it is, it contains so small a portion of the earth, as
to leave room for very few inhabitants.
Tommy. Then I should think it would be so crowded,
that one would hardly be able to stir: for everybody
would naturally wish to live there.
Mr. Barlow. There you are mistaken; for the inha-
bitants of the finest climates are often less attached to
their own country than those of the worst. Custom
reconciles people to every kind of life, and makes them
equally satisfied with the place in which they are born.
There is a country called Lapland, which extends a
great deal farther north than any part of England;
which is covered with perpetual snows during all the
year; yet the inhabitants would not exchange it for
any other portion of the globe.
Tommy. How do they live in so disagreeable a
country ?
Mr. Barlow. If you ask Harry, he will tell you.
Being a farmer, it is his business to study the different
methods by which men find subsistence in all the dif-
ferent parts of the earth.
Tommy. I should like very much to hear; if Harry
will be so good as to tell me,






240 THE HISTORY OF
address to fish for themselves, and to be admitted into
the class of men.
Harry. Pray, sir, is this the country where men
travel about upon sledges that are drawn by dogs?
Tommy. Upon sledges drawn by dogs ? That must
be droll indeed; I had no idea that dogs could ever
draw carriages.
Mr. Barlow. The country you are speaking of is
called Kamtschatka; it is, indeed, a cold and dreary
country, but very distant from Greenland. The in-
habitants there train up large dogs, which they har-
ness to a sledge, upon which the master sits, and so
performs his journey along the snow and ice. All the
summer, the Kamtschatkans turn their dogs loose to
shift for themselves, and prey upon the remains of
fish, which they find upon the shore or the banks of
the rivers (for fish is the common food of all the in-
habitants); in the winter they assemble their dogs,
and use them for the purposes I have mentioned.
They have no reins to govern the dogs, or stop them
in their course; but the driver sits upon his sledge,
and keeps himself as steady as he is able, holding in
his hand a short stick, which he throws at the dogs if
they displease hin, and catches again with great dex-
terity as he passes. This way of travelling is not with-
out danger; for the temper of the dogs is such, that,
when they descend hills and slippery places, and pass
through woods where the driver is exposed to wound
himself with the branches and stumps, they always
quicken their pace. The same is observed in case their
master should fall off which they instantly discover by
the sudden lightness of the carriage : for then they set
off at such a rate, that it is difficult to overtake them.
The only remedy which the Kamtschatkan finds is, to
throw himself at his length upon the ground, and lay
hold on the empty sledge, suffering himself to be thus





422 THE HISTORY OF
from a burden which it is no longer destined to sustain.
Age is now creeping on; my blood begins to cool, my
sinews slacken, and I am no longer equal to the task of
supporting the glories of our race. That care shall
now be thine; and with a firmer hand shalt thou
henceforth use these weapons against the beasts of the
forest and the enemies of our country."
Such was the account which the Negro gave to
Tommy in different conversations, of his birth, and
education. His curiosity was gratified with the re-
cital, and his heart expanded in the same proportion
that his knowledge improved. He reflected, with
shame and contempt, upon the ridiculous prejudices
he had once entertained; he learned to consider all
men as his brethren and equals; and the foolish dis-
tinctions which pride had formerly suggested were
gradually obliterated from his mind. Such a change
in his sentiments rendered him more mild, more oblig-
ing, more engaging than ever; he became the delight
of all the family; and Harry, although he had always
loved him, now knew no limits to his affection.
One day Tommy was surprised by an unexpected
visit from his father, who met him with open arms,
and told him, that he was now come to take him back
to his own house. "I have heard," said he, "such an
account of your present behaviour, that the past is
entirely forgotten; and I begin to glory in owning you
for a son." He then embraced him with the transports
of an affectionate father who indulges the strongest
sentiments of his heart, but sentiments he had long
been forced to restrain.
Tommy returned his father's caresses with genuine
warmth, but with a degree of respect and humility he
had once been little accustomed to use. "I will ac-
company you home, sir," said he, "with the greatest
readiness; for I wish to see my mother, and hope to





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 71
to deprive you of the fruits of all your labours, which
you have acquired with so much toil and danger?
Rather may all the gold in the universe perish, than I
should be capable of such behaviour to my dearest
brother But I saw the rash, impetuous desire you
had of riches, and wished to correct this fault in you,
and serve you at the same time. You despised my
prudence and industry, and imagined that nothing
could be wanting to him that had once acquired wealth;
but you have now learned, that without that foresight
and industry, all the gold you have brought with you
would not have prevented you from perishing miser-
ably. .You are now, I hope, wiser : and therefore take
back your riches, which I hope you have now learned
to make a proper use of.'-Pizarro was equally filled
with gratitude and astonishment at this generosity of
his brother, and he acknowledged from experience,
that industry was better than gold. They then em-
barked for Spain, where they all safely arrived: dur-
ing the voyage, Pizarro often solicited his brother to
accept of half his riches, which Alonzo constantly
refused, telling him, that he that could raise food
enough to maintain himself, was in no want of gold.

Indeed," said Tommy, when Mr. Barlow had finish-
ed the story," I think Alonzo was a very sensible man;
and, if it had not been for him, his brother and all his
companions must have been starved; but then this was
only because they were in a desert uninhabited country.
This could never have happened in England; there
they could always have as much corn or bread as they
choose for their money."-" But," said Mr. Barlow, is
a man sure to be always in England, or some place
where he can purchase bread ?"-Tommy. I believe so,
sir.-M-r. B. Why, are there not countries in the world
where there are no inhabitants, and where no corn is





308 TIE HISTORY OF

mount beyond their fellows, they are stopped by some
unforeseen misfortune."--"For my part," said Tigranes,
" I had rather perish in the sky, than enjoy an age of
life, basely chained down and grovelling upon the sur-
face of the earth."-" What we either may enjoy," an-
swered Sophron,' "is in the hand of Heaven: but may
I rather creep during life, than mount to commit in-
justice and oppress the innocent !"
In this manner passed the early years of the two
friends. As they grew up to manhood, the difference
of their tempers became more visible, and gradually
alienated them from each other. Tigranes began to
despise the uniform labours of the shepherd, and the
humble occupations of the country; his sheep were
neglected, and frequently wandered over the plains
without a leader to guard them in the day, or bring
them back at night; and the greater part of his time
was employed in climbing rocks, or in traversing the
forest, to seek for eagles' nests, or in piercing with his
arrows the different wild animals which inhabit the
woods. If he heard the horn of the hunter, or the cry
of the hound, it was impossible to restrain his eager-
ness; he regarded neither the summer's sun nor the
winter's frost, while he was pursuing his game; the
thickest woods, the steepest mountains, the deepest
rivers, were unable to stop him in his career; and he
triumphed over every danger and difficulty with such
invincible courage, as made him at once an object of
terror and admiration to all the youth in the neighbour-
hood. His friend Sophron alone beheld his exploits
neither with terror nor admiration. Of all his com-
rades, Sophron was the only one whom Tigranes still
continued to respect: for he knew that, with a gentle-
ness of temper which scarcely anything could exaspe-
rate, he possessed the firmest courage, and a degree of
bodily strength which rendered that courage invincible.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 411
ance and application. You cannot imagine, that men
fit to command an army, or to give laws to a state,
were ever formed by an idle and effeminate education.
When the Roman people, oppressed by their enemies;
were looking out for a leader able to defend them, and
change the fortune of the war, where did they seek for
this extraordinary man ? It was neither at banquets,
nor in splendid palaces, nor amid the gay, the elegant,
nor the dissipated; they turned their steps towards a
poor and solitary cottage, such as the meanest of your
late companions would consider with contempt; there
they found Cincinnatus (whose virtues and abilities
were allowed to excel all the rest of his citizens) turning
up the soil with a pair of oxen, and holding the plough
himself. This great man had been inured to arms and
the management of public affairs, even from his infancy;
he had repeatedly led the Roman legions to victory:
yet, in the hour of peace, or when his country did not
require his services, he deemed no employment more
honourable than to labour for his own subsistence.
"4 What would all your late friends have said, to see
the greatest men in England, and the bravest officers
of the army, crowding round the house of one of those
obscure farmers you have been accustomed to despise,
and entreating him, in the most respectful language,
to leave his fields, and accept of the highest dignity in
the government or army? Yet this was actually the
state of things at Rome; and it was characters like
these, with all the train of severe and rugged virtues,
which elevated that people above all the other nations
of the world. And tell me, my little friend, since
chance, not merit, too frequently allots the situation
in which men are to act, had you rather, in a high sta-
tion, appear to all mankind unworthy of the advan.
tages you enjoy, or, in a low one, seem equal to the
most exalted employment by your virtues and abi-
lities "





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 65
As they were conversing in this manner, they heard
a great outcry, and, turning their heads, saw a horse
that was galloping violently along, and dragging his
rider along with him, who had fallen off, and, in falling,
hitched his foot in the stirrup. Luckily for the person,
it happened to be wet ground, and the side of a hill,
which prevented the horse from going very fast, and
the rider from being much hurt. But Harry, who was
always prepared to do an act of humanity, even with
the danger of his life, and, besides that, was a boy of
extraordinary courage and agility, ran up towards a
gap which he saw the horse approaching, and just as
he made a little pause before vaulting over, caught
him by the bridle, and effectually stopped him from
proceeding. In an instant, another gentleman came
up with two or three servants, who alighted from their
horses, disengaged the fallen person, and set him upon
his legs. He stared wildly around him for some time:
as he was not materially hurt, he soon recovered his
senses, and the first use he made of them, was to swear
at his horse, and to ask who had stopped the con-
founded jade ?--" Who ?" said his friend: "why, the
very little boy you used so scandalously this morn-
ing: had it not been for his dexterity and courage,
that numskull of yours would have had more flaws in
it than it ever had before."
The Squire considered Harry with a countenance in
which shame and humiliation seemed yet to struggle
with his natural insolence; but at length, putting his
hand into his pocket, he pulled out a guinea, which he
offered to Harry, telling him at the same time, he was
very sorry for what had happened; but Harry, with a
look of more contempt than he had ever been seen to
assume before, rejected the present, and, taking up
the bundle which he had dropped at the time he had
seized the Squire's horse, walked away, accompanied
by his companion.






206 THE HISTORY OF
made the least impression upon the wood."-" Say you
so ?" answered Harry, smilling, "then I believe I must
try another method;" so he stooped down, and picked
up a small piece of rough iron, about six inches long,
which Tommy had not observed before, as it lay upon
the ground. This iron was broad at the top, but gra-
dually sloped all the way down, till it came to a per-
fect edge at bottom. Harry then took it up, and with
a few blows drove it a little way into the body of the
root. The old man and he then struck alternately
with their mallets upon the head of the iron, till the
root began to gape and crack on every side, and the
iron was totally buried in the wood.
There," said Harry, this first wedge has done its
business very well; two or three more will finish it."
He then took up another larger wedge, and, inserting
the bottom of it between the wood and the top of the
former one, which was now completely buried in the
root, began to beat upon it as he had done before. The
root now cracked, and split on every side of the wedges,
till a prodigious cleft appeared quite down to the bot-
tom. Thus did Harry proceed, still continuing his
blows, and inserting new and larger wedges, as fast as
he had driven the former down, till he had completely
effected what he had undertaken, and entirely separated
the monstrous mass of wood into two unequal parts.
Harry then said, Here is a very large log; but I
think you and I can carry it in to mend the fire ; and I
will show you something else that will surprise you."
So he took a pole of about ten feet long, and hung the
log upon it by a piece of cord which he found there;
then he asked Tommy, which end of the pole he chose
to carry ? Tommy, who thought it would be most con-
venient to have the weight near him, chose that end of
the pole near which the weight was suspended, and put
it upon his shoulder; while Harry took the other end,
,T\





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 115
obliged to you, although, from his present circum-
stances, he does not appear much exposed to danger.
But tell me, for I wish to do you good; in what can I
assist you ? for my son informs me, that you are the
prey of continual regret and sorrow."
Is it wonderful," answered the Turk, with a glow
of generous indignation that suddenly animated his
countenance, "is it wonderful that I should pine in
silence, and mourn my fate, who am bereft of the first
and noblest present of nature-my liberty ?"-" And
yet," answered the Venetian, "how many thousands of
our nation do you retain in fetters ?"
"I am not answerable," said the Turk, "for the cruelty
of my countrymen, more than you are for the barbarity
of yours. But as to myself, I have never practised the
inhuman custom of enslaving my fellow-creatures; I
have never spoiled the Venetian merchants of their
property to increase my riches: I have always re-
spected the rights of nature, and therefore it is the
more severe."-Here a tear started from his eye, and
wetted his manly cheek : instantly, however, he recol-
lected himself, and folding his arms upon his bosom,
and gently bowing his head, he added, God is good;
and man must submit to his decrees."
The Venetian was affected with this appearance of
manly fortitude, and said: Hamet, I pity your suffer-
ings, and may perhaps be able to relieve them. What
would you do to regain your liberty ?"-" What would
I do?" answered Hamet; by the eternal Majesty of
Heaven, I would confront every pain and danger that
can appal the heart of man !"-" Nay," answered the
Merchant, "you will not be exposed to such a trial.
The means of your deliverance are certain, provided
your courage does not belie your appearance."-"Name
them! name them !" cried the impatient Hamet;





SANDFORD AND MERTON 153

Tommy considered some time; but at last he owned,
that he did not suspect the cat of having any particular
spite against his bird, and therefore he supposed she
had been impelled by hunger.
Mr. Barlow. Have you never observed, that it was
the property of that species to prey upon mice and
other little animals ?
Tommy. Yes, sir, very often.
3Mr. Barlow. And have you ever corrected her for so
doing, or attempted to teach her other habits ?
Tommy. I cannot say I have. Indeed, I have seen
little Harry, when she had caught a mouse and was
tormenting it, take it from her, and give it liberty.
But I have never meddled with her myself.
A r. Barlow. Are you not then more to be blamed
than the cat herself ? You have observed that it was
common to the whole species to destroy mice and little
birds, whenever they could surprise them; yet you
have taken no pains to secure your favourite from the
danger; on the contrary, by rendering him tame, and
accustoming him to be fed, you have exposed him to a
violent death, which he would probably have avoided
had he remained wild. Would it not then be just and
more reasonable, to endeavour to teach the cat that
she must no longer prey upon little birds, than to put
her to death for what you have never taught her was
an offence ?
Tommy. But is that possible ?
Mr. Barlow. Very possible, I should imagine: but
we- may at least try the experiment.
Tommy. But why should such a mischievous creature
live at all ?
Mr. Barlow. Because, if you destroyed every crea-
ture that preys upon others, you would perhaps leave
few alive.
Tommy. Surely, sir, the poor bird which that naughty





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 613
it ?-T. I would have killed that good-for-nothing man
who treated you so cruelly.-H. That would have been
wrong, Tommy; for I am sure he did not want to kill
me. Indeed if I had been a man he should not have
used me so ; but it is all over now, and we ought to for-
give our enemies, as Mr. Barlow tells us Christ did;
and then perhaps they may come to love us, and be
sorrow for what they have done.-T. But how could
you bear to be so severely whipped, without crying
out ?-II. Why, crying out would have done me no
good at all, would it ? And this is nothing to what
many little boys have suffered without ever flinching
or bemoaning themselves.-T. Well, I should have
thought a great deal.-H. Oh it's nothing to what the
young Spartans used to suffer.-T. Who were they ?--
H. Why, you must know they were a very brave set
of people, that lived a great while ago : and, as they
were but few in number, and were surrounded by a
great many enemies, they used to endeavour to make
their little boys very brave and hardy : and these little
boys used to be always running about, half naked, in
the open air, and wrestling and jumping, and exercis-
ing themselves; and then had very coarse food, and
hard beds to lie upon, and were never pampered and
indulged: and all this made them so strong and hardy
and brave, that the like was never seen.-T. What,
and had they no coaches to ride in, nor sweetmeats,
nor wine, nor anybody to wait upon them ?-H. Oh I
dear, no ; their fathers thought that would spoil them;
and so they all fared alike, and ate together in great
rooms; and there they were taught to behave orderly
and decently; and, when dinner was over, they all
went to play together; and, if they committed any
faults, they were severely whipped; but they never
minded it, and scorned to cry out, or make a wry face.
As they were conversing in this manner, they ap-






402 THE HISTORY OF

himself with his newly-adopted simplicity; and, as soon
as breakfast was over, prevailed with Mr. Barlow to
accompany him to Harry Sandford's; but lie did not
forget to take with him the lamb, which he had
caressed and fed with constant assiduity ever since
he had so valiantly rescued him from his devouring
enemy. As they approached the house, the first ob-
ject which Tommy distinguished was his little friend
at some distance, who was driving his father's sheep
along the common. At this sight his impetuosity
could no longer be restrained ; and, springing forward
with all his speed, he arrived in an instant, panting,
and out of breath, and incapable of speaking. Harry,
who knew his friend, and plainly perceived the dispo-
sition with which he approached, met him with open
arms, so that the reconciliation was begun and com-
pleted in a moment; and Mr. Barlow, who now arrived
with the lamb, had the pleasure of seeing his little
pupils mutually giving and receiving every unaffected
mark of the warmest affection.
"Harry," said Mr. Barlow, "I bring you a little
friend, who is sincerely penitent for his offences, and
comes to own the faults he has committed."-" That I
am, indeed," said Tommy, a little recovered, and able
to speak: but I have behaved so ill, and been such
an ungrateful fellow, that I am afraid Harry will never
be able to forgive me."-" Indeed, indeed," said Harry,
"there you do me the greatest injustice; for I have
already forgotten everything but your former kindness
and affection." "And I," answered Tommy, "will never
forget how ill, how ungratefully I have used you, nor
the goodness with which you now receive me." Tommy
then recollected his lamb, and presented it to his friend:
while Mr. Barlow told him the story of its rescue, and
the heroism exerted in its defence. Harry seemed to
receive equal pleasure from the restoration of his fa-





66 THE HISTORY OF
As it was not far out of their way, they agreed to call
at the poor man's cottage, whom they found much
better, as Mr. Barlow had been there the preceding
night, and given him such medicines as he judged
proper for his disease. Tommy then asked for the
little boy, and on his coming in, told him that he had
now, brought him some clothes, which he might weat
without fear of being called aFrenchman, as wells some
more for his little brothers. The pleasure with which
they were received, was so great, and the acknowledg-
ments and blessings of the good woman and the poor man,
who had just begun to sit up, were so many, that little
Tommy could not help shedding tears of compassion,
in which he was joined by Harry.-As they were re-
turning, Tommy said that he had never spent any
money with so much pleasure as that with which he
had purchased clothes for this poor family; and that
for the future he would take care of all the money that
was given him, for that purpose, instead of laying it
out in eatables, and play-things.
Some days after this, as Mr. Barlow and the two
boys were walking out together, they happened to pass
near a windmill; and on Harry's telling Tommy whale
it was, Tommy desired leave to go into it, and look at
it. Mr. Barlow consented to this; and, being acquainted
with the miller, they all went in, and examined every
part of it with great curiosity: and there little Tommy
saw, with astonishment, that the sails of the mill, being
constantly turned round by the wind, moved a great
flat stone, which, by rubbing upon another stone, bruis-
ed all the corn that was put between them, till it be-
came a fine powder.-" Oh, dear!" said Tommy, "is this
the way they make bread ?"-Mr. Barlow told him, this
was the method by which the corn was prepared for
making bread; but that many other things were neces-
sary, before it arrived at that state:--"you see that






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 357

body, I had no sooner quitted your sight than I became,
I think, a worse boy than ever I was before.
Mr. Barlow. But why do you judge so severely of
yourself, as to think you were become worse than ever?
Perhaps you have been a little thoughtless and giddy ;
and these are faults which I cannot with truth say you
were ever free from.
Tommy. No, sir; what I have been guilty of is infi-
nitely worse than ever. I have always been very giddy
and very thoughtless: but I never imagined I could
have been the most insolent and ungrateful boy in the
world.
Mr. Barlow. You frighten me, my little friend. Is it
possible you can have committed actions that deserve
so harsh a name ?
Tommy. You shall judge yourself, sir, for now I have
begun, I am determined to tell you all. You know,
sir, that when I first came to you, I had a high opinion
of myself for being born a gentleman, and a very great
contempt for everybody in an inferior station.
Mr. Barlow. I must confess you have always had
some tendency to both these follies.
Tommy. Yes, sir; but you have so often laughed at
me upon the subject, and shown me the folly of people's
imagining themselves better than others, without any
merit of their own, that I was grown a little wiser.
Besides, I have so often observed that tlose I despised
could do a variety of things which I was ignorant of,
while those who are vain of being gentlemen can do
nothing useful or ingenious; so that I had begun to be
ashamed of my folly. But since I came home, I have
kept company with a great many fine young ladies and
gentlemen, who thought themselves superior to all the
rest of the world, and used to despise every one else;
and they have made me forget everything I learned
before.
23





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 119
dreadful moment of general suspense and agony, a
man rushed through the opening crowd, mounted the
tallest of the ladders, with an intrepidity that showed
he was resolved to succeed or perish, and instantly dis-
appeared. A sudden gust of smoke and flame burst
forth immediately after, which made the people ima-
gine he was lost; when, on a sudden, they beheld him
emerge again with the child in his arms, and descend
the ladder without any material damage. A universal
shout of applause now resounded to the skies: but
what words can give an adequate idea of the father's
feelings, when, on recovering his senses, he found his
darling miraculously preserved, and safe within his arms?
After the first effusions of his tenderness were over,
he asked for his deliverer, and was shown a man of a
noble stature, but dressed in mean attire, and his fea-
tures were so begrimed with smoke and filth, that it
was impossible to distinguish them. Francisco, how-
ever, accosted him with courtesy, and, presenting him
with a purse of gold, begged he would accept of that
for the present, and that the next day he should re-
ceive to the utmost of his promised reward.-" No,
generous Merchant," answered the stranger, "I do not
sell my blood."
"c Gracious heavens!" cried the Merchant; sure I
should know that voice !-It is- "Yes," exclaimed
the son, throwing himself into the arms of his deli-
verer, it is my Hamet !"
It was indeed Hamet who stood before them in the
same mean attire which he had worn six months be-
fore, when first the generosity of the Merchant had
redeemed him from slavery. Nothing could equal the
astonishment and gratitude of Francisco; but as they
were then surrounded by a large concourse of people,
he desired Hamet to go with him to the house of one
of his friends ; and when they were alone, he embraced





172 THE HISTORY OF
The gentleman slept so soundly, that he did not
awake till morning; and then the physician came into
his room, and with the greatest tenderness and civility
inquired after his health. He had indeed fallen asleep
in very ill-humour; but his night's rest had much com-
posed his mind, and the effect of this was increased by
the extreme politeness of the doctor: so that he an-
swered with tolerable temper, only making bitter com-
plaints of the homeliness of his accommodation.
My dearest sir," answered the physician, "did I not
make a previous agreement with you, that you should
submit to my management ? Can you imagine that I
have any other end in view than the improvement of
your health? It is not possible that you should in
everything perceive the reasons of my conduct, which
is founded upon the most accurate theory and experi-
ence. However, in this case, I must inform you, that
I have found out the art of making my beds medicinal;
and this you must confess, from the excellent night you
have passed. I cannot impart the same salutary vir-
tues to down or silk, and therefore, though very much
against my inclinations, I have been compelled to lodge
you in this homely manner. But now, if you please, it
is time to rise."
Ramozini then rang for his servants, and the gentle-
man suffered himself to be dressed. At breakfast the
gentleman expected to fare a little better : but his re-
lentless guardian would suffer him to taste nothing but
a slice of bread and a porringer of water-gruel: all
which he defended, very little to his guest's satisfaction,
upon the most unerring principles of medical science.
After breakfast had been some time finished, DoctoT
Ramozini told his patient, it was time to begin the
great work of .restoring him to the use of his limbs.
He accordingly had him carried into a little room.
where he desired the gentleman to attempt to stand






74 THE HISTORY OF
raised ?-T. Certainly, sir : this country which the two
brothers went to was such a place.--Mr. B. And there
are many other such countries in the world.-T. But
then a man need not go to them ; he may stay at home.
-Mrr. B. Then he must not pass the seas in a ship,-
T. Why so, sir ?-Mr. B. Because the ship may happen
to be wrecked upon some such country where there are
no inhabitants; and then, although he should escape
the danger of the sea, what will he do for food ?-T.
And have such accidents sometimes happened ?--Mr.
B. Yes, several: there was, in particular, one Selkirk,
who was shipwrecked, and obliged to live several years
upon a desert island.-T. That was very extraordinary
indeed; and how did he get victuals ?-MJr. B. He
sometimes procured roots; sometimes fruits: he also
at last became so active, that he was able to pursue and
catch wild goats, with which the island abounded.-T.
And did not such a hard, disagreeable way of life kill
him at last ?--Mr. B. By no means; he never enjoyed
better health in his life: and you have heard that he
became so active as to be able to overtake the very
wild beasts. But a still more extraordinary story is
that of some Russians, who were left on the coast of
Spitzbergen, where they were obliged to stay several
years.-T. Where is Spitzbergen, sir ?-M-r. B. It is a
country very far to the north, which is constantly co-
vered with snow and ice, because the weather is unre-
mittingly severe. Scarcely any vegetables will grow
upon the soil, and scarcely any animals are found in
the country. To add to this, a great part of the year
it is covered with perpetual darkness, and is inacces-
sible to ships: so that it is impossible to conceive a
more dreary country, or where it must be more difficult
to support human life. Yet four men were capable of
struggling with all these difficulties during several
years, and three of them returned at last safe to their





SANDFORD AND METON. 21
of man ; it is the state of all, in the happiest and most
equal governments, the state of nearly all in every
country; it is a state in which all the faculties both of
body and mind are always found to develop them-
sieves with the most advantage, and in which the moral
feelings have generally the greatest influence. The
accumulation of riches, on the contrary, can never in-
crease, but by the increasing poverty and degradation
of those whom Heaven has created equal: a thousand
cottages are thrown to afford space for a single palace.
How benevolently therefore has Heaven acted, in thus
extending its blessings to all who do not disqualify
themselves for the reception by voluntary hardness of
heart! how wisely, in thus opposing a continual bound-
ary to human pride and sensuality; two passions the
most fatal in their effects, and the most apt to desolate
the world !-And shall a minister of that Gospel, con-
scious of these great truths, and professing to govern
himself by their influence, dare to preach a different
doctrine, and flatter those excesses, which he must
know are equally contrary both to reason and religion?
shall he become the abject sycophant of human great-
ness, and assist it in trampling all relations of humanity
beneath its feet, instead of setting before it the severe
duties of its station, and the account which will one
day be expected of all the opportunities of doing good,
so idly, so irretrievably lost and squandered ?-But I
beg pardon, sir, for that warmth which has transported
me so far, and made me engross so much of the con-
versation. But it will at least have this good effect,
that it will demonstrate the truth of what I have beer
saying; and show, that, though I might undertake the
education of a farmer, or a mechanic, I shall never
succeed in that of a modern gentleman,"
Sir," replied Mr. Merton, there is nothing which
I now hear from you, which does not increase my





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 427
holding plough after a good team of horses, and then
going tired to bed, perhaps, you'd wish to have been
brought up a farmer too. But, in one word, as well as
a thousand, I shall never forget the extraordinary
kindness of your offer; but, if you would not ruin a
whole family of innocent people that love you, e'en
consent to leave us as we are."
Mr. Merton then seeing the fixed determination of
the farmer, and feeling the justice of his coarse, but
strong morality, was obliged, however reluctantly, to
desist; and Mrs. Sandford, coming to invite them to
dinner, he entered the house, and paid his respects to
the family.
After the cloth was removed, and Mrs. Sandford had
twice or thrice replenished his silver mug, the only
piece of finery in his house, little Harry came running
in, with so much alacrity and heedlessness that he tore
Miss Deborah's best apron, and he had nearly precipi-
tated Miss Catharine's new cap into the fire ; for which
the young ladies and his mother rebuked him with
some acrimony. But Harry, after begging pardon with
his usual good-humour, cried, Father, father, here is
the prettiest team of horses, all matched, and of a
colour, with new harness, the most complete I ever
saw in my life; and they have stopped at our back-
door, and the man says they are brought for you ?"
Farmer Sandford was just then in the middle of his
history of the ploughing-match at Axminster; but the
relation of his son had such an involuntary effect
upon him, that he started up, overset the liquor and
the table, and, making a hasty apology to Mr. Merton,
ran out to see these wonderful horses.
Presently he returned, in equal admiration with his
son. "Mr. Merton," said he, I did not think you had
been so good a judge of a horse. I suppose they are
a new purchase, which you want to have my opinion





102 THE HISTORY OF
and said, "If I had not saved this creature's life in the
morning, I should have been obliged to have staid here
all night; I see by this, that a good turn is never lost.'
But the poor little Boy had yet a greater danger to
undergo; for, as he was going along a solitary lane,
two men rushed out upon him, laid hold of him, and
were going to strip him of his clothes; but, just as
they were beginning to do it, the little dog bit the leg
of one of the men with so much violence, that he left
the little Boy, and pursued the dog, that ran howling
and barking away. In this instant a voice was heard
that cried out, "There the rascals are; let us knock
them down!" which frightened the remaining man so
much, that he ran away, and his companion followed
him. The little Boy then looked up, and saw that it
was the Sailor, whom he had relieved in the morning,
carried upon the shoulders of the blind man whom he
had helped out of the pond.-" There, my little dear,"
said the Sailor, "God be thanked! we have come in
time to do you a service, in return for what you did us
in the morning.-As I lay under a hedge I heard these
villains talk of robbing a little Boy, who, from the de-
scription, I concluded must be you: but I was so lame,
that I should not have been able to come time enough
to help you, if I had not met this honest blind man,
who took me upon his back while I showed him the
way."
The little Boy thanked him very sincerely for thus
defending him; and they went all together to his
father's house, which was not far off; where they were
all kindly entertained with a supper and a bed. The
little Boy took care of his faithful dog as long as he
lived, and never forgot the importance and necessity of
doing good to others, if we wish them to do the same
to us.





SANDFORD AND MERTON 289
This speech was not received with much approbation
by those to whom it was addressed. "A pretty fellow,"
said one, to give himself these airs, and pretend to
be wiser than every one else !"-" What!" said Master
Compton, does this beggar's brat think that he is to
govern gentlemen's sons, because Master Merton is so
good as to keep company with him ?"-"If I were
Master Merton," said a third, "I'd soon send the little
impertinent jackanapes home to his own blackguard
family."-And Master Mash, who was the biggest and
strongest boy in the whole company, came up to Harry,
and grinning in his face, said, So all the return that
you make to Master Merton for his goodness to you, is
to be a spy and an informer, is it, you little dirty black-
guard ?"
Harry, who had long perceived and lamented the
coolness of Master Merton towards him, was now much
more grieved to see that his friend was not only silent,
but seemed to take an ill-natured pleasure in these in-
sults, than at the insults themselves which were offered
to him. However, as soon as the crowd of tormentors
which surrounded him, would give him leave to speak,
he coolly answered, "that he was as little a spy and
informer as any of them; and as to begging, he thanked
God he wanted as little of them as they did of him:
besides," added he, "were I even reduced so low as
that, I should know better how to employ my time than
to ask charity of any one here."
This sarcastic answer, and the reflections that were
made upon it, had such an effect upon the too irritable
temper of Master Merton, that, in an instant, forget-
ting his former obligations and affection to Harry, he
strutted up to him, and clenching his fist, asked him,
Whether he meant to insult him ? "Well done, Master
Merton i" echoed through the whole society; "thrash
him heartily for his impudence."-" No, Master Tommy,"





116 THE HISTORY OF
"place death before me in every horrid shape, and if
I shrink--"
"Patience," answered the Merchant, "we shall be
observed. But hear me attentively.-- have in this
city an inveterate foe, who has heaped upon me every
injury which can most bitterly sting the heart of man.
This man is brave as he is haughty; and I must con-
fess that the dread of his strength and valour has
hitherto deterred me from resenting his insults as
they deserve. Now, Hamet, your look, your form,
your words, convince me that you were born for manly
daring. Take this dagger;-as soon as the shades of
night involve the' city, I will myself conduct you to
the place, where you may at once revenge your friend,
and regain your freedom."
At this proposal, scorn and shame flashed from the
kindling eye of Hamet, and passion for a considerable
time deprived him of the power of utterance ; at length
he lifted his arm as high as his chains would permit,
and cried, with an indignant tone, Mighty Prophet!
and are these the wretches to whom you permit your
faithful votaries to be enslaved !-Go, base Christian,
and know, that Hamet would not stoop to the vile trade
of an assassin for all the wealth of Venice !-no not
to purchase the freedom of all his race !"
At these words, the Merchant, without seeming
much abashed, told him he was sorry he had of-
fended him; but that he thought freedom had been
dearer to him than he found it was.-" However,"
added he, as he turned his back, "you will reflect
upon my proposal, and perhaps by to-morrow you may
change your mind." Hamet disdained to answer; and
the Merchant went his way.
The next day, however, he returned in company
with his son, and mildly accosted Hamet thus : The
abruptness of the proposal I yesterday made you, might






146 THE HISTORY OF

resolute an antagonist to deal with, desisted from op-
position, and suffered himself to be led captive like his
friend the bear.
As they were returning home, Tommy asked Mr.
Barlow, whether he did not think it very dangerous to
meddle with such an animal when he was loose ? Mr.
Barlow told him it was not without danger; but that it
was much less so than most people would imagine.-
c Most animals," said he, "are easily awed by the appear-
ance of intrepidity, while they are invited to pursue by
marks of fear and apprehension."-" That, I believe, is
very true," answered Harry; "for I have very often
observed the behaviour of dogs to each other. When
two strange dogs meet, they generally approach with
caution, as if they were mutually afraid : but as sure as
either of them runs away, the other will pursue him
with the greatest insolence and fury."-" This is not
confined to dogs," replied Mr. Barlow; "almost all
wild beasts are subject to receive the sudden impres-
sion of terror: and therefore men, who have been
obliged to travel without arms, through forests that
abound with dangerous animals, have frequently escaped
unhurt, by shouting aloud whenever they have met
with any of them on their way : but what I chiefly de-
pended on, was the education which the bear had re-
ceived since he left his own country." (Tommy laughed
heartily at this idea, and Mr. Barlow went on.) When-
ever an animal is taught anything that is not natural to
him, this is properly receiving an education. Did you
ever observe colts running about wild upon the com-
mon ?"-Tommy. Yes, sir, very often.-Mr. Barlow.
And do you think it would be an easy matter for any
one to mount upon their backs, or ride them ?-T. By
no means ; I think that they would kick and prance to
that degree, that they would throw any person down.
Mr. B. And yet your little horse very frequently takes






248 THE HISTORY OF

he desired him to draw out all his men in their mili-
tary array, and to let them descend the mountain
slowly, clashing their arms and waving their swords as
they marched. He then mounted a horse, and rode to
the enemy's camp; where he no sooner arrived, than
he desired to be instantly introduced to the general.
He found him sitting in his tent, carousing in the midst
of his officers, and thinking of nothing less than an
engagement. When he approached, he thus accosted
him: I am come, great warrior, as a friend, to acquaint
you with a circumstance that is absolutely necessary
to the safety of yourself and army.'-' What is that ?'
said the general, with some surprise.-'At this instant,'
replied the European,' while you are indulging your-
self in festivity, the enemy, who has lately been rein-
forced with a large body of his most valiant troops, is
advancing to attack you; and even now has almost
penetrated to your camp. I have here,' added he a
wonderful glass, the composition of which is only
known in Europe; and, if you will condescend to look
through it for a moment, it will convince you that ,ll
I say is truth. Saying this, he directed his eye to the
telescope, which the general had no sooner looked
into, than he was struck with consternation and affright.
IHe saw the prince, whom he had long considered as
lying at his mercy, advancing with his army in excel.
lent order, and, as he imagined, close to his camp. He
could even discern the menacing air of the soldiers,
and the brandishing of their swords as they moved.
His officers, who thronged round him to know the
cause of his sudden fright, had no sooner peeped into
the wonderful glass, than they were all affected in the
same manner. Their heads had been already disturbed
by their intemperance; and therefore, without waiting
to consult, they rushed in a panic out of their tents,
mounted their swiftest horses, and fled away, without





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 409

Tommy expressed the greatest admiration at this
recital, and now, as the evening began to advance, Mr.
Barlow invited him to return. But Tommy, instead of
complying, took him by the hand, thanked him for all
his kindness and attention, but declared his resolution of
staying some time with his friend Harry. The more I
consider my own behaviour," said he, "the more I feel
myself ashamed of my folly and ingratitude : but you
have taught me, my dear sir, that all I have in my
power is to acknowledge them : which I most willingly
do before all this good family, and entreat Harry to
think that the impressions I now feel, are such as I
shall never forget." Harry embraced his friend, and
assured him once more of his being perfectly recon-
ciled ; and all the family stood mute with admiration
at the condescension of the young gentleman, who was
not ashamed of acknowledging his faults even to his
inferiors.
Mr. Barlow approved of Tommy's design, and took
upon him to answer for the consent of Mr. Merton to
his staying some time with Harry: then, taking his
leave of all the company, he departed.
But Tommy began now to enter upon a course of life
which was very little consistent with his former habits.
IHe supped with great cheerfulness, and even found
himself happy with the rustic fare which was set be-
fore him, accompanied, as it was, with unaffected civi-
lity, and a hearty welcome. He went to bed early and
slept very soundly all night : however, when Harry
came to call him the next morning at five, as he had
made him promise to do, he found a considerable diffi.
culty in rousing himself at the summons. Conscious
pride, however, and the newly-acquired dignity of his
character, supported him ; lhe recollected that lie should
disgrace himself in the eyes of his father, of Mr. Bar-
low, and of all thle family with which lie now was, if he






SANDFORD AND MERTON 269
gentleman of great spirit, was of opinion, that they
should kick up a riot, and demolish all the scenery.
Tommy, indeed, did not very well understand what the
expression meant; but he was so intimately persuaded
of the merit and genius of his companions, that he
agreed that it would be the properest thing in the
world : and the proposal was accordingly made to the
rest of the young gentlemen.
But Harry, who had been silent all the time, could
not help remonstrating at what appeared to him the
greatest cruelty and injustice. These poor people,"
said he, "are doing all they can to entertain us; is it
not very unkind to treat them, in return, with scorn
and contempt? If they could act better, even as well
as those fine people you talk of in London, would they
not willingly do it? and therefore, why should we be
angry with them for what they cannot help ? And, as
to cutting the scenes to pieces, or doing the house any
damage, have we any more right to attempt it, than
they would have to come into your father's dining-room
and break the dishes to pieces, because they did not
like the dinner? While we are here, let us behave
with good manners; and, if we do not like their acting,
it is our own faults if ever we come to see them
again..
This method of reasoning was not much relished by
those to whom it was addressed; and it is uncertain
how far they might have proceeded, had not a decent,
plain-looking man, who had been long disturbed with
the noise of these young gentry, at length taken the
liberty of expostulating with them upon the subject.
This freedom, or impertinence, as it was termed by
Master Mash, was answered by him with so much rude-
ness, that the man, who was a neighboring farmer,
was obliged to reply in a higher strain. Thus did the
altercation increase every minute, till Master Mash,






118 THE HISTORY OF
penses. Nor was it without the greatest regret that
Hamet parted from his young friend, whose disinter-
ested kindness had thus produced his freedom; he
embraced him with an agony of tenderness, wept over
him at parting, and prayed for every blessing upon his
head.
About six months after this transaction, a sudden
fire burst forth in the house of this generous Merchant.
It was early in the morning, when sleep is the most
profound, and none of the family perceived it till al-
most the whole building was involved in flames. The
frighted servants had just time to waken the Merchant
and hurry him down stairs; and the instant he was
down, the staircase itself gave way, and sunk with a
horrid crash into the midst of the fire.
But if Francisco congratulated himself for an instant
upon his escape, it was only to resign himself immedi-
ately after to the most deep despair, when he found,
upon inquiry, that his son, who slept in an upper apart-
ment, had been neglected in the general tumult, and
was yet amidst the flames. No words can describe the
father's agony; he would have rushed headlong into
the fire, but was restrained by his servants; he then
raved in an agony of grief, and offered half his fortune
to the intrepid man who would risk his life to save his
child. As Francisco was known to be immensely rich,
several ladders were in an instant raised, and several
daring spirits, incited by the vast reward, attempted
the adventure: the violence of the flames, however,
which burst forth at every window, together with the
ruins that fell on every side, drove them all back; and
the unfortunate youth, who now appeared upon the
battlements, stretching out his arms, and imploring
aid, seemed to be destined to certain destruction.
The unhappy father now lost all perception, and
sunk down in a state of insensibility;-when, in this





332 THE HISTORY OF
Britain) had taken up the hatchet of war, and was send-
ing an innumerable band of warriors to punish the
insults of his enemies. He told them that he had
ordered him to visit the Ottigamies, his dutiful chil-
dren, and smoke with them the pipe of peace. He
invited their young men to join the warriors that came
from beyond the ocean, and who were marching to
bury the bones of their brethren, who had been killed
by their mutual foes. When he had concluded, he
flung upon the ground a curious string of shells, which
is called the belt of Wampum. This is a necessary cir-
cumstance in all the treaties made with these tribes.
Whoever comes as an ambassador brings one with him
to present to the people whose friendship is solicited;
and, if the belt is accepted, the proposed alliance is
considered as entered into.
"As soon as our leader had finished, a chief, of a
stature superior to the common race of men, and of a
most determined look, jumped into the middle of the
assembly, and taking up the belt, cried out in their
language-' Let us march, my brethren, with the young
men of our great father! Let us dig up the hatchet of
war, and revenge the bones of our countrymen; they
lie unburied, and cry to us for vengeance! We will
not be deaf to their cries; we will shake off all delays;
we will approve ourselves worthy of our ancestors;
we will drink the blood of our enemies, and spread a
feast of carnage for the fowls of the air and the wild
beasts of the forest. This resolution was universally
approved by the whole nation, who consented to the
war with a ferocious joy. The assembly was then dis-
solved, and the chiefs prepared for their intended
march according to the manners of their country.
All the savage tribes that inhabit America are
accustomed to very little clothing. Inured to the
inclemencies of the weather, and being in the constant





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 167
nouse of Doctor Ramozini, was soon directed to the
spot : then, having been helped out of his carriage by
half a dozen of his servants, he was shown into a neat
but plain parlour, from which he had the prospect of
twenty or thirty people at dinner in a. spacious hall.
In the middle of them was the learned doctor himself,
who with much complaisance invited the company to
eat heartily.-" My good friend," said the doctor to a
pale-looking man on his right, you must eat three
slices more of this roast beef, or you will never lose
your ague."-" My friend," said he to another, drink
off this glass of porter ; it is just arrived from England,
and is a specific for nervous fevers."-" Do not stuff
your child so with macaroni," added he, turning to a
woman, if you would wish to cure him of the scrof-
ula."-" Good man," said he to a fourth, how goes on
the ulcer in your leg ?"--" Much better, indeed," replied
the man, since I have lived at your honour's table,"
"--" Well," replied the physician, in a fortnight you
will be perfectly cured, if you do but drink wine
enough."
Thank heaven," said the gentleman, who had heard
all this with infinite pleasure, I have at last met with
a reasonable physician : he will not confine me to bread
and water, nor starve me under pretence of curing me,
like that confounded quack from whose clutches I have
so luckily escaped."
At length the doctor dismissed his company, who re-
tired, loading him with thanks and blessings. He then
approached the gentleman, and welcomed him with the
greatest politeness; who presented him with his letters
of recommendation; which, after the physician had
perused, he thus accosted him :-" Sir, the letter of my
learned friend has fully instructed me in the particulars
of your case ; it is, indeed, a difficult one, but I think
you have no reason to despair of a perfect recovery,-





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 47
heard to-day, or to read the actions of great and good
men in history, or to make himself acquainted with the
nature of wild beasts and birds, which are found in
other countries, and have been described in books: in
short, I scarcely know of anything which from this
moment will not be in his power; and I do not despair
of one day seeing him a very sensible man, capable of
teaching and instructing others.'
"Yes," said Tommy, something elated by all this
praise, "I am determined now to make myself as clever
as anybody; and I don't doubt, though I am such a
little fellow, that I know more already than many
grown-up people; and I am sure, though there are no
less than six blacks in our house, that there is not one
of them who can read a story like me." Mr. Barlow
looked a little grave at this sudden display of vanity;
and said rather coolly, "Pray, who has attempted to
teach them anything ?" "Nobody, I believe," said
Tommy. Where is the great wonder then, if they
are ignorant ?" replied Mr. Barlow; you would
probably have never known anything, had you not
been assisted; and even now, you know very little."
In this manner did Mr. Barlow begin the education
of Tommy Merton, who had naturally very good dis-
positions, although he had been suffered to acquire
many bad habits, that sometimes prevented them from
appearing. He was, in particular, very passionate, and
thought he had a right to command everybody that
was not dressed as fine as himself. This opinion often
led him into inconveniences, and once was the occasion
of his being severely mortified.
This accident happened in the following manner:--
One day, as Tommy was striking a ball with his bat, he
struck it over a hedge into an adjoining field, and see-
ing a little ragged boy walking along on that side, he
ordered him, in a very peremptory tone, to bring it to





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 53
When the destined moment arrived, the unhappy
man was exposed, unarmed, in the midst of a spacious
area, enclosed on every side, round which many thou-
sand people were assembled to view the mournful
spectacle.
Presently a dreadful yell was heard, which struck the
spectators with horror; and a monstrous lion rushed
out of a den, which was purposely set open; and darted
forward with erected mane, and flaming eyes, and jaws
that gaped like an open sepulchre.-A mournful silence
instantly prevailed All eyes were turned upon the
destined victim, whose destruction now appeared in-
evitable. But the pity of the multitude was soon con-
verted into astonishment, when they beheld the lion,
instead of destroying his defenceless prey, crouch sub-
missively at his feet; fawn upon him as a faithful dog
would do upon his master, and rejoice over him as a
mother that unexpectedly recovers her offspring. The
governor of the town, who was present, then called
out with a loud voice, and ordered Androcles to ex-
plain to them this unintelligible mystery ; and how a
savage of the fiercest and most unpitying nature should
thus in a moment have forgotten his innate disposi-
tion, and be converted into a harmless and inoffensive
animal.
Androcles then related to the assembly every cir-
cumstance of his adventures in the woods, and conclud-
ed by saying, that the very lion which now stood before
them, had been his friend and entertainer in the woods.
All the persons present were astonished and delighted
with the story, to find that even the fiercest beasts are
capable of being softened by gratitude, and moved by
humanity ; and they unanimously joined to entreat for
the pardon of the unhappy man from the governor of
the place. This was immediately granted to him ; and
he was also presented with the lion, who had in this
manner twice saved the life of Androcles.
4






220 THE HISTORY OF
"Alas !" said Harry, what a dreadful picture do
you draw of the fate of those brave men who suffer
so much to defend their country: surely, those who
employ them should take care of them when they are
sick, or wounded, or incapable of providing for them-
selves."
"So indeed," answered Mr. Barlow, they ought to
do: but rash and foolish men engage in wars, without
either justice or reason; and when they are over, they
think no more of the unhappy people who have served
them at so much loss to themselves.'
Harry. Why, sir, I have often thought, that, as all
wars consist in shedding of blood and doing mischief
to our fellow-creatures, they seldom can be just.
Mr. Barlow. You are indeed right there.-Of all the
blood that has been shed since the beginning of the
world to the present day, but very little indeed has
been owing to any cause that had either justice or
common sense.
Harry. I then have thought (though I pity poor sol-
diers extremely, and always give them something if I
have any money in my pocket), that they draw these
mischiefs upon themselves, because they endeavour to
kill and destroy other people; and therefore, if they
suffer the same evils in return, they can hardly com-
plain.
.Mr. Barlow. They cannot complain of the evils to
which they voluntarily expose themselves; but they
may justly complain of the ingratitude of the people
for whom they fight, and who take no care of them
afterwards.
Harry. Indeed, sir, I think so. But I cannot con-
ceive why people must hire others to fight for them.
If it is necessary to fight, why do not they fight for
themselves ?-I should be ashamed to go to another
boy and say to him, "Pray go and venture your life or





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 59
"What is the matter ?" said Mr. Barlow; who per.
ceived that some unfortunate accident had happened
in consequence of Tommy's present.
"Sir," answered the little boy, "my little master
here was going to beat me, because I would not fetch
his ball. Now as to the matter of that, I would have
brought his ball with all my heart, if he had but asked
me civilly. But though I am poor, I am not bound
to be his slave, as they say black William is; and so
I would not: upon which, little master here was jump-
ing over the hedge to lick me; but, instead of that, he
soused into the ditch and there he lay rolling about
till I helped him out: and so he gave me these clothes
here, all out of good will; and I put them on, like a
fool as I was: for they are all made of silk, and look
so fine, that all the little boys followed me, and hal.
looed as I went; and Jack Dowset threw a handful
of dirt at me, and dirtied me all over.-' Oh !' says I,
'Jacky, are you at that work ?'-and with that I hit him
a, punch in the belly, and sent him roaring away. But
Billy Gibson and Ned Kelly came up, and said I looked
like a Frenchman; and so we began fighting, and I
beat them till they both gave out: but I don't choose
to be hallooed after wherever I go, and to look like
a Frenchman; and so I have brought master his
clothes again."
Mr. Barlow asked the little boy where his father
lived ; and he told him that his father lived about two
miles off, across the common, and at the end of Runny-
lane : on which, Mr. Barlow told Harry, that he would
send the poor man some broth and victuals, if he would
carry it when it was ready.-" That I will," said Harry,
"if it were five times as far." So Mr. Barlow went
into the house to give orders about it.
In the mean time Tommy, who had eyed the little
boy for some time in silence,. said, "So, my poor boy





56 THE HISTORY OF
was not, sir, I am sure; for he had no coat, and his
waistcoat and breeches were all tattered and ragged;
besides, he had no stockings, and his shoes were full
of holes.--Mlr. B. So, now I see what constitutes a
gentleman. A gentleman is one that, when he has
abundance of everything, keeps it all to himself;
beats poor people, if they don't serve him for nothing;
and, when they have done him the greatest favour, in
spite of his insolence, never feels any gratitude, or does
them any good in return. I find that Androcles's lion
was no gentleman.
Tommy was so affected with this rebuke, that he
could hardly contain his tears; and, as he was really a
boy of a generous temper, he determined to give the
little ragged boy something the very first time he
should see him again.-He did not long wait for an
opportunity; for, as he was walking out that very af-
ternoon, he saw him at some distance gathering black-
berries, and, going up to him, he accosted him thus:
"Little boy, I want to know why you are so ragged;
have you no other clothes ?"-"No, indeed," said the
boy; "I have seven brothers and sisters, and they are
all as ragged as myself: but I should not much mind
that, if I could have my belly full of victuals."-
Tonmmy. And why cannot you have your belly full of
victuals?-Little Boy. Because daddy's ill of a fever,
and can't work this harvest; so that mammy says we
must all starve, if God Almighty does not take care of
US.
Tommy made no answer, but ran full speed to the
house, whence he presently returned, loaded with a
loaf of bread, and a complete suit of his own clothes.
"-- Here, little boy," said he, "you were very good-
natured to me; and so I will give you all this, because
I am a gentleman, and have many more."
Nothing could equal the joy which appeared in the






426f THE HISTORY OF

brought her daughters up a little better than usual:
but I can assure you, she and I have ihad many
a good argument upon the subject. Not but she
approves their milking, spinning, and making them-
selves useful; but she would fain have them genteel,
Mr. Merton : all women now are mad after gentility :
and, when once gentility begins, there is an end of iL-
dustry. Now, were they to hear of such a sum as you
have generously offered, there would be no peace in
the house. My wenches, instead of Deb and Kate,
would be M.iss Deborah and Miss Catharine; in a little
time, they must be sent to boarding-school, to learn
French and music, and wriggling about the room.
And, when they come back, who must boil the pot, or
make the pudding, or sweep the house, or serve the
pigs ? Did you ever hear of Miss Juliana, or Miss
Harriet, or Miss Carolina, doing such vulgar things."
Mr. Merton was very much struck with the honest
farmer's method of expressing himself, and could not
help internally allowing the truth of his representa-
tions; yet he still pressed him to accept his present,
and reminded him of the improvement of his farm.
Thank you again, and again," replied the farmer;
"but the whole generation of the Sandfords have been
brought up to labour with their own hands for these
hundred years ; and during all that time, there has not
been a dishonest person, a gentleman, or a madman
amongst us. And shall I be the first to break the
customs of the family, and perhaps bring down a
curse on all our heads ? What could I have more, if I
were a lord, or a macaroni, as I think you call them ?
I have plenty of victuals and work, good firing,
clothes, warm house,a little for the poor, and, between
you and I, something, perhaps, in a corner to set my
children off with, if they behave well. Ah neigh-
bour, neighbour, if you did but know the pleasure of






14 TIE HISTORY OF
Mrs. Merton instantly despatched a servant to the
Farmer's; and, taking little Harry by the hand, she led
him to the mansion-house, where she found Mr. Mer-
ton, whom she entertained with a long account of
Tommy's danger and Harry's bravery.
Harry was now in a new scene of life. He was car-
ried through costly apartments, where everything tlat
could please the eye, or contribute to convenience, was
assembled. He saw large looking-glasses in gilded
frames, carved tables and chairs, curtains made of the
finest silk, and the very plates, and knives, and forks,
were silver. At dinner he was placed close to Mrs.
Merton, who took care to supply him with the choicest
bits, and engaged him to eat, with the most endearing
kindness; but, to the astonishment of everybody, he
neither appeared pleased nor surprised at anything
he saw. Mrs. Merton could not conceal her disap-
pointment; for, as she had always been used to a great
degree of finery herself, she had expected it should
make the same impression upon everybody else. At
last, seeing him eye a small silver cup with great at-
tention, out of which he had been drinking, she asked
him, whether he should not like to have such a fine
thing to drink out of ? and added, that, though it was
Tommy's cup, she was sure he would, with great plea-
sure, give it to his little friend.--" Yes, that I will,"
says Tommy ; for you know, mamma, I have a much
finer one than that, made of gold, besides two large
ones made of silver."-" Thank you with all my heart,"
said little Harry ; "but I will not rob you of it, for I
have a much better one at home."-" How !" said Mrs.
Merton, "does your father eat and drink out of silver ?"
-" I don't know, madam, what you call this; but we
drink at home out of long things made of horn, just
such as the cows wear upon their heads."-" The child
is a simpleton, I think," said Mrs. Merton : "and why





182 THE HISTORY OF
poor folks are obliged to eat."-" Indeed," said Tommy,
"C my good mother, I have fasted so long, and I am so
hungry, that I think I could eat anything."-" Well
then," answered the woman, "here is a little bit of
gammon of bacon, which I will broil for you upon the
embers; and if you can make a supper, you are heartily
welcome."
While the good woman was thus preparing supper,
the man had closed his book, and placed it with great
respect upon a shelf, which gave Tommy the curiosity
to ask him what he was reading about ?-" Master,"
answered the man, I was reading the book which
teaches me my duty towards man, and my obligations
to God; I was reading the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and
teaching it to my children."
Tommy. Indeed I have heard of that good book:
Mr. Barlow has often read part of it to me, and pro-
mised I should read it myself. That is the book they
read at church ; I have often heard Mr. Barlow read it
to the people; and he always reads it so well and so
affectingly, that everybody listens, and you may hear
even a pin drop upon the pavement.
The Man. Yes, master, Mr. Barlow is a worthy ser-
vant and follower of Jesus Christ himself; he is the
friend of all the poor in the neighbourhood; he gives
us food and medicines when we are ill; and he employs
us when we can find no work: but, what we are even
more obliged to him for than the giving us food and
raiment, and life itself, he instructs us in our duty,
makes us ashamed of our faults, and teaches us how
we may be happy, not only here, but in another world.
-I was once an idle abandoned man myself, given up
to swearing and drinking, neglecting my family, and
taking no thought for my poor wife and children; but
since Mr. Barlow has taught me better things, and
made me acquainted, with this blessed book, my life





370 THE HISTORY OF
which they were treated, that they were prisoners.
The virtuous indignation of his temper was instantly
excited, and he determined to attempt their deliver-
ance. This he at last effected by a very clever strata-
gem. He ascended the mountain; and having col-
lected all the fallen branches of trees he could find, he
piled them up, in several conspicuous parts, full in
view of the soldiers. He then kindled a blaze, by
rubbing two decayed branches together; and, in a
short time, the neighboring hills and forests were
illuminated with the gleam. Sophron knew the nature
of man, always prone to sudden impressions of fear
and terror, especially amid the obscurity of the night,
and promised himself the amplest success from his
stratagem. In the meantime he hastened back to the
very spot where he had lurked before, and, raising his
voice, he shouted several times successively with all
his might. A hundred echoes from the neighboring
cliffs and caverns returned the sound, and with a re-
verberation that made it appear like the noise of a
mighty host. The soldiers, who had been alarmed by
the sudden blaze of so many fires, were now struck
with such a panic, that, imagining themselves attacked
by their enemies, they fled in confusion, and left the
prisoners to themselves. Sophron then advanced, and,
in a few words, explained to the trembling and amazed
captives the nature of his stratagem. They then fled
together till they thought themselves out of danger of
pursuit.
Next day, they reached the hospitable cottage where
Sophron and his parents dwelt; and after a plentiful
but simple repast, the father of Sophron entreated the
old man to let him hear the history of his misfortunes.
"I can refuse nothing," said the venerable stranger, ( to
persons to whom I am under such extraordinary obli.
nations. My name is Chares; and I was born in one





152 THE HISTORY OF

meal: he then flew out of the room, and settled upon
a neighboring tree, singing all the time, as if to return
thanks for the hospitality he had met with.
Tommy was greatly delighted with his new acquaint-
ance; and from this time never failed to set his window
open every morning, and scatter some crumbs about
the room; which the bird perceiving, hopped fearless
in, and regaled himself under the protection of his
benefactor. By degrees the intimacy increased so
much, that little Robin would alight on Tommy's
shoulder, and whistle his notes in that situation, or eat
out of his hand; all which gave Tommy so much satis-
faction, that he would frequently call Mr. Barlow and
Harry to be witness of his favourite's caresses; nor
did he ever eat his own meals, without reserving a
part for his little friend.
It however happened, that one day Tommy went up
stairs after dinner, intending to feed his bird as usual;
but as soon as he opened the door of his chamber, he
discovered a sight that pierced him to the very heart.
His little friend and innocent companion lay dead upon
the floor, and torn in pieces; and a large cat taking
that opportunity to escape, soon directed his suspicions
towards the murderer.-Tommy instantly ran down
with tears in his eyes, to relate the unfortunate death
of his favourite to Mr. Barlow, and to demand ven-
geance against the wicked cat that had occasioned it.
MIr. Barlow heard him with great compassion, but
asked, what punishment he wished to inflict upon the
cat ?
Tommy. Oh sir, nothing can be too bad for that
cruel animal. I would have her killed, as she killed
the poor bird.
Air. Barlow. But do you imagine that she did it out
of any particular malice to your bird, or merely because
she was hungry, and accustomed to catch her prey in
that manner ?





174 THE HISTORY OF

was brought to table, and set before him. He now,
from exercise and abstinence, began to find a relish in
his victuals which he had never done before, and the
doctor permitted him to mingle a little wine with his
water. These compliances, however, were so extremely
irksome to his temper, that the month seemed to pass
away as slowly as a year. When it was expired, and
his servants came to ask his orders, he instantly threw
himself into his carriage without taking leave either of
the doctor or his family. When he came to reflect upon
the treatment he had received, his forced exercises, his
involuntary abstinence, and all the other mortifications
he had undergone, he could not conceive but it must be
a plot of the physician he had left behind, and full
of rage and indignation, drove directly to his house,
in order to reproach him with it.
The physician happened to be at home ; but scarcely
knew his patient again, though after so short an ab-
sence. He had shrunk to half his former bulk, his look
and colour were mended, and he had entirely thrown
away his crutches. When he had given vent to all that
his anger could suggest, the physician coolly answered
in the following manner : I know not, sir, what right
you have to make me these reproaches, since it was
not by my persuasion that you put yourself under the
care of Doctor Ramozini."-" Yes, sir, but you gave me
a high character of his skill and integrity."-" Has he
then deceived you in either; or, do you find yourself
worse than when you put yourself under his care ?"-
I cannot say that," answered the gentleman ; "I am
to be sure surprisingly improved in my digestion; I
sleep better than ever I did before; I eat with an appe-
tite; and I can walk almost as well as ever I could in
my life."--" And do you seriously come," said the phy-
sician, to complain of a man that has effected all these
miracles for you in so short a time, and, unless you are





SANDFORD AND MERTON 259
ferent nature from what he had with so much assiduity
been labouring to excite. However, the visit was un-
avoidable ; and Mr. Merton sent so pressing an invita-
tion for Harry to accompany his friend, after having
obtained the consent of his father, that Mr. Barlow,
with much regret, took leave of both his pupils. Harry,
from the experience he had formerly acquired of polite
life, had no great inclination for the expedition : how-
ever, his temper was too easy and obliging to raise any
objections; and the real affection he now entertained
for Master Merton, rendered him less averse than he
would otherwise have been.
When they arrived at Mr. Merton's, they were intro-
duced into a crowded drawing-room, full of the most
elegant company which that part of the country af-
forded; among whom were several young ladies and
gentlemen of different ages, who had been purposely
invited to spend their holidays with Master Merton.
As soon as Master Merton entered, every tongue was
let loose in his praise; "he was grown, he was im-
proved, he was such a charming boy !" his eyes, his
hair, his teeth, his every feature was the admiration of
all the ladies. Thrice did he make the circle, in order
to receive the congratulations of the company, and to
be introduced to the young ladies.
As to Harry, he had the good fortune to be taken
notice of by nobody except Mr. Merton, who received
him with great cordiality. A lady, however, who sat
by Mrs. Merton, asked her in a whisper, which was
loud enough to be heard all over the room, whether
that was the little plough-boy whom she had heard Mr.
Barlow was attempting to breed up like a gentleman 1
Mrs. Merton answered it was. "I protest," said the
lady, I should have thought so by his plebeian look
and vulgar air. But I wonder, my dear madam, that
you will suffer your son, who, without flattery, is one





398 THE HISTORY OF
already had they begun to differ about the division of
these splendid trifles, when Sophron, who marked the
growing mischief, and remembered the fatal effects
which Chares had described in his travels, rose, and
proposed to his countrymen, that the arms of their
conquered enemies should be carefully preserved for
the public defence, but that all the rest of the spoil
should be consumed upon the funeral pile prepared for
the dead, lest the simplicity of the inhabitants of Leba-
non should be corrupted, and the happy equality and
union which had hitherto prevailed among them, be
interrupted. This proposal was instantly applauded
by all the older and wiser part of the assembly, who
rejoiced in seeing the evils averted which they had so
much reason to apprehend: nor did those of a dif-
ferent character dare to express their sentiments, or
attempt any open opposition.
From this time, Sophron was universally honoured
by all, as the most virtuous and valiant of his nation.
He passed the rest of his life in peace and tranquil-
lity, contented with the exercise of the same rural em-
ployments which had engaged his childhood. Chares,
whose virtues and knowledge were equally admirable,
was presented, at the public expense, with a small but
fertile tract of land, sufficient to supply him with all
the comforts of life: this the grateful inhabitants of
the mountains continually cultivated for him as a
memorial of the signal assistance he had afforded
them: and here, contented with the enjoyment of
security and freedom, he passed the remaining pait
of his life in the contemplation of nature, and the
delightful intercourse of virtuous friendship.
When Miss Simmons had finished, Tommy expressed
his astonishment, at the latter part of the story. Is it
possible," said he, there can be anything of so extra-
ordinary a nature as to burst the very rocks asunder,





210 THE HISTORY OF
is a fine thing indeed, to acquire knowledge; for by
these means, one not only increases one's understand-
ing, but one's bodily strength. But are there no more,
sir, of these ingenious contrivances ? for I should like
to understand them all."-" Yes," answered Mr. Barlow,
"there are more; and all of them you shall be perfectly
acquainted with in time: but for this purpose, you
should be able to write and comprehend something of
Arithmetic."
Tommy. What is arithmetic, sir ?
Mr. Barlow. That is not easy to make you under-
stand at once; I will, however, try to explain it. Do
you see the grains of wheat, which lie scattered in the
window ?
Tommy. Yes, sir.
M1r. Barlow. Can you count how many there are ?
Tommy. There are just five-and-twenty of them.
Mr. Barlow. Very well. Here is another parcel:
how many grains are there
Tommy. Just fourteen.
Mr. Barlow. If there are fourteen grains in one
heap, and twenty-five in the other; how many grains
are there in all ? or, how many do fourteen and twenty-
five make ?
Tommy was unable to answer, and Mr. Barlow pro-
posed the same question to Harry, who answered, that,
together, they made thirty-nine.---" Again," said Mr.
Barlow, 1 I will put the two heaps together; and then
how many will there be ?"
Tommy. Thirty-nine.
AMr. Barlow. Now look, I have just taken away nine-
teen from the number; how many do you think re-
main?
Tommy. I will count them.
Mr. Barlow. And cannot you tell without counting?
How many are there, Harry ?
Harry. Twenty, sir.





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 133
sympathy took him by the hand, and bathed it with his
tears. At length, softened and overcome by the sor-
rows of those he loved so well, and by his own cooler
reflections, he resigned the fatal instrument, and sat
himself down upon a chair, covering his face with his
hands, and only saying, The will of God be done !"
Tommy had beheld this affecting scene with the
greatest attention, although he had not said a word; and
now, beckoning Harry away, he went silently out of
the house, and took the road which led to Mr. Barlow's.
While he was on the way, he seemed to be so full of
the scene which he had just witnessed, that he did not
open his lips : but when he came home, he instantly
went to Mr. Barlow, and desired that he would directly
send him to his father's. Mr. Barlow stared at the re-
quest, and asked him what was the occasion of his
being so suddenly tired with his residence at the vicar-
age ?-" Sir," answered Tommy, I am not the least
tired, I. assure you; you have been extremely kind to
me, and I shall always remember it with the greatest
gratitude : but I want to see my father immediately,
and I am sure, when you come to know the occasion,
you will not disapprove of it." Mr. Barlow did not
press him any farther, but ordered a careful servant to
saddle a horse directly, and take Tommy home before
him.
Mr. and Mrs. Merton were extremely surprised and
overjoyed at the sight of their son, who thus unexpect-
edly arrived at home : but Tommy, whose mind was full
of the project which he had formed, as soon as he had
answered their first questions, accosted his father thus :
" Pray, sir, will you be angry with me, if I ask you for
a great favour ?"-" No, surely," said Mr. Merton, that
I will not."-" Why, then," said Tommy, as I have
often heard you say that you were very rich, and that,
if I was good, I should be rich too; will you give me
9





96 THE HISTORY OF
he chanced to see the wife of his keeper (who had
often fed him as well as her husband), with her young
child in her arms, with which she was endeavouring to
escape from his fury. The woman ran as fast as she
was able ; but, finding that it was impossible for her to
escape, because these beasts, although so very large,
are able to run very fast, she resolutely turned about,
and throwing her child down before the elephant, thus
accosted him, as if he had been capable of understand.
ing her :-' You ungrateful beast, is this the return
you make for all the benefits we have bestowed ? Have
we fed you, and taken care of you, by day and night,
during so many years, only that you may at last destroy
us all ? Crush, then, this poor innocent child and me, in
return for the services that my husband has done you "
-While she was making these passionate exclamations,
the elephant approached the place where the little in-
fant lay, but, instead of trampling upon him, or hurting
him, he stopped short, and looked at him with earnest-
ness, as if he had been sensible of shame and confusion ;
and, his fury from that instant abating, he suffered
himself to be led without opposition to his stable."
Tommy thanked Mr. Barlow for these two stories
and promised, for the future, to use more discretion in
his kindness to animals.
The next day Tommy and Harry went into the garden
to sow the wheat which Harry had brought with him,
upon a bed which Tommy had dug for that purpose.
While they were at work, Tommy said, "Pray, Harry,
did you ever hear the story of the men that were
obliged to live six years upon that terrible cold country
(I forget the name of it), where there is nothing but
snow and ice, and scarcely any other animals but great
bears, that are ready to eat men up ?"-Harry. Yes, I
have.-T. And did not the very thoughts of it frighten
you dreadfully ?-H. No, I cannot say they did.-T.






68 THE HISTORY OF
what is it you intend doing with it ?-" Why, sir," said
Tommy, "I intend to send it to the mill that we saw,
and have it ground into flour; and then I will get you
to show me how to make bread of it; and then I will
sat it, that I may tell my father that I have eaten
bread out of corn of my own sowing."-" That will be
very well done," said Mr. Barlow; "but where will
be the great goodness that you sow corn for your own
eating ? that is no more than all the people round con-
tinually do; and if they did not do it, they would be
obliged to fast."-- But then," said Tommy, "they are
not gentlemen as I am."-" What then," answered Mr.
Barlow, "must not gentlemen cat as well as others,
and therefore is it not for their interest to know how
to procure food as well as other people ?"-" Yes, sir,"
answered Tommy ; "but they can have other people to
raise it for them, so that they are not obliged to work
for themselves." How does that happen ?" said Mr.
Barlow.-Tommy. Why, sir, they pay other people to
work for them, or buy bread when it is made, as much
as they want.-Mr. B. Then they pay for it with
money ?-T. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. Then they must have
money before they can buy corn?-T. Certainly, sir.-
Mr. B. But have all gentlemen money ?-Tommy hesi-
tated some time at this question : at last he said, "I
believe not always, sir."--fr. B. Why, then, if they
have not money, they will find it difficult to procure
corn, unless they raise it for themselves.-" Indeed,"
said Tommy, "I believe they will; for perhaps they
may not find anybody good-natured enough to give it
them."-" But," said Mr. Barlow, "as we are talking
upon this subject, I will tell you a story that I read a
little time past, if you choose to hear it."-Tommy said
lie should be very glad if Mr. Barlow would take the
trouble of telling it to him ; and Mr. I arlow told him
the following history of





104 THE HISTORY OF
Frenchman, who teaches her to jump and caper about
the room.
Master," replied the man smiling, these are great
gentlefolks that you are talking about; they are very
rich, and have a right to do what they please with their
own : it is the duty of us poor folks to labour hard, take
what we can get, and thank the great and wise God that
our condition is no worse."
Tommy. What, and is it possible that you can thank
God for living in such a house as this, and earning seven
shillings and sixpence a-week ?
The Man. To be sure I can, master. Is it not an act
of His goodness, that we have clothes and a warm
house to shelter us, and wholesome food to eat ? It
was but yesterday that two poor men came by, who had
been cast away in a storm, and lost their ship and all
they had. One of the poor men had scarcely any
clothes to cover him, and was shaking all over with a
violent ague ; and the other had his toes almost morti-
fied by walking bare-footed in the snow. Am I not a
great deal better off than these poor men, and perhaps
than a thousand others, who are at this time tost about
upon the waves, or cast away, or wandering about the
world, without a shed to cover them from the weather;
or imprisoned for debt? Might I not have gone on in
committing bad actions, like many other unhappy men,
till I had been guilty of some notorious crime, which
might have brought me to a shameful end ? And ought
I not to be grateful for all these blessings which I pos-
sess without deserving them ?
Tommy, who had hitherto enjoyed all the good things
of this life, without reflecting from whom he had re-
ceived them, was very much struck with the piety of
this honest and contented man: but, as he was going
to answer, the good woman, who had laid a clean though
coarse cloth upon the table, and taken up her savoury





408 THE HISTORY OF
became impossible for the creature either to resist or
stir. Leaping then from his horse, who remained im-
moveable as before, he took a saddle, which had been
left there on purpose, and girded it firmly on the back
of the bull; through his nostrils he thrust an iron ring ;
to which was fixed a cord, which he brought over his
neck as a bridle; and then, arming his hand with a
short spike, he nimbly vaulted upon the back of this
new and terrible courser.
The creature at this time did not cease to bellow
with every expression of rage : which had not the least
effect upon the mind of this valiant man : on the con-
trary, coolly taking a knife, he cut the cord which
bound him to the stake, and restored him to perfect
liberty. The creature, thus disengaged, exerted every
effort of strength and fury, to throw his rider, who
kept his seat undaunted in spite of all his violent agita-
tion. The gates of the torillo were then thrown open,
and two other furious bulls rushed out, and seemed
ready to attack the man : but, at the instant they per-
ceived the manner in which he was mounted, their
rage gave way to terror, and they fled precipitately
away. The other bull followed his companions, and
Iore his rider several times round the amphitheatre in
this extraordinary chase. This spectacle had already
lasted some time, to the admiration of all present;
when the governor ordered the man to complete the
business, by putting all the bulls to death. He, in-
stantly drawing his knife, plunged it behind the horns
of the bull on which he rode, who immediately dropped
down dead ; while the conqueror, disengaging himself
as he fell, stood upright by the slaughtered animal. He
then mounted his horse again, who had been placed in
safety at some little distance; and, pursuing the chase
as before, with his fatal noose, despatched both the sur-
viving animals without the least difficulty."





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 29
and of entering a room. They will teach him that the
great object of human life is to please the fair; and
that the only method of doing it is to acquire the graces.
Need we fear that, thus beset on every side, he should
not attach a sufficient importance to trifles, or grow
fashionably languid in the discharge of all his duties .
-Alas sir, it seems to me that this will unavoidably
happen in spite of all our endeavours. Let us then not
lose the important moment of human life, when it is
possible to flatter ourselves with some hopes of success
in giving good impressions: they may succeed; they
may either preserve a young man from gross immoral-
ity, or have a tendency to reform him, when the first
ardour of youth is past. If we neglect this awful
moment, which can never return ; with the view which,
I must confess, I have of modern manners, it appears
to me like launching a vessel in the midst of a storm,
without a compass and without a pilot."
Sir," said Mr. Merton, I will make no other answer
to what you have now been saying, than to tell you, it
adds, if possible, to my esteem of your character; and
that I will deliver my son into your hands, upon your
own conditions. And as to the terms--"
Pardon me," replied Mr. Barlow, "if I interrupt you
here, and give you another specimen of the singularity
of my opinions. I am contented to take your son for
some months under my care, and to endeavour by every
means within my power to improve him. But there is
one circumstance which is indispensable, that you per-
mit me to have the pleasure of serving you as a friend.
If you approve of my ideas and conduct, I will keep
him as long as you desire. In the mean time, as there
are, I fear, some little circumstances, which have grown
up by too much tenderness and indulgence, to be altered
in his character, I think that I shall possess more of the
necessary influence and authority, if I, for the present,





SANDFORD AND MERTON 339
deserted by his men, yet still attempting to renew the
fight, and heedless of the wounds which covered him.
Transported with grief and passion, I immediately
darted forward to offer him my feeble support; but in
the very instant of my arrival, he received a straggling
ball in his bosom, and, tottering to a tree, supported his
fainting limbs against the trunk. Just in that moment,
three of our savage enemies observed his situation, and
marked him for their prey; they raised their hideous
yell, and darted upon him with the speed and fierce-
ness of wolves. Fury then took possession of my
soul: had I possessed a thousand lives, I should have
held them cheap in the balance. I fired with so un-
erring an aim, that I stretched the foremost on the
earth; the second received the point of my bayonet in
his breast, and fell in the pangs of death; the third,
daunted with the fate of his companions, turned his
steps another way.
"Just then a horse, that had lost his rider, was gal-
loping along the wood: I bounded across the path, and,
seizing him by the bridle, instantly led him to my
leader, and conjured him to preserve his glorious life.
He thanked me in the most affectionate manner for
my friendship, but bade me preserve my own life.
C As to myself,' said he, 'I do not wish to survive my
country's dishonour; and even had I such a wish, the
wounds I have received would render all escape im-
possible.'-' If that is your resolution,' said I, 'we will
die together; for I swear that I will not leave you.'
When he saw me thus resolved, he consented to use
my assistance, and with infinite difficulty I seated him
upon the horse, which, holding by the reins, as I was
then light and active, I guided along the wood, with
no inconsiderable speed.
Fortunately for me, we were not observed by any of
our savage enemies, so that, flying through the thickest





58 THE HISTORY OF
scarcely reached below his middle, and was too tight
for him in every part; upon which, the great boy pro-
poped to the little boy to change coats with him, "be-
cause then," said he, "we shall be both exactly fitted;
for your coat is as much too big for you, as mine is too
little for me."-The little boy would not consent to
the proposal; on which, the great boy took his coat
away by force, and gave his own to the little boy in
exchange. While they were disputing upon this sub-
ject, I chanced to pass by, and they agreed to make
me judge of the affair. But I decided that the little
boy should keep the little coat, and the great boy the
great one; for which judgment my master punished
me.
"Why so I" said Cyrus's father; "was not the little
coat most proper for the little boy, and the large coat
for the great boy 1"---" Yes, sir," answered Cyrus; but
my master told me, I was not made judge to examine
which coat best fitted either of the boys, but to decide,
whether it was just that the great boy should take
away the coat of the little one against his consent;
and therefore I decided unjustly, and deserved to be
punished."

Just as the story was finished, they were surprised to
see a little ragged boy come running up to them, with
a bundle of clothes under his arm: his eyes were
black, as if he had been severely beaten, his nose was
swelled, his shirt was bloody, and his waistcoat did but
just hang upon his back, so much was it torn. He
came running up to Tommy, and threw down the
bundle before him, saying, "Here, master, take your
clothes again; and I wish that they had been at the
bottom of the ditch I pulled you out of, instead of
upon my back :-but I never will put such frippery on
again as long as I have breath in my body.F





SANDFORD AND MERTON,


THE TWO BROTHERS.

ABOUT the time that many people went over to South
America, with the hopes of finding gold and silver,
there was a Spaniard, whose name was Pizarro, who
had a great inclination to try his fortune like the rest :
but, as he had an elder brother, for whom he had a
very great affection, he went to him, told him his de-
sign, and solicited him very much to go along with
him, promising him that he should have an equal share
of all the riches they found.-The brother, whose name
was Alonzo, was a man of a contented temper, and
a good understanding; he did not therefore much ap-
prove of the project, and endeavoured to dissuade Piz-
arro from it, by setting before him the danger to which
he exposed himself, and the uncertainty of his succeed-
ing; but, finding all that he said was vain, he agreed to
go with him, but told him at the same time, that he
wanted no part of the riches which he might find, and
would ask no other favour than to have his baggage
and a few servants taken on board the vessel with
him. Pizarro then sold all that he had, bought a vessel,
and embarked with several other adventurers, who had
all great expectations, like himself, of soon becoming
rich.-As to Alonzo, he took nothing with him but a
few ploughs, harrows, and other tools, and some corn,
together with a large quantity of potatoes, and some
seeds of different vegetables. Pizarro thought this a
very odd preparation for a voyage; but, as he did not
think proper to expostulate with his brother, he said
nothing.
After sailing for some time with prosperous winds,
they put into the last port where they were to stop,
before they came to the country where they were to
search for gold. Here Pizarro bought a great number
5






128 THE HISTORY OF
madam," said Harry, we have not lost our way ; but
we have walked farther than usual this morning, and we
wait here a little while to rest ourselves."-"Well," said
the woman, "if you will come into my little house, that
you see a few yards farther on, you may sit more com-
fortably; and, as my daughter has by this time milked
the cows, she shall give you a mess of bread and milk."
Tommy, who was by this time extremely hungry, as
well as tired, told Harry that he should like to accept the
good woman's invitation : so they both followed her to
a small, but clean-looking farm-house, which stood at a
little distance. Here they entered a very clean kitchen,
furnished with plain, but convenient furniture ; and
were desired to sit down by a warm and comfortable
fire, which was made of turf. Tommy, who had never
seen such a fire, could not help inquiring about it: and
the good woman told him, that poor people like her,
were unable to purchase coals: "therefore," said she,
we go and pare the surface of the commons, which is
full of grass and heath, and other vegetables, together
with their roots, all matted together: these we dry in
small pieces, by leaving them exposed to the summer's
sun; and then we bring them home, and put them
under the cover of a shed, and use them for our fires."
"-" But," said Tommy, "I should think that you would
hardly have fire enough, by these means, to dress your
dinner; for I have, by accident, been in my father's
kitchen, when they were dressing the dinner, and I saw
a fire that blazed up to the very top of the chimney."
-The poor woman smiled at this, and said,1 "Your
father, I suppose, master, is some rich man, who has a
great deal of victuals to dress; but we poor people
must be more easily contented."-" Why," said Tommy7
"you must at least want to roast meat every day."-
" No," said the poor woman, "we seldom see roast meat "
in our house : but we are very well contented, if we can





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 93
you never would have attempted to catch the pig by
the hinder leg, in order to tame it: and it is very
lucky that you did not make the experiment upon a
larger animal, otherwise you might have been as badly
treated as the Tailor was by the elephant.-T. Pray,
sir, what is this curious story ? But first tell me, if you
please, what an elephant is.
An Elephant," said Mr. Barlow, "is the largest
land animal that we are acquainted with. It is many
times thicker than an ox, and grows to the height of
eleven or twelve feet. Its strength, as may be easily
imagined, is prodigious ; but it is, at the same time, so
very gentle, that it rarely does hurt to anything, even
in the woods where it resides. It does not eat flesh,
but lives upon the fruits and branches of trees. But
what is most singular about its make is, that instead of
a nose, it has a long, hollow piece of flesh, which grows
over its mouth to the length of three or four feet: this
is called the trunk of the Elephant; and he is capable
of bending it in every direction. When he wants to
break off the branch of a tree, he twists his trunk round
it, and snaps it off directly; when he wants to drink,
he lets it down into the water, sucks up several gallons
at a time, and then, doubling the end of it back, dis-
charges it all into his mouth."
But if he is so large and strong," said Tommy, I
should suppose it must be impossible ever to tame
him."-" So perhaps it would," replied Mr. Barlow,
did they not instruct those that have been already
tamed to assist in catching others."-T. How is that,
sir ?-.3Mr. B. When they have discovered a forest
where these animals resort, they make a large enclo-
sure with strong pales and a deep ditch, leaving only
one entrance to it, which has a strong gate left pur-
posely open. They thtn let one or two of their tame
elephants loose, who join the wild ones, and gradually






9 8 THE HISTORY OF
a particular kind of earth, that sticks to your feet when
you tread upon it, or to your hands when you touch it.
--T. I declare I did not think it had been so easy to
make a house. And do you think that people could
really live in such houses ?-H. Certainly they might,
because many persons live in such houses here ; and I
have been told, that in many parts of the world they
have not any other.-T. Really, I should like to try to
make a house; do you think, Harry, that you and I
could make one ?--I. Yes, if I had wood and clay
enough, I think I could; and a small hatchet to sharpen
the stakes, and make them enter the ground.
iMr. Barlow then came to call them in to read; and
told Tommy, that as he had been talking so much about
good-nature to animals, he had looked him out a very
pretty story upon the subject, and begged that he would
read it well.-" That I will," said Tommy; "for I begin
to like reading extremely: and I think that I am hap-
pier too since I learned it; for now I can always divert
myself."-' Indeed," answered Mr. Barlow, "most peo-
ple find it so. When any one can read, he will not
find the knowledge any burden to him : and, it is his
own fault, if he is not constantly amused. This is an
advantage, Tommy, which a gentleman, since you are
so fond of the word, may more particularly enjoy, be-
cause he has so much time at his own disposal: and it
is much better that he should distinguish himself by
having more knowledge and improvement than others,
than by fine clothes, or any such trifles, which any one
may have that can purchase them, as well as himself."
Tommy then read, with a clear and distinct voice,
the following story of

THE GOOD-NATURED LITTLE BOY,
A LITTLE Boy went out, one morning, to walk to a
village about five miles from the place where he lived,





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 87
service : but the question was how to tan them. After
deliberating on this subject, they took to the following
method: they soaked the skins for several days in
fresh water, till they could pull off the hair pretty
easily ; they then rubbed the wet leather with their
hands till it was nearly dry, when they spread some
melted rein-deer fat over it, and again rubbed it well.
By this process the leather became soft, pliant, and
supple, proper for answering every purpose they
wanted it for. Those skins which they designed for
furs, they only soaked for one day, to prepare them
for being wrought; and then proceeded in the manner
before-mentioned, except only that they did not remove
the hair. Thus they soon provided themselves with
the necessary materials for all the parts of dress they
wanted.-But here another difficulty occurred : they
had neither awls for making shoes or boots, nor needles
for sewing their garments. This want, however, they
soon supplied by means of the pieces of iron they had
occasionally collected. Out of these they made both,
and by their industry even brought them to a certain
degree of perfection. The making eyes to their needles
gave them indeed no little trouble, but this they also
performed with the assistance of their knife; for, hav-
ing ground it to a very sharp point, and heated red-hot
a kind of wire forged for that purpose, they pierced a
hole through one end, and, by whetting and smoothing
it on stones, brought the other to a point; and thus
gave the whole needle a very tolerable form. Scissors
to cut out the skin were what they next had occasion
for; but having none, their place they supplied with
the knife: and, though there was neither shoemaker
nor tailor amongst them, yet they had contrived to
cut out their leather and furs well enough for their
purpose. The sinews of the bears and the rein-deer,
which, as I mentioned before, they had found means





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 343
shrouding myself as well as I was able, was soon over-
powered by sleep. I did not awake till the sun had
gained the meridian, and, creeping from my retreat,
beheld, with some degree of terror, an enormous rattle-
snake that was coiled up full in my way, and seemed
determined to oppose my passage. This animal is fre-
quent in the southern colonies, and is the most poison-
ous of all the reptiles that haunt the woods. He is in
length from two to six feet, beautifully variegated with
different colours; but the most remarkable circum-
stance attending him is a natural noise that he pro-
duces with every motion of his tail, and which, too,
occasions his name. I soon destroyed my hissing foe,
and, taking courage for the first to kindle a fire, I
roasted him upon the embers, and made the most deli-
cious meal I ever remember upon his flesh."
"What !" exclaimed Tommy, "is it possible to eat
snakes ? I thought they had been all over poison.--
Master," replied the Highlander, the want of food
will reconcile us to many meats, which we should
scarcely think eatable. Nothing has surprised me
more than to see the poor in various countries, com-
plaining of the scarcity of food, yet throwing away
every year thousands of the carcasses of horses, which
are full as wholesome and nourishing as beef, and are
in many countries preferred to it. But, in general,
every animal may be eaten, and affords a salutary
food. As to snakes, the poison of them is contained in
the hollow of their teeth. When they bite, they instil
their venom into the wound, which mixes with the
blood, and, without a timely remedy, destroys the suf-
ferer : but if you cut off the head, the rest of the body
is not only wholesome but palatable, and I have known
it eaten as a delicacy by many inhabitants of the
colonies.
Thus refreshed, therefore, I pursued my march





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 140

upon the highest tree they can find; and if any one
approaches, they instantly give notice by their cawing,
and all the rest take wing directly, and fly away."-
But," answered Mr. Barlow, "the monkeys are said to
be yet more ingenious in their thefts : for they station
some of their body at a small distance from each other,
in a line that reaches quite from the forest they in-
habit, to the particular garden they wish to plunder.
When this is done, several of them mount the fairest
fruit-trees, and, picking the fruit, throw it down to their
companions who stand below; these again cast it to
others at a little distance; and thus it flies from hand
to hand, till it is safely deposited in the woods or moun-
tains whence they came.-When they are taken very
young, they are easily tamed; but always retain a
great disposition to mischief, as well as to imitate every-
thing they see done by men. Many ridiculous stories
are told of them in this respect. 1 have heard of a
monkey that resided in a gentleman's family, and that
frequently observed his master undergo the operation
of shaving. The imitative animal one day took it into
his head to turn barber, and, seizing in one hand a cat
that lived in the same house, and a bottle of ink in the
other, he carried her up to the top of a very fine marble
stair-case. The servants were all attracted by the
screams of the cat, who did not relish the operation
which was going forward; and running out, were
equally surprised and diverted, to see the monkey
gavely seated upon the landing-place of the stairs, and
holding the cat fast in one of his paws ; while with the
other he continually applied ink to puss's face, rubbing
it all over just as he had observed the barber do to his
master. Whenever the cat struggled to escape, the
monkey gave her a pat with his paw, chattering all the
time, and making the most ridiculous grimaces; and
when she was quiet, he applied himself to his bottle,
I10 (





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 175
now wanting to yourself, has given you a degree of life
and health which you had not the smallest reason to
expect ?"
The gentleman, who had not sufficiently considered
all these advantages, began to look a little confused;
and the physician thus went on: "All that you have
to complain of is, that you have been involuntarily
your own dupe, and cheated into health and happiness.
You went to Doctor Ramozini, and saw a parcel of
miserable wretches comfortably at dinner. That great
and worthy man is the father of all about him: he
knows that most of the diseases of the poor originate
in their want of food and necessaries; and therefore
benevolently assists them with better diet and clothing.
The rich, on the contrary, are generally the victims of
their own sloth and intemperance, and therefore he
finds it necessary to use a contrary method of cure,-
exercise, abstinence, and mortification. You, sir, have
been treated like a child; but it has been for your own
advantage. Neither your bed, nor meat, nor drink, has
ever been medicated; all the wonderful change that
has been produced, has been by giving you better habits,
and rousing the slumbering powers of your own con-
stitution. As to deception, you have none to complain
of, except what proceeded from your own foolish ima-
gination ; which persuaded you that a physician was to
regulate his conduct by the folly and intemperance of
his patient. As to all the rest, he only promised to
exert all the secrets of his art for your cure ; and this,
I am witness, he has done so effectually, that were you
to reward him with half your fortune, it would hardly
be too much for his deserts."
The gentleman, who did not want either sense or
generosity, could not help feeling the force of what
was said. He therefore made a handsome apology for
his behaviour, and instantly despatched a servant to






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 37
man : As this proud and wicked man has been puffed
up with the opinion of his own importance, and at-
tempted to commit the most scandalous injustice from
his contempt of the poor, I am willing to teach him of
how little value he is to anybody, and how vile and
contemptible a creature he really is : but, for this pur-
pose, it is necessary that you should consent to the
plan I have formed, and go along with him to the plabe
whither I intend to send you both."
The poor man replied, I never had much, but the
little I once had is now lost by the mischievous dispo-
tion of this proud and oppressive man : I am entirely
ruined; I have no means left in the world of procur-
ing myself a morsel of bread the next time I am hun-
gry; therefore I am ready to go wherever you please
to send me: and, though I would not treat this man
as he has treated me, yet should I rejoice to teach him
more justice and humanity, and to prevent his injuring
the poor a second time."
The magistrate then ordered them both to be put on
board a ship, and carried to a distant country, which
was inhabited by a rude and savage kind of men, who
lived in huts, were strangers to riches, and got their
living by fishing.
As soon as they were set on shore, the sailors left
them, as they had been ordered; and the inhabitants
of the country came round them in great numbers. The
rich man, seeing himself thus exposed, without assist-
ance or defence, in the midst of a barbarous people,
whose language he did not understand, and in whose
power he was, began to cry and wring his hands in the
most abject manner; but the poor Basket-maker, who
had always been accustomed to hardship and dangers
from his infancy, made signs to the people, that he was
their friend, and was willing to work for them and be
their servant. Upon this the natives made signs to
3





300 THIE HISTORY Of
which she had become the enemy of a boy who had
saved the life of her darling son; and who appeared as
much superior in character to all the young gentlemen
at her house, as they exceeded him in rank and fortune-
The young ladies now forgot their former objections to
his person and manners; and, such is the effect of
genuine virtue, all the company conspired to extol the
conduct of Harry to the skies.
But Mr. Merton, who had appeared more delighted
than all the rest with the relation of Harry's intrepi-
dity, now cast his eyes round the room, and seemed to
be looking for his little friend; but when he could not
find him, he said, with some concern, Where can be
our little deliverer ? Sure he can have met with no
accident, that he has not returned with the rest ?"-
No," said one of the servants; as to that, Harry
Sandford is safe enough, for I saw him go towards his
own home in company with the Black."-" Alas !"
answered Mr. Merton, surely he must have received
some unworthy treatment, that could make him thus
abruptly desert us all. And now I recollect I heard one
of the young gentlemen mention a blow that Harry had
received; surely, Tommy, you could not have been so
basely ungrateful as to strike the best and noblest
of your friends !" Tommy, at this, hung down his
head; his face was covered with a burning blush, and
the tears began silently to trickle down his cheeks.
Mrs. Merton remarked the anguish and confusion of
her child, and catching him in her arms, was going to
clasp him to her bosom with the most endearing ex-
pressions; but Mr. Merton, hastily interrupting her)
said, It is not now a time to give way to fondness for
a child, who, I fear, has acted the basest and vilest part
that can disgrace a human being ; and who, if what I
suspect is true, can be only a dishonour to his parents."
At this, Tounny could no longer contain himself, but





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 363
shall I ever be happy till I see my son acknowledging
all his faults, and entreating forgiveness: for, with the
virtues that I have discovered in his soul, he appears
to me a more eligible friend and companion than
noblemen or princes."
Mr. Barlow therefore set out on foot, though Mr.
Merton would have sent his carriage and servants to
attend him, and soon arrived at Mr. Sandford's farm.
It was a pleasant spot, situated upon the gentle de-
clivity of a hill, at the foot of which winded along a
swift and clear little stream. The house itself was
small; but warm and convenient; furnished with the
greatest simplicity, but managed with perfect neatness.
As Mr. Barlow approached, he saw the owner himself
guiding a plough through one of his own fields, and
Harry, who had now resumed the farmer, directed the
horses. But when he saw Mr. Barlow coming across
the field, he stopped his team, and, letting fall his
whip, sprang forward to meet him with all the unaf-
fected eagerness of joy. As soon as Harry had saluted
Mr. Barlow, and inquired after his health, he asked
with the greatest kindness after Tommy;-" For I
fancy, sir," said he, by the way which I see you come,
you have been at Mr. Merton's house."-" Indeed I
have," replied Mr. Barlow, "but I am very sorry to
find that Tommy and you are not upon as good terms
as you formerly were."
Harry. Indeed, sir, I am very sorry for it myself.
But I do not know that I have given Master Merton
any reason to change his sentiments about me; and
though I do not think he has treated me as well as he
ought to do, I have the greatest desire to hear that he
is well.
Mr. Barlow. That you might have known yourself,
had you not left Mr. Merton's house so suddenly, with-
out taking leave of any one, even your friend Mr.






320 THE HISTORY OF

your temper. But what is the reason that I see you
thus disfigured with dirt ? Surely you must have been
riding, and your horse has thrown you ? And so it' is
for here is William following with both the horses in
a foam."
William at that moment appeared; and trotting up
to his master, began to make excuses for his own share
in the business. Indeed, sir," said he, I did not think
there was the least harm in going out with Master
Tommy, and we were riding along as quietly as pos-
sible, and master was giving me a long account of the
Arabs, who, he said, lived in the finest country in the
world, which does not produce anything to eat, or drink,
or wear; and yet they never want to come upon the
parish, but ride upon the most mettled horses in the
world, fit to start for any plate in England. And just
as he was giving me this account, Punch took it into
his head to run away, and while I was endeavouring to
catch him, he jumped into a quagmire, and shot Master
Tommy off in the middle of it."-"No," said Tommy,
there you mistake ; I believe I could manage a much
more spirited horse than Punch, but I thought it pru-
dent to throw myself off, for fear of his plunging deeper
into the mire."-" But how is this ?" said Mr. Merton,
"6 the pony used to be the quietest of horses; what can
have given him this sudden impulse to run away?
Surely, William, you were not so imprudent as to trust
your master with spurs ?"-"No, sir," answered William,
"Not I; and I can take my oath he had no spurs on
when he first set out."
Mr. Merton was convinced there was some mystery
in this transaction, and looking at his son to find it out,
he at length discovered the ingenious contrivance of
Tommy to supply the place of spurs, and could hardly
preserve his gravity at the sight. He, however, mildly
set before him his imprudence, which iighlt have been





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 71
sun, and then wetted to the skin by violent showers of
rain. These difficulties, however, did not discourage
them so much as to hinder them from trying in several
places for gold, which they were at length lucky enough
to find in a considerable quantity. This success ani-
mated them very much, and they continued working
upon that spot till all their provisions were consumed;
they gathered daily large quantities of ore, but then
they suffered very much from hunger. Still, however,
they persevered in their labours, and sustained them-
selves with such roots and berries as they could find.
At last even this resource failed them; and, after
several of their company had died from want and hard-
ship, the rest were just able to crawl back to the place
where they had left Alonzo, carrying with them the
gold, to acquire which they had suffered so many
miseries.
But, while they had been employed in this manner,
Alonzo, who foresaw what would happen, had been in-
dustriously toiling to a very different purpose. His
skill in husbandry had easily enabled him to find a spot
of considerable extent and very fertile soil, which he
ploughed up with the oxen he had brought with him,
and the assistance of his servants. He then sowed
the different seeds he had brought, and planted the
potatoes, which prospered beyond what he could have
expected, and yielded him a most abundant harvest.
His sheep he had turned out in a very fine meadow
near the sea, and every one of them had brought him a
couple of lambs. Besides that, he and his servants, at
leisure times, employed themselves in fishing; and the
fish they had caught were all dried, and salted with
salt they had found upon the sea-shore; so that by the
time of Pizarro's return, they had laid up a very con-
siderable quantity of provisions.
When Pizarro returned, his brother received him





237 THE HISTORY OF
each were to confine himself to the produce of his own
land. At the same time it is true, that every country
which is inhabited by men, contains within itself all
that is necessary for their subsistence; and what they
bring from other countries is frequently more hurtful
than salutary to them.
Harry. I have heard you say, that even in Greenland:
the coldest and most uncomfortable country in the
world, the inhabitants procure themselves necessaries,
and live contented.
Tommy. What, is there a part of the world still
colder than Lapland ?
Mr. Barlow. Greenland is still farther north, and
therefore colder and more barren. The ground is there
covered with eternal snows, which never melt, even in
the summer. There are scarcely any animals to be
found, excepting bears, that live by preying upon fish.
There are no trees growing upon any part of the coun-
try; so that the inhabitants have nothing to build their
houses with, excepting the planks and trees which the
sea washes away from other countries, and leaves upon
their coast. With these they erect large cabins, where
several families live together. The sides of these huts
are composed of earth and stones, and the top secured
with turf; in a short time, the whole is so cemented
with frost, that it is impenetrable to the weather during
the whole winter. Along the sides of the building are
made several partitions, in each of which a Greenlander
lives with his family. Each of these families have a
small lamp continually burning before them, by means
of which they cook their food and light themselves,
and, what is equally necessary in so cold a country,
keep up an agreeable warmth throughout their apart-
ment. They have a few deer, which sometimes visit
them in the summer, and which the Greenlanders kill
whenever they can catch them; but they are almost





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 163


HISTORY OF A SURPRISING CURE OF
THE GOUT.

IN one of the provinces of Italy there lived a wealthy
gentleman, who, having no taste either for improving
his mind, or exercising his body, acquired a habit of
eating almost all day long. The whole extent of his
thoughts was what he should eat for dinner, and how
he should procure the greatest delicacies. Italy pro-
duces excellent wines; but these were not enough for our
epicure : he settled agents in different parts of France
and Spain, to buy up all the most generous and costly
wines of those countries. He had correspondences
with all the maritime cities, that he might be constantly
supplied with every species of fish: every poulterer
and fishmonger in the town was under articles to let
him have his choice of rarities. He also employed a
man on purpose to give directions for his pastry and
desserts.-As soon as he had breakfasted in the morn-
ing, it was his constant practice to retire to his library
(for he too had a library, although he never opened a
book). When he was there, he gravely seated himself
in an easy chair, and, tucking a napkin under his chin,
ordered his head cook to be sent in to him. The head
cook instantly appeared, attended by a couple of foot-
men, who carried each a silver salver of a prodigious
size, on which were cups, containing sauces of every
different flavour which could be devised. The gentle-
man, with the greatest solemnity, used to dip a bit of
bread in each, and taste it; giving his orders upon the
subject with as much earnestness and precision, as if
he had been signing papers for the government of a
kingdom. When this important affair was thus con-
cluded, he would throw himself upon a couch, to repair
the fatigues of such an exertion, and refresh himself





SANDFORD AND MERTON 49
The next day Mr. Barlow desired Harry, when they
were all together in the arbour, to read the following
story of

ANDROCLES AND THE LION.

THERE was a certain slave named Androcles, who was
so ill-treated by his master, that his life became insup-
portable. Finding no remedy for what he suffered, he
at length said to himself: It is better to die, than to
continue to live in such hardships and misery as I ai
obliged to suffer. I am determined therefore to run
away from my master. If I am taken again, I know
that I shall be punished with a cruel death: but it is
better to die at once, than to live in misery. If I escape,
I must betake myself to deserts and woods, inhabited
only by wild beasts: but they cannot use me more
cruelly than I have been used by my fellow-creatures:
Therefore I will rather trust myself with them, than
continue to be a miserable slave."
Having formed this resolution, he took an opportu-
nity of leaving his master's house, and hid himself in a
thick forest, which was at some miles' distance from
the city. But here the unhappy man found that he
had only escaped from one kind of misery to experience
another. He wandered about all day through a vast
and trackless wood, where his flesh was continually
torn by thorns and brambles; he grew hungry, but
could find no food in this dreary solitude; at length
he.was ready to die with fatigue, and lay down in de-
spair in a large cavern which he found by accident.-

"P oor man !" said Harry, whose little heart could
scarcely contain itself at this mournful recital, I wish
I could have met with him; I would have given him
all my dinner, and he should have had my bed. But





SANDFORD AND MERTON 267
ward, vivacious manners, accompanied with a know-
ledge of many of those gay scenes which acted forcibly
upon Tommy's imagination, began to render their con-
versation highly agreeable. They talked to him about
public diversions, about celebrated actresses, about par-
ties of pleasure, and parties of mischief. Tommy began
to feel himself introduced to a new train of ideas and
a wider range of conduct; lie began to long for the
time when he should share in the glories of robbing
orchards, or insulting passengers, with impunity: but
when he heard that little boys, scarcely bigger than
himself, had often joined in the glorious project of
forming open rebellions against their masters, or of dis-
turbing a whole audience at a play-house, he panted
for the time when he might have a chance of sharing
in the fame of such achievements. By degrees he lost
all regard for Mr. Barlow, and all affection for his
friend Harry: at first, indeed, he was shocked at hear-
ing Mr. Barlow mentioned with disrespect; but becom-
ing by degrees more callous to every good impression,
he at last took infinite pleasure in seeing Master Mash
(who, though destitute of either wit or genius, had a
great taste for mimicry) take off the parson in the
middle of his sermon.
Harry perceived and lamented this change in the
manners of his friend; he sometimes took the liberty
of remonstrating with him upon the subject; but was
only answered with a contemptuous sneer: and master
Mash, who happened once to be present, told him that
he was a monstrous bore.
It happened, that while Harry was at Mr. Merton's,
there was a troop of strolling players at a neighbour-
ing town. In order to divert the young gentry, Mr.
Merton contrived that they should make a party to see
a play. They went accordingly, and Harry with the
rest. Tommy, who now no longer condescended to





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 99
and carried with him, in a basket, the provision that
was to serve him the whole day. As lie was walking
along, a poor little half-starved dog came up to him,
wagging his tail, and seeming to entreat him to take
compassion on him. The little Boy at first took no
notice of him, but at length, remarking how lean and
famished the creature seemed to be, he said, "1This
animal is certainly in very great necessity : if I give
him part of my provision, I shall be obliged to go home
hungry myself; however, as he seems to want it more
than I do, he shall partake with me." Saying this, he
gave the dog part of what he had in the basket, who
ate as if he had not tasted victuals for a fortnight.
The little Boy then went on a little farther, his dog
still following him, and fawning upon him with the
greatest gratitude and affection; when he saw a poor
old horse lying upon the ground, and groaning as if lhe
was very ill: he went up to him, and saw that he was
almost starved, and so weak that he was unable to rise.
"I am very much afraid," said the little Boy, "if I stay
to assist this horse, that it will be dark before I can
return; and I have heard that there are several thieves
in the neighbourhood: however, I will try; it is doing
a good action to attempt to relieve him; and God Al-
mighty will take care of me." He then went and
gathered some grass, which he brought to the horse's
mouth, who immediately began to eat with as much
relish as if his chief disease was hunger. He then
fetched some water in his hat, which the animal drank
up, and seemed immediately to be so much refreshed,
that, after a few trials, he got up, and began grazing.
The little Boy then went on a little farther, and saw
a man wading about in a pond of water, without being
able to get out of it, in spite of all his endeavours.-
" What is the matter, good man," said the little Boy to
him; "can't you find your way out of this pond ?"-





316 THE HISTORY Of
the danger of his master; but when he saw that he had
so luckily escaped all hurt, he could not help asking
him, with a smile, whether this too was a stroke of
Arabian horsemanship Tommy was a little provoked
at this reflection upon his horsemanship, but, as he had
now lost something of his irritability by repeated mor-
tification, he wisely repressed his passion, and desired
William to catch his horse, while he returned home-
wards on foot to warm himself. The servant, there-
fore, endeavoured to approach the pony, who, as if
contented with the triumph he had obtained over his
rider, was quietly feeding at a little distance; but the
instant William approached, he set off again at a violent
rate, and seemed disposed to lead him a second chase,
not inferior to the first.
In the meantime Tommy walked pensively along the
common, reflecting on the various accidents which had
befallen him, and the repeated disappointments he had
found in all his attempts to distinguish himself. While
he was thus engaged, he overtook a poor and ragged
figure, the singularity of whose appearance engaged
his attention. It was a man of middle age, in a dress
he had never seen before, with two poor children that
seemed with difficulty to keep up with him, while he
carried a third in his arms, whose pale, emaciated
looks, sufficiently declared disease and pain. The man
had upon his head a coarse blue bonnet instead of a
hat; he was wrapped round by a tattered kind of gar-
ment, striped with various colours; and, at his side,
hung down a long and formidable sword.
Tommy surveyed him with such an earnest observa-
tion, that at length the man took notice of it; and,
bowing to him with the greatest civility, ventured to
ask him if he had met in with any accident, that lhe
appeared in a disorder which suited so little with his
quality ? Tommy was not a little pleased with the dis-





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 305
but his eyes were involuntarily turned to the ground,
and silent melancholy and dejection were visible in his
face.
Mr. Barlow remarked, with the greatest pleasure,
these signs of humility and contrition, and pointed
them out to Mr. Merton the first time he had an oppor-
tunity of speaking to him without being overheard;
adding that, unless he was much deceived, Tommy
would soon give ample proofs of the natural goodness
of his character, and reconcile himself to all his friends."
Mr. Merton heard this observation with the greatest
pleasure, and now began to entertain some hopes of
seeing it accomplished.
After the dinner was over, most of the young gentle-
men went away to their respective homes. Tommy
seemed to have lost much of the enthusiasm which
he had lately felt for his polite and accomplished
friends; he even appeared to feel a secret joy at their
departure, and answered with a visible coldness at pro-
fessions of regard and repeated invitations. Even Mrs.
Compton herself, and Miss Matilda, who were also de-
parting, found him as insensible as the rest; though
they did not spare the most extravagant praises, and
the warmest professions of regard.
And now, the ceremonies of taking leave being over,
and most of the visitors departed, a sudden solitude
seemed to have taken possession of the house, which
was lately the seat of noise, and bustle, and festivity.
Mr. and Mrs. Merton and Mr. Barlow were left alone
with Miss Simmons and Tommy, and one or two others
of the smaller gentry who had not yet returned to their
friends.
As Mr. Barlow was not fond of cards, Mr. Merton
proposed, after the tea-table was removed, that Miss
Simmons, who was famous for reading well, should
entertain the company with some little tale or history





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 155
is a way of preventing cats from meddling with
them.
Tommy. Oh dear sir, I should like to try it. Will
you not show me how to prevent the cat from killing
any more birds ?
Mr. Barlow. Most willingly. It is certainly better
to correct the faults of an animal than to destroy it.
Besides, I have a particular affection for this cat, be-
cause I found her when she was a kitten, and have
bred her up so tame and gentle, that she will follow
me about like a dog. She comes every morning to
my chamber-door, and mews till she is let in; and she
sits upon the table at breakfast and dinner, as grave
and polite as a visitor, without offering to touch the
meat. Indeed, before she was guilty of this offence, I
have often seen you stroke and caress her with great
affection; and puss, who is by no means of an ungrate-
ful temper, would always pur and arch her tail, as if
she was sensible of your attention.
In a few days after this conversation, another Robin,
suffering like the former from the inclemency of the
season, flew into the house, and commenced acquaint-
ance with Tommy. But he, who recollected the mourn-
ful fate of his former bird, would not encourage it to any
familiarity, till he had claimed the promise of Mr. Bar-
low, in order to preserve it from danger. Mr. Barlow,
therefore, enticed the new guest into a small wire cage,
and, as soon as he had entered it, shut the door, in or-
der to prevent his escaping. He then took a small
gridiron, such as is used to broil meat upon, and having
almost heated it red hot, placed it erect upon the
ground, before the cage in which the bird was confined.
He then contrived to entice the cat into the room,
and observing that she fixed her eye upon the bird,
which she destined to become her prey, he withdrew
the two little boys, in order to leave her unrestrained





SANDFORD AND MERTON 291
As to all your nicknames and nonsense," answered
Harry, "I don't think it worth my while to resent
them: but, though I have suffered Master Merton to
strike me, there's not another in the company shall do
it; or, if he chooses to try, he shall soon find whether
or not I am a coward."
Master Mash made no answer to this, but by a slap
of the face, which Harry returned by a punch of his
fist, which had almost overset his antagonist, in spite
of his superiority of size and strength. This unex-
pected check from a boy so much less than himself
might probably have cooled the courage of Mash, had
he not been ashamed of yielding to one whom he had
treated with so much unmerited contempt. Summon-
ing, therefore, all his resolution, he flew at Harry like
a fury ; and, as he had often been engaged in quarrels
like this, he struck him with so much force, that, with
the first blow he aimed, he felled him to the ground.
Harry, foiled in this manner, but not dismayed, rose in
an instant, and attacked his adversary with redoubled
vigour, at the very moment when he thought himself
sure of the victory. A second time did Mash, after a
short but severe contest, close with his undaunted
enemy, and, by dint of superior strength, roughly
hurled him to the ground.
The little troop of spectators, who had mistaken
Harry's patient fortitude for cowardice, began now to
entertain the sincerest respect for his courage, and
gathered round the combatants in silence. Harry pos-
sessed a body hardened to support pain and hardship;
a great degree of activity, a cool, unyielding courage,
which nothing could disturb or daunt. At length, the
strength of Mash began to fail: enraged and disap-
pointed at the obstinate resistance he had met with, he
began to lose all command of his temper and strike at
random, while Harry contented himself with parrying





198 THE HISTORY OF
"In the meanwhile, the goat's milk diminished daily,
and, the fowls soon after dying, they could no longer
distinguish night from day; but, according to their
reckoning, the time was near when the other goat
would kid: this she accordingly did soon, and, the
young one dying, they had all the milk for their own
subsistence; so they found that the middle of April
was come. Whenever they called this goat, it would
come and lick their faces and hands, and gave them
every day two pounds of milk; on which account they
still bear the poor creature a great affection.
This was the account which these poor people gave
to the magistrate, of their preservation."
"Dear heart!" said Tommy, when Mr. Barlow had
finished this account, "what a number of accidents
people are subject to in this world."-"It is very true,"
answered Mr. Barlow; but as that is the case, it is
necessary to improve ourselves in every manner, that
we may be able to struggle against them."
Tommy. Indeed, sir, I begin to believe it is; for when
I was less than I am now, I remember I was always
fretful and hurting myself, though I had two or three
people constantly to take care of me. At present, I
seem as if I was quite another thing; I do not mind
falling down and hurting myself, or cold, or weariness,
or scarcely anything which happens.
Mr. Barlow. And which do you prefer; to be as you
are now, or as you were before ?
Tommy. As I am now, a great deal, sir; for then I
always had something or another the matter with me.
SSometimes I had a little cold; and then I was obliged
to stay in for several days: sometimes a little head-
ache; and then I was forced to take physic: sometimes
the weather was too hot; then I must stay within;
and the same if it was too cold: I used to be tired to
death, if I did but walk a mile; and I was always eat.





372 TIE HISTORY OF

observation of nature. I liad seen the princes and
iobles of the earth repining in the midst of their
splendid enjoyments, disgusted with the empty pagean-
try of their situation, and wishing, in vain, for the
humble tranquillity of private life. I had visited many
of the principal cities in several countries where I had
travelled; but I had uniformly observed, that the
miseries and crimes of mankind increased with their
numbers. I therefore determined to avoid the general
contagion, by fixing my abode in some sequestered
spot, at a distance from the passions and pursuits of
my fellow-creatures.
Having therefore collected the remainder of my
effects, and with them purchased a little farm and
vineyard in a beautiful and solitary spot near the sea,
I soon afterwards married a virtuous young woman,
and in her society enjoyed, for several years, as great
a degree of tranquillity as generally falls to the lot of
man. I did not disdain to exercise, with my own hands,
the different employment of agriculture; for I thought
man was dishonoured by that indolence which renders
him a burden to his fellow-creatures, not by that in-
dustry which is necessary to the support of his species.
I therefore sometimes guided the plough with my own
hands, sometimes laboured in a little garden, which
supplied us with excellent fruits and herbs. I likewise
tended the cattle, whose patient labour enabled us to
subdue the soil, and considered myself as only repay-
ing part of the obligations I had received. My wife,
too, exercised herself in domestic cares; she milked
the sheep and goats, and chiefly prepared the food of
the family.
Amidst my other employment, I did not entirely
forget the study of philosophy, which had charmed me
;o much in my early youth. I frequently observed,
with admiration, the wisdom and contrivance whic






214 THE HISTORY OF
the southern part of the heavens, he observed so re-
markable a constellation, that he could not help par-
ticularly remarking it : four large and shining stars
composed the ends of the figure, which was almost
square, and full in the middle appeared three more,
placed in a slanting line and very near each other.
This Tommy pointed out to Mr. Barlow, and begged to
know the name. Mr. Barlow answered, that the con-
stellation was named Orion, and that the three bright
stars in the middle were called his belt. Tommy was
so delighted with the grandeur and beauty of this
glorious constellation, that he could not help observing
it, by intervals, all the evening; and he was surprised
to see that it seemed to pass on, in a right line drawn
from east to west; and that all the stars he had be-
come acquainted with, moved every night in the same
direction.
But he did not forget to remind Harry, one morning,
of the history he had promised to tell him of Agesilaus,
Harry told it in the following manner :-

HISTORY OF AGESILAUS.

THE Spartans (as I have before told you, Master Tommy)
were a brave and hardy people, who despised every
thing that tended to make them delicate and luxuri-
ous. All their time was spent in such exercises, as made
them strong and active, able to bear fatigue, and to
despise wounds and danger: for they were situated in
the midst of several other nations, that frequently had
quarrels with each other, and with them; and there-
fore it was necessary that they should learn to defend
themselves. Therefore, all the children were brought
up alike, and the sons of their kings themselves were
as little indulged as any body else.
Tommy. Stop, stop !-I don't exactly understand






40 THE HISTORY OF
to acquire riches, which I should not know how to use :
all, therefore, that I require of this man is, to put me
into the same situation I was in before, and to learn
more humanity."
The rich man could not help being astonished at this
generosity; and, having acquired wisdom by his mis-
fortunes, not only treated the Basket-maker as a friend
during the rest of his life, but employed his riches in
relieving the poor, and benefiting his fellow-creatures.

The story being ended, Tommy said it was very
pretty; but that, had he been the good Basket-maker,
he would have taken the naughty rich man's fortune
and kept it.-" So would not I," said Harry, for fear
of growing as proud, and wicked, and idle, as the other."
From this time forward, Mr. Barlow and his two
little pupils used constantly to work in their garden
every morning; and, when they were fatigued, they
retired to the summer-house, where little Harry, who
improved every day in reading, used to entertain them
with some pleasant story or other, which Tommy al-
ways listened to with the greatest pleasure. But little
Harry going home for a week, Tommy and Mr. Barlow
were left alone.
The next day, after they had done work, and were
retired to the summer-house as usual, Tommy expected
Mr. Barlow would read to him ; but, to his great dis-
appointment, found that he was busy and could not.
The next day, the same accident was renewed ; and the
day after that. At this, Tommy lost all patience, and
said to himself, Now, if I could but read like Harry
Sandford, I should not need to ask anybody to do it for
me, and then I could divert myself: and why (thinks
he) may not I do what another has done ? To be sure,
little Harry is very clever ; but he could not have read
if he had not been taught; and if I am taught, I dare





282 THE HISTORY OF
led him forward, and placed him by the young lady's
side. Harry was not yet acquainted with the sublime
science of imposing upon unwary simplicity, and there-
fore never doubted that the message had come from
his friend ; and as nothing could be more repugnant to
his character than the want of compliance, he thought
it necessary at least to go and expostulate with her
upon the subject. This was his intention, when he
suffered himself to be led up the room; but his tor-
mentors did not give him time, for they placed him by
the side of the young lady, and instantly called to
the music to begin. Miss Simmons, in her turn, was
equally surprised at the partner which was provided for
her; she had never imagined minuet-dancing to be one
of Harry's accomplishments; and therefore instantly
suspected that it was a concerted scheme to mortify
her. However, in this she was determined they should
be disappointed, as she was destitute of all pride, and
had the sincerest regard for Harry. As soon, there-
fore, as the music struck up, the young lady began her
reverence; which Harry, who found he was now com-
pletely caught, and had no time for explanation, imi-
tated as well as he was able, but in such a manner
as set the whole room in a titter. Harry, however,
arming himself with all the fortitude he possessed, per-
formed his part as well as could be expected from a
person that had never learned a single step of dancing.
By keeping his eye fixed upon his partner, he made a
shift at least to preserve something of the figure, al-
though he was terribly deficient in the steps and graces
of the dance. But his partner, who was scarcely less
embarrassed than himself, and wished to shorten the
exhibition, after crossing once, presented him with her
hand. Harry had unfortunately not remarked the na-
ture of this manoeuvre with perfect accuracy; and
therefore, imagining that one hand was just as good as





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 369
At night Mr. Merton, who was desirous, by every
method, to support the good impressions which had
now taken possession of Tommy's mind, proposed that
Miss Simmons should favour them with the conclusion
of the story which she had begun the night before.
The young lady instantly complied, and then read them

THE CONCLUSION OF THE STORY OF
SOPHRON AND TIGRANES.

IT happened, one day, that Sophron had beon chasing
a wolf which had made some depredations upon the
flocks, and in the ardour of pursuit was separated from
all his companions. He found himself bewildered, and
entangled in a dreary wilderness; and, to add to his
distress, the setting sun disappeared in the west, and
the shades of night gathered gradually round him.
He pursued his way along the side of the mountain,
till he descended into a pleasant valley, free from trees,
and watered by a winding stream. Here he was going
to repose for the night, under the crag of an impend-
ing rock, when a gleam of light darted suddenly into
the skies for a considerable distance, and attracted his
curiosity. He determined to approach the light, but
thought it prudent to advance with caution. He there-
fore made a considerable circuit, and approached with-
in a little distance of the fire, without being discovered.
He then perceived that a party of soldiers were repos-
ing round a flaming pile of wood, and carousing at
their ease: all about was strewn with the plunder
they had accumulated on their march; and, in the
midst of them was seated a venerable old man, accom-
panied by a beautiful young woman.
Sophron easily comprehended, by the dejection of
their countenances, and the tears which trickled down
the maiden's cheeks, as well as by the insolence witll






46 THE HISTORY OF

beasts, or looking after sheep, did nothing but eat and
sleep, which he was permitted to do from a remem-
brance of his past services. As all qualities both of
mind and body are lost, if not continually exercised, he
soon ceased to be that hardy, courageous animal, he
was before; and acquired all the faults which are the
consequences of idleness and gluttony.
About this time, the gentleman went again into the
country, and, taking his dog with him, was willing that
he should exercise his prowess once more against his
ancient enemies the wolves. Accordingly the country-
people having quickly found one in a neighboring
wood, the gentleman went thither with Keeper, ex-
pecting to see him behave as he had done the yeai
before. But how great was his surprise, when, at the
first onset, he saw his beloved dog run away with every
mark of timidity At this moment, another dog sprang
forward, and seizing the wolf with the greatest intre-
pidity, after a bloody contest, left him dead upun the
ground. The gentleman could not help lamenting the
cowardice of his favourite, and admiring the noble
spirit of the other dog, whom, to his infinite surprise,
he found to be the same Jowler that he had discarded
the year before.-" I now see," said he to the farmer,
"that it is in vain to expect courage in those who live
a life of indolence and repose; and that constant
exercise and proper discipline are frequently able to
change contemptible characters into good ones."

"Indeed," said Mr. Barlow, when the story was
ended, I am sincerely glad to find that Tommy has
made this acquisition. He will now depend upon no-
body, but be able to divert himself whenever he pleases.
All that has ever been written in our own language
will be from this time in his power; whether he chooses
to read little entertaining stories like what we have





THE HISTORY 0F

man seems very thankful and industrious, and says lie
would gladly do any kind of work to earn his subsist-
ence.
Mr. Barlow then took his leave of Harry, and, after
having spoken to his father, returned to Mr. Merton's.
During Mr. Barlow's absence, Mr. Simmons had
arrived there to fetch away his niece, but when he liad
heard the story of the Highlander, he perfectly recol-
lected his name and character, and was touched with
the sincerest compassion for his sufferings. On con-
versing with the poor man, he found that he was
extremely well acquainted with agriculture, as well as
truly industrious, and therefore instantly proposed to
settle him in a small farm of his own, which happened
to be vacant. The poor man received this unexpected
change in his fortune with tears of joy, and every mark
of unaffected gratitude; and Mr. Merton, who never
wanted generosity, insisted upon having a share in his
establishment. He was proposing to supply him with
the necessary instruments of agriculture, and a couple
of horses, to begin the culture of his land, just at the
moment when Mr. Barlow entered; who, when he had
heard with the sincerest pleasure the improvement of
the poor man's circumstances, begged permission to
share in so benevolent an action. "I have an excellent
milch-cow," said he, which I can very well spare,
whose milk will speedily recruit the strength of these
poor children: and I have half a dozen ewes and a
ram, which I hope,under Mr. Campbell's management
will soon increase to a numerous flock." The poor
Highlander seemed almost frantic with such a pro lu-
sion of unexpected blessings, and said, that he wished
nothing more than to pass the remainder of his days in
such a generous nation, and to be enabled to show, at
least the sentiments which such undeserved generosity
had excited."





270 THE HISTORY OF

who thought it an unpardonable affront, that any one
in an inferior station should presume to think or feel
for himself, so far lost all command of his temper as to
call the man a blackguard, and strike him upon the
face. But the farmer, who possessed great strength
and equal resolution, very deliberately laid hold of the
young gentleman who had offered him the insult, and,
without the smallest exertion, laid him sprawling upon
the ground, at his full length, under the benches, and,
setting his feet upon his body, told him, that since
he did not know how to sit quiet at a play, he would
have the honour of teaching him to lie; and that if he
offered to stir, he would trample him to pieces;" a
threat which it was very evident he could find no diffi-
culty in executing.
This unexpected incident struck a universal damp
over the spirits of the little gentry; and even Master
Mash himself so far forgot his dignity, as to supplicate
in a very submissive manner for a release: in this he
was joined by all his companions, and Harry among
the rest.
"Well." said the farmer, I should never have
thought that a parcel of young gentlemen, as you call
yourselves, would come into public to behave with so
much rudeness; I am sure that there is ne'er a plough-
boy at my house, but what would have shown more
sense and manners: but since you are sorry for what
has happened, I am very willing to make an end of the
affair; more especially for the sake of this little master
here, who has behaved with so much propriety, that I
am sure he is a better gentleman than any of you,
though he is not dressed so much like a monkey or a
barber." With these words he suffered the crest-fallen
Mash to rise; who crept from his place of confinement,
with looks infinitely more expressive of mildness than
he had brought with him : nor was the lesson lost upon






144 THE HISTORY OF

and then upon the other, and endeavoured to raise them
up, all this while making the most pitiful moans.
When she found that they did not stir, she went away
to a little distance, and then looked back and moaned,
as if to entice them to her; but finding them still im-
moveable, she returned, and, smelling round them, began
to lick their wounds. She then went off a second time
as before ; and, after crawling a few yards, turned back
and moaned, as if to entreat them not to desert their
mother. But, her cubs not yet rising to follow her,
she returned to them again, and, with signs of inex-
pressible fondness, went round first one, and then the
other, pawing them, and moaning all the time. Find-
ing them at last cold and lifeless, she raised her head
towards the ship, and began to growl in an indignant
manner, as if she were denouncing vengeance against
the murderers of her young : but the sailors levelled
their muskets again, and wounded her in so many
places, that she dropped down between her young ones:
yet, even while she was expiring, she seemed only sen-
sible to their fate, and died licking their wounds."
And is it possible," said Harry, that men can be
so cruel towards poor, unfortunate animals ?"-" It is
too true," answered Mr. Barlow, that men are fre-
quently guilty of very wanton and unnecessary acts of
barbarity : but, in this case, it is probable that the fear
of these animals contributed to render the sailors more
unpitying than they would otherwise have been: they
had often seen themselves in danger of being de-
voured ; and that inspired them with a great degree of
hatred against them, which they took the opportunity
of gratifying."-" But would it not be enough," an-
swered Harry, if they carried arms to defend them-
selves when they were attacked, without unnecessarily
destroying other creatures, who did not meddle with
them !"-" To be sure it would," replied Mr. Barlow





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 143
generally found in cold countries; and it is observed
that the colder the climate is, the greater size and
fierceness do they attain to. You may remember, in
the account of those poor men, who were obliged to
live so long upon a dreary and uninhabited country,
that they were frequently in danger of being devoured
by the bears that abounded in that place. In those
northern countries, which are perpetually covered with
snow and ice, a species of bear is found, which is white
in colour, and of amazing strength as well as fierceness.
-These animals are often seen clambering over the
huge pieces of ice that almost cover those seas, and
preying upon fish and other sea animals. I remember
reading an account of one that came unexpectedly upon
some sailors who were boiling their dinners on the
shore.-This creature had two young ones with her ;
and the sailors, as you may easily imagine, did not like
such dangerous guests, but made their escape immedi-
ately to the ship. The old bear then seized upon the
flesh which the sailors had left, and set it before her
cubs, reserving a very small portion for herself; show-
ing by this, that she took a much greater interest in
their welfare than in her own. But the sailors, enraged
at the loss of their dinners, levelled their muskets at
the cubs, and, from the ship, shot them both dead.
They also wounded the dam, who was fetching away
another piece of flesh, but not mortally, so that she was
still able to move. But it would have affected any one
with pity, but a brutal mind (says the relation), to have
seen the behaviour of this poor beast, all wounded as
she was and bleeding, to her young ones. Though she
was sorely hurt, and could but just crawl to the place
where they lay, she carried the lump of flesh she had
in her mouth, as she had done the preceding ones, and
laid it down before them; and, when she observed that
they did not eat, she laid her paws first upon one,






2d- THE HISTORY OF
ine principles of Christian morality, I apprehend it will
not be difficult to deduce the duty of one who takes
upon him the office of its minister and interpreter. He
can no more have a right to alter the slightest of its
principles, than the magistrate can be justified in giv-
ing false interpretations to the laws. The more the cor-
ruptions of the world increase, the greater the obliga-
tion that he should oppose himself to their course; and
lie can no more relax in his opposition, than the pilot
can abandon the helm, because the winds and the waves
begin to augment their fury. Should he be despised,
or neglected by all the rest of the human species, let
him still persist in bearing testimony to the truth, both
in his precepts and example: the cause of virtue is not
desperate while it retains a single friend; should it
even sink for ever, it is enough for him to have dis-
charged his duty.-But, although he is thus restricted
as to what he shall teach, I do not assert, that it is im-
proper for him to use his understanding and experi-
ence as to the manner of his instructions. He is strictly
bound never to teach anything contrary to the purest
morality ; but he is not bound always to teach that
morality in its greatest extent. In that respect, he may
use the wisdom of the serpent, though guided by the
innocence of the dove. If, therefore, he sees the reign
of prejudice and corruption so firmly established, that
men would be offended with the genuine simplicity of
the Gospel, and the purity of its primeval doctrines, he
may so far moderate their rigour, as to prevent them
from entirely disgusting weak and luxurious minds. If
we cannot effect the greatest possible perfection, it is
still a material point to preserve from the grossest
vices. A physician that practises amongst the great,
may certainly be excused, though he should not be
continually advising the exercise, the regimen of the
poor; not, that the doctrine is not true, but that there





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 125
of corn that grows in it, which is naturally watered in
the following extraordinary manner :-There is a great
river, called the Nile, which flows through the whole
extent of the country; the river, at a particular time
of the year, begins to overflow its banks; and, as the
whole country is flat, it very soon covers it all with its
waters. These waters remain in this situation several
weeks before they have entirely drained off; and when
that happens, they leave the soil so rich, that everything
that is planted in it, flourishes and produces with the
greatest abundance."
Is not that the country, sir," said Harry, where
that cruel animal, the crocodile, is found ?"-" Yes,"
answered Mr. Barlow.-" What is that, sir ?" said
Tommy.-" It is an animal," answered Mr. Barlow,
that lives sometimes upon the land, sometimes in the
water. It comes originally from an egg, which the old
one lays, and buries in the sand. The heat of the sun
then warms it during several days, and at last a young
crocodile is hatched ; this animal is at first very small:
it has a long body, and four short legs, which serve it
both to walk with upon the land, and to swim with in
the waters. It has, besides, a long tail; or, rather, the
body is extremely long, and gradually grows thinner,
till it ends in a point. Its shape is exactly like that of
a lizard ; or, if you have never seen a lizard, did you
never observe a small animal, of some inches length,
which lives at the bottom of ditches and ponds ?"-
Yes, sir, I have," answered Tommy, and I once
caught one with my hand, taking it for a fish; but
when I had it near me, I saw it had four little legs : so
I threw it into the water again, for fear the animal
should be hurt."-" This animal," answered Mr. Barlow,
may give you an exact idea of a young crocodile:
but as it grows older, it gradually becomes bigger, till
at last, as I have been informed, it reaches the length





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 239
huts to feast upon their prey, their common conversa-
tion is about the dangers and accidents they have met
with in their expedition. A Greenlander relates how
he bounded over the waves to surprise the monstrous
seal; how he pierced the animal with his harpoon,
who had nearly dragged the boat with him under the
water; how he attacked him again in closer combat;
how the beast, enraged with his wounds, rushed upon
him in order to destroy him with his teeth; and how,
in the end, by courage and perseverance, he triumphed
over his adversary, and brought him safe to land. All
this will he relate with the vehemence and interest
which people naturally feel for things which concern
them nearly : he stands in the midst of his countrymen,
and describes every minute circumstance of his adven-
tures; the little children gather round, and greedily
catch the relation; they feel themselves interested in
every circumstance they hear, and wish to share in
the toils and glory of their fathers. When they are a
little bigger, they exercise themselves in small skiffs,
with which they learn to overcome the waves.-No-
thing can be more dangerous, or require greater dex-
terity than the management of a Greenlander's boat.
The least thing will overset it, and tien, the man who
cannot disengage himself from the boat, which is fast-
ened to his middle, sinks down below the waves, and is
inevitably drowned, if he cannot regain his balance.
The only hope of doing this is placed in the proper ap-
plication of his oar; and, therefore, the dexterous man-
agement of this implement forms the early study of
the young Greenlanders.-In their sportive parties, they
row about in a thousand different manners; they dive
under their boats, and then set them to rights with
their paddle; they learn to glide over the roughest
billows, and face the greatest dangers with intrepidity;
till, in the end, they acquire sufficient strength and





SANDFORD AND MERTON 315
that lie closed his legs upon his little horse, and pricked
him in so sensible a manner, that the pony, who was
not deficient in spirit, resented the attack, and set off
with him at a prodigious rate.
William, when he saw his master thus burst forth,
was at a loss whether to consider it as an accident, or
only an oratorical grace : but seeing the horse hurry-
ing along the roughest part of the common, while
Tommy tugged in vain to restrain his efforts, he thought
it necessary to endeavour to overtake him, and tlere-
fore pursued him with all the speed he could use. But
the pony, whose blood seemed to be only more in-
flamed by the violence of his own exertions, ran the
faster when he heard the trampling of another horse
behind him.
In this manner did Tommy scamper over the com-
mon, while William pursued in vain: for, just as the
servant thought he had reached his master, his horse
would push forward with such rapidity as left his pur-
suer far behind. Tommy kept his seat with infinite
address: but he now began seriously to repent of his
own ungovernable ambition, and would, with the great-
est pleasure, have exchanged his own spirited steed for
the dullest ass in England.
The race had now endured a considerable time, and
seemed to be no nearer to a conclusion; when on a
sudden, the pony turned short, upon an attempt of his
master to stop him, and rushed precipitately into a
large bog or quagmire, which was full before him:
here he made a momentary halt, and Tommy wisely
embraced the opportunity of letting himself slide off
upon a soft and yielding bed of mire. The servant now
came up to Tommy, and rescued him from his dis-
agreeable situation; where, however, he had received
no other damage than that of daubing himself all over.
William had been at first very much frightened at





192 THE HISTORY OF
human being could pass over such a bog as this, I de-
termined to pursue it no longer. But now I was wet
and weary; the clouds had indeed rolled away, and the
moon and stars began to shine; I looked around me
and could discern nothing but a wide, barren country,
without so much as a tree to shelter me, or any animal
in sight. I listened, in hopes of hearing a sheep-bell,
or the barking of a dog; but nothing met my ear, ex-
cept the shrill whistling of the wind, which blew so
cold and bleak along that open country, that it chilled
me to the very heart. In this situation, I stopped a
while to consider what I should do; and raising my
eyes by accident to the sky, the first object I beheld
was that very constellation of Charles's Wain, and
above it I discerned the Pole-star, glimmering, as it
were, from the very top of heaven. Instantly a thought
came into my mind: I considered, that when I had
been walking along the road which led towards my
uncle's house, I had often observed the Pole-star full
before me ; therefore it occurred to me, that if I turned
my back exactly upon it, and went straight forward
in a contrary direction, it must lead me towards my
father's house. As soon as I had formed this resolu-
tion, I began to execute it. I was persuaded I should
now escape, and therefore, forgetting my fatigue, I ran
along as briskly as if I had but then set out. Nor was
I disappointed ; for though I could see no tracks, yet,
taking the greatest care always to go on in that direc-
tion, the moon afforded me light enough to avoid the
pits and bogs, which are found in various parts of that
wild moor: and when I had travelled, as I imagined,
about three miles, I heard the barking of a dog, which
gave me double vigour: and going a little farther, I
came to some inclosures at the skirts of the common,
which I knew; so that I then with ease found my way
home, after having almost despaired of doing it.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 103
Upon my word," said Tommy, when he had finished,
"I am vastly pleased with this story, and I think that
it may very likely be true, for I have myself observed,
that everything seems to love little Harry here, merely
because he is good-natured to it. I was quite surprised
to see the great dog, the other day, which I have never
dared to touch for fear of being bitten, fawning upon
him, and licking him all over: it put me in mind of
the story of Androcles and the Lion."-- That dog,"
said Mr. Barlow, will be equally fond of you, if you are
kind to him: for nothing equals the sagacity and gra-
titude of a dog. But since you have read a story about
a good-natured boy, Harry shall read you another, con-
cerning a boy of a contrary disposition."
Harry then read the following story of

THE ILL-NATURED BOY,

THERE was once a little Boy who was so unfortunate
as to have a very bad man for his father, who was al-
ways surly and ill-tempered, and never gave his chil-
dren either good instructions or good example; in con-
sequence of which, this little Boy, who might other-
wise have been happier and better, became ill-natured,
quarrelsome, and disagreeable to everybody. He very
often was severely beaten for his impertinence, by boys
that were bigger than himself, and sometimes by boys
that were less: for, though he was very abusive and
quarrelsome, he did not much like fighting, and ge-
nerally trusted more to his heels than his courage,
when he had engaged himself in a quarrel. This little
Boy had a cur-dog that was the exact image of him-
self; he was the most troublesome, surly creature ima-
ginable, always barking at the heels of every horse he
came near, and worrying every sheep he could meet





84 THE HISTORY OF
hanging it up in the upper part of the hut, which, as I
mentioned before, was continually filled with smoke
down to the windows : it was thus dried thoroughly
by the help of that smoke. This meat, so prepared,
they used for bread, and it made them relish their
other flesh the better, as they could only half-dress it.
Finding this experiment answer in every respect to
their wishes, they continued to practice it during the
whole time of their confinement upon the island ; and
always kept up, by that means, a sufficient stock of
provisions. Water they had in summer from small
rivulets that fell from the rocks, and in winter from
the snow and ice thawed. This was of course their
only beverage; and their small kettle was the only
vessel they could make use of for this and other pur-
poses. I have mentioned above, that our sailors
brought a small bag of flower with them to the island.
Of this they had consumed about one half with their
meat; the remainder they employed in a different
manner, equally useful.-They soon saw the necessity
of keeping up a continual fire in so cold a climate, and
found that, if it should unfortunately go out, they had
no means of lighting it again; for though they had a
steel and flints, yet they wanted both match and tinder.
In their excursions through the island, they had met
with a slimy loam, or a kind of clay, nearly in the
middle of it: out of this they found means to form a
utensil which might serve for a lamp, and they pro-
posed to keep it constantly burning with the fat of the
animals they should kill. This was certainly the most
rational scheme they could have thought of; for, to be
without a light, in a climate where, during winter,
darkness reigns for several months together, would
have added much to their other calamities."
Tommy. Pray, sir, stop. What! are there countries
in the world where it is night continually for several





256 THE HISTORY OF

fortunate boy came within his reach was sure to be
unmercifully cuffed and pummelled; for, in the fury
with which he felt himself inspired, he did not wait to
consider the exact rules of justice.
While Tommy was thus revenging the affronts .he
imagined he had received, and chasing the vanquished
about the court, the unusual noise and uproar which
ensued reached the ears of Mr. Barlow, and brought
him to the door. He could hardly help laughing at
the rueful figure of his friend, with the water dropping
from every part of his body in copious streams, and at
the rage which seemed to animate him in spite of his
disaster. It was with some difficulty that Tommy
could compose himself enough to give Mr. Barlow an
account of his misfortunes ; which, when he had heard,
lie immediately led him into the house, and advised
him to undress and go to bed. He then brought him
some warm diluting liquors, by which means he avoided
all the bad effects which might otherwise have arisen
from so complete a drenching.
The next day, Mr. Barlow laughed at Tommy in his
usual good-natured manner, and asked him if he in-
tended to ride out in the Kamtschatkan manner ? add-
ing, however, that he should be afraid to attend him,
as he had the habit of beating his companions. Tonmny
was a little confounded at this insinuation, but replied,
"that he should not have been so provoked, if they had
not laughed at his misfortunes; and he thought it very
hard to be wetted and ridiculed both."--"But," replied
Mr. Barlow, did their noise or laughter do you any
great damage, that you endeavoured to return it so
roughly ?" Tommy answered, "that lie must own it
did not do him any hurt, or give him any pain."-"1 Wlhy,
then," said Mr. Barlow, "I do not see the justice of
your returning it in that manner,"--"But," said Tommy,
"it is so provoking to be laughed at!"-" There are





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 399
and destroy an army at once ?"-" Have you, then,
never heard the explosion of a gun, or are you igno-
rant of the destructive effects of the powder with which
they charge it ?" said Mr. Barlow.
Tommy. Yes, sir; but that is nothing to what Chares
did in the story.
Mr. Barlow. That is only because it is used in very
inconsiderable portions; but were you to increase the
quantity, it would be capable of effecting everything
which you heard Miss Simmons describe. When na-
tions are at war with each other, it is now universally
the agent of destruction. They have large tubes of
iron, called cannons, into which they ram a considera-
ble quantity of powder, together with a large iron ball,
as big as you are able to lift. They then set fire to
the powder, which explodes with so much violence,
that the ball flies out, and destroys not only every
living thing it meets with, but even demolishes the
strongest walls that can be raised. Sometimes it is
buried in considerable quantities in the earth, and
then they contrive to inflame it and to escape in time.
When the fire communicates with the mass, it is all
inflamed in an instant, and produces the horrible
effects you have heard described. As such are the
irresistible effects of gunpowder, it is no wonder that
even a victorious army should be stopped in their pro-
gress by such a dreadful and unexpected event.
Tommy. That is true indeed; and I declare Chares
was a very good and sensible man. Had it not been
for him, these brave inhabitants of Lebanon must have
been enslaved. I now plainly perceive that a man may
be of much more consequence by improving his mind
in various kinds of knowledge, even though he is poor,
than by all the finery and magnificence he can acquire.
I wish, with all my heart, that Mr. Barlow had been so
good as to read this story to the young ladies and gen-





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 101
ately missed it in turning down a lane which brought
hil into a wood, where he wandered about a great
while without being able to find any path to lead him
out. Tired out at last, and hungry, he felt himself so
feeble, that he could go no farther, but set himself down
upon the ground, crying most bitterly. In this situa-
tion he remained for some time, till at last the little
dog, who had never forsaken him, came up to him,
wagging his tail, and holding something in his mouth.
The little Boy took it from him, and saw it was a hand
kerchief nicely pinned together, which somebody had
dropped, and the dog had picked up; and on opening
it, he found several slices of bread and meat, which the
little Boy ate with great satisfaction, and felt himself
extremely refreshed with his meal.-" So," said the
little Boy, "I see that if I have given you a breakfast,
you have given me a supper; and a good turn is never
lost, done even to a dog."
He then once more attempted to escape from the
wood; but it was to no purpose; he only scratched
his legs with briars, and slipped down in the dirt,
without being able to find his way out. He was just
going to give up all farther attempts in despair, when
he happened to see a horse feeding before him, and,
going up to him, saw by the light of the moon, which
just then began to shine a little, that it was the very
same he had fed in the morning.-" Perhaps," said the
little Boy, "this creature, as I have been so good to
him, will let me get upon his back, and he may bring
me out of the wood, as he is accustomed to feed in this
neighbourhood."-The little Boy then went up to the
horse, speaking to him and stroking him, and the horse
let him mount his back without opposition; and then
proceeded slowly through the wood, grazing as he went,
till he brought him to an opening, which led to the
high road. The little Boy was much rejoiced at this,
7
2'





180 THE HISTORY OF
ladies and gentlemen in our neighbourhood, riding
about in coaches, and covered from head to foot, yet
shaking with the least breath of air, as if they all had
agues; while the children of the poor run about bare.
footed upon the ice, and divert themselves with making
snow-balls.
Tommy. That is indeed true; for I have seen my
mother's visitors sitting over the largest fire that could
be made, and complaining of cold; while the labourers
out of doors were stripped to their shirts to work, and
never minded it in the least.
Harry. Then, I should think that exercise, by which
a person can warm himself when he pleases, is an in-
finitely better thing than all these conveniences you
speak of; because, after all, they will not hinder a
person from being cold; but exercise will warm him
in an instant.
Tommy. But then, it is not proper for gentlemen to
do the same kind of work with the common people.
Harry. But is it not proper for a gentleman to have
his body stout and hardy ?
Tommy. To be sure it is.
Harry. Why then he must sometimes labour and use
his limbs, or else he will never be able to do it.
Tommy. What! cannot a person be strong without
working ?
Harry. You can judge for yourself. You very often
have fine young gentlemen at your father's house: and
are any of them as strong as the sons of the farmers
in the neighbourhood, who are always used to handle
a hoe, a spade, a fork, and other tools ?
Tommy. Indeed, I believe that is true; for I think I
am become stronger myself, since I have learned to
divert myself in Mr. Barlow's garden.
As they were conversing in this manner, a little boy
came singing along, with a bundle of sticks at his back;





SANDFORD AND MERTON 199
ing cake and sweetmeats till I made myself sick. At
present I think I am ten times stronger and healthier
than ever I was in my life.-But what a terrible country
that must be, where people are subject to be buried in
that manner in the snow I wonder anybody will live
there.
Mr. Barlow. The people who inhabit that country,
are of a different opinion, and prefer it to all the coun-
tries in the world. They are great travellers, and many
of them follow different professions, in all the different
countries of Europe : but it is the only wish of almost
all, to return, before their death, to the mountains
where they were born and have passed their youth.
Tommy. I do not easily understand that. I have
seen a great many ladies and little misses at our house;
and whenever they were talking of the places where
they should like to live, I have always heard them say
that they hated the country of all things, though they
were born and bred there. I have heard one say, the
country is odious, filthy, shocking, and abominable ;
another that it is impossible to live anywhere but in
London : and I remember once seeing a strange lady,
who wrote down her observations in a book; and she
said, the country was all full of barbarians, and that no
person of elegance (yes, that was her word) could bear
it for a week.
Mr. Barlow. And yet there are thousands who bear
to live in it all their lives, and have no desire to change.
Should you, Harry, like to leave the country, and go to
live in some town ?
Harry. Indeed, sir, I should not: for then I must
leave everything I love in the world; I must leave my
father and mother, who have been so kind to me; and
you too, sir, who have taken such pains to improve me,
and make me good. I am convinced that I never shall
find such friends again as long as I live : and what






224 THE HISTORY OF
very large size, with all her masts, and sails, and rig-
ging complete. Yet all these three appearances are
only the same object at different distances from your
eye.
Tommy. Yes, sir; that is all very true indeed.
Mr. Barlow. Why, then, if the ship, which is now full
in sight, were to tack about again, and sail away from us
as fast as she approached just now; what do you think
would happen ?
Tommy. It would grow less and less every minute
till it appeared a speck again.
Mr. Barlow. You said, I think, that the sun was a
very small body, not bigger than a round table.
Tommy. Yes, sir.
Mr. Barlow. Supposing, then, the sun were to be re-
moved to a much greater distance than it is at now;
what would happen ? would it appear the same to your
eyes ?
Tommy considered for some time, and then said, "If
the ship grows less and less, till at last it appears a
mere speck, by going farther and farther, I should think
the sun would do the same."
Mr. Barlow. There you are perfectly right: there.
fore, if the sun were to depart farther and farther from
us, at last it would appear no bigger than one of those
twinkling stars that you see at so great a distance above
your head.
Tommy. That I perfectly comprehend.
iMr. Barlow. But if, on the contrary, one of those
twinkling stars were to approach nearer and nearer to
where you stand, what do you think would happen ?
would it still appear of the same size ?
Tommy. No, sir. The ship as it came nearer to us,
appeared every moment larger; and the cefore, I think
the star must do the same.
Mr. Barlow. Might it not then at last appear as biU





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 139
length the slaughter of their men was so great, that
they seemed disposed to discontinue the fight, and
were actually taking another course. The Venetians
beheld their flight with the greatest joy, and were con-
gratulating each other upon their successful valour
and merited escape, when two more ships on a sudden
appeared in sight, bearing down upon them with in-
credible swiftness before the wind. Every heart was
now chilled with new terrors, when, on their nearer
approach, they discovered the fatal ensigns of their
enemies, and knew that there was no longer any possi-
bility either of resistance or escape. They therefore
lowered their flag (the sign of surrendering their ship),
and in an instant saw themselves in the power of their
enemies, who came pouring in on every side with the
rage and violence of beasts of prey.
All that remained alive of the brave Venetian crew,
were loaded with fetters, and closely guarded in the
hold of the ship till it arrived at Tunis.
They were then brought out in chains, and exposed
in the public market to be sold for slaves. They had
there the mortification to see their companions picked
out one by one, according to their apparent strength
and vigour, and sold to different masters. At length a
Turk approached, who, from his look and habit, ap-
peared to be of superior rank, and, after glancing his
eyes over the rest with an expression of compassion,
he fixed them at last upon young Francisco; and de-
inanded of the captain of the ship what was the price
of that young man ? The Captain answered that ho
would not take less than five hundred pieces of gold
for that captive. That," said the Turk, "is very ex-
traordinary, since I have soon you sell those that much
exceed him in vigour, for less than a fifth part of that
sum."-" Yes," answered the captain ; "but he shall
either pay me some part of the damage le has occa-





SANDFORD AND MERTON 203
1Mr. Barlow. I believe Harry will never go there to
meet his friends.
Harry. Indeed, sir, I do not know what Ranelagh is:
but all the friends I have are at home ; and when I sit
by the fire-side on a winter's night, and read to my
father and mother, and sisters, as I sometimes do; or
when I talk with you and Master Tommy upon improv-
ing subjects; I never desire any other friends or con-
versation. But pray, sir, what is Ranelagh ?
Mr. Barlow. Ranelagh is a very large round room,
to which, at particular times of the year, great num-
bers of persons go in their carriages, to walk about for
several hours.
Harry. And does nobody go there that has not seve-
ral friends ? Because Master Tommy said, that people
went to Ranelagh to meet their friends.
Mr. Barlow smiled at this question, and answered:
The room is generally so crowded, that people have
little opportunity for any kind of conversation: they
walk round and round in a circle, one after the other,
just like horses in a mill. When persons meet that
know each other, they perhaps smile and bow; but are
shoved forward without having any opportunity to stop.
As to friends, few people go to look for them there;
and if they were to meet them, few would take the trou-
ble of speaking to them, unless they were dressed in a
fashionable manner, and seemed to be of consequence."
Harry. That is very extraordinary, indeed. Why,
sir, what can a man's dress have to do with friendship?
Should I love you a bit better, if you were to wear the
finest clothes in the world; or should I like my father
the better, if he were to put on a laced coat like Squire
Chase ? On the contrary, whenever I see people
dressed very fine, I cannot help thinking of the story
you once read me of Agesilaus king of Sparta.
Tommy. What is that story ? Do pray let me hear it,






230 THE HISTORY OF
gave him this additional explanation. "The persons
who first discovered the wonderful powers of the load-
stone in communicating its virtues to iron, diverted
themselves, as we do now, in touching needles and
small pieces of iron, which they made to float upon
water, and attracted them about with other pieces of
iron. But it was not long before they found out, as
you do now, another surprising property of this won-
derful stone: they observed that when a needle had
once been touched by the loadstone, if it was left to
float upon the water without restraint, it would invari-
ably turn itself towards the north. In a short time,
they improved the discovery farther, and contrived to
suspend the middle of the needle upon a point, so
loosely that it could move about in every direction;
this they covered with a glass case; and by this means
they always had it in their power to find out all the
quarters of the heavens and earth."
Tommy. Was this discovery of any great use ?
Mr. Barlow. Before this time, they had no other
method of finding their way along the sea, but by ob-
serving the stars. They knew by experience, in what
part of the sky certain stars appeared at every season
of the year; and this enabled them to discover, east,
west, north, and south. But when they set out from
their own country by sea, they knew in which direction
the place was situated which they were going to. If it
lay to the east, they had only to keep the head of the
ship turned full to that quarter of the heavens, and they
would arrive at the place they were going to; and this
they were enabled to do by observing the stars. But
frequently the weather was thick, and the stars no
longer appeared; and then they were left to wander
about the pathless ocean without the smallest tract to
guide them in their course.
Tommy. Poor people! they must be in a dreadful





162 THE HISTORY OF
cere, and hospitable people. If a stranger comes among
them, they lodge and entertain him in the best manner
they are able, and generally refuse all payment for
their services, unless it be a little bit of tobacco, which
they are immoderately fond of smoking.
Tommy. Poor people how I pity them to live such
an unhappy life I should think the fatigues and hard-
ships they undergo must kill them in a very short space
of time.
Mr. Barlow. Have you then observed that those who
eat and drink the most, and undergo the least fatigue,
are the most free from disease ?
Tommy. Not always; for I remember, that there are
two or three gentlemen who come to dine at my
father's, who eat an amazing quantity of meat, besides
drinking a great deal of wine, and these poor gentle-
men have lost the use of almost all their limbs. Their
legs are so swelled, that they are almost as big as their
bodies; their feet are so tender, that they cannot set
them to the ground; and their knees so stiff, that they
cannot bend them. When they arrive, they are obliged
to be helped out of their coaches by two or three peo-
ple, and they come hobbling in upon crutches. But I
never heard them talk about anything but eating and
drinking in all my life.
Mr. Barlow. And did you ever observe that any of
the poor had lost the use of their limbs by the same
disease ?
Tommy. I cannot say I have.
Mr. Barlow. Then perhaps the being confined to a
scanty diet, to hardship, and to exercise, may not be so
desperate as you imagine. This way of life is even
much less so than the intemperance in which too many
of the rich continually indulge themselves. I remem-
ber lately reading a story on this subject; which, if
you please, you shall hear. NIr. Barlow then read the
following






406 THE HISTORY OF
a spectacle, than from the opinion it would be attended
with success.
"cWhen the appointed day arrived, the inhabitants of
the city assembled, and took their seats in a vast build-
ing which surrounded a considerable open space, des-
tined for this amazing combat. The brave American
then appeared alone, on horseback, armed with nothing
but his cord: and, after riding round the place, and
saluting the company, he waited intrepidly for his
enemy. Presently an enormous bull was let loose,
who, as soon as he beheld the man, attacked him with
all his fury. The American avoided his shock with
infinite dexterity, and galloped round the bull, who, in
his turn, betook himself to flight. The valiant horse-
man pursued his flying enemy, and while he was thus
engaged, he desired the governor to direct where he
would have him seized. He replied it was a matter of
indifference to him; and the American instantly throw-
ing his noose, which he held ready all the time, caught
the bull in his flight by one of his hinder legs: then,
galloping two or three times round the animal, he so
enveloped him in the snare, that, after a few violent
efforts to disengage himself, he fell to the earth. He
then leaped lightly from his horse; and the animal,
who had been perfectly trained up to this kind of com-
bat, stood still and kept the cord extended; while his
master advanced to the bull, and put him to death in
an instant, by stabbing him with his dagger behind the
horns.
"All the assembly uttered a shout of admiration;
but the conqueror told them what they had seen was
nothing; and, disentangling his cord from the slaugh-
tered beast, he composedly mounted his horse, and
waited for a new and more formidable enemy. Pre-
sently, the gate of the torillo was opened, and a bull,
much more furious than the last, rushed out, whom he





156 THE HISTORY OF
in her operations. They did not retire far, but ob-
served her from the door fix her eyes upon the cagej
and begin to approach it in silence, bending her body
to the ground, and almost touching it as she crawled
along. When she judged herself within a proper dis-
tance, she exerted all her agility in a violent spring,
which would probably have been fatal to the bird, had
not the gridiron, placed before the cage, received the
impression of her attack. Nor was this disappointment
the only punishment she was destined to undergo : the
bars of the machine had been so thoroughly heated,
that, in rushing against them, she felt herself burned
in several parts of her body; and retired from the field
of battle, mewing dreadfully, and full of pain : and
such was the impression which this adventure pro
duced, that from this time she was never again known
to attempt to destroy birds.
The coldness of the weather still continuing, all the
wild animals began to perceive the effects, and com-
pelled by hunger, approached nearer to the habitations
of man and the places they had been accustomed to
avoid. A multitude of hares, the most timorous of all
animals, were frequently seen scudding about the gar-
den, in search of the scanty vegetables which the seve-
rity of the season had spared. In a short time they
had devoured all the green herbs which could be found,
and, hunger still oppressing them, they began to gnaw
the very bark of the trees for food. One day, as
Tommy was walking in the garden, he found that
even the beloved tree which he had planted with his
own hands, and from which he had promised himself
so plentiful a produce of fruit, had not escaped the
general depredation, but had been gnawed round at the
root and killed.
Tommy, who could ill brook disappointment, was so
enraged to see his labours prove abortive, that he ran





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 249
staying to see the consequences. The rest of the army,
who had seen the consternation of their leaders, and
had heard that the enemy was advancing to destroy
them, were struck with an equal panic, and instantly
followed the example: so that the whole plain was
covered with men and horses, that made all possible
haste towards their own country, without thinking of
resistance. Thus was an immense army dispersed in
an instant, and the besieged prince delivered from his
danger, by the address and superior knowledge of a
single man.
Thus you see," added Mr. Barlow, "of how much
use a superiority of knowledge is frequently capable of
making individuals. But a still more famous instance
is that of Archimedes, one of the most celebrated
mathematicians of his time. He, when the city of
Syracuse was besieged by the Romans, defended it for
a long time by the surprising machines he invented,
in such a manner that they began to despair of taking
it."-" Do pray," said Tommy, "tell me that story."-
"6No," answered Mr. Barlow, "it is now time to retire:
and you may at any time read the particulars of this
extraordinary siege, in Plutarch's Life of Marcellus."
And now the time approached, when Mr. Barlow was
accustomed to invite the greater part of the poor of his
parish to an annual dinner.-He had a large hall,
which was almost filled with men, women, and chil-
dren; a cheerful fire blazed in the chimney; and a
prodigious table was placed in the middle for the com-
pany to dine upon. Mr. Barlow himself received his
guests, and conversed with them about the state of
their families and their affairs. Those that were in-
dustrious and brought their children up to labour, in-
structing them in the knowledge of their duty, and
preserving them from bad impressions, were sure to
meet with his encouragement and commendations.






178 THE HISTORY OF
Harry then searched about, and, after some time,
found a couple of flints, though not without much diffi-
culty, as the ground was nearly hidden with snow. He
then took the flints, and striking one upon the other
with all his force, he shivered them into several pieces;
out of these he chose the thinnest and sharpest, and,
telling Tommy with a smile, that he believed that
would do, he struck it several times against the back of
his knife, and thus produced several sparks of fire.
This," said Harry, will be sufficient to light a fire,
if we can but find something of a sufficiently combusti-
ble nature to kindle from these sparks." He then col-
lected all the driest leaves he could find, with little de-
cayed pieces of wood, and, piling them into a heap, en-
deavoured to kindle a blaze by the sparks which he
continually struck from his knife and the flint. But it
was in vain ; the leaves were not of a sufficiently com-
bustible nature, and while he wearied himself in vain,
they were not at all the more advanced. Tommy, who
beheld the ill success of his friend, began to be more
and more terrified, and in despair asked Harry again
what they should do ? Harry answered that, as they
had failed in their attempt to warm themselves, the
best thing they could do, was to endeavour to find their
way home, more especially as the snow had now ceased,
and the sky was become much clearer. This Tommy
consented to, and with infinite difficulty they began
their march ; for, as the snow had completely covered
every track, and the daylight began to fail, they wan-
dered at random through a vast and pathless wood. At
every step which Tommy took, he sunk almost to his
knees in snow; the wind was bleak and cold, and it
was with much difficulty that Harry could prevail upon
him to continue his journey. At length, however, as
they thus pursued their way, with infinite toil, they
came to some lighted embers, which either some la-






326 THE HISTORY OF

you repose in me, that I must insist upon your accept-
ing what is contained in this purse : you will dispose
of it as you please, for your mutual advantage. Before
I depart to-morrow, I will give such directions as may
enable him to join the regiment, which is now prepar-
ing to march.' He then requested that he might re-
tire to rest, and my father would have resigned the
only bed he had in the house to his guest, but he ab-
solutely refused and said, Would you shame me in
the eyes of my new recruit ? What is a soldier good
for, that cannot sleep without a bed? The time will
soon arrive when I shall think a comfortable roof and
a little straw an enviable luxury. I therefore raised
him as convenient a couch as I was able to make with
heath and straw; and, wrapping himself up in his
riding-coat, he threw himself down upon it and slept
till morning. With the first dawn of day he rose and
departed, having first given me the directions which
were necessary to enable me to join the regiment:
but, before he went, my father, who was equally
charmed with his generosity and manners, pressed him
to take back part of the money he had given us; this,
however, he absolutely refused, and left us, full of
esteem and admiration.
I will not, gentlemen, repeat the affecting scene I
had to undergo in taking leave of my family and
friends. It pierced me to the very heart; and then,
for the first time, I almost repented of being so near
the accomplishment of my wishes. I was, however,
engaged, and determined to fulfil my engagement: I
therefore tore myself from my family, having with
difficulty prevailed upon my father to accept of part of
the money I had received for my enrolment. I will
not trespass upon your time to describe the various
emotions which I felt from the crowd of new sensa.
tions that entered my mind during our march. I





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 61

they run over all the woods, and examine every place
till they have found him; and they make a noise to
provoke him to attack them : then lie begins roaring
and foaming, and beating his sides with his tail, till in
a violent fury, he springs at the man that is nearest
to him."-" Oh dear," said Tommy, "he must certainly
be torn to pieces."-"No such thing," answered Harry;
"t he jumps like a greyhound out of the way, while the
next man throws his javelin at the lion, and perhaps
wounds him in the side: this enrages him still more;
he springs again, like lightning, upon the man that
wounded him ; but this man avoids him like the other;
and at last the poor beast drops down dead, with the
number of wounds he has received."-" Oh !" said
Tommy, "it must be a very strange sight; I should like
to see it out of a window, where I was safe."-- So
should not I," answered Harry ; for it must be a great
pity to see such a noble animal tortured and killed ;
but they are obliged to do it in their own defence.
But these poor hares do nobody any harm, excepting
the farmers, by eating a little of their corn sometimes."
As they were talking in this manner, Harry, casting
his eyes on one side, said, "As I am alive, there is the
poor hare skulking along I hope they will not be able
to find her; and, if they ask me, I will never tell them
which way she is gone."
Presently up came the dogs who had now lost all
scent of their game, and a gentleman mounted upon a
fine horse, who asked Harry, if he had seen the hare ?
Harry made no answer ; but, upon the gentleman's
repeating the question in a louder tone of voice, he
answered that he had.-- And which way is she gone ?"
said the gentleman.-" Sir, I don't choose to tell you,"
answered Harry, after some hesitation.-" Not choose !"
said the gentleman leaping off his horse; "but I'll
make you choose it in an instant ;"-and, coming up to





294 THE HISTORY OF

Black came up, and humbly implored their charity.
He had served, he told them, on board an English
vessel; and even showed them the scars of several
wounds he had received; but now he was discharged;
and without friends, without assistance, lie could
scarcely find food to support his wretched life, or
clothes to cover him from the wintry wind.
Some of the young gentry, who, from a bad educa-
cation, had been little taught to feel or pity the distress
of others, were base enough to attempt to jest upon his
dusky colour and foreign accent; but Master Merton
who, though lately much corrupted and changed from
what he had been with Mr. Barlow, preserved a great
degree of generosity, put his hand into his pocket in
order to relieve him, but unfo-tunately found nothing
to give : the foolish profusion which he had lately
learned from the young gentlemen at his father's house,
had made him waste in cards, in play-things, in trifles,
all his stock of money ; and now he found himself un-
able to relieve that distress which he pitied.
Thus repulsed on every side, and unassisted, the un-
fortunate Black approached the place where Harry
stood, holding out the tattered remains of his hat, and
imploring charity. Harry had not much to give ; but
he took sixpence out of his pocket, which was all his
riches, and gave it with the kindest look of compas-
sion, saying, Here, poor man, this is all I have; if I
had more, it should be at your service."-He had no
time to add more ; for, at that instant, three -fierce dogs
rushed upon the bull at once, and by their joint attacks
rendered him almost mad. The calm deliberate cour-
age which he had hitherto shown was now changed
into rage and desperation : he roared with pain and
fury; flashes of fire seemed to come from his angry
eyes, and his mouth was covered with foam and blood.
He hurried round the stake with incessant toil and





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 79
makes these climates habitable to so few species of
animals, renders them equally unfit for the production
of vegetables. No species of tree or even shrub is
found in any of the islands of Spitzbergen : a circum-
stance of the most alarming nature to our sailors.
"Without fire, it was impossible to resist the rigour
of the climate ; and, without wood, how was that fire
to be produced or supported ? However, in wandering
along the beach, they collected plenty of wood, which
had been driven ashore by the waves, and which at
first consisted of the wrecks of ships, and afterward of
whole trees with their roots, the produce of some more
hospitable (but to them unknown) climate, which the
overflowing of rivers, or other accidents, had sent into
the ocean. Nothing proved of more essential service
to these unfortunate men, during the first year of their
exile, than some boards they found upon the beach,
having a long iron hook, some Lails of about five oe
six inches long, and proportionably thick, and other
bits of old iron, fixed in them; the melancholy relics
of some vessels, cast away in those remote parts. These
were thrown ashore by the waves, at the time when
the want of powder gave our men reason to apprehend
that they must fall a prey to hunger, as they had nearly
consumed those rein-deer they had killed. This lucky
circumstance was attended with another equally fortu-
nate : they found on the shore the root of a fir tree
which nearly approached to the figure of a bow. As
necessity has ever been the mother of invention, so
they soon fashioned this root to a good bow by the
help of a knife: but still they wanted a string and
arrows. Not knowing how to procure these at present,
they resolved upon making a couple of lances, to defend
themselves against the white bears, by far the mount
ferocious of their kind, whose attacks they had great
reason to dread. Finding they could neither make the





356 THE HISTORY 0F

they were alone, he looked at him as if li had some
weighty matter to disclose, but was unable to give it
utterance. Mr. Barlow, therefore, turned towards him
with the greatest kindness, and taking him tenderly
by the hand, inquired what he wished. "Indeed,"
answered Tommy, almost crying, "I am scarcely able
to tell you. But I have been a very bad and ungrate-
ftl boy, and I am afraid you no longer have the same
affection for me."
Mr. Barlow. If you are sensible of your faults, my
little friend, that is a very great step towards amend-
ing them. Let me therefore know what it is, the re-
collection of which distresses you so much; and if it
is in my power to assist in making you easy; there is
nothing, I am sure, which I shall be inclined to refuse
you.
Tommy. Oh, sir! your speaking to me with so much
goodness, hurts me a great deal more than if you were
to be very angry; for, when people are angry and pas-
sionate, one does not so much mind what they say ; but
when you speak with so much kindness, it seems to
pierce me to the very heart, because I know I have
not deserved it.
Mr. Barlow. But if you are sensible of having com-
mitted any faults, you may resolve to behave so well
for the future, that you may deserve everybody's friend-
ship and esteem : few people are so perfect as not to
err sometimes, and, if you are convinced of your errors,
you will be more cautious how you give way to them a
second time.
Tommy. Indeed, sir, I am very happy to hear you say
so :-I will, then, tell you ever, thing which lies so
heavy upon my mind. You must know then, sir, that
although I have lived so long with you, and, during
all that time, you have taken so much pains to improve
me in everw thing, and teach me to act well to every-






22G THE HISTORY 0F

Tommy. I can hardly conceive that : and yet, I see
it would appear less and less the farther he went.
Mr. Barlow. Do you remember what happened to
you, when you left the island of Jamaica ?
Tommy. Yes, I do. One of the blacks held me upon
the deck, and then I looked towards the island : and I
thought that it began to move away from the ship,
though, in reality, it was the ship moved away from
the land : and then, as the ship continued sailing along
the water, the island appeared less and less. First, I
lost sight of the trees and houses that stood upon
the shore; and then I could only see the highest
mountains; and then I could scarcely see the moun-
tains themselves; and at last, the whole island ap-
peared only like a dark mist above the water; and
then the mist itself disappeared, and I could see no-
thing but a vast extent of water all round, and the sky
above.
Mr. Barlow. And must not this be exactly the case,
if you could rise up into the air, higher and higher,
and look down upon the earth ?
Tommy. Indeed it must.
Mr. Barlow. Now then you will be able to answer
the question I asked you a little while ago :-could a
person travel straight forward from the earth to the
sun; how would they both appear to him as he went
forward ?
Tommy. The earth would appear less and less as he
went from it, and the sun bigger and bigger.
Mr. Barlow. Why, then, perhaps it would happen at
last, that the sun appeared bigger than the earth.
Tommy. Indeed it might.
Mr. Barlow. Then you see that you must no longer
talk of the earth's being large, and the sun small ; since
that may only happen, because you are near the one,
and at a great distance from the other. At least, you





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 113
that was cut off, and, by Harry's direction, they inter-
wove it between the poles, in such a manner as to form
a compact kind of fence.-This labour, as may be ima-
gined, took them up several days: however, they worked
at it very hard every day, and every day the work ad-
vanced; which filled Tommy's heart with so much
pleasure, that he thought himself the happiest little boy
in the universe.
But this employment did not make Tommy unmind-
ful of the story which Mr. Barlow had promised him
it was to this purport :-


THE STORY OF THE GRATEFUL TURK.

IT is too much to be lamented, that different nations
frequently make bloody wars with each other; and
when they take any of their enemies prisoners, instead
of using them well, and restoring them to liberty, they
confine them in prisons, or sell them as'slaves. The
enmity that there has often been between many of the
Italian states (particularly the Venetians) and the
Turks, is sufficiently known.
It once happened, that a Venetian ship had taken
many of the Turks prisoners, and, according to the bar-
barous customs I have mentioned, these unhappy men
had been sold to different persons in the city. By ac-
cident, one of the slaves lived opposite to the house of
a rich Venetian, who had an only son, of about the age
of twelve years. It happened that this little boy used
frequently to stop as he passed near Hamet (for that
was the name of the slave), and gaze at him very atten-
tively. Hamet, who remarked in the face of the child
the appearance of good-nature and compassion, used
always to salute him with the greatest courtesy, and
testified the greatest pleasure in his company. At








SANDFORD AND MERTON. 65
As they were conversing in this manner, they heard
a great outcry, and, turning their heads, saw a horse
that was galloping violently along, and dragging his
rider along with him, who had falle n off, and, in falling,
hitched his foot in the stirrup. Luckily for the person,
it happened to be wet ground, and the side of a hill,
which prevented the horse from going very fast, and
the rider from being much hurt. But Harry, who was
always prepared to do an act of humanity, even with
the danger of his life, and, besides that, was a boy of
extraordinary courage and agility, ran up towards a
gap which he saw the horse approaching, and just as
he made a little pause before vaulting over, caught
him by the bridle, and effectually stopped him from
proceeding. In an instant, another gentleman came
up with two or three servants, who alighted from their
horses, disengaged the fallen person, and set him upon
his legs. He stared wildly around him for some time:
as he was not materially hurt, he soon recovered his
senses, and the first use he made of them, was to swear
at his horse, and to ask who had stopped the con-
founded jade --" Who ?" said his friend: "why, the
very little boy you used so scandalously this morn-
ing: had it not been for his dexterity and courage,
that numskull of yours would have had more flaws in
it than it ever had before."
The Squire considered Harry with a countenance in
which shame and humiliation seemed yet to struggle
with his natural insolence; but at length, putting his
hand into his pocket, he pulled out a guinea, which he
offered to Harry, telling him at the same time, he was
very sorry for what had happened; but Harry, with a
look of more contempt than he had ever been seen to
assume before, rejected the present, and, taking up
the bundle which he had dropped at the time he had
seized the Squire's horse, walked away, accompanied
by his companion.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 67
what runs from these mill-stones is only a fine powder,
very different from bread, which is a solid and toler-
ably hard substance."
As they were going home, Harry said to Tommy, "So
you see now, if nobody chose to work, or do any-
thing for himself, we should have no bread to eat: but
you could not even have the corn to make it of, with.
out a great deal of pains and labour.-Tommy. Why
not? loes not corn grow in the ground of itself ?-
Harry. Corn grows in the ground; but then first it is
necessary to plough the ground, to break it to pieces.
--T. What is ploughing?-H. Did you never see three
or four horses drawing something along the fields in a
straight line, while one man drove and another walked
behind, holding the thing by two handles ?-T. Yes, I
have, and is that ploughing ?-H. It is: and there is a
sharp iron underneath, which runs into the ground,
and turns it up all the way it goes.--T. Well, and what
then ?-H. When the ground is thus prepared, they
sow the seed all over it, and then they rake it over to
cover the seed ; and then the seed begins to grow, and
shoots up very high; and at last the corn ripens, and
they reap it, and carry it home.-T. I protest it must
be very curious, and I should like to sow some seed
myself, and see it grow: do you think I could ?-H.
Yes, certainly; and if you will dig the ground to-mor-
row, I will go home to my father, in order to procure
some seed for you.
The next morning, Tommy was up almost as soon as
it was light, and went to work in a corner of the gar-
den, where he dug with great perseverance till break-
fast: when he came in he could not help telling Mr.
Barlow what he had done, and asking him, whether he
was not a very good boy for working so hard to raise
corn ?-" That," said Mr. Barlow," depends upon the use
you intend to make of it when you have raised it:






314 THE HISTORY OF
much accustomed to humour all his caprices, to make
any difficulty of obeying him; and as he had often
ridden out with his young master before, he did not
foresee the least possible inconvenience. But the
maternal care of Mrs. Merton had made it an indispen-
sable condition with her son, that he should never pre-
sume to ride with spurs ; and she had strictly enjoined
all the servants never to supply him with those danger-
ous implements. Tommy had long murmured in secret
at this prohibition, which seemed to imply a distrust of
his abilities in horsemanship, which sensibly wounded
his pride. But, since he had taken it into his head to
emulate the Arabs themselves, and perhaps excel them
in their own art, he considered it as no longer possi-
ble to endure the disgrace. But, as he was no stranger
to the strict injunction which had been given to all the
servants,.he did not dare to make the experiment of
soliciting their assistance.
"While he was in this embarrassment, a new and sud-
den expedient presented itself to his fertile genius,
which he instantly resolved to adopt. Tommy went to
his mamma's maid, and, without difficulty, obtained
from her a couple of the largest sized pins, which he
thrust through the leather of his boots : and, thus ac-
coutered, he mounted his horse without suspicion or
observation.
Tommy had not ridden far, before he began to give
vent to his reigning passion, and asked William if he
had ever seen an Arabian on horseback ? The answer
of William sufficiently proved his ignorance, which
Tommy kindly undertook to remove by giving him a
detail of all the particulars he had heard the preceding
night: but, unfortunately, the eloquence of Tommy
precipitated him into a dangerous experiment; for,
just as he was describing their rapid flight across the
deserts, the interest of the subject so transported him:





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 129
have a bit of fat pork every day, boiled in a pot with
turnips: and we bless God that we fare so well; for
there are many poor souls, who are as good as we, that
can scarcely get a morsel of dry bread."
As they were conversing in this manner, Tommy hap-
pened to cast his eyes on one side, and saw a room that
was almost filled with apples.-" Pray," said he, what
can you do with all these apples ? I should think you
would never be able to eat them, though you were to
eat nothing else."-" That is very true," said the woman;
but we make cider of them."-" What," cried Tommy,
"are you able to make that sweet pleasant liquor that
they call cider; and is it made of apples ?"-The
Woman. Yes, indeed it is.-Tommy. And pray how is
it made ?-The Woman. We take the apples when they
are ripe, and squeeze them in a machine we have for
that purpose. Then we take this pulp, and put into
large hair bags, which we press in a great press, till all
the juice runs out.-Tommy. And is this juice cider ?---
The Woman. You shall taste, little master, as you seem
so curious.
She then led him into another room, where there
was a great tub full of the juice of apples ; and, taking
up some in a cup, she desired him to taste whether it
was cider. Tommy tasted, and said it was very sweet
and pleasant, but not cider.-" Well," said the woman,
"C let us try another cask."-She then took some liquor
out of another barrel, which she gave him; and Tommy,
when he had tasted it, said that it really was cider.-
"- But pray," said he, "what do you do to the apple-
juice, to make it into cider? "-The Woman. Nothing
at all.-Tommy. How then should it become cider? for
"I am sure what you gave me at first is not cider.-The
Woman. Why, we put the juice into a large cask, and
let it stand in some warm place, where it soon begins






SANDFORD AND MERTON'. 15
is that better than silver ones ?"-" Because," said
Harry, "they never make us uneasy."-" Make you
uneasy, my child !" said Mrs. Merton, what do you
mean ?"-" Why, madam, when the man threw that
great thing down, which looks just like this, I saw
that you were very sorry about it, and looked as
if you had been just ready to drop. Now, ours at
home are thrown about by all the family, and nobody
minds it."-" I protest," said Mrs. Merton to her hus-
band, "I do not know what to say to this boy, he makes
such strange observations."
The fact was, that, during dinner, one of the servants
had thrown down a large piece of plate, which, as- it
was very valuable, had made Mrs. Merton not only look
very uneasy, but give the man a very severe scolding
for his carelessness.
After dinner, Mrs. Merton filled a large glass of
wine, and giving it to Harry, bade him drink it up;
but he thanked her, and said he was not dry.-" But,
my dear," said she, this is very sweet and pleasant,
and, as you are a good boy, you may drink it up."-
"Ay! but, madam, Mr. Barlow says, that we must only
eat when we are hungry, and drink when we are dry;
and that we must only eat and drink such things as are
easily met with; otherwise we shall grow peevish and
vex'd when we can't get them."
Upon my word," said Mr. Merton, "this little man
is a great philosopher; and we should be much obliged
to Mr. Barlow, if he would take our Tommy under his
care; for he grows a great boy, and it is time that he
should know something. What say you, Tommy, should
you like to be a philosopher ?"-" Indeed, papa, I don't
know what a philosopher is; but I should like to be a
king; because he's finer and richer than anybody else,
and has nothing to do, and everybody waits upon him,
and is afraid of him."-" Well said, my .dear," replied





364 THE hISTORY OF

Merton, who has always treated you witl so much
kindness.
Harry. Indeed, sir, I should be very unhappy if you
think I have done wrong; but be so good as to tell me
how I could have acted otherwise. I am very sorry to
appear to accuse Master Merton, neither do I bear any
resentment against him for what he has done; but
since you speak to me upon the subject, I shall be
obliged to tell the truth.
Mr. Barlow. Well, Harry, let me hear it : you know
I shall be the last person to condemn you, if you do
not deserve it.
Harry. I know your constant kindness to me, sir,
and I always confide in it; however, I am not sensible
that I am in fault. You know, sir, that it was with un-
willingness I went to Mr. Merton's : for I thought there
would. be fine ladies and gentlemen there who would
ridicule my dress and manners; and, though Master
Merton has been always very friendly in his behaviour
towards me, I could not help thinking that he might
grow ashamed of my company at his own house.
Mr. Barlow. Do you wonder at that, Harry, con-
sidering the difference there is in your rank and for-
tune ?
Harry. No, sir, I cannot say I do; for I generally
observe, that those who are rich will scarcely treat the
poor with common civility. But, in this particular
case, I did not see any reason for it: I never desired
Master Morton to admit me to his company or invite
me to his house, because I knew that I was born in a
very inferior station. You were so good as to take me
to your house : and if I was then much in his company,
it was because he seemed to desire it himself, and I
always endeavoured to treat him with the greatest re-
spect.
M2r Barlow. That is indeed true, Harry ; in all your





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 367
Harry. I, sir! no, I am sure. But, though I am poor,
I do not desire the acquaintance of anybody that de-
spises me. Let him keep company with his ladies and
gentlemen, I am satisfied with companions in my own
station. But surely, sir, it is not I that forsake him,
but he that has cast me off.
Mr. Barlow. But if he is sorry for what he has done,
and only desires to acknowledge his faults, and obtain
your pardon ?
Harry. Oh, dear, sir I should forget everything in
an instant. I knew Master Tommy was always a little
passionate and headstrong, but he is at the same time
generous and good-natured; nor would he, I am sure,
have treated me so ill, if he had not been encouraged
to it by the other young gentlemen.
Mr. Barlow. Well, Harry, I believe your friend is
thoroughly sensible of his faults, and that you will
have little to fear for the future. He is impatient till
he sees you and asks your forgiveness.
Harry. Oh, sir, I should forgive him if he had beaten
me a hundred times. But, though I cannot leave the
horses now, if you will be so kind to wait a little, I
dare say my father will let me go when he leaves off
ploughing.
Mr. Barlow. No, Harry, there is no occasion for that.
Tommy has indeed used you ill, and ought to acknow-
ledge it, otherwise he will not deserve to be trusted
again. He will call upon you, and tell you all he feels
on the occasion. In the meantime I was desired, both
by him and Mr. Merton, to inquire after the poor
negro that served you so materially, and saved you
from the bull.
Harry. He is at our house, sir, for I invited him
home with me; and when my father heard how well
lie had behaved, he made him up a little bed over the
table, and gives him victuals every day; and the poor






SANDFORD AND MERTON, 223
before them, Mr. Barlow perceived something floating
at a distance, so small as to be scarcely discernible by
the eye. He pointed it out to Tommy, who with some
difficulty was able to distinguish it, and asked him
what he thought it was.
Tommy answered that he imagined it to be some little
fishing boat ; but could not well tell, on account of the
distance.
Mr. Barlow. If you do not then see a ship, what is
it you do see, or what does that object appear to your
eyes?
Tommy. All that I can see is no more than a little
dusky speck, which seems to grow bigger and bigger.
Mr. Barlow. And what is the reason it grows bigger
and bigger ?
Tommy. Because it comes nearer and nearer to me.
Mr. Barlow. What, then, does the same thing some-
times appear small, and sometimes great ?
Tommy. Yes, sir, it seems small, when it is at a great
distance; for I have observed even houses and churches,
when you are at some miles distant, seem to the eye
very small indeed: and now I observe that the vessel
is sailing towards us, and it is not, as I imagined, a
little fishing boat, but a ship with a mast, for I begin
to distinguish the sails.
Mr. Barlow walked on a little while by the side of
the sea; and presently Tommy called out again : I
protest, I was mistaken again; for it is not a vessel
with one mast, as I thought a little while ago, but a fine
large ship, with three great masts, and all her sails be-
fore the wind. I believe she must either be a large
merchantman or else a frigate."
M2r. Barlow. Will you then take notice of what you
have now been saying ? What was first only a little
dusky speck, became a vessel with one mast; and now
this vessel with one mast plainly appears a ship of a





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 75
own country.--T. This must be a very curious story
indeed; I would give anything to be able to see it.-
Mr. B. That you may very easily. When I read it, I
copied over several parts of it, I thought it so curious
and interesting, which I can easily find, and will show
you. Here it is: but it is necessary first to inform you,
that those northern seas, from the intense cold of the
climate, are so full of ice, as frequently to render it
extremely dangerous to ships, lest they should be
crushed between two pieces of immense size, or so
completely surrounded as not to be able to extricate
themselves. Having given you this previous informa-
tion, you will easily understand the distressful situa-
tion of a Russian ship, which, as it was sailing in those
seas, was on a sudden so surrounded by ice, as not to
be able to move. My extracts begin here; and you
may read them.

Extractsfrom a Narrative of the extraordinary A dven-
tures of Four Russian Sailors, who were cast away on
the Desert Island of East Spitzbergen.

-IN this alarming state (that is, when the ship was
surrounded with ice), a council was held; when the
mate, Alexis Hinkof, informed them, that he recollected
to have heard, that some of the people of Mesen, some
time before, having formed a resolution of wintering
upon this island,- had carried from that city timber pro-
per for building a hut, and had actually erected one at
some distance from the shore. This information in.
diced the whole company to resolve on wintering
there, if the hat, as they hoped, still existed; for they
clearly perceived the imminent danger they were in,
and that they must inevitably perish, if they continued
in the ship. They despatched, therefore, four of their
crew in search of the hut, or any other succour they





258 THE HISTORY OF
is surrounded with a company of his particular friends.
The place where they assemble is generally the middle
of one of their large huts, that all the persons of
their society may be impartial spectators of their
contest. When they are thus convened, the cham-
pion, who by agreement is to begin, steps forward
into the middle of the circle, and entertains them with
a song, or speech, which he has before meditated.
In this performance, he generally contrives to throw
all the ridicule he is able upon his antagonist; and his
satire is applauded by his own party, and excites uni-
versal merriment among the audience. When he has
sung or declaimed himself out of breath, it is the turn
of his rival to begin, who goes on in the same manner,
answering all the satire that has been thrown upon
him, and endeavouring to win the laughers over to his
own side. In this manner do the combatants go on,
alternately reciting their compositions against each
other, till the memory or invention of one of them
fails, and he is obliged to yield the victory to his rival.
After this public specimen of their ingenuity, the two
champions generally forget all their animosities, and
are cordially reconciled. This (added Mr. Barlow) ap-
pears to me to be a much better method of answering
ridicule than by giving way to passion and resentment,
and beating those that displease us : and one of these
honest Greenlanders would be as much ashamed of
such a sudden transport of anger, as a Kamptschatkan
traveller would be of managing his dogs as ill as you
did yesterday.

And now the time arrived, when Tommy was by ap-
pointment to go home and spend some time with his
parents. Mr. Barlow had been long afraid of this visit,
as he knew he would meet a great deal of company
there, who would give him impressions of a very dif-





290 THE HISTORY OF
answered Harry, "it is you and your friends here that
insult me."-" What !" answered Tommy, "are you a
person of such consequence that you must not be spoken
to ? You are a prodigious fine gentleman indeed."-
" I always thought you one, till now," answered Harry.
"-" How, you rascal !" said Tommy, "do you say that
I am not a gentleman ? Take that ;"-and immediately
struck Harry upon the face with his fist. His fortitude
was not proof against this treatment; he turned his
face away, and only said in a low tone of voice, Master
Tommy, Master Tommy, I never should have thought
it possible you could have treated me in this unworthy
manner;" then, covering his face with-both his hands,
he burst into an agony of crying.
But the little troop of gentlemen, who were vastly
delighted with the mortification which Harry had re-
ceived, and had formed a very indifferent opinion of
his prowess from the patience which he had hitherto
exerted, began to gather round, and repeat their perse-
cutions. Coward, and blackguard, and tell-tale, echoed
in a chorus through the circle; and some, more forward
than the rest, seized him by the hair, in order that he
might hold up his head and show his pretty face.
But Harry, who now began to recollect himself,
wiped his tears with his hand, and, looking up, asked
them with a firm tone of voice, and a steady counte-
nance, why they meddled with him ? then, swinging
round, he disengaged himself at once, from all who
had taken hold of him. The greatest part of the com-
pany gave back at this question, and seemed disposed
to leave him unmolested; but Master Mash, who was
the most quarrelsome and impertinent boy present,
advanced, and, looking at Harry with a contemptuous
sneer, said, "This is the way we always treat such little
blackguards as you : and if you have not had enough
to satisfy you, we'll willingly give you some more."--












THE HISTORY

OF

SANDFORD AND MERTON.

----------

IN the western part of England lived a gentleman of
great fortune, whose name was Merton. lie had a
large estate in the island of Jamaica, where he had
passed the greater part of his life, and was master of
many servants, who cultivated sugar and other valua-
ble things for his advantage. He had only one son, of
whom he was excessively fond; and to educate this
child properly, was the reason of his determining to
stay some years in England. Tommy Merton, who, at
the time he came from Jamaica, was only six years
old, was naturally a very good-natured boy, but unfor-
tunately had been spoiled by too much indulgence.
While he lived in Jamaica, he had several black ser-
vants to wait upon him, who were forbidden upon any
account to contradict him. If he walked, there always
went two negroes with him; one of whom carried a
large umbrella to keep the sun from him, and the other
was to carry him in his arms whenever he was tired.
Besides this, he was always dressed in silk or lace
clothes, and had a fine gilded carriage, which was
borne upon men's shoulders, in which he made visits
to his play-fellows. His mother was so excessively
fond of him, that she gave him everything he cried for





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 345
of several miles, in which I was frequently obliged to
clamber up pointed rocks, and work my way along the
edge of dangerous precipices. I however arrived
without an accident at the top, which was entirely bare
of trees : and, looking round me, I beheld a wild and
desert country, extended to a prodigious distance. Far
as my eye could reach, I discovered nothing but forests
on every side but one : there the country seemed to be
more open, though equally uncultivated, and I saw
meadows and savannahs opening one beyond another,
bounded at length by a spacious river, whose end and
beginning were equally concealed from my eye. I was
now so weary of this solitary kind of life, that I began
to consider the inhabitants themselves with less appre-
hension: besides, I thought myself out of danger of
meeting with the hostile tribes: and, all these people,
unless irritated by injuries, or stimulated by revenge,
are perhaps less strangers to the rites of hospitality
than any civilized nation. I therefore reflected, that
by directing my course to the river, and following the
direction of its waters, I should have the greatest pro-
bability of meeting with some of my fellow-creatures,
as the natives build their villages near lakes and
streams, and choose their banks as a residence, when
they are employed in hunting. I therefore descended
the mountain, and entered the level district which I
saw before me; and then marching along an open
champaign country for several hours, covered over
with a species of rank grass; and beheld numerous
herds of buffaloes grazing all around.
It was here that an accident befell me, which I will
relate for its singularity, both in respect to the dangers
I incurred, and my method of escape. As I was thus
journeying on, I discovered a prodigious light that
seemed to efface the sun itself, and streak the skies with
an angry kind of illumination. I looked round me to






18 THE HISTORY OF
restraint and opposition, we have in reality been our-
selves the cause that he has not acquired even the
common attainments of his age and situation. All this
I have long observed in silence; but have hitherto
concealed, both from my fondness for our child, and
my fear of offending you: but at length a considera-
tion of his real interests has prevailed over every other
motive, and has compelled me to embrace a resolution,
which I hope will not be disagreeable to you,-that of
sending him directly to Mr. Barlow, provided he would
take the care of him: and I think this accidental
acquaintance with young Sandford may prove the luck-
iest thing in the world, as he is so nearly of the age
and size of our Tommy. I will therefore propose to
the Farmer, that I will for some years pay for the
board and education of his little boy, that he may be a
constant companion to our son."
As Mr. Merton said this with a certain degree of
firmness, and the proposal was in itself so reasonable
and necessary, Mrs. Merton did not make any objection
to it, but consented, although very reluctantly, to part
with her son. Mr. Barlow was accordingly invited to
dinner the next Sunday, and Mr. Merton took an oppor-
tunity of introducing the subject, and making the pro-
posal to him; assuring him, at the same time, that,
though there was no return within the bounds of his
fortune which he would not willingly make, yet the
education and improvement of his son were objects of
so much importance to him, that he should always con-
sider himself as the obliged party.
To this, Mr. Barlow, after thanking Mr. Merton for
the confidence and liberality with which he treated
him, answered in the following manner:-" I should be
little worthy of the distinguished regard with which
you treat me, did I not with the greatest sincerity
assure you, that I feel myself totally unqualified for





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 243
Mr. Barlow. If then you, when you knew nothing,
and could do nothing, thought yourself superior to the
rest of the world; why should you wonder, that men
who really excel others in those things which they
see absolutely necessary, should have the same good
opinion of themselves ? Were you to be in Greenland,
for instance; how would you prove your own supe-
riority and importance ?
Tommy. I would tell them that I had always been
well brought up at home.
Mr. Barlow. That they would not believe; they would
say, that they saw you were totally unable to do any-
thing useful; to guide a boat; to swim the seas; to
procure yourself the least sustenance: so that you
would perish with hunger, if they did not charitably
afford you now and then a bit of whale or seal. And,
as to your being a gentleman, they would not under-
stand the word; nor would they comprehend, why
one man, who is naturally as good as his fellow-crea-
ture, should submit to the caprice of another, and obey
him.
Tommy. Indeed, sir, I begin to think that I am not
so much better than others, as I used to do.
iMr. Barlow. The more you encourage that thought,
the more likely your are to acquire real superiority
and excellence: for, great and generous minds are
less exposed to that ridiculous vanity than weak and
childish ones.
A few evenings after this conversation, when the
night was remarkably clear, Mr. Barlow called his two
pupils into the garden, where there was a long hollow
tube suspended upon a frame. Mr. Barlow then placed
Tommy upon a chair, and bade him look through it;
wnich he had scarcely done, when he cried out, "What
an extraordinary sight is this !"-" What is the matter ?"
said Mr. Barlow.-"I see," replied Tommy, "what I






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 35
were ordered, and, as he had never been taught the
truth, nor accustomed to hear it, he grew very proud,
insolent, and capricious, imagining that he had a right
to command all the world, and that the poor were only
born to serve and obey him.
Near this rich man's house there lived an honest and
industrious poor man, who gained his livelihood by
making little baskets out of dried reeds, which grew
upon a piece of marshy ground close to his cottage
But though he was obliged to labour from morning to
night to earn food enough to support him, and though
he seldom fared better than upon dry bread, or rice, or
pulse, and had no other bed than the remains of the
rushes of which he made baskets, yet was he always
happy, cheerful, and contented; for his labour gave
him so good an appetite, that the coarsest fare appeared
to him delicious; and he went to bed so tired, that he
would have slept soundly even upon the ground. Be-
sides this, he was a good and virtuous man, humane to
everybody, honest in his dealings, always accustomed
to speak the truth, and therefore beloved and respected
hv all his neighbours.
The rich man, on the contrary, though he lay upon
the softest bed, yet could not sleep, because he had
passed the day in idleness; and though the nicest dishes
were presented to him, yet could he not eat with any
pleasure, because he did not wait till nature gave him
an appetite, nor use exercise, nor go into the open air.
Besides this, as he was a great sluggard and glutton,
he.was almost always ill; and, as he did good to nobody,
he had no friends; and even his servants spoke ill of
him behind his back, and all his neighbours, whom he
oppressed, hated him. For these reasons, he was sul-
len, melancholy, and unhappy, and became displeased
with all who appeared more cheerful than himself.
When he was carried out in his palanquin, (a kind of
*





266 THE HISTORY OF

The little gentry, whose tastes and manners were
totally different from his, had now imbibed a perfect
contempt for Harry; and it was with great difficulty
that they would condescend to treat him even with
common civility. In this laudable behaviour they were
very much confirmed by Master Compton and Master
Mash.-Master Compton was reckoned a very genteel
boy; though all his gentility consisted in a pair of
buckles so big that they almost crippled him; in a slen-
der, emaciated figure, and a look of consummate impu-
dence. He had almost finished his education at a
public school, where he had learned every vice and
folly which is commonly taught at such places, without
the least improvement either of his character or his
understanding.-Master Mash was the son of a neigh.
bouring gentleman, who had considerably impaired his
fortune-by an inordinate love of horse-racing. Having
been from his infancy accustomed to no other conver-
sation than about winning and losing money, he had
acquired the idea, that to bet successfully was the sum-
mit of all human ambition. He had been almost
brought up in the stable, and therefore had imbibed
thle greatest interest about horses; not from any real
affection for that noble animal, but merely because he
considered them as engines for the winning of money.
He too was now improving his talents by a public edu-
cation, and longed impatiently for the time when lie
should be set free from all restraint, and allowed to
display the superiority of his genius at Ascot and New-
market.
These two young gentlemen had conceived the most
violent dislike to Harry, and lost no occasion of saying
or doing everything they had in their power to mortify
him. To Tommy they were in the contrary extreme,
and omitted no opportunity of rendering themselves
agreeable to him. Nor was it long before their for-





164 THE HISTORY OF
against dinner. When that delightful hour arrived, it
is impossible to describe either the variety of fish,
flesh, and fowl, which was set before him, or the sur-
prising greediness with which he ate of all; stimulat-
ing his appetite with the highest sauces and richest
wines, till at length he was obliged to desist, not from
being satisfied, but from mere inability to contain more.
This kind of life he had long pursued, but at last
became so corpulent, that he could hardly move: his
belly appeared prominent like a mountain, his face was
bloated, and his legs, though swelled to the size of
columns, seemed unable to support the prodigious
weight of his body. Added to this, he was troubled
with continual indigestions, and racking pains in seve-
ral of his limbs, which at length terminated in a violent
fit of the gout. The pains, indeed, at length abated;
and this unfortunate epicure returned to all his former
habits of intemperance. The interval of ease, however,
was short, and the attacks of his disease becoming
more and more frequent, he was at length deprived of
the use of almost all his limbs.
In this unhappy state, he determined to consult a
physician that lived in the same town, and had the
reputation of performing many surprising cures.-
" Doctor," said the gentleman to the physician, when
he arrived, you see the miserable state to which I am
reduced."-" I do, indeed," answered the physician;
" and I suppose you have contributed to it by your
intemperance."-" As to intemperance," replied the
gentleman, "I believe few have less to answer for
than myself: I indeed love a moderate dinner and sup-
per : but I never was intoxicated with liquor in my
life."-" Probably then you sleep too much ?" said the
physician.-" As to sleep," said the gentleman, I am
in bed near twelve hours every night; because I find
the sharpness of the morning air extremely injmrious





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 417

mals. When they have found his retreat, they gener-
ally make a circle round, uttering shouts and cries, and
clashing their arms, to rouse him to resistance. The
lion, meanwhile, looks round upon his assailants with
indifference or contempt; neither their number nor
their horrid shouts, nor the glitter of their radiant
arms, can daunt him for an instant. At length he be-
gins to lash his sides with his long and nervous tail, a
certain sign of rising rage; his eyes sparkle with de-
structive fires; and if the number of the hunters is
very great, he perhaps moves slowly on. But this he
is not permitted to do; a javelin thrown at him from
behind, wounds him in the flank, and compels him to
turn. Then you behold him roused to fury and des-
peration; neither wounds, nor streaming blood, nor a
triple row of barbed spears, can prevent him from
springing upon the daring Black who has wounded
him. Should he reach him in the attack, it is certain
death; but generally the hunter, who is at once con-
tending for glory and his own life, and is inured to
danger, avoids him by a nimble leap; and all his com-
panions hasten to his assistance. Thus is the lion
pressed and wounded on every side: his rage is in-
effectual, and only exhausts his strength the faster; a
hundred wounds are pouring out his blood at once;
and at length he bites the ground in the agonies of
death, and yields the victory though unconquered.
When he is dead, he is carried back in triumph by the
hunters, as a trophy of their courage. All the village
rushes out at once; the young, the old, women and
children, uttering joyful shouts, and praising the valour
of their champions. The elders admire his prodigious
size, his mighty limbs, his dreadful fangs, and perhaps
repeat tales of their own exploits; the women seem to
tremble at their fierce enemy, even in his death; while
the men compel their children to approach the monster,





,10 THE HISTORY OF

creasing a considerable time, could no longer be re-
strained, and he could not help interrupting the story,
by addressing Mr. Barlow thus :-" Sir, will you give
me leave to ask you a question ?"
Mr. Barlow. As many as you choose.
Tommy. In all these stories which I have heard, it
seems as if those nations, that have little or nothing,
are more good-natured, and better, and braver, than
those that have a great deal.
Mr. Barlow. This is indeed sometimes the case.
Tommy. But then, why should it not be the case here,
as well as in other places ? Are all the poor in this
country better than the rich ?
"It should seem," answered Mr. BIarlow, smiling,
"as if you were of that opinion."
Tommy. Why so, sir ?
Mr. Barlow. Because, whatever you want to have
done, I observe that you always address yourself to
the poor, and not to the rich.
Tommy. Yes, sir; but that is a different case. The
poor are used to do many things which the rich
never do.
Mr. Barlow. Are these things useful or not useful ?
Tommy. Why, to be sure, many of them are extremely
useful; for, since I have acquired so much knowledge,
I find they cultivate the ground to raise corn, and build
houses, and hammer iron, which is so necessary to make
everything we use; besides feeding cattle, and dressing
our victuals, and washing our clothes, and, in short,
doing everything which is necessary to be done.
Mr. Barlow. What! do the poor do all these things?
Tommy. Yes, indeed, or else they never would be
done. For it would be a very ungenteel thing to labour
at a forge like a blacksmith, or hold the plough like a
farmer, or build a house like a brick-layer.
Mr. Barlow. And did not you build a house in my
'nrden some little time aRo ?





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 41
say I shall learn to read as well as he. Well, as soon
as ever he comes home, I am determined to ask him
about it."
The next day little Harry returned, and as soon as
Tommy had an opportunity of being alone with him;
Pray Harry," said Tommy, how came you to be able
to read ?"
Harry. Why, Mr. Barlow taught me my letters, and
then spelling; and then, by putting syllables together,
I learned to read.-Tommy. And could not you show
me my letters ?-Hlarry. Yes, very willingly.
Harry then took up a book, and Tommy was so eager
and attentive, that at the very first lesson he learned
the whole alphabet. He was infinitely pleased with
this first experiment, and could scarcely forbear run-
ning to Mr. Barlow to let him know the improvement
lie had made ; but he thought he should surprise him
more if he said nothing about the matter till he was
able to read a whole story. He therefore applied him-
self with such diligence, and little Harry, who spared
no pains to assist his friend, was so good a master, that
in about two months he determined to surprise Mr.
Barlow with a display of his talents. Accordingly, one
day, when they were all assembled in the summer-
house, and the book was given to Harry, Tommy stood
up and said, that, if Mr. Barlow pleased, he would try
to read. "Oh very willingly," said Mr. Barlow; "but
I should as soon expect you to fly as to read." Tommy
smiled with a consciousness of his own proficiency, and
taking up the book, read with great fluency,

THE HISTORY OF THE TWO DOGS.

IN a part of the world where there are many strong
and fierce wild beasts, a poor man happened to bring
up two puppies of that kind which is most valued for





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 947
the greatest kindness. To this man the unfortunate
prince made his complaints, telling him, that he was
exposed every instant to be attacked by his stronger
foe: and though he had taken his resolution, he ex-
pected nothing but to be cut off with all his army."
"The European happened to have with him one of
these curious glasses, which had not long been invented
in Europe, and was totally unknown in that part of the
globe; and he told the prince, his friend, that he would
soon inform him of what his enemy was doing; and
then he might take his own measures with the greater
confidence. So he produced his glass, and, after hav-
ing adjusted it, turned it towards the enemy's camp,
which he observed some time with great attention;
and then told his friend, that he might at least be easy
for the present; for the enemy's general was at that
instant thinking only of a great feast, which he was
giving to the officers of his army.-' How is it possible,'
replied the prince, 'that you can pretend to discover so
accurately what is done in yonder camp? My eyes, I
think, are at least as good as yours; and yet the dis-
tance is so great, that I can discover nothing distinctly.'
The European then desired his friend to look through
the telescope; which he had no sooner done, than he
rose in great trepidation, and was going to mount his
horse; for the spectacle was so new to him, that he
imagined the enemy was close to him, and that nothing
remained but to stand upon his defence. The Euro-
pean could not help smiling at this mistake; and after
he. had with some difficulty removed his panic, by ex-
plaining the wonderful powers of the glass, he prevailed
upon him to be quiet.
But the unexpected terror which this telescope had
excited, inspired him with a sudden thought, which he
determined to improve to the advantage of the besieged
prince. Acquainting him therefore with his intention,





SANDFORD AND MERTON 408

for his prey, he pursues it at full speed, and never fails
to overtake it by the superior swiftness of his horse.
While he is thus employed, he holds the cord ready,
at the end of which a sliding noose is formed; and,
when he is at a convenient distance, throws it from him
with such a certain hand, that the beast is entangled
by one of his legs, after which it is impossible for him
to escape.
"That you may form a more clear idea of what a
man is capable of executing, with courage and address,
I will relate a most extraordinary incident to which I
was witness during my residence in that part of the
world. A certain man, a native of the country, had
committed some offence, for which he was condemned
to labour several years in the galleys. He found means
to speak to the governor of the town, and besougit him
to change the nature of his punishment. 'I have been
brought up,' said he, 'a warrior, and fear dishonour, but
not death. Instead of consuming my strength and
spirits in such an ignominious employment, let me
have an opportunity of achieving something worthy
to be beheld, or of perishing like a brave man in the
attempt. In a few days a solemn feast is to be cele-
brated, at which you will not fail to be present, at-
tended by all your people. I will there, in the presence
of the whole city, encounter the fiercest bull you can
procure. I desire no assistance but my horse, no wea-
pons but this cord ; yet, thus prepared, I will meet his
fury, and take him by the head, the horns, the feet, as
you.shall direct. I will then throw him down, bridle
him, saddle him, and vault upon his back; in this situa-
tion, you shall turn out two more of the fiercest bulls
you can find, and I will attack them both, and put them
all to death with my dagger, the instant you shall com-
mand." The governor consented to this brave man's
request, more from curiosity to see so extraordinary
26





342 THE HISTORY OF
to struggle to the last 'with the difficulties which sur-
rounded me, and to meet my fortune like a man. Yet,
as I still by intervals heard the dismal cries of the
enemy, and saw their fires at a distance, I lay close till
night in the obscurity of my thicket. When all was
dark and still I ventured abroad, and laid in my scanty
provision of fruits and herbs, and drank again at the
spring. The pain of my wounds now began to abate a
little, though I suffered extremely from the cold, as I
did not dare to kindle a fire, from the fear of discover-
ing myself by its light.
"Three nights and days did I lead this solitary life,
in continual dread of the savage parties which scoured
all the woods in pursuit of stragglers, and often passed
so near my place of retreat, that I gave myself over for
lost. At length, on the fourth evening, fancying my-
self a little restored, and that the activity of the enemy
might be abated, I ventured out, and pursued my
march. I scarcely need describe the various difficulties
and dangers to which I was exposed in such a journey;
however, I had still with me my musket, and as my
ammunition was not quite exhausted, I depended upon
the woods themselves to supply me with food. I tra-
velled the greater part of the night, involving myself
still deeper in these inextricable forests, for I was
afraid to pursue the direction of our former march, as
I imagined these savages were dispersed along the
country in pursuit of the fugitives. I, therefore, took
a direction as nearly as I could judge parallel to the
English settlements, and inclining to the south. In
this manner I forced my way along the woods all night,
and with the morning had reason to think that I had
advanced a considerable distance.
My wounds began now to pain me afresh with this
exertion, and compelled me to allow myself some re-
pose. I chose out the thickest covert I could find, and





202 TH1E HISTORY OF
Harry. No; for I went home the next day, and
never was I better pleased in my life. When I came
to the top of the great hill, from which you have a
prospect of our house, I really thought I should have
cried with joy. The fields looked all so pleasant, and
the cattle that were feeding in them so happy; and
then every step I took, I met with somebody or other
I knew, or some little boy I used to play with. Here
is little Harry come back," said one. How do ye do,
how do ye do ?" cried a second. Then a third shook
hands with me; and the very cattle, when I went about
to see them, seemed all glad that I was come home
again.
M2r. Barlow. You see by this, that it is very possible
for people to like the country, and be happy in it. But
as to the fine young ladies you talk of, the truth is, that
they neither love, nor would be long contented in any
place; their whole happiness consists in idleness and
finery: they have neither learned to employ themselves
in anything useful, nor improve their minds. As to
every kind of natural exercise, they are brought up
with too much delicacy to be able to bear it, and from
the improper indulgences they meet with, they learn
to tremble at every trifling change of the seasons.
With such dispositions, it is no wonder they dislike
the country, where they find neither employment nor
amusement. They wish to go to London, because
there they meet with infinite numbers, as idle and
frivolous as themselves: and these people mutually
assist each other to talk about trifles and waste their
time.
Tommy. That is true, sir, really; for when we have
a great deal of company, I have often observed, that
they never talked about anything but eating or dress-
ing, or men and women that are paid to make faces at
the play-house, or a great room called Ranelagh, where
everybody goes to meet his friends.






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 421
with grief and rage for the loss of my companion, de-
termined either to revenge his death, or perish in the
attempt. Seeing, therefore, that it was in vain to at-
tack the animal in the usual manner, I chose the sharp-
est arrow, and fitted it to the bowstring; then, with a
cool, unterrified aim, observing him moving nimbly on
to the river, I discharged it full at his broad and glar-
ing eye-ball with such success, that the barbed point
penetrated even to his brain ; and the monster fell ex-
piring to the ground.
This action, magnified beyond its deserts, gained
me universal applause throughout the hamlet: I was
from that time looked upon as one of the most valiant
and fortunate of our youth. The immense body of the
monster which I had slain was cut to pieces, and borne
in triumph to the village. All the young women re-
ceived me with songs of joy and congratulations; the
young men adopted me as their leader in every haz-
ardous expedition ; and the elders applauded me with
such expressions of esteem, as filled my ignorant heart
with vanity and exultation.
But what was more agreeable to me than all the
rest, my father received me with transport, and, press-
ing me to his bosom with tears of joy, told me, that
now he could die with pleasure, since I had exceeded
his most sanguine expectations. 'I,' said he, have
not lived inactive or inglorious; I have transfixed the
tiger with my shafts; I have, though alone, attacked
the lion in his rage, the terror of the woods, the fiercest
of animals : even the elephant has been compelled to
turn his back, and fly before my javelin : but never, in
the pride of my youth and strength, did I achieve such
an exploit as this.' He then went into his cabin, and
brought forth the bow and fatal arrows which he was
accustomed to use in the chase. Take them, take
them,' said he, my son, and rescue my weaker arm
them,' aid he





623 THE HISTORY OF
Harry, who never moved from the place where he had
been standing, began to lash him in a most unmerciful
manner with his whip, continually repeating, Now,
you little rascal do you choose to tell me now ?"-To
which, Harry made no other answer than this: "If I
would not tell you before, I won't now, though you
should kill me."
But this fortitude of Harry, and the tears of Tommy,
who cried in the bitterest manner to see the distress
of his friend, made no impression on this barbarian,
who continued his brutality till another gentleman rode
up full speed, and said, For God's sake, Squire, what
are you about ? You will kill the child if you do not
take care."- And the little dog deserves it," said the
other; he has seen the hare, and will not tell mc
which way she is gone."-" Take care," replied the
gentleman, in a low voice, you don't involve yourself
in a disagreeable affair ; I know the other to be the
son of a gentleman of great fortune in the neighbour-
hood:"-and then, turning to Harry, he said, Why,
my dear, would not you tell the gentleman which way
the hare had gone, if you saw her ?"-" Because,"
answered Harry, as soon as he had recovered breath
enough to speak, I don't choose to betray the unfor-
tunate."-" This boy," said the gentleman, "is a pro-
digy; and it is a happy thing for you, Squire, that
his age is not equal to his spirit. But you are always
passionate-"-.... At this moment the hounds recovered
the scent, and bursting out into a full cry, the Squire
mounted his horse, and galloped away, attended by all
his companions.
When they were gone, Tommy came up to Harry
in the most affectionate manner, and asked him how
he did ?-" A little sore," said Harry; but that does
not signify."- Tommy. I wish I had had a pistol or a
sword !-Harry. Why, what would you have done with





80 THE HISTORY OF
heads of their lances nor of their arrows, without the
help of a hammer, they contrived to form the above-
mentioned large iron hook into one, by beating it, and
widening a hole it happened to have about its middle,
with the help of one of their largest nails; this received
the handle, and a round button at one end of the hook
served for the face of the hammer. A large pebble
supplied the place of an anvil, and a couple of rein-
deer's horns made the tongs. By the means of such
tools, they made two heads of spears; and, after polish-
ing and sharpening them on stones, they tied them, as
fast as possible, with thongs made of rein-deer skins,
to sticks about the thickness of a man's arms, which
they got from some branches of trees that had been
cast on shore. Thus equipped with spears, they re-
solved to attack a white bear; and, after a most danger-
ous encounter, they killed the formidable creature, and
thereby made a new supply of provisions. The flesh of
this animal they relished exceedingly, as they thought
it much resembled beef in taste and flavour. The ten-
dons, they saw with much pleasure, could with little or
no trouble, be divided into filaments of what fineness
they thought fit. This perhaps was the most fortunate
discovery these men could have made; for, besides other
advantages, which will be hereafter mentioned, they
were hereby furnished with strings for their bow.
The success of our unfortunate islanders in making
the spears, and the use these proved of, encouraged
them to proceed, and to forge some pieces of iron into
heads of arrows of the same shape, though somewhat
smaller in size than the spears above-mentioned. Hav-
ing ground and sharpened these like the former, they
tied them with the sinews of the white bears to pieces
of fir, to which, by the help of fine threads of the same,
they fastened feathers of sea-fowl; and thus became.
possessed of a complete bow and arrows. Their in.





1083 TrE HISTORY oF
cured him entirely of his mischievous disposition ; but,
unfortunately, nothing is so difficult to overcome as
bad habits that have been long indulged. He had not
gone far, before he saw a lame beggar that just made a
shift to support himself by the means of a couple of
sticks. The beggar asked him to give him something;
and the little mischievous boy, pulling out his six-
pence, threw it down just before him, as if he intended
to make him a present of it; but, while the poor man
was stooping with difficulty to pick it- up, this wicked
little boy knocked the stick away ; by which means the
beggar fell down upon his face ; and then, snatching up
the sixpence, the boy ran away, laughing very heartily
at the accident.
This was the last trick this ungracious boy had it in
his power to play; for, seeing two men come up to the
beggar, and enter into discourse with him, he was afraid
of being pursued, and therefore ran as fast as he was
able over several fields. At last he came into a lane
which led to a farmer's orchard, and as he was prepar-
ing to clamber over the fence, a large dog seized him
by the leg, and held him fast. He cried out in an
agony of terror, which brought the farmer out, who
called the dog off, but seized him very roughly, saying,
So, sir, you are caught at last, are you ? You thought
you might come day after day and steal my apples,
without detection; but it seems you are mistaken, and
now you shall receive the punishment you have so
long deserved." The farmer then began to chastise
him very severely with a whip he had in his hand, and
the boy in vain protested he was innocent, and begged
for mercy. At last the farmer asked him who he was,
and where he lived ; but when he heard his name, he
cried out, What, are you the little rascal that fright-
ened my sheep this morning, by which means several
of them are lost; and do you think to escape ?" Say-





SANDFORD AND MERTON 325
ivould be my lot; the dangers of the field, the pesti-
lence of camps, the slow consuminglanguor of hospitals,
the insolence of command, the mortification of subordi-
nation, and the uncertainty that the exertions of even
a long life would ever lead to the least promotion.
All this' replied I, trembling with fear that my
father should take advantage of these too just repre-
sentations to refuse his consent, 'I knew before; but
I feel an irresistible impulse within me which compels
me to the field. The die is cast for life or death, and
I will abide by the chance that now occurs. If you,
sir, refuse me, I will, however, enlist with the first
officer that will accept me ; for I will no longer wear
out life amid the solitude of these surrounding moun-
tains, without even a chance of meriting applause, or
distinguishing my name?
The officer then desisted from his opposition, and,
turning to my parents, asked them if it were with their
consent that I was going to enlist ? My mother burst
into tears, and my sisters hung about me weeping;
my father replied with a deep sigh, 'I have long expe-
rienced that it is vain to oppose the decrees of Provi-
dence. Could my persuasions have availed, he would
have remained contented in these mountains, but that
is now impossible; at least, till he has purchased wis-
dom at the price of his blood. If, therefore, sir, you
do not despise his youth and mien, take him with you,
and let him have the advantage of your example. I
have been a soldier myself, and I can assure you, with
truth, that I have never seen an officer under whom I
would more gladly march than yourself.' Our guest
made a polite reply to my father, and instantly agreed
to receive me. He then pulled out a purse, and, offer-
ing it to my father, said, The common price of a re-
cruit is now five guineas; but so well am I satisfied
with the appearance of your son, and the confidence
21





SANDFPOD AND MERTON. 67
boy's countenance at receiving this present, excepting
what Tommy himself felt the first time at the idea of
doing a generous and grateful action. He strutted away
without waiting for the little boy's acknowledgment
and, happening to meet Mr. Barlow, as he was return-
ing home, told him, with an air of exultation, what he
had done. Mr. Barlow cooly answered, "You have
done very well in giving the little boy clothes, because
they are your own: but what right have you to give
away my loaf of bread without asking my consent ?"-
Tommy. Why, sir, I did it because the little boy said
lie was very hungry, and had seven brothers and sisters,
and that his father was ill, and could not work.-Mr.
B. This is a very good reason why you should give
them what belongs to yourself; but not why you
should give away what is another's. What would you
say, if Harry were to give away all your clothes, with-
out asking your leave ?-T. I should not like it at all;
and I will not give away your things any more without
asking your leave.-" You will do well," said Mr. Bar-
low; and here is a little story you may read upon this
very subject."

THE STORY OF CYRUS.

CYRus was a little boy of very good dispositions, and
a very humane temper. He had several masters, who
endeavoured to teach him everything that was good;
and he was educated with several little boys about his
own age. One evening his father asked him what he
had done, or learned that day. Sir," said Cyrus, "I
was punished to-day for deciding unjustly,"-"How
so ?" said his father.-Cyrus. There were two boys,
one of whom was a great, and the other a little boy.
Now it happened that the little boy had a coat that was
much too big for him ; but the great boy had one that





SANDFORD AND MERTON 205
new surprise of Tommy, they found they were unable
to stir it."--"That is very curious, indeed," said
Tommy, I find that only long sticks are of any use."
-" That," said Harry, I could have told you before;
but I had a mind you should find it out yourself. The
longer the stick is, provided it is sufficiently strong, and
you can manage it, the more easily will you succeed."
--" This is really very curious," replied Tommy, but
I see some of Mr. Barlow's labourers at work a little
way off; let us go to them, and desire them to cut us
two longer sticks that we may try their effect."
They then went up to the men who were at work,
but here a new subject of admiration presented itself
to Tommy's mind. There was a root of a prodigious
oak-tree, so large and heavy, that half a dozen horses
would scarcely have been able to draw it along; besides,
it was so tough and knotty, that the sharpest axe could
hardly make any impression upon it.-This a couple of
old men were attempting to cleave in pieces, in order
to make billets for Mr. Barlow's fire.
Tommy, who thought their strength totally dispro-
portionate to such an undertaking, could not help pity-
ing them; and observing that certainly Mr. Barlow
did not know what they were about, or he would
have prevented such poor weak old men from fatiguing
themselves about what they never could perform."-
Do you think so ?" replied Harry, what would you
then say, if you were to see me, little as I am, perform
this wonderful task, with the assistance of one of these
good people ?" So he took up a wooden mallet,-an
instrument which, although much larger, resembles a
hammer; and began beating the root, which he did
for some time, without making the least impression.
Tommy, who imagined that for this time his friend
Harry was caught, began to smile, and told him, "Cthat
he would break a hundred mallets to pieces, before he





54 THE HISTORY OF
"U pon my word," said Tommy," this is a very pretty
story: but I never should have thought that a lion
could have grown so tame; I thought that they, and
tigers, and wolves, had been so fierce and cruel, that
they would have torn everything they met to pieces."
When they are hungry," said Mr. Barlow, they
kill every animal they meet : but this is to devour it;
for they can only live upon flesh, like dogs and cats,
and many other kinds of animals. When they are not
hungry, they seldom meddle with anything, or do
unnecessary mischief; therefore they are much less
cruel than many persons that I have seen, and even
than many children, who plague and torment animals,
without any reason whatsoever."
Indeed, sir," said Harry, "I think so. And I re-
member, as I was walking along the road, some days
past, I saw a little naughty boy that used a poor jack-
ass very ill indeed. The poor animal was so lame, that
he could hardly stir ; and yet the boy beat him with a
great stick as violently as he was able, to make him go
on faster."-" And what did you say to him ?" said Mr.
Barlow.-Harry. Why, sir, I told him, how naughty
and cruel it was; and I asked him, how he would like
to be beaten in that manner by somebody that was
stronger than himself ?-Mr. B. And what answer did
he make you ?-H. He said, that it was his daddy's
ass, and so that he had a right to beat it; and that if
I said a word more, he would beat me.-Mr. B. And
what answer did you make; any ?-H. I told him, if
it was his father's ass, he should not use it ill; for
that we were all God's creatures, and that we should love
each other, as He loved us all; and that as to beating
me, if he struck me, I had a right to strike him again,
and would do it, though he was almost as big again
as I was.--Mr. B. And did he strike you ?-H. Yes, sir.
He endeavoured to strike me upon the hIad with his





G2 'THE HISTORY OF
Harry, who never moved from the place where he had
been standing, began to lash him in a most unmerciful
manner with his whip, continually repeating, "Now,
you little rascal do you choose to tell me now ?"-To
which, Harry made no other answer than this: "If I
would not tell you before, I won't now, though you
should kill me."
But this fortitude of Harry, and the tears of Tommy,
who cried in the bitterest manner to see the distress
of his friend, made no impression on this barbarian,
who continued his brutality till another gentleman rode
up full speed, and said, "For God's sake, Squire, what
are you about ? You will kill the child if you do not
take care."--" And the little dog deserves it," said the
other; he has seen the hare, and will not tell me
which way she is gone."-" Take care," replied the
gentleman, in a low voice, "you don't involve yourself
in a disagreeable affair; I know the other to be the
son of a gentleman of great fortune in the neighbour-
hood:"-and then, turning to Harry, he said, Why,
my dear, would not you tell the gentleman which way
the hare had gone, if you saw her?"-" Because,"
answered Harry, as soon as he had recovered breath
enough to speak, "I don't choose to betray the unfor-
tunate:.-" This boy," said the gentleman, is a pro.
digy; and it is a happy thing for you, Squire, that
his age is not equal to his spirit. But you are always
passionate-".... At this moment the hounds recovered
the scent, and bursting out into a full cry, the Squire
mounted his horse, and galloped away, attended by all
his company nSs.
When they were gone, Tommy came up to Harry
in the most affectionate manner, and asked him how
he did ?-" A little sore," said Harry; but that doea
not signify."-Tommy. I wish I had had a pistol or a
sword !-Harry. Why, what would you have done with





166 THE HISTORY OF
the trouble of acquiring it; and imagine, that all the
consequences of an ill-spent life are to be washed away
by a julap, or a decoction of senna. But, as I cannot
cure you upon those terms, I will not deceive you for
an instant. Your case is out of the power of medicine ;
and you can only be relieved by your own exertions."
"4 How hard is this," answered the gentleman, to be
thus abandoned to despair even in the prime of life 1
Cruel and unfeeling Doctor, will you not attempt any-
thing to procure me ease ?"-" Sir," answered the phy-
sician, I have already told you everything I know on
the subject : I must, however, acquaint you, that I have
a brother physician, who lives at Padua; a man of the
greatest learning and integrity, who is particularly fa-
mous for curing the gout. If you think it worth your
while to consult him, I will give you a letter of recom-
mendation ; for he never stirs from home even to attend
a prince."
Here the conversation ended : for the gentleman,
who did not like the trouble of the journey, took his
leave of the physician, and returned home, very much
dispirited. In a little while he either was, or fancied
himself worse; and, as the idea of the Paduan physi-
cian had never left his head, he at last resolutely deter-
mined to set out upon the journey. For this purpose
he had a litter so contrived, that he could lie recum-
bent, or recline at his ease, and eat his meals. The
distance was not above one day's tolerable journey, but
the gentleman wisely resolved to make four of it, for
fear of over-fatiguing himself. Hie had, besides, a
loaded waggon attending, filled with everything that
constitutes good eating; and two of his cooks went
with him, that nothing might be wanting to his accom-
modation on the road.
After a wearisome journey, he at length arrived
within sight of Padua ; and eagerly inquiring after the






216 THE HISTORY OF
Here Tommy interrupted the story, to inquire what
a shield was.-" Formerly," answered Mr. Barlow, "be-
fore men were acquainted with the pernicious effects
of gunpowder, they were accustomed to combat close
together, with swords or long spears; and for this rea-
son, they covered themselves in a variety of ways, to
defend their bodies from the weapons of their enemies.
The shield was worn upon their left arm, and composed
of boards fixed together, and strengthened with the
hides of animals and plates of iron, sufficiently long
and broad to cover almost the whole body of a man,
When they went out to battle, they placed themselves
in even rows or ranks, with their shields extended be-
fore them, to secure them from the arrows and weapons
of their enemies. Upon their heads they wore a hel-
met ; which was a cap of iron or steel, ornamented with
the waving feathers of birds, or the tails of horses. In
this manner, with an even pace, marching all at once,
and extending their spears before them, they went for-
ward to meet their enemies.--"I declare," said Tommy,
such a sight must have been prodigiously fine ; and
when I have accidentally met with soldiers myself, I
thought they made such a figure, walking erect with
their arms all glittering in the sun, that I have some-
times thought I would be a soldier myself, whenever I
grew big enough."-" And have you considered," in-
quired Mr. Barlow, "what is the business, and gener-
ally the fate, of a soldier ?"-" No," said Tommy; I
know that he must fight sometimes: but what I thought
so pleasant was, to march up and down in a fine red
coat, with colours flying and music playing, while all
the ladies are looking on, and smiling, and bowing: for
1 have heard a great many of them say, they loved a
soldier above all things."-" Well," said Mr. Barlow,
"CCI will presently endeavour to give you juster ideas of
what composes the life of a soldier : let Harry now go
on with his story,"





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 347
trembling hand, the flint and steel upon which my
preservation was to depend. I struck a light, and pre-
sently kindled the driest grass before me : the confla-
gration spread along the country; the wind drove it on
with inconceivable fury, and I saw the path of my de-
liverance open before my eyes. In a few seconds, a
considerable vacancy was burnt before me, which I
traversed with the speed of a man that flies from in-
stant death. My feet were scorched with the glowing
soil, and several times had I been nearly suffocated
with the drift of the pursuing smoke ; but every step I
made convinced me of the certainty of my escape;
and in a little time, I stopped to consider at leisure the
conflagration I had avoided; which, after proceeding
to the point whence I set out, was extinguished as I
had foreseen, and delivered me from all apprehen-
sion."
I declare," said Tommy, this is the most extraor-
dinary thing I ever heard; and yet I can easily conceive
it, for I once saw some men set fire to the heath and
furzes upon the common, and they burnt so furiously
that I was quite afraid to come near the flame."
"I pursued my way," continued the Highlander,
" over the smoking soil, which I had rendered bare to a
considerable extent, and lodged at night, as usual, under
some boughs which I stuck up to defend me. In the
morning I set out again, and soon arrived at a spacious
lake, upon whose banks I could plainly discern the signs
of an American encampment. I hesitated some time,
whether I should again conceal myself in the woods,
or deliver myself up to their mercy. But I considered
that it was impossible long to continue this wandering
life; and that, in the end, I must have recourse to some
of these savage tribes for assistance. What, therefore,
must be done at last, it was fruitless to delay; I had
every reason to imagine that the people before me





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 107
eggs upon her head, dressed in a green gown, with a
straw hat upon her head "-" God bless you, master,"
said the beggar, I am so blind that I can see nothing
either in heaven above, or in the earth below; I have
been blind these twenty years; and they call me poor,
old, blind Richard."
Though this poor man was such an object of charity
and compassion, yet the little boy determined, as usual,
to play him some trick; and, as he was a great liar and
deceiver, he spoke to him thus:-" Poor old Richard!
I am heartily sorry for you with all my heart: I am
just eating my breakfast, and if you will sit down by
me, I will give you part and feed you myself."--" Thank
you with all my heart," said the poor man, "and if you
give me your hand, I will sit by you with great pleasure,
my dear, good little master !" The little boy then gave
him his hand, and pretending to direct him, guided him
to sit down in a large heap of wet dung that lay by the
road side. There," said he, now you are nicely
seated, and I will feed you." So, taking a little in his
fingers, he was going to put it into the blind man's
mouth : but the man, who now perceived the trick that
had been played him, made a sudden snap at his fingers,
and getting them between his teeth,bit them so severely,
that the wicked boy roared out for mercy, and promised
never more to be guilty of such wickedness. At last,
the blind man, after he had put him to very severe
pain, consented to let him go, saying, as he went, Are
you not ashamed, you little scoundrel, to attempt to do
hurt to those who have never injured you, and to want
to add to the sufferings of those, who are already suffi-
ciently miserable ? Although you escape now, be as-
sured, that if you do not repent and mend your man-
ners, you will meet with a severe punishment for your
bad behaviour."
One would think, that this punishment should have





236 TITE HISTORY OF

pursuing animal. All, who saw, imagined his fate in-
evitable; and it would certainly have proved so, had
not Harry, with a courage and presence of mind above
his years, suddenly seized a prong, which one of the
fugitives had dropped, and, at the very moment when
the bull was stooping to gore his defenceless friend,
advanced and wounded him in the flank. The bull, in
an instant, turned short, and with redoubled rage made
at his new assailant; and it is probable that, notwith-
standing his intrepidity, Harry would have paid the
price of his assistance to his friend with his own life,
had not an unexpected succour arrived :-for, in that
instant, the grateful Black rushed on like lightning to
assist him, and, assailing the bull with a weighty stick
that he held in his hand, compelled him to turn his
rage upon a new object. The bull indeed attacked him
with all the impetuosity of revenge,; but the Black
jumped nimbly aside, and eluded his fury. Not con-
tented with this, he wheeled round his fierce antago.
nist, and, seizing him by the tail, began to batter his
sides with an unexpected storm of blows. In vain did
the enraged animal bellow and writhe himself about
in all the convulsions of madness; his intrepid foe,
without ever quitting his hold, suffered himself to be
dragged about the field, still continuing his discipline,
till the creature was almost spent with the fatigue of
his own violent agitations. And now, some of the
boldest of the spectators, taking courage, approached
to his assistance; and, throwing a well-twisted rope
over his head, they at length, by the dint of superior
numbers, completely mastered the furious animal, and
bound him to a tree.
In the meanwhile, several of Mr. Merton's servants,
who had been sent out after the young gentlemen, ap-
proached, and took up their young master, who, though
without a wound, was almost dead with fear and agita.





252 THE HISTORY OF
produced, and the lady, who had been so eloquent
against the poor, sat down to Whist; at which she
played for several hours with equal ignorance and ill-
fortune.-When the party was over, she was complain-
ing to Mr. Barlow of her losses, and added, that she
scarcely ever in her life had sitten down to cards with
better success.-" I wonder, madam," replied Mr. Bar-
low, you do not then give up entirely."-" Alas !"
answered the lady, "I have often made this resolution;
but I have never had the courage to keep it."-"Indeed,
madam," said Mr. Barlow, "it is impossible you can be
deficient in courage ; and therefore you wrong your
own character."-" You do me too much honour," said
the lady, "by your good opinion: but whoever has
given you this information is deceived."-"I had it only
from yourself, madam,"-" From me, sir ? When did I
ever give you such a character of myself ?"-"Just now,
madam, when you declared that, upon the bad success
of half a dozen experiments, you had resolved never
more to be charitable; and had kept the resolution
ever since. I can hardly conceive that your love of
cards is so much greater than that of your duty and
religion ; and therefore, my dear madam, I must repeat
it, that you certainly undervalue your own fortitude."
Such were the opinions of Mr. Barlow in respect to
the poor; and therefore, instead of widening the dis-
tance which fortune has placed between one part of
mankind and another, he was continually intent upon
bringing the two classes nearer together. Poverty has
in itself so many hardships and disagreeable circum-
stances, that we need not increase their number by un-
necessary pride and insolence. The distinctions of
rank may indeed be necessary to the government of a
populous country; but it is for the good of the whole,
not of individuals, that they can have any just claim to
be admitted ; and therefore, a good man will insist upon





83 THE HISTORY OF

to split, served them for thread : and, thus provided
with the necessary implements, they proceeded to
make their new clothes."

"These," said Mr. Barlow, "are the extracts which
I have made from this very extraordinary story; and they
are sufficient to show both the many accidents to which
men are exposed, and the wonderful expedients which
may be found out, even in the most dismal circum-
stances."-" It is very true, indeed," answered Tommy;
"c but pray what became of these poor men at last ?"-
After they had lived more than six years upon this
dreary and inhospitable coast," answered Mr. Barlow,
"aa ship arrived there by accident, which took three of
them on board, and carried them in safety to their own
country."-" And what became of the fourth ?" said
Tommy.-" He," said Mr. Barlow, "was seized with a
dangerous disease, called the scurvy; and, being of an
indolent temper, and therefore not using the exercise
which was necessary to preserve his life, after having
lingered some time, died, and was buried in the snow
by his companions."
Here little Harry came in from his father's house,
and brought with him the chicken, which, it has been
mentioned, he had saved from the claws of the kite.
The little animal was now perfectly recovered of the
hurt it had received, and showed so great a degree of
affection to its protector, that it would run after him
like a dog, hop upon his shoulder, nestle in his bosom,
and eat crumbs out of his hand. Tommy was ex-
tremely surprised and pleased to remark its tameness
and docility, and asked by what means it had been
made so gentle. Harry told him he had taken no par-
ticular pains about it; but that, as the poor little crea.
ture had been sadly hurt, he had fed it every day till
it was well; and that, in consequence of that kind-






122 THE HISTORY OF
nothing but the walls. For this purpose they took
several other long poles, which they laid across their
building where it was most narrow: and upon these
they placed straw in considerable quantities, so that
they now imagined they had constructed a house that
would completely screen them from the weather. But
in this, unfortunately, they were again mistaken ; for a
very violent shower of rain coming just as they had
finished their building, they took shelter under it, and
remarked for some time, with infinite pleasure, how
dry and comfortable it kept them: but at last, the
straw that covered it being completely soaked through,
and the water having no vent to run off, by reason of
the flatness of the roof, the rain began to penetrate in
considerable quantities.
For some time Harry and Tommy bore the incon-
veniency; but it increased so much, that they were
soon obliged to yield to it, and seek for shelter in the
house. When they were thus secured, they began again
to consider the affair of the house; and Tommy said,
that it surely must be because they had not put straw
enough upon it.-"No," said Harry; "I think that
cannot be the reason ; I rather imagine that it must be
owing to our roof lying so flat: for I have observed,
that all houses that I have ever seen, have their roofs
in a shelving posture, by which means the wet continu-
ally runs off from them, and falls to the ground;
whereas ours, being quite flat, detained almost all the
rain that fell upon it, which must necessarily soak
deeper and deeper into the straw, till it penetrated
quite through."
They therefore agreed to remedy this defect; and
for this purpose they took several poles of an equal
length, the one end of which they fastened to the side
of the house, and let the other two ends meet in the
middle ; by which means they formed a roof, exactly





SANDFORD AND MERTON 341
ply of food. I, therefore, arose, and finding a spring
that trickled down a hill at no great distance, I re-
freshed myself by a copious draught, and washed the
clotted blood away from the hurts I had received. I
then crushed some leaves, which the inhabitants of
that country imagine salutary, and bound them on
with bandages which I tore from my linen. I also
found a few wild fruits, which past experience had
taught me were innocent, and with them I allayed the
pains of hunger. I then returned to the thicket, and,
creeping into the thickest part, endeavoured to com-
pose myself to rest.
Strange, gentlemen, as it may appear, neither the
forlorn nature of my situation, nor the dangers with
which I was beset, were sufficient to keep me awake:
my wearied and exhausted body seemed to triumph
over all the agitations of my mind ; and I sunk into a
sleep as deep and profound as that of death itself. I
awoke next morning with the first rays of the sun;
but, more composed, I better understood the difficul-
ties in which I was involved, and the uncertainty of
my escape. I was in the midst of an immense desert,
totally destitute of human assistance or support. Should
I meet with any of my fellow-creatures, I could expect
nothing but implacable cruelty; and even if I escaped
their vigilance, what method of finding subsistence, or
of measuring back, without a guide, the long and tedi-
ous march I had trodden. Hope, however, and the
vigour of my constitution, still supported me. I re-
flected that it is the common lot of man to struggle
with misfortunes; that it is cowardice to yield to evils,
when present, the representation of which had not de-
terred me from voluntarily embracing the profession of
a soldier: and that the providence of heaven was as
capable of protecting me in the forests of America, as
upon my native mountains. I, therefore, determined
21





414 THE HISTORY OF

that would have scarcely anything to fear from the
whole animal creation: but, with us, a few reeds
twisted together, and perhaps daubed over with slime
or mud, compose the whole of our dwellings. Yet the
innocent Negro would sleep as happy and contented
as you do in your palaces, provided you do not drag
him by fraud and violence away, and force him to en-
dure all the excesses of your cruelty.
"It was in one of these cottages that I first remem-
ber anything of myself. A few stakes set in the ground
and interwoven with dry leaves, covered at top with
the spreading leaves of the palm, composed our dwell-
ing. Our furniture consisted of three or four earthen
pipkins, in which our food was dressed; a few mats
woven with a silky kind of grass to serve as beds; the
instruments with which my mother turned the ground,
and the javelin, arrows, and lines, which my father
used in fishing or the chase. In this country, and
many others where I have been, I observe that nobody
thinks himself happy till he has got together a thou-
sand things which he does not want, and can never
use : you live in houses so big that they are fit to con-
tain an army; you cover yourselves with superfluous
cloths that restrain all the motions of your bodies:
when you want to eat, you must have meat enough
served up to nourish a whole village; yet I have seen
poor famished wretches starving at your gate, while the
master had before him at least a hundred times as
much as he could consume. We Negroes, whom you
treat as savages, have different manners and different
opinions. The first thing that I can remember of my-
self, was the running naked about such a cottage as I
have described, with four of my little brothers and sis-
ters. I have observed your children here with aston-
ishment: as soon as they are born, it seems to be the
business of all about them, to render them weak, help-






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 111
does good to them; and nobody can tell but one time
or other he may want the assistance of the meanest
and lowest. Therefore every sensible man will behave
well to everything around him: he will behave well,
because it is his duty to do it, because every benevolent
person feels the greatest pleasure in doing good, and
even because it is his own interest to make as many
friends as possible. No one can tell, however secure
his present situation may appear, how soon it may alter,
and he may have occasion for the compassion of those
who are now infinitely below him. I could show you
a story to that purpose, but you have read enough, and
therefore you must now go out, and use some exercise."
Oh pray, sir," said Tommy, "do let me hear the
story: I think I could now read for ever without being
tired."--No," said Mr. Barlow, "everything has its
turn. To-morrow you shall read, but now we must
work in the garden."-" Then pray, sir," said Tommy,
"may I ask a favour of you ?"-" Surely," answered
Mr. Barlow ; "if it is proper for you to have, there is
nothing can give me a greater pleasure than to grant
it."-" Why then," said Tommy, "I have been thinking
that a man should know how to do everything in the
world."-Mr. B. Very right: the more knowledge he
acquires, the better.-T. And, therefore, Harry and I
are going to build a house.-Mr. B. To build a house ?
Well, and have you laid in a sufficient quantity of bricks
and mortar ?-" No, no," said Tommy, smiling: Harry
and I can build houses without bricks and mortar.'-
Mr. B. What are they to be made of then; cards ?-
" Dear sir," answered Tommy, "do you think we are
such little children as to want card-houses ? No; we
are going to build real houses, fit for people to live in.
And then, you know, if ever we should be thrown upon
a desert coast, as the poor men were, we shall be able
to supply ourselves with necessaries till some ship





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 333

exercise of all their limbs, they cannot bear the re-
straint and confinement of an European dress. The
greater part of their bodies, therefore, is naked; and
this they paint in various fashions, to give additional
terror to their looks.
"When the chiefs were thus prepared they came
from their tents; and the last solemnity I was witness
to, was dancing the dance of war, and singing the song
of death. But what words can convey an adequate idea
of the furious movements and expressions which ani-
mated them through the whole of this performance ?
Every man was armed with a kind of hatchet, which is
their usual weapon in battle, and called a tomahawk.
This he held in his hand, and brandished through the
whole of the dreadful spectacle. As they went on,
their faces kindled into an expression of anger which
would have daunted the boldest spectator; their ges-
tures seemed to be inspired by frantic rage and impla-
cable animosity: they moved their bodies with the
most violent agitations, and it was easy to see they
represented all the circumstances of a real combat.
They seemed to be engaged in close or distant battle,
and brandished their weapons with so much fury, that
you would have imagined they were going every instant
to iew each other to pieces; nor would it have been
possible, even for the performers themselves of this
terrific dance, to have avoided mutual wounds and
slaughter, had they not been endued with that extraor-
dinary activity which is peculiar to savage nations. By
intervals, they increased the horrid solemnity of the
exhibition, by uttering yells that would have pierced a
European ear with horror. I have seen rage and fury
under various forms, and in different parts of the globe ;
but I must confess, that everything I have seen else-
where is feeble and contemptible when compared with
tllis (daly spectacle. When the whole was finished.






.a .a**-














^^^^^SANDEORD AND MERTON.^*


NT ^





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 419

spread my father's fame throughout the whole country,
and gave him the name of the undaunted hunter, as an
honourable distinction from the neighbourhood. Under
such a parent, it was not long before I was taught
every species of the chase. At first, my father only
suffered me to pursue stags and other feeble animals,
or took me in his canoe to fish. Soon, however, I was
entrusted with a bow and arrows, and placed with many
other children and young men to defend our rice-fields
from the depredations of the river-horse. Rice (it is
necessary to observe) is a plant that requires great
moisture in the soil ; all our plantations, therefore, are
made by the side of rivers, in the soft fertile soil which
is overflowed in the rainy season. But when the grain
is almost ripe, we are forced to defend it from a variety
of hurtful animals, that would otherwise deprive us of
the fruits of our labours; among these, one of the
principal is the animal I have mentioned. His size
and bulk are immense, being twice the bigness of the
largest ox which I have seen in this country: he has
four legs, which are short and thick ; a head of a mon-
strous magnitude, and jaws that are armed with teeth of
a prodigious size and strength; besides two prominent
tusks which threaten destruction to all assailants.
But this animal,though so large and strong, is chiefly
an inhabitant of the river, where he lives upon fish and
water-roots. It is sometimes a curious but a dreadful
sight, when a boat is gliding over a smooth part of the
stream, of unusual depth and clearness, to look down
and behold this monstrous creature travelling along
the bottom several yards below the surface. When-
ever this happens, the boatman instantly paddles an-
other way ; for such is the strength of the creature,
that he is able to overset a bark of moderate size, by
rising under it, or to tear a plank out with his fangs, and
expose those who are in it to the dangers of an unex-





SANDFORD AND MERTON 207
But when Tommy attempted to move, he found that he
could hardly bear the pressure: however, as he saw
Harry walk briskly away under his share of the load,
he determined not to complain.
As they were walking in this manner, Mr. Barlow
met them ; and seeing poor Tommy labouring under
his burden, asked him, who had loaded him in that
manner ? Tommy said it was Harry. Upon this Mr.
Barlow smiled, and said, Well, Tommy, this is the
first time I ever saw your friend Harry attempt to im-
pose upon you ; but he is making you carry about three
times the weight which he supports himself."-Harry
replied, that Tommy had chosen that himself; and
that he should directly have informed him of his mis-
take, but that he had been so surprised at seeing the
common effects of a lever, that he wished to teach him
some other facts about it ;" then, shifting the ends of
the pole, so as to support that part which Tommy had
done before, he asked him, if he found his shoulder
anything easier than before ?"-" Indeed, I do," replied
Tommy, but I cannot conceive how; for we carry
the same weight between us which we did before, and
just in the same manner."-" Not quite in the same
manner," answered Mr. Barlow, for, if you observe,
the log is a great deal farther from your shoulder than
from Harry's; by which means he now supports just
as much as you did before, and you, on the contrary, as
little as he did when I met you."-" This is very extra-
ordinary indeed," said Tommy, I find there are a
great many things which I did not know, nor even my
mamma, nor any of the fine ladies that come to our
house."-- Well," replied Mr. Barlow, if you have
acquired so much useful knowledge already, what may
you expect to do in a few years more "
Mr. Barlow then led Tommy into the house, and
showed him a stick of about four feet long, with a






20 THE HISTORY OF
a young gentleman intended to move in that irphere; I,
whose temper, reason, and religion, equally combine to
make me reject the principles upon which those dis-
tinctions are founded.-The Christian religion, though
not exclusively, is, emphatically speaking, the religion
of the poor. Its first ministers were taken from the
lower orders of mankind, and to the lower orders of
TVnkiind was it first proposed; and in this, instead of
feeling myself mortified or ashamed, I am the more
inclined to adore the wisdom and benevolence of that
Power, by whose command it was first promulgated.
Those who engross the riches and advantages of this
world, are too much ein loyed with their pleasures and
ambition, to be much interested about any system,
either of religion or of morals: they too frequently
feel a species of habitual intoxication, which excludes
every serious thought, and makes them view with in-
difference everything but the present moment. Those,
on the contrary, to whom all the hardships and miser-
ies of this world are allotted as their natural portion,-
those who eat the bread of bitterness, and drink the
waters of affliction, have more interest in futurity, and
are therefore more prepared to receive the promises of
the Gospel. Yes, sir; mark the disingenousness of
many of our modern philosophers; they quarrel with
the Christian religion, because it has not yet penetrated
the deserts of Africa, or arrested the wandering hordes
of Tartary ; yet they ridicule it for the meanness of its
origin, and because it is the gospel of the poor : that is
to say, because it is expressly calculated to inform the
judgments, and alleviate the miseries, of that vast pro-
miscuous body, which constitutes the Majestic species
of Man.-But for whom would these philosophers have
Heaven itself interested, if not for the mighty whole
which it has created ? Poverty, that is to say, a state
of labour and frequent self-denial, is the natural statc





854 THE HITSTORY OF

wife, perish by the hardships of our situation, I took
the resolution of abandoning, forever, a country which
seemed incapable of supporting its inhabitants. I
thought that the milder climate and more fertile soil
of America, might, perhaps, enable a wretched wan-
derer, who asked no more than food for his starving
children, to drag on, a little longer, a miserable life.
With this idea I sold the remainder of my stock, and,
after having paid my landlord, I found I had just
enough to transport myself and family into eternal
banishment. I reached a sea-port town, and embarked
with my children on board a ship that was setting sail
for Philadelphia. But the same ill fortune seemed still
to accompany my steps, for a dreadful storm arose,
which, after having tost our vessel during several
days, wrecked us at length upon the coast. All the
crew, indeed, escaped, and with an infinite difficulty I
saved these dear but miserable infants, who now ac-
company me : but when I reflect on my situation, in a
distant country, without resources, friends, or hopes, I
am almost inclined to think that we might all have
been happier in the bosom of the ocean."
Here the Highlander finished his story, and all the
company were affected by the recital of his distresses.
They all endeavoured to comfort him with the kindest
expressions and promises of assistance; but Miss Sim-
mons, after she had with some difficulty composed her.
self enough to speak, asked the man if his name was
not Andrew Campbell? The Highlander answered,
with some surprise, it was. "Then," said she, "you
will find that you have a friend, whom, as yet, you are
not acquainted with, who has both the ability and the
will to serve you. That friend," added she, seeing all
the company astonished, "is no other than my uncle.
That Colonel Simmons, whom you have described
with so much feeling and affection, was brother to





BANDFORD AND MERTON 293
tance; neither the ill-usage he had received, nor the
pain of his wounds, could make him unmindful of
Master Merton, or careless of his safety. He knew too
well the dreadful accidents which frequently attend
these barbarous sports, to be able to quit his friend, till
he had once more seen him in a place of safety.
And now the noble animal that was to be thus wan-
tonly tormented, was fastened to the ring by a strongly-
twisted cord ; which, though it confined and cramped
his exertions, did not entirely restrain them. Although
possessed of almost irresistible strength, he seemed
unwilling to exert it: and looked round upon the in-
finite multitude of his enemies with a gentleness that
ought to have disarmed their animosity.
Presently, a dog of the largest size and most fero-
cious courage was let loose; who, as soon as he beheld
the bull uttered a savage yell, and rushed upon him
with all the rage of inveterate animosity. The bull
suffered him to approach with the coolness of deli-
berate courage : but just as the dog was springing up
to seize him, he rushed forward to meet his foe, and,
putting his head to the ground, canted him into the
air several yards; and, had not the spectators run and
caught him upon their backs and hands, he would have
been crushed to pieces in the fall. The same fate at-
tended another, and another dog, which were let loose
successively; the one was killed upon the spot, while
the other who had a leg broken in the fall, crawled
howling and limping away. The bull, in the mean-
while, behaved with all the calmness and intrepidity
of an experienced warrior; without violence, without
passion, he waited every attack of his enemies, and
then severely punished them for their rashness.
While this was transacting, to the diversion not only
of the rude and illiterate populace, but to that of the
little gentry with Master Merton, a poor half-naked
19





0d THE HISTORY OF
a new one, dried it thoroughly in the air, then
heated it red hot, and afterwards quenched it in their
kettle, wherein they had boiled a quantity of flour
down to the consistence of thin starch. The lamp
being thus dried, and filled with melted fat, they now
found, to their great joy, that it did not leak : but, for
greater security, they dipped linen rags in their paste,
and with them covered all its outside.-Succeeding in
this attempt, they immediately made another lamp, for
fear of an accident, that, at all events, they might not
be destitute of light ; and when they had done so much,
they thought proper to save the remainder of their flour
for similar purposes. As they had carefully collected
whatever happened to be cast on shore, to supply them
with fuel, they had found amongst the wrecks of
vessels, some cordage, and a small quantity of oakum
(a kind of hemp used for caulking ships), which served
them to make wicks for their lamps. When these
stores began to fail, their shirts and their drawers
(which are worn by almost all Russian peasants) were
employed to make good the deficiency. By these
means, they kept their lamp burning without inter-
mission, from the day they first made it (a work they
set about soon after their arrival on the island) until
that of their embarkation for their native country.
"6The necessity of converting the most essential part
of their clothing, such as their shirts and drawers, to
the use above specified, exposed them the more to the
rigour of the climate. They also found themselves in
want of shoes, boots, and other articles of dress ; and,
as winter was approaching, they were again obliged to
have recourse to that ingenuity which necessity sug-
gests, and which seldom fails in the trying hour of dis-
tress. They had skins of rein-deer and foxes in plenty,
that had hitherto served them for bedding, and which
they now thought of employing in some more essential






42 THE HISTORY OF
size and courage. As they appeared to possess more
than common strength and agility, he thought that he
should make an acceptable present to his landlord,
who was a rich man, living in a great city, by giving
him one of them, which was called Jowler; while lie
brought up the other, named Keeper, to guard his own
flocks.
From this time, the manner of living was entirely
altered between the brother whelps. Jowler was sent
into a plentiful kitchen, where he quickly became the
favourite of all the servants, who diverted themselves
with his little tricks and wanton gambols, and rewarded
him with great quantities of pot-liquor and broken
victuals; by which means, as he was stuffing from
morning till night, he increased considerably in size,
and grew sleek and comely: he was, indeed, rather
unwieldy, and so cowardly, that he would run away
from a dog only half as big as himself: he was much
addicted to gluttony, and was often beaten for the
thefts he committed in the pantry; but, as he had
learned to fawn upon the footmen, and would stand
upon his hind legs to beg, when he was ordered, and,
besides this, would fetch and carry, he was mightily
caressed by all the neighbourhood.
Keeper, in the meantime, who lived at a cottage in
the country, neither fared so well, looked so plump,
nor had learned all these pretty little tricks to recom-
mend him ; but, as his master was too poor to maintain
anything but what was useful, and was obliged to be
continually in the air, subject to all kinds of weather,
and labouring hard for a livelihood, Keeper grew hardy,
active, and diligent: he was also exposed to continual
danger from the wolves, from whom he had received
many a severe bite, while he was guarding the flocks.
These continual combats gave him that degree of intre-
pidity, that no enemy could make him turn his back.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 245
he did not see anything very curious in all that.
"Well," said Mr. Barlow, "perhaps I may surprise you
yet, before I have done; let us at least light up the
lantern, that you may see a little clearer."
Mr. Barlow then lighted a lamp, which was within
the lantern, and extinguished all the other candles;
and Tommy was instantly struck with astonishment, to
see a gigantic figure of a man leading along a large
bear, appear upon the wall, and glide slowly along the
sheet. As he was admiring this wonderful sight, a
large monkey, dressed up in the habit of a man,
appeared, and followed the bear; after him came an
old woman, trundling a barrow of fruit; and then two
boys (who, however, were as big as men,) that seemed
to be fighting as they passed.
Tommy could hardly find words to express his plea-
sure and admiration; and he entreated Mr. Barlow, in
the most earnest manner, to explain to him the reason
of all these wonderful sights. "At present," said Mr.
Barlow, "you are not sufficiently advanced to compre-
hend the explanation. However, thus much I will in-
form you, that both the wonderful tube which showed
you the moon so much larger than you ever saw it
before, and this curious exhibition of to-night, and a
variety of others, which I will hereafter show you, if
you desire it, depend entirely upon such a little bit of
glass as this." Mr. Barlow then put into his hand, a
small round piece of glass, which resembled the figure
of a globe on both sides: "It is by looking through
such pieces of glass as this," said he, "and by arrang-
ing them in a particular manner, that we are enabled
to perform all these wonders."-" Well," said Tommy,
"I never could have believed, that simply looking
through a bit of glass, could have made such a differ-
ence in the appearance of things."--" And yet," said
Mr. Barlow, "looking at a thing through water alone.
16





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 48
His care and assiduity so well defended the sheep of
his master, that not one had ever been missing since
they were placed under his protection. His honesty,
too, was so great, that no temptation could overpower
it; and though he was left alone in the kitchen while
the meat was roasting, he never attempted to taste it,
but received with thankfulness whatever his master
chose to give him. From a continual life in the air, he
was become so hardy, that no tempest could drive him
to shelter when he ought to be employed in watching
the flocks; and he would plunge into the most rapid
river, in the coldest weather of the winter, at the slight-
est sign from his master.
About this time it happened that the landlord of the
poor man went to examine his estate in the country,
and brought Jowler with him to the place of his birth.
At his arrival there, he could not help viewing with
great contempt the rough, ragged appearance of Keeper,
and his awkward look, which discovered nothing of the
address for which he so much admired Jowler. This
opinion, however, was altered by means of an accident
which happened to him. As he was one day walking
in a thick wood, with no other company than the two
dogs, a hungry wolf, with eyes that sparkled like fire,
bristling hair, and a horrid snarl that made the gentle-
man tremble, rushed out of a neighboring thicket, and
seemed ready to devour him. The unfortunate man
gave himself over for lost, more especially when he saw
that his faithful Jowler, instead of coming to his assist-
ance, ran sneaking away, with his tail between his legs,
howling with fear. But, in this moment of despair,
the undaunted Keeper, who had followed him humbly
and unobserved, at a distance, flew to his assistance,
and attacked the wolf with so much courage and skill,
that he was compelled to exert all his strength in his
own defence. The battle was long and bloody, but, in





390 THE HISTORY OF
beheld their conquerors animated by implacable rage
against each other, and suffering in turn the violence
and cruelties they had inflicted.
At length, one of the principal officers of Arsaces;
who is said originally to have descended from the
mountain which you inhabit, was raised to empire by
the successful efforts of his soldiers. He has already
attacked and destroyed all his competitors, and assem-
bled under his banners the remainder of their forces.
Ti granes (for thus he is named) possesses all the cour-
age and activity of Arsaces, but he is destitute of his
generosity and clemency. His ambition is vast and
boundless: he grasps at universal empire, and rejoices
to scatter ruin and destruction in his way : he has al-
ready subjected all the maritime cities that derive their
origin from Greece, together with the fertile plains of
Syria. These mountains, inhabited by a bold and hardy
race of men, now present a barrier to his enterprising
Spirit; and I am assured he already meditates the con-
quest. His soldiers are drawn together from every
part; they swarm like ravening wolves along the fields;
and nothing can escape their fury. In vain did I think
myself safe in the humble security of my cottage, and
the reputed favour of the great Arsaces. Yesterday, a
lawless band, not contented with destroying my harvest
and plundering my little property, seized my daughter
and me, and dragged us away in chains. What farther
injuries, what farther insults we might have suffered,
it is impossible to determine; since Heaven was pleased
to effect our deliverance when we had least reason to
expect it."
Such was the history of Chares, which Sophron and
his family listened to with fixed attention. When he
had finished, the father of Sophron again embraced the
venerable stranger, and assured him of all the safety
which their mountains could bestow. But, added he.





SANDFORD AND MERTON 283
the other, he offered the young lady his left, instead of
his right hand. At this incident, a universal peal of
merriment, which they no longer laboured to conceal,
burst from almost all the company; and Miss Simmons,
wishing at any rate to close the scene, presented her
partner with both her hands, and abruptly finished the
dance.
The unfortunate couple then retreated to the lower
end of the room, amidst the jests and sneers of their
companions, particularly Mash and Compton, who as-
sumed unusual importance upon the credit of such a
brilliant invention.
When they were seated, Miss Simmons could not
help asking Harry, with some displeasure, why he had
thus exposed himself and her, by attempting what he
was totally ignorant of, and added, "that, though there
was no disgrace in not being able to dance, it was very
great folly to attempt it without having learned a single
step."--" Indeed, madam," answered Harry, "I never
should have thought of trying to do what I knew I was
totally ignorant of; but Master Compton came to me,
and told me that you particularly desired me to dance
with you; and led me to the other end of the room:
and I only came to speak to you, and to inform you
that I knew nothing about the matter, for fear you
should think me uncivil: and then the music began to
play, and you to dance; so that I had no opportunity
of speaking; and I thought it better to do the best I
could, than to stand still, or leave you there." Miss
Simmons instantly recovered her former good humour,
and said, Well, Harry, we are not the first, nor shall
be the last by hundreds, who have made a ridiculous
figure in a ball-room, without so good an excuse. But
I am sorry to see so malicious a disposition in these
young gentlemen; and that all their knowledge of
polite life has not taught them a little better manners."





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 227
must now be convinced, that both the sun and stars
must be immensely bigger than you would at first
guess them to be.
As they were returning home, they happened to pass
through a small town in their way, and saw a crowd of
people going into a house : which gave Mr. Barlow the
curiosity to inquire the reason. They were told, that
there was a wonderful person there, who performed a
variety of strange and diverting experiments. On
Tommy's expressing a great desire to see these curious
exhibitions, Mr. Barlow took them both in and they all
seated themselves among the audience.
Presently the performer began his exhibitions, which
very much diverted Tommy, and surprised the specta-
tors. At length, after a variety of curious tricks upon
cards, the conjuror desired them to observe a large
basin of water, with the figure of a little swan floating
upon the surface. "Gentlemen," said the man, I
have reserved this curious experiment for the last, be-
cause it is the most wonderful of all that I have to
show, or that, perhaps, was ever exhibited to the pre-
sent hour. You see that swan; it is no more than a
little image, without either sense or life. If you have
any doubt upon the subject, take it up in your hands
and examine it." Accordingly, several of the specta-
tors took it up in their hands, and after having ex-
amined it, set it down again upon the water. Now,"
continued he, "this swan, which to you appears totally
without sense or motion, is of so extraordinary a na-
ture, that he knows me, his master, and will follow in
any direction that I command." Saying this, he took
out a little piece of bread, and, whistling to his bird,
ordered him to come to the side of the basin and be
fed. Immediately, to the great surprise of all the com-
pany, the swan turned about and swam to the side of
the basin. The man whistled again, and presently the





SANDFORD AND MERTON 67
boy's countenance at receiving this present, excepting
what Tommy himself felt the first time at the idea of
doing a generous and grateful action. He strutted away
without waiting for the little boy's acknowledgment,
and, happening to meet Mr. Barlow, as he was return-
ing home, told him, with an air of exultation, what he
had done. Mr. Barlow cooly answered, "You have
done very well in giving the little boy clothes, because
they are your own: but what right have you to give
away my loaf of bread without asking my consent ?"-
Tommy. Why, sir, I did it because the little boy said
he was very hungry, and had seven brothers and sisters,
and that his father was ill, and could not work.-Mr.
B. This is a very good reason why you should give
them what belongs to yourself; but not why you
should give away what is another's. What would you
say, if Harry were to give away all your clothes, with-
out asking your leave ?-T. I should not like it at all;
and I will not give away your things any more without
asking your leave.-" You will do well," said Mr. Bar-
low; and here is a little story you may read upon this
very subject."

THE STORY OF CYRUS.

CYRus was a little boy of very good dispositions, and
a very humane temper. He had several masters, who
endeavoured to teach him everything that was good;
and he was educated with several little boys about his
own age. One evening his father asked him what he
had done, or learned that day. Sir," said Cyrus, "I
was punished to-day for deciding unjustly,"-" How
so ?" said his father.-Cyrus. There were two boys,
one of whom was a great, and the other a little boy.
Now it happened that the little boy had a coat that was
much too big for him ; but the great boy had one that





176 THE HISTORY OF
Doctor Ramozini, with a handsome present, ana a letter
expressing the highest gratitude : and so much satis-
faction did he find in the amendment of his health and
spirits, that he never again relapsed into his former
habits of intemperance, but, by constant exercise and
uniform moderation, continued free from any consider-
able disease to a very comfortable age."

"Indeed," said Tommy, "this is a very diverting,
comical story; and I should like very much to tell it
to the gouty gentlemen that come to our house."-
"C That," answered Mr. Barlow, would be highly im-
proper, unless you were particularly desired. Those
gentlemen cannot be ignorant that such unbounded in-
dulgence of their appetites can only tend to increase
the disease: and therefore you could teach them no-
thing new on the subject. But it would appear highly
improper for such a little boy as you, to take upon him
to instruct others, while he all the time wants so much
instruction himself. Thus," continued Mr. Barlow,
you see by this story (which is applicable to half the
rich in most countries), that intemperance and excess
are full as dangerous as want and hardships.-As to the
Laplanders, whom you were in so much pain about,
they are some of the healthiest people whom the world
produces. They generally live to an extremely old age,
free from all the common diseases which we are ac-
quainted with, and subject to no other inconvenience
than blindness, which is supposed to arise from the
continual prospect of snow, and the constant smoke
with which they are surrounded in their huts."
Some few days after this conversation, when the
snow had nearly disappeared, though the frost and
cold continued, the two little boys went out to take
a walk. Insensibly they wandered so far, that they
scarcely knew their way : and, therefore, resolved to





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 331
ferocious grandeur which would have daunted the
boldest European. Yes, gentlemen, I have seen the
greatest and most powerful men in my own country;
I have seen them adorned with every external circum-
stance of dress, of pomp, and equipage, to inspire re-
spect, but never did I see anything which so completely
awed the soul, as the angry scowl and fiery glance of
a savage American.
"As soon as our leader entered the circle, he pro-
duced the calmut, or pipe of peace. This is the univer-
sal mark of friendship and alliance among all the bar-
barous nations of America, and he that bears it is con-
sidered with so much respect, that his person is always
safe. This calmut is nothing but a long and slender
pipe, ornamented with the most lively and beautiful
feathers, which are ingeniously fixed along the tube;
the bole is composed of a peculiar kind of reddish
marble, and filled with scented herbs and tobacco.
Colonel Simmons lighted his pipe with great so-
lemnity, and turning the bole first towards the heavens,
then to the earth, then in a circle round him, he began
to smoke. In the meantime the whole assembly sat
with mute attention, waiting to hear his proposals.
For, though we call them savages, yet in some respects
they well deserve to be imitated by more refined na-
tions : in all their meetings and assemblies the greatest
order and regularity prevail: whoever rises to speak is
sure of being patiently heard to the end without the
least interruption.
"Our leader then began to harangue them in their
own language, with which he was well acquainted. I
did not understand what passed, but it was afterwards
explained to me that he set before their eyes the
injuries they had mutually received from the French
and the tribes in their alliance. He told them that
their great father (for so these people call the King of





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 193
Tommy. Indeed, then, the knowledge of the Pole-star
was of very great use to you. I am determined I will
make myself acquainted with all the stars in the heavens.
But did you ever find out what that light was, which
danced before you in so extraordinary a manner ?
Harry. When I came home, mj father told me it
was what the common people call a Jaclc-o'-the-lantern:
and Mr. Barlow has since informed me, that these things
are only vapours, which rise out of the earth, in moist
and fenny places, although they have that bright ap-
pearance; and therefore told me, that many people,
like me, who have taken them for a lighted candle,
have followed them as I did, into bogs and ditches.
Just as Harry had finished his history, they arrived
at Mr. Barlow's; and, after sitting some time and talk-
ing over the accidents of the day, the little boys retired
to bed.--Mr. Barlow was sitting alone and reading in
his parlour, when, to his great surprise, Tommy came
running into the room, half undrest, and bawling out,
"9 Sir, sir, I have found it out they move they move !"
"-" What moves ?" said Mr. Barlow.-" Why, Charles's
Wain moves," answered Tommy; "I had a mind to
take one peep at the sky before I went to bed; and I
see that all the seven stars have moved from their
places a great way higher up the sky."-" Well," said
Mr. Barlow, you are indeed right. You have done a
vast deal to-day; and to-morrow we will talk over these
things again."
When the morrow came, Tommy put Mr. Barlow in
mind of the story he had promised him, about the
people buried in the snow. Mr. Barlow looked him
out the book, but first said, It is necessary to give you
some explanation. The country where this accident
happened, is a country full of rocks and mountains, so
excessively high that the snow never melts upon their
tops."-" Never ?" said Tommy, "not even in the sum-





SANDFORD AND MERTON 391
if so imminent a danger is near, it behoves us to con-
sult for the general safety: let us assemble all our
friends and neighbours, that they may consider whether
life is of more consequence than liberty; and, if they
determine to retain that freedom which they have re-
ceived from their ancestors, by what means it may be
best defended. Sophron then immediately went out,
and, ascending a neighboring rock, thus shouted out
in a voice which echoed over the neighboring val-
leys :-"Arm, 0 ye inhabitants of Lebanon, and in-
stantly meet in council; for a powerful invader is near,
and threatens you with death or slavery !" This sound
was instantly repeated by all who heard it; so that in
a short time the intelligence was dispersed to the very
confines of the country.
It was not long before a numerous assembly was con-
vened. The aged appeared with all the majestic dig-
nity of wisdom and experience; their countenances,
indeed, indicated the ravages of time, but temperance
and exercise had preserved them from the loathsome
diseases which grow on luxury and indolence. They
were attended by their sons in all the pride of youth
and vigour, who rushed along in arms, and seemed to
breathe deliberate rage and unconquerable opposition,
When they were all assembled on a spacious plain,
Sophron rose, and with a becoming modesty, recited
the adventures of the preceding night, and the alarm-
ing intelligence he had just received. He had scarcely
finished, before a general cry of indignation burst
unanimously from the whole assembly. When it had a
little subsided, a venerable old man, whose beard,
white as the snow upon the summits of the mountains
reached down to his middle, slowly arose, and leaning
upon his staff, spoke thus :-" Ninety years have I
tended my flocks amid these mountains, and during all
that time I have never seen a human being who was





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 181
and as soon as Harry saw him, he recollected him, and
cried out, "As I am alive, here is Jacky Smithers, the
little ragged boy that you gave the clothes to in the
summer! he lives, I dare say, in the neighbourhood;
and either he, or his father, will now show you the way
home."
Harry then spoke to the boy, and asked him, if he
could show them the way out of the wood ?-"Yes,
surely I can," answered the boy; but I never should
have thought of seeing Master Merton out so late, in
such a tempestuous night as this : but, if you will come
with me to my father's cottage, you may warm your-
self at our fire: and father will run to Mr. Barlow, to
let him know you are safe."
Tommy accepted the offer with joy; and the little
boy led them out of the wood, and in a few minutes
they came to a small cottage which stood by the side
of the road; which, when they entered, they saw a
middle-aged woman busy in spinning; the eldest girl
was cooking some broth over the fire; the father was
sitting in the chimney-corner, and reading a book;
while three or four ragged children were tumbling
upon the floor, and creeping between their father's legs.
Daddy," said the little boy, as he came in, here
is Master Merton, who was so good to us all in the
summer: he has lost his way in the wood, and is almost
perished in the snow."
The man upon this arose, and with much civility
desired the two little boys to seat themselves by the
fire, while the good woman ran to fetch her largest
faggot; which she threw upon the fire, and created a
cheerful blaze in an instant.-" There, my dear little
Master," said she, "you may at least refresh yourself
a little by our fire; and I wish I had anything to offer
you that you could eat; but I am afraid you would
never be able to bear such coarse brown bread as we
12





392 THE HISTORY OF

bold enough to propose to the inhabitants of Lebanon
that they should fear death more than infamy, or sub-
mit to the vassals of a tyrant." At this a second cry,
which seemed to rend the very heavens, was raised,
and farther deliberation judged unnecessary, except
upon the most effectual means of defence. For this
purpose the aged and more experienced retired to a
little distance to consult. They were not long in their
deliberations ; it was unanimously agreed that all who
were able to bear arms should be embodied, and wait
for the approach of the enemy within the boundaries
of their own mountains. The nn hire of the country,
always rough, and in many parts inaccessible, would
afford them, they thought, sufficient advantages even
against the more numerous and better disciplined
troops of the invader : and, by the common consent of
all, Sophron was named the general of his country, and
invested with supreme authority for its defence.
When these measures had been resolved upon, the
assembly dispersed, and Sophron was left alone with
Chares. It was then the stranger thus accosted him
with a deep sigh :-" Did success, 0 virtuous Sophron,
depend entirely upon the justice of the cause, or upon
the courage and zeal of its defenders, I should have
little doubt concerning the event of the present con-
test: for I can truly say, that in all the various coun-
tries I have visited, my eyes have never seen a more
martial race than I have this day beheld assembled :
nor can I doubt that their sentiments correspond to
their appearance. All, therefore, that can be effected
by patience, activity, and dauntless courage, will be
achieved by your countrymen in defence of their
liberty. But war, unfortunately, is a trade, where long
experience frequently confers advantages which no
intrepidity can balance. The troops which are now
approaching, have been for years inured to the practice






"22 THE HISTORY OF
esteem of your character, and my desire to engage
your assistance. Permit me only to ask, whether, in
the present state of things, a difference of conditions
and an inequality of fortune are not necessary, and, if
necessary, I should infer, not contrary to the spirit of
Christianity ?"
"1 So it is declared, sir, that offences must come : but
that does not prevent a severe denunciation against the
offenders. But, if you wish to know, whether I am
one of those enthusiasts, who are continually preaching
up an ideal state of perfection, totally inconsistent with
human affairs, I will endeavour to give you every satis-
faction upon the subject.-If you mean by difference of
conditions and inequality of fortunes, that the present
state of human affairs, in every society we are ac-
quainted with, does not admit that perfect equality
which the purer interpretations of the Gospel inculcate,
I certainly shall not disagree with you in opinion. He
that formed the human heart certainly must be ac-
quainted with all the passions to which it would be
subject; and if, under the immediate dispensation of
Christ himself, it was found impossible for a rich man
to give his possessions to the poor, that degree of purity
will hardly be expected now, which was not found in
the origin.-But here, sir, permit me to remark, how
widely the principles of genuine Christianity differ
from that imaginary scheme of ideal perfection, equally
inconsistent with human affairs and human characters,
which many of its pretended friends would persuade
us to believe it: and, as comparisons sometimes throw
a new and sudden light upon a subject, give me leave
to use one here, which I think bears the closest analogy
to what we are now considering.-Were some physi-
cian to arise, who, to a perfect knowledge of all pre-
ceding medical facts, had added, by a more than human
skill, a knowledge of the most secret principles of the





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 135
confidence that was reposed in him, and, after thanking
his father for his extraordinary goodness, he desired
leave to go back again with Mr. Barlow's servant.
When he arrived at Mr. Barlow's, his first care was
to desire Harry to accompany him again to the farmer's
house. Thither the two little boys went with the
greatest expedition : and, on their entering the house,
found the unhappy family in the same situation as be-
fore. But Tommy, who had hitherto suppressed his
feelings, finding himself now enabled to execute the
project he had formed, went up to the good woman of
the house, who sat sobbing in a corner of the room,
and, taking her gently by the hand, said, My good
woman, you were very kind to me in the morning, and
therefore I am determined to be kind to you in return."
-" God bless you, my little master," said the woman,
" you are very welcome to what you had ; but you are
not able to do anything to relieve our distress."-
"1 How do you know that ?" said Tommy, perhaps I
can do more for you than you imagine."-" Alas !"
answered the woman, I believe you would do all you
could : but all our goods will be seized and sold, unless
we can immediately raise the sum of forty pounds;
and that is impossible, for we have no earthly friend
to assist us ; therefore my poor babes and I must soon
be turned out of doors; and God alone can keep them
from starving."
Tommy's little heart was too much affected to keep
the woman longer in suspense; therefore, pulling out
his bag of money, he poured it into her lap, saying,
"c Here, my good woman, take this, and pay your debts;
and God bless you and your children !" It is imposi-
sible to express the surprise of the poor woman at the
sight; she stared wildly round her, and upon her little
benefactor, and, clasping her hands together in an
agony of gratitude and feeling, she fell back in her





862 THE HISTORY OF
boy," said I, "who has so many excellent dispositions,
can never persist in bad behaviour. He may do wrong
by accident, but he will be ashamed of his errors, and
endeavour to repair them by a frank and generous ac-
knowledgment. This has always been the conduct of
really great and elevated minds; while mean and
grovelling ones alone imagine that it is necessary to
persist in faults they have once committed."
Tommy. Oh, sir, I will go directly, and entreat Harry
to forgive me; I am convinced that all you say is right.
But will you not go with me ? Do pray, sir, be so
good.
Mr. Barlow. Gently, gently, my young friend; you
are always for doing everything in an instant. I am very
glad you have taken a resolution which will do you so
much credit, and give so much satisfaction to your
own mind: but, before you execute it, I think it will
be necessary to speak to your father and mother upon
the subject; and, in the meantime, I will go and pay a
visit to farmer Sandford, and bring you an account of
Harry.
Tommy. Do, sir, be so good; and tell Harry, if you
please, that there is nothing I desire so much as to see
him; and that nothing shall ever make me behave ill
again. I have heard too, sir, that there was a poor Black
came begging to us, who saved Harry from the bull:
if I could but find him out, I would be good to him as
long as I live.
Mr. Barlow commended Tommy very much for dis-
positions so full of gratitude and goodness: and, tak-
ing leave of him, went to communicate the conversa-
tion he had just had to Mr. Merton. That gentleman
felt the sincerest pleasure at the account, and entreated
Mr. Barlow to go directly to prepare Harry to receive
his son. "That little boy," observed he, has the
noblest mind that ever adorned a human being: nor












196 THE HISTORY OP

able to walk, and so wasted, that they appeared like
mere skeletons. They were immediately put to bed,
and gruel of rye-flour and a little butter was given to
recover them.
Some days after, the magistrate of the place came
to visit them, and found the wife still unable to rise
from bed, or use her feet, from the intense cold she had
endured, and the uneasy posture she had been in. The
sister, whose legs had been bathed with hot wine, could
walk with some difficulty; and the daughter needed no
farther remedies.
"1 On the magistrate's interrogating the women, they
told him that, on the morning of the 19th of March,
they were in the stable, with a boy of six years old,
and a girl of about thirteen: in the same stable were
six goats; one of which having brought forth two dead
kids the night before, they went to carry her a small
vessel of rye-flour gruel: there were also an ass, and
five or six fowls. They were sheltering themselves in
a warm corner of the stable till the church bell should
ring, intending to attend the service. The wife-related,
that wanting to go out of the stable to kindle a fire in
the house of her husband, who was clearing away the
snow from the top of it, she perceived a mass of snow
breaking down towards the east; upon which she went
back into the stable, shut the door, and told her sister
of it.-In less than three minutes, they heard the roof
break over their heads, and also a part of the ceiling.
The sister advised to get into the rack and manger;
which they did. The ass was tied to the manger, but
got loose by kicking and struggling, and threw down
the little vessel, which they found, and afterward used
to hold the melted snow, which served them for drink.
Very fortunately the manger was under the main
prop of the stable, and so resisted the weight of the
snow. Their first care was to know what they had to





SANDFORD AND MERTON 353
war. I suffered hardships and difficulties innumerable,
and acquired, as my father had foretold, a little wisdom
at the price of a considerable quantity of blood. When
the war was ended, I found myself nearly in the same
situation as I began, except the present of my friendly
Americans, which I turned into money and remitted to
England. I therefore now began to feel my military
enthusiasm abated, and, having permission to leave the
service, I embraced that opportunity of returning to
my country, fully determined to spend the remainder
of my life amid my family and friends. I found my
father and mother still living, who received me in the
fondest manner. I then employed the little fund I had
acquired to stock a farm, which I hired in the neigh-
bourhood, and where I imagined my care and industry
would be sufficient to ensure us all a comfortable sub-
sistence. Some little time after, I married a virtuous
and industrious young woman, the mother of the un-
fortunate children who are so much indebted to your
bounty. For some time I made a shift to succeed
tolerably well; but at length the distresses of my
country increasing, I found myself involved in the
deepest poverty. Several years of uncommon severity
destroyed my cattle, (which is the chief support of the
Highlanders) and rotted away the scanty crops, which
were to supply us with food, upon the ground. I can
not accuse myself of either voluntary unthriftiness, or
neglect of my business; but there are some situations
in which it seems impossible for human exertion to
stem the torrent of misfortune. But wherefore should
I give pain to such kind and worthy benefactors, by a
detail of all the miseries which I, and many of my poor
countrymen, have endured ? I will therefore only men-
tion, that, after having suffered, I think, every distress
which human nature is equal to support; after having
seen my tender parents, and last, my dear, unfortunate






328 THE HISTORY OF

British colonies, was sent on an embassy to one of their
nations, for the purpose of soliciting their alliance with
Britain. It may not, perhaps, be uninteresting to you,
gentlemen, and to this my honourable little master, to
hear some account of a people, whose manners and
customs are so much the reverse of what you see at
home. As my worthy officer, therefore, contented
with my assiduity and improvement in military know-
ledge, permitted me to have the honour of attending
him, I will describe some of the most curious facts
which I was witness to.
"You have, doubtless, heard many accounts of the
surprising increase of the English colonies in America;
and, when we reflect that it is scarcely a hundred years
since some of them were established, it must be con-
fessed, that they have made rapid improvements in
clearing the ground of woods, and bringing it to culti-
vation. Yet, much as they have already done, the
country is yet an immense forest, except immediately
upon the coasts. The forests extend on every side to
a distance that no human sagacity or observation has
been able to determine : they abound in every species
of tree which you see in England; to which may be
added a great variety more, which are unknown with us.
Under their shade is generally found a rich luxurious
lherbage, which serves for pasture to a thousand herds
of animals. Here are seen elks, (a kind of deer of the
largest size,) and buffaloes, (a species of wild ox,) by
thousands, and even horses, which, having been origi-
nally brought over by the Spaniards, have escaped from
their settlements, and multiplied in the woods."
Dear," said Tommy, "that must be a fine country,
indeed, where horses run wild; why, a man might
have one for nothing."-" And yet," said Mr. Merton,
"" it would be but of little use for a person to have a
wild horse, who is not able to manage a tame one,"






142 THE HISTORY OF

deemed, and restored to freedom, Francisco and his
son embarked, and, after a favourable voyage, arrived
without accident in their own country, where they
lived many years respected and esteemed, continu-
ally mindful of the vicissitude of human affairs, and
attentive to discharge their duties to their fellow-
creatures.

When this story was concluded, Mr. Barlow and his
two pupils went out to walk upon the high road: but
they had not gone far, before they discovered three
men, who seemed each to lead a large and shaggy beast
by a string, followed by a crowd of boys and women,
whom the novelty of the sight had drawn together.
When they approached more near, Mr. Barlow dis-
covered that the beasts were three tame bears, led by
as many Savoyards, who get their living by exhibiting
them.-Upon the head of each of these formidable ani-
mals was seated a monkey, who grinned and chatted,
and by his strange grimaces, excited the mirth of the
Whole assembly. Tommy, who had never before seen
one of these creatures, was very much surprised and
entertained ; but still more so, when he saw the animal
rise upon his hind legs at the word of command, and
dance about in a strange, uncouth manner, to the sound
of music.
After having satisfied themselves with this spectacle,
they proceeded on their way, and Tommy asked Mr.
Barlow, whether a bear was an animal easily tamed,
and that did mischief in those places where he was
wild.
"The bear," replied Mr. Barlow, is not an animal
quite so formidable or destructive as a lion or a tiger;
he is, however, sufficiently dangerous, and will fre-
quently devour women and children, and even men,
when he has an opportunity. These creatures are





244 TIHE HISTORY OF

should take for the moon, were it not a great many
times bigger: and so near to me, that I can almost
touch it."-" What you see answered Mr. Barlow, smil-
ing, "is the moon itself. This glass has indeed the
power of making it appear to your eye, as it would do,
could you approach a great deal nearer; but still it is
nothing but the moon: and from this single experiment
you may judge of the different size which the sun, and
all the other heavenly bodies, would appear to have, if
you could advance a great deal nearer to them."
Tommy was delighted with this new spectacle: the
moon, he said, viewed in this manner, was the most
glorious sight he had ever seen in his life. "And I
protest," added he, it seems to be shaded in such a
manner, that it almost resembles land and water."-
What you say," answered Mr. Barlow, "is by no means
unreasonable; the moon is a very large body, and may
be, for aught we know, inhabited like the earth."
Tommy was more and more astonished at the intro-
duction of all these new ideas; but what he was parti-
cularly inquisitive about was, to know the reason of
this extraordinary change in the appearance of objects,
only by looking through a hollow tube with a bit of
glass fixed into it. "All this," replied Mr. Barlow, I
will, if you desire it, one day explain to you; but it is
rather too long and difficult to undertake it at the pre-
sent moment: when you are a little farther advanced
in some of the things which you are now studying, you
will comprehend me better. However, before we re-
tire to-night, I will show you something more, which
will perhaps equally surprise you."
They then returned to the house; arnd Mr. Barlow,
who had prepared everything for this intended exhibi-
tion, led Tommy into a room, where he observed no-
thing but a lantern upon the floor, and a white sheet
hung up against the wall. Tommy laughed, and said






105 THE HISTORY OF
them, which they allowed him to do. But he could not
be contented long, without exerting his evil disposition;
so, taking an opportunity when it was his turn to fling
the ball, instead of flinging it the way he ought to have
done, he threw it into a deep muddy ditch : the little
boys ran in a great hurry to see what was become of
it; and as they were standing all together upon the
brink, he gave the outermost boy a violent push against
his neighbour; he, not being able to resist the violence,
tumbled against the next, that next against another;
by which means they were all soused into the ditch
together. They soon scrambled out, although in a
dirty plight, and were going to have punished him for
his ill behaviour; but he patted Tiger upon the back,
who began snarling and growling in such a manner as
made them desist. Thus this mischievous little boy
escaped a second time with impunity.
The next thing that he met with was a poor jack-ass
feeding very quietly in a ditch. The little boy, seeing
that nobody was within sight, thought this was an op-
portunity of plaguing an animal that was not to be
lost; so he went and cut a large bunch of thorns, which
he contrived to fix upon the poor beast's tail, and then,
setting Tiger at him, he was extremely diverted to see
the fright and agony the creature was in. But it did
not fare so well with Tiger, who, while he was baying
and biting the animal's heels, received so severe a kick
upon his forehead, as laid him dead upon the spot.
The boy, who had no affection for his dog, left him with
the greatest unconcern, when he saw what had hap-
pened, and, finding himself hungry, sat down by the
way side to eat his dinner.
He had not been long there before a poor blind man
came groping his way out with a couple of sticks.-
"Good morning to you, gaffer said the boy, pray, did
you see a little girl come this road, with a basket of









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SANDFORD AND MERTON. 257
two ways of remedying that," replied Mr. Barlow;
either by not doing such things as will expose you to
ridicule, or by learning to bear it with a little more
patience."-" But," said Tommy, "I do not think that
anybody can bear it with patience."-" All the world,"
said Mr. Barlow, "are not quite so passionate as you
are. It is not long ago, that you were speaking of the
poor Greenlanders with great contempt, and fancying
them much inferior to yourself; yet those poor bar-
barians, as you called them, that live upon fish, and
are not brought up like gentlemen's sons, are capable
of giving you a lesson that would be of the greatest
service if you would observe it."-" What is that, sir ?"
inquired Tommy. They are brought up to so much
moderation and self-command, said Mr. Barlow, "that
they never give way to those sudden impulses of pas-
sion that are common among the Europeans; and,
when they observe their violent gestures, their angry
words, their countenances inflamed with wrath, they
feel for them the greatest contempt, and say, they must
have been very badly educated. As to themselves, if
any person think himself ill-used by another, without
putting himself into any passion upon the occasion, he
defies his foe to meet him at a particular time before
all their mutual acquaintance."
Tommy. But then, I suppose, they fight; and that is
being as passionate as I was.
Mr. Barlow. I am sorry that you, who pretend to
have been so well brought up, should have recourse to
the example of the Greenlanders, in order to justify
your own conduct; but in this case you are mistaken;
for the barbarians are a great deal wiser than young
gentlemen. The person, who thinks himself injured,
does indeed challenge his antagonist; but it is to a
very different sort of combat from what you imagine.
Both parties appear at the appointed time, and each





358 THE HISTORY OF
Mr. Barlow. Perhaps, then, I was mistaken when I
taught you that the greatest merit any person could
have, is to be good and useful; these fine young ladies
and gentlemen may be wiser, and have given you
better lessons. If that is the case, you will have great
reason to rejoice that you have changed so much for
the better.
Tommy. No, sir, no; I never thought them either
good or wise, for they know nothing but how to dress
their hair and buckle their shoes. But they persuaded
me that it was necessary to be polite, and talked to me
so often upon the subject, that I could not help believ-
ing them.
Mr. Barlow. I am glad to hear that; it is necessary
for everybody to be polite. They therefore, I suppose,
instructed you to be more obliging and civil in your
manners than ever you were before. Instead of doing
you any hurt, this will be the greatest improvement
you can receive.
Tommy. No, sir, quite the contrary. Instead of
teaching me to be civil and obliging, they have made
me ruder and worse behaved than ever I was before.
Mr. Barlow. If that is the case, I fear these fine
young ladies and gentlemen undertook to teach you
more than they understood themselves.
Tommy. Indeed, sir, I am of the same opinion my-
self. But I did not think so then, and therefore I did
whatever I observed them do, and talked in the same
manner as I heard them talk. They used to be always
laughing at Harry Sandford, and I grew so foolish,
that I did not choose to keep company with him any
longer.
Mr. Barlow. That was a pity, because I am convinced
he really loves you. However, it is of no great con-
sequence, for he has employment enough at home: and
however ingenious you may be, I do not think that he





410 THE HISTORY OF

appeared incapable of acting up to his own declara-
tions: he therefore made a noble effort, leaped out of
bed, dressed himself, and followed Harry. Not con-
tented with this, he accompanied him in all his rustic
employment: and as no kind of country-exercise was
entirely new to him since his residence with Mr. Bar-
low, he acquitted himself with a degree of dexterity
that gained him new commendations.
Thus did he pass the first day of his visit; with some
little difficulty indeed, but without deviating from his
resolution. The second, he found his change of life
infinitely more tolerable; and, in a very little space
of time, he was almost reconciled to his new situation.
The additional exercise he used, improved his health
and strength, and added so considerably to his appe-
tite, that he began to think the table of farmer Sand-
ford exceeded all that he had ever tried before.
By thus practising the common useful occupations
of life, he began to feel a more tender interest in the
common concerns of his fellow-creatures. He now
found, from his own experience, that Mr. Barlow had
not deceived him in the various representations he had
made of the utility of the lower classes, and conse-
quently of the humanity which is due to them when
they discharge their duty. Nor did that gentleman
abandon his little friend in this important trial : he
visited him frequently, pointed out everything that was
curious or interesting about the farm, and encouraged
him to persevere by his praises.
"You are now," said Mr. Barlow one day, "begin-
ning to practise those virtues which have rendered the
great men of other times so justly famous. It is not
by sloth, nor finery, nor the mean indulgence of our
appetites, that greatness of character, or even reputa-
tion is to be acquired. He that would. excel others in
virtue or knowledge, must first excel them in temper.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 97
Why, should you like to live in such a country ?-H.
No, certainly; I am very happy that I was born in such
a country as this, where the weather is scarcely ever
too hot or too cold: but a man must bear patiently
whatever is his lot in this world.-T. That is true. But
should you not cry, and be very much afflicted, if you
were left upon such a country ?-H. I should certainly
be very sorry, if I was left there alone, more especially
as I am not big enough, or strong enough, to defend
myself against such fierce animals: but the crying
would do me no good : it would be better to do some-
thing, and endeavour to help myself.-T. Indeed I think
it would: but what could you do ?-H. Why, I would
endeavour to build myself a house if I could find any
materials.-T. And what materials is a house made of?
I thought it had been impossible to make a house with-
out having a great many people of different trades, such
as carpenters and bricklayers.-H. You know there are
houses of different sizes. The houses that the poor
people live in, are very different from your father's
house.-T. Yes, they are little, nasty, dirty, disagreeable
places; I should not like to live in them at all.-H.
And yet the poor are in general as strong and healthy
as the rich. But if you could have no other, you would
rather live in one of them than be exposed to the
weather ?- T. Yes, certainly. And how would you
make one of them ?-H. If I could get any wood, and
had hatchet, I would cut down some branches of
trees, and stick them upright in the ground, near to
each other.-T. And what then ?-H. I would then get
some other branches, but more full of small wood;
and these I would interweave between them, just
as we make hurdles to confine the sheep: and then,
as that might not be warm enough to resist the wind
and cold, I would cover them over, both within and
without, with clay.-T. Clay! what is that ?-H. It is





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 131
and give a mess of milk to a traveller, without hurting
ourselves."
Tommy thanked her again, and was just going away;
when a couple of surly-looking men came in, and asked
the woman if her name was Tosset ?-" Yes, it is," said
the woman; I have never been ashamed of it."-
Why then," said one of the men, pulling a paper out
of his pocket, "here is an execution against you, on the
part of Mr. Richard Gruff; and if your husband does
not instantly discharge the debt, with interest and all
costs, amounting altogether to the sum of thirty-nine
pounds ten shillings, we shall take an inventory of all
you have, and proceed to sell it by auction for the dis-
charge of the debt."
"9 Indeed," said the poor woman, looking a little con-
fused, "this must certainly be a mistake; for I never
heard of Mr. Richard Gruff in all my life, nor do I be-
lieve that my husband owes a farthing in the world,
unless to his landlord; and I know that he has almost
made up half a year's rent for him: so that I do not
think he would go to trouble a poor man."-"No, no,
mistress," said the man, shaking his head; we know
our business too well to make these kind of mistakes:
but when your husband comes in, we'll talk with him;
in the mean time we must go on with our inventory."
The two men then went into the next room; and
immediately after, a stout, comely-looking man, of
about the age of forty, came in, with a good-humoured
countenance, and asked if his breakfast was ready ?-
"1 Oh! my poor dear William," said the woman, "here
is a sad breakfast for you: but I think it cannot be true
that you owe anything: so what the fellows told me
must be false, about Richard Gruff."-At this name the
man instantly started, and his countenance, which was
before ruddy, became pale as a sheet.-" Surely," said
the woman, "it cannot be true, that you owe forty





304 THE HISTORY Of
"Are indeed very formidable," replied Mr. Barlow ;
"yet, when they are properly directed, frequently pro-
duce the noblest effects; and history, as well as pri-
vate observation, may inform us, that, if they some-
times lead their possessor astray, they are equally ca-
pable of bringing him back to the right path, provided
they are properly acted upon."
Since," said Mr. Merton, "you are so kind as to
present me these agreeable hopes, do not leave the
work unfinished, but tell me what you think the best
method of treating him in his present critical situa-
tion."
That," said Mr. Barlow, must depend, I think,
upon the workings of his own mind. He has always
appeared to me, generous and humane, and to have a
fund of natural goodness amid all the faults which
spring up too luxuriantly in his character. It is impos-
sible that he should not be at present possessed with
the keenest shame for his own behaviour. It will be
your first part to take advantage of these sentiments,
and, instead of a fleeting and transitory sensation, to
change them into fixed and active principles. Do not
at present say much to him upon the subject. Let us
both be attentive to the silent workings of his mind,
and regulate our behaviour accordingly."
This conversation being finished, Mr. Merton intro-
duced Mr. Barlow to the company in the other room.
Mrs. Merton, who now began to be a little staggered
in some of the opinions she had been most fond of, re-
ceived him with uncommon civility, and all the rest of
the company treated him with the greatest respect.
But Tommy, who had lately been the oracle and the
admiration of all this brilliant circle, appeared to have
lost all his vivacity; he indeed advanced to meet Mr.
Barlow with a look of tenderness and gratitude, and
made the most respectful answers to all his inquiries





60 THE HISTORY OF
you have been beaten and hurt till you are all over
bloody, only because I gave you my clothes: I am
really very sorry for it."-" Thank you, little master,"
said the boy, "but it can't be helped ; you did not in-
tend me any hurt, I know ; and I am not such a chicken
as to mind a beating: so I wish you a good afternoon
with all my heart."
As soon as the little boy was gone, Tommy said, "I
wish I had but some clothes that the poor boy could
wear, for he seems very good-natured; I would give
them to him."-" That you may very easily have," said
Harry; "for there is a shop in the village hard by,
where they sell all manner of clothes for the poor
people: and, as you have money, you may easily buy
some."
Harry and Tommy then agreed to go early the next
morning to buy some clothes for the poor children.
They accordingly set out before breakfast, and had
proceeded nearly half way, when they heard the noise
of a pack of hounds that seemed to be running full cry
at some distance. Tommy then asked Harry if he knew
what they were about.--" Yes," said Harry, "I know
well enough what they are about; it is Squire Chase
and his dogs worrying a poor hare. But I wonder they
are not ashamed to meddle with such a poor inoffen-
sive creature, that cannot defend itself: if they have
a mind to hunt, why don't they hunt lions and tigers,
and such fierce mischievous creatures, as I have read
they do in other countries ?"-" Oh dear," said Tommy,
"how is that? it must surely be very dangerous."-
Why, you must know," said Harry, "the men are ac-
customed in some places to go almost naked; and that
makes them so prodigiously nimble, that they can run
like a deer; and, when a lion or tiger comes into their
neighbourhood, and devours their sheep or oxen, they
go out six or seven together, armed with javelins; and





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 25
of our power to hold him in; or to increase his mad-
ness by the spur, when it was already too great before.
Thus, sir, you will perceive, that the precepts of the
Christian religion are founded upon the most perfect
knowledge of the human heart, as they furnish a con-
tinual barrier against the most destructive passions,
and the most subversive of human happiness. Your
own concessions sufficiently prove, that it would have
been equally derogatory to truth, and the common in-
terests of the species, to have made the slightest con-
cessions, in favour either of human pride or sensuality.
Your extensive acquaintance with mankind will suffi-
ciently convince you, how prone the generality are to
give an unbounded loose to these two passions: neither
the continual experience of their own weakness, nor of
the fatal effects which are produced by vicious indul-
gences, has yet been capable of teaching them either
humility or moderation. What then could the wisest
legislator do, more useful, more benevolent, more ne-
cessary, than to establish general rules of conduct,
which have a continual tendency to restore moral and
natural order, and to diminish the wild inequality pro-
duced by pride and avarice ? Nor is there any greater
danger that these precepts should be too rigidly ob-
served, than that the bulk of mankind should injure
themselves by too abstemious a temperance. All that
can be expected from human weakness, even in work-
ing after the most perfect model, is barely to arrive at
mediocrity ; and, were the model less perfect, or the
duties less severe, there is the greatest reason to think
that even that mediocrity would never be attained.
Examine the conduct of those who are placed at a dis-
tance from all labour and fatigue, and you will find the
most trifling exertions act upon their imaginations with
the same force as the most insuperable difficulties.
"




SANDFORD AND MERTON 263
he had before undergone: so many fine ladies and gen-
tlemen; so many powdered servants to stand behind
their chairs: such an apparatus of dishes which Harry
had never tasted before, and which almost made him
sick when he did taste; so many removes; such pomp
and solemnity about what seemed the easiest thing in
the world: that Harry could not help envying the con-
dition of his father's labourers, who, when they are
hungry, can sit at their ease under a hedge, and make
a dinner without plates, table cloths, or compliments!
In the meantime, his friend Tommy was received
amid the circle of the ladies, and attended to as a pro-
digy of wit and ingenuity. Harry could not help being
surprised at this; his affection for his friend was totally
unmixed with the meanness of jealousy, and he received
the sincerest pleasure from every improvement which
Tommy had made; however, he had never discovered
in him any of those surprising talents : and, when he
could catch anything that Tommy said, it appeared to
him rather inferior to his usual method of conversa-
tion: however, as so many fine ladies were of a different
opinion, he took it for granted that he must be mistaken.
But if Harry's opinion of his friend's abilities was not
much improved by this exhibition, it was not so with
Tommy. The repeated assurance which he received that
he was indeed a little prodigy, began to convince him
that he really was so. Indeed, in consequence of this
success, the young gentleman's volubility improved so
much that, before dinner was over, he seemed disposed
to engross the whole conversation to himself; and Mr.
Merton, who did not quite relish the sallies of his son
so much as his wife, was once or twice obliged to inter-
pose and check him in his career. This Mrs. Merton
thought very hard, and all the ladies, after they had
retired into the drawing-room, agreed that his father
would certainly spoil his temper by such improper con-
tra,diction.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 1S5
supper in an earthen plate, invited them to sit dowi ;
an invitation which both the boys obeyed with the
greatest pleasure, as they had eaten nothing since the
morning. In the meantime, the honest man of the
house had taken his hat, and walked to Mr. Barlow's,
to inform him that his two pupils were safe in the
neighbourhood.
Mr. Barlow had long suffered the greatest uneasiness
at their absence, and, not contented with sending after
them on every side, was at that very time busy in the
pursuit; so that the man met him about half-way from
his own house. As soon as Mr. Barlow heard the good
news, he determined to return with the man; and
reached his house just as Tommy Merton had finished
one of the heartiest meals he had ever made.
The little boys rose up to meet Mr. Barlow, and
thanked him for his kindness, and the pains he had
taken to look after them ; expressing their concern for
the accident which had happened, and the uneasiness
which, without designing it, they had occasioned : but
he, with the greatest good-nature, advised them to be
more cautious for the future, and not to extend their
walks so far; then, thanking the worthy people of the
house, he offered to conduct them; and they all three
set out together, in a very cold, but fine and star-light
evening.
As they went home Mr. Barlow renewed his caution,
and told them the dangers they had incurred.-" Many
people," said he, "in your situation, have been surprised
by an unexpected storm, and, losing their way, have
perished with cold. Sometimes both men and beasts,
not being able to discern their accustomed track, have
fallen into deep pits filled up and covered with the
snow, where they have been found buried several feet
deep, and frozen to death."-" And is it impossible,"
said Tommy, "in such a case to escape ?"-" In general





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 273
the passion of gaining money with the rest; and some
of them behaved with a degree of asperity which quite
astonished him. After several changes of fortune, it
happened that Miss Simmons and Harry were the only
remaining players; all the rest, by the laws of the
game, had forfeited all pretentious to the stake, the
property of which was clearly vested in these two, and
one more deal was wanting to decide it. But, Harry,
with great politeness, rose from table, and told Miss
Simmons, that, as he only played upon her account, he
was now no longer wanted; and that the whole un-
doubtedly belonged to her. Miss Simmons refused to
take it; and when she found that Harry was not to be
induced to play any more, she at last proposed to him
to divide what was left. This also Harry declined;
alleging, that he had not the least title to any part.
But Miss Simmons who began to be uneasy at the re-
marks which this extraordinary contest occasioned, told
Harry, that he would very much oblige her by taking
his share of the money, and laying it out in any man-
ner for her that he judged best. On this condition,"
answered Harry, "I will take it; and I think I know
a method of laying it out, which you will not entirely
disapprove."
The next day, as soon as breakfast was over, Harry
disappeared ; nor was he come back when the com-
pany were assembled at dinner. At length he came
in, with a glow of health and exercise upon his face,
and that disorder of dress which is produced by a long
journey. The young ladies eyed him with great con-
tempt, which seemed a little to disconcert him: but,
Mr. Merton speaking to him with great good humour,
"and making room for him to sit down, Harry soon re-
covered from his confusion.
In the evening, after a long conversation among the
young people, about public diversions, and plays, and





SANDFORD AND MERTON 211
Mr. Barlow. All this is properly the art of Arith-
metic; which is the same as that of counting, only it is
done in a much shorter and easier way, without the
trouble of having the things always before you. Thus,
for instance, if you wanted to know how many barley-
corns were in this sack, you would perhaps be a week
in counting the whole number.
Tommy. Indeed I believe I should.
Mr. Barlow. If you understood arithmetic you might
do it in five minutes.
Tommy. That is extraordinary indeed; I can hardly
conceive it possible.
iMr. Barlow. A bushel of corn weighs about fifty
pounds: this sack contains four bushels; so that there
are just two hundred pounds weight in all. Now every
pound contains sixteen ounces; and sixteen times two
hundred makes thirty-two hundred ounces. So that
you have nothing to do but to count the number of
grains in a single ounce, and there will be thirty-two
hundred times that number in the sack.
Tommy. I declare this is curious indeed; and I should
like to learn arithmetic. Will Harry and you teach
me, sir ?
Mr. Barlow. You know we are always ready to im-
prove you. But, before we leave this subject, I must
tell you a little story.-There was a gentleman who
was extremely fond of beautiful horses, and did not
grudge to give the highest prices for them. One day a
horse-courser came to him, and showed him one so
handsome, that he thought it superior to all he had
ever seen before. He mounted him and found his
paces equally excellent; for, though he was full of
spirit, he was gentle and tractable as could be wished.
So many perfections delighted the gentleman, and he
eagerly demanded the price. The horse-courser answer-
ed, that he would bate nothing of two hundred guineas





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 77
rejoiced greatly at having discovered the hut; which
had, however, suffered much from the weather, it hav-
ing now been built a considerable time: they, however,
contrived to pass the night in it.
Early next morning they hastened to the shore,
impatient to inform their comrades of their success,
and also to procure from their vessel such provision,
ammunition, and other necessaries, as might better
enable them to winter on the island. I leave my readers
to figure to themselves the astonishment and agony of
mind these poor people must have felt, when, on reach-
ing the place of their landing, they saw nothing but an
open sea, free from the ice, which but a day before
had covered the ocean. A violent storm, which had
arisen during the night, had certainly been the cause
of this disastrous event: but they could not tell whether
the ice, which had before hemmed in the vessel, agi-
tated by the violence of the waves, had been driven
against her, and shattered her to pieces; or, whether
she had been carried by the current into the main,' a
circumstance which frequently happens in those seas.
Whatever accident had befallen the ship, they saw her
no more: and, as no tidings were ever afterward re-
ceived of her, it is most probable that she sunk, and
that all on board of her perished.
This melancholy event depriving the unhappy
wretches of all hope of ever being able to quit the
island, they returned to the hut, whence they had
come, full of horror and despair."-

Oh dear," cried Tommy at this passage, what a
dreadful situation these poor people must have been
in To be in such a cold country, covered with snow
and frozen with ice, without anybody to help them, or
give them victuals: I should think they must all have
died."--That you will soon see," said Mr. Barlow,





SANDFORD AND MERTON 279
unheeded. No one took the trouble of examining the
real principles or motives from which any human
being acted ; while the most minute attention was con-
tinually given to what regarded merely the outside.
He observed, that the omission of every duty towards
our fellow-creatures, was not only excused, but even
to a certain degree admired, provided it was joined
with a certain fashionable appearance; while the most
perfect probity, or integrity, was mentioned with cold-
ness or disgust, and frequently with open ridicule, if
unconnected with a brilliant appearance. As to all the
common virtues of life, such as industry, economy, a
punctuality in discharging our obligations, or keeping
our word, these were qualities which were treated as
fit for none but the vulgar. Mr. Barlow, he found, had
been utterly mistaken in all the principles which he
had ever inculcated. He had been nearly a month
with a few young ladies and gentlemen of his own
rank; and, instead of their being brought up to pro-
duce anything useful, he found that the great object of
all their knowledge and education, was only to waste,
to consume, to destroy, to dissipate, what was produced
by others : he even found, that this inability to assist
either themselves or others, seemed to be a merit upon
which every one valued himself extremely : so that an
individual who could not exist without having two
attendants to wait upon him, was superior to him that
had only one; but was obliged in turn to yield to
another who required four. And, indeed, this new
system seemed much more easy than the old one : for,
instead of giving himself any trouble about his manners
or understanding, he might with safety indulge all his
caprices; give way to all his passions; be humour-
some, haughty, unjust, and selfish to the extreme;
lie might be ungrateful to his friends, disobedient to
his parents, a glutton, an ignorant blockhead; in short,






24 THE HISTORY OF

since upon the observance of these truths alone the
happiness of the species must depend ?"
"(I think so, indeed."
"6 Should such a person observe, that an immoderate
desire and accumulation of riches, a love of ostentatious
trifles, unnecessary splendour in all that relates to hu-
man life, and an habitual indulgence of sensuality,
tended not only to produce evil in all around, but even
in the individual himself, who suffered the tyranny of
these vices; how would you have the legislator act '
Should he be silent ?"
"( No certainly: he should arraign these pernicious
habitudes by every mean within his power; by pre-
cept, by example."
"Should he also observe, that riches employed in
another manner, in removing the real miseries of hu-
lnanity, in cherishing, comforting, and supporting all
around, produced a contrary effect, and tended equally
to make the obliged and obliger happy; should he
conceal this great eternal truth, or should he divulge
it with all the authority he possessed, conscious, that
in whatever degree it became the rule of human life,
in the same degree would it tend to the advantage of
all the world ?"
"There cannot be a doubt upon the subject."
But, should he know, either by the spirit of pro.
phecy, or by intuitive penetration, that the majority of
mankind would never observe these rules to any great
degree, but would be blindly precipitated by their
passions into every excess against which he so bene-
volently cautioned them; should this be a reason for
his withdrawing his precepts and admonitions, or foi
seeming to approve what was in its own nature most
pernicious ?
"As prudent would it be to pull off the bridle when
we mounted an impetuous horse, because we doubted






SANDFORD AND MERTON,
limbs for me, that I may stay at home and do nothing."
Tommy. What, if the French were to come here, as
they said they were about to do; would you go out to
fight them yourself?
Harry. I have heard my father say, that it was every
man's duty to fight for his country, if it were attacked:
and if my father went out to fight, I woujd go out with
him. I would not willingly hurt any body; but if they
attempt to hurt me or my countrymen, we should do
right to defend ourselves; should we not, sir ?
Mr. Barlow. This is certainly a case where men have
a right to defend themselves : no man is bound to yield
his life or property to another that has no right to take
it. Among those Grecians, whom you were talking of,
every man was a soldier, and always ready to defend
his country whenever it was attacked.
The frost had continued for several weeks, and
Tommy had taken advantage of the evenings, which
generally proved clear and starlight, to improve his
knowledge of the heavens. He had already orna-
mented his paper globe with several of the most re-
markable constellations. Around the Pole-star he had
discovered Perseus and Andromeda, and Cepheus and
Cassiopeia's Chair. Between these and the bright
Orion, which rose every night and glittered in the
south, he discovered seven small stars that were set in
a cluster, and called the Pleiades. Then, underneath
Orion, he discovered another glittering star, called
Sirius, or the Dog-star. All these, he continually ob.
served, journeyed every night from east to west, and
then appeared, the evening after, in their former places.
--" How strange it is," observed Tommy one day to
Mr. Barlow, that all these stars should be conti-
nually turning about the carth !" --' How do you
know," replied Mr. Barlow, that they turn at all "
Toimm,. Because I see them move every night.





150 THE HISTORY OF

and continued the operation.-But I have heard a moro
tragic story of the imitative genius of these animals,
One of them lived in a fortified town, and used fre-
quently to run up and down upon the ramparts, where
he had observed the gunner discharge the great guns
that defended the town. One day he got possession of
the lighted match with which the man used to perform
his business, and, applying it to the touch-hole of a
gun, he ran to the mouth of it to see the explosion:
but, the cannon, which happened to be loaded, in-
stantly went off, and blew the poor monkey into a
thousand.pieces."
When they came back to Mr. Barlow's, they found
Master Merton's servant and horses waiting to bring
him home. When he arrived there, he was received
with the greatest joy and tenderness by his parents;
but though he gave them an account of everything else
that had happened, he did not say a word about the
money he had given to the farmer. But the next day
being Sunday, Mr. and Mrs. Merton, and Tommy, went
together to the parish-church; which they had scarcely
entered, when a general whisper ran through the whole
congregation, and all eyes were in an instant turned
upon the little boy. Mr. and Mrs. Merton were very
much astonished at this, but they forbore to inquire
until the end of the service; then, as they were going
out of the church together, Mr. Merton asked his son,
what could be the reason of the general attention which
he excited at his entrance into church ? Tommy had
no time to answer; for at that instant, a very decent
looking woman ran up, and threw herself at his feet,
calling him her guardian angel and preserver; and
praying that Heaven would shower down upon his
head, all the blessings which he deserved. It was some
time before Mr. and Mrs. Merton could understand the
nature of this extraordinary scene; but, when they at





SANDFORD AND MERTON

"What is the matter ?" said Mr. Barlow; who per-
ceived that some unfortunate accident had happened
in consequence of Tommy's present.
Sir," answered the little boy, a my little master
here was going to beat me, because I would not fetch
his ball. Now as to the matter of that, I would have
brought his ball with all my heart, if he had but asked
me civilly. But though I am poor, I am not bound
to be his slave, as they say black William is; and so
I would not: upon which, little master here was jump-
ing over the hedge to lick me; but, instead of that, he
soused into the ditch and there he lay rolling about
till I helped him out: and so he gave me these clothes
here, all out of good will; and I put them on, like a
fool as I was: for they are all made of silk, and look
so fine, that all the little boys followed me, and hal.
looed as I went ; and Jack Dowset threw a handful
of dirt at me, and dirtied me all over.-' Oh !' says I,
'Jacky, are you at that work f'-and with that I hit him
t punch in the belly, and sent him roaring away. But
Billy Gibson and Ned Kelly came up, and said I looked
like a Frenchman; and so we began fighting, and I
beat them till they both gave out: but I don't choose
to be hallooed after wherever I go, and to look like
a Frenchman; and so I have brought master his
clothes again."
Mr. Barlow asked the little boy where his father
lived ; and he told him that his father lived about two
miles off, across the common, and at the end of Runny-
lane : on which, Mr. Barlow told Harry, that he would
send the poor man some broth and victuals, if he would
carry it when it was ready.-" That I will," said Harry,
"c if it were five times as far." So Mr. Barlow went
into the house to give orders about it.
In the mean time Tommy, who had eyed the little
boy for some time in silence, said, So, my poor boy





SANDFORD AND MERTON 327
arrived without any accident in London, the splendid
capital of this kingdom : but I could not there restrain
my astonishment, to see an immense people talking of
wounds, of death, of battles, sieges, and conquests,
in the midst of feasts, and balls, and puppet shows;
and calmly devoting thousands of their fellow-crea-
tures to perish by famine or the sword, while they
considered the loss of a dinner, or the endurance of
a shower, as an exertion too great for human forti-
tude.
"I soon embarked, and arrived, without any other
accident than a horrible sickness, at the place of our
destination in America. Here I joined my gallant
officer, Colonel Simmons, who had performed the voy-
age in another ship.-(Miss Simmons, who was present
at this narration, seemed to be much interested at this
mention of her own name ; she, however, did not ex-
press her feelings, and the stranger proceeded with his
story.) The gentleman was, with justice, the most be-
loved, and the most deserving to be so, of any officer
I have ever known. Inflexible in everything that con-
cerned the honour of the service, he never pardoned
wilful misbehaviour ; because he knew that it was in-
compatible with military discipline : yet, when obliged
to punish, he did it with such reluctance,that he seemed
to suffer almost as much as the criminal himself. But,
if his reason imposed this just and necessary severity,
his heart had taught him another lesson in respect to
private distresses of his men ; he visited them in their
sickness, relieved their miseries, and was a niggard of
nothing but human blood.-But I ought to correct my-
self in that expression, for he was rashly lavish of his
own : and to that we owe his untimely loss.
I had not been long in America before the Colo-
nel, who was perfectly acquainted with the language
and manners of the savage tribes that border upon the






112 THE HISTORY OF
comes to take us away."--Mr. B. And if no ship should
come, what then ?-T. Why then we must stay there
all our lives, I am afraid.-Mr. B. If you wish to pre-
pare yourselves against the event, I think you are much
in the right; for nobody knows what may happen to
him in this world. What is it then you want, to make
your house ?-T. The first thing we want, sir, is wood
and a hatchet.-Mr. B. Wood you shall have in plenty;
but did you ever use a hatchet ?-T. No, sir.-Mr. B.
Then I am afraid to let you have one, because it is a
very dangerous kind of tool; and if you are not expert
in the use of it, you may wound yourself severely. But
if you will let me know what you want, I, who am more
strong and expert, will take the hatchet and cut down
the wood for you."-" Thank you, sir," said Tommy;
"you are very good to me, indeed."-And away Harry
and he ran to the copse at the bottom of the garden.
Mr. Barlow then went to work, and presently, by
Harry's direction, cut down several poles about as thick
as a man's wrist, and about eight feet long; these he
sharpened at the end, in order to run into the ground ;
and so eager were the two little boys at the business,
that in a very short time they had transported them all
to the bottom of the garden; and Tommy entirely for-
got he was a gentleman, and worked with the greatest
eagerness.
"Now," said Mr. Barlow, "where will you fix your
house ?"-" Here, I think," answered Tommy, "just at
the bottom of this hill, because it will be warm and
sheltered."
So Harry took the stakes, and began to thrust them
into the ground, at about the distance of a foot; and in
this manner he inclosed a piece of ground which was
about ten feet long, and eight feet wide; leaving an
opening in the middle, of three feet wide, for a door.
After this was done, they gathered up the brushwood





SANDFORD AND MIERTON. J3
As they were returning home, Harry saw a very
large bird, called a Kite, upon the ground, who seemed
to have something in his claws, which he was tearing
to pieces. Harry, who knew him to be one of those
ravenous creatures which prey upon others, ran up to
him, shouting as loud as he could; and the bird, being
frightened, flew away, and left a chicken behind him,
very much hurt indeed, but still alive.-" Look, sir,"
said Harry, if that cruel creature has not almost
killed this poor chicken! see how he bleeds and hangs
his wings! I will put him into my bosom to recover
him, and carry him home; and he shall have part of
my dinner every day, till he is well, and able to shift
for himself."
As soon as they came home, the first care of little
Harry was to put his wounded chicken into a basket
with some fresh straw, some water, and some bread;
after that Mr. Barlow and he went to dinner.
In the meantime, Tommy, who had been skulking
about all day, very much mortified and uneasy, came
in, and, being very hungry, was. going to sit down to
table with the rest; but Mr. Barlow stopped him, and
said, No, sir; as you are too much of a gentleman to
work, we, who are not so, do not choose to work for
the idle." Upon this Tommy retired into a corner,
crying as if his heart would break, but more from grief
than passion, as he began to perceive that nobody
minded his ill temper.
But little Harry, who could not bear to see his friend
so unhappy, looked up half crying into Mr. Barlow's
face, and said, Pray, sir, may I do as I please with
my share of the dinner ?" "Yes, to be sure, child ?"
"( Why, then," said he, getting up, I will give it all to
poor Tommy, who wants it more than I do." Saying
this, he gave it to him as he sat in the corner; and
Tommy took it, and thanked him, without ever turning





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 161
agreeable. In the spring, they lead their herds of deer
to pasture upon the mountains: in the winter they
come down into the plains, where they are better pro-
tected against the fury of the winds. For the whole
country is waste and desolate, destitute of all the
objects which you see here. There are no towns nor
villages; no fields inclosed or cultivated ; no beaten
roads; no inns for travellers to sleep at; no shops to
purchase the necessaries or conveniences of life at;
the face of the whole country is barren and dismal;
wherever you turn your eyes, nothing is to be seen but
lofty mountains, white with snow, and covered with ice
and fogs; scarcely any trees are to be seen, except a
few stunted fir and birch. These mountains afford a
retreat to thousands of bears and wolves, which are
continually pouring down and prowling about to prey
upon the herds of deer; so that the Laplanders are
continually obliged to fight them in their own defence.
To do this, they fix large pieces of flat board, about four
or five feet long, to the bottom of their feet, and, thus
secured, they run along, without sinking into the snow,
so nimbly, that they can overtake the wild animals in
the chase. The bears they kill with bows and arrows,
which they make themselves. Sometimes they find
out the dens where they have laid themselves up in the
winter: and then they attack them with spears, and
generally overcome them. When a Laplander has killed
a bear, he carries it home in triumph, boils the flesh in
an iron pot (which is all the cooking they are acquaint-
ed with), and invites all his neighbours to the feast.
This they account the greatest delicacy in the world,
and particularly the fat, which they melt over the fire
and drink: then, sitting round the flame, they enter-
tain each other with stories of their own exploits in
hunting or fishing, till the feast is over.-Though they
live so barbarous a life, they are a good-natured, sin-





170 THE HISTORY OF

be indeed discoverable by any of your senses : but as
their effects are equally strong and certain, I must
recommend to you to eat with moderation."
Having said this, he ordered the dishes to be un-
covered, which, to the extreme astonishment of the
gentleman, contained nothing but olives, dried figs,
dates, some roasted apples, a few boiled eggs, and a
piece of hard cheese !
Heaven and earth !" cried the gentleman, losing all
patience at this mortifying spectacle, is this the en-
tertainment you have prepared for me, with so many
speeches and prefaces ? Do you imagine that a person
of my fortune can sup on such contemptible fare as
would hardly satisfy the wretched peasants whom I
saw at dinner in your hall ?"-" Have patience, my
dear sir," replied the physician; "it is the extreme
anxiety I have for your welfare, that compels me to
treat you with this apparent incivility. Your blood is
all in a ferment with the violent exercise you have
undergone; and, were I rashly to indulge your craving
appetite, a fever or a pleurisy might be the conse-
quence. But to-morrow I hope you will be cooler;
and then you may live in a style more adapted to your
quality."
The gentleman began to comfort himself with this
reflection, and, as there was no help, he at last deter-
mined to wait with patience another night. He ac-
cordingly tasted a few of the dates and olives, ate a
piece of cheese with a slice of excellent bread, and
found himself more refreshed than he could have ima-
gined was possible, from such a homely meal. When
he had nearly supped, he wanted something to drink,
and observing nothing but water upon the table, de-
sired one of the servants to bring him a little wine.-
"Not as you value the life of this illustrious gentle-
man," cried out the physician.-" Sir," added lie, turn-






12 TIE HISTORY 0O1
I)e walked in the fields, he was sure to gather green
boughs for the sheep, who were so fond of him, that
they followed him wherever he went. In the winter
time, when the ground was covered with frost and
snow, and the poor little birds could get at no food, he
would often go supperless to bed, that he might feed
the robin-redbreasts. Even toads, and frogs, and spi-
ders, and such kind of disagreeable animals, which
most people destroy wherever they find them, were
perfectly safe with Harry: he used to say, they had a
right to live as well as we, and that it was cruel and
unjust to kill creatures, only because we did not like
them.
These sentiments made little Harry a great favourite
with every body; particularly with the clergyman of
the parish, who became so fond of him, that he taught
him to read and write, and had him almost always
with him. Indeed, it was not surprising that Mr. Bar-
low showed so particular an affection for him; for be-
sides learning, with the greatest readiness, every thing
that was taught him, little Harry was the most honest,
obliging creature in the world. He was never discon-
tented, nor did he ever grumble, whatever he was de-
sired to do. And then you might believe Harry in
everything he said; for though he could have gained
a plumb-cake by telling an untruth, and was sure that
speaking the truth would expose him to a severe whip-
ping, he never hesitated in declaring it. Nor was he
like many other children, who place their whole hap-
piness in eating; for give him but a morsel of dry
bread for his dinner, and he would be satisfied, though
you placed sweetmeats and fruit, and every other
nicety, in his way.
With this little boy did Master Merton become ac-
quainted in the following manner:-As he and the
maid were once walking in the fields on a fine summer's





SANFFORD AND MERTON. 23
human frame; could he calculate, with an accuracy that
never was deceived, the effect of every cause that could
act upon our constitutions; and, were he inclined, as
the result of all his science and observation, to leave a
rule of life that might remain unimpeached to the
latest posterity, I ask, what kind of one would he
form ?"
"I suppose one,' said Mr. Merton, "that was the
most adapted to the general circumstances of the hu-
man species, and which observed, would confer the
greatest degree of health and vigour."
"Right !" said Mr. Barlow : "I ask again, whether,
observing the common luxury and intemperance of the
rich he would take his directions from the usages of a
polite table, and recommend that heterogeneous assem-
blage of contrary mixtures, high seasonings, poignant
sauces, fermented and distilled poisons, which is con-
tinually breeding diseases in their veins, as the best
means of preserving, or regaining health ?"
"Certainly not. That were to debase his heart, and
sanction abuses, instead of reforming them."
Would he not, then, recommend simplicity of diet,
light repasts, early slumbers, and moderate exercise in
the open air, if he judged them salutary to human na-
ture, even though fashionable prejudice had stamped
all these particulars with the mark of extreme vul-
garity ?"
Were lie to act otherwise, lie must forfeit all pre-
tensions either to honesty or skill."
Let us then apply all this to the mind, instead of
the body, and suppose for an instant, that some legis-
lator, either human or divine, who comprehended all
the secret springs that govern the mind, was preparing
a universal code for all mankind; must he not imitate
the physician, and deliver general truths, however un-
palatable, however repugnant to particular prejudices,





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 429
his son to accompany him home. Tommy arose, and
with the sincerest gratitude, bade adieu to Harry and
all the rest.-" I shall not be long without you," said
he to Harry; to your example I owe most of the
little good that I can boast: you have taught me how
much better it is to be useful than rich or fine : how
much more amiable to be good than to be great.
Should I ever be tempted to relapse, even for an
instant, into any of my former habits, I will return
hither for instruction, and I hope you will again re-
ceive me." Saying this, he shook his friend Harry
affectionately by the hand, and, with watery eyes,
accompanied his father home.












T dD





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 425

lecture the servants; and the men were men indeed;
pray, did you ever hear the story of father's being at
Truro, and throwing the famous Cornish wrestler,
squinting Dick, the miner ?"
Mr. Merton began to be convinced, that, whatever
other qualities good Mr. Sandford might have, he did
not excel in brevity; and therefore, endeavoured in
still stronger terms to overcome the delicacy of the
farmer, and prevail upon him to accept his present.
But the good farmer pursued his point thus : Thank
you, thank you, my dear sir, a thousand times, for your
good-will; but, as to the money, I must beg your par-
don if I persist in refusing it. Formerly, sir, as I was
saying, we were all happy and healthy, and our affairs
prospered, because we never thought about the con-
veniences of life; now, I hear of nothing else. One
neighbour (for I will not mention names) brings his
son up to go a shooting with gentlemen ; another sends
his to market upon a blood-horse, with a plated bridle;
and then the girls, the girls !-there is fine work, in-
deed !-they must have their hats and feathers, and
riding habits : their heads as big as bushels, and even
their hind quarters stuck out with cork or paste-
board; but scarcely one of them can milk a cow, or
churn, or bake, or do any one thing that is necessary
in a family: so that, unless the government will send
them all to this new settlement which I have heard so
much of, and bring us a cargo of plain, honest house-
wives, who have never been at boarding schools, I
cannot conceive how we farmers are to get wives."
Mr. Merton laughed very heartily at this sally, and
told him, that he would venture to assert it was not so
at his house.-" Not quite so bad, indeed," said the far-
mer; "my wife was bred up under a notable mother :
and, though she must have her tea every afternoon, is,
in the main, a very good sort of woman. She has






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 275
answered, that, though he was not bound to give any
reason, he thought he had a very good one to give;
and that was, that he saw no generosity in thus bestow-
ing money. According to your own account," added
he, the person you have been talking of gains more
than fifty poor families in the country have to maintain
themselves; and, therefore, if I had any money to give
away, I should certainly give it to those that want it
most."
With these words, Harry went out of the room, and
the rest of the gentry, after abusing him very liberally,
sat down to cards. But Miss Simmons, who imagined
that there was more in Harry's conduct than he had
explained, excused herself from cards, and took an op-
portunity of talking to him upon the subject. After
speaking to him with great good nature, she asked
him, whether it might not have been better to have
contributed something along with the rest, than to
have offended them by so free an exposition of his sen-
timents : even though he did not entirely approve of
the scheme ?-" Indeed, madam," said Harry, this is
what I would gladly have done; but it was totally out
of my power."-" How can that be, Harry ? did you
not, the other night, win nearly thirty shillings ?"-
"6 That, madam, all belonged to you; and I have al-
ready disposed of it, in your name, in a manner that I
hope you will not disapprove."-"e How is that :" in-
quired the young lady, with some surprise.
", Madam," said Harry, there was a young woman
who lived with my father as a servant, and always be-
haved with the greatest honesty and carefulness. This
young woman had an aged father and mother, who for
a great while were able to maintain themselves by
their own labour; but at last the poor old man became
too weak to do a day's work, and his wife was afflicted
with a disease they call the palsy. Now, when this





72 THE HISTORY OF

with the greatest cordiality, and asked him what suc-
cess he had had? Pizarro told him that they had
found an immense quantity of gold; but that several
of his companions had perished, and that the rest were
almost starved from the want of provisions; he then
requested that his brother would immediately give
him something to eat, as he assured him he had tasted
no food for the last two days, excepting the roots and
bark of trees. Alonzo then very cooly answered that
he should remember, that when they set out they had
made an agreement, that neither should interfere with
the other; that he had never desired to have any share
of the gold which Pizarro might acquire; and there-
fore he wondered that Pizarro should expect to be sup-
plied with the provisions that he had procured with
so much care and labour.-" But," added he, if you
choose to exchange some of the gold you have found,
for provisions, I shall perhaps be able to accommodate
you."-Pizarro thought this behaviour very unkind in
his brother, but, as he and his companions were almost
starved, they were obliged to comply with his demands,
which were so exorbitant, that in a very short time
they parted with all the gold they had brought with
them, merely to purchase food. Alonzo then proposed
to his brother to embark for Spain in the vessel which
had brought them thither, as the winds and weather
seemed to be most favourable; but Pizarro, with an
angry look, told him, that, since he had deprived him
of everything he had gained, and treated him in so
unfriendly a manner, he should go without him; for,
as to himself, he would rather perish upon that desert
shore, than embark with so inhuman a brother. But
Alonzo, instead of resenting these reproaches, em-
braced his brother with the greatest tenderness, and
spoke to him in the following manner: Could you
then believe, my dearest Pizarro, that I really meant






34 THE HISTORY OF
his eyes from off the ground. I see," says Mr. Bar-
low, "that though gentlemen are above being of any
use themselves, they are not above taking the bread
that other people have been working hard for. At this
Tommy cried still more bitterly than before.
The next day, Mr. Barlow and Harry went to work
as before; but they had scarcely begun before Tommy
came to them and desired that he might have a hoe too,
which Mr. Barlow gave him ; but as he had never be-
fore learned to handle one, he was very awkward in
the use of it, and hit himself several strokes upon the
legs. Mr. Barlow then laid down his own spade, and
showed him how to hold and use it; by which means,
in a short time, he became very expert, and worked
with the greatest pleasure. When their work was over,
they retired all three to the summer-house; and Tommy
felt the greatest joy imaginable when the fruit was
produced, and he was invited to take his share, which
seemed to him the most delicious he had ever tasted,
because working in the air had given him an appetite.
As soon as they had done eating, Mr. Barlow took
up a book, and asked Tommy whether he would read
them a story out of it ? but he, looking a little ashamed,
said he had never learned to read. "I am very sorry
for it," said Mr. Barlow, because you lose a, vorv
great pleasure : then Harry shall read to you." Harry
accordingly took up the book, and read the following
story -

THE GENTLEMAN AND THE BASKET-MAKER.

THERE was, in a distant part of the world, a rich man,
who lived in a fine house, and spent his time in eating,
drinking, sleeping, and amusing himself. As he had a
great many servants to wait upon him, who treated
him with the greatest respect, and did whatever they





SANDFORD AND MERTON 281
gant creatures in England, and the most accomplished."
As soon as Tommy had finished his dance, he led his
partner to her seat, with a grace that surprised all the
company anew; and then, with the sweetest condescen-
sion imaginable, he went from one lady to another, to
receive the praises which they liberally poured out, as
if it was the greatest action in the world to draw one
foot behind another, and to walk on tiptoe.
Harry, in the meantime, had shrouded himself in the
most obscure part of the room, and was silently gazing
upon the scene that passed. He knew that his com-
pany would give no pleasure among the elegant figures
that engrossed the foremost seats, and felt not the least
inclination for such an honour. In this situation he
was observed by Master Compton; who, at the same
instant, formed a scheme of mortifying Miss Simmons,
whom he did not like, and of exposing Harry to the
general ridicule. He therefore proposed it to Mash,
who had partly officiated as master of the ceremonies,
and who, with all the readiness of officious malice,
agreed to assist him.-Master Mash, therefore, went up
to Miss Simmons, and, with all the solemnity of re-
spect, invited her out to dance; which she, although
indifferent about the matter, accepted without hesita-
tion. In the meantime Master Compton went up to
Harry with the same hypocritical civility, and, in Miss
Simmon's name, invited him to dance a minuet. It was
in vain that Harry assured him he knew nothing about
the matter; his perfidious friend told him, that it was
an indispensable duty for him to stand up; that Miss
Simmons would never forgive him, if he should refuse;
that it would be sufficient if he could just describe the
figure, without embarrassing himself about the steps.
In the meantime, he pointed out Miss Simmons, who
was advancing towards the upper end of the room, and
taking advantage of his confusion and embarrassment,





SANDFORD AND MERTON 159
Tommy. That is true, indeed, sir; I wish I had just
such a globe.
Mr. Barlow. Well, just such a globe I will endea-
vour to procure you.
Tommy. Sir, I am much obliged to you, indeed. But
what use is it of to know the stars ?
Mr. Barlow. Were there no other use, I should think
there would be a very great pleasure in observing such
a number of glorious, glittering bodies as are now
above us. We sometimes run to see a procession of
coaches, or a few people in fine clothes strutting about;
we admire a large room that is painted, and orna.
mented, and gilded; but what is there in all these
things to be compared with the sight of these lumi-
nous bodies that adorn every part of the sky?
Tommy. That's true, indeed. My Lord Wimple's
great room, that I have heard all the people admire so
much, is no more to be compared to it than the shab-
biest thing in the world.
Mr. Barlow. That is indeed true: but there are
some, and those very important, uses to be derived
from an acquaintance with the stars. Harry, do you
tell Master Merton the story of your being lost upon
the great moor.
Harry. You must know, Master Tommy, that I have
an uncle lives about three miles off, across the great
moor, that we have sometimes walked upon. Now,
my father, as I am in general pretty well acquainted
with the roads, very often sends me with messages to
my uncle. One evening I came there so late, that it
was scarcely possible to get home again before it was
quite dark: it was at that time in the month of Octo-
ber. My uncle wished me very much to stay at his
house all night; but that was not proper for me to do,
because my father had ordered me to come back; so I
set out as soon as I possibly could; but just as I






120 THIE HISTORY OF

him tenderly, and asked by what extraordinary chance
h6 had thus been enslaved a second time? adding a
kind reproach for his not informing him of his cap-
tivity.
"I bless God for that captivity" answered Hamet,
"since it has given me an opportunity of showing that
I was not altogether undeserving of your kindness, and
of preserving the life of that dear youth that I value a
thousand times beyond my own.-But it is now fit that
my generous patron should be informed of the whole
truth. Know, then, that when the unfortunate Hamet
was taken by your galleys, his aged father shared his
captivity : it was his fate which so often made me s'ied
those tears which first attracted the notice of your son;
and when your unexampled bounty had set me free, I
flew to find the Christian who had purchased him. I
represented to him that I was young and vigorous,
while he was aged and infirm: I added too the gold
which I had received from your bounty; in a word, I
prevailed upon the Christian to send back my father in
that ship which was intended for me, without acquaint.
ing him with the means of his freedom :-since that
time I have staid here to discharge the debt of nature
and gratitude, a willing slave."--
At this part of the story, Harry, who had with diffi-
culty restrained himself before, burst into such a fit of
crying, and Tommy himself was so much affected, that
Mr. Barlow told them they had better leave off for the
present, and go to some other employment. They
therefore went into their garden, to resume the labour
of their house ; but found, to their unspeakable regret,
that, during their absence, an accident had happened,
which had entirely destroyed all their labours: a vio-
lent storm of wind and rain had risen that morning,
which, blowing full against the walls of their newly-
constructed house, had levelled it with the ground.





228 THE HISTORY OF
swan turned himself round, and pursued the hand of
his master to the other side of the basin.
The spectators could hardly believe their eyes; and
some of them got little pieces of bread, and held them
out, imagining that he would do the same to them.
But it was in vain they whistled and presented their
bread; the bird remained unmoved upon the water,
and obeyed no orders but those of his master.
When this exhibition had been repeated over and
over again, to the extreme delight and astonishment of
all present, the company rose and dispersed; and Mr.
Barlow and the little boys pursued their way home.
But Tommy's mind was so engaged with what he had
seen, that for several days he could think and talk of
nothing else. He would give all that he had in the
world to find out this curious trick, and to be possessed
of such a swan. At length, as he was one day talking
to Harry upon the subject, Harry told him, with a
smile, that he believed he had found out a method of
doing it; and that if he did not mistake, he would, the
next day, show him a swan that would come to be fed
as well as the conjuror's. Accordingly, Harry moulded
a bit of wax into the shape of a swan, and placed it
upon a basin of water. He then presented to it a piece
of bread, and, to the inexpressible delight of Tommy,
the swan pursued the bread just as he had seen before.
After he had several times diverted himself with
this experiment, he wanted to be informed of the com-
position of this wonderful swan. Harry, therefore,
showed him, within the body of the bird, a large needle,
which lay across it from one end to the other. In the
bread with which the swan was fed, he also showed
him concealed, a small bar of iron. Tommy could not
comprehend all this, although he saw it before his
eyes: but Mr. Barlow, who was present, taking up the
bar of iron, and putting down several needles upon the






44 THE HISTORY OF

the end, Keeper laid the wolf dead at his feet, though
not without receiving several severe wounds himself,
and presenting a bloody and mangled spectacle to the
eyes of his master, who came up at that instant. The
gentleman was filled with joy for his escape, and gra-
titude to his valiant deliverer; and learned by his own
experience, that appearances are not always to be
trusted, and that great virtues and good dispositions
may sometimes be found in cottages, while they are
totally wanting among the great.

"Very well indeed," said Mr. Barlow, "I find that
when young gentlemen choose to take pains, they can do
things almost as well as other people. But what do you
say to the story you have been reading, Tommy ? Would
you rather have owned the genteel dog that left his
master to be devoured, or the poor, rough, ragged,
m1eagre, neglected cur, that exposed his own life in his
defence ?"-" Indeed sir," said Tommy,1 "I would rather
have had Keeper; but then I would have fed him, and
washed him, and combed him, till he had looked as well
as Jowler."-- But then, perhaps, he would have grown
idle, and fat, and cowardly, like him," said Mr. Barlow:
"but here is some more of it; let us read to the end of
the story."-Tommy then went on thus :

The gentleman was so pleased with the noble beha.
viour of Keeper, that he desired the poor man to make
him a present of the dog; which, though with some
reluctance, he complied with.-Keeper was therefore
taken to the city, where he was caressed and fed by
everybody; and the disgraced Jowler was left at the
cottage, with strict injunctions to the man to hang him
up, as a worthless, unprofitable cur.
As soon as the gentleman had departed, the poor
man was going to execute his commission ; but, con-






050 THE HISTORY OF

Those that had been ill, he assisted with such little
necessaries, as tended to alleviate their pains, and
diffuse a gleam of cheerfulness over their sufferings.-
"How hard," he would say, "is the lot of the poor when
they are afflicted with sickness! How intolerable.do
we find the least bodily disorder, even though we pos-
sess every convenience that can mitigate its violence !
Not all the dainties which can be collected from all
the elements, the warmth of downy beds and silken
couches, the attendance of obsequious dependents, are
capable of making us bear with common patience the
most common disease: how pitiable then must be the
state of a fellow-creature, who is at once tortured by
bodily suffering, and destitute of every circumstance
which can alleviate it; who sees around him a family
that are not only incapable of assisting their parents,
but destined to want the common necessaries of life,
the moment he intermits his daily labours How in-
dispensable then is the obligation, which should conti-
nually impel the rich to exert themselves in assisting
their fellow-creatures, and rendering that condition of
life which we all avoid, less dreadful to those who
must support it always ?"
Acting from such principles as these, Mr. Barlow was
the common friend of all the species. Whatever his
fortune would allow him to perform, he never refused
to all who stood in need of his assistance. But there
is yet a duty, which he thought of more importance
than the mere distribution of property to the needy,-
the encouragement of industry and virtue among the
poor, and giving them juster notions of morals and reli-
gion. "If we have a dog," he would say, "we refuse
neither pains nor expense to train him up to hunting;
if we have a horse, we send him to an experienced rider
to be bitted; but our own species seems to be the only
animal which is entirely exempted from our care."-





SANDFORD AND MERTON.
preserve the esteem of any good or sensible friend, or
prevail upon Harry to excuse your past behaviour,
But, as you do not approve of what I suggested, you
must follow your own opinion."
Pray, sir, pray, sir," said Tommy, sobbing, "do not
go. I have used Harry Sandford in the most barbar-
ous manner; my father is angry with me ; and, if you
desert me, I shall have no friend left in the world."
Mr. Barlow. That will be your own fault; and there-
fore you will not deserve to be pitied. Is it nt in your
own power to preserve all your friends, by an honest
confession of your faults ? Your father will be pleased,
Harry Sandford will heartily forgive you, and I shall
retain the same good opinion of your character which
I have long had.
Tommy. And is it really possible, sir, that you should
have a good opinion of me, after all I have told you
about myself ?
Mr. Barlow. I have always thought you a little vain
and carelessI confess; but, at the same time I imagined
you had both good sense and generosity in your cha-
racter; I depended upon the first to make you see
your faults, and upon the second to correct them.
Tommy. Dear sir, I am very much obliged to you; but
you have always been extremely kind and friendly to
me.
Mr. Barlow. And therefore, I told your father yester-
day, who is very much hurt at your quarrel with Harry,
that though a sudden passion might have transported
you too far, yet, when you came to consider the matter
coolly, you would perceive your faults and acknow-
ledge them: were you not to behave in this manner, I
owned I could say nothing in your favour. And I was
very much confirmed in this opinion, when I saw the
courage you exerted in the rescue of Harry's lamb, and
tle compassion you felt for the poor HihFlincer. A





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 31
answer, you may be silent; nobody is obliged to speak
here." Tommy became still more disconcerted at this,
and, being unable to conceal his anger, ran out of the
summer-house, and wandered very disconsolately about
the garden; equally surprised and vexed to find that
he was now in a place where nobody felt any concern
whether he was pleased, or the contrary.
When all the. cherries were eat, little Harry said,
"You promised to be so good as to hear me read when
we had done working in the garden; and, if it is agree-
able to you, I will now read the story of the Flies and
the Ants."-" With all my heart," said Mr. Barlow:
remember to read it slowly and distinctly, without
hesitating or pronouncing the words wrong; and be
sure to read it in such a manner as to show that you
understand it."
Harry then took up the book and read as follows :-


THE FLIES AND THE ANTS,

IN a corner of a farmer's garden, there was once a large
nest of Ants, who, during the fine weather of the sum-
mier, were employed all day long in drawing little seeds
and grains of corn into their hole. Near them there
happened to be a bed of flowers, upon which a great
quantity of Flies used to be always sporting, and hum-
"ming, and diverting themselves by flying from one
flower to another.-A little boy, who was the farmer's
son, used frequently to observe the different employ
ments of these animals ; and, as he was very young
and ignorant, he one day thus expressed himself:-
Can any creature be so simple as these Ants ? All
day long they are working and toiling, instead of en-
joying the fine weather, and diverting themselves like
these Flies, who are the happTest creatures in the





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 319
forgive me all the ill-usage he has met with." Saying
this, he took the lamb up and kissed it with the great-
est tenderness; nay, he would have even borne it home
in his arms, had it not been rather too heavy for his
strength; but the honest stranger, with a grateful
officiousness, offered his services, and prevailed on
Tommy to let him carry it, while he delivered his child
to the biggest of his brothers.
When Tommy was now arrived within a little dis-
tance of his home he met his father and Mr. Barlow,
who had left the house to enjoy the morning air be-
fore breakfast. They were surprised to see him in
such an equipage : for the dirt, which had bespattered
him from head to foot, began to dry in various places,
and gave him the appearance of a farmer's clay-built
wall in the act of hardening. But Tommy, without
giving them time to make inquiries, ran affectionately
up to Mr. Barlow, and, taking him by the hand, said,
Oh sir, here is the luckiest accident in the world !
poor Harry Sandford's favourite lamb would have been
killed by a great mischievous dog, if I had not hap-
pened to come by and save his life !"-"And who is this
honest man," said Mr. Merton, "whom you have picked
up on the common ? He seems to be in distress, and
his famished children are scarcely able to drag them-
selves along."-" Poor man !" answered Tommy, "I am
very much obliged to him; for when I went to save
Harry's lamb, the dog attacked me, and would have
hurt me very much, if he had not come to my assist-
ance, and killed him with his great sword. So I have
brought him with me, that he might refresh himself
with his poor children, one of which has a terrible
ague ; for I knew, papa, that though I had not behaved
well of late, you would not be against my doing an act
of charity."-" I am, on the contrary, very glad," said
Mr. Merton, "to see you have so much gratitude in







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SANDFORD AND MERTON 359
will learn how to manage his land, or raise food, from
your conversation. It will, therefore, be better for him
to converse with farmers, and leave you to the society of
gentlemen. Indeed, this, I know, has always been his
taste; and, had not your father pressed him very much
to accompany you home, he would have liked much
better to have avoided the visit. However, I will
inform him that you have gained other friends, and
advise him, for the future, to avoid your company.
Tommy. Oh, sir! I did not think you could be so
cruel. I love Harry Sandford better than any other
boy in the world; and I shall never be happy till he
forgives me all my bad behaviour, and converses with
me again as he used to do.
Mr. Barlow. But then, perhaps, you may lose the ac-
quaintance of all those polite young ladies and gentle-
men.
Tommy. I care very little about that, sir. But I fear
I have behaved so ill, that he never will be able to for
give me and love me as he did formerly.
Tommy then went on, and repeated, with great exact-
ness, the story of his insolence and ingratitude, which
had so great an effect upon him, that he burst into tears
and cried a considerable time. He then concluded
with asking Mr. Barlow if he thought Harry would be
ever able to forgive him ?
Mr. Barlow. I cannot conceal from you my little
friend, that you have acted very ill indeed in this affair.
However, if you are really ashamed of all your past
conduct and determined to act better, I do not doubt
that so generous and good-natured a boy as Harry is,
will forgive you all.
Tommy. Oh, sir! I should be the happiest creature
in the world. Will you be so kind as to bring him
here to-day ? and you shall see how I will behave.
Mr. Barlow. Softly, Tommy, softly. What is Harry





340 THE HISTORY OF
part of the forest, we left the danger behind, and were
soon removed beyond the sight or hearing of the bat-
tle. 'Courage,' said I, 'm1y noble leader you are now
almost in safety : and I trust you will yet preserve a
life so necessary to your friends and country. 4li
answered me with the kindest expressions, but with a
feeble voice : Campbell, I have consented to fly, more
for the sake of preserving your life, than from any hopes
of my own ; but, since we are at a distance from yonder
dreadful scene, permit me to alight; I have consumed
my small remaining forces in the way, and now I am
faint from loss of blood.' He sunk down at this, and
would have fallen, but I received him in my arms; I
bore him to the next thicket, and, strewing grass and
leaves upon the ground, endeavoured to prepare him a
bed. He thanked me again with gratitude and tender-
ness, and grasped my hand as he lay in the very ag,-
nies of death ; for such it was, although I believed lie
had only fainted, and long tried every ineffectual me-
thod to restore departed life. Thus was 1 deprived of
the noblest officer and kindest friend that ever de-
served the attachment of a soldier. Twenty years
have now rolled over me since that inauspicious day,
yet it lives for ever in my remembrance, and never
shall be blotted from my soul. (The Highlander then
turned away to hide a tear, which did not misbecome
his manly countenance : the company seemed all to
share his griefs, but Miss Simmons above the rest.
However, as the natural gentleness of her temper was
sufficiently known, no one suspected that she had any
particular interest in the relation.)
"I sat till night (continued the stranger) supporting
the breathless body of my colonel, and vainly hoping
lie might return to life. At length I perceived that
his noble soul was fled for ever; my own wounds grew
stiff and painful, and exhausted nature required a sup






306 THE HISTORY OF

adapted to the comprehension even of the youngest.
Miss Simmons excused herself with the greatest mo-
desty; but, on Mrs. Merton's joining in the request,
she instantly complied, and fetching down a book, be-
gan to read the story of

SOPHRON AND TIGRANES.

SOPIIRON and Tigranes were the children of two neigh-
bouring shepherds that fed their flocks in that part of
Asia which borders upon Mount Lebanon. They were
accustomed to each other from their earliest infancy;
and the continual habit of conversing, at length pro-
duced a tender and intimate friendship.
Sophron was the larger and more robust of the two;
his look was firm but modest, his countenance placid,
and his eyes were such as inspired confidence and at-
tachment. He excelled most of the youth of the neigh.
bourhood in every species of violent exercise, such as
wrestling, boxing, and whirling heavy weights: but his
triumphs were constantly mixed with so much human-
ity and courtesy, that even those who found them-
selves vanquished could feel no envy towards their
conqueror.
On the contrary, Tigranes was of a character totally
different. His body was less strong than that of
Sophron, but excellently proportioned, and adapted
to every species of fatigue; his countenance was full
of fire, but displeased by an excess of confidence; and
his eyes sparkled with sense and meaning, but bore
too great an expression of uncontrolled fierceness.
Nor were these two youths less different in the ap-
plication of their faculties than in the nature of them:
for Tigranes seemed to be possessed by a restless spirit
of commanding all his equals; while Sophron, contented
with the enjoyment of tranquillity, desired nothing more
than to avoid oppression.





SANDFORD AND MERTON 55
stick, but I dodged, and so it fell upon my shoulder;
and he was going to strike me again, but I darted at
him, and knocked him down, and then he began blub-
bering, and begged me not to hurt him.-MIr. B. It is
not uncommon for those who are most cruel, to be at
the same time most cowardly : but what did you ?-H.
Sir, I told him, I did not want to hurt him; but that,
as he had meddled with me, I would not let him rise
till he had promised me not to hurt the poor beast
any more : which he did, and then I let him go about
his business.
You did very right," said Mr. Barlow; ( and I
suppose the boy looked as foolish, when he was rising,
as Tommy did the other day, when the little ragged
boy that he was going to beat, helped him out of the
ditch."--" Sir," answered Tommy, a little confused, I
should not have attempted to beat him, only he would
not bring me my ball."-Mr. B. And what right had
you to oblige him to bring your ball ?--T. Sir, he was
a little ragged boy, and I am a gentleman.-Mr. B. So,
then, every gentleman has a right to command little
ragged boys ?-T. To be sure, sir.-Mr. B. Then if
your clothes should wear out and become ragged,
every gentleman will have a right to command you ?
Tommy looked a little foolish, and said, But he
might have done it, as he was on that side of the
hedge."-Mr. B. And so he probably would have done
if you had asked him civilly to do it; but when per-
sons speak in a haughty tone, they will find few in-
clined to serve them. But as the boy was poor and
ragged, I suppose you hired him with money to fetch
your ball.-T. Indeed, sir, I did not; I neither gave him
anything, nor offered him anything.-Mr. B. Probably
you had nothing to give him ?- T. Yes, I had, though ;
I had all this money (pulling out several shillings).-
Mr. B. Perhaps the boy was as rich as you.-T. No, he





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 229
table, Tommy was infinitely surprised to see the needles
all jump up, one after another, at the approach of the
bar, and shoot towards it, as if they had been possessed
of life and sense. They then hung all about the bar so
firmly, that though it was lifted into the air, they all
remained suspended, nor ever quitted their hold. Mr.
Barlow then placed a key upon the table; and putting
the iron near it, the key attached itself as firmly to the
bar, as the needles had done before. All this appeared
so surprising to Tommy, that he begged an explanation
of it from Mr. Barlow. That gentleman told him, that
there was a stone often found in iron mines, that was
called the loadstone. This stone is naturally possessed
of the surprising power of drawing to itself all pieces
of iron that are not too large, nor placed at too great a
distance. But what is equally extraordinary is, that
iron itself, after having been rubbed upon the load-
stone, acquires the same virtue as the stone itself, of
attracting other iron. For this purpose, they take
small bars of iron, and rub them carefully upon the
loadstone, and when they have acquired this very ex-
traordinary power, they call them magnets. When
Harry had seen the exhibition of the swan, upon re-
volving it over in his mind, he began to suspect that
it was performed entirely by the power of magnetism.
Upon his talking to me about the affair, I confirmed
him in his opinion, and furnished him with a small mag-
net to put into the bread, and a large needle to conceal
in the body of the bird. So this is the explanation of
the feat which so much puzzled you a few days past."
Mr. Barlow had scarcely done speaking, when Tommy
observed another curious property of the swan, which
he had not found out before. This bird, when left to
itself, constantly rested in one particular direction; and
that direction was full north and south.
Tommy inquired the reason of this; and Mr. Barlow
15






274 THE HISTORY OF
actors, and dancers, they happened to mention the
name of a celebrated performer, who at this time en-
gaged the whole attention of the town. Master Comp-
ton, after expatiating with great enthusiasm upon the
subject, added, "that nothing was so fashionable as. to
make great presents to this person, in order to show
the taste and elegance of the giver." He then pro-
posed, that, as so many young ladies and gentlemen
were here assembled, they should set an example,
which would do them infinite honour, and probably be
followed throughout the kingdom, of making a little
collection among themselves to buy a piece of plate, or
a gold snuff-box, or some other trifle, to be presented
in their name. He added, that, though he could ill
spare the money (having just laid out six guineas upon
a new pair of buckles), he would contribute a guinea
to so excellent a purpose; and that Masters Mash and
Merton would do the same."
This proposal was universally approved of by all the
company : and all but Harry promised to contribute in
proportion to their finances. This, Master Mash ob-
serving, said, Well, farmer, and what will you sub-
scribe ?" Harry answered, "that on this occasion he
must beg to be excused, for he had nothing to give."
"Here is a pretty fellow!" answered. Mash; "last
night we saw him pocket thirty shillings of our money,
which he cheated us out of at Commerce ; and now the
little stingy wretch will not contribute half-a-crown,
while we are giving away whole guineas." Upon this,
Miss Matilda said, in an ironical manner, that Master
Harry had always an excellent reason to give for his
conduct, and she did not doubt but he could prove
to the satisfaction of them all, that it was more libe-
ral to keep his money in his pocket than to give it
away.
Harry, who was a little nettled at these reflections.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 235
of the water, to breathe; and then the Greenlander,
who has been pursuing him all the time, attacks him
anew, and despatches him with a shorter lance, which
he has brought with him for that purpose. He then
ties his prey to his boat, and tows it after him to his
family, who receive it with joy, and dress it for their
supper.-Although these poor people live a life of such
continual fatigue, and are obliged to earn their food
with so much hardship, they are generous and hospi-
table in the management of it : for there is not a person
present but is invited to partake of the feast; and a
Greenlander would think himself dishonoured for life,
if he should be thought capable of wishing to keep it
all to himself.
Tommy. I think it seems as if the less people had,
the more generous they are with it.
Mr. Barlow. That is not unfrequently the case, and
should be a lesson to many of our rich at home, who
imagine that they have nothing to do with their for-
tune, but to throw it away upon their pleasures: while
there are so many thousands in want of the common
necessaries of life.
Tommy. But pray, sir, have you no more particulars
to tell me about these Greenlanders; for I think it is
the most curious account I ever heard in my life ?
Mr. Barlow. There is another very curious particu-
lar indeed to be mentioned of these countries ; in these
seas is found the largest animal in the world; an im-
mense fish, which is called the whale.
Tommy. Oh dear I have heard of that extraordi-
nary animal. And pray, sir, do the Greenlanders ever
catch them ?
Mr. Barlow. The whale is of such a prodigious size,
that he sometimes reaches seventy or eighty, or evcu
more than a hundred feet in length. He is from ten to
above twenty feet in height, and every way large in





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 45
sidering the noble size and comely look of the dog, and,
above all, being moved with pity for the poor animal,
who wagged his tail, and licked his new master's feet,
just as he was putting the cord about his neck, he de-
termined to spare his life, and see whether a different
treatment might not produce different manners.-From
this day, Jowler was in every respect treated as his
brother Keeper had been before. He was fed but
scantily; and, from this spare diet, soon grew more
active and fond of exercise. The first shower he was
in, he ran away as he had been accustomed to do, and.
sneaked to the fire-side : but the farmer's wife soon
drove him out of doors, and compelled him to bear the
rigour of the weather. In consequence of this, he daily
became more vigorous and hardy, and, in a few months,
regarded cold and rain no more than if he had been ,
brought up in the country.
Changed as he already was, in many respects, for
the better, he still retained an insurmountable dread of
wild beasts; till one day, as he was wandering through
a wood alone, he was attacked by a large and fierce
wolf, who, jumping out of a thicket, seized him by the
neck with fury. Jowler would fain have run, but
his enemy was too swift and violent to suffer him to
escape. Necessity makes even cowards brave. Jowler
being thus stopped in his retreat, turned upon his
enemy, and, very luckily seizing him by the throat;
strangled him in an instant. His master then coming
up, and being witness of his exploit, praised him, and
stroked him with a degree of fondness he had never
done before. Animated by this victory, and by the ap-
probation of his master, Jowler, from that time, became
as brave as he had before been pusillanimous; and
there was very soon no dog in the country who was so
great a terror to beasts of prey.
In the meantime, Keeper, instead of hunting wild





344 THE HISTORY OF

through the same thick, gloomy country, without meet-
ing the least appearance of a human creature : and at
night I cut, with a hatchet that I had about me, some
boughs, with which I erected a temporary shelter. The
next day, as I was pursuing my march, I saw a deer
bound by me, upon whose shoulders was fixed a fierce
and destructive animal resembling a tiger. This crea-
ture, which is about the size of a moderate dog, ascends
the trees, and hides himself among the branches till a
deer, or any other animal that he can master, passes
within his reach. He then darts himself with a sud-
den spring full upon the neck or shoulder of the un-
fortunate animal, which he continues tearing with so
much violence, that he soon despatches him. This was
actually the case with the poor deer that passed me;
for he had not run a hundred yards before he fell down
in the agonies of death, and,his destroyer began to re-
gale himself upon the prey. I instantly saw that this
was a lucky opportunity of supplying myself with food
for several days. I, therefore, ran towards the animal,
and by a violent shout made him abandon his victim,
and retire growling into the woods. I then kindled a
fire with leaves and sticks, and cutting off a large slice
of venison, I plentifully refreshed myself for my jour-
ney. I then packed up as much of the most fleshy
parts of the body as I could conveniently carry, and
abandoned the rest to wild beasts.
"In this manner did I march for several days with-
out wanting food, or seeing any probable end of my
fatigues. At length I found a lofty mountain before
me, which I determined to ascend, imagining that such
an elevation might enable me to make some useful dis-
coveries in respect to the nature of the country I had
to traverse, and perhaps present me with some appear-
ances of cultivation or inhabitants. I therefore as-
cended with infinite fatigue a rough and stony ascent





SANDFORD AND MERTON 213
sum you have ordered me to calculate, comes just to
seventeen thousand four hundred and seventy-siL
pounds, besides some shillings and pence: and surely
no man in his senses would give this price for a horse."
The gentleman was more surprised than he had ever
been before, to hear the assertion of his steward : but
when, upon examination, he found it no more than the
truth, he was very glad to compound for his foolish
agreement, by giving the horse-courser the two hun-
dred guineas, and dismissing him.
Tommy. This is quite incredible, that a farthing just
doubled a few times, should amount to such a prodigious
sum ? however,I am detei mined to learn arithmetic, that
I may not be imposed upon in this manner; for I think
a gentleman must look very silly in such a situation.
Thus had Tommy a new employment and diver-
sion for the winter nights,-the learning arithmetic.
Almost every night did Mr. Barlow, and Harry, and he,
amuse themselves with little questions that related to
numbers: by which means Tommy became in a short
time so expert, that he could add, subtract, multiply,
or divide, almost any given sum, with little trouble and
great exactness. But he did not for this forget the
employment of observing the heavens : for every night
when the stars appeared bright, and the sky was un-
clouded, Harry and he observed the various figures
and positions of the constellations. Mr. Barlow gave
him a little paper globe, as he had promised, and
Tommy immediately marked out upon the top, his first
and favourite constellation of Charles's Wain. A little
while after that, he observed on the other side of the
Pole-star, another beautiful assemblage of stars, which
was always opposite to Charles's Wain : this, Mr. Bar-
low told him, was called Cassiopeia's Chair; and-this, in
a short time was added to the collection.
One night, as Tommy was looking up to the sky, in
14





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 173
That is impossible," answered the patient, for I have
not been able to use a leg these three years."-" Prop
yourself, then, upon your crutches, and lean against the
wall to support yourself," answered the physician. The
gentleman did so, and the doctor went abruptly out,
and locked the door after him. He had not been long
in this situation, before he felt the floor of the chamber,
which he had not before perceived to be composed of
plates of iron, grow immoderately hot under his feet.
Hie called the doctor and his servants; but to no pur-
pose: he then began to utter loud vociferations and
menaces, but all was equally ineffectual; he raved, he
swore, he promised, he entreated, but nobody came to
his assistance, and the heat grew more intense every
instant. At length necessity compelled him to hop
upon one leg, in order to rest the other; and this he
did with greater agility than he could conceive was
possible: presently the other leg began to burn, and
then he hopped again upon the other. Thus he went
on, hopping about, with this involuntary exercise, till
he had stretched every sinew and muscle more than
he had done for several years before, and thrown him-
self into a profuse perspiration.
When the doctor was satisfied with the exertions of
his patient, he sent into the floor an easy chair for him
to rest upon, and suffered the floor to cool as gradually
as it had been heated.-Then it was that the sick
man for the first time began to be sensible of the real
use and pleasure of repose; he had earned it by fa-
tigue, without which it can never prove either salutary
or agreeable.
At dinner, the doctor appeared again to his patient,
and made him a thousand apologies for the liberties he
had taken with his person ; these excuses he received
with a kind of sullen civility ; however, his anger was
a little mitigated by the smell of a roasted pullet, which





SANDFORD AND MERTON 295
rage, first aiming at one, then at another, of the perse-
cuting dogs, that harassed him on every side, growling
and baying incessantly, and biting him in every part.
At length, with a furious effort that he made, he tram-
pled one of his foes beneath his feet, and gored a second
to that degree, that his bowels came through the
wound; and, at the same moment, the cord, which
had hitherto confined him, snapped asunder, and let
him loose upon the affrighted multitude.
It is impossible to conceive the terror and dismay
which instantly seized the crowd of spectators. Those,
who before had been hallooing with joy, and encourag-
ing the fury of the dogs with shouts and acclamations,
were now scattered over the plain, and fled from the
fury of the animal, whom they had been so basely tor.
meeting. The enraged bull, meanwhile, rushed like
lightning over the plain, trampling some, goring others,
and taking ample vengeance for the injuries he had re-
ceived. Presently, he rushed, with headlong fury,
towards the spot where Master Merton and his associ-
ates stood : all fled with wild affright, but with a speed
that was not equal to that of the pursuer. Shrieks, and
out-cries, and lamentations were heard on every side:
and those, who a few minutes before had despised the
good advice of Harry, would now have given the world
to be safe in the houses of their parents. Harry alone
seemed to preserve his presence of mind; he neither
cried out nor ran; but when the dreadful animal ap-
proached, leaped nimbly aside, and the bull passed on,
without embarrassing himself about his escape.
Not so fortunate was Master Merton; he happened
to be the last of the little troop of fliers, and full in the
way which the bull had taken. And now his destruc-
tion appeared certain : for, as he ran, whether through
fear, or the inequality of the ground, his foot slipped,
and down he tumbled, in the very path of the enraged





100 THE HISTORY OF
" No, God bless you, my worthy master, or miss, said
the man; for such I take you to be by your voice : I
have fallen into this pond, and know not how to get
out again, as I am quite blind, and I am almost afraid
to move for fear of being drowned."-" Well," said the
little Boy, "though I shall be wetted to the skin, if
you will throw me your stick, I will try to help you
out of it."-The blind man then threw the stick to that
side on which he heard the voice; the little Boy caught
it, and went into the water, feeling very carefully be-
fore him, lest he should unguardedly go beyond his
depth; at length he reached the blind man, took him
very carefully by the hand, and led him out. The
blind man then gave him a thousand blessings, and
told him he could grope out his way home; and the
little Boy ran on as hard as he could, to prevent being
benighted.
But he had not proceeded far, before he saw a poor
Sailor who had lost both his legs in an engagement by
sea, hopping along upon crutches.-" God bless you,
my little master !" said the Sailor; "I have fought
many a battle with the French, to defend poor old
England: but now I am crippled, as you see, and have
neither victuals nor money, although I am almost
famished."-The little Boy could not resist his inclina-
tion to relieve him; so he gave him all his remaining
victuals, and said, "God help you, poor man! this is
all I have, otherwise you should have more." He
then ran along, and presently arrived at the town
he was going to, did his business, and returned to-
wards his own home with all the expedition he was
able.
But he had not gone much more than half way, be-
fore the night shut in extremely dark, without either
moon or stars to light him. The poor little Boy used
his utmost endeavours to find his way, but unfortun-






204 THE HISTORY OF
Mr. Barlow. To-morrow you shall hear it; at pre-
sent we have read and conversed enough; it is better
that you should go out and amuse yourselves.
The little boys then went out, and returned to a
diversion they had been amusing themselves with for
several days, the making a prodigious snow-ball. They
had begun by making a small globe of snow with their
hands, which they turned over and over, till, by con-
tinually collecting fresh matter, it grew so large that
they were unable to roll it any farther. Here, Tommy
observed, that their labours must end, for it was im-
possible to turn it any longer."-- No," said Harry, "I
know a remedy for that." So he ran and fetched a
couple of thick sticks, about five feet long ; and, giving
one of them to Tommy, he took the other himself. He
then desired Tommy to put the end of his stick under
the mass; while he did the same on his side; and
then, lifting at the other end, they rolled the heap for-
ward with the greatest ease.
Tommy was extremely surprised at this, and said:
How can this be ? We are not a bit stronger than we
were before ; and yet now we are able to roll this snow-
ball along with ease, which we could not even stir be-
fore."-" That is very true," answered Harry, but it is
owing to these sticks. This is the way that the labourers
move the largest trees, which, without this contrivance,
they would not be able to stir."-" I am very much
surprised at this," said Tommy, I never should have
imagined that the sticks would have given us moro
strength than we had before."
Just as he had said this, by a violent effort, both
their sticks broke short in the middle.-" This is no
great loss," observed Tommy, for the ends will do
just as well as the whole sticks."
They then tried to shove the ball again with the
truncheons which remained in their hands ; but, to the





293 THE HISTORY Of

Merton uttered a violent shriek, and was instantly
seized with an hysteric fit; and, while the ladies were
all employed in assisting her, and restoring her senses,
Mir. Merton, who, though much alarmed, was more
composed, walked precipitately out, to learn the truth
of this imperfect narration.
He had not proceeded far, before he met the crowd
of children and servants, one of whom carried Tommy
Merton in his arms. As soon as he was convinced that
his son had received no other damage than a violent
fright, he began to inquire into the circumstances of
the affair ; but before he had time to receive any infor-
mation, Mrs. Merton,. who had recovered from her
fainting, came running wildly from the house. When
she saw that her son was safe, she caught him in her
arms, and began to utter all the incoherent expressions
of a mother's fondness. It was with difficulty that her
husband could prevail upon her to moderate her trans-
ports till they were within. Then she gave a loose to
her feelings in all their violence ; and, for a consider-
able time, was incapable of attending to anything but
the joy of his miraculous preservation.
At length, however, she became more composed,
and, observing that all the company were present, ex-
cept Harry Sandford, she exclaimed, with sudden in-
dignation, So, I see that little abominable wretch has
not had the impudence to follow you in ; and I almost
wish that the bull had gored him as he deserved."-
What little wretch do you mean, mamma ?" said
Tommy.-" Whom can I mean," cried Mrs. Merton,
but that vile Harry Sandford, whom your father is so
fond of, and who had nearly cost you your life, by
leading you into this danger ?"-" He mamma," said
Tommy, he lead me into danger! He did all he could
to persuade me not to go ; and I was a very naughty
boy indeed, not to take his advice."





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 8
months together ?-Mr. Barlow. Indeed there are.--T
How can that be ?-Mr. B. How happens it that
there is night at all ?-T. How happens it! It must
be so: must it not ?-Mr. B. That is only saying that
you do not know the reason. But do you observe no
difference here, between the night and day ?-T. Yes,
sir, it is light in the day, and dark in the night.-Mr. B.
And why is it dark in the night.-T. Really I do not
know.-Mr. B. What! does the sun shine every night
-T. No, sir, certainly.-Mr. B. Then it only shines
on some nights, and not on others ?-T. It never
shines at all in the night.-Mr. B. And does it in the
day ?- '. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. Every day ?-T. Every
day, I believe ; only sometimes the clouds prevent you
from seeing it.-Mr. B. And what becomes of it in
the night.-T. It goes away, so that we cannot see it.-
Mr. B. So, then, when you can see the sun, it is never
night ?-T. No, sir.-Mr. B. But when the sun goes
away, the night comes on.-T. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. And
when the sun comes again, what happens ?-T. Then
it is day again; for I have seen the day break, and the
sun always rises presently after.-Mr. B. Then if the
sun were not to rise for several months together, what
would happen ?-T. Sure, it would always remain
night, and be dark.-Mr. B. That is exactly the case
with the countries we are reading about.

Having therefore fashioned a kind of lamp, they
filled it with rein-deers' fat, and stuck into it some
twisted linen, shaped into a wick: but they had the
mortification to find, that as soon as the fat melted, it
not only soaked into the clay, but fairly ran out of it
on all sides. The thing, therefore, was to devise some
means of preventing this inconvenience, not arising
from cracks, but from the substance of which the lamp
was made, being too porous. They made, therefore,
6





SANDFORD AND MERTON 201
Harry. It may be so; but I never saw any great
good come of it, for my part. As I was walking along
the streets one day, and staring about, I met two very
fine and dressy young gentlemen, who looked some-
thing as you did, Master Tommy, when you first came
here; so I turned off from the foot-way to let them
pass; for my father always taught me to show every
civility to people in a higher station: but that was not
enough it seems; for just as they passed by me, they
gave me such a violent push, that down I came into
the kennel, and dirtied myself all over from head to
foot.
Tommy. And did they not beg your pardon for the
accident ?
Harry. Accident! it was no accident at all; for they
burst out into a fit of laughter, and called me little clod-
pole. Upon which I told them, if I was a clodpole
they had no business to insult me; and then they came
back, and one of them gave me a kick, and the other a
slap on the face: but I told them that was too much for
me to bear; so I struck them again; and we all three
began fighting.
Tommy. What, both at once ? That was a cowardly
trick.
Harry. I did not much mind that; but there came
up a fine smart fellow, in white stockings and powdered
hair, who, it seems, was their servant; and he was
going to fall upon me too, but a man took my part, and
said, I should have fair play: so I fought them both till
they did not choose to have any more; for, though they
were so quarrelsome, they could not fight worth a far-
thing: so I let them go, and advised them not to meddle
any more with poor boys who did nothing to offend
them.
Tommy. And did you hear no more of these young
gentlemen ?





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 413

courage ? Is a white cow thought to give more milk,
or a white dog to have a more acute scent in pursuing
the game ? On the contrary, I have generally found,
in almost every country, that a pale colour in animals
is considered as a mark of weakness and inferiority.
Why, then, should a certain race of men imagine them-
selves superior to the rest, for the very circumstance
they despise in other animals ?
But in the country where I was born, it is not only
man that differs from what we see here, but every
otlier circumstance. Here, for a considerable part of
of the year, you are chilled by frosts and snows, and
scarcely behold the presence of the sun, during that
gloomy season, which is called the winter. With us,
the sun is always present pouring out light and heat,
and scorching us with his fiercest beams. In my
country, we know no difference between the lengths
of nights and days; all are of equal length throughout
the year ; and present not that continual variety which
you see here: we have neither ice, nor frost, nor snow;
the trees never lose their leaves, and we have fruits in
every season of the year. During several months, in-
deed, we are scorched by unremitting heats, which
parch the ground, dry up the rivers, and afflict btlh
men and animals with intolerable thirst. In that sea-
son, you may behold lions, tigers, elephants, and a
variety of other ferocious animals, driven from their
dark abodes in the midst of impenetrable forests, down
to the lower grounds and the sides of rivers; every
night we hear their savage yells, their cries of rage,
and think ourselves scarcely safe in our cottages. In
this country you have reduced all other animals to
subjection, and have nothing to fear, except from each
other. You even shelter yourselves from the injuries
of the weather in mansions that seem calculated to
last for ever, in impenetrable houses of brick or stone,
























































fa






140 THE HISTORY OF
sioned, or labour for life at the oar."--" What damage,"
answered the other, "can he have done you more than
all the rest whom you have prized so cheaply ?"--" He
it was," replied the Captain, "who animated the Chris-
tians to that desperate resistance which cost me the
lives of so many of my brave sailors. Three times did
we leap upon their deck, with a fury that seemed ir-
resistible; and three times did that youth attack us
with such cool, determined opposition, that we were
obliged to retreat ingloriously, leaving at every charge
twenty of our number behind. Therefore, I repeat it, I
will either have that price for him, great as it may ap-
pear, or else I will gratify my revenge by seeing him
drudge for life in my victorious galley."
At this, the Turk examined young Francisco with
new attention; and he who had hitherto fixed his eyes
upon the ground in sullen silence, now lifted them up :
but scarcely had he beheld the person that was talking
to the captain, when he uttered a loud cry, and re-
peated the name of Hamet! The Turk, with equal
emotion, surveyed him for a moment, and then, catch-
ing him in his arms, embraced him with the transports
of a parent who unexpectedly recovers a long-lost
child.-It is unnecessary to repeat all that gratitude and
affection inspired Hamet to say: but when he heard
that his ancient benefactor was amongst the number of
those unhappy Venetians who stood before him, he hid
his face for a moment under his vest, and seemed over-
whelmed with sorrow and astonishment: when, recol-
lecting himself, he raised his arms to heaven, and
blessed that Providence which had made him the instru-
ment of safety to his ancient benefactor.-He then in-
stantly flew to that part of the market where Francisco
stood waiting for his fate, with a manly, mute despair.
He called him his friend, his benefactor, and every en-
dearing name which friendship and gratitude could in-





SANDFORD AND MERTON 349
acquainted with the language he spoke, to be able to
understand him, and to give an intelligible, though im-
perfect answer. I therefore explained to him, as well
as I was able, that I had crossed the great water with
the warriors of the King of Britain ; that we had been
compelled to take up the hatchet against the French
and their allies, and that we had actually set out upon
an expedition against their colonies ; but that we had
been surprised by a lurking party in the woods; that, in
the confusion of the fight, I had been separated from the
rest, and had wandered several days through the woods
in search of my comrades; and that now, seeing the
tents of my brethren, the red men, I had come to visit
them, and smoke the pipe of peace in their company.
All this I with some difficulty explained to my enter-
tainer, who listened to me with great attention, and
then bade me welcome in the name of his nation, which
he told me was called the Saukies; he added,'that their
young men were dispersed through the woods, hunting
the deer and buffalo, but they would soon return loaded
with provisions, and in the meantime I might share his
cabin, and such provisions as he could command.' I
thanked him for his offer, and remained several days
in his hut, always entertained with the same hospita-
lity, until the return of the young men from hunting.
They came at last, in several boats, along the lake,
bringing with them a considerable quantity of wild
beasts which they had killed. I was received by all
the tribe with the same hospitality I had experienced
from the old chief; and, as it was necessary to gain
their friendship as much as possible, I joined them in
all their hunting and fishing parties, and soon acquired
a considerable degree of skill in both.
Hunting itself has something cruel in the practice;
it is a species of war which we wage with brute ani-
mals for their spoils; but if ever it can be considered





30, TIHE HISTORY OF
deavours thrown away. He has just behaved in such
a manner as shows him to be radically corrupted, and
insensible of every principle but pride." He then re-
lated to Mr. Barlow every incident of Tommy's behavi-
our ; making the severest reflections upon his insolence
and ingratitude, and blaming his own supineness, that
had not earlier checked these boisterous passions, that
now burst forth with such a degree of fury, that
threatened ruin to his hopes.
Indeed," answered Mr. Barlow, I am very sorry
to hear this account of my little friend; yet I do not
see it in quite so serious a light as yourself: and
though I cannot deny the dangers that may arise from
a character so susceptible of false impressions, and so
violent at the same time; yet I do not think the cor-
ruption either so great or so general, as you seem to
suspect. Do we not see, even in the most trifling
habits of body or speech, that a long and continual at-
tention is required, if we would wish to change them ?
and yet our perseverence is in the end generally suc-
cessful; why then should we imagine that those of the
mind are less obstinate, or subject to different laws ?
Or, why should we rashly abandon ourselves to despair,
from the first experiments that do not succeed accord-
ing to our wishes ?'
"Indeed," answered Mr. Merton, what you say is
perfectly consistent with the general benevolence of
your character, and most consolatory to the tenderness
of a father. Yet, I know too well the general weakness
of parents in respect to the faults of their children, not
to be upon my guard against the delusions of my own
mind. And when I consider the abrupt transition of
my son into everything that is most inconsistent with
goodness; how lightly, how instantaneously he seems
to have forgotten everything he had learned with you,
I cannot help forming the'most painful and melancholy
presages of the future."





6G THE HISTORY OF

As it was not far out of their way, they agreed to call
at the poor man's cottage, whom they found much
better, as Mr. Barlow had been there the preceding
night, and given him such medicines as he judged
proper for his disease. Tommy then asked for the
little boy, and on his coming in, told him that he had
no brought him some clothes, which he might weat
without fear of being called aFrenchman, as wells some
more for his little brothers. The pleasure with which
they were received, was so great, and the acknowledg-
ments and blessings of the good woman and the poor man,
who had just begun to sit up, were so many, that little
Tommy could not help shedding tears of compassion,
in which he was joined by Harry.-As they were re-
turning, Tommy said that he had never spent any
money with so much pleasure as that with which he
had purchased clothes for this poor family; and that
for the future he would take care of all the money that
was given him, for that purpose, instead of laying it
out in eatables, and play-things.
Some days after this, as Mr. Barlow and the tww
boys were walking out together, they happened to pass
near a windmill; and on Harry's telling Tommy what
it was, Tommy desired leave to go into it, and look at
it. Mr. Barlow consented to this; and, being acquainted
with the miller, they all went in, and examined every
part of it with great curiosity: and there little Tommy
saw, with astonishment, that the sails of the mill, being
constantly turned round by the wind, moved a great
flat stone, which, by rubbing upon another stone, bruis-
ed all the corn that was put between them, till it be-
came a fine powder.-" Oh, dear!" said Tommy, "is this
the way they make bread ?"-Mr. Barlow told him, this
was the method by which the corn was prepared for
making bread; but that many other things were neces-
sary, before it arrived at that state:-" you see that





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 215
that. I thought a king was a person that dressed finer,
and had less to do, than any body else in the world. 1
have often heard my mamma and the ladies say, that
I looked like a prince when I had fines clothes on: and
therefore I thought that kings and princes never did
anything but walk about with crowns upon their heads,
and eat sweetmeats, all day long.
Harry. I do not know how that may be; but in
Sparta, the great business of the kings (for they had two)
was to command them when they went out to war, or
when they were attacked at home ; and that, you know,
they could not do without being brave and hardy
themselves. Now, it happened that the Spartans had
some dear friends and allies that lived at a distance
from them, across the sea, who were attacked by a
great and numerous nation called the Persians. So,
when the Spartans knew the danger of their friends,
they sent over to their assistance Agesilaus, one of
their kings, together with a few thousand of his coun-
trymen; and these, they judged, would be a match for
all the forces that could be brought against them by
the Persians, though ever so numerous. When the
general of the Persians saw the small number of his
enemies, he imagined it would be an easy matter to
take them prisoners, or to destroy them. Besides, as
he was immensely rich, and possessed a number of
palaces, furnished with everything that was fine and
costly, and had a great quantity of gold and silver, and
jewels, and slaves, he could not conceive it possible
that any body could resist him. He therefore raised a
large army, several times greater than that of the
Spartans, and attacked Agesilaus, who was not in the
least afraid of him: for the Spartans, joining their
shields together, and marching slowly along in even
ranks, fell with so much fury upon the Persians, that in
an instant they put them to flight.





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 337
rest, while another part of the line involuntarily fell
behind.
In the moment while the officers were employed in
rectifying the disorder of their men, a sudden noise of
musketry was heard in front, which stretched about
twenty of our men upon the field. The soldiers in-
stinctively fired towards the part whence they were
attacked, and instantly fell back in disorder. But it
was equally vain to retreat or go forward, for it now
appeared that we were completely hemmed in. On
every side resounded the fatal peals of scattering fire,
that thinned our ranks and extended our bravest com-
rades on the earth. Figure to yourself a shoal of fishes
inclosed within the net, that circle in vain the fatal
labyrinth in which they are involved; or rather con-
ceive what I have myself been witness to, a herd of
deer surrounded on every side by a band of active and
unpitying hunters, who press and gall them on every
side, and exterminate them at leisure in their flight :
just such was the situation of our unfortunate country-
men. After a few unavailing discharges, which never
annoyed a secret enemy that scattered death useen,
the ranks were broken, and all subordination lost. The
ground was covered with gasping wretches, and stained
with blood; the woods resounded with cries and groans,
and fruitless attempts of our gallant officers to rally
their men, and check the progress of the enemy. By
intervals was heard, more shrill, more dreadful than all
the rest, the dismal yell of the victorious savages, who
now, emboldened by their success, began to leave the
covert, and hew down those who fled with unrelenting
cruelty. As to myself, the description which our colonel
had given me of their method of attack, and the pre-
cautions to be used against it, rendered me perhaps
less disturbed than I should otherwise have been. I
remarked that those who stood and those who fled were





BANDFORD AND MERTON 209
rower, till at last it ends in a thin edge, capable of
penetrating the smallest chink. By this we are enabled
to overthrow the largest oaks, to cleave their roots,
almost as hard as iron itself, and even to split the
solid rocks."-" All this," said Tommy, is'wonder-
ful indeed! and I need not ask the use of. them, be-
cause I see it plainly in the experiments I have made
to-day."
"One thing more," added Mr. Barlow, "as we are
upon this subject, I will show you." So he led them
into the yard, to the bottom of his granary, where stood
a heavy sack of corn. Now," said Mr. Barlow, "if you
are so stout a fellow as you imagine, take up this sack
of corn, and carry it up the ladder into the granary."
-" That," replied Tommy, laughing, "is impossible
and I doubt, sir, whether you could do it yourself. --
"Well," said Mr. Barlow, "we will at least try what is
to be done." He then led them up into the granary,
and, showing them a middle-sized wheel with a handle
fixed upon it, desired the little boys to turn it round.
They began to turn it with some little difficulty; and
Tommy could hardly believe his eyes, when, presently
after, he saw the sack of corn, which he had despaired
of moving, mounted up into the granary, and safely
landed upon the floor.-" You see," said Mr. Barlow,
here is another ingenious contrivance, by which the
weakest person may perform the work of the strongest.
This is called the wheel and axis. You see this wheel,
which is not very large, turns round an axle which
goes into it, and is much smaller; and at every turn,
the rope to which the weight is fixed that you want to
move, is twisted round the axle. Now, just as much as
the breadth of the whole wheel is greater than that of
the axle which it turns round; so much greater is the
weight, that the person who turns it can move, than he
could do without it !"-" Well," said Tommy, "I see it





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 63
ness, it had conceived a great degree of affection to-
wards him.
"Indeed," said Tommy, that is very surprising; for
I thought all birds had flown away whenever a man
came near them; and that even the fowls which are
kept at home would never let you touch them."--M1r.
B. And what do you imagine is the reason of that 2-
T. Because they are wild.-Mr. B. And what is a fowl's
being wild ?-T. When he will not let you come near
him.-M-r. B. Then a fowl is wild, because he will not
let you come near him; and will not let you come
near him, because he is wild. This is saying nothing
more than that when a fowl is wild, he will not let you
approach him. But I want to know what is the reason
of his being wild ?-T. Indeed, sir, I cannot tell, unless
it is because they are naturally so.-Mr. B. But if they
were naturally so, this fowl could not be fond of
Harry.-T. That is because he is so good to it.-Mr. B.
Very likely. Then it is not natural for an animal to
run away from a person that is good to him.-T. No,
sir, I believe not.-Mr. B. But when a person is not
good to him, or endeavours to hurt him, it is natural
for an animal to run away from him, is it not ?-T.
Yes.--JMr. B. And then you say that he is wild, do you
not ?-T. Yes, sir.-Mr. B. Why then it is probable
that animals are only wild because they are afraid of
being hurt, and that they only run away from the fear
of danger. I believe you would do the same from a
lion or a tiger.-T. Indeed I would, sir.-Mr. B. And
yet you do not call yourself a wild animal ?-Tommy
laughed heartily at this, and said, No.--"Therefore,"
said Mr. Barlow, "if you want to tame animals, you
must be good to them, and treat them kindly, and then
they will no longer fear you, but come to you and love
you."--"Indeed," said Harry, "that is very true : for I
knew a little boy that took a great fancy to a snake





SANDFORD ANID MERTON 271

the rest, for they behaved with the greatest decency
during all the rest of the exhibition.
However, Master Mash's courage began to rise, as he
went home, and found himself farther from his formi-
dable farmer; for he assured his companions, "that if
it had not be so vulgar a fellow, he would certainly
call him out and pistol him."
The next day at dinner, Mr. Merton and the ladies,
who had not accompanied the young gentlemen to the
play, nor had yet heard of the misfortune which had
ensued, were very inquisitive about the preceding
night's entertainment.-The young people agreed that
the performers were detestable; but that the play was
a charming piece, full of wit and sentiment, and ex-
tremely improving: this play was called The Marriage
of Figaro; and Master Compton had informed them,
that it was amazingly admired by all the people of
fashion in London.
But Mr. Merton, who had observed that Harry was
totally silent, at length insisted upon knowing his
opinion upon the subject.- Why, sir," answered
H-arry, I am very little judge of these matters; for I
never saw a play before in my life, and therefore I can-
not tell whether it was acted well or ill: but as to the
play itself, it seemed to me to be full of nothing but
cheating and dissimulation : and the people thatcome
in and out, do nothing but impose upon each other,
and lie, and trick, and deceive. Were you or any
gentleman to have such a parcel of servants, you would
think them fit for nothing in the world ; and therefore
I could not help wondering, while the play was acting,
that people would throw away so much of their time
upon sights that can do them no good; and send their
children and their relations to learn fraud and insin-
cerity." Mr. Merton smiled at the honest bluntness of
Harry : but several of the ladies, who had just been






124 THE HISTORY OF
him to think that it would be a great improvement to
their house, if he had a few trees that he might set
near it, and which would shelter it from the sun, and
hereafter produce fruit: so he desired Mr. Barlow to
give him a couple of trees; and Mr. Barlow told him
to go into the nursery and take his choice. Accord-
ingly Tommy went, and chose out two of the strongest
looking trees he could find, which, with Harry's assist-
ance, he transplanted into the garden in the following
manner :-they both took their spades, and very care-
fully dug the trees up, without injuring their roots: then
they dug two large holes in the place where they chose
the trees should stand, and very carefully broke the
earth to pieces, that it might lie light upon the roots:
then the tree was placed in the middle of the hole, and
Tommy held it upright, while Harry gently threw the
earth over the roots, which he trod down with his feet, in
order to cover them well : lastly, he stuck a large stake
in the ground, and tied the tree to it, from the fear that
the wintry wind might injure it, or perhaps entirely
blow it out of the ground.
Nor did they bound their attention here. There was
a little spring of water, which burst forth from the
upper ground in the garden, and ran down the side of
the hill in a small stream. Harry and Tommy laboured
very hard for several days, to form a new channel, to
lead the water near the roots of their trees ; for it hap-
pened to be hot and dry weather, and they feared their
trees might perish from the want of moisture.
Mr. Barlow saw them employed in this manner with
the greatest satisfaction. He told them that, in many
parts of the world, the excessive heat burned up the
ground so much, that nothing would grow, unless the
soil was watered in that manner.-" There is," said he,
" a country in particular, called Egypt, which has al-
ways been famous for its fertility, and for the quantity






30 TlE HISTORY OP
appear to him and your whole family, rather in the
light of a friend than that of a schoolmaster."
However disagreeable this proposal was to the gene-
rosity of Mr. Merton, he was obliged to consent to it ;
and little Tommy was accordingly sent the next day to
the vicarage, which was at the distance of about two
miles from his father's house.
The day after Tommy came to Mr. U;3rlow's; as soon
as breakfast was over, he took him and Harry into the
garden: when he was there, he took a spade into his
own hand, and giving Harry a hoe, they both began to
work with great eagerness.-" Everybody that eats,"
said Mr. Barlow, ought to assist in procuring food:
and therefore little Harry and I begin our daily work:
this is my bed, and that other is his; we work upon it
every day, and he that raises the most out of it, will
deserve to fare the best.-Now, Tommy, if you choose
to join us, I will mark you out a piece of ground, which
you shall have to yourself, and all the produce shall be
your own."-"No, indeed," said Tommy, very sulkily,
"I am a gentleman, and don't choose to slave like a
ploughboy."-" Just as you please Mr. Gentleman," said
Mr. Barlow: "but Harry and I, who are not above
being useful, will mind our work."
In about two hours, Mr. Barlow said it was time to
leave off; and, taking Harry by the hand, he led him
into a very pleasant summer house, where they sat
down; and Mr. Barlow, taking out a plate of very fine
ripe cherries, divided them between Harry and himself.
Tommy, who had followed, and expected his share,
when he saw them both eating without taking any
notice of him, could no longer restrain his passion, but
burst into a violent fit of sobbing and crying.-" What
is the matter ?" said Mr. Barlow very coolly to him.
Tommy looked upon him very sulkily, but returned no
answer.--" Oh sir, if you don't choose to give me an
































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SANDFORD AND MERTON, 81
genuity in this respect was crowned with success far
beyond their expectation; for, during the time of their
continuance upon the island, with these arrows they
killed no less than two hundred and fifty rein-deer, be-
sides a great number of blue and white foxes. The
flesh of these animals served them also for food, and
their skins for clothing, and other necessary preserva-
tives against the intense coldness of a climate so near
the Pole. They killed, however, not more than ten
white bears in all, and that not without the utmost
danger; for those animals, being prodigiously strong,
defended themselves with astonishing vigour and fury.
The first our men attacked designedly; the other nine
they slew in defending themselves from their assaults;
for some of these creatures even ventured to enter the
outer room of the hut, in order to devour them. It is
true, that all the bears did not show (if I may be al-
lowed the expression) equal intrepidity, either owing
to some being less pressed by hunger, or to their being
by nature less carnivorous than the others; for some
of them which entered the hut immediately betook
themselves to flight, on the first attempt of the sailors
to drive them away. A repetition, however, of these
ferocious attacks, threw the poor men into great terror
and anxiety; as they were in almost a perpetual danger
of being devoured."

"Sure," exclaimed Tommy, "such a life as that must
have been miserable and dreadful indeed."-"Why so ?"
said Mr. Barlow.-Tommy. Because, being always in
danger of being devoured by wild beasts, those men
must have been always unhappy.--Mr. B. And yet they
never were devoured.-T. No, sir; because they made
weapons to defend themselves.-Mr. B. Perhaps, then,
a person is not unhappy, merely because he is exposed
to danger : for he may escape from it; but because he





SANDFORD AND MERTON 287
however laid bare a considerable gash, and Harry waa
in an instant covered with his own blood ; the sight of
which provoked him the more, and made him forget
both the place and company where he was: so that,
flying upon Mash, a combat ensued, which put the
whole room in a consternation.
But Mr. Merton soon appeared, and with some diffi-
culty separated the enraged champions. He then in-
quired into the subject of the contest, which Master
Mash endeavoured to explain away as an accident.
But Harry persisted in his account with so much firm-
ness, in which he was corroborated by the testimony
of Miss Simmons, that Mr. Merton readily perceived
the truth. Mash however apologized for himself in the
best manner that he was able, by saying, that he only
meant to play Master Harry an innocent trick, but that
he had undesignedly injured Miss Simmons.
Whatever Mr. Merton felt, he did not say a great
deal; he, however, endeavoured to pacify the enraged
combatants, and ordered assistance to Harry, to bind
up the wound, and clean him from the blood which had
now disfigured him.
This untoward accident having been thus amicably
settled, the diversions of the evening went forward. But
Harry, who had now lost all taste for genteel company,
took the first opportunity of retiring to bed ; where he
soon fell asleep, and forgot both the mortification and
bruises he had received. In the meantime, the little
company below found means to entertain themselves till
past midnight, and then retired to their chambers.
The next morning, they rose later than usual; and,
as several of the young gentlemen, who had been in-
vited to the preceding evening's diversion, were not to
return till after dinner, they agreed to take a walk into
the country. Harry went with them as usual, though
Master Mash, by his misrepresentations, had prejudiced





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 277
observed that they considered the sufferings of all be-
low them with a profound indifference. If the mis-
fortunes of the poor were mentioned, he heard of no-
thing but the insolence and ingratitude of that class of
people, which seemed to be a sufficient excuse for the
want of common humanity. Surely," said Harry to
himself, "there cannot be so much difference between
one human being and another, or if there is, I should
think that part of them the most valuable, who culti-
vate the ground and provide necessaries for all the
rest; not those, who understand nothing but dress,
walking with their toes out, staring modest people out
of countenance, and jabbering a few words of a foreign
language."
But now the attention of all the younger part of the
company was fixed upon making preparations for a
ball, which Mrs. Merton had determined to give in
honour of Master Tommy's return: the whole house
was now full of milliners, mantua-makers, and dancing-
masters; and all the young ladies were employed in
giving directions about their clothes, or in practising
the steps of different dances. Harry now, for the first
time, began to comprehend the infinite importance of
dress : even the elderly ladies seemed to be as much in-
terested about the affair as their daughters; and,
instead of the lessons of conduct and wisdom which he
expected to hear, nothing seemed to employ their at-
tention a moment, but French trimmings, gauzes, and
Italian flowers. Miss Simmons alone appeared to con-
sider the approaching solemnity with perfect indiffer-
ence. Harry had never heard a single word drop from
her, that expressed either interest or impatience ; but
he had for some days observed her employed in her
room, with more than common assiduity. At length,
on the very day that was destined for this important
exhibition, she came to him with a benevolent smile,
18





SANDFORD AND MERTON.
tion.-But Harry, after seeing that his friend was per-
fectly safe, and in the hands of his own family, invited
the Black to accompany him, and, instead of returning
to Mr. Merton's, took the way which led to his father's
house.
While these scenes were passing, Mrs. Merton, though
ignorant of the danger of her son, was not undisturbed
at home. Some accounts had been brought of Harry's
combat, which served to make her uneasy, and to influ-
ence her still more against him. Mrs. Compton, too,
and Miss Matilda, who had conceived a violent dislike
to Harry, were busy to inflame her by their malicious
representations.
"While she was in these dispositions, Mr. Merton
happened to enter, and was at once attacked by all the
ladies upon the subject of this improper connexion. He
endeavoured, for a long time, to remove their preju-
dices by reason : but, when he found that to be impos-
sible, he contented himself with telling his wife, that a
little time would perhaps decide which were the most
proper companions for their son ; and that, till Harry
had done something to render himself unworthy of
their notice, he never could consent to their treating
him with coldness or neglect.
At this moment a female servant burst into the room,
with all the wildness of affright, and cried out with a
voice that was scarcely articulate, Oh! madam!
madam! such an accident-poor, dear Master Tommy---
"( What of him ?" cried out Mrs. Merton, with an
impatience and concern that sufficiently marked her
feelings.-" Nay, madam," answered the servant, "he
is not much hurt, they say; but little Sandford has
taken him to a bull-baiting, and the bull has gored
him; and William and John are bringing him home
in their arms.'
These words were scarcely delivered, when Mrs.





104 THE HISTORY OF
with; for which reason both the dog and the boy were
disliked by all the neighbourhood.
One morning his father got up early to go to the ale-
house, where he intended to stay till night, as it was a
holiday; but before he went out, he gave his son some
bread and cold meat and sixpence; and told him he
might go and divert himself as he would the whole
day. The little Boy was much pleased with this liberty ;
and, as it was a very fine morning, he called his dog
Tiger to follow him, and began his walk.
He had not proceeded far before he met a little boy
that was driving a flock of sheep towards a gate, that
he wanted them to enter.--" Pray, master," said the lit-
tle boy, stand still and keep your dog close to you,
for fear you frighten my sheep."-- Oh! yes, to be
sure !" answered the ill-natured Boy: "I am to wait
here all the morning till you and your sheep have
passed, I suppose! Here, Tiger, seize them, boy!"
Tiger at this sprang forth into the middle of the flock,
barking and biting on every side, and the sheep, in a
general consternation, hurried each a separate way.
Tiger seemed to enjoy this sport equally with his mas-
ter; but, in the midst of his triumph, he happened un-
guardedly to attack an old ram that had more courage
than the rest of the flock: he, instead of running away,
faced about, and aimed a blow with his forehead at his
enemy, with so much force and dexterity, that he knock-
ed Tiger over and over, and, butting him several times
while he was down, obliged him to limp howling away.
The ill-natured little Boy, who was not capable of
loving anything, had been much diverted with the tre-
pidation of the sheep; but now he laughed heartily at
the misfortune of his dog; and he would have laughed
much longer, had not the other little boy, provoked be-
yond his patience at this treatment, thrown a stone at
him, which hit him full upon the temples, and almost





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 365
little plays and studies I have never observed anything
but the greatest mildness and good nature on your
part,
Harry. I hope, sir, it has never been otherwise. But
though I had the greatest affection for Master Merton,
I never desired to go home with him. What sort of a
figure could a poor boy like me make at a gentleman's
table, among little masters and misses that powder
their hair, and wear buckles as big as our horses carry
upon their harness ? If I attempted to speak I was
always laughed at; or if I did anything, I was sure to
hear something about clowns and rustics And yet, I
think, though they were all ladies and gentlemen, you
would not much have approved of their conversation ;
for it was about nothing but plays, and dress, and trifles
of that nature. I never heard one of them mention a
single word about saying their prayers, or being dutiful
to their parents, or doing any good to the poor.
Mr. Barlow. Well, Harry, but if you did not like
their conversation, you surely might have borne it with
patience for a little while :-and then, I heard some-
thing about your being quarrelsome.
Harry. Oh sir, I hope not. I was, to be sure, once
a little passionate; but that I could not help, and 1
hope you will forgive me. There was a modest, sen-
sible young lady, who was the only person that treated
me with any kindness; and a bold, forward, ill-natured
boy affronted her in the grossest manner, only because
she took notice of me. Could I help taking her part
Have you not told me, too, sir, that every person,
though he should avoid quarrels, has a right to defend
himself when he is attacked ?
Mfr. Barlow. Well, Harry, I do not much blame you,
from the circumstance I have heard of that affair ; but
why did you leave Mr. Merton's family so abruptly,
w-itliout speaking to anybody, or thanking Mr. Merton





268 THE HISTORY OF

take any notice of his friend Harry, was seated between
his two new acquaintances, who had become his in-
separable companions. These young gentlemen first
began to give specimens of their politeness, by throw-
ing nuts and orange-peel upon the stage ; and Tommy,
who was resolved to profit by such an excellent example,
threw nuts and orange-peel with infinite satisfaction.
As soon as the curtain drew up, and the actors
appeared, all the rest of the audience observed a
decent silence; but Mash and Compton, who were
now determined to prove the superiority of their man-
ners, began to talk so loud, and make so much noise,
that it was impossible for any one near them to hear a
word of the play. This also seemed amazingly fine to
Tommy; and he too talked and laughed as loud as the
rest.
The subject of their conversation was, the audience
and the performers; neither of whom these polite
young gentlemen found bearable. The company was
chiefly composed of the tradesmen of the town, and
the inhabitants of the neighboring country ? this was
a sufficient reason for these refined young gentlemen
to speak of them with the most insufferable contempt.
Every circumstance of their dress and appearance was
criticised with such a minuteness of attention, that
Harry, who sat near, and very much against his incli-
nation, was witness to all that passed, began to imagine
that his companions, instead of being brought up like
the sons of gentlemen, had only studied under barbers
and tailors; such amazing knowledge did they display
in the history of buckles, buttons, and dressing of hair,
As to the poor performers, they found them totally un-
deserving mercy; they were so shockingly awkward,
so ill-drest, so low-lived, and such detestable creatures,
that it was impossible to bear them with any patience.
Master Mash, who prided himself upon being a young










































The Baldwin Library
-a 'rUniversity
Rm Dou H^ida






234 THE HISTORY OF

Afr. Barlow. There is in those seas a peculiar species
of animal called a seal. He is nine or ten feet long,
and has two small feet before, on which he is able to
walk a little upon the shore; for he frequently comes
out of the sea, and sleeps, or amuses himself upon the
land, or ice. His body is very large, and full of oil,
and behind he has two legs which resemble fins, with
which he swims in the water. This animal is the con-
stant prey of the Greenlander, and furnishes him with
all he wants. The flesh he eats; the fat serves him to
feed his lamp, which is almost as necessary as food it-
self in that cold climate. With the skin he makes
clothes that are impenetrable to the water, or lines the
inside of his hut to keep out the weather. As this ani-
mal is so necessary to the existence of a Greenlander,
it is his greatest glory to chase and take him. For this
purpose, he places himself in a small narrow boat, the
top of which is covered over with the skins of seals,
and closes round the middle of the fisher so tight as
entirely to exclude the water. He has a long oar, or
paddle, broad at both ends, which he dips first on one
side, then on the other, and rows along with incredible
swiftness over the roughest seas. He carries with him
a harpoon, which is a kind of lance, or javelin, tied to
a long thong, at the end of which is fixed a bladder, or
some other light thing that sinks with difficulty. When
the fisherman is thus prepared, he skims lightly along
the waters, till he perceives at a distance one of these
animals floating upon the surface. The Greenlander
then approaches him as softly as he is able, and, if pos-
sible, contrives that the animal shall have the wind and
sun in his eyes. When he is sufficiently near, lie
throws his harpoon, and generally wounds the crea-
ture; in which case, lie instantly hurries away, and
carries with him the thong and bladder. But it is not
long before he is compelled to rise again to the surface





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 147
you upon his back, and carries you very safely between
this and your father's house.-T. That is because he is
used to it.-Mr. B. But he was not always used to it;
he was once a colt, and then he ran about as wild and
unrestrained as any of those upon the common.-T.
Yes, sir.-M-r. B. How came he then to be so altered
as to submit to bear you upon his back ?-T. I do not
know; unless it was by feeding him.-AMr. B. That is
one method; but that is not all: they first accustom
the colt, who naturally follows his mother, to come into
the stable with her; then they stroke him and feed him
till he gradually becomes gentle, and will suffer him-
self to be handled; then they take an opportunity of
putting a halter upon his head, and accustom him to
stand quietly in the stable, and to be tied to the man-
ger: thus they gradually proceed from one thing to
another, till they teach him to bear the bridle and the
saddle, and to be commanded by his rider. This may
very properly be called the education of an animal,
since by these means he is obliged to acquire habits,
which he would never have learned, had he been left
to himself. Now, I knew that the poor bear had been
frequently beaten and very ill used, in order to make
him submit to be led about with a string, and exhibited
as a sight: I knew that he had been accustomed to
submit to man, and to tremble at the sound of the
human voice; and I depended upon the force of these
impressions, for making him submit without resistance
to the authority I assumed over him. You saw I was
not deceived in my opinion; and by these means I
probably prevented the mischief that he might other-
wise have done to some of those women or children."
As Mr. Barlow was talking in this manner, he per
ceived that Tommy's arm was bloody; and inquiring
into the reason, he heard the history of his adventure
with the monkey. r.Barlow then looked at the wound,





64 THE HISTORY OF
preached the village ; where Tommy laid out all his
money, amounting to fifteen shillings and sixpence, in
buying some clothes for the little ragged boy and his
brothers, which were made up in a bundle and given
to him : but he desired Harry to carry them for him.-
" That I will," said Harry; "but why don't you choose
to carry them yourself ?"-Tommy. Why, it is not fit for
a gentleman to carry things himself.-Harry. Why,
what hurt does it do him, if he is but strong enough ?
-T. I do not know ; but I believe it is that he may not
look like the common people.-H. Then he should not
have hands, or feet, or eyes, or ears, or mouth, because
the common people have the same.--T No, no; he
must have all these because they are useful.-H. And
is it not useful to be able to do things for ourselves ?-
T. Yes; but gentlemen have others to do what they
want for them.-H. Then I should think it must be a
bad thing to be a gentleman.-T. Why so ?-H. Be-
cause if all were gentlemen, nobody would do anything,
and then we should be all starved.-'. Starved !-H.
Yes; why, you could not live, could you, without
bread ?-T. No, I know that very well.-H. And bread
is made of a plant that grows in the earth, and is called
wheat.-T. Why, then, I would gather it and eat it.-
H. Then you must do something for yourself: but that
would not do; for wheat is a small hard grain, like
the oats which you have sometimes given to Mr.
Barlow's horse; and you would not like to eat them.-
T. No, certainly; but how comes bread then ?-H.
Why, they send the corn to the mill. -T. What is a
mill ?--H. What, did you never see a mill ?-T. No,
never; but I should like to see one, that I may know
how they make bread.-H. There is one at a little dis-
tance ; and if you ask Mr. Barlow, he will go with you,
for he knows the miller very well.--I. That I will, for
I should like to see them make bread.





SANDFORD AND MERTON, 1i
morning, diverting themselves with gathering different
kinds of wild flowers, and running after butterflies, a
large snake, on a sudden, started up from among some
long grass, and coiled itself round little Tommy's leg.
You may imagine the fright they were both in at this
accident: the maid ran away shrieking for help, while
the child, who was in an agony of terror, did not dare
to stir from the place where he was standing. Harry,
who happened to be walking near the place, came run-
ning up, and asked what was the matter! Tommy, who
was sobbing most piteously, could not find words to
tell him, but pointed to his leg, and made Harry sensi-
ble of what had happened. Harry, who, though young,
was a boy of a most courageous spirit, told him not to
be frightened; and instantly seizing the snake by the
neck with as much dexterity as resolution, tore him
from Tommy's leg, and threw him to a great distance
off.
Just as this happened, Mrs. Merton and all the family,
alarmed by the servant's cries, came running breathless
to the place, as Tommy was recovering his spir-ts, and
thanking his brave little deliverer. Her first emotions
were to catch her darling up in her arms, and, after
giving him a thousand kisses, to ask him whether he
had received any hurt ?--" No," said Tommy, indeed
I have not, mamma; but I believe that nasty, ugly beast
would have bitten me, if that little boy had not come
and pulled him off."-" And who are you, my dear,"
said she, to whom we are all so obliged ? "-" Harry
Sandford, madam."-" Well, my child, you are a dear,
brave little creature, and you shall go home and dine
with us."-" No, thank you, madam; my father will
want me."-" And who is your father, my sweet boy ?"
-" Farmer Sandford, madam, that lives at the bottom
of the hill."-" Well, my dear, you shall be my child
henceforth; will you ? "-" If you please, madam, if I
may have my own father and mother too."
Jn





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 307
Still, as they assisted their parents in leading every
morning their flocks to pasture, they entertained each
other with rural sports, or, while reposing under the
shade of arching rocks, during the heat of the day, con-
versed with all the ease of childish friendship. Their
observations were not many: they were chiefly drawn
from the objects of nature which surrounded them, or
from the simple mode of life to which they had been
witness: but even here the diversity of their characters
was sufficiently expressed.
See," said Tigranes one day, as he cast his eyes up-
wards to the cliffs of a neighboring rock, "that eagle
which riseth into the immense regions of air till he ab-
solutely soars beyond the reach of sight; were I a bird,
I should choose to resemble him, that I might traverse
the clouds with the rapidity of a whirlwind, and dart
like lightning upon my prey."-"That eagle," answered
Sophron, "is the emblem of violence and injustice; he
is the enemy of every bird, and even of every beast, that
is weaker than himself: were I to choose, I should pre-
fer the life of yonder swan, that moves so smoothly and
inoffensively along the river: he is strong enough to de-
fend himself from injury without opposing others; and,
therefore, he is neither feared nor insulted by other
animals."
While Sophron was yet speaking, the eagle which had
been hovering in the air darted suddenly down at some
distance, and, seizing a lamb, was bearing it away in
his cruel talons; when, almost in the same instant, the
shepherd, who had been watching all his motions from
a neighboring hill, let fly an arrow with so unerring
an aim, that it pierced the body of the bird, and brought
him headlong to the ground, writhing in the agonies of
death.
This," said Sophron, "I have often heard, is the fate
of ambitious people ; while they are endeavouring to






28 THE HISTORY OF
But this rule will never justify him, for an instant, in
giving false impressions where he is at liberty to instil
truth, and in losing the only opportunity which he per-
haps may ever possess, of teaching pure morality and
religion.-How will such a man, if he has the least feel-
ing, bear to see his pupil become a slave, perhaps, to the
grossest vices; and to reflect, with a great degree of
probability, that this catastrophe has been owing to his
own inactivity and improper indulgence ? May not all
human characters frequently be traced back to impres-
sions made at so early a period, that none but discern-
ing eyes would ever suspect their existence! Yet
nothing is more certain; what we are at twenty depends
upon what we were at fifteen; what we are at fifteen
upon what we were at ten: where shall we then place
the beginning of the series ?-Besides, sir, the very pre-
judices and manners of society, which seem to be an
excuse for the present negligence in the early education
of children, act upon my mind with a contrary effect.
Need we fear that, after every possible precaution has
been taken, our pupil should not give a sufficient loose
to his passions, or should be in danger of being too
severely virtuous? How glorious would be such a
distinction, how much to be wished for, and yet how
little to be expected by any one who is moderately
acquainted with the world! The instant he makes his
entrance there, he will find a universal relaxation and
indifference to everything that is serious; everything
will conspire to represent pleasure and sensuality as
the only business of human beings, and to throw a
ridicule upon every pretence to principle or restraint.
This will be the doctrine that he will learn at theatres,
from his companions, from the polite circles into which
he is introduced. The ladies too will have their share
in the improvement of his character : they will criticise
the colour of his clothes, his method of making a bow,





350 THE HISTORY OF
as excusable, it is in these savage nations, who have
recourse to it for their subsistence. They are active,
bold, and dexterous in all these exercises, to such a
degree, that none of the wild animals they attack have
the smallest chance of escape. Their parties generally
consist of almost all the youth of their nation, who go
in a body to particular districts where they know game
is plentiful. Their common method is, when they are
arrived at a spot which abounds in deer or buffaloes, to
disperse themselves through the woods; and then,
alarming the beasts in the neighbourhood, they drive
them with shouts and dogs towards some common
place, which was always in the middle of all their par-
ties. When they have thus roused their prey, the
various squadrons gradually advance towards the
centre, till they unite in a circle, and inclose a prodi-
gious number of frightened animals. They then attack
them either with fire-arms or arrows, and shoot them
down successively. By these means they are sure, in a
single day, to destroy a prodigious number of different
beasts. But it sometimes happens, that while they are
engaged in the chase of other animals, they become a
prey themselves to their enemies, who take this method
of surprising them in the woods, and gratifying their
resentment. This was actually the case with my friends
the Saukies, and produced a surprising event; the con-
sequence of which was my return to the English colo-
nies in safety.
The Saukies had been long at war with the
Iroquese, a powerful tribe of North Americans, in the
interest of the French. The Iroquese had received
intelligence of the situation of the Saukies' encamp-
ment, and determined to surprise them. For this pur-
pose, a thousand warriors set out by a secret march
through the woods, and travelled with silence and
celerity, which are peculiar to all these nations. When






208 THE HISTORY OF
scale hung at each end. Now," said he, if you place
this stick over the back of a chair, so that it may rest
exactly upon the middle, you see the two scales will
just balance each other. So, if I put into each of them
an equal weight, they will still remain suspended. In
this method we weigh everything which is bought;
only, for the greater convenience, the beam of the scale,
which is the same thing as this stick, is generally hung
up to something else by its middle. But let us now
move the stick and see what will be the consequence."
Mr. Barlow then pushed the stick along in such a man-
ner, that, when it rested upon the back of the chair,
there were three feet of it on one side, and only one
on the other. That side which was longest, instantly
came to the ground as heaviest. You see," said Mr.
Barlow, if we would now balance them, we must put
a greater weight on the shortest side ;" so he kept
adding weights, till Tommy found that one pound on
the longest side, would exactly balance three on the
shortest; for, as much as the longer side exceeded the
shorter in length, so much did the weight which was
hung at that end, require to exceed that on the longest
side.
This," said Mr. Barlow, is what they call a lever;
and all the sticks that you have been using to-day, are
only levers of a different construction. By these short
trials, you may conceive the prodigious advantage
which they are of to men; for, thus can one man move
a weight, which half a dozen would not be able to do
with their hands alone: thus, may a little boy like you,
do more than the strongest man could effect, who did
not know these secrets. As to that instrument by
which you were so surprised that Harry could cleave
such a vast body of wood, it is called a wedge, and is
almost equally useful with the lever. The whole force
of it consists in its being gradually narrower and nar-





230 THE HISTORY OF
of the most accomplished children I ever saw in my
life, with quite the air of fashion, to keep such com-
pany: are you not afraid that Master Merton should
insensibly contract bad habits, and a grovelling way of
thinking ? For my own part, as I think a good educa.
tion is a thing of the utmost consequence in life, I have
spared no pains to give my dear Matilda every possible
advantage."-" Indeed," replied Mrs. Merton, "one may
see the excellence of her education in everything that
Miss Matilda does. She plays most beautifully upon
the harpsichord, talks French even better than she
does English, and draws in the style of a master.
While this conversation was going on in one part of
the room, a young lady, observing that nobody seemed
to take the least notice of Harry, advanced towards
him with the greatest affability, and began to enter into
conversation with him. This young lady's name was
Simmons ; her father and mother had been two of the
most respectable people in the country, according to
the old style of English gentry; but both having died
while she was young, the care of her had devolved upon
an uncle, who was a man of sense and benevolence, but
a very great humourist. This gentleman had such pe-
culiar ideas of female character, that he waged war
with most of the polite and modern accomplishments.
As one of the first blessings of life, according to his
notions, was health, he endeavoured to prevent that
sickly delicacy, which is considered as so great an or-
nament in fashionable life, by a more robust and hardy
education. His niece was accustomed, from her earliest
years, to plunge into the cold bath at every season of
the year, to rise by candle-light in winter, to ride a
dozen miles upon a trotting horse, or to walk as many,
even with the hazard of being splashed or soiling her
clothes. By this mode of education, Miss Sukey (for
so she had the misfortune to be named) acquired an





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 123
like that which we commonly see upon buildings: they
also took several poles, which they tied across the
others, to keep them firm in their places, and give the
roof additional strength : and, lastly, they covered the
whole with straw or thatch; and for fear the thatch
should be blown away, they stuck several pegs in dif-
ferent places, and put small pieces of stick crosswise
from peg to peg, to keep the straw in its place. When
this was done, they found they had a very tolerable
house; only the sides being formed of brush-wood
alone, did not sufficiently exclude the wind. To remedy
this inconvenience, Harry, who was chief architect,
procured some clay; and mixing it up with water, to
render it sufficiently soft, he daubed it all over the
walls, both within and without; by which means the
wind was excluded, and the house rendered much
warmer than before.
Some time had now elapsed since the seeds of the
wheat were sown, and they began to shoot so vigor-
ously, that the blade of the corn appeared green above
the ground, and increased every day in strength.
Tommy went to look at it every morning, and re-
marked its gradual increase with the greatest satisfac-
tion. "Now," said he to Harry, "I think we should
soon be able to live, if we were upon a desert island.
Here is a house to shelter us from the weather, and we
shall soon have some corn for food."--< Yes," answered
Harry ; but there are a great many things still want-
ing to enable us to make bread."
Mr. Barlow had a very large garden, and an orchard
full of the finest fruit trees; and he had another piece
of ground, where he used to sow seeds, in order to raise
trees ; and then they were carefully planted out in beds,
till they were big enough to be moved into the orchard,
and produce fruit.-Tommy had often eaten of the fruit
of the orchard, and thought it delicious; and this led





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 95
the dirtiest water he could find in his trunk, which I
have already told you is capable of holding many gal-
lons; and, when he passed by the tailor's shop in his
return, he discharged it full in his face, with so true an
aim, that he wetted him all over, and almost drowned
him ; thus justly punishing the man for his ill-nature
and breach of friendship."
Indeed," said Harry, considering the strength of
the animal, he must have had a great moderation and
generosity, not to have punished the man more severely;
and, therefore, I think it is a very great shame to men
ever to be cruel to animals, when they are so affection-
ato and humane to them."
You are very right," said Mr. Barlow, and I re-
member another story of an elephant, which, if true,
is still more extraordinary.-These animals, although
in general they are as docile and obedient to the per-
son that takes care of them, as a dog, are sometimes
seized with a species of impatience which makes them
absolutely ungovernable. It is then dangerous to come
near them, and very difficult to restrain them. I
should have mentioned, that in the eastern parts of the
world, where elephants are found, the kings and princes
keep them to ride upon as we do horses: a kind of
tent or pavilion is fixed upon the back of the animal, in
which one or more persons is placed : and the keeper
that is used to manage him sits upon the neck of the
elephant, and guides him by means of a poln with an
iron hook at the end. Now, as these animals are of
great value, the keeper is frequently severely punished
if any accident happens to the animal by his careless-
ness. But one day, one of the largest elephants being
seized with a sudden fit of passion, had broken loose;
and, as the keeper was not in the way, nobody was
able to appease him, or dared to come near him.
While, therefore, he was running about in this manner,





280 THE HISTORY OF
everything which to plain sense appears most frivolous
or contemptible, without incurring the least imputation,
provided his hair hung fashionably about his ears, his
buckles were sufficiently large, and his politeness to
the ladies unimpeached.
Once, indeed, Harry had thrown him into a disagree-
able train of thinking, by asking him, with great sin-
plicity, what sort of a figure these young ladies or
gentlemen would have made upon a desert island,
where they would be obliged to shift for themselves ?
But Tommy had lately learned that nothing spoils the
face more than intense reflection; and therefore, as he
could not easily resolve the question, he wisely deter-
mined to forget it.
And now the important evening of the ball approach-
ed; the largest room in the house was lighted up for the
dancers, and all the little company assembled. Tommy
was that day dressed in an unusual style of elegance;
and had submitted, without murmuring, to be under
the hands of a hair-dresser for two hours! But what
gave him the greatest satisfaction of all, was an im-
mense pair of new buckles, which Mrs. Merton had
sent for on purpose to grace the person of her son.
Several minuets were first danced, to the great ad-
miration of the company: and, among the rest, Tommy,
who had been practising ever since he had been at
home, had the honour of exhibiting with Miss Matilda.
He indeed began with a certain degree of diffidence,
but was soon inspired with a proper degree of confi-
dence by the applause which resounded on every side.
"What an elegant little creature !" cried one lady.
"What a shape is there !" said a second : "I protest
he puts me in mind of Vestris himself."-" Indeed,"
said a third, "Mrs. Merton is a most happy mother to
be possessed of such a son, who wants nothing but an
introduction to the world, to be one of the most ele-





SANDFORD AND MERTON. 401
able change in his dress and manner. He had combed
the powder out of his hair, and demolished the ele-
gance of his curls; he had divested his dress of every
appearance of finery; and even his massy and ponder-
ous buckles, so long the delight of his heart and the
wonder of his female friends, were taken from his
shoes, and replaced by a pair of the plainest form and
appearance. In this habiliment, he appeared so totally
changed from what he was, that even his mother, who
had lately become a little sparing of her observations,
could not help exclaiming, What, in the name of
wonder, has the boy been doing now ? Why, Tommy,
I protest you have made yourself a perfect fright, and
you look more like a plough-boy than a young gentle-
man."
Mamma," answered Tommy, gravely, I am now
only what I ought always to have been. Had I been
contented with this dress before, I never should have
imitated such a parcel of coxcombs as you have lately
had at your house; nor pretended to admire Miss Ma-
tilda's music, which, I own, tired me as much as Harry,
and had almost set me asleep; nor should I have ex-
posed myself at the play and the ball; and, what is
worst of all, I should have avoided all my shameful be-
haviour to Harry at the bull-baiting. But, from this
time, I shall apply myself to the study of nothing but
reason and philosophy; and therefore I have bid adieu
to dress and finery for ever.'
It was with great difficulty that the gentlemen could
refrain from laughing at Tommy's harangue, delivered
with infinite seriousness and solemnity; they, however,
concealed their emotions, and encouraged him to per-
severe in such a laudable resolution. But, as the night
was now pretty far advanced, the whole family retired
to bed.
The next morning early, Tommy arose, and dressed






SANDFORD AND MERTON. 67
what runs from these mill-stones is only a fine powder,
very different from bread, which is a solid and toler-
ably hard substance."
As they were going home, Harry said to Tommy, "So
you see now, if nobody chose to work, or do any-
thing for himself, we should have no bread to eat: but
you could not even have the corn to make it of, with-
out a great deal of pains and labour.-Tommy. Why
not? loes not corn grow in the ground of itself ?-
Harry. Corn grows in the ground; but then first it is
necessary to plough the ground, to break it to pieces.
-T. What is ploughing?-H. Did you never see three
or four horses drawing something along the fields, in a
straight line, while one man drove and another walked
behind, holding the thing by two handles ?-T. Yes, I
have, and is that ploughing ?-H. It is: and there is a
sharp iron underneath, which runs into the ground,
and turns it up all the way it goes.-T. Well, and what
then ?-H. When the ground is thus prepared, they
sow the seed all over it, and then they rake it over to
cover the seed ; and then the seed begins to grow, and
shoots up very high; and at last the corn ripens, and
they reap it, and carry it home.-T. I protest it must
be very curious, and I should like to sow some seed
myself, and see it grow: do you think I could ?-H.
Yes, certainly; and if you will dig the ground to-mor-
row, I will go home to my father, in order to procure
some seed for you.
The next morning, Tommy was up almost as soon as
it was light, and went to work in a corner of the gar-
den, where he dug with great perseverance till break-
fast: when he came in he could not help telling Mr.
Barlow what he had done, and asking him, whether he
was not a very good boy for working so hard to raise
corn ?-" That," said Mr. Barlow, depends upon the use
you intend to make of it when you have raised it:






50 THtE HISTORY OF

pray, sir, tell me, why does one man behave so cruelly
to another, and why should one person be the servant
of another, and bear so much ill treatment?"
As to that," said Tommy, "some folks are born