.. ..... .. ...
The Baldwin Library
STORIES OF A GRANDFATHER
BY N. S. DODGE.
LEE & SIIEPARD, PUBLISHERS.
LEE, SHEPARD, AND DILLINGHAM.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by
LEE & SHEPARD,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.
TO EVERY CHILD
YOUNG ENOUGH TO OWN AND WISE ENOUGH TO LIKE
THE NAME OF
SBOY OR GIRL,
THESE STORIES ARE DEDICATED
HALF a century ago my grandfather told us children
stories about American history. After a generation, my
father did the same to my boys and girl. I now take
their place, and tell the old stories to those who call me
grandfather. Whether they are worth being narrated in
print to a larger group of listeners, as partial friends
believe, it.is for boys and girls to decide.
I. DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 9
II. SETTLEMENT OF PLYMOUTH .. .. 18
III. THE HERO OF VIRGINIA 26
IV. WHY THE COLONISTS CAME ... 34
V. THE TWO CALVERTS 40
VI. THE QUAKERS 46
VII. BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT . . 52
VIII. THE THIRTEEN COLONIES . 60
IX. DESTRUCTION OF THE TEA IN BOSTON HARBOR 69
X. THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON 79
XI. THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL 93
XII, SAME SUBJECT, CONTINUED. . 101
XIII. GEORGE WASHINGTON 110
XIV. THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 118
XV. SURRENDER OF BURGOYNE 125
XVI. ARNOLD AND ANDRE 132
XVII. FRANCE OUR ALLY . 142
XVIII. JOHN PAUL JONES 148
XIX. HENRY LAURENS .. 154
XX. JOHN LAURENS. . 159
XXI. SURRENDER OF CORNWALLIS . . 165
XXII SETH POMEROY 171
Stories of American History
DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.
"ALMOST four hundred years ago three ships
"were bound westward'on the Atlantic Ocean.
Each showed the flag of Spain. They were
commanded by Christopher Columbus. Ten
weary weeks they had been at sea, and the
sailors had become frightened and homesick.
Still Columbus kept crowding sail for the
west, until at last there grew to be a mu-
tiny. "We will go no farther," said the sea-
men. Only three days more," answered
Columbus; "and if no land is seen, we will
return." It was agreed. So, spreading all
sheets to the wind, and sending men into the
topsails to look out, the brave commander
TO STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
stood on the bows of his vessel watching for
The sailors did not believe that land was
near. Columbus knew better. The water
was green; sea-weeds floated past; birds
flew over the ship; a log of wood came toss-
ing by; the smell of fields was in the air;
fishes were caught; a sparrow alighted in
the shrouds; and once, a great tree, with
roots and branches, was driven over the
Columbus and the men watched for land
till the sun went down. When it was dark
he saw a light far away before the ship. The
men on watch saw it, too. He called the
sailors, and as they crowded around him,
and saw a bright, shining mark moving back
and forth, they shouted, LAND! LAND! Co-
lumbus now hove-to his three vessels, and
waited for day.
"When the sun arose next morning, there
was land indeed. Beautiful groves, green
-- -- - -
.. .... _,
THE DICOER OF AME 1 .
THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. Pae 10.
DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. II
fields, shores of sand, little hills, great for-
ests, and, far off, high mountains were in
sight. On the beach, children were playing;
there were wigwams under the trees; men
with bows and arrows were running down to
the shore; canoes had put out to sea; fires
were kindled in the woods; and great num-
bers of people came together on a tongue
of land that reached out into the ocean.
Columbus anchored his ships, tobk ten of
his sailors in a boat, and rowed ashore. He
was afraid the Indians might fight him, and
he, therefore, went with loaded guns; but
when the natives saw the skiff pulling for
the land, men, women, and children all ran
to meet the visitors, and began bowing down
to the ground. They thought the white men
were gods. The boat they drew ashore; the
rope they tied to a great stone; the hungry
sailors they fed with bananas; the great
chief-as they called Columbus -they sa-
luted by kissing his feet; and the standard
12 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
which he planted in the sands they wor-
shipped. They invited the sailors to their
rude houses, showed them springs of water,
brought them great branches of flowers, gave
them honeycomb to eat, spread palm leaves
for their couches, put gold ornaments on
their arms, led their little children up to kiss
them, and in every way welcomed the new-
comers as friends.
Christopher Columbus was a good Chris-
tian; whatever he did he meant for the
glory of God. No sooner, therefore, had he
and his men landed on the island, than they
all knelt on the ground and gave thanks to
God. When they arose, Columbus erected a
wooden cross, before which they all pros-
trated themselves. This was done in token
that this new country they had discovered
was to be considered a Christian country.
The Indians looked on in silence; it was
all strange to them; they did not know the
meaning of the cross. What the Indians did
DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. 13
was equally strange to Columbus and the
sailors. They had never heard of American
Indians before; indeed, they did not know
that this place was America; they thought
it was India, and they therefore called its
people Indians. Very unlike any white
people, or, indeed, any negroes, were these
natives. They had copper-colored skins,
straight, black hair, large, dark eyes, high
cheeks, and wide mouths. They wore no
clothes; the men had no beards; women
had rings in their noses, and bracelets
around their ankles. Boys and men carried
spears; some of them had their faces
painted red. They talked a great deal, but
in a strange tongue which nobody but them-
"When Columbus gave the Indians blue
beads, and bits of yellow glass, they were
so pleased that they jumped up and down,
and danced around him. Some of the
women took the rings off their noses, and
14 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
gave them to the sailors in return. They all
thought that the white men were gods, and
that the great ships came out of the skies.
These Indians were poor; they had neither
tables nor chairs, doors nor windows, fire-
places nor chimneys in their wigwams. Such
a thing as a mirror they had never seen; and
when a sailor held a small looking-glass be-
fore a woman's face, she screamed and ran
away. They were very glad to trade, but
did not know the value of things, giving a
spear for a glass bead, and a gold bracelet
for a bit of broken crockery. There were
no cows, nor sheep, nor goats, nor cats, nor
dogs, on the island. A horse the natives
thought to be a wild beast, and the man on
his back they believed grew there; but they
had parrots in great numbers,-gray par-
rots, green parrots, red parrots, and cocka-
toos, and all of them tame.
Though the Indians wore no clothing, yet
they knew how to make cotton yarn, which
DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. 15
they exchanged with the sailors for buttons,
and toys, and little bells. There was a boy
with Columbus who had some bits of broken
crockery, which he exchanged with the In-
dians for more yarn than he could carry.
After a little time, two more boats came on
shore from the ships. The Spaniards staid
with the Indians till sunset, and then started
to go back. This grieved the Indians, who
followed the boats along shore, and even
plunged into the sea to' bring them again to
This island Columbus named San Salvador.
Afterwards he discovered other islands, and
the continent of America. The natives were
sometimes afraid, and would at sight of the
ships fly to the woods. Columbus was kind
to the Indians and won their love, but the
sailors were often rough. One day a small
canoe, with a single Indian on board, came
to one of the ships. He wanted to exchange
cotton yarn for a hawk's bell. As he would
16 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
not come on deck, several sailors threw them-
selves into the sea, and took him prisoner.
Columbus saw this, and was angry. He sent
a boat to have the poor Indian brought to
him, and then he put a colored cap on the
man's head, and tied a bright red handker-
chief around his neck, and fastened strings
of green beads on his arms, and hung hawks'
bells to his nose and ears, and put brass rings
on his fingers, and sent him back in his
canoe. As soon as he found himself free, he
paddled for the shore. There the natives
came running together to see how grand he
was, -and Columbus through his telescope
could see him marching in his finery up and
down the shore, while every one was admir-
ing his smartness.
It was nearly three months before Colum-
bus was ready to return. He sailed over the
new-found seas, and discovered Cuba, Ja-
maica, and many other islands, calling them
"West Indies. The climate was like spring in
DiscoVERY OF AMERICA. 17
Spain; the woods were full of beautiful wild
flowers; birds of a hundred species, with
golden feathers, filled the air with songs;
gum-trees and spice-trees yielded pleasant
smells; rabbits and conies played in the
bushes, and nibbled the green grass; fishes
glanced back in the clear waters the bright
sunshine from their silvery scales; delicious
fruits grew wild through the forests, and
bees made stores of honey in decayed trees.
"It is so beautiful a country," Columbus
wrote, "that one would never desire to
I8 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
SETTLEMENT OF PLYMOUTH.
IT was cold weather on the New England
coast in December, 1620. At sea, the winds
blew and waves tossed. On land, streams
were frozen and the snow had fallen deep.
The few Indians there were, could neither
hunt nor fish. Along the coast all that could
be seen were bleak headlands and icy
shores. There were then neither light-
houses to warn against shoals, nor buoys to
direct to channels. A little ship, named the
Mayflower, had weathered Cape Cod, and
was cautiously looking for anchorage. She
had been one hundred and three days at sea.
Besides captain and sailors, there were one
hundred and two passengers, men, women
and children, on board. Beating about from
one point of land to another, she had finally
SETTLEMENT OF PLYMOUTH. 19
put in to Plymouth harbor. A boat from the
ship went ashore. It carried eight persons,
besides the sailors who rowed it. These per-
sons leaped upon a rock, went back into the
woods, saw that the land was good, came
again to the boat, and when they had returned
to the ship, agreed with their companions to
stop and settle there. In the course of a
few days, they all disembarked. Log-houses
were built, trees were cut down for firewood,
the scant furniture they had brought from
England was taken ashore, provisions were
unladen, and when the ship set sail again for
England, these pilgrims were left alone on a
bleak shore, in a thick forest, among Indian
tribes, in the midst of winter, to get on as
best they could.
Who were they? And why had they come
to America ? They were English people, who
wanted to worship God in their own simple
way. They could not do so in England, and
so they went, first to Holland and staid there
20 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
several years. But Holland did not suit
them. The people there were kind, and loved
these English Puritans. But the speech was
strange, and the country full of inhabitants.
After a time, therefore, these English people
returned to England, and set sail for America.
And now, having landed on the shores of
New England, they went to work to make
themselves as comfortable as they could.
Already they had suffered from the cold and
rain, and snow and ice, and dashing waves,
in getting from the ship to the shore.
The old men were made ill. Little children
were frost-bitten. Poor women and babies
had no shelter. Branches from the trees
made their only roof, and fires lighted on the
snow gave the only warmth they had. They
spread their beds on the ground, and ate
their food on their laps, and wrapped them-
selves in blankets to keep from freezing,
while the healthy men were building huts.
Many were sick. Some days they could not
I _ _ _ _~
Th PLRIS NTh WY Pge2
SETTLEMENT OF PL YYlUTrH. 21
work, for the snow that fell. Their food was
stinted. Every day some of the men had to
go and catch fish. And all through that
long winter, what with wet clothing, and
scant food, and cold hands and feet, many
were dying every day. Before spring one
half of those who had landed from the May-
flower had died.
But these brave men were not discour-
aged. They trusted in God. Working every
day as they could, resting every Sunday to
worship, helping each other to build, speak-
ing cheerful words to the sick, making warm
places for the women and children, and keep-
ing up great fires that the old might not
freeze, they built, at last, nineteen log huts.
When the first mild day came on the third
of March, 1621, and the birds began to sing
in the woods, everybody had a house where
there was protection from the snow and rain,
a table from which to eat, and a bed in which
22 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
During this long winter, the Indians had
not troubled them. Once a little band of
savages shot some arrows at them from the
top of a hill; but as soon as a gun was fired
they ran away. At another time an Indian,
named Samoset, came right into their midst
as they were felling trees, and said cheer-
fully: "Welcome, Englishmen!" He had
learned some English words from fishermen.
Afterwards a great sachem came to see them.
He was friendly. They gave him buttons and
beads, which pleased him, and he made a
treaty with the settlers to be friends. Soon
after, several of the Pilgrims paid him a visit
at his wigwam. They learned that his name
was Massasoit. He received them kindly,
gave them corn to plant, and agreed to bring
them furs. And when the warm weather came,
and the trees were clad with leaves, and rab-
bits came out of their burrows, and squirrels
ran along the branches, and wild flowers
sprang up in the woods, and the air was filled
SETTLEMENT OF PLYMOUTH. 23
with the song of birds, this little band of
Pilgrims planted the Indian corn, and tended
its green blades as they grew up from the
ground, until harvest should come.
But it was not all sunshine during that
summer. Before the corn would be ripe, it
would be many months. Very little food was
left. They caught fish, and dug clams, and
snared rabbits, indeed; but at times they
were almost destitute of anything to eat. At
night many of the families knew not where
they were to find breakfast next day. Chil-
dren sometimes cried for bread; but it was not
to be had. Strong men grew faint for want
of food. Five kernels of parched corn, at
times were all a boy had for his dinner, be-
sides an oyster or a crab. But they kept up
good courage and trusted in God. Women
and children worked out of doors with the
men. They felled the trees, and hoed the
ground, and shot the wild birds, and mended
their huts, and built boats, and traded with
24 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
the Indians, until autumn came with its
green ears of corn, and yellow pumpkins,
and pods of beans, when they carefully
gathered all, and were provided for a second
After this the little colony began to grow.
More people came over from England.
Towns sprang up. All along the sea-coast
villages were built. Ploughs, and hoes, and
harrows, and sickles, and flails, were sent over
in the ships. Cows, and sheep, and poultry,
began to arrive, which the colonists paid
for in Indian furs. Horses, too, were sent,
Bridle paths were cut through the woods.
People could go on horseback from place to
place, and shortly better houses were built,
and barns were made, and meeting-houses,
which we call churches, were erected, and
school-houses appeared here and there, and
gardens were enclosed, and green pastures
took the place of woods, and apple orchards
were set out, and the great forest was giving
SETTLEMENT OF PLYMOUTI 25
place to a settled country. Everything was
beginning to be just as we see it now.
One winter, when the snow was deep, and
the women and children could not well go to
meeting on Sunday, Deacon Jones, of Ply-
mouth, built a sleigh. It was a rough thing,
made of hewed joist for runners, and a sap-
ling for a pole. He took the tackling of his
boat for harness, and putting his two horses
before it, drew his family through the woods
to meeting. Evetrybody laughed; but the
good deacon did not mind. The sleigh took
the women and children safely to church and
safely back home; that was enough. Next
Sunday another sleigh, full of mothers and
daughters, drove up to the meeting-house;
and shortly there were a dozen more. They
called the harness tackling, as it was, and to
this day folks in M;i-.-; -husetts call all har-
ness tackling, though they do not know why.
All honor to Deacon Jones for inventing a
sleigh and new name for harness!
26 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY
THE HERO OF VIRGINIA.
IN the settlement of America, there were
many heroes. Columbus was a hero. Some
of the navigators who followed Columbus
were heroes. There was Hendrich Hudson,
who discovered the North Uiver and gave it
his name; there were the Pilgrims, who set-
tled Plymouth; there was William Penn, who
founded the colony of Pennsylvania; they
were all heroes. But in true heroism, not
one was superior to Captain John Smith,
"-who founded Virginia. Let us see:
In the year 1606, when he sailed with one
hundred and six others, in three ships, from
England, to plant a colony in Virginia, he
was only twenty-seven years old. And yet,
from boyhood he had been engaged in ad-
ventures. He had built himself a hut in an
THE HERO OF VIRT'GINIA. 27
English forest, and hunted and studied there
four years; he had been to sea several voy-
ages; he had been thrown overboard, and
escaped to land by swimming; he had fought
in many battles on the ocean and on land,
and had several times been taken prisoner;
he had travelled all over Europe, had killed
three Turks in single combat, and was made
a major for his gallantry; had been captured
and reduced to slavery, and escaping at last,
had wandered many days and nights in for-
ests and deserts until he got back to Eng-
land. There was never a braver man; such
a thing as fear he did not know. In the
very worst he was never disheartened ; when
a slave in Turkey he won the heart of his.
mistress, who set him at liberty; and when
a Tartar prince, who had set him to thresh-
ing grain, insulted him, he beat out his mas-
ter's brains with a flail, and fled to the woods.
All his life long he was in one trouble or
another; but he was never discouraged,
28 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
never faint-hearted, and never lost his self-
The three ships arrived safely in James
river, and a town was founded called James-
town. Houses were built, trees were felled,
fields were planted, roads were opened, forts
were constructed, the Indians were dealt with
fairly, every one of the colonists was set to
work, and all the prospects were fair.. Corn
was sometimes scarce, and then Captain
Smith, taking men with him, went among
the Indians and traded for it. He explored
the sea-coast and made charts, he sailed
up the rivers and planned them on maps,
he went far into the Indian country and
bargained with the natives for land, and he
was never weary in his efforts to make
Jamestown a great and prosperous place.
To be sure he had trouble; all men who
are in earnest do. The colonists were some-
times idle, and he made them work. The
Indians were often ill-tempered and quarrel.
THE HERO OF VIRGINIA. 29
some, but he quieted them with presents, or
frightened them with guns. Many of the
settlers wanted to go back to England, but
he encouraged them with good words. Chief
men in the colony revolted, but he brought
them to obedience by good sense and firm-
ness; and though for a time there was scant
food, and much sickness, and many hard-
ships, Captain Smith kept the people to-
gether by his brave heart.
He often made journeys up the rivers in a
boat; along the coasts in one of the ships
which brought the colonists over from Eng-
land; and up the country on foot, attended by
three or four of his men. Upon one of these
expeditions, he sailed up the Chickahominy.
When the boat could go no farther, he left
her in charge of two of his men, telling them
to keep watch, one to sleep while the other
was awake, while he went farther. After he
had gone, the men grew careless, and while
both were asleep one night, the Indians
30 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY
killed them and captured the boat. Captain
Smith knew nothing of this, but pressed on-
ward by land, having with him an Indian
guide. As he penetrated the forest, now
ascending high mountains and then plunging
through morasses and swamps, always ob-
serving where he went, and mapping the way
on bits of paper, some Indians attacked him,
shooting their arrows. He then tied his
guide to his arm and made a shield of him,
knowing that they would not willingly shoot
a comrade. But though not wounded, Smith
was at last taken prisoner, and the savages
led him to their chief, Powhatan.
Powhatan was stretched out on a kind of
throne of stones. Skins of wild beasts were
spread around him; a blanket wrought with
beads covered his legs; he had feathers in his
hair, and paint on his face; one of his wives
sat at his head and another at his feet; warri-
ors stood near him, and altogether he seemed
quite a king. Although he was greatly
THE HERO OF VIRGNIA. 31
pleased with a pocket-compass which Captain
Smith gave him, and put on a shirt which
the Englishman had brought, and decked
himself with the beads and buttons the colo-
nists had sent, and accepted a jack-knife and
brass ring and a string of bells and some red
cloth and needles and thread from his pris-
oner, he determined to put him to death. So
some of the savages seized the white man,
bound him with green withs, threw him on
the ground, and were ready to beat out his
brains with their clubs.
Just at that moment a woman's scream
was heard. Powhatan started up. The war-
riors were startled. In an instant a young
Indian girl rushed from the crowd and threw
herself on the prostrate victim. It was Po-
cahontas, the young daughter of Powhatan.
"Kill me," she cried, kill me; you shall not
kill him!" The warriors did not dare to
strike. Their blows would have killed the
girl. Powhatan's heart was softened. He
32 STORIES OF AM.iERICAN HisTORY.
forbade the execution. Smith was unbound,
and after a time he was allowed to go back
Here he found everything in confusion.
Other ships with colonists had arrived.
These new comers were young gallants who
did not want to work. They had heard there
was gold in Virginia, and it was that they
were after. But Captain Smith knew better.
It was with infinite trouble that he persuaded
them to settle down to felling trees, and
planting corn, and building huts, and making
roads, and erecting saw-mills. Many were
discontented. Some rebelled. A few went
off into the woods and were taken by the In-
dians. But by energy and firmness he finally
succeeded in making all contented. James-
town grew up to be a prosperous colony.
But for Captain Smith it would never have
succeeded. He went back to England, re-
turned with more colonists, and went back a
third time. He was then created admiral of
. I. ,,
', ', ,Il I' ,,
S I "
.. .o ,
/ ._- -__
THE APTIS OP _-- --O T -3
---- .... ._--= .~ -
THE BAPTISM OF" POCAHONTAS, Pa~ae 33
THE HERO OF VIRGINIA. 33
New England, a country not then settled.
The charts he published, the maps he made,
and the books he wrote, made the English
people acquainted with America. He died
in England at the age of fifty-four.
Pocahontas afterwards married a Mr. Rolfe.
He took her to England. Everybody had
heard of her heroism in saving Captain
Smith's life. The people came in crowds to
see her. When she rode through the streets
they cheered her. The queen sent for her,
and she went to court. Beautiful presents
were made her; great entertainments were
given her; she was shown the shops and
public buildings, and churches, and bridges,
and factories of England; artists painted her
pictures; lords and ladies had her at their
houses; so that the Indian girl became famous.
She died just at the time she was about em-
barking for Virginia, and her little daughter
grew up to be the mother of men and women,
who were afterwards famous in Virginia.
34 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
WHY THE COLONISTS CAME.
EVERY one ought to love God. Those who
do love Him have a right to worship Him in
their own way. Quakers in their way, Catho-
lics in theirs, Baptists in theirs. Everybody
now in this country, and in many other
countries, is allowed to worship God as he
pleases; but a long time ago it was not so.
In England the Puritans could not worship
God as they wished to do. Their Sunday
services were broken up, and the worship-
pers were thrown into prison. It was the
same with the Catholics; it was the same
with the Quakers. No matter how good cit-
izens they were, they were opposed and per-
secuted and punished; they had not freedom
to worship God.
In France it was worse. There the Hugue-
WHY THE COLONISTS CAME. 35
nots were not only opposed, but they were
driven from their country. A great many
were killed, and a great many more were
shut up in prison.
It was, then, for freedom to worship God,
that the Puritans came to Massachusetts,
and the Huguenots to South Carolina, and
the Quakers to Pennsylvania, and the Cath-
olics to Maryland.
The Puritans had now freedom to worship
God in their new home; but they were not
willing that Quakers should have that free-
dom, and whenever Quakers came among
them, they were persecuted and banished.
They sent away the Baptists, too, and the
"New Lights," as they were called, and the
Catholics. The Puritans wanted none to live
with them who were not Puritans.
Nowhere in the whole world was it then
understood what religious freedom meant.
The Episcopalians in Virginia did not under-
stand it, nor the Huguenots in South Carolina,
36 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY
nor the Quakers in Pennsylvania. They did
not all persecute those who worshipped God
differently from themselves, but they did not
When Roger Williams, who was a good
man, was banished from Massachusetts, he
went to Rhode Island. There were no roads;
no farms on the way; no people but savages.
His only crime was that he was a Baptist.
He found his path through the woods with a
brave heart. There were people who went
with him. The Indians were kind to him.
The land was better than in Massachusetts.
Other people shortly came to him, and in a
little time there was a flourishing colony in
Rhode Island. And in that colony every one
- Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Catho-
lics, Episcopalians, and Quakers might
worship God as they pleased. There was
no persecution. The Baptists who settled
Rhode Island had no more rights than the
Quakers and others who came to live there.
This was true religious freedom.
WHY THE COLONISTS CAME. 37
But Rhode Island was not the first colony
which did this great and good thing. Two
years before Roger Williams, with pack on
back, trudged through the woods towards
Providence, an English nobleman, named
Lord Baltimore, sent two ships into the
beautiful Chesapeake, with more than two
hundred people on board, all of whom were
Catholics. It was the richest body of colo-
nists which had ever come to. America. They
were nearly all gentlefolk, well educated, re-
fined, and good. They, too, had left England
because they could not worship God as they
It is a milder climate around the Chesa-
peake Bay, and the settlers did not suffer as
the Puritans had in Massachusetts. Besides,
it was a better time of the year, and the new
comers had money, and furniture, and tools,
and goods to sell to the Indians. Lord
Baltimore selected choice land near St.
Mary's, for which he paid the natives, and
38 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
plantations were laid out, woods cut down,
fences built, houses erected, and very shortly
a charming settlement was growing up.
The new colony was called Maryland, from
the English Queen Mary, and the new city was
called Baltimore, from the founder. There
was prosperity in Maryland from the first.
The country is beautiful. A great sheet
of water flows between two parts of it, and
from both shores the land rolls back in hills
and dales, green fields and rich meadows.
People who live in Maryland think no other
portion of the world is its equal.
Lord Baltimore made wise laws. Among
them was one which gave entire freedom of
conscience to every colonist. No matter
What might be his religion, he might enjoy it
undisturbed. Baptist or Methodist, Quaker
or "New Light," he could wiorshil) God as he
Grave old men in other colonies shook
their heads doubtfully, and said it would
WHY THE COLONISTS CAME. 39
never do. Religion would get terribly
mixed, and children would grow up not
knowing what to believe. But it did do.
Religion was not mixed, and no more re-
ligious children ever grew up.
As soon as it became known that Mary-
land law gave freedom of conscience, settlers
began to come from all the world, and good,
conscientious settlers, too. Episcopalians
came from Virginia, and Puritans from New
England, and Huguenots from Europe, and
Swedes from Delaware, and Dutch from New
Roger Williams gave freedom of conscience
to Rhode Islanders in 1636. Lord Baltimore
gave freedom of conscience to the Maryland-
ers in 1634. Maryland was the first com-
munity in the whole world in which entire
freedom of conscience was ever given to
40 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
THE TWO CALVERTS.
THE father of Lord Baltimore, whose name
was given to the beautiful capital of Mary-
land, was Sir George Calvert. His portrait,
hanging in Hampton Court Palace, represents
him to have been a fine English gentleman,
dressed in a scarlet suit, with lace cuffs and
a ruffle shirt, his long brown locks, with
sheen like silk, flowing over his collar and
scattered along his shoulders. His benevo-
lent face was an index of his heart. He had
been educated at Oxford, had travelled over
Europe, and was one of the secretaries of
State when James First was king. His good
judgment, great industry and strict truthful-
ness made his services so valuable, that when
he openly professed conversion to the Catho-
lic church and resigned his office, the king,
THE TWO CALVERTS. 41
Protestant though he was, would not spare
him. He said, in his broad Scotch, to those
who felt bitter towards Sir George, Nae, nae,
gang he to kirk or cathedral, we maun keep
The first attempt of Sir George Calvert to
form a colony failed. It was in Newfound-
land. He sent out many people, and visited
Avalon, as he called it, twice. But it was too
cold. The winters were long. And in addi-
tion to a poor soil were the constant dangers
from the French, who claimed the country as
theirs. He then asked Virginia to allow his
colonists to settle there. But Virginia did
not want Catholics. And so Sir George was
forced to beg King James for a grant, and re-
ceived in answer the beautiful country of
Before asking any one to join him, Sir
George Calvert made the laws for his new
colony. To make wise laws is to be like
God, all of whose laws are wise. Calvert's
42 STORIES OF AMERICAN HrSTORY.
laws were very wise. Every one was to be
free. All persons were to enjoy liberty of
conscience. The people were to vote their
own t:;xi(-. The king was to have nothing;
and every governor was to take this oath:
" Will not, by myself or any other, directly or
indirectly, molest any person professing to believe
in Jesus Christ, for or in respect of religion."
Sir George Calvert deserves to be ranked as
a wise law-giver.
Before the colony was settled. this good
man died. But he had the greatest happi-
ness there is in this world,-a wise and good
son. Sir Cecil Calvert, who became Lord Bal-
timore, was as great and good as his father
had been. He succeeded to the wealth and
opinions of Sir George Calvert, and what the
one had planned the other carried out.
As soon as it became known what the laws
of the new colony were to. be, many persons
sold their property in England, and prepared
to cross the ocean. A large ship, named the
THE Two CALVERTS. 43
" Ark," and a small ship, called the Dove,"
set sail in November, 1683, for America.
Leonard Calvert, a brother of Lord Balti-
more, led the expedition. After a prosperous
voyage, the two vessels reached Point Com-
fort, and entering the Potomac river in the
month of February, cast anchor near a beau-
tiful island. Landling-, they planted here a
cross, and claimed the country for Christ and
As the ships sailed up the river, whose
banks were covered with flowering forest
trees, the new-comers were delighted. The
air was balmy; the woods were musical with
singing birds; the deer, unterrified, lifted their
heads from drinking and gazed at the passers-
by; rabbits and raccoons sported along the
glades, and wild turkeys and partridges
roosted on the branches; and everything in
nature seemed in kindly accord with the
intentions of the benevolent founder.
In the river St. Mary, about twelve miles
44 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
from where it empties into the Potomac, the
ships were anchored near an Indian town
called Yoacomoco. It was a pleasant coun-
try. There were meadows green with grass,
and fields of sprouting corn, and brooks of
pure water. The inhabitants were gentle
and kind. It seemed to the sea voyagers a
little paradise, and they did not wish to go
Young Calvert asked the Indians if they
would sell their lands. They called a great
council, smoked their pipes, and the next
day answered thus: We will stay till the
corn is ripe, and you may stay with us and
build you houses. When harvest is past,
we will give our lands for hoes and axes
and cloth, and then move away." The
bargain was made. All the voyagers came
ashore and lodged in Indian wigwams. The
squaws taught the English women how to
make corn bread, and the chiefs the men
how to snare game. As it was spring time,
THE Two CALVERTS. 45
gardens were made, and fields planted, and
houses built, and before winter, when the
Indians left them, Lord Baltimore's little
colony was as comfortable as Plymouth,
which had been settled for fourteen years.
For the many years that Lord Baltimore
lived, there was friendship and love between
him and the growing colony. He sent over
new settlers; he supplied the inhabitants
with tools; he founded libraries, and sent
missionaries to convert and teach the In-
On the other hand, the colonists were
grateful. They sent presents back to their
founder; shipped to him furs and tobacco
and corn; and publicly thanked him for his
"great charge and solicitude in protecting
them in their persons, rights, and liberties."
46 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
MASSACHUSETTS would not have Quakers.
Laws were made that they should not stay.
If they came back they were punished, and
sent away a second time. If they returned
again, they were put to death. Four persons
kept coming back and were hanged. These
were cruel laws, and lasted but a few years.
The Quakers were good people. But the
Puritans did not believe this. They thought
them bad. For many years in Massachu-
setts, long time after the laws had ceased
to punish them, the Quakers were not wel-
In England, the numbers of Quakers kept
increasing year after year. Gentle-folks and
people of quality joined them. As they be-
came better known they were more respected.
THE QUA4KERS. 47
Although peculiar in speech and dress, they
were honest, temperate, industrious, and
saving; they took care of their poor, minded
their business, studied the Bible, obeyed the
laws, and were prosperous. Many were in-
telligent. There were only two things against
them. They would not become soldiers, and
they would not take off their hats to noble-
men or kings. It was wicked, they said, to
kill. And they took off their hats only when
they worshipped God.
William Penn joined them. He was a
young man, a fine, handsome fellow. Known
at court, rich, and a friend of the. king,
everybody liked him, though they laughed
at his becoming a Quaker. But he was sin-
cere. He believed the Quakers were right.
He therefore stood by them, and though his
old friends jeered at him, yet he did not
flinch. Out and out, William Penn was a
Other sects were settling America. Why
48 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
should not the Quakers? And they did.
Of all the colonies, Massachusetts, Maryland,
South Carolina, New York, Rhode Island, or
any other, not one started in better order than
Pennsylvania. This colony the Quakers set-
tled, and it is of this colony this chapter tells.
When William Penn had obtained a large
grant of land from the king, and had sailed
with many Quakers for America, he made
laws about the treatment of the Indians. He
knew how badly some of the other colonies
had treated the poor natives, and he deter-
mined that it should not be so in Pennsyl-
vania. They were to be dealt with fairly.
Their lands were not to be taken away by
force, but to be bought and paid for. There
was to be no quarrelling. If a white man
cheated or hurt a savage he was to be pun-
ished. They were all to live together as
When the Quaker colonists, therefore, were
landed, Penn sent a message to the neigh-
THE QUAKERS. 49
boring Indians to come together and see him
"on a certain day. He wanted a great Indian
council of old men and young men, chiefs
and braves, women and children, to hear
what he had to say. They were to be told
that he was a man of peace, and that neither
he nor his men would bring any weapons to
The Indians gladly accepted Penn's invita-
tion, and on the appointed day the woods
were full of Indians, with their squaws and
pappooses, hastening to the meeting. There
was no skulking behind the trees; there was
no warwhoop; there were no arrows shot nor
tomahawks hurled; there were no savage
yells. Everything was peaceful, and all
around was .heard the prattle of children to
their laughing mothers, mingled with the
piping of blue jays and songs of blackbirds.
It was a charming spot which Penn had
chosen. From the hill-top, where all the
crowd was gathered, could be seen the river
50 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
flowing between green meadows. Great for-
ests covered the distant mountains. All
around were blossoming trees and budding
shrubbery, spreading oaks and tall pines,
sweet scented foliage and bright colored wild
flowers, and overhead was the great blue
firmament. Food was prepared for the In-
dians, and when they had eaten, the council
First, the old men sat on the ground in a
half circle. Then the warriors sat behind
them, and in the third half circle sat the
young men. The women and children staid
outside. When all were still, a stoutish man,
with a red face beaming good-nature, stood
up and began to speak. He wore no arms,
and had no uniform. There were no soldiers
around him. He was clad in a suit of drab-
colored clothes, and wore a broad-brim hat,
which he did not remove from his head.
This hwas William Penn.
The Indians listened attentively while the
THE Q UAzKERS. 5S
interpreter told them what Penn said. As he
explained that the great God above was
father of both white men and red men, and
that all were brothers and should live to-
gether in peace, an Indian every now and
then would say Ugh, which meant, that is good.
After he had finished, a pipe was lighted, and
passed around, every one taking a whiff.
The Indians then talked with each other and
agreed that all which Penn had said was
good. It is better to be friends than ene-
mies," they said to each other, and we will
make, therefore, a treaty with the white men."
This was done, and for many years it was
never broken. Indians and whites hunted
and fished, bought and sold together, without
a quarrel. There were no wars. The colony
grew prosperous. The Indians kept their
word. And white men found out for the first
time that savages are much as they are
treated, good, when you do them good, and
bad, when you treat them badly.
52 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
TuE English settled one part of America.
The French settled another. The two could
never agree. Ohio was then a forest. French
troops came from Canada and built Fort
Duquesne, meaning to make Ohio theirs.
Fort Duquesne was where Pittsburg is now.
The English meant to drive the French away
from this fort. They therefore sent an army
from England to America. It was com-
manded by General Braddock.
When General Braddock had landed in
Virginia, he asked where George Washington
was. "Colonel Washington," he said, that
brave young American officer, where is he?
I want him to help me."
When Washington came to him, Braddock
saw a tall, large, handsome, young man, and
BRAADDOCK's DEFEAT T 53
he said to him, I want you, sir, to take your
Virginia riflemen, and go with me and my
army to drive the French from Ohio." Wash-
ington had fought the French and Indians
before, and General Braddock knew it. In-
dians do not fight as white men do. They
skulk behind trees, and shoot from the shelter
of rocks, and never come out boldly. Wash-
ington knew how to fight Indians. General
Braddock did not know. This was why he
wanted Washington to be his aide-de-camp.
Washington replied, "Yes, general, I will
go with you."
He then took three companies of Virginia
riflemen, and joined General Braddock's
It was on a pleasant June day that the
army started for Ohio. The sky was clear,
the birds sang in the trees, children were
playing in the yards, and people stood on
the roadside to see the troops go by. It was
a brave show. Drums were beating, and
54 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
fifes playing; banners were flying above the
red-coated soldiers; officers with swords and
epaulettes, were marching alongside; horses,
in rich saddle-cloths, bore General Braddock
and his aids in advance; and everybody was
in good heart. The cannon lumbered along.
Wagons, with tents, followed. There were
carts filled with food, and negroes to cook,
and sappers and woodmen to cut down the
trees, and engineers to build bridges across
deep rivers, and mules laden with tools,
and pack-horses loaded with blankets, and
ambulances for the surgeons, and great
wagons, with anvils and hammers and
horseshoes. Never was an army so well
prepared. General Braddock was sure of
In a day or two the army plunged into the
forest. There were no longer roads. They
had to go along bridle-paths, and cut down
trees, and build bridges to get the cannon
across rivers, and climb hills, and slump
BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT 55
through swamps, and sometimes to stop to
mend wagons and shoe horses; still, day after
day, the army tramped on, sure of victory
when they reached Fort Duquesne.
It was now the 8th of July. They had
been more than four weeks on the march.
It was only eight miles to Fort Duquesne.
The troops, tired and hungry, encamped for
the night. They were on the top of a hill.
In the twi-lght General Braddock and his
officers stood looking with their spy-glasses,
over the ground they were to pass. "It
is all clear," said one aide-de-camp; "they
can't escape us to-morrow."
I think that is certain," remarked Colonel
Johnson; "we shall have them in close
quarters before another day."
"I hope so," said General Braddock; "but
what do you think, Colonel Washington ?"
"If we are very careful," replied Washing-
ton, I thing we may succeed. But yonder,
between us and the fort, is a deep pass. I
56 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
fear that. The Indians may attack us there.
If they do, we shall be powerless. Let me
go in advance with my rangers and make all
General Braddock did not think it best.
Besides, he grew a little angry. He was an
old soldier, and thought he knew better than
a young American. What," he exclaimed,
" a Virginia buckskin boy advise an old Brit-
ish commander !" And so, next day, with-
out any skirmishing in advance, the army
again plunged into the woods, marching
towards Fort Duquesne.
It was nearly noon. The day was hot.
Everything in the woods was quiet. There
was no sound beyond the tramp of the army.
Toiling on through the bushes the soldiers
went, suspecting no harm. On one side was
a hill, but they saw nothing there. It was
dinner they wanted. In a few minutes they
expected the command to halt. So, with their
guns on their shoulders, and knapsacks loos-
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BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT, Page 57.
BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT 57
ened, and cartridge-boxes unslung, they were
toiling along, when suddenly there came a
murderous fire from right above them. They
saw no enemy. There was no foe to resist.
And yet hundreds of officers and men were
shot to the ground. The firing continued.
From the tangled forest, that clothed the hill
beneath which they stood, came the yells
of savage ; and the crack of rifles. The
troops were thrown into confusion. The
wounded and dead were all around them.
Whose turn would be next, no one knew.
Every one was ready to-fly. Gen. Braddock
and his staff rode forward encouraging the
soldiers, but it did no good. Five horses,
one after the other, were killed under him.
He rallied the men, brought up the reserves,
fired the cannon, scaled the rocks, charged
with the bayonet, led parties up the hill, and
did all that a brave man could do. It was in
vain. From behind trees and rocks, and
thick bushes, the Indians poured their deadly
58 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
fire, until the British troops were compelled
to fly. 'Poor Braddock was wounded, his
officers were killed, soldiers were shot like
sheep, and the whole army was in a rout.
It was then that Washington and his rifle-
men came up from the rear. They climbed
the hill. Every man skulked from tree to
tree. Unlike the British troops, they did not
march in column. Whenever a red-skin
showed himself, they fired at him. They
fought the Indians in their own way. And
though they could not conquer them, they
held them at bay until the British troops had
retreated to a safe place.
It was a terrible battle. Had General
Braddock listened to Washington's advice,
it might have been different. Washington
knew the method of Indian warfare. He
feared a surprise. That very morning he had
warned General Braddock. "Let me scour
the woods with my riflemen," he had said.
But Braddock thought he knew best. He
BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT. 59
did not relish advice. And so, with banners
flying, and drums beating, he marched his
soldiers into the very trap the French and
Indians had set for him.
While Washington and his riflemen were
engaging the Indians, the British troops
drew back. They abandoned their baggage,
stores, and guns. Seven hundred soldiers
lay killed on the field. General Braddock
was mortally wounded. Twenty-six officers
were killed, and more than fifty were wound-
ed. The army would not tarry. Leaving
everything behind, while Washington and
his riflemen were protecting them from pur-
suit, before nightfall they were well on their
way back to Virginia.
Washington drew off his riflemen in good
order, and followed after. He had saved the
British army. Had his advice been followed,
a victory would have been won.
60 STORIES OF AMERIGCAN HISTORY.
THE THIRTEEN COLONIES.
ONE hundred and fifty years after Captain
John Smith founded Jamestown, there had
grown to be thirteen great colonies in Amer-
ica. It was no longer a vast forest. Thou-
sands of ships had come and gone, and tens
of thousands of farmers and mechanics, min-
isters and lawyers, poor men and men with
money, had come to settle in this country. In
New England, there were four colonies, Mas-
sachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and
Rhode Island. The Dutch had settled New
York; the Catholics, .Maryland; and the Qua-
kers, Pennsylvania. Then, besides Virginia,
there were North Carolina and South Carolina
and Georgia in the South, and New Jersey
and Delaware in the middle of the country.
There were, indeed, no railroads. Going from
THE THzRTEEN COLNzIES. 61
place to place was difficult. It took three
days to reach New York from Boston, and
five days to get to Philadelphia, and a week
to go to Baltimore, and ten days to be safe
in Richmond. As for Wilmninton in North
Carolina, or Charleston in South Carolina,
nobody went there save in ships.
But all these thirteen colonies were pros-
perous. There were cultivated farms, and
convenient houses; there were roads from
town to town; there were bridges across the
rivers, and mills on the streams, and school-
houses in the villages. On week days men
worked in the fields, and on Sundays wor-
shipped God in the churches. Everywhere,
all over this great country, every one was
What right had George the Third to trouble
the people ? They had cleared the land, and
built the houses. They had made laws and
obeyed them. English ships might come
and trade ; English people were welcome to
62 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
settle; English goods were bought and sold.
But the king was not content. He called
these colonies his. He wanted their money.
If their ships sailed to the West Indies, he
claimed part of every cargo; if one colony
traded with another, he wanted a share of the
profits; if land was bought or sold, he de-
manded some of the money; and when the
schoolmaster was paid, or the colleges gave
diplomas, or a ship brought goods, or a fac-
tory made cloth, or a man kept a horse and
carriage, King George asked for a tax. He
taxed everything. He sent men to collect the
taxes. He punished those who would not
pay. And he quartered on the people soldiers,
to compel those who were not willing.
What right had he to do this? None
whatever. The colonists knew that he was
wrong, and they resisted; when he taxed
paper they would not buy it; when he bil-
leted his soldiers on the householders they
bolted their doors; when he sent tea over in
TxE THInRTEN COLONIES. 63
his ships, they made the ships go back with
their cargo, or threw it into the sea.
Like all misunderstandings which are not
settled, this difference between King George
and the Americans grew into a bitter quarrel.
The colonists sent Benjamin Franklin to
England, that he might explain to the king.
He was one of their wise men, and they
thought that the king and his parliament
would listen to what he said. They also
wrote letters, and made addresses, and
passed resolutions; it was liberty only that
they wanted; they did not wish to revolt;
England they came from, and England they
loved; it was their mother country; they
called themselves Englishmen; they had
fought for the king, and were willing to fight
for him again. Give us our liberties," they
said; we ask nothing more. We will buy
your goods, and receive your ships, and wel-
come your people, and acknowledge your
rulers, and help you fight your battles."
64 STORIES OF AMERICAN. HISTORY
But it would not do; King George would
not listen to reason; he felt strong; the col-
onists, he thought, were weak. He wanted
money; this he would not yield. The taxes
on tea, on paper, on industry, on sales, on
ships when they sailed, and merchants when
they traded, and mechanics when they built
factories, and farmers when they sold their
crops, and backwoodsmen when they brought
in their peltry, and even lawyers when they
practised, and clergymen when they preached,
and priests when they celebrated mass, he
would not give up. Pay the taxes," he said,
" and you shall have your liberties! "
It was upon this question of taxes that the
quarrel ever grew. Year after year the king
imposed his taxes ; year after year the colo-
nists refused to pay them. The quarrel kept
increasing; it was the same all over the
country; in New York, and in Massachusetts,
in New Hampshire, and far-distant Carolina,
it was the same. "Pay the taxes !" said the
THE THIRTEEN COLONIES. 65
king. "We will not pay them! answered
the colonists. And when he sent armies to
Charleston, and New York, and Boston, to
force the people to pay, the colonists laughed
at the soldiers, and taunted the commanders,
and disobeyed the governors.
In Boston, the people became very angry.
They insulted the soldiers. "What right,"
they asked, have these redcoats here?"
The soldiers on their side, too, were over-
bearing. They called hard names. You are
rebels!" they said. "If you don't obey the
king, we will make you slaves!"-" Slaves,
"and be hanged to you!" cried a man one
day. "Why don't you try it? You are
cowards, every mother's son of you! Fire,
if you dare "
And so the quarrel grew. The very
boys laughed at the soldiers. Nobody would
speak to them. In the streets, and on the
Common, and down the wharves, and around
the taverns, and through the alleys, and out
66 .STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
of the windows, and under the stoops, when-
ever a soldier ;i leared, there was somebody
to cry out, "Lobster-back! Down with the
Of course this state of things could not
last. There was sure to be some trouble. It
was as if a mastiff and a bull-dog were growl-
ing at each other in the same yard. Sooner
or later a fight was certain to come; and so
it turned out here in Boston. One evening,
-it was the fifth of M;trch, 1770, the
crowd of men and boys got angry with a
soldier in State Street, because he had struck
a little negro child, and they chased him
to his barracks. Soon a squad of soldiers
marched out into the street to disperse the
crowd; but the people would not go home.
They shouted, Lobster-backs lobster-
backs! Fire, if you dare, you cowards!
You don't dare to fire!" As the soldiers,
with guns on shoulder, marched along, the
people threw stones at them, until one of
THE THIRTEEN COLONIES. 67
the soldiers, being hit by a brickbat, fired his
gun into the crowd. Then several other sol-
diers fired their guns. Two citizens were
killed, and five or six were wounded. And
now the whole town was aroused. Murder,
murder! was the cry. The bells began
to ring; quiet citizens turned out of their
houses; people were running one way and
another; and the dead and wounded were
taken up and conveyed to their homes. A
great funeral took place the next day, and
thousands of citizens followed at the burial.
The soldiers who had fired were arrested and
put in prison. Instead of frightening the
people, this massacre only enraged them.
"Down with the redcoats!" was now their
only cry; and, in the end, the British troops
were removed from Boston, and sent down
to the fort.
It was now a deadly quarrel between Amer-
ica and England. In New York, and New
Jersey, and the Carolinas, there was but one
68 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
feeling of hatred towards the king of Eng-
land and his soldiers; and though there was
not open war for five years to come, there
were preparations being made for what wise
men foresaw was sure to be.
DESTRUCTION OF THE TEA. 69
DESTRUCTION OF THE TEA IN BOSTON HARBOR.
THE quarrel did not stop. It never does
when men have courage to be free. The
Americans had that courage. They would
not be taxed without their consent. When
the King, George III, determined to let them
have no tea, except that which was sent in
his own ships, they said, "We will have no
tea at all." Their own ships were stopped
from going for cargoes of tea. The king's
ships, only, were to bring it. They could
have no tea unless they bought that which
the king's ships brought over from England,
and that tea was taxed.
Now it was not the tax only. That was
only a few cents on each pound of tea. It
was the right of the king to tax, that the
Americans disputed. They did not care for
70 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
the money. They cared for the right to
import their own teas. It was as if a big,
bully boy should say to the small boys, Pay
me a marble, or you shall not play on the
green." It was not the marble each little boy
would mind. Nobody cares much for a mar-
ble. "But what right have you to make us pay
a marble for coming in here to play?" the lit-
tle boys would ask. The ground is as much
ours as yours. It is a tax; we won't pay it."
It was just this with the Americans. And
so, when the king sent three ships laden
with tea to Charleston, and four to Philadel-
phia, and three to New York, and three to
Boston, the people in Charleston, Philadel-
phia, New York, and Boston, determined the
tea should not be landed. In Charleston, in-
deed, they did land it; but no one dared to
sell it, and it perished in the cellars, where it
was stored. In Philadelphia, five thousand
people collected, and frightened the captains
of the tea ships so that they set sail back for
DESTRUCTION OF THE TEA. 71
England. New York did the same. The tea
did not come into port there. All but eigh-
teen chests went back to England,,the owners
of the tea being afraid of the people. In Bos-
ton, it was different. The three ships came
into port. They were loaded with tea. Gov-
ernor Hutchinson was determined it should
be landed. The people were determined it
should not. And it is this quarrel between
the governor and the people which is now to
It was a bright Sunday morning, that 29th
of November, 1773. The bells in Boston
were ringing for church. Parents and
children were dressed in their best. To the
Old South, to King's Chapel, and to other
places of worship, everybody was hastening.
No shops were open, no wagons crowded the
streets, no sellers cried their wares, no boys
were at play. It was the Lord's day, and allthe
people kept it holy. At eleven o'clock, while
the ministers were preaching, there came the
72 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY
news that the Dartmouth" was in sight.
She was coming up the bay. No sooner had
the services ended than the people, coming
out of meeting, got the news. It spread from
one to the other. "The 'Dartmouth' is in,"
was in everybody's mouth. Groups stopped
in the streets. It was not the sermons now,
but the news, everybody was talking about.
What was to be done, no one knew. It was
Sunday, but the hours were precious. If
they waited till Monday, the tea might be
landed. And so, God's day though it was,
the selectmen had a meeting at noon, and a
meeting in the evening.
And now was coming on the bravest day
Boston had ever seen. Mr. Rotch owned the
"Dartmouth." The selectmen got his promise
not to land the tea till Tuesday. They then
sent men to Dorchester, Roxbury, Brookline,
Cambridge, and Charlestown, to tell the peo-
ple there would be a meeting at Faneuil Hall
Monday morning. The people came in so
DESTRUCTION OF THE TEA. 73
great crowds that the meeting had to adjourn
to the Old South meeting-house There were
five thousand persons present; John Han-
cock, and Samuel Adams, and Dr. Warren,
and all the patriots were there. They re-
solved that the tea should not be landed.
Governor Hutchinson sent the sheriff to dis-
perse the meeting, but he was hissed out of
the house. Six persons were appointed post-
riders, to arouse the country people; five
persons were chosen to talk with the gov-
ernor; and twenty-four t il ,uly ? young men were
named to stand on the wharves,-twelve by
day and twelve by night,--to ring the bells
and hoist the lanterns to call the people to-
gether, if the ship should begin to land her
Meanwhile, the other two tea ships arrived.
There were now three, all laden with tea.
The six post-riders kept the country people
informed of this. These brave farmers were
ready to start for Boston in an instant; it
74 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
looked like a fight. It is better to wait,"
the selectmen said; "perhaps we can induce
the governor to send the ships back to Eng-
land." And so, from day to day they talked
and pleaded with him to order the ships
Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday came;
meetings were held every day; hardly any
ordinary business was done in Boston. A
committee waited on the governor every
morning; he would not yield. "The tea
shall be landed," he said. There were ships
of war in the harbor, and British troops in the
town, and he thought he could compel the
citizens. But he did not know them. They
were full of the spirit of liberty; and, night
and day, neglecting everything not necessary
to be done, shutting up their shops, closing
the schools, stopping drays and wagons, carts
and barrows, from work in the streets, and
even closing the markets, these Boston citi-
zens did little during four days but stand
DESTRUCTION OF THE TEA. 75
talking in groups at the corners, or hold meet-
ings on the Common. What they wanted
was, that Governor Hutchinson should send
the tea ships back to Ei::5;lol.
It was now Thursday morning, December
16, 1773. Mr. Rotch had kept his promise
not to land the tea from the ships; but the
people wanted more. Until the sails were
spread and the three vessels were under-
way down the harbor, they would not be
content; he must see the governor and get a
pass for the clearance of his ships instantly.
The poor man was frightened; he went to the
Government House, but the governor had
gone to Milton. Mounting his horse, he then
galloped out of town towards Milton, to find
the governor and obtain the pass.
At three in the afternoon a meeting
was held at the Old South. A great many
people had come in from the country, and
what with them and the citizens, the house
was full. While they were waiting the re-
76 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
turn of Mr. Rotch, speeches were made by
Adams, and Hancock, and Young. The
meeting cheered the speakers, and applauded
the resolutions, and when the vote was taken
"Shall the tea be landed?" and every man
cried out No! there went up a hurrah that
shook the roof; the people outside caught up
the cheer, and all along Washington Street,
and up School Street, and down Water Street
and Milk Street, the huzzahs filled the air.
But it was in December, and the days were
short. It was past five o'clock. Out of doors
the twilight was fading into night, and in the
meeting-house it was becoming dark. While
the people were growing impatient, and calls
were made for lights, and some cried one
thing and some another, Mr. Rotch arrived.
Samuel Adams stood up and said: Order!
Mr. Rotch has come back from the governor!
Hear what he has to say! All became quiet
and listened. The poor, tired man, stood up
and answered: "I cannot send back the tea;
I _I'Il -=,
F '- F -2-
DESTRUCTION OF TEA. Page 77.
DESTRUCTION OF THE TEA. 77
the governor will not give the vessels a pass."
"This meeting, then," said Adams, "can do
no more to save the country"; and the great
crowd of people in the meeting-house poured
out into the street.
On the instant a shout was heard from a
body of men, disguised as Indians, coming
along. Clad in blankets, with painted faces
and brandished tomahawks, crying the war-
whoop as they passed the door, they pro-
ceeded to the wharf. The people shouted
as they passed. Numbers followed them.
Posting guards at the docks, obeying the
orders of their leader, committing no out-
rage upon persons or property, these young
patriots took possession of the three tea-
ships. At once pulleys and tackles were at
work hoisting the tea-chests out of the holds.
Men stood ready to handle them. As the
windlass hove up each chest, an axe broke
in its head, and its contents were poured
into the sea. No one disturbed the workers;
78 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
the stars were shining brightly overhead;
the work was plied far into the night; and
when it was done, all separated without
noise, and went home to bed. Next morn-
ing there was not a chest of taxed tea in
Boston, on shipboard or on shore. Mr.
Rotch was sorry, and the governor angry;
but the tea was safe in salt water, and the
people returned to their work.
THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. 79
THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON.
BOSTON had become a city. Since the
Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth, one
hundred and fifty-five years had gone. All
over Massachusetts, there were farms, with
houses and barns, orchards and gardens,
horses and wagons. The great forests had
been cut down. There were roads and
bridges. Pretty villages, with school-houses
and churches and shops, had grown up. The
Indians had disappeared. Bears and wolves
had been killed, or driven away. You might
go a hundred miles, north, south, or west,
and see everywhere, green fields, saw mills,
grist mills, sloops sailing on the rivers, great
herds of cattle, farmers at work ploughing
or harvesting, children playing in the yards,
carriages passing along the streets, and great
80 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
carts carrying crops to market. It was a
pleasant country, and a happy people.
But there was one trouble. England was
the Mother Country, and the people had a
quarrel with England. George the Third was
king, both of England and America, and he
wanted us to be governed by laws which he
made, and not laws which we ourselves made.
We refused. He was angry. And so his
parliament passed a law, which was called
the Boston Port Bill. By this law we might
not sail our ships, nor sell our corn, nor hold
our town-meetings, nor choose our rulers, and
he sent General Gage, and a large army, and
several ships of war, to Boston, to make us
obedient. All this was in 1774-5.
The Americans saw that there was to be
war, and they took care of their powder,
storing it in powder-houses, in many places.
General Gage heard that powder was stored
in Lexington and Concord, and he deter-
mined to get possession of it before the
THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. 8
Americans knew what he meant to do.
And this was the reason of the battle of
It was a chilly night, on the 18th of April,
1775, when a great many soldiers, commanded
by Lieut. Col. Smith, marched out of Boston,
on their way to Lexington and Concord. They
made no noise. Drums did not beat, nor did
fifes play. The soldiers were not allowed to
speak aloud. When the officers gave their
commands, they did it quietly. Not a sound
was to be heard as the companies marched
along the road, except the noise of horses'
hoofs, and the tramp of footsteps on the hard
ground. Guns were already loaded, cartridge
boxes were full of powder and ball, haver-
sacks of bread and meat hung from the men's
shoulders, and canteens to drink from were
tied at their sides. The army moved as
quietly as the tide of the ocean ebbs and
flows, or as a river runs where there are no
rocks. Colonel Smith did not mean that
82 STORIES OF AIER'ICAN HISTORY.
the Americans should know that the British
troops had come out of Boston.
But they discovered it, nevertheless. Dr.
Warren sent Paul Revere across Charles river,
and there a man lent him a horse. He
stopped at every house on the road, say-
ing, The regulars are coming." Other men
started off to tell their neighbors. At mid-
night, Revere rode up to a farm-house, where
were Samuel Adams and John Hancock, two
patriot leaders, and asked leave to go in. A
sergeant, who guarded the door, said, "Do
not make a noise, for everybody is asleep !"
"Noise !" answered Paul Revere; "you will
have noise enough before long; the British
The news now flew like the wind. Every
one was aroused. Guns were fired, drums
beat, and bells rang. Old men, middled-aged
men, and even boys, loaded their guns and put
on their powder-horns and filled their pockets
with bullets. Some on horseback and some
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THE EVE OF BATTLE Page 82
THE EVE OF BATTLE. Page 82
THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. 83
on foot, they set out for Lexington.. The road
was crowded. And while it was yet night,
long before the British troops reached the
town, Captain Parker formed his company on
-the common before the Lexington meeting-
house. There were seventy of these farmer
soldiers in their farm clothes who had already
got together, and there were almost as many
looking on who had no guns.
It was about four o'clock in the morning,
and still dark, when Thad. Bowman came
furiously riding his horse up to the meeting-
house and crying out, "Here. they come!
Here are the British Captain Parker now
ordered the drum-beat. Presently there came
-in sight more than eight hundred soldiers,
marching along the road to meet our little
company of less than one hundred. The
British halted as soon as they came in sight.
- The officers heard our drums, and thought it a
challenge. Captain Parker had ordered his
men not to fire first, but wait and see what
84 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
the regulars would do. While he was still
forming his company, the whole body of
British troops began to march again. As
they came on at double-quick, shouting and
firing, one of their officers rode forward and
cried out to our soldiers, Ye villains! Ye
"rebels! Disperse! Lay down your arms!
Why don't you lay down your arms?" and
then ordered his men to fire. There was a
general discharge. Several were killed, and
more were wounded.
Our men now dispersed. Before they were
out of reach, some of them fired their muskets
at the British. One man, whose name was
Jonas Parker, had often said he would never
run from the blasted regulars. And he kept
his word. Every one of his company had left
the common; but he staid, firing away. At
length he was wounded, but even then would
not quit, until a soldier ran him through with
a bayonet. The cowardly regulars continued
firing, killing some in the roads, one running
THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. 85
for more powder, and another at the door of
his house, until eight were dead and ten
wounded, when, discharging a volley and
giving three cheers, they continued their
"march towards Concord.
The British troops were in pursuit of the
powder and cannon at Concord. This the
Americans knew. As soon, therefore, as Dr.
Prescott, who had ridden hard from Boston,
rushed into the little village, calling out,
"The British are coming! The British are
coming !" every man knew just what to do.
Oxen were yoked to carts, horses were har-
nessed to wagons, and men trundled wheel-
barrows, all trying to hide the powder-kegs
and the cannon in the woods. Bells rang in
the steeples. Alarm-guns were fired. Lan-
terns were hung in the belfries and on trees.
Couriers were sent in every direction. Be-
fore daylight several hundred minute-men
had come together in Concord, ready to fight.
When the regulars marched into town,
86 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
therefore, the powder and cannon were nearly
all hidden away. They could do but little
harm. The long way from Boston had tired
them, and they stopped in two places to rest;
at the North Bridge, and at the South Bridge.
M;ijor John Buttrick took three hundred min-
ute-men, and marched them, in double file,
with trailed arms, to the North Bridge. These
men had never been in battle. They were
farmers and farmers' boys, without uniforms,
or martial music, or bayonets to their guns,
or mounted officers; but they had courage,
and were ready, every man and boy, to fight
for freedom. When Captain Laurie, who
commanded the British troops at the North
Bridge, saw these Provincials coming, he
marched his men to the other side of the
river, and drew them up in line of battle.
Our men hastened forward, and then the
British began to fire, killing and wounding
several Provincials. This made Major But-
trick angry, and he cried out, "Fire, men!
THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. 87
for God's sake, fire!" when a volley was
poured upon the British which made them
run. But we did not pursue them, because
they retreated to their main body at the
" South Bridge.
And now blood was up. British troops
had run from American ploughboys. The
bells kept ringing; the news was spreading
far and near; everywhere, men were galloping
to tell the story; afoot and on horseback,
sturdy i.h.tap-shooters were pouring into Con-
cord; women were melting lead into bullets;
the roads were filled with angry crowds, and
even the ministers were telling their people to
go and fight. There never had been such a
morning in Massachusetts. From Acton and
Lincoln and Carlisle and Cl-lii.-nford and
Westford and Littleton, the farmers, each
with his gun, kept hurrying in. It was a
Glorious day for old Massachusetts, though
nobody knew what was going to come.
It was now noon. Colonel Smith saw what
88 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
was happening, and began to be afraid. His
soldiers wanted rest, for they had been march- r
ing fourteen hours, and were tired and hungry;
but he wished to get back to Boston before
the Americans hemmed them in, and he
therefore caused the music to play, and gave
orders to march. The companies formed,
arms were shouldered, captains marshalled
the ranks, and while the Provincials were
watching them from the top of the hill, with
drums beating, and fifes playing, and bugles
sounding, and banners flying, the British sol-
diers filed out of Concord on their way back
It was a terrible march. Fifteen miles in
a day is good work for an army when the
men are fresh. Twenty miles is hard work
when no enemy is near; but here, these British T
soldiers, having had no sleep the night before,
tired with a march of eighteen miles out of
Boston, sleepy, thirsty, hungry, cross, and.
lame, were now starting to go eighteen miles
THE BATTLE OF LEXVIGTON 89
back again, with thousands of minute-men
firing at them on every side. They would
never have got back to Boston, had not an-
other body of troops under the command of
Lord Percy, sent out from Boston by General
Gage, joined them when they got back as far
This re-enforcement took with them several
wagon-loads of provisions when leaving Bos-
ton. These the Americans had captured on
the road. When the two bodies of soldiers
joined, therefore, they were no better off.
They had, indeed, more men and more can-
non; but for the tired and hungry soldiers,
who every now and then would fall to the
ground, there was nothing to eat or drink.
It was now two o'clock in the afternoon.
Twelve miles more they must march. As they
staggered along the winding road, the min-
ute-men kept picking them off. Behind every
tree and rock and stone-wall, an American
was concealed, and as the troops marched
90 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
along, rifles shot them down. Running
through the woods and along the fields,
these sharp-shooters kept up with the tired
army. Now, an officer tumbled from his
horse, shot by a bullet. Now, two or three
soldiers would fall in the road, wounded by
buckshot. Now, a volley would come from
behind a barn, and wherever there was a
short turn in the road a dozen guns were sure
to bring many poor fellows to the ground. It
did no good to wheel about and return the fire,
for nobody was to be seen. The minute-men
were hidden, and as soon as they had fired
they ran forward to another place of shelter,
loaded their guns, and when the British troops
came along fired again.
There was an old fellow, on a shambling
white horse, without saddle, and with a halter
for a bridle, who followed them a long way.
Wherever there was a turn in the road, or a
steep hill, or a bridge, galloping along he
would come, raise his musket and fire. An
THE BATTLE OF LEXLYGTON. 91
officer was sure to fall. Then the old white
horse would wheel round, and be off at full
speed. It did no good to fire at him. He
was out of reach in a minute. Once the troops
were scrambling over some trees felled across
the road. Up came old grey, bang went the
gun, down fell an officer, and back again was
the man, quite out of reach. Again, the-troops
were fording a stream and had got wet. Be-
fore the hindmost were quite through, down
the hill galloped the old mare, and another
officer was killed. The British soldiers named
the man Old Dare-devil," but though they
aimed their pieces many times at both man
and horse, neither were ever hit.
Brave Dr. Warren was about everywhere.
He encouraged the minute-men, told them
what to do, bade them run ahead through
the woods, charged them to take good aim,
pointed out where they could get more pow-
der, said cheerful words to our wounded men,
and made even boys ashamed to be afraid.
92 STORIES OF AMERICAN HISTORY
His soul beat to arms. TEY BEGAN IT," he
said; THAT EITHER COULD DO : BUT WE 'LL END
IT, THAT ONLY ONE CAN DO."
It was night when the British got back
to Charlestown, and found boats ready to
take them across to Boston. They had
lost seventy-three killed, one hundred and
seventy-four wounded, and twenty-six miss-
ing. We lost forty-nine killed, thirty-nine
wounded, and five missing. Two hundred
and seventy-three to ninety-three. Not bad
for a beginning. It is called the battle of
Lexington. It was really the victory of the
THE BATTLE OF BUANKcER HILL. 93
THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL.
IT was on the nineteenth day of April that
the battle of Lexington occurred. Over heavy
roads and under leafless trees, the minute-men
had chased the British troops back to Boston.
Since then the pleasant month of May, with
its green pastures and fresh flowers, had come
and gone, and June sunlight and showers
were making the plants flourish in the gar-
den, and corn-blades spring up in the fields.
Everything looked pleasant. Children, com-
ing home from school, played in the streets;
farmers' boys drove the cows to pasture, and
took the grists to mill; old men were weed-
ing the gardens, and girls and women mind-
ing housework; bells rang for meeting on
Sunday, and good people went to church to
worship God; and to a stranger, all around
Boston seemed as it used to seem.
94 STORIES OF AMERICAN- HISTORY.
But the Americans were angry. The Brit-
ish troops had shot down their brethren at
Lexington. Ships with more soldiers had
arrived in Boston. General Gage had an
army of ten thousand men. He was proud
and strong and boasting. Soldiers insulted
citizens. They called hard names, took away
arms, shut good men up in prison, stopped
people from going to business, forbade being
out of doors at night, and made the condi-
tion of the inhabitants of Boston little better
than that of slaves.
The people in the country knew all this.
They saw that war must come. This beauti-
ful land, which was their home, belonged to
them. Boston was their capital, and British
troops had no business there. Patriots, like
John Hancock and Samuel Adams and Dr.
Warren and Josiah Quincy, formed them-
selves into a committee of vigilance, and
sent news to every town. In every place
meetings were held ; military companies were