• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Christmas at sea
 The fir tree
 Only a baby small
 Little homes
 Cork
 Lotus
 Letter from Kingport
 Little jemmy
 The shelties
 Fast asleep
 The wonders of geology
 Trees
 Kittie's first letter from New...
 The ship of the desert
 The French marshal
 Una or Mary
 The Japanese
 A Tryolese christening
 The baobab-tree
 A home in Algeria
 Parrots
 My grandmamma
 The soldier and the baby
 Lizzie Gray
 The little runaway
 Kittie's second letter from New...
 More about the Japanese
 Coming home
 Monkeys
 A summer day
 Birds of paradise
 The sleigh-ride
 Flying-fishes
 Gran'ma altars does
 The cow tree
 Chameleons
 Fair Eleanor
 The papyrus
 Butterflies
 The wig and the hat
 The traveler's tree
 Furs
 Sponge
 The daddy long-legs and the...
 The agronaut
 The otter
 Cousin Lucy
 Daisy Ames
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: happy hour, or, holiday fancies and every-day facts for young people with many illustrations
Title: The Happy hour, or, holiday fancies and every-day facts for young people with many illustrations
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027942/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Happy hour, or, holiday fancies and every-day facts for young people with many illustrations
Alternate Title: Holiday fancies and every-day facts for young people
Physical Description: iv, 219 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gauchard, Félix Jean ( Engraver )
Filmer, John ( Engraver )
D. Appleton and Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: D. Appleton and Co.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1874
Copyright Date: 1874
 Subjects
Subject: Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Geology -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry   ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1874   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry -- 1874   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1874
Genre: Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
General Note: Poems and short stories.
General Note: Illustrations engraved by Gauchard and Filmer.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027942
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - ALG4020
oclc - 53930687
alephbibnum - 002223768

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Christmas at sea
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The fir tree
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Only a baby small
        Page 15
    Little homes
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Cork
        Page 25
    Lotus
        Page 26
    Letter from Kingport
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Little jemmy
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    The shelties
        Page 33
    Fast asleep
        Page 34
    The wonders of geology
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Trees
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Kittie's first letter from New York
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    The ship of the desert
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    The French marshal
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Una or Mary
        Page 83
        Page 84
    The Japanese
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    A Tryolese christening
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    The baobab-tree
        Page 98
    A home in Algeria
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Parrots
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    My grandmamma
        Page 107
        Page 108
    The soldier and the baby
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Lizzie Gray
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    The little runaway
        Page 128
    Kittie's second letter from New York
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    More about the Japanese
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Coming home
        Page 144
        Page 145
    Monkeys
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    A summer day
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Birds of paradise
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    The sleigh-ride
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Flying-fishes
        Page 171
        Page 172
    Gran'ma altars does
        Page 173
    The cow tree
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Chameleons
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Fair Eleanor
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    The papyrus
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Butterflies
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    The wig and the hat
        Page 190
    The traveler's tree
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Furs
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
    Sponge
        Page 202
        Page 203
    The daddy long-legs and the fly
        Page 204
        Page 205
    The agronaut
        Page 206
    The otter
        Page 207
        Page 208
    Cousin Lucy
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Daisy Ames
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
    Back Cover
        Page 220
        Page 221
    Spine
        Page 222
Full Text



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The Baldwin Library
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THE HAPPY HOUR;




OR,




HOLIDAY FANCIES AND EVERY-DAY FACTS

FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.








WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS.











NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 549 AND 551 BROADWAY.
















































ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.























CONTENTS.



PAGE
CHRISTMAS AT SEA 1

THE FIR-TREE 3

THE FATE OF THE PINES 14

ONLY A BABY SMALL 15

LITTLE HOMES 16

CORK 25

LOTUS 26

LETTER FROM KINGPORT 27

LITTLE JEMMY 30

THE SHELTIES 33

FAST ASLEEP 34

THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY 35

THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY. SECOND PART. 41

TREES 55

KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK 62

THE "SHIP OF THE DESERT" 77

THE FRENCH MARSHAL 81

UNA OR MARY 83

THE JAPANESE 85

A TYROLESE CHRISTENING 95

THE BAOBAB-TREE 98

A HOME IN ALGERIA 99

PARROTS 101

MY GRANDMAMMA 107

THE SOLDIER AND THE BABY 109









iv CONTENTS.

PAGE
LIZZIE GRAY; OR, FORBIDDEN FRUIT 111

THE LITTLE RUNAWAY 128

KITTIE'S SECOND LETTER FROM NEW YORK 129

MORE ABOUT THE JAPANESE 135

COMING HOME 144

MONKEYS 146

A SUMMER DAY 155

BIRDS-OF-PARADISE . 157

THE SLEIGH-RIDE 162

HOW SILK IS MADE 164

FLYING-FISHES 171

GRAN'MA AL'ARS DOES 173

THE COW-TREE 174

CHAMELEONS 176

FAIR ELEANOR 179

THE PAPYRUS 182

BUTTERFLIES 184

THE WIG AND THE HAT 190

THE TRAVELER'S TREE 191

FURS 193

SPONGE 202

THE DADDY LONG-LEGS AND THE FLY 204

THE ARGONAUT 206

THE OTTER 207

COUSIN LUCY 209

DAISY AMES, THE LITTLE GIRL WHO WOULD TRY EXPERIMENTS 211















-_5

































CHRISTMAS. AT SEA.


N OT only unto hearts at home Fo'castle walls grow warm and bright,
Returns the merry Christmas-time, Dear, loving faces come and go;
But wanderers o'er the ocean's foam Sweet children prattle in delight-
Hear in their dreams the chime In Jack's brief watch below!
Of happy bells, and homeward turn And whistling winds may wander by,
Their longing eyes, and cheeks that burn, And waves may fret the speckled sky:
Amid the dangers that may be The merry sailor, what cares he,
On Christmas-day at sea. On Christmas-day at sea?
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....THE FIR-TREE.


.A IR. NSLATII'N.


'l, in the Wo-( ,IIs Ct,-,, a CrcIt\ litlh i -t .e. It
-' 131 1 h d a IIicc lac in the sunlli,-, pi:,_ntr ,1 ifi h aii, and
1fLuidl 3111.1t QIck min i .li\ ti C' Ih>l Oil I ) --I)IlltS 35


But th,." littrh ir-tLI- e i-Ihl ,o e.rne th t,, Icom e

S"lar -l e ,Id i1,t Mo icO the warm tuill .lid I'ei ,i-
'- he did -1111t tL I ,I C hi l111-,C-I 1,01.1-Ut thl,." i,,,u- littkh children
16A A l I -lit. lit r I.,

""ile. ard wi ill-l ,,w c-_' .







4 THE FIR-TREE.

sometimes they would fill their baskets and sit down
near the little fir-tree and say, Oh, how pretty and
Small it is !" but that the tree did not like to hear.
The next year he was a long limb larger, and the
S following year still another limb larger. For one can
S tell, by the number of limbs it has, how many years a
"fir-tree has been growing.
'- "Oh, if I were only a large tree like the other!"
sighed the little tree. "For then I could spread out
'A- my boughs, and my crowned head look out into the
world! The birds would build nests in my branches,
_..: F .. and when the wind blew I could bow so proudly-just
as those yonder do."
He had no pleasure in the sunshine, in the birds, and in the red clouds, that
morning and evening sailed over him.
In the winter, when the snow lay sparkling white upon the ground, there came a
rabbit and sprang with one bound right over the
little tree. Oh, how that vexed him! But two
winters passed, and in the third the little tree was "
so large that the hare had to run around him. "--
"Oh, to grow, to grow, to become large and old : -
that is really the only beauty in the world," '
thought the tree. In the fall, woodmen always -
came and cut down some of the large trees. This G- __ -
happened every year, and the fir-tree that now was grown quite large, trembled, for
the great beautiful trees fell with creaking and snapping to the earth; the branches
were cut off, and they appeared naked, long, and small-they were scarcely to be recog-
nized. Then they were placed in a wagon, and horses drew them out of the forest.
Where do they go? What is before them?" thought our little tree. In the






spring, when the swallows and the stork came, the tree said to them: Don't you
know where they are taken? Didn't you meet them?"







THE FIR-TREE. 5

The swallows knew nothing, but the stork appeared thoughtful, nodded with his
head, and said: Yes, I think I know. I passed many new
ships as I flew from Egypt. On the ships were beautiful _!
masts. I certainly believe they were the trees-they had a i
pitchy smell-they shone and glistened. I saw them many :
times."
"Oh, were I only large enough, that I might sail away '' I
on the sea! But what is it, this sea, and how does it ap- ':-
pear?"
"To explain that would take me too long," said the .-
stork, and thereupon he flew away. ,
Be happy in thy youth," said the sunshine; be happy in thy fresh youth, the
young life that is in you."
And the wind kissed the tree, and the dew shed tears over him; but this the fir-
tree did not understand.
As Christmas-time approached, quite young trees were cut down-trees that often
7. -" -were not as large or as old as this young
fir, which had neither rest nor quiet, but
was always wanting to be somewhere
,. else.
""- - :< These young trees, and it was al-
--- ways the most beautiful, retained all
their branches, were placed in a wagon
S. and drawn by horses out of the woods.
V Where are they to go ? asked the
.. fir. "They are no larger than I-there


allowed to keep their branches ? Where
S-- are they carried ?"
"That we know; that we know," twittered the sparrows. Below, in the village,
we looked in at the windows. We know where they are carried. Oh! they reach
the greatest state of pomp and splendor that can be imagined. We looked into the
windows, and saw in the middle of a room, where they were planted and decorated
with the most beautiful things-gilded apples, candies, cake, playthings, and many
hundreds of candles."







6 THE FIR-TREE.

"And then ?" asked the fir-tree, and trembled in every branch; "and then-what
happened then ?"
More we did not see," said the swallows. They, too, flew away.
"Will it be my lot to tread this brilliant path?" sang the fir-tree. "This, cer-
tainly, is better than sailing over the sea. How I long to know! If it were only

























Christmas! Now I am large and full-grown, like those taken last year. Oh if I
were only on the wagon; if I were only in the warm room, with all the pomp and
splendor! And then-then, surely, there comes something better, still more beauti-
ful; or why should they decorate me? There must be something still more grand,
more splendid, to follow-but what? Oh, I do so long to know! "
Be happy with us," said the air and the sunshine; be happy in thine own fresh
youth, in the beauty of the universe."
Yet he was not happy, but grew, and grew, all winter and summer. He stood
there, green, dark-green, and the people that saw him said, "What a beautiful
tree!"
At Christmas he was cut down the first of all. The axe cut deep into the pith;
the tree fell to the earth with a sigh. He felt a pain, a faintness; he could not think
on a single happiness; he was sad to leave his home, the spot where he had shot up-







THE FIR-TREE. 7

ward. He knew that he would never see his dear old comrades, the little bushes
and flowers, round about-yes, possibly, never see the birds again. After all, the
going away was not so pleasant.
When the tree came to himself again, he was
unloaded in a court, with other trees. He heard hm
a man say, "This one is magnificent; we will need
only this one." --._
Then came a servant, and carried the fir-tree
to a large, beautiful room. On the wall hung
pictures, and over the stove stood immense
Chinese vases, with lions on the covers; there
were rocking-chairs, silk sofas, large tables, cov-
"ered with pictures, books, and playthings-a hun-
"dred times a hundred dollars' worth, the children
said.
And the fir-tree was placed in a tub filled with
sand; but no one could see that it was a tub, for
it was hung all around with greens, and stood upon a large, colored rug. Oh, how
the tree trembled What is to happen now ?
The servants, as well as the young ladies, decked him. They hung little nests on
the branches, cut out of colored paper. Each nest was filled with candies; gilded ap-
ples, and walnuts hung from the stems, as though they had grown fast; and more
than a hundred red, blue, and white Candles were fastened on it. Dolls-beautiful
dolls, such as the tree had never seen before-swung in the green branches; and high
above, on the top, there was a gilt star of peace, that was magnificent-perfectly
magnificent.
This evening," they all exclaimed-" this evening it shall be illuminated."
Oh," thought the tree, "if it were only evening! If the candles were only
lighted. And then, what is to happen ? Will the trees from the woods come to
see me ? Will the sparrows fly against the windows ? Shall I grow fast here, and
remain decked in this way, winter and summer?"
He did not mean wrong, but he had back-ache from this longing, and back-ache
for a tree is just as bad as headache for us.
Now the candles were lighted. How brilliant-how magnificent! It caused
the tree to tremble in every branch, so much that one of the candles set fire to part







8 THE FIR-TREE.

of the green-it was completely singed. Oh, dear, dear !" exclaimed a maiden, as
she hurried to extinguish it.
And now the tree did not dare to tremble. Oh, that was a horror He was so
afraid he would lose some of his decorations--he was really sad before all the
splendor.


I i

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though they would tumble the tree over, while the older persons came more thought-
fully after. The little ones stood perfectly still, but only for a moment; then they
shouted until it fairly rang again. They danced round the tree, and one present after
another was taken off.
"What are they doing?" thought the tree. What is to happen? and the can-
dles burned down close to the branches; and when they had burned down they were
put out, and the children given permission to plunder the tree. Oh, how they rushed
upon him, until he snapped in every branch! If it had not been that he was fastened
at the top with the gilt star to the ceiling, they must surely have knocked him
down.
The children danced around with their beautiful playthings, and no one noticed
the tree, except the old nurse, who came and looked among the branches, to see if
there was not a fig or an apple that had been forgotten.







THE FIR- TREE. 9

"A story! a story!" said the children, and drew a little stout man to the
tree, and he sat down under it. "For here it is green," said he, "and the tree
can derive special benefit from it by listening. But I shall only tell one story. Will
you hear that of Ivede-Avede,' or ', ;
' Klumpe-Dumpe,' who fell down the I
stairs, and yet came to honor and mar-
ried the princess ?"
Ivede Avede cried some.
"Klumpe-Dumpe!" cried the others. '''
There was such a shouting and ""VI \ ,'
screaming; only the fir-tree remained
still and thought:" Am I to take no i ,
part ? Have I nothing further to
do?" But he had had his part, and i
had done all that he could. ,lf.!
And the man told of "Klumpe- .
Dumpe," who fell down-stairs, and yet
came to honor and married the
princess; and the children dropped .._
their hands and cried, "Go on, go I _..
on!" They wanted, also, to hear the -
story of" Ivede-Avede," but they were -
only told the one of Klumpe-
Dumpe."
The fir-tree stood quite still and thoughtful. Never had the birds in the woods
told any thing like it. Klumpe-Dumpe" fell down-stairs, and yet married the
princess! "Yes, yes; so it goes in the world," thought the fir-tree, and believed the
story was true, because the little man who told it was so nice. Yes, yes! who can
tell ? Possibly I will fall down-stairs and get a princess." And he was happy at the
thought of being decorated again the next day with candles and playthings, gold fruit
and candies.
"To-morrow I shall not tremble," thought he. I will thoroughly enjoy all my
splendor. To-morrow I shall again hear the story of Klumpe-Dumpe,' and perhaps
also that of' Ivede-Avede;'" and the tree stood still and thoughtful the whole night.
In the morning the servants came in. Now the decoration is to begin again,"
2







1o THE FIR-TREE.

thought the tree; but, instead, they dragged him out of the room, down the stairs,
into the hall, and stood him in a dark corner, where no daylight came. What does
this mean ?" thought the tree; "what shall I do here ? what shall I hear now ?" and
he leaned against the wall, and thought and thought, and he had time enough for















Q, L
.- '" .













thinking, for many days and nights passed, and still no one came; and when they
did, it was only to bring large boxes, and place them in the corner. Now he was
completely hidden, and compelled to believe that he was altogether forgotten.
Now it is winter outside," thought the tree; the earth is hard and covered with
snow; the people cannot plant me, so they leave me here to protect me until spring-
time. How thoughtful it is! How good the people are If it were only not so
dark, and so fearfully lonesome. Not even a little rabbit! It was so pleasant there
in the woods, when the snow lay on the ground, and the hare sprang by. Yes, even
when he jumped over me-but at that time I could not bear that. Here it is dread-
fully lonesome."
Pip, pip !" said a little mouse, creeping forth from his hole. He was soon
followed by another little fellow. They smelt of the fir-tree, and then crept in
among its branches.







THE FIR-TREE. 11

It is dreadfully cold," said the little mice; "otherwise it would be very pleasant
here-wouldn't it, you old fir-tree ? "
I am not old !" said the fir-tree. "There are many much older than I am."
"Where do you come from?" asked
"the mice; "and what do you know?"
They were so mighty inquisitive. "Tell
us of the most beautiful spot on earth.
Have you been there? Have you been
"in the pantry, where cheese lies on the
shelf, and hams hang from the roof-
"where those who can get in, no matter y s __ b _
how thin they are, come out fat ?"
"That I do not know," said the tree
" but the woods I know, where the sun
"shines and the birds sing." Then he told them of his young life-every thing; and
the little mice had never heard any thing like it. They listened attentively, and
said: How much you have seen! how happy you must have been "
"I ?" said the fir-tree, and he thought over what he had told. Yes, it was really
a very pleasant time." Then he told of Christmas-eve, when he was decked with
cakes and candles.
"Oh," said the little mice, how happy you must have been, you old fir-tree !"
I am not old," said the tree. It was only this winter that I came from the
forest"
How nicely you talk !" said the little mice; and the next night they came, with
"four other little mice, to hear the tree tell stories, and the more he told, the more dis-
tinctly he remembered every thing, and thought: They were real happy times! Yet
they may come again. 'Klumpe-Dumpe' fell down-stairs, and yet had the princess.
Perhaps I, too, shall have a princess." Then the fir-tree thought of a pretty little
birch-tree that grew in the forest; it was to a fir-tree a real, beautiful princess.
"Who is 'Klumpe-Dumpe ?'" asked the little mice; and then the fir-tree told
the whole fable. He could remember every single word; and the little mice, from
simple joy, came near jumping off the top of the tree. On the following night came
more mice, and on Sunday two rats came also; but they didn't think the story
very pretty, and that made the little mice sad, for then they thought less of it.
Don't you know another story ?" asked the rats.







-12 THE FIR-TREE.

Only that one," said the tree. I heard that on the happiest evening of my life,
when I did not know how happy I was."
It's a most miserable story. Don't you know one of smoked beef and tallow ?
don't you know a pantry-story?" said one of the
"rats.
S" No, said the tree.
Si Then, no thanks for such as that," said they,
and back they went to their families.
The next night the little mice remained away.
Then the tree sighed: It was real pleasant as they
'- ^ S sat round-the little moving mice-and listened as
I talked. Now even that is over. But I will think of it, to please me, till I
am taken from here."
But when was that to be? Not until the summer again. One morning there
came people to clean the hall; the boxes were taken away, and the tree brought
out. To be sure, he was thrown pretty hard upon the floor, but then a servant
drew him to the stairs into the daylight.
New life begins again !" thought the tree. He felt the fresh air and the
sunshine, and now he was in the court. Every thing was done so rapidly, the
tree forgot altogether to notice himself-there was so much around to see. The
court was near a garden, and every thing was in bloom there; the roses hung so
fresh and fragrant over the little fence, and the swallows flew about, saying,
"Quism-vim-vit !"-my man is come. But it was not to the fir-tree they went.
Now I shall live !" cried the tree, and stretched his branches out wide; but,
oh, they were all dry and yellow! Then he fell into a corner, where he lay
among weeds and thistles. The star of gilt paper still sat on the topmost spear,
and glittered in the bright sunshine.
In the court played a couple of happy children, that at Christmas had danced
around the tree, and had been so delighted over him. One of the smallest ran
and tore off the gilt star, saying, See what is hanging on the ugly old fir-tree!"
Then he trampled upon the branches until they snapped under his boots.
And the tree saw all the beauty of the flowers, and the freshness of the gar-
den; then he looked at himself, and wished he had remained in his dark
corner on the floor. He thought of his bright youth in the forest, the happy







THE FIR-TREE. 13

Christmas-evening, and the mice that listened so well pleased to the story of
" Klumpe-Dumpe."
"Gone, gone !" said the tree. "If I had but enjoyed it when I could! Gone,
gone!"
Then a workman came and cut the tree into little pieces. Soon a whole
bundle lay there; then a light flashed, and the children that were at play ran
in, and sat before the fire, to watch it burn; and the tree sighed, and every
sigh was like a little shot; but with each deep sigh, as the children would cry out
and laugh to hear the little explosion, the tree thought of the bright summer
days in the forest, or of the winter nights there, when the stars twinkled. He
thought of Christmas-eve, and of Klumpe-Dumpe," the only story which he knew
and could tell; and then there was only ashes.









-.c-.. =- -----






Tl- _






































THE FATE OF THE PINES.
I,




















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Dropped from the skies; Empty of thought;
ii iii;-: -_ i i














ONLY A BABY SMALL.

ONLY a baby small, Only a little brain,
Dropped from the skies; Empty of thought;
Only a laughing face, Only a little heart,
Two sunny eyes; Troubled with naught.
Only two cherry lips,
One chubby nose; Only a tender flower
Only two little hands, Sent us to rear;
Ten little toes. Only a life to love
While we are here;
Only a golden head, Only a baby small,
Curly and soft; Never at rest;
Only a tongue that wags Small, but how dear to us,
Loudly and oft; God knoweth best.



























Yes, the animals, great and small, the birds, some fishes even, and little insects-
0 N

















open them, and here we are!
.,_ 'i '.


















Did you ever hear of suchat almost every living thing as a fish-nest ? Yet this is surely one.has
Let us examwhere ine it-you must recollect thate fishes cannotuld speak, it would call its home us.
Itsome place that it runs to in timtle fibres, or threads of leaves, all mattedems to love better by





the-you and I-and that we can fly with the birdsfish, and swims not much more than an inch wide. The fish itself, anthe old
Shall we vmma-fish, is amonlyg the familiesnch o twohe air, the is now insidearth, or the water? The nest with there, you
say; omewhere iny, that is a strange choiplace that, ifis it notcou Well, shupeak, it would call its home ?
some place that it runs to in time of danger-!some place that it seems to love better
thanDid you evother, and which at times it will protect, even at the cost of this is surely one.fe
Yes, the animals, great and smarecollect the birds, some fishes cannot seven, and little insects-us.
all find a spot evidently made of little fibres, or than any other to work for and threads of leaves, all matted together byove.


the-you and I-and that we can fly with the birdsfish, and swims not much more than an inch wide. The fish itself, anthe old


Shall we vmma-fish, is amonlyg the familiesnch or thewo long. She is now inside the nest with there, you



mamma-fish, is only an inch or two long,. She is now inside the nest with the







LITTLE HOMES. 17


eggs, upon which she is sitting. Just imagine how small they must be when
hatched-forty little fish in one nest only an inch wide! It is called the Stickleback.
The little papa, keeping watch outside, drives away every thing that would
disturb his wife, and afterward the babies. With his tail he fans the water, and
so keeps away all impurities from the nest. When the lady-mother is away,
should one of the little fish, by any chance, fall out of the nest, he will take it
in his mouth and put it back.
If another Mr. Stickleback comes to call, instead of treating him with polite-
ness, as the master of a house should, we think, he drives him off as though he














--------------------------- -------- --------











were an enemy. Indeed, he seems to think that every thing that moves, except
the water, intends harm to his little family, and so fights it off, if he can.
'Tis well he does not see us, as he would not hesitate to attack us, too I
suspect.
This little nest is in a fresh-water stream, as you may know; but there are
not many other kinds of fish that build them. Still, as I told you before, they
- -~-~--- .




















all have favorite places, which are to them as homes, and which they like to be
"in better than any other.
3
all~~~~~ ~ .av _aort .-cs vihaet hma oms n hc hylk o
: -___ ._ ___r __-. .-_-- o : _,-







18 LITTLE HOMES.

I was reading, the other day, of a gentleman who found in the Gulf Stream
of the Atlantic Ocean a nest of weeds, built by salt-water fish, and in it a great
many eggs. The eggs were not larger than a pin-head, and, instead of being in
the hollow of the nest, were in clusters-some large and some small-all
through it.
He kept it till several of the fish were hatched out. In this case, either the
old fish did not care to stay by the nest, or it had been driven away at the time
it was lifted out of the sea into the ship.
Not far from the city of San Francisco, in California, there are some rocks
near the shore, which have been the home of a great number of seals, or sea-lions,
as they are called, for a long, long time. There the big mamma-lion teaches the
little ones to swim, and, when they are naughty, and will not do as she wishes
them to, slaps them with her foot, just as a cat would a kitten with her paw.





" -----;---I-:- ------cr~_- ~-- -~~--~-- .....- -








;.~ ~~~~ -=--=- :: - - - --.----.
_- _
















They call to them, and warn them of danger, as a hen would her chickens; but,
instead of a cluck, the noise they make is a sort of quick, harsh bark. People
.:_.~~~- : :- -






-1







instead of a cluck, the noise they make is a sort of quick, harsh bark. People







LITTLE HOMES. 19


go to the house on the cliff near, to watch them frolicking for hours in the
water, or crawling up the rocks to stretch themselves in the sun.
When they first come out of the water, they look a glossy black; but, as
they dry, they grow a dingy yellow.
One old fellow the folks have named Ben Butler. He is the largest among
them, and looks almost as, big as a cow. He is blind in one eye, they say.
The people of San Francisco will not allow any boats to sail near them, and
threaten to punish any one who frightens or disturbs them. So I suppose they
will keep their home
for a great while.
And now, how
would you like to visit --
a bird's home? We '
will travel south a
while, and on the sea-
shore find one, per-
haps. Yes, here we .
have some very strange __ -
ones. They belong to -
the flamingo, and on
one a bird is sitting.
Aren't they queer and -
awkward looking-- -
Yet, sometimes they I '
are said to appear
really handsome in
their scarlet, orange, I-",
and black dress.
The nests look as
though made of mud -
and. clay, scraped to-
gether to form a little
hill, with a hole scoop- -_ -
ed out at the top. -
They lay two or three







20 LITTLE HOMES.

eggs in them. It is said the little birds will run about on the sand, and find
their own dinners, soon after they are hatched.
How queerly those look that are flying! yet the sweep of their great wings is
truly beautiful.
Should we stay till feeding-time, we would see them form a long line on the
sand, the two birds at either end of the line keeping watch, to prevent any
thing attacking them. These two would not eat at all, but keep turning their
heads constantly, to detect the least sign of danger.
When they fly in flocks, they seem to obey a leader, and always follow him,
never straggling off, but keeping near each other, and in the same form as at
starting. They will stand sometimes, resting themselves with one leg drawn up
under them, for a long while at a time. Altogether, I think them very funny
b- t- h u creatures, and so we'll
leave them, and see
i- what else we can find
to interest us.
-- Let us turn from
Sthe sea-shore now, and

follow this river awhile.
"Ah here is something
,_ really cunning and
S- pretty-a floating nest
--a little boat-home!
Of what can this nest
", 1.ta be made ? Let us ex-
.- - amine. Oh, I see-lit-
tle stems and twigs of
S' plants that grew in the
S-- -- -- water.
..._ How nicely made!
"--- and how quietly it
----- --- floats on the water!

The bird so still, and not a sound to be heard; but hark! there's something mov-
ing; and see out goes the little foot, and off paddles the little family-boat so far







LITTLE HOMES. 21

away that birdie feels quite sure that nothing from shore can possibly harm her
or the pretty little nest jewels so dear to her.
What would you say, now, to leaving the water to find that which I think
would very much interest you, away off in Africa ? Shall we go? Yes. No
sooner said, then, than we are there. Would you ever imagine this we are standing
under is a bird's nest ? Doesn't it look more like something built by man ? Yet
every part of it is the work of the little creatures you see flying about near it.
I know it does not seem possible, but it is nevertheless true. They found the
tree in every respect .. ....
exactly the same as
those around it, but,
after choosing it for
their place of resi-
dence, soon changed
its appearance. They
first gathered a vast
amount of dry grass, -
and, by hanging the
long stems over the Vh _
branches, and weav-
ing them together,
made a sort of thatch
roof.
Under this thatch
they then fastened
a separate nest for
each pair of little -_ ...
birds, only divided by a wall from its neighbors, so that, although under one
roof, each family has its own little home, all to itself.
Sometimes there are a great number of these small houses, or, as we might
call it, a large village. Once there were found three hundred and twenty around
a single tree.
They must be very particular little house-keepers, for, not content with house-
cleaning each year, they actually leave their apartments altogether, and build an
entire new house, allowing the old one to remain empty. The new ones are all






22 LITTLE HOMES.

built under the same thatch, though, so that by-and-by this immense, umbrella-
like roof becomes so heavy it sometimes breaks down the tree; then, I suppose,
they forsake it altogether.



I
































As we don't mind distance at all, suppose we take a trip to Southern Asia.
I would like you to visit there the home of the Java weaver-bird. Here their
nests are. Don't you think them cleverly constructed? I think them very curious.
o-











.: I -_.' r" '- ... ..u ."." -









nests are. Don't you think them cleverly constructed ? I think them very curious.







LITTLE HOMES, 23

Let us peep inside. Why, here we find two rooms and a hall-way! What
little aristocrats they are, to be sure! One room seems not sufficient for their
families; they must have a suite of apartments. But it is not a flat house, in
any sense of the word, being long and round, as you see, and each one occu-
"pied by the builder himself, and him alone.
They say that, in building it, the mother-bird assisted until one room was
partitioned off, and then, taking possession of it, she upholstered it to suit her-
self, by lining it with fine grass brought her by the husband, who not only did
that, but finished by himself the other room and entrance-way. Afterward he
brought in little lumps of clay, that some people say he fastened fire-flies to, in
order to light up his house. But, we won't believe that, as well as some other
things people tell us.
When our lady-bird's room is finished to her liking, she lays three eggs.
The young birds will be pale-red breasted, with dark-blue eyes. The old ones
are black and yellow. Sometimes they build their nests under the eaves of
houses, as many as twen- -_:------ -- -- --
ty or thirty in a row.
When caught, they can -
be tamed, and are very :--
pretty to keep in an -
aviary. -
On the way to our : -;
*own homes we will, .!-
though a little out of
the direct course, visit
the nest of another .I
weaver-bird in tropical -1
South America the -.-
black headed synalaxis. I
This, like the little grebe, >
we will probably find
near the water, where it \ ,--
can obtain the threads of --- --
the water grasses to
weave its nest of. Ye-.







24 LITTLE HOMES.

here is one watching at the window to welcome husband as he comes home
from the family marketing.
This time he brings a very dainty little morsel, off which they will enjoy a
fine breakfast. But how do you imagine our little mistress manages to get in
and out of such a tiny entrance, for it certainly seems the only opening to the
domicile? Ah! that, she would say, is her secret, and I don't believe she can be
persuaded to tell even you and me; so, as she seems likely to remain quiet some
time longer, we will not stay to watch her coming out, but see what else we can
find to please us before reaching home.
Why, here is our own, dear little robin-redbreast, not as gayly dressed, per-
haps, as many of the lady and gentleman birds of other countries we have visited,
nor with a home so fantastically formed. Yet, we love our friendly little darling
just as well, for all that, and watch with as much interest the building of its
pretty nest, and the rearing of its homely little ones; and we think that, even for
all the wonders we have seen on our travels, we would not exchange for any
other the busy, twittering swallows we left, on starting, or the dear, old-fashioned,
sweet-voiced redbreast we find on our return.
And now, hoping you have enjoyed, as much as I, our make-believe invisible
journey, we must say, for a time at least, Good-by.















CORK.

THERE is hardly a child who can talk, who does not think he knows what a
cork is; and yet I fancy there are very few that really know it to be the bark
of a tree.
You can see, by the picture, just the manner in which it is taken off. The
bark is never taken until the tree is about three years old, when it is generally



























ten or twelve inches round. It grows in hot countries. There are several cork-
forests in Algeria, and for a great many years they have been worked in Spain.
They generally gather it once in every eight years. Peeling off the cork does
not injure the tree. The time for gathering it is in the summer.
4












LOTUS.

THERE are several kinds of lotus, many of them bearing delicious fruit. In
olden times, it was thought that those who once tasted of this fruit would never
willingly leave the spot where it grew, but would forget home and friends, and
remain there always, to be near it. One kind tastes very much like the date, and
another, it is said, reminds one of gingerbread.












S------=- -- -- ------ - -
----_
_-,- ---.7 --..













LETTER FROM KINGPORT.

DEAR JEANNIE: I don't know how to begin my letter, I am so glad and
happy. We are going to New York-all of us-papa, and mamma, and Tom,










V /I I i f


























and baby, and nurse, and I and maybe Cousin Lillie. When we get there, per-
haps we will go away to California. I wish we could, if you were only going
haps we will go away to California. I wish we could, if you were only going







28 LETTER FROM KINGPORT.

too. Maybe we will start next week. Don't you think you will get home by
that time? If you don't, it will be dreadful. I asked mamma if she couldn't
take you, too; but she said your aunt would not be willing that you should
leave her so soon again. It would be so splendid, if you could see every thing
we see; but mamma says I can write every day and tell you all about every place
we visit, and that it will be so pleasant to get letters from you, telling me all
that you are doing in Kingport.
This time I cannot write very much, for nurse is going to help mamma to
pack, and I must mind the baby a little while. Cousin Lillie is watching her
now, and trying to finish that piece of knitting she began so long ago. Baby is
not very well, but just as cunning as
she can be. When you say Naughty
dey WLouise," she whips her own little hands,
and then puts them both up to her
eyes and pretends to cry.
Nurse don't want to go to New
York at all-she and baby had their
pictures taken day before yesterday,
-___ but they are not very good. If mam-
Sma will let me, I will send you one.
Oh! that makes me think that Lillie
had hers taken to send to grandma.
Maybe, if she hasn't time to write,
she would like me to inclose it in my
letter. We think it is lovely, and just
like her; but it can't be prettier than
she is. I do love Cousin Lillie so
dearly. When she first came, she seemed so quiet, I thought we never would
have a good time together, and Tom said "she would just be a nuisance to have
about;" but sometimes now he says she is "real jolly," and nurse thinks there
never was anybody like Miss Lillie. She reads to her nearly every day.
But she don't know I am writing such nice things about her, and I guess
she wishes I would come and mind baby. So good-by for a little while, and I
will write you again.
Your loving CousIN.







LETTER FROM KINGPORT. 29

P. S.-Lillie says she will give you her picture when she sees you; but mam-
ma gave me this one of Victor and baby and her, the man took that came
round the other day taking pictures. The man said mamma moved, and it isn't
"good of her; but Louise and the dog look just like them. Put picture in scrap-
book.
MARIE TOUCHET.


























d.-,1,L
















LITTLE JEMMY

IN this picture, you see a portrait of one of the prettiest, most good-tempered,
amiable little animals, ever made a pet of.
If he could speak, little Jemmy would say: I am a poor little suricate, and
learned men call me a zenik. I was born in Africa, and the first thing I recol-












I /
















lect was being fed by a woman; but she was not white, as you are. Her hair
was in little tufts, and she had great, thick lips. Then I remember coming
across the sea in a nasty box, very different from the nice, warm cage I have
now."







LITTLE YJEMMY 31

While he was saying this, little Jemmy would sit bolt upright, looking at you
with his beautiful black eyes, and bright, intelligent face.
When Jemmy first came from Africa, he had a hard time of it. First of all,
he had to make peace with the big monkey-that took some time; then the
little monkey insisted upon pulling his tail whenever she thought she had a good
chance. The dogs barked at him, and Polly rumpled up her feathers and pecked
at him whenever he came near. Kitty, the only sensible one among them,
quietly kept out of his way until she discovered him to be good-natured and
harmless. Now they all get along very nicely together, and have become quite
accustomed to having him among them.
He is very fond of warmth, and he always sits up-in a chair if he can-to
warm himself Sometimes he will get upon the dressing-table, and, as the morn-
ing sun pours into the window, looks earnestly out upon the street. What he
is looking for we never know; and, should we call him, he will just turn his
head for an instant, and then look intently up and down the street again, as
though having an important engagement with some one, whom he expected
every moment to see.
In the afternoon, Jemmy will go to another window, and there take up his
watch in the sun till it goes down. Once, poor fellow, he sat so near the fire
that a hot cinder fell out upon his tail and burnt it; and, oh! wasn't he
frightened ?
One day he was taken very ill, and for a little while we thought certainly
we would lose our pretty little pet; but, on inquiry, we found he had gone into
the garden, and, while the gardener was digging, Jemmy had followed him and
eaten seven large ground-worms, right off, one after another-enough to make
any one sick, we thought-the greedy little fellow! So we doctored him, feel-
ing almost pleased that he should be somewhat punished for his greediness, and
he was soon quite well again. And now we say, Long may our little Jemmy
live and prosper!"



(











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t,' ,:''
S. ... ~ ~~: -I '"" /'
.." -, .-
;-- '- . -
"";\ '-t-: ,,,i 4 ;
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THE SHELTIES.

IN Scotland, the Shetland ponies are called shelties. They run almost wild
upon the mountains, and climb up steep places around the edges of frightful
precipices, with as much ease as the mountain-goat. They are very long-lived,
some having been known to be as old as fifty years.
They are very intelligent and obedient, and also become much attached to
those who care for them. Being very small, they can be treated more as a
petted dog than a horse. I once heard of one which was carried in a carriage
a long distance. It was, however, only twenty-eight inches high.
A gentleman once had a pure white Shetland pony, which became very much
attached to a little dog that occupied the straw stable with him. One day,
when the groom had them both out, a great dog attacked the sheltie's little
friend, when; to every one's surprise, the sheltie laid his ears back, displayed his
teeth, and rushed upon the larger dog. He gave him a fierce bite, and a kick,
which sent the ugly fellow howling away.
A little girl was once saved from drowning by her pony, with whom she
was playing at the time of falling into the water. He jumped in after, caught
her as a dog would, and brought her safe to shore.
A farmer, in Canada, possessed a sheltie who was the constant playmate of his
little son, a boy of ten years. One day the boy was sent, with a sum of money,
several miles into the country. As he did not return when expected, the parents
were, of course, very much alarmed. In the midst of their suspense, the pony
came home, with the saddle and bridle dangling after him; but, as soon as he
saw the boy's parents, he ran up to the farmer, seized him by the coat, and
pulled him along the road. The parents followed, the pony hurrying ahead, and
constantly turning round and neighing. After several miles' traveling, they found
the boy, who had been robbed and tied to a tree. He was nearly dead with
fear and cold. I fancy that, after that, the boy, as well as all the rest of the
family, loved the pony even better than before.

























































FAST ASLEEP.
I WATCHED her when the morning sun No mother's loving slumber-word
Flashed red upon the street; Has lulled her unto rest;
Her daily tramp had just begun, Her sweet good-night fell all unheard;
Quick flew her little feet; Upon her father's breast
But now their weary task is done, She dropped, as drops a weary bird
Amid the dust and heat. Within its downy nest.
Hushed is the cheery voice that sang And, musing so, I passed the crowd,
The hardly-heeded song; By some light air beguiled:
Still, now, the tambourine's dull clang Heaven keep that form in slumber bowed
Heard in the noisy throng; All pure and undefiled!
In tranquil sleep her eyelids hang, This was the prayer I uttered there,
With fringes dark and long. For the organ-grinder's child.
.---



."'-i -- "
























With fringes dark and long. For the organ-grinder's child.















THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY.

GEOLOGY is the study of the earth's surface. It tells what the earth is formed
of, and how the rocks and soil are arranged.
For a great many years, some of our wisest men have been investigating the
subject, and, in doing so, have discovered many bones of strange animals, and the
remains of vegetables which do not now exist. These they call fossils, a word
which means dug up.
Now, although they do not often find a perfect skeleton of a large animal,
they often come across portions that they feel sure must have been parts of the
same kind of creature, and, putting them together, can imagine just how they
must have looked, when covered with flesh and alive. It is then easy to draw
pictures of them, and to even make, of wood and stone, animals representing
them. This has been done in England, near the Crystal Palace, at Sydenham.
There, numerous immense fish and animals are represented, in grounds and water
prepared for them, and it is said that some time we are to have something like
it in New York Central Park.
It is difficult to understand how any one can give us exactly the appearance
of an animal that died thousands of years ago, having only the bones, and not
always all of them, to judge by: but, as you would tell, if you knew a creature
had wings, that it would probably fly; or fins, that it would swim; or teeth like
a tiger, that it would eat flesh; or those of a cow, that it would likely eat grass;
so they are able to tell the exact uses of every little bone of the body, and the
manner in which the animal must have lived, in order to live at all.
Then, the kind of trees and vegetables that grew at the same time are some-
times found petrified, that is, appearing like stone; and, other times, of almost
perfect form, as coal, making those parts of the picture quite easy to imagine.
Our earth, you know, is very, very old-ages on ages old; before "the
waters which were under the firmament" were divided from the waters which
were above the firmament;" before even the first form of vegetation or animal
life can be supposed.








36 THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY

From that time until the present, geologists-those who study geology-have
divided the ages into four parts, or epochs, which they call by four names, hard
to pronounce, but which mean the first, second, third, and fourth. Each one of
these is again divided into other periods, called sometimes by the name they
give the plants, or animals, that were the most numerous at that time; some-
times by the name of the rock, or soil. This is the way one geologist makes
another understand what age of the world he is speaking of, just as we divide
the last few hundred years into centuries first, and then years and months.
But each one of these periods, in geology, is hundreds, even thousands, may-
be millions, of years long. You must know that the geologists think each day
of the six days, in the Bible account of making the world, does not mean a day
as we now use the word, but a great length of time. Here is a picture of one
of those early periods.









-_ __._. -
*0 -. -.-






--- =- --- -- ---- ~ -e -_ i _. __- _--













How strange and still every thing looks! Dark water and rugged rocks,
covered with a kind of shell-fish, the only thing that lived and moved; and this
not only in one little place, like the picture, but all over the great earth. Not







THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY 37

a living human being in the wide, wide world! Nothing as now, except the
dear old sun, giving light and gladness to all upon which it shone.
This age is called Si-lu'-ri-an. The plants had no flowers, and the most
common animal, the tril'-o-bite, was three or four inches long, with eyes standing
out, so as to look in all directions.







_- i--~~- .. .- -- - - 2 -_. .. - ---
7 u ~ ^- -2 k-- "--.i -" _

















This picture is of the age called the De-vo'-ni-an. We see a kind of fish
different from any thing we have now, and a worm-like animal, with a sort of
shell for protection. The rocks have something growing on them more like
vegetation, which, by-and-by, as the soil increases, will become trees, until, in
time, the earth is covered with strange and dense forests. What a thought!
The whole world one great wood. Not a blossom, a flower, a single fruit, that
could be eaten by man. Not an animal living to eat of the fruit, were it hang-
ing from every bough. Yet I think it owing to that very same great forest,
that you had such a nice dinner to-day. Can you guess why, or must I tell
you ? Well, it is because that very forest became afterward turned into coal.
This age is often called the coal period, or the car-bon-if'-cr-ous, which means
about the same. Here is a picture of a forest in that strange time.







38 THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY.




















i'--





Although there were no animals living wholly on the land at this time, there
were many kinds of fish in the waters. Here we see a piece of coal in which
one of the queer lizards of that age made an impression of its form. Pieces of
coal with forms like this are often found.








4 ,
hr.,., .






THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY 39

This fossil, as it is called, has been found in the coal-beds of Germany and
Iceland. It is said that remains of over one hundred and fifty different kinds
of fishes have been found in coal.
It was am-phib'-i-ozs, that is, lived part of the time on land, and part of the
time in the water, and is sometimes called the amphibious reptile.
There were also immense snakes about this time, as you will see in the pict-
ure below, representing a terrible storm of rain, thunder, and lightning. This
was the next period, called the Per'-mi-an, and it ends the first epoch.


0i I





















"If you feel at all frightened at the thought of living in the vast, dense forests
of the coal period, what will you say to living during the second epoch, when
enormous reptiles were the principal inhabitants of the earth?
One great creature-you will see him on the right of the picture on the next
page-geologists have named the hand-beast. This is because of their finding
tracks in the mud in which he walked, that look as though made by great
human hands. You will find them in the picture, and see that his feet would
be likely to leave just such marks or impressions.
Other creatures, resembling the crocodile of our days, lived at that time; and
the trees, also, resemble our pines.
. 'iel ... =. v _-- t s.u__-: __- _:- k .... . ......:_.ion






40 THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY
'iii~ .... -- ,, ].




__..... ..r__ > _f '~ ..





-1 -..-4- -- .. -,' ....
: -. ----. -,_-a.- ?







This is called the MAzsctz'-el-kallj period.
This picture of the Kez-iper period does not look very entertaining; but,;

---
1_7 1
'Z ..~3~i~B~e~ ,Al





.-. i ~ ', _~ -_ -. ---
,-a -- __ .:









r
THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY 41
when you know all about it, I think you will feel very much interested
in it.
First, I will ask you, do you know how the salt you use every day in your
food, and which you could hardly live without, is obtained? Perhaps you may be
able to tell me that it is taken from mines, as rock-salt, in the first place, and
afterward refined till fit for table-use. All very well; but I am going to tell
you how it is supposed the salt came in the mines.
You will notice, in the picture, that which appears a strip of land, separating
the water in the middle from that at the right hand. This is called a dune, and
is really a sand-bar raised by the wind, and cutting off the ocean outside from
this body of water.
Now, of course, the water is all salt alike at first; but, by-and-by, the water
in this pond, as we may call it, e-vap-o-rates, that is, goes off into the air in
mist, and leaves the salt all behind.
After a while, this layer of salt would become covered with clay or mud; then,
when a great storm came, water from the outside sea would rush over the bar,
and again fill the pond. Again would the water evaporate, and the salt-layer
become covered with clay; and so, after long, long ages, there would be formed a
great mass of salt, which we now use, and, like our coal, find so necessary to
our comfort.
The lines under the water are to show you the appearance of the layers of
salt and mud, as they are found, so many centuries after their having been
deposited.
Some of these layers extend to a great depth, and form what we now call
salt mines.
There are salt mines in Austria over one thousand feet deep.
The only animal represented is the hand-beast; and, besides the trees, a kind
of plant called horse-tails. You will know which they are, I fancy, from the
name.
SECOND PART.
THE next period, after the Keu-per period, was the Li'-as period.
On the next page you will see huge creatures that are said to have lived at
this time.
6
I.







42 THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY.


























Are they not terrible-looking monsters ? The one spouting like a whale is
called an ich-t.y-o-sau'-rus, which means fisk-lizard; so, whenever a name ends
in saurus, you will know that the animal in some way made those who named
it think of a lizard.
Although this great creature lived in the water, like our whale, it came to the
surface to breathe. It was more than thirty feet long, and had immense eyes,
like saucers, and as big as a man's head.
One of the finest specimens of this fossil was found by a poor English girl in
Devonshire. She saw some bone projecting from a cliff, and told some workmen
near, who dug out the rock, with the bones embedded in it.
... .. -__ --- _: --_- =-






















The ichthyosaurus lived upon fish and other water-animals. One skeleton
has been found with part of a small fish in its stomach.
The other animal is the ple-si-o-sau'-rzs, which means like a lizard. At
first it was supposed to have been more like one than it is now thought to be;
but, after once naming it, the name was not changed. It has an enormously long
neck-longer than any other animal the world has ever known. It probably
lived on fish, would dive for them while swimming, and, by means of its long
neck, reach a great distance below the surface. This was in the Li'-as period.
"lvdo ih ol ie o hmwiesimn, nb en fisln
nek raha ra dsaceblo h srae.Ti wsinteLi-speid






THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY 43























Imagine a combat between two such creatures as these in this picture !-one
forty feet, or over twelve yards long, the other fifteen or sixteen yards long.
The one on the right is called a meg-a-lo-sau'-rus, and is an enormous
lizard, with raised feet. Its teeth show that it ate flesh, and probably fed on
crocodiles and turtles, which lived at the same time-at least, lived till this great
creature devoured them. From appearances, he is not likely to have quite so
easy a time in getting the dinner he is trying to take a bite of now. Of the
two, I don't know which is likely to conquer, although the other is said to be
the greatest wonder of fossil animals.
It is called the i-gua'-no-don, from two words which mean i-ogua'-na-loolhed,
because the teeth resembled those of the animal living in our time by that name,
I suppose. Bones of it have been found in England. The largest were from
seventy to one hundred feet long, and it must have had thighs as big as the
body of an ox.
In the picture of the Li-as'-sic period (next page) is represented the queerest
kind of creature. Its skeleton was so very different from any thing ever found
before, that it took a long time for geologists to determine upon its appearance
in the flesh. They decided to call it-from two words meaning wivingo and finger
,,.,:ur deo"e m rmapaaceh sntlklyt aeqie
--s a ksi etn h ine ei rigt ak ieo o.O h
!'_-, o' n wi i ie t oqe atog h te si b








44 THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY.

-the pfer-o-dac'-tyl, because it had a hand of three fingers at the bend of the
wings, by which it probably hung from the branches of the trees.



























Its food was dragon-flies, beetles, and other insects. It was not more than a
foot long, or about the size of a raven. It probably could not fly very well,
although it had wings something like a bat. As you see, the head is out of all
proportion to the rest of the body. I don't think that poor fly will stand much
chance, caught in that immense bill, do you ? nor would I like such a bill pre-
sented me.
The next picture reminds me of a piece of poetry I found the other day.
After telling you about the picture, I will give you the poetry, and you can
see if the one would make you think of the other.
Do you see, on the right, those great creatures like monster swans? Of
them, you may remember, I have told you before. In the centre is another
animal we recognize; but, running up the tree-to get the fruit above, perhaps-
is a cunning little thing, different from any we have yet seen. On her back
you will notice a little one, getting up the tree without the trouble of climbing.
This animal was only about the size of a cat, but they have given it a name








THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY 45


long enough for an elephant. It is the phas-co-lo-the'-ri--um, and it carries its
little ones in a pouch, or pocket, just as our kangaroo does.




.: ---


























So, when I looked at the picture, I remembered the poetry-


THE DUCK AND THE KANGAROO.

Said the Duck to the Kangaroo:
Good Gracious how you hop,
Over the fields and the water, too,
As if you never would stop!
My life is a bore in this nasty pond,
And I long to go out in the world beyond,
I wish I could leap like you "
Said the Duck to the Kangaroo.

Please give me a ride on your back,"
Said the Duck to the Kangaroo;
"I would sit quite still, and say nothing but 'Quack!'
The whole of the long day through !
And we'd go to the Dee and the Jelly Bo Lee,
Over the land and over the sea-







46 THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY.

Please take me a ride, oh do!"
Said the Duck to the Kangaroo.

Said the Kangaroo to the Duck:
"This requires some little reflection;
Perhaps, on the whole, it might bring me luck,
And there seems but one objection,
Which is, if you'll let me speak so bold,
Your feet are unpleasantly wet and cold,
And would probably give me the roo-
Matiz !" said the Kangaroo.

Said the Duck: "As I sat on the rocks,
I have thought over that completely,
And I bought four pairs of worsted socks,
Which fit my web-feet neatly;
And to keep out the cold I've bought a cloak,
And every day a cigar I'll smoke,
All to follow my own dear true
Love .of a Kangaroo !"

Said the Kangaroo: "I'm ready,
All in the moonlight pale,
But to balance me well, dear Duck, sit steady,
And quite at the end of my tail!"
So away they went with a hop and a bound,
And they hopped the whole world three times round;
And who so happy, oh who!
As the Duck and the Kangaroo ?"



On the following page we have two immense crocodiles, although one is evi-
dently dead. Their bodies are covered with a kind of plate-armor, which would
make it almost impossible for any other animal to conquer them.
The skeleton of one has been found over thirty feet long, with the head
measuring four feet. The opening of the jaws must have been large enough to
swallow animals whole as big as an ox. It is called the te-le-o-sau'-rus, and
I, for one, would not like to meet a live and hungry one.
The other creature is a lizard of the woods.
I forgot, in the last picture, to call your attention to the little coral island
just rising above the surface of the water. These, as you may have heard, are






THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY 47

















formed by myriads of little beings who, for ages, have been living, working, and
dying, under the great ocean.









4 P -- 7 4 11111
FillY_

-:-- ::-i ; --- - -



-= i:_ - "

P~Yl
-- ... : 2.. :" : :: -
95. __ __:







48 THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY

-- ._- --- This most curious look-
S-- -- ing creature lived in the
-.~~~ -_-.:=I
upper O'o-ilte period. The
S- tracks which you see repre-
sented in the picture were
found with the skeleton of
Sthe animal embedded in the
rocks.
--_ -You know, of course, it
could not have made any
impression on them had they been rocks when it walked; but when it lived the
hard stone was only soft soil, which, in hardening, retained the footprints just as
they were made. It was called a ram-pho-rhyn'-c us, and was about four times
as large as the one in the little picture. The first-known bird lived in this
period. It was found at Solenhofen, and was called the bird of So'-len-ho-fen.


























This is called the Cre-ta'-ce-ous period, because the rocks formed at this time
were mostly of chalk, such as you may have heard of there being in England
and other places.







THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY. 49

Perhaps you can form some idea of the great age of this period, when you
know the manner in which it is thought those great chalk rocks or cliffs were
formed.
Should you examine with a microscope, or glass that will make any thing ap-
pear very much larger than it really is, a piece of chalk, you would find it made
up of little tiny shells, so small that, were they placed in a row, it would take
nearly two thousand to cover the space of an inch. Now, each one of these
little shells is '-:"- .... 1 to have been the home of a wee animal, whose little
house sunk to the bottom of the ocean when the tiny house-keeper died. Just
think of the millions and trillions of these little shells it must have taken, and
the ages upon ages of time, to form rocks vast enough to reach from the bottom
of the sea as high as a good-sized house above it!
You will see in the picture some larger shells represented on the shore, and
swimming near a huge creature formed something like a lizard. A skeleton of
one was found near the river Meuse, in the Netherlands. Some of the trees look
very much as ours do.
This ends the second epoch.
You will remember that, during the first epoch, there were existing in the

















"", -' r -







50 THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY.

world only such creatures as could live in the water, such as shell-fish and fish.
At that time, it is supposed, the atmosphere was not fitted for animals to breathe
at all.
In the next epoch, the second, amphibious creatures and reptiles appear, the
air being suited to such lives. But later, in the third epoch, we ind animals that
live solely on land; some of the same kind being in existence now, in our day.
In the picture you see a bird, the same as a condor, with turtles, as well as
animals resembling the rhinoceros. Some are like deer, and two very much like
ponies.
This was the E'-o-cene period.




























Here we have a rhinoceros; just such a one as you may have seen in some
menagerie. There is also an ape, looking as all apes look in pictures; but this
one was much larger than any of our time.
The other two animals do not now live, or, as geologists say, are extinct.
That in the centre is called a di-no-the'-ri-um, from two words meaning
terrible animal, and in size it really was terrible, being larger than any animal
that ever lived solely on land. Yet, like the elephant, it was not car-niv'-







THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY 51

o-rous, that is, did not eat flesh; but was hcr-biv'-o-rous, and ate herbs and
trees. With its great trunk it could pull them up by the roots, and so have a
whole tree at one meal! I imagine, too, he would need it, in order to keep
alive that great body of his.
The head alone of a skeleton, found in Europe, was one yard and a half long,
and a yard wide.
Did you think the other great beast an elephant? It certainly looks very
much like one; but it is called a mas'-to-don, and is larger than our elephant.
The remains of one, nearly perfect, were found near Newburg-on-the-Hudson,
not much over fifty years ago.




















17-
--^ ---- -- -_ - ....





















But here we have a real elephant; just such a one as you may see, any
day, at Central Park. Indeed, nearly all the animals look familiar, for at this
time the hippopotamus, the camel, the horse, the ox, and the deer, began to
live.
On the bank of the lake you will see two large deer, and perhaps may notice
that the horns or antlers look different from those you have seen on live deer.
This is a kind now extinct. It appeared like an elk, but was nearly as large as
S. .. . . - ..'
.... __ : : _

But~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~-- heeev., el lpan;jstschaoe sy. a ee








52 THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY.

an elephant. It had four horns, two rising above the forehead, and the others
projecting forward above the eyes.
This period, called the Pli-o-cenzc, closes the third epoch.
And now we have reached the epoch in which we live, the fourth, yet its
beginning was thousands and thousands of years ago, and very many hundreds
of centuries had passed away before man made his appearance on the earth.


























In the picture, a great cave-bear, as he is called, is represented as sitting at
the mouth of his cave, while above is a huge hyena; and upon the shore of the
little lake near are the mastodon, the bison, rhinoceros, and great wood-stag.
The fossils of this period most often found are the elephant and horse. In
three years' time there were found two thousand elephants' teeth on the coast of
England alone. The people of Siberia go every year to a place they call the
"Isle of bones," and for five hundred years have sent to China elephants' tusks,
which the Chinese carve and make into most beautiful ivory ornaments.
The cars in which they carry the tusks are drawn by dogs, and each tusk
weighs from one hundred and fifty to two hundred pounds.
These teeth are found in a country so cold that, in the memory of mankind,
In the picture, a great cave-bear, as he is called, is represented as sitting at
the mouth of his cave, while above is a huge hyena; and upon the shore of the
little lake near are the mastodon, the bison, rhinoceros, and great wood-stag.
The fossils of this period most often found are the elephant and horse. In
three years' time there were found two thousand elephants' teeth on the coast of
England alone. The people of Siberia go every year to a place they call the
" Isle of bones," and for five hundred years have sent to China elephants' tusks,
which the Chinese carve and make into most beautiful ivory ornaments.
The cars in which they carry the tusks are drawn by dogs, and each tusk
weighs from one hundred and fifty to two hundred pounds.
These teeth are found in a country so cold that, in the memory of mankind,








THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY. 53

no elephant could possibly have lived there. From this, we may feel sure that
the places that are now the coldest were once very warm, and that every thing
changes; for, see, here is an elephant in America, and we know that, except in
menageries, they are never found here now. Turtles and monkeys we still may
find in South America-the former even nearer home; but this huge creature on
the right is entirely different from any thing we have before seen. It is an ex-
tinct animal. Entire skeletons have been found in Buenos Ayres. It was as










_... .. . .


















large as a small elephant, had an immense tail, and was so awkward that it could
never run, but was obliged always to walk with a slow and tedious movement.
The smaller animal, pulling down the tree, is the myl'-o-don. It lived only
in America, and probably ate the leaves of trees and other vegetation.
So, right here, in America, we may imagine a time when strange, uncouth
creatures lived, and moved, and enjoyed their being, long years before the creation
of man.
Such are the wondrous thoughts to which the great science of geology leads
us.


















































Iv .-

; -. \\ .
dove












a .,














THE RETURN FROM MARKET.










TREES.


IN all ages of the world
trees have been worshiped;
by all people they are loved
and thought beautiful.
The apple-tree, so well
known and so generally
cultivated, was especially
reverenced by the Druids,
a religious people who lived
in England many years ago.
They worshiped the mistle-
toe; and, because it grew
upon the oak and the apple
tree, thought more of them
than of any others.
Even now, the farmers --
-or some of them-in
Devonshire take a large
bowl of cider, with a toast
in it, and, carrying it in
state to the orchard, salute
the apple-trees with much
ceremony, in order to make
them bear well the next
year. They throw cider
about the roots, place bits
of toast on the branches,
and then form themselves I
in a ring and sing a song
around the trees. On all
great days of feasting, ap
ples are considered indis-







56 TREES.

pensable, and the custom of bobbing for apples" has been known for ages. Do
you know how they bob for apples? There are different ways. Some take a
beam, arranged so that it turns constantly, and put a lighted candle on one end
and an apple on the other. Then, with hands tied behind their persons, they try
to catch the apple (in their mouths) as it comes round. Sometimes apples are
toasted upon a string before the fire, and he who first catches one as it falls,
keeps it. But the funniest way is to bob for them in water, although you want
to be prepared for a good wetting before you begin. In olden times the Druids
used to bless apples, and give them to the people to protect them from danger.
But the oak was thought more of than the apple-tree in those times. Their
principal festival was held at Christmas-time, although they did not call it Christ-
mas, because they lived long before that name was given it. They used to
burn huge logs of oak-wood on that day, and, before the last one had burned
entirely out, put it away to kindle the fire the next Christmas. Their stone
altars were always built near oak-groves, and fire kept constantly burning upon
them. From these, every year, a fire in every house in the land was lighted.
Those upon the altars were never allowed to go out.
The reason the Druids, or ancient Britons, thought so much of the oak, I
have told you, was because they considered the mistletoe, that only grew upon
it and the apple-tree, as sacred. Gathering the mistletoe was one of their most
important religious ceremonies. In the beginning of the year, when the moon
was six days old, the priests went in a long procession to the forest, and, select-
ing an oak on which hung the mistletoe, would build a high mound of earth
around its trunk. On this they placed the name of the gods. Then, one of
the priests, or priestesses, dressed in pure white, would ascend the tree, and, while
those below held a snow-white cloth to receive it, cut the mistletoe with a golden
pruning-hook. It was then dipped in water, and distributed among the people,
to keep them from disease and danger. If, during this time, any of it fell to
the ground, it was considered a very bad sign. After this, they sacrificed two
white bulls.
Even now, in England, they think a great deal of the mistletoe-spray; and
our own custom of decking the house with green began in its use. They still
burn the yule-logs, as in olden times the Druids did. But it is brought to
them in their homes, to make bright and cheery the family-room where all as-
semble to make the day merry.







7REES. 57

































"CHRISTMAS-DAY IN ENGLAND.

In many places there are celebrated oak-trees-some because of their great
age, some for their beautiful form and vast size, and others for remarkable events
that have occurred under or near them.
There is one in Normandy, called the Chapel-oak of Allonville, in which there
is an altar built, and space above for a sleeping-room. Mass is said on certain
days at the altar, and a hermit lives in the upper portion. It is held in great
veneration by the people.
You have heard, no doubt, of the big trees of California. They are, very
likely, the largest in the world, although it is said there are taller ones in Aus-
8








tralia. If you think it strange that people can enter a tree, as they do the
Chapel-oak, what will you think of riding on horseback inside one, and coming
out, horse and all, through a knot-hole ? This is done every day in summer, by
lots of persons visiting those kings of the forest in California.
likly th lrget n he ord, ltoug i i sad her ae allroe nAs
trali. If ou thnk itstrneta epecnetratea hyd h

Chapl-oa, wht wil yo thik ofridig onhorsbackinsie one, a~ndomn

out hoseandal, trogh kot-ol ? hisisdon eeryda insumer b
lotsof prsosvstn hs ig f h oeti aiona
8s.







58 TREES.



























CHAPEL-OAK IN NORMANDY.

Among the strangest trees in the world is the banyan, of which you have a
picture in another part of the book. That becomes, in time, a whole forest of
trees, all in one. For the first hundred years of its life, it is said, there is noth-
ing very remarkable in the growth of one; but, after that, the different branches
send down roots to the ground, which, after a while, appear like the trunks of
trees, and, in their turn, send out branches, to again take root. As they live to
CHAPEL-OAK IN NORMANDY.






a very great age, you can well in the world is the banyan, of which you havere is
picture in Ceylon there part of thmeasures around all its roots, or branchlets, a whole forest of a
mile. Under a greater monster, on the banks of its life, it is saidhe Nerbudda, thee chief of
Patna used to encamp whe growth of one; but, after that, the would have saloons,
sdrawing-roots to the dining-rooms, and kitch, after a whsmoking-rooms appeared offices, and separate the trunks of





bedchambers for each guest and his three servants. Besides, there were car-
riagees, and, lephantsurn, send out brand cattle, ith servants to take root. As they live them
in all, menry great and beasts, seven well imthousand, yet room for all. The fruit of the banyan
is, in size, shape, and color, like t measures arour cherry; but it is or branchlets, a quarter of a
mile. Under a greater monster, onaninirl from the banksan make a drink of the chief of
Patna used to encamp when out on a tiger-hunt. He would have saloons,
drawing-rooms, dining-rooms, and kitchen, smoking-rooms and offices, and separate
bedchambers for each guest and his three servants. Besides, there were car-
riages, horses, elephants, camels, and cattle, with servants to take charge of them;
in all, men and beasts, seven thousand, vet room for all. The fruit of the banyan
is, in size, shape, and color, like our cherry; but it is only eaten by monkeys and
paroquets, though the dancing-girls from the Deccan make a drink of them, to







TREES. 59


give shrillness to their voices in singing. When dried they are strung for
ornaments.
But to come back to the oak-
"The brave old oak."

You must notice the picture of the large one growing on the Ashley, near
Charleston, South Carolina. Although this has no branchlets like the banyan,
yet its great arms reach out so far, and so near the ground, that it has very
much the same effect when you stand under it, I suspect. For a smaller space,
you seem just as well protected as under the shade of the wider-reaching banyan.
The moss hanging from it must be very beautiful too.






























A LIVEOAK, ON THE ASHLEY

At a place called Denning's Point, on the Hudson, there is a fine old oak,
under which, it is said, Washington often tied his horse, waiting, perhaps, to cross
the ferry near, on his way to headquarters at Neburg It is thought to be
'R





















centuries old.
You will see a picture of this tree on the next page.
*'







6o TREES.
























V %















THE WASHINGION OAK.

The first picture (p. 55) represents the thirteen gum-trees planted by Gov rnor
Hamilton, as emblems of the thirteen original States of the Union. The/leaf is
/
of a beautiful star-shape.
The poplar, ash, laurel, yew, and other trees, have all been worshiped in their
turn. Besides those reverenced as gods, there are many which always have been,
and ever will be, looked upon with wonder and admiration. Of these, one of the
most magnificent is the magnolia of the South. There are great forests of them,
ever green and blooming with flowers delicate as camellias, larger than roses, and
as sweet as the orange-flower.
On the next page we have a picture of magnolia trees, which grow in
~- ~:~BU rms~-~~~.J ~ ~L ~ *







TREES. 61




i :-a Q--- -- -




G Nii I-S INH




























to get the blossoms. The man has formed his fishing-line into a loop at the
end, so as to pull down the blossoms.


























end, so as to pull down the blossoms.






















KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK.


NEW YORK, May 19, 1873.

DEAR JEANNIE: The depot that we came into is very large, and, where the
tracks are, it is covered with glass. Trains are passing in and out all the time.








|1PI







".. -













GRAND CENTRAL DEPOT.

I should think the people that work there, and those who live near, would go
crazy. It is called the Grand Central Depot, but sometimes they call it the
.


.~~~~~~ -. _.: ._= .-_ -
_

'-;- ~ ;=~~---;-I~;~---






KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK. 63

Union Depot, because three different railroads use it; but they have separate
rooms, all fitted up beautifully, and it cost three millions of dollars.
We only stopped a few minutes, while Uncle John found the coach, and then
we drove right to the hotel. We went so fast, and I was sitting between
mamma and Lillie, so I did not see very much of the great city.
I looked out, and thought every thing seemed very grand; but after that I
did not see much till we were out of the coach. The name of the hotel is the
St. Nicholas, and from mamma's
S -' \vi iI., v.u i. I i t upon
Srl -t th ..ill lih.:,dway.
( .,T1i o i m n 1.1 Im p passing




ii!Y
'I-I --. 'C .. l I l'.. \, Cai-"





-.. i 1, .
I'i i" _..''l ".. (. .n ,_, ,
Il 1,, \




ii'ii 'i ii / .11 M 'ii
:'1t I . I .' ill ,






__ " .- "L' '' ,-- ...-.
Iti.
:4>. ... ,.
.BRAW i iFROM HE S N CH AS-. i_.,I











BROADWAY, FROM THE ST. NICHOLAS.
,,+
_- .- I .







64 KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK

that even Tom says he would be almost afraid to walk there. Mamma says I
must be tired, after riding in the cars so far, and, if I write more, I will not be
able to get to church to-morrow.
Sunday afternoon.

This morning, Uncle John and Lillie and I, after riding quite a long way,
came to a park where the City-Hall is. Then we walked a little way to Trinity



























CITY-HALL AND COURT-HOUSE.


Church. There is a graveyard around the church, and a monument erected to
some of those who died at the time of the Revolutionary War. Some week-day
Uncle John is going to take us up in the steeple.
When the service was over, we rode in another car, ever so far, to a street
they call Fifth Avenue. Uncle John says all the ladies and gentlemen go there
Sunday to show their fine clothes, and I should think they did. It seemed just
like a procession, and nearly every one was dressed beautifully.
.- ._ . -_ -























Sundays to show their fine clothes, and I should think they did. It seemed just


While we were walking, Uncle John met a lady he knows, and she stopped
and asked him when he came to the city; and he told her we were his nieces,







KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK. 65

and she said she would bring her daughter and call on mamma, for she used to
go to school with her. She said, after that, Lillie and I must spend some day
with her, and she would take us to drive in Central Park.
I hope she is a nice little girl. I told Tom
when we got home, and he says he knows he
won't like her; but he hopes she has a brother,
an il scolded me I.'.ccuiie I didn't a-k the lady.
- I know \vh\ hL' \vnl to know.
I Uncle John is ujuii t to tha L t io il circus,












PIN





_ . .- - ._ . --



















and he wants another boy to go with him. He says, "It's no fun to go with
only girls." He's never been, though, so I don't know how he can tell. Besides,
lots of girls go too.
9
.-.
'RNT CUC A-. .ATYS -OUM N.2: --. .--

andhewatsanohe by o g wthh -. "-- sy, I' nofn ogowt







66 KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK


Wednesday.

Day before yesterday the lady came to call on mamma. She brought another
little girl besides her daughter. Lillie went to see them first, I was so frightened.
I liked Susie ever so much. She is real nice, a great deal nicer than her cousin
who came with her.




"".1Ii i i r I I Ii lli




4I









rll`
--- -, 7,





























KITTIE ON FIFTH AVENUE, SUNDAY MORNING.

Tom didn't see them but a minute when he came home with Uncle John;
but yesterday he saw Susie again when we went to the park.
Mamma, and Mrs. Bell, and Susie, and Tom, and I, were in Mrs. Bell's
_. .







KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK. 67












1 I, _'













--; ; "lit




,II















LILLIE RECEIVING SUSIE AND HER FRIEND.

carriage, and the coachman drove us, and Uncle John drove papa in a
buggy.
We stopped just a little minute to look at a beautiful new marble house in
We stopped just a little minute to look at a beautiful new marble house in








68 KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK.


which Mr. Stewart lives. He keeps the store where grandma bought our silk
dresses.


























A T. STEWART'S RESIDENCE.


A little farther on, Susie showed me where she went to school. The school-
house looks like the picture of an old castle, and some day I am going there

with Susie. There are only girls there, and school is out at two o'clock.
Tom says it would be fun to go where "they let out at two," but he don't















If


""-1 __ -_ __ C;-
RUTGERS INSTITUTE.







KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK. 69

see where the boys coast and slide at recess in the schools here. Mamma says
she is afraid he thinks more of that than of his books.
He don't love school very much, that's a fact. You don't know about his


















IT
J .- ..--- - - -=_:. .
.- -




























TOM ASLEEP.

being late one day since you went away, do you ? He was very warm and
.. --: - __., ._ .. -_ -. ... . .






























tired, and thought it was real early; so he took off his shoes and stockings, and
sat down a little while, and then he went to sleep; and when he woke up, he
- - .
'- :_,--- d, 1 .25_. .---_:-







70 KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK.

didn't know it was so late. When he got to school Mr. Nott made fun of him,
and made a bow, and said: "We are very glad to welcome you, sir. Put away
your hat, sir, and remain a while with us, sir. We would be pleased to have
you, sir."






































LAST ONE IN.

Carrie White told me about it. When I asked Tom, he said he'd a great
deal rather the old fellow had whipped him. He always calls Mr. Nott names,
and I don't believe he loves him a bit when he's in school. I do, though. Tom
says he's good enough when he comes to our house, for he never says any thing
about lessons and such things.







KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM VEW YORK. 71

Oh! that makes me think, Susie and her cousin are going to teach Lillie and
me to play croquet. Won't that be splendid? I will show you when we get
home.
When we got to Central ,
Park, it was beautiful. I ii
was afraid at first, and mam-
ma was too. The carriages "
were so close they could W'LW4
almost touch, and they went
real fast. But, by-and-by, I Id ''
didn't mind about it at all. .
And there were ladies on ,
horseback. One was dressed ,
in black velvet, and one man
looked splendid. He had ..
on a black-velvet coat and I
white pantaloons, and beauti- ;
ful boots. Tom said "he was
gay," and Mrs. Bell laughed. i, I
Tom told me he didn't
feel afraid any of the time. ii
He took the reins once. ,
There's a big reservoir in ,
the park, and we all got
out of the carriage and went "
up into a house, and looked
at it.
We drove all around,
everywhere, and then Uncle
John said, if mamma would
get into the buggy with I i
papa, he would take Tom
and me to the menagerie;
so, when we got there, no- .
body got out but Tom and I-Lillie didn't want to, because she was going




















.. ... -- .
.- __- __- __-_._

I _












rr -
-_ ---_-_-_- ._ -







*- -- J -I; 4 --- - -- i -
---- ------- -















U-.- -- !-ES -_--_- =r
I -





"BEVEER CENRA PARK-








BELVEDERE, CENTRAL PARK.








KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK. 73
























THE MENAGERIE.


home with Susie and Mrs. Bell. In the menagerie we saw lots of animals, but

they look just like those that came to Kingport last summer.

We went into the museum, too; and, while we were there, I thought Tom








MIII














THE MUSEUM.


was lost once. He liked to look at the bronze figure of a camel, with an Arab

on his neck, that the lions were fighting with; but it made me feel afraid.

Afterward, uncle let Tom and me take a ride on a camel's back, and I was
10







74 KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK

afraid there, too. If it hadn't
'l .'i i,', ,,I been for Tom, I know I would
S': ii l '' ; have fallen off.
', .' :: I'J' ',} W hen we came out of the
Si museum, Tom coaxed Uncle John
,Iei .e,. to go where the monkeys were;
"IIe. but he told Tom he was afraid
SIi he would feel so much at home
". u "i there that he would not want to
SI': 'come away, so he would leave
hil b'e that till the last.
adl aeThen we went where they
Keep the birds. They call it an
S- aviary. The prettiest birds were
there I ever saw; they were of all
colors, like a rainbow, with two
GROUP IN MUSEUM. awful long feathers for tails!

When we got to the monkeys' cage, Uncle John said, I wonder if they
know exactly how many there are
here?" and Tom said, "Why? "
"Oh !" said uncle, "it would not
be pleasant for me, if they should A
think I was trying to take one
away, and then put you in the cage,
and never know they had one more
than belonged to them, you know!" _
Oh! wasn't Tom mad, though (mam- 17
ma says I ought always to say angry llit
instead of mad) ? But he forgot it ,
pretty soon, and he fed the monkeys, L! d! i i'
and didn't want to come away at all,
till Uncle John said, Don't you see,
I told you you would feel so much -
at home among the monkeys, it- --
would be hard work to get you to THE AVIARY.
your own home!"







KITTIE'S FIRST LETTER FROM NEW YORK. 75

Then Tom said he was dreadful thirsty, and we
went to a beautiful fountain and had a drink. Then
we walked on the Mall, a great wide place between
rows of trees, and saw more things than I can tell -
you this time. At last we left the Park, got into -
a car and rode almost to the hotel, and I was so t
tired I couldn't eat any dinner, and Tom was as
cross as a bear.
P. S.-This morning Uncle John gave a piece -
of poetry to us about the animals. He says he
don't believe Tom and I can learn it, but we're
going to try to. I will copy it for you. It is FOUNTAIN.
called-


AT THE MENA GERIE.

I like the armadillo, I respect the kangaroo,
I'm nuts upon the monkeys, and adore the cockatoo;
I believe there's latent talent in the wombat and the stoat,
And 1 think the hippopotamus entitled to a vote.

I know not why or wherefore, but, however it may be,
The beaver (Castor fiber) has a nameless charm for me;
I've met with true politeness from the lynx; and, 'pon my soul,
I cannot speak too highly of the common Yankee mole.

I love to watch the creatures, and to learn their little games;
I call them from my fancy all the prettiest pet names:
There's the camel, Humpty-Dumpty; Neck-or-Nothing, the giraffe;
Jolly Gnash, the old hyena, with his idiotic laugh.

I mark the restless motions of the more ferocious lots--
How the tigers shift their places, and the leopards change their spots;
I visit, too, the burly bear, and give my wonted dole
(N. B.-The polar bear is not the bear that climbs the pole).

Then let us be to every beast a patron and a friend;
Each tells his tale, each has his aim, as sure as he's his end.
A lesson's to be learned from them, and man himself may steal
Some new light from the tapir, some impression from the seal.




























SI
I --
C-,
A i I LADY T L I E





,' ---N_
ri ~mmmasrP~asa- ~

A LAD TRAVLING N THEEAST





















'. . .. . ./. .






I


















THE SHIP OF THE DESERT."

DID YOU expect to see water, and a boat with sails ? or, did you know that
the camel is often called the "ship of the desert ?" It is called so because by
.. iI1!t ''-












//"~' '' 'fq~l *~-_-_--"__'







;--~---~~ ..-- -___---






the camel is often called the ship of the desert ?" It is called so because by







78 THE "SHIP OF THE DESERT."

means of it the Arab is able to navigate the great ocean of sand on which the
children of the desert live.
To us it appears a great, ungainly creature, with its ill-shaped legs and large
flat feet, its deformed back and long, crooked neck. Then, too, its coat is neither
beautiful in color nor soft to the touch; and yet, of all creatures, the camel is, I
suppose, the animal that has been of most importance to the greatest number of
people.
During life, the camel will carry immense burdens over the burning desert
sands, living days without food or water, and, after death, boots are made from its
hide, weapons of war, agricultural and domestic utensils of his bones. The flesh
of the camel is also sweet and nutritious food, and its milk a delicious beverage.
Except the elephant, he is the most powerful animal subjected to man, and
so gentle that a child can manage him. Yet, although very docile and patient,
he will, under unjust treatment, become stubborn and revengeful.
The Arabs tell the story of a driver who once treated very badly a camel
under his charge. The animal showed that he was angry, so the driver kept out
of his way for several days; but, one night, being in his tent, he heard the camel
coming toward it. When it had reached the tent, he found lying before the
door the driver's cloak, and, believing his master to be wrapped -in it, he deliber-
ately lay down and rolled backward and forward over it, evidently much gratified
by the cracking and smashing of the saddle underneath, which he imagined the
man's bones. He then rose, seemed pleased, and walked away. All this time the
driver was watching him. The next morning, when he saw his master alive and
well, it is said the rage and disappointment broke his heart, and he died on the spot.
The Arab becomes so accustomed to riding upon the camel's back that he
often sleeps on it, and the Arab women will even prepare and cook a meal while
traveling. To do this, one woman, mounted on a camel-load of grain, will grind
the wheat in a hand-mill, and pass the flour to one riding upon a camel loaded
with water. She would mix and knead it into dough. Thus prepared, the
dough would be passed to a third woman, who would bake it in a portable oven,
heated with wood and straw.
Thus, whole families are carried in safety from place to place, the patient camel
serving even as a shelter for wife and little ones, when attacked by the roving
highwaymen of the desert, bent on robbery and ready for murder.
It was supposed, at one time, that camels might be made of use to us in







THE "SHIP OF THE DESERT." 79

America; but, 'i
after trying them
a while, it was "
found they did .fP
not answer as
well for us as
the more beau- -
tiful and long- .:
used horse.
Among the
Egyptians, they ,
are not only
used as beasts
of burden, but "
are trained for i
wrestling and
fighting. They
deck them out
with all kinds
of ornaments,
and gay ribbons
and streamers.
They also fasten
strings of musi-
cal bells from
their backs and ".
legs, and their
head-stalls are ''
covered with
worsted, beads,
shells, and bits
of glass, thus Q
reminding us of '4 .
"Mother Goose,"
with- "







80 THE "SHIP OF THE DESERT"

Rings on their fingers and bells on their toes,
They are bound to have music wherever they goes."
The first picture represents a very celebrated lady traveler, during her journey
in the East. After traveling a long while she was murdered, with her two ser-
vants, by a chief of one of the tribes, in order to get possession of some large iron
water-chests she carried with her, which they supposed contained immense treasures.
The last picture shows you, too, how useful the camel may be made to others
besides the Arab. A French soldier is there seen with his arms, clothing, cook-
ing-utensils, and even pet monkey, riding at ease, and, I have no doubt, more
rapidly than if on horseback.



















h,. I' ,7,-. -


""I" y' '
-,_AMA
_: -. . ..
-- -: :;: !,(ili --_----: -, o -



S _-















In triumph fro. Magenta. Every one


Smic lifd in t m i i







































Guns boomed till echoes welcomed everywhere;
On buildings and in streets proud flags were hung,






Half like the flags of brain-silk wrought with gold,
V, 0 r-._ ,_















































That hang on Shakespeare's pages, fold on fold.
In- t f-. E one














GunsMACMAHON upboomed tillhe street of Paris cas welcomed everywhere;
In buildings and in streets proud flags were hung,
Halfd heard and praised the flags of brain-silk wrought with gold,
ThAnd gloried in Shakespeare's that he hafold on fold.





11







82 THE FRENCH MARSHAL.

But while the marshal up the street made way,
There came a little girl clothed all in white,
Bringing in happy hands a large bouquet,
Her flower-sweet face seemed fragrant with delight.
Well pleased, the soldier, dark and fierce at need,
Raised up the child before him on his steed.

The pearly necklace of her loving arms
She bound on him, and laid her Spring-like head
Against the Autumn of his cheek, with charms
Of smile and mien; while to his shoulder fled
Her gold loose hair with flowers like jewels set,
And made thereon a wondrous epaulet.

He seemed more like an angel than a man,
As, father-like, he paid back each caress;
Better than all his deeds in war's red van,
Appeared this simple act of tenderness.
The people cried Huzza! and did not pause
Until the town seemed shaken with applause.

So from this hour the general became
The boast of the enthusiastic crowd;
Each gave some flower of praise to deck his fame,
They knew him-brave-though often cold and proud.
But looked not for the kindness undefiled
That he had shown toward the loving child.

O cynic, deem no more the world all base,
And scoff no more with either tongue or pen;
You do not see the face behind the face.
If God exists, there must be noble men;
And many, who to us seem hard and cold,
Have sunshine in their hearts as pure as gold.




























. .



























UNA OR MARY.


THIS picture is to represent a beautiful young girl named Una, in a story
written a great, great many years ago, and called "The Faerie Oucene." When
you get older you must read it, and learn all about her riding forth with her
lamb and brave protector, the knight in armor you see beside her.








84 UNA OR MARY.

I think, now, you would hardly understand the most beautiful part of the
pretty story, and it was written so very long ago, that nearly all the words are
spelled different from the way in which we now spell them. But I wonder if
the picture makes you think of the same thing that it does me? I thought,
right away, of "Mary had a little lamb." You know that poetry, of course, so
I won't write it for you, but just give you a few new verses.



MARY'S LAMB.

MARY had a little lamb,
And liked it very much;
It pleased her better far than birds,
Or ducks and geese, and such.

Whenever Mary came from school,
Her mother quick she sought,
And gave her not a moment's peace,
Until her lamb was brought.

And everywhere that Mary went
The lamb was sure to go;
Because when asked if she'd have more,
She never answered No."

What made dear Mary like the lamb,
Does any one inquire?
Because she knew how good it was,
When roasted by the fire.

And when served up with good mint-sauce,
And fresh green peas, you'll know
How 'tis yourself, and understand
Why Mary liked it so.















THE JAPANESE.


THE empire of Japan is made up of three thousand eight hundred and fifty
islands, and is a beautiful country, some parts of it being very much like por-
tions of America.
The officers of the government, besides their own language, sometimes speak
Dutch, and, strange to say, their military orders are issued in that tongue. It is
owing to the fact, however, that for two hundred years the Dutch were the only
people from the West allowed in the country.
There are thirty-four millions of inhabitants, who are divided into two great
classes, the nobility and common people. The nobility always carry two swords,
and are very particular not to be seen out often, never mingle freely with the
others, or, if with them, disguise themselves and leave their swords at home, so
as not to be recognized.
The common people appear to have much the better time, for they do not
care who sees them, and seem to go about just as they please.
All their customs are very different from ours; and, although they are a very
nice people in their own way, it is a way I think you and I would not like very
much.
In the first place, they have no chairs, but sit, eat, and sleep on the floor; so,
of course, their tables must be very low, and bedsteads missing altogether. There
are no fireplaces or iron stoves, but little boxes that they make fire in, and carry
about, setting them down whenever it suits their convenience to use the fire.
For a bed they use mats, wrapping themselves in a wide gown and wadded
quilt, and resting their heads on a wooden pillow. Don't you fancy that might
be rather hard sleeping ? These same mats, which are nicely plaited of rice-
straw, answer for carpet, table-cloth, and sofa, as well as a mattress at night. They
are used, too, as a measure, being always made just two yards and one-fourth long,
one yard and two inches wide, and four inches thick. Being so thick, they are
very soft and yielding; while, to keep them clean and nice, the people take off
their shoes before entering the house, and leave them at the door.


















-- _,.-






w ... -g __ .
-- ---- -, _------
~ ... .-- ,- --- ,




I.' 'I----
7 -,















-A ,P E I
A JP E TE S E. _
-n -- - r -- - _i




I IiI
A; JAAES E-HUE







THE YAPANESE. 87

Every one is shod in the same way, with sandals of plaited straw, and socks
of cloth or cotton, or wooden clogs, fastened by a string. In muddy weather,
they wear two pegs in these wooden soles, to raise them from the ground.
They are said to be as neat a'people as any in the world. In every house
there is a tub for washing, large enough to allow one to sit down with the knees
doubled up. A tube containing burning charcoal soon heats the water. Toward
evening each one of the household,
beginning with the master, and end- -'-: .
ing with the servants, takes his turn '-. ....-
bathing. Besides these private baths, .
there are larger public ones, with hot
and cold shower-baths.
The dresses of the men and -" -*
women, a kind of woolen dressing-
gown, called kirimzon, are very much
alike, only the women's are a little -
longer and fuller than the men's. _
This is fastened by a narrow scarf,
in a queer-looking knot at the back.
For protection when it rains, they
have cloaks of straw or oiled paper, -
and hats of bamboo-bark. In winter, -
the common men wear close-fitting -
jackets, and trousers of blue cotton,
and the women wadded mantles, be-
sides the kirimon. In this picture,
you see one in his winter dress, pre-
JAPANESE PEASANT IN WINTER COSTUME.
pared for the cold and mud.
Every man carries with him a tiny little pipe and tobacco, besides a brush, a
stick of India-ink, and a roll of mulberry paper for writing purposes; but, what
is very strange, the men and women do not write in the same style, that is, do
not use the same characters-so that, although the men are able to read the
women's writing, the women cannot read the men's.
The ladies, they say, never do needle-work; but this I am inclined to doubt.
They all drink tea, but use it without either milk or sugar. How strange it






88 THE JAPANESE.

would seem to us, to be invited to a seat on the floor, to drink clear tea from
the little queer-shaped porcelain cups, with, perhaps, a lacquered bowl of hot rice-
soup, and a fried fish, of a kind we never saw before; all this from off a mat
spread upon the floor, or, it might be, a table only a foot high, in company, too,
with people speaking, a language different from any thing we had ever heard be-
fore! As a gentleman once wrote home, while visiting in Japan: "What a
miserable life it is, to be in a country where you can understand nothing through
your ears, except the yelling and mewing of cats and barking of dogs, and the
crying of babies, strapped on their mothers' or little sisters' backs The cocks
have a new way of crowing, and the hens of cackling. None of the birds sing
as our birds sing, and there are no sheep to bleat and make you happy. The
temple-bells, even, are not like our bells. The fish are all new fish, as well as
the birds; the trees, most of them, new trees; the flowers all new, if we had
not imported many of them into America. I cannot go shopping alone, for I
cannot tell what I want, and, if I could, I cannot get at the price. The measures
and weights are all new to us, the money different. Here I am in Yeddo Street,
staring and stared at, knowing nothing, and wanting to ask a million questions,
such as, 'How do you weave or spin that?' or, 'carve this?' or, 'Why do you
stable your horses' heads where we put the horses' tails ?' 'Why do you mount
your beasts on the wrong side?' 'Why don't you use wheelbarrows instead of
bamboo baskets when digging canals in Yeddo ?' Why do you saw backward?'
'Why do you plane backward?' But I cannot talk, and might as well be a
horse in Yeddo when alone, as a man in the streets alone."
Still, it must be very pleasant to see things so entirely different from those at
home, even if one does not understand the sounds he hears. He must make all
the more use of his eyes.
The shops in Yeddo are all open to the streets, and the houses low, with an
upper story. Even the noblemen's palaces are not imposing. The rooms are
divided by sliding doors of paper, and can be removed, so that the whole build-
ing may be thrown into one room. The wood-work outside, if painted at all, is
black, and inside waxed, oiled, or lacquered. The paper of the sliding doors is
often a picture-gallery of itself, representing landscapes, birds, and flowers, done
beautifully in ink or colors. In nearly every room there is a recess, to hold
either rugs or a hanging scroll for pictures or verses, and underneath this a low
rack for swords. They heat these rooms with charcoal, in an elegant bronze







THE 5APANESE. 89

brazier, or in an iron pot, in a I'.
box of sand sunk in the floor.
Because of the many earth- ii
quakes they experience, the houses .
are almost all built of wood or ;I M "
paper; and, as on that account ;.
they are very likely to take fire,
they expend very little money on
them. It is thought, although
Yeddo is such a very large city, 4
it is all burned and built over
every seven years. As they have
only little hand-pumps to put out
a fire, there is but little done to
prevent great conflagrations when
they are once started.
The picture at the beginning
(page 86) represents a tea-house
patronized by the nobility of
Japan. Nothing on the outside:
appears different from those which ,
the common people frequent, but i.
they are somewhat larger inside, I.i
and there is much more ceremony
observed on entering.
In this case, the gentleman
who has just entered is being P -
met in the gallery by the land- -
lady and two of her servants, who -
prostrate themselves before him,
in the Japanese fashion. One
girl is just rising, and has taken '- "
his sword, holding it very care- P
full)- and respectfully, in a silk '
handkerchief, so that her hand
12







90 THE 7APANESE.

will not touch it. She will take
it into another room, and lay it
upon a lacquered table. The
landlady, who is still on her
knees, is awaiting the orders of
the gentleman. In the next
room there appears to be a table
-- -already prepared for him.
-- Probably they will just serve
him with confectionery, and after
,. i ...that soup, boiled rice, eggs, sea-
weed, and stewed clams. They
--7C will be nicely cooked, no doubt,
S-- and most neatly served. Those
S----retty young girls will wait upon
6 him, and, at the close of the re-
d past, bring him a tiny pipe, and
S, fill and light it for him.
In the most aristocratic quar-
ters of the city, the daimios, or
princes, reside in large parks, sur-
,'.' rounded by high walls. Every
thing there is on a large scale.
The roads are broad, the parks
UP planted with ancient trees, and
.I ornamented with sheets of water.
The palaces, though not of im-
posing height, are of great ex-
tent, and, within the inclosures
surrounding them, small armies
are kept and drilled.
Sheba, the place of the me-
morial temples and tombs of
the Tycoons, is near Yeddo.
I A grand avenue of old trees







r-
THE JAPANESE. gi

leads up to the gates of the temple, and every thing, from its massive roof to the
burnished gilt pillars and doors, is most beautiful. There are galleries, open to
the courts on one side, and, on the other, lined with carved panels and medallions





I IIII I I I /II ', ,/ ,,,: I"" ,,I ",",,",'I I I


















INTERIOR OF A BUDDHIST TEMPLE IN JAPAN.
w ri i wo r r o. A l l

































always burning, and priests in fAll robes ever watching. Here, all who enter
Ii --~4~ nlll --






I. IIl n
Mt.-








4" I





of b .ar b



when t alla
n, at, e










of birds and flowers of rainbow colors, as fresh and gorgeously bright to-day as







92 THE tAPANESE.

are obliged to take off their shoes. Within, the work on the walls and ceilings
is even finer than that outside.
There are many temples within this one inclosure, but four are finer than
the others. The amount of copper used is very great.
The religion of the Japanese is Buddhism, and the temples are not only
crowded on holy days, but sermons are often preached both during the day and
evening, and listened to by attentive congregations.
The temples are generally built of wood, often of cedar, and the shrines or
altars carved and ornamented. Upon them are placed a variety of images, from
the size of a doll to magnificent bronze statues, thirty feet in height. Thfe
picture represents a moderate-sized temple, with worshipers performing a religious
ceremony at the shrine. When a solemn service is performed, the principal
altar is ablaze with a hundred lights. Sometimes a hundred, even a thousand,
priests are engaged. They enter from opposite doors, meet in the centre, bow
before the altar, and then file right and left to the pews ranged along the sides.
Perhaps you know that, instead of burying, they often burn the bodies of
those who die. A funeral procession is generally headed by a troop of boys
bearing gift-offerings to the altar; then comes the bier on which is placed the
body, doubled up in a sort of tub; then follow the mourners, dressed in white;
and, last of all, the priests. On reaching the cemetery, the body is placed on
the altar of stone, and the priests sit down some distance in front. The mourn-
ers then pass, one at a time, before the altar, and burn incense in front of the
body. This over, prayers are chanted; the body is then taken from the tub
and placed in a stone trough, in which wood has been piled. A fire is kindled,
and soon nothing is left but a few charred bones.
They have no regular weekly Sabbath, as among the Jews and Christians, but
celebrate many days as ftle or holy days. On one of these the boys all cover
their faces in a mask representing a fox's head; and, on another, the girls are
painted and powdered, and ornamented with jewelry in their hair and girdles, and
go out to gather bouquets of flowers, On the Festival of the Lamps," at Yeddo,
little girls promenade the streets in crowds, singing at the top of their voices,
and carrying paper lanterns. The I3th, I4th, and I5th of their seventh month,
are days that the people visit the temples to pray for the dead, and burn tapers
for them. Afterward there is a general jubilee. They have masquerades and
dances, of which the rice-dance, as it is called, is one performed by men wearing



























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JAPA NE SE F'E STIVAL O TI-IEL fl A'TNlE RS.





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