Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 To tarry-at-home travellers
 The English
 The Welsh
 The Scotch
 The Irish
 The French
 The Dutch
 The Belgians
 The Swiss
 The Germans
 The Spaniards
 The Portuguese
 The Italians
 The Norwegians
 The Russians
 The Hungarians
 The Poles
 The Lapps
 The Icelanders
 The Greeks
 The Turks
 The Circassians
 The Jews
 The Arabians
 The Persians
 The Tatars-Turkomans
 The Nestorians
 The Syrians
 The Hindoos
 The Cingalese
 The Burmese and Karens
 The Japanese
 The Chinese
 The Algerines
 The Moors
 The Abyssinians
 The Egyptians
 The Malagasy
 The South Americans
 The United States
 North American Indians
 The Greenlanders
 The Patagonians
 The Brazilians
 The Mexicans
 The Peruvians
 The Austral negroes
 The Maories
 The Polynesians
 The conversion of the nations
 Back Cover

Title: The picture gallery of the nations
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027906/00001
 Material Information
Title: The picture gallery of the nations
Physical Description: 254, 10 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Nicholls, G. P ( Engraver )
Pearson, G ( George ) ( Engraver )
Allen, Walter James, fl. 1859-1891 ( Illustrator )
Religious Tract Society (Great Britain) ( Publisher )
William Clowes and Sons ( Printer )
Butterworth and Heath ( Engraver )
Publisher: Religious Tract Society
Place of Publication: London ;
Brighton ;
Manufacturer: William Clowes and Sons
Publication Date: [1874?]
Edition: 2nd ed.
Subject: National characteristics -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Manners and customs -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1874
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Brighton
England -- Manchester
General Note: Date of publication from inscription.
General Note: Some illustrations engraved by Butterworth and Heath, G.P. Nichols, Pearson and drawn by Walter Allen.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027906
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002235850
notis - ALH6314
oclc - 60551846

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    To tarry-at-home travellers
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The English
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    The Welsh
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    The Scotch
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    The Irish
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The French
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        The Brentons
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
    The Dutch
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    The Belgians
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    The Swiss
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    The Germans
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Hamburg market-women
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
    The Spaniards
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    The Portuguese
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    The Italians
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        The Venetians
            Page 69
        The Romans
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        The Danes
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        The Swedes
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
    The Norwegians
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    The Russians
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    The Hungarians
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    The Poles
        Page 93
        Page 94
    The Lapps
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    The Icelanders
        Page 99
        Page 100
    The Greeks
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    The Turks
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    The Circassians
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    The Jews
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    The Arabians
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    The Persians
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    The Tatars-Turkomans
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    The Nestorians
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    The Syrians
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    The Hindoos
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    The Cingalese
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    The Burmese and Karens
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    The Japanese
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    The Chinese
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    The Algerines
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    The Moors
        Page 170
        Page 171
    The Abyssinians
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    The Egyptians
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    The Malagasy
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    The South Americans
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    The United States
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    North American Indians
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    The Greenlanders
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
    The Patagonians
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
    The Brazilians
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
    The Mexicans
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    The Peruvians
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
    The Austral negroes
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
    The Maories
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    The Polynesians
        Page 235
        Sandwich islands
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
        The Tonga, or Friendly Islands
            Page 238
        The Society Islands
            Page 239
        The Marquesas
            Page 240
            Page 241
        Samoa, or Navigators' Islands
            Page 242
        The Fiji Islands
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
    The conversion of the nations
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text




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- POLES 93
- LAPPS .. . 95

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- PERSIANS. .. 125



- SYRIANS .. 136
- HINDOOS .. 141



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"All travel has its advantages. If you visit better countries, you may learn to
improve your own; if you are carried to worse, you may learn to enjoy your own."--
Dr. Johnson.

SHERE are few young persons in whom there is not found a desire to
visit foreign lands. They would see with their own eyes the glorious
landscapes of mountains, valleys, and lakes, of which they have heard
or read, and learn the difference in modes and manners of life
which exist between their own people and those of other climes.
In the present day the facilities of travel are great; and tours which a century
ago could only have been undertaken by a privileged few, and at a considerable
outlay of time and money, can now be made by many with ease and economy.
There are numbers, however, especially of the young, who cannot hope to pass, at
least for years to come, beyond their own country, and who must be content to derive
their knowledge of the wide world from the pen, the pencil, and the graver.
For such tarry-at-home travellers the present work is prepared. Its brief
descriptions and pictorial illustrations of the principal peoples of the earth may
instruct and interest, and prepare them to peruse with profit volumes of greater
fulness and higher pretensions.

[A limited portion of the following papers has already appeared in one of the
Society's periodicals: they are now issued with three-fourths of new descriptive matter
and numerous additional engravings.]


GREAT BRITAIN, thel largest island in Europe, consists of three principal divisions-
England, Wales, and Scotland. The greatest extent of England in a direct line from
north to south is 362 miles ; its breadth from cast to west is very variable. Its area con-
tains 50,387 square miles. It is divided from Scotland by the River Tweed, the Cheviot
Hills, and Solway Firth. Total population of England in 1871, 21,487,688.

SHE earliest known name given to England was Albion, or "white island,"
alluding to the appearance of its chalk cliffs. On its invasion by the
Romans it was called by them Britannia, a term which is supposed to
have been derived from a word meaning painted, tinted," from the fact
S that the early inhabitants painted their bodies. A Roman historian
describes it as "a country separated from the rest of the world, and
inhabited by savages." If there had been given to him a prophet's eye, he would

Y-Y 1 r, T VPIS 2


have seen, in the far-distant future, its ships on every sea, and its people colonising
the utmost ends of the earth.
Angle-land, which was, in course of time, changed into England, signifies the
land of the Angles, a German tribe, who conquered the country after the departure
of the Romans.
At the time of the invasion of England by Julius Casar, the Britons were
divided into several tribes. Their Druids, or priests, worshipped the sun as the
god of fire, on the tops of hills and in consecrated groves. Human sacrifices formed
a part of their religious rites. Prisoners of war and criminals were offered on their
altars. Their victims were shot with arrows, or slain with clubs, and the priests
pretended to foretel events according to the position in which the body fell, or its
appearance when cut open.
In a time of public danger, the people formed of the boughs of trees a large
uncouth image of a man. Then dragging their prisoners at the wheels of war
chariots, they were crowded inside the wicker-work, which was set on fire, while
priests and people frantically sung and shouted around, to drown the cries of the
sufferers. Heathenism is the same in every age. It never improves; it often grows
more vile and wicked. It knows nothing of the true God, whose name is Love, and
who "delighteth in mercy."
The history of the land before the time of Caesar is very uncertain. That great
Roman general invaded the country fifty-five years before our Saviour was born in
Judea, He came to conquer and to make slaves of the natives. He found the
country in great part uncultivated; large portions were covered with forests and
stagnant marshes.
Rudely o'erspread with shadowy forests lay
Wide trackless wastes, that never saw the day.
Rich fruitful plains (now waving deep with corn)
Frowned rough and shaggy with the tangled thorn:
Through joyless heaths and valleys dark with wocds
Majestic rivers rolled their useless floods;
Full oft the hunter checked his ardent chase,
Dreading the hidden bog and green morass;
While, like a blasting mildew, wide were spread
Blue thickening mists, in stagnant marshes bred."

In the interior of the land the dwellings were made of rushes, branches, and mud,
The better classes lived by fishing and hunting; the poorer on acorns, berries,
and roots. They stained their bodies with the dye of a plant called woad, and


marked themselves with scars to terrify their enemies. The state of the people of
New Zealand, when their country was first discovered, exhibited more nearly than
any other the condition of Britain when the Romans invaded it.* Such it was
without the gospel.
It is said that Christianity was first taught in Britain about the year 64, but for
many years it did not make much progress among the people.
The original stock of the people of this land is now mingled with the Latin,
Saxon, Norman, French, and other races. It has been remarked that there is no
nation upon the globe, in which more singular and more opposite characters are
to be met with, where liberty moulds the manners of the natives, freedom directs
their mode of thinking and judging, and every man may, if he will, appear as
he really is."
At home, railroads, canals, bridges, factories, and public buildings show the
energy and skill of the English. Abroad, their extensive and flourishing colonies
and dependencies, and discoveries in remote lands, whose names were unknown to
the old Romans, display their enterprise and love of adventure. These colonies
cover an extent of 8,166,904 square miles, and contain a vast population.
The manufactured articles of the English are in repute all over the world.
There are supplied cotton goods from Manchester; woollens and cloths from Leeds;
plated ware and cutlery from Sheffield; machinery and hardware from Birming-
ham; silks from Norwich and Spitalfields; ribbons from Coventry; carpets from
Kidderminster; lace from the Midland Counties; hosiery from Nottingham; boots
and shoes from Northampton; and straw-plait from Dunstable.
Then, too, the natural productions of the country promote the welfare of
the people, and aid trade and commerce. Vast quantities of coal are obtained
from the mines of Newcastle; tin and copper from Cornwall; lead from Cumber-
land; iron from Staffordshire; apples from Devon; corn from almost every
county; and fish from more than three thousand miles of sea-coast.
LoNDON, the capital of Great Britain, is the largest, most populous, and
wealthiest city in the world. It is about sixty miles from the sea, but large
ships can come up to its quays, It extends over parts of Middlesex, Surrey,
Kent, and Essex. Inclusive of the suburbs, it covers a hundred square miles, and
has a population of about three millions. While it is the grand centre of the
world's commerce, visited by the merchants of all nations, it is not less remark-
able for the number of its learned and charitable institutions. Hospitals, asylums,
and charities for the relief of the poor and the reform of the vicious cause an
annual outlay of more than one million and a quarter of pounds sterling. The large
Sharon Turner's England under the Anglo-Saxons."


increase of schools for the poor, the formation of ragged schools and other
Christian agencies are to be specially observed.
Among its great public buildings are St. Paul's Cathedral, Westminster
Abbey, the British Museum, the Tower of London, the Mint, National Gallery,
Royal Exchange, Guildhall, and particularly the new Houses of Parliament,
where the Queen on state occasions meets her Lords and Commons.

But there is a dark side to the picture, which may well cause sorrow and
humility in the hearts of all who love their country. Among the facts to be
deplored are the vice and impiety that prevail among nearly all classes, and
the numbers of the population who are without the most ordinary education.
Happily, great efforts are now being made to remove the reproach caused by
this state of things. Though sin abounds and darkness broods over many a spot


in the land, it may be affirmed that never were tLere so many examples of
household piety, and never so much done by the wise and good to remove the
evils that exist, as at the present time. With a free Bible and the preach-


ing of a pure gospel, and a patriotic government, we may hope, through the
blessing of God, that a country, regarded by other nations as great and
enlightened, will become still more worthy of the rank and character it has
attained in the world,


The population which is daily increasing in the
United States of America is the Anglo-Saxon race,
speaking English. In South Africa, and in New
Holland-with its cloud of islands in the surround-
ing ocean-in the isles of the west, and in Canadn,
to the Arctic Circle, this language is advancing, not
by the imperial authority of princes, but by its own
nature, in the hands of the most enterprising and
intelligent colonists of the earth. Even in India
it is spoken by the higher classes of natives at the
seats of government, and is likely 'to become the
language of commerce throughout the seas of the

east. In proportion as it obtains access to the
markets and the schools of those regions, it will
conduct, in its train, that knowledge and truth
which alone can dignify and bless the nations."-
Dr. Smith's Origin and Progress of Language.
Two hundred and fifty millions of people speak,
or are ruled by those who speak, the English tongue,
and inhabit a third of the habitable globe; but at
the present rate of increase, in sixty years there will
be two hundred and fifty millions speaking English
dwelling in the United States alone."-Sir C. Dilke's
Greater Britain, vol. 1.

" Now, gather all our Saxon bards,
Let harps and hearts be strung,
To celebrate the triumphs of
Our own good Saxon tongue;
For stronger far than hosts that march
With battle-flags unfurled,
It goes, with FREEDOM, THOUGHT, and TRUTH,
To rouse and rule the world.

"It kindles realms so far apart,
That while its praise you sing,
These may be clad with autumn's fruits,
And those with flowers of spring.
It goes with all that prophets told,
And righteous kings desired,
With all that great apostles taught,
And glorious Greeks admired.

Mark, as it spreads, how deserts bloom,
And error flees away,
As vanishes the mist of night
Before the star of day!
But grand as are the victories
Whose monuments we see,
These are but as the dawn whiclf seaks
Of noontide yet to be,


"Take heed, then, heirs of Saxon fama !
Take heed, nor once disgrace,
With deadly pen or spoiling sword,
Our noble tongue and race.
Go forth prepared in every clime
To love and help each other,
And judge that they who counsel strife
Would bid you smite-a brother.
"Go forth, and jointly speed the time,
By good men prayed for long,
When Christian states, grown just and wise,
Will scorn revenge and wrong;
When earth's oppressed and savage tribes
Shall cease to pine or roam,
All taught to prize these English words-
J. G. LosNP.

7 i -_


WALES, a principality of Glea' Britain, lies on the western boundaries of England.
Its length, from north to Eouth, is 180 miles; its breadth, from east to west, is 50
to 80 miles. Population in 1871, 1,216,420.

HE principality of Wales is often called Calmbria, and its people Cy7mri,
both words being derived from the term Cimmerians, an ancient race of
Western Europe, of whom it is believed the present inhabitants are the
descendants. Originally they dwelt in South Britain; but, on the
invasion of that country by the Angles (see page 10), many of the
natives fled to the mountains in the western part of the island, where
S they became known as Wiliscmen, or strangers," from whence is obtained
the present name, Welslhmen.
The Welsh were under their own princes and laws till the reign of Edward
the First of England, who invaded their land and slew their prince (A.D. 1282).
The better to obtain the confidence of the people, and to secure his conquest, he
called his first-born son Prince of Wales, since which time the eldest son of the
reigning sovereign of England bears that title.
The Welsh language is said to be the oldest spoken language in Europe.
There are poems still preserved in this tongue which are about a thousand years old.
In personal appearance the Welsh are stout and of ruddy countenance: their
round faces are fresh-coloured, even to old age. The gentry dress like the English;
the farmers wear rough home-made woollen coats, thick stockings, and flannel shirts.
Indeed, flannel, which is largely made in the country, is much worn by men and
women, instead of cotton and linen. In some districts the females wear tall beaver
hats, but this habit is fast passing away.
The small farms and cottages of the Welsh form very pretty pictures, especially
those on the mountains. The thick walls are generally built of large rounded
stones, with the spaces filled with moss, from which sweet wild flowers spring in
their season. If you step inside, you will find that the light comes through very
small windows, and that a good part of the room lies in shadow. There are often no
grates; a fire of peat burns on the hearth, and articles of comfort are all around.


- i 1 '



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I: '



The whole looks neat and clean. Most cottagers have a small plot of land and a
garden; often some sheep or goats, and a cow. The women occupy much of their
time in knitting stockings and spinning cloth. Even when walking or riding they
busily go on with their knitting.
The people in the country live a retired life in the winter. Snow, frost, and


pathless woods are not likely to tempt them far from home. There is also at that
season a great deal of rain. "No matter for the rain," they say in their tongue,
" we are used to it;" and hence there may be seen women standing outside their
cottage doors at the wash-tub, or walking leisurely about the village, while the rain
is fast pouring down. The clothing becomes thoroughly wetted, and yet is worn
through the day without any fear. Little children, too, in groups in the rough


road, go on with their play in the heavy shower, when English cottage children
would be compelled by their parents to find a shelter within doors.
Wales is a land of mountain and valley, and presents many charming land-
scapes, one of which, the Vale of Llanberis, is very much admired by all who pass
through it.
The sabbath is generally kept very devoutly in Wales; and the people have a
great reverence for God's Holy Word. A narrative in reference to the latter is
of considerable interest:-
It was late in the year 1802, when a clergyman, the Rev. Thomas Charles, was
walking through the streets of Bala, a small town in Wales. He had not gone far
when he met a little girl whom he knew. He asked her if she could tell him the
text from which he had preached on the last Sunday. Instead of giving a ready
answer to his questions, as she had been in the habit of doing, she hung down her
head in silence. "Can you not tell me the text?" said he. She burst into tears.
At last she replied, "The weather, sir, has been so bad, that I could not get to read
the Bible." "Could not get to read the Bible! how was that ?" He soon learned
the cause: there was no copy of the Word of God to which she could get access,
either at her own home, or among her friends; and she used to travel seven miles,
over the hills, every week, to a place where she could get a Welsh Bible, to read
the chapter from which the minister took his text on the Sunday. But, during that
week, the cold and stormy weather had kept her from her usual journey.
After the girl had gone on her way, Mr. Charles began to reflect how many
were without the Sacred Scriptures. He then inquired among the people in the
town and villages, in how many houses the Bible was to be met with. Great was
his sorrow when he found there was only one copy to about every eighty families !
What was to be done? He was not a rich man, so he could not supply them;
and, even if he could get the money, he well knew they were not to be bought,
as there were very few printed in those days. After he had thought much on the
subject he resolved to go to London, to seek for help in giving the Word of God
to his beloved Welsh people.
A journey from Wales to the great city was then a serious matter: it cost a
considerable sum of money, and took up much time; and, besides, it was winter,
when travelling was not pleasant. But to London he went, and made many
inquiries for Welsh Bibles, and obtained only a small number. He now thought
he would seek for some pious persons who might assist him. He had heard that
several ministers and gentlemen used to meet early in the morning, to consult about
the circulation of tracts, so he resolved to call on them, hoping that they would
help him,


Early on the morning of the 7th of December, 1802, the Welsh clergyman
paid a visit to the Committee of the Religious Tract Society, and made known his
errand. They talked together about the state of the people without the Word of
God; and they soon resolved to make an effort to circulate the Bible more largely.
They first consulted how they could procure a supply of Bibles for Wales, when
a minister present said, "A Bible Society for Wales!-why not a Bible Society
for the world ?" After the Committee of. the Tract Society had well considered
the matter for several months, these gentlemen, along with some others, formed the
British and Foreign Bible Society, which has sent out millions of copies of God's
most blessed book to the many nations of the earth. "Behold, how great a matter
a little fire kindleth !"


SCOTLAND is the northern and smallest division of Great Britain. Its extent from
south to north is about 270 miles, and from cast to west 150 miles. There are numerous
islands around the cDast-the Orkney group consists of 67 islands, and the Shetland group
of upwards of 100. This country is said to have received the Christian faith A.D. 203;
was united to England under one crown in 1603, on the accession of its king, James vi.
(James I. in English history), to the English throne; in 1707 the two kingdoms were
placed under one Parliament, and took the style and title of Great Britain. Population
in 1871, 3,358,000. Chief city, Edinburgh.

SHE people of Scotland, called Caledonians by the ancient Romans, are
divided into Ilighlanders and Lowlanders; the former living in the
northern parts, chiefly in the mountains; the latter live in the southern
country, and in their dwellings, dress, and manners differ very little
r from the English.
_< The Scotch are a hardy, frugal, thoughtful, and industrious race;
and in personal appearance are tall and robust.
The Highlanders speak a language called Gaelic. Their old national dress
is peculiar. It consists of a kind of cloth known as tartan. This material is
woven into stripes of different colours, which cross each other, forming a chequer-
work of tints. The principal piece of dress made of this tartan is a large
shawl, called by the Highlanders a phelig, but by the Lowlafiders a plaid.
This hangs down the back and falls loosely in front nearly to the knees. Next
is a kind of petticoat, or kilt, also made of tartan; while on their legs are
socks of the same pattern as the rest, mostly tied below the knees with garters,
which end as tassels. By the arrangement of colours and stripes in the tartan,
the clans or large families are distinguished one from the other. Shepherds wear
a small black-and-white check, which is called "shepherds' plaid;" and a blue
bonnet, or cap, is worn among the clans.
The dress of Highland women consists of a short petticoat and bodice, over
which is thrown a plaid, falling in graceful folds to the feet. A handkerchief
is neatly tied round the head, though young women have seldom more than a
band of ribbon to secure the hair.


Instead of wheaten bread, oaten cakes are in common use : hence the country
has been called "the land o' cakes."
There is one point which specially deserves attention. As a nation they are
educated beyond most other people. There is a school in every parish, and
several in large parishes, where all, even the poorest, may "obtain an education
sanctified by the lessons of the Bible, imbued with a warm and earnest
Christianity, and leading to a measure of intelligence and morality which has

16- 1. rl


seldom been equalled." M1any of the best and wisest men who have lived in the
land were brought up in parish schools, as not only the poor, but many persons,


even in the higher classes of life, send their children to the common schools to be
The favourite instrument of music in some parts of the Highlands is the

bagpipes, which, however melodi-
ous to the ears and inspiring to
the heart of a Scotchman, is not
much admired by other people.
Like other countries, Scotland
has made much progress in wealth
and comfort during the past two
hundred years. In 1707 the whole
revenue of the country was only
110,694; it is now about
6,000,000. Until the last century,
there was scarcely a proper road
in Scotland. Goods were carried
in sacks and baskets, suspended on
each side of a horse. Where the
distance was great a cart was used,
but such was the wretched state of
the roads that the time taken by
the carriers is almost incredible.
The common carrier from Edin-
burgh to Selkirk, thirty-eight miles
distant, required a fortnight to
travel there and back. In 1678,
a coach with six horses was run
between Edinburgh and Glasgow, a
distance of forty-four miles, and it

~--~-~-~-. .-~-~;
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to per

six days !* About a century afterwards Dr. Samue
in Scotland, except in the Highlands.
Scotland is remarkable for its beautiful scenery.

form the double
1 Johnson found

Land of mountain and of flood,
Land of brown heath and shaggy wood."
The lochs, or lakes, mountain crags, braes, deep ravines, and other natural
beauties, together with its old castles and ruined abbeys, attract many tourists in
the summer season to this country.
Encyclopedia Britannica," article Sco'lani, by P.ofessors Nicol and Balfour.

journey in
good roads

AMONG the islands of Europe, in point of size, Ireland ranks next to Great Britain,
from which it is separated by the Irish Sea and St. George's Channel. Its greatest extent,
from north to south, is about 230 miles, and from east to west 175 miles. Population, in
1871, 5,402,759. Dublin, its capital, is one of the finest cities in Europe. Among
other cities are Belfast, Cork, Limerick, Londonderry, and Waterford. The adminis-
tration of the government is vested in a Lord-Lieutenant and Chief Secretary of State.

HERE is some uncertainty as to the origin of the name of this country.
Some think it comes from lerme, "western" land. Others, from a word
used by ancient northern seamen, Ire, which signifies warm." And
others, again, say it comes from Erin, that is, "sacred." The Irish
most commonly adopt the last explanation. By the Romans it was
called Hibernia. As the frequent fall of rain causes a fresh green verdure
to spread over the ground, it is known as the Emerald Isle," and the
national colour is green.
The Irish language is a dialect of the ancient Celtic; that is, it is derived from
a people who dwelt many centuries ago in Central Europe. The English language,
however, is now commonly in use throughout the island. In speaking, the natives
have a brogue," or peculiar burr; and even the English who reside for any length
of time in the country insensibly adopt this tone.
The Irish people have many good qualities. They are generous and hospitable.
A traveller entering one of their cabins" is heartily welcome to such fare as they
possess, which in some cases is only potatoes and buttermilk. But it is their all, and
they freely give it. They have warm affections and tempers, though these sometimes
break out into violence. They possess strong parental attachments, are brave,
shrewd, and acute, and are great lovers of fun and humour.
They are strong and active, are fair and healthy in complexion, and when
young commonly have flaxen hair and dark blue eyes. Their principal employment
are in connection with agriculture and fisheries, together with the linen and
provision trades.
In some districts, the homes of the peasants are rude huts or cabins.


From returns made to the Parliament of Great Britain, it appears that these
cabins are fast giving way to an improved class of dwellings. Trade and commerce
are on the increase, and the ground is being brought into a higher state of culti-
vation than in past ages.
Among other distinguished natives
of Ireland are Goldsmith, Moore, and
Wolfe, poets; Earl Rosse and Berke-
ley, men of science; Burke, Curran,
Plunket, and Sheridan, orators;
Bishops Usher, Bedel, and Leslie,
divines; and the Duke of Wellington,
Lord Wellesley, and Lord Palmerston,
statesmen. -4
Potatoes are the chief food of
large classes of the Irish poor. A :
bowl of potatoes, on the top of which
stands a saucer filled with salt, is the I
principal meal of the day. Around it
the family sit; and each one taking a i
potato, adroitly turns the peel aside '- I'
and dips it in the salt-saucer. -I
There are few cabins without a
pig; but then it is too often only
reserved for sale, in order to pay the
rent of the "potato patch." Poor
pig is much cared for. In the day
it lays its body along a heap of straw
and refuse, basking in the sun on the
outside of the hut. When the pig is
taken to market and sold, its master D .
tenderly bids it good-bye, as if he
were parting with an old and valued friend, whom he would see no more.
Turf, which is used instead of coal, is obtained from bogs extending over
the country for miles. It is the chief fuel-indeed, without it the Irish could
scarcely exist.
The Irish often spend on a funeral all the money they can scrape together;
and collections are made by their neighbours to do honour to the memory of the
departed one, Hired female mourners, called keepers, are employed to wake the


dead," and their noise is truly frightful. The pay of each keener is seldom less
than five shillings; and when they have given as much weeping and shouting as

they consider is enough for the price, eating and drinking commence among the
relatives and friends. Large numbers of people accompany the body to the grave.

--1~6~WIPP-- ~

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greater part of the Irish people are Roman Catholics; and it has been
that much of their poverty and ignorance is to be traced to their
They are held in great bondage by superstition; and "sacred places"


are visited by them, in the vain hope of obtaining pardon by the sufferings
they undergo. Making their way around the "place" on their bare knees over

- 7 r_

. -z3-


rough stones, they call on the Virgin Mary, or some supposed saint, to intercede
for them. Holy water, penances, relics, and other delusions are their trust.
May the time soon come when they shall know that the only "Name under
heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved," is that of Jesus Christ.

Oh! when shall Erin's lovely isle
In more than nature's beauty smile:
When to the land's remotest bound
Shall songs of holy mirth resound?
When shall her mountain glens rejoice
To hear the Saviour's gracious voice:
And when her vales, with verdure clad,
List to the gospel and be glad?
That time shall come-nor distant far,
Perhaps, those days of blessings are
When superstition's sable night
Shall yield to truth's convincing light.
The Bible, freely spread abroad,
Shall tell the wondrous love of God:
Praise and salvation, hand in hand,
Shall walk the borders of her land:
And sounds of violence no more
Be heard on Erin's tranquil shore."


FRANCE is the most westerly.portion of Central JEurope, and is separated from England
by the Straits of Dover, a distance of about twenty miles. Its circumference is about 3,100
miles. In 1866 the population was 38,000,000, of whom 2,000,000 were Protestants; but
the military disasters and the loss of two provinces, consequent on the war with Germany,
have reduced this number considerably more than a million. Capital, Paris, the second city
in size in Europe.

< HE French are an active, cheerful, and clever people, and have many
( good qualities. "Let us do justice," says Mr. Laing,* to the French
character. Their self-command and honesty are very much to be com-
mended. The hungry beggar respects the fruit on the roadside within
S his reach, although there is nobody to protect it. Property is much
respected, and in bringing up children this fidelity towards the property
of others seems much more carefully inculcated by parents in the lowest class, in
"Notes of a Traveller."


home-education, than with us. This respect for the property of others is closely
connected with that respect for the feelings of our neighbours which constitutes


what is called good manners. The young are taught to do what is pleasing and
agreeable, and this is a moral habit of great value." Hence, too, the humblest


workman is polite even in speaking to others of his own rank of life. In addressing
the poorest woman she expects that you will call her Madam."
The food of the common people is generally a coarse kind of rye bread,
chesnuts, and eggs, with occasionally a little honey, and on festival days a piece of
dried fish or meat. The higher and middling classes, however, give great atten-
tion to cookery; and on their tables are the richest soups, pastry, and other kinds
of fancy dishes that can be prepared.
Paris leads the fashion of nearly all Europe. Whatever modes or styles are
adopted these soon become the dress of the fashionables of all the great cities of
England, Belgium, Russia, and other lands. But the dress of French peasants
remains almost unaltered from what it was one hundred years ago. Blouses (a
sort of smock-frock), blue cotton trousers, and woollen caps, are the chief articles of
men's apparel; while the women wear a jacket and short petticoats, with a clean
cap. This class is seldom seen in bonnets. Formerly the cap was worn very high;
but since the increase of railways its height has been reduced because of the incon-
venience when travelling.
A lady traveller has furnished a picture-taken from life-of a peasant girl
of the south of France, whose home was high up in one of the valleys at the foot
of the Pyrenees mountains. She was dressed in the fashion that has for ages
marked this people. The spindle in her hands may show that she is very indus-
trious; and the heavy pot on her head tells us that she has been to a rivulet for a
supply of water. In the distance is one of the highest points of the Pyrenees, called
Pic de Midi. The lady who took her portrait says that, although nineteen years of
age, this young woman was only then learning to read. She belonged to a shep-
herd's family; and few of this class possess a single book, or know the value of
the humblest kinds of knowledge.
The rural districts of France are divided into small farms. These farms have few
fences or hedges or trees; the farm buildings do not look so picturesque as those
in England or America. The plough and other agricultural instruments are old-
fashioned, and the ground is badly cultivated. The French farmers have made little
progress since the days of their great-grandfathers. Women attend to much of the
labour in the field, and the rough, rickety waggons are commonly drawn by oxen.
Domestic comfort is not much known in France. Among the middle classes in
cities there is seldom a family table around which parents and children meet to take
their meals together. Those who can afford it dine at an hotel; and the sons, as
they grow up, are allowed one or two francs a day to provide for themselves; and
this money, instead of being spent in obtaining proper food, is too often expended
in cigars or devoted to the theatre at night.


Many of the chateaux, or mansions of the nobility and gentry, are very large
and curious-looking buildings. We give an engraving of one-Chambord, near the
town .of Blois. This was the favourite residence of Francis I., king of France.
What gay trains of splendidly-attired courtiers and fair ladies, in velvet suits, and


with jewel-handled whips, have issued forth from its old gates, to hunt in the
woods around! This chateau contains 430 rooms, and 1,800 men were employed
at one time in the erection of the vast pile of building.
The French, like other nations on the continent of Europe, are very unmindful
of the sacred claims of the Lord's day. A Sunday in a French city has been often
described. Thus a traveller writes:-" Notwithstanding all I had heard and read
of a continental Sunday, I was not prepared for what I saw. I had expected there


would be some signs of the presence of the sabbath and of devout worshippers. I
am bound to say that, although I walked through the very best as well as the
worst streets, I saw nothing to show the slightest change from the ordinary week-
day aspect of a large city. The crowd were in their ordinary attire. In the booths
by the side of the river, and over the bridges, wares of all kinds were exposed for
sale, and the usual cries fell on the ear. Waggons, with jaded-looking horses,
were bearing in all directions heavy loads. Warehouses were open, and workmen
heaving in and out large packages. Bakers were passing with baskets of newly-
baked bread. The shops were all but universally open, and tradesmen standing
at the doors trafficking with customers. Print shops, furniture shops, book
shops, drapers and clothiers, met the eye wherever it turned."
Since this account was written there has been some slight improvement
in regard to the holy day; but it is still, to a large extent, a time of worldly
gain and sinful pleasure. However greatly sabbath-breaking prevails in Eng-
land, it is not to be compared with the state of a country like France, where
the people from their youth are taught to seek only for amusement during the
hallowed hours. One of the most infuential journals of Paris, in commending
the closing of the principal shops of that city on the sabbath, lately said: "Eng-
land owes much of her energy and character to the religious keeping of Sunday.
Why cannot France follow her, as the sabbath was made for all men, and we
need its blessing?"


,' .'L i. X1'x(aA

BRI1TANY, the country of the Bretons, is a large province of France, on its north-
west coast. A great part of the country is wild, rugged, and nearly covered with forests,
although it has several fine seaports and a few strange old-fashioned cities.

CONSIDERABLE number of the Bretons are the descendants of Ancient Britons,
who were driven by the Saxon invaders of England and Wales to cross
the seas, and settle in this region. The country was formerly called Little
Britain. Their language is very similar to the Welsh, and Welshmen can
hold conversation with them, as a large number of the words in common
S use remain nearly the same in both tongues.
The Bretons are known for a love of their homes and country,
and kindness to each other and to strangers. Their vices are avarice and drunkenness.
Travelling in their country is not a pleasant affair. Their public conveyances are
uncleaned, unpainted, creaking, and jolting cars, and full of insect annoyances.
Some of the Breton towns may give a good idea of the towns of England two
or three centuries ago. The narrow streets, destitute of channel or causeway,
abound with lofty-timbered houses, of curious build, rising tier above tier, like the
stern of a three-decked ship, and approaching so close at top as almost to shut
out the light, with uncouth figures at the angles, and quaint devices on the walls.
Some of the shops are open to the streets, like booths in a fair. ... In
Brittany now, as in the middle ages, the market and the fair are the great events.
Rare is the buying and selling that takes place at other times; but when the
market occurs, the country people, from a distance of twenty or thirty miles,
throng the roads, bringing all imaginable articles to exchange for money; for
money is as eagerly sought in Brittany as elsewhere. The Breton works hard, and
with difficulty earns his poor pittance of fifteen sous (about sevenpence) per day,
from which, by wonderful care, he contrives to reserve one sou, which he carefully
saves." *
The better classes of the people are dressed as represented in our engraving.
This dress is neat and picturesque. The horses in use are strong and noble
"Brittany and the Bible," by J. Hope.




Ft ;I ,,





creatures. The common peasants of the land, however, are described as dirty and
rude in their manners. The Bretons, says a traveller, dwell in huts generally built
of mud, in which men, children, cows, and pigs live huddled together. Their
habits are wild and savage, and they are mostly in a condition of great poverty.
In some parts the men wear dresses of goat-skins, and look not unlike a number of
Robinson Crusoes. The hairy part of this dress is worn outside; it is made with
long sleeves, which fall nearly below the knees; their long shaggy hair hangs
loosely over their shoulders. On Sundays the men often wear three or four cloth
waistcoats, all of different lengths, so as to let the various colours, red, white, and
blue, with which they are bound, appear one above the other in tiers; a muslin
collar; full-plaited breeches, tied at the knees by garters of floating ribbon; white
woollen stockings, with white cloaks; and light yellow shoes.* Many of the women
of the poorer sort wear their dress till it becomes so dirty, patched, and ragged,
that you can scarcely trace what it has originally been. Some Breton females,
however, appear decently dressed in their singular costume, and are of a florid,
healthy look.
In some districts the women wear high muslin caps. Knitting-pins in hand,
they work away at stockings, whether walking, talking, or with a load of butter on
the head. When not at work the knitting-pins are stuck in their hair. When
the great Breton commander, Du Guesclin, was a prisoner to Edward the Black
Prince, and was asked how he could raise the large sum required for his ransom, he
replied, that "the women of Brittany would rather spin for a year, and ransom him
with the work of their distaffs, than that he should remain prisoner."t
There are large forests of chesnut and oak trees in the land, whose fruit, boiled
in milk, supplies the means of subsistence during the greater part of the year.
The people grovel on from age to age, with little change in their habits. If you
ask a Breton why he does not plant more fruit-trees, he will tell you his father
never did so. If you say, "Why not grow more corn, instead of depending so
much on chesnuts and acorns ?" he will answer, "I have gathered chesnuts and
acorns from the time when I was a boy; why should I not do so now ?" And so
he goes on, without learning wisdom or improving his mode of life. May we not
hope that better times will come to these people ?
Mrs. Palliser's Brittany and its Byways." t Ibid.

HOLLAND, or the Netherlands, the home of the Dutch, is in West-Central Europe,
and has a population of about 3,652,000, chiefly Protestants. Chief cities, Rotterdam,
Amsterdam, and the Hague. The latter place is the residence of the king. The country,
which is of limited extent, is bounded on the north and west by the German Ocean, on the
south by Belgium, and on the east by Germany.

HE "Low Countries," as the land of the Dutchman is also called, have
very few hills: almost all is a level plain, except on the sea boundaries,
where banks rise to the height of fifty feet. These are formed by strong
winds, which constantly drive the sand of the ocean towards the
shore. Where these are not thus naturally formed, dykes are built of
wooden piles and clay, to keep out the sea. Thus Holland is pro-
tected from being overwhelmed by the waves. The interior is crossed
at all points by canals, lakes, and rivers.
Flat as is the country, it is not uninteresting to the eyes of travellers.
Bright, cheerful villages spread over the landscape; farm-houses with their
windows gleaming in the sun; spires of churches peeping over clusters of
willow-trees; meadows over which roam thousands of fine cattle; numerous wind-
mills, which are used not only for grinding corn, but for draining the land;
quaint-looking barges slowly passing along the canals,-all help to form a picture
very pleasant to the sight.
The chief out-door amusement of the Dutch in winter is skating, in which
exercise both men and women, from the highest to the lowest ranks, excel.
Indeed, when the roads are bad, this is often the only way in which they can
go to market, to church, or to visit their friends.
All parents are compelled by the laws of the land to send their children to
school, and no one is allowed to be a teacher until proof is given, after
strict examination, that he or she is able to train the young. A Dutch school is a
place of great order. Rows of boys and girls, neatly dressed, and with hands
and faces shining from the scrubbing process they have undergone, are seen at
their lessons, But how quietly they sit-so different to what is beheld in most

I- -. i

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-=_-=~-~~--=- I-~=

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I __ / ___ ___------~

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And when it is time to go home, they pass out in the quietest manner
The only noise is from the clatter of their strong wooden shoes.


One of the good points in the character of the Dutch people is that of
cleanliness. In illustration of this, we will visit-

Broek, or Brook, is inhabited, like other places, by the two classes of rich
and poor; but whether they live in mansions or cottages, or whether they be



retired merchants or workers in the field, they are all noted for cleanliness in
their persons and homes.
There is no horse or cart road through the village of Broek, but there are
pathways, paved with bricks or coloured stones and shells, arranged in patterns,
and lined on each side by neat-looking gardens.
The people go in and out through the back doors of their houses, that they
may not soil the steps of the front entrances. I was amused," says a gentleman,
" to observe the anxiety with which one of the children of the house laid down
a wet cloth in order that I might clean my feet upon it, and thus introduce no
dirt into the dwelling." Before almost every house in the place may be seen a
row of shoes, or wooden sabots, which the people put off at the door, and walk
through the rooms in slippers or stockings. On one occasion Alexander, emperor
of Russia, visited Broek, and on entering one of the houses he complied with the
custom, took off his boots, and put on a pair of slippers. In their efforts to "keep
all tidy," even a tobacco-pipe-that choice and constant companion of a Dutch-
man-must have over the bowl a thin wire network, to prevent any ashes falling
on the floor.
The houses are frequently painted inside and out, and always appear in their
bright green and white colours. It is said that some of the proprietors of the
largest houses always keep a painter as one of their servants, who finds constant
work in sustaining the mansion in its freshness of appearance. The roofs are
covered with polished tiles, which glitter in the sunshine.
Every house has its "best parlour." That popular writer, Washington Irving,
in describing his visit to this "paradise of cleanliness," says of this room: "The
mistress and her confidential maid visit it once a week, for the purpose of
giving it a thorough cleaning, and putting things to rights-though it is hard
to say how they can possibly get wrong-always taking the precaution of leaving
their shoes at the door, and entering devoutly on their stocking feet. After
scrubbing the floor, sprinkling it with fine white sand, which is curiously stroked
into angles, curves, and other devices; after washing the windows, rubbing and
polishing the furniture, and putting a new bunch of evergreens in the fireplace,
the window-shutters are closed to keep out the flies, and the room is then
carefully locked up till seven days of time bring round the weekly cleaning day."
What enjoyment is to be had from this locked-up room it is hard to tell.
The little old-fashioned village church has its stones well scrubbed almost
daily, and the pulpit and seats shine from the rubbing they get. Indeed,
throughout Broek, one of the chief ends of life seems to be, to make everything
look bright and clean, and keep out dirt,


In this village and its neighbourhood large quantities of the little round
cheeses, known all over the world as Dutch cheeses, are made. The cows which
yield the milk of which these are made are kept very clean; and their tails
are neatly tied up, that they may not dangle them in the dirt when they lie
down. "I am sure," says a traveller, "that a large proportion of the poor
people of England, and a still larger number of the Irish, are not so well and
cleanly lodged as the cows in this village." The pavement of the stables is
covered with Dutch tiles: the walls consist of deal boards, smoothly polished
like an English dining-table; and the whole place is carefully washed and
It is a satisfaction for those who are fond of Dutch cheese to know that
the process of making it is the cleanest imaginable. The finest fresh butter and
richest cream to be tasted in any land may be also had here.
There is much that is very useless, and perhaps rather foolish and absurd,
in the manners of the people of the cleanest village in the world; but yet
we cannot think of them without learning a lesson of cleanliness and diligence,
which may be carried into practice in our daily life.

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BELGIUT, in Central Europe, is one of the smallest of kingdoms. It is 195 miles long
and 120 broad. Population in 1870, 5,081,260. It has in succession belonged to Spain,
Austria, France, and Holland, but became independent in 1831, and is now ruled by its own
sovereign, called the King of the Belgians. Chief city, Brussels.

HE Belgians in the northern part of the land partake of the character,
and have the manners and customs of their neighbours, the Dutch; and
in the south, of the French. In the former the Flemish language is
spoken; in the latter, as also in all the principal cities, the French is
in use among the upper and middle ranks.
SThe country has been called the Garden of Europe," and large
numbers of the people are engaged in the cultivation of the soil.
England is largely supplied with fruit, vegetables, and eggs from its farms, and
a considerable trade is kept up between the two nations. Neat farm-houses appear
all over the land. They are not large; they might be called cottage homes."
The principal room is a clean kitchen, on each side of which are two small
rooms, only large enough to hold a bed; and upstairs in the roof is a sleeping
room for the servants, if the farmer can afford to pay for help. Generally, the
family can attend to all the labour of the farm. The father and sons do the
out-of-door work; the daughters look after the cows and pigs; and the mother
spins flax into cloth, which she makes up into dress for the household.
The Belgians are also skilful in the manufacture of lace, silks, iron-ware,
and machinery: several of their large cities, as Antwerp, Ghent, Liege, and Ostend,
have been noted for ages for their thriving industry and commerce. Bruges, with
its wonderful belfry, presents an interesting scene at all times, especially on market
days. The city was in former times crammed with merchants and their wares.
Six canals led into it, which were filled with barges and ships, bearing the
manufactures of the place to all parts of Europe, but it has fallen into decay.
Every quarter of an hour the chimes of the belfry strike out old familiar
tunes, "like a great musical snuff-box up in the sky."
Brussels, the chief city, is called "Paris in miniature," which it resembles
in its parks, public buildings, places of amusement, and habits of the people.


If Belgium is "the garden," it has been also the "battle-ground of
Europe." About ten miles distant from Brussels the battle of Waterloo was




fought, where thousands were laid low in death. The spot is generally visited by
travellers; but, as one of them remarks: May no one return from this sadly
memorable plain without a firm resolve to do something towards the prevention
of war, and of seeking to promote the true brotherhood of man."
The Belgians are almost entirely Roman Catholics, and are superstitious and
bigoted. They are fond of religious shows and ceremonies, and their churches
are adorned with large dressed dolls, designed to represent "the Child Jesus."
In the cathedral at Brussels is a pulpit, formed of large carvings in wood,
showing Adam and Eve (the latter with an enormous apple in her hand) as
driven out of Paradise by an angel; around are wooden peacocks strutting at
full length, monkeys jumping among fig-trees, a great boa-constrictor twining
around a trunk of a tree, together with ostriches, eagles, and squirrels, in all
kinds of strange attitudes and places. At the top, as a sort of sounding-board,"
the Virgin Mary holds the infant Saviour, whom she is assisting to thrust the
end of a cross into the serpent's head And this strange pulpit stands in the midst
of a place designed for Christian worship!
"In vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of
men (Matt. xv. 9).


rr Lf O*r rJo
Al -.', J OU Vr)..x

BEAUTIFUL SWITZERLAND is an inland country of Europe, and is about 200 miles in
length and 160 in breadth. It is a land of mountains, valleys, and lakes; within its
limited borders there are about 2,500 streams. It is divided into twenty-two cantons, or
counties, each of which has an independent government, but the whole are united for
mutual defence. Population about 2,510,000. Chief city, Berne.

S HE Swiss are an active and busy people, honest, steadfast, and brave. In
personal appearance they differ: those who live near to Italy have the
tawny skin and general features of the people of that land; others who
reside in the neighbourhood of the Rhine have the round and ruddy
S face of the. Germans; and those who border on France have the lively
black eyes and cast of face of the French. So also they differ in
religion, nearly two-thirds being Protestants, and the others chiefly
Roman Catholics. The former are the most thriving, and their cantons are in a
superior state of order and cultivation compared with the latter.


There are likewise different styles of dress among the people; but generally
the men wear round high hats, open waistcoats, and breeches of coarse linen. Women
are dressed in jackets, often with a profusion of buttons, and short petticoats.
Unmarried females are generally distinguished by their hair being in two plaits, tied
at the ends with ribbons. After marriage the hair is twisted in a bunch on the
crown of the head, and secured with long silver pins.
"The peculiar feature in the condition of the Swiss-the great charm of
Switzerland-next to its natural
scenery, is the air of well-being,
the neatness, the sense of property
imprinted on the people and their
plots of land. They have a kind
of Robinson Crusoe industry about
Their houses and grounds. Some
Cottages are adorned with long texts
,. I of Scripture, painted or burnt into
.-. the wood, in front, over the door."
'-i Others of the chhlets, or cottages,
S \_ iB' ` have the pedigree of the builder or
owner on the outside, and are other-
w wise singularly carved and orna-
-i mented. "The little plots of land,
S. each no bigger than a garden, show
the daily care in fencing, digging,
weeding, and watering. With basket,
... hoe, and spade, unassisted by animal
S'--power, all the labour is done by
hand."* With the money a peasant
SWiss GIRLS. earns in the winter by weaving, and
sometimes in summer as a guide to tourists, in addition to the humble produce of
his garden, all his simple wants are supplied. Women spin hemp into a coarse kind
of cloth, with which they make clothes for their families; and the children, in the
long nights of winter, find employment in making wooden toys of animals, birds,
and houses. In the fine season the boys are engaged in taking charge of the cattle
on the mountains, and are commonly seen with great horns, used in calling home
their herds at night.
The highest village in Europe, inhabited all the year round, is the Swiss village
Laing's "Notes of a Traveller." First Series.


of Miirren. It commands a more glorious prospect than tongue can describe, and
well repays the toil of reaching it.
Switzerland stands closely connected with the Reformation. Erasmus and
Zwingle, at Basle, laboured to over-
turn popery; Calvin at Geneva, and -
Farel at Neufchatel. The English -
and Scotch exiles, John Knox and
Miles Coverdale, with others, found
more than a shelter at Zurich-
they secured a welcome and a home. .
It was in the latter city that -
Zwingle, when he entered on his "
ministry in the old cathedral on
New Year's Day, 1519, began with
these words :-"It is to Christ that
I desire to lead you; to Christ,
the true source of salvation. His -
Divine word is the only food that -
I wish to set before your hearts
and souls." Through the teaching
of the Holy Spirit he had learned
that simple faith in the sacrifice
and intercession of the one Mediator
could bring peace to the soul, and --
he laboured heartily that his country-' -
men should rejoice with him in the
same blessing.
In recent times many good men
have preached the gospel in this swss nos.
land, and there are numbers of the people who truly love our Lord Jesus Christ,
and who labour that others may love him too.

GERMANY--Deutscdtand, as it is called by the natives-is a large division of Midland
Europe, extending 700 miles in breadth and 600 in length. It is divided into North
Germany, consisting of a confederation of states, under the leadership of Prussia, with a
population of 30,000,000; South Germany, with a population of 8,000,000; and German-




speaking natives of the Austrian empire, 10,000,000. The political divisions are Austria
proper, Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemburg, Nassau, Hanover, Brunswick, Baden, Olden-
burg, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Schleswig-Holstein, Brandenburg, Westphalia, and others.
Though there are minor differences of character and habits among the people, they possess
somo general features of nationality, which distinguish them as Germans. The Rhine, the
finest of German rivers, is the home of history and legends. Thousands of vineyards flourish
on the sides of the mountains, and the tops are studded with the remains of baronial castles
of the olden times. Along the banks are fine towns and pretty-looking villages.

S-'. .' L ..
I HE Germans are a thrifty, plodding people, who give great attention to
trade and to the cultivation of the land. Literature and the arts also
flourish among them. They are frank, frugal, industrious, and great
,t ,t.:"; lovers of their country.
d ':; .Different kinds of dress are worn in the different parts of the land.
That of the peasant, in some parts, consists of a sort of shooting-jacket,
a green waiscoat, and a belt round the waist, breeches of leather,
worsted leggings, and a felt hat, in which is frequently worn a tuft of feathers.
The style of dress of the women is not exactly the same even in two adjoining
villages. Generally they may be seen with a dark boddice, or jacket, with
short coloured petticoat, and a handkerchief tied under the chin.
The Germans are early risers, they dine in the middle of the day, and sup
at seven in the evening. Smoking is a constant habit: from morning to night the
pipe is scarcely out of the mouth of a German.
It is common now, among this people, for the younger branches of the smallest
tradesmen to have a very fair knowledge of French and English. Since the marriage
of the Princess Royal of England into the Prussian royal family, the last-named
language is deemed necessary to the complete education of girls. Artisans, especially
in Prussia, are a superior class of men, owing to a regulation which requires them to
travel and work under different masters for a short term of years.
Peasant life is mostly one of great hardship. The women engage in the
heaviest labours of the field, and their clothing is rough and scanty. Fishermen
on the shores of the Baltic and the North Sea are a more thriving class, and enjoy
many home comforts.
In Germany, Christmas and birthdays are seasons when gifts are exchanged,
even more so than in other lands. The wife saves in her household expenses
that she may buy a present for her husband; and he curtails, even in his
beloved pipe and lager beer, that he may obtain a gift for his wife. Christmas
Eve, or "the Happy Eve," as they call it, is especially the children's' season,

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i-/ 'I III

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when they receive gifts from those that love them. Their lot is deemed a hard
one who have nothing to give and to receive at such times.
New Year's Day in Germany is kept as a day of amusement. But in
those families where life is regarded as having higher purposes than mere
business and play, New Year's Eve is celebrated in a more homely but cer-
tainly not less happy manner. It is spent in social enjoyment, not forgetting
cakes for the young. In many families the voice of thanksgiving is heard for the
mercies of the past year, with prayer for God's blessing on the new year. When
the watchman on the church-tower sounds his horn, according to German custom,
to proclaim midnight, all wish each other a happy new year, and go to bed.
On the first morning of the new year all is bustle in every town: there
is music on the parade-ground; music at all the inns and hotels; music in every
street; while people are seen running about busily intent on making morning
calls. On these occasions, "the compliments of the season" being over, a whole
string of minor wishes for the coming year follows, and every one desires all
manner of good to all they meet at home and abroad.
But the chief family festivals are the Silver Wedding, which marks the
twenty-fifth anniversary of a wedding day; and the Golden Wedding, which
denotes the fiftieth. Then all the members of a family and neighbours unite in
paying visits, and offering love-tokens to the happy couple whose days have
been so long prolonged in wedded life.
The cultivation of music among the lower classes in Germany seems to have
a softening influence over them. Working men, instead of resorting to the public-
house as a means of recreation after their day's labour, may be seen sitting on a
', bench outside their lodging-house, singing to a guitar or other instrument.
We will now give brief attention to child life in this land, as described by a
German lady, who contributed the account to a popular periodical.* It is a
custom," she writes, "to swaddle the babies, which is done in the following
manner:-After the babies are dressed in long clothes, the latter are doubled and
turned up, like the ends of a treacle pudding. A piece of white dimity or
other strong material, bound at top and bottom, made like a long surgical bandage,
only wider, is then wound round the baby, so as to enclose its arms and whole
body. The baby can neither move nor kick: it can only eat, sleep, and grow fat.
German mothers say that their babies seldom cry when they are swaddled, but,
on dressing them in the English way, the babies throw up their arms in wild
despair, until changed again to their own dress.
The fist object in a German household is to bring the children under proper
"Leisure Hour," 1866.


discipline. They are not, as in England, kept in a nursery, to be petted and
spoiled during their infancy. When scarcely three or four years old, they are
sent both in the morning and afternoon to places called children's-gardens,' o.r
'infant-schools,' though learning is not attended to there at first. On the
contrary, the woman who takes charge of these little children tries, by every
means in her power, to amuse them. She induces them to play together, for
which purpose a quantity of toys, including dolls, are kept. The children are
thus happy. The walk to and from school is good for their health, and, as soon
as memory may safely be taxed, they are taught to say their prayers and
learn the alphabet. As they get older they learn to read, sing little songs,
repeat short poems, and are taught to dress their dolls.
After passing their early years in acquiring the simplest kinds of knowledge
and religious instruction, young girls of twelve or thirteen are sent to a Nlhschule,
or school for sewing,' where, however, they learn every kind of useful needlework,
beginning with a pocket-handkerchief, and ending with the most difficult piece of
female work. When quite perfect in all that relates to the sewing and cutting-out,
two samplers are made, the first to learn marking by. The second is made of fine
canvas, out of which large square pieces are cut, to be filled in again by beautiful
patterns of darning' in coloured silk: not stocking-darning, but different
patterns of damask and table-linen, in case any of these articles should want
repairing. German ladies hold stocking-darning in abhorrence. Whenever stock-
ings want mending, they are not darned, but the thrifty housewife knits new heels or
toes into them, which not only gives them a better appearance, but makes them more
comfortable for wear. About a year is spent in learning common needlework, after
which the young girl is sent to a finishing school. Here she learns drawing, French,
English, botany, ornamental needlework, and music.
"The last accomplishment, as far as regards instrumental music, is nowhere
cultivated with greater success than in Germany. It is an all-devouring passion
with young and old, rich and poor. To the rich it is a never-failing source of delight,
and to the poor it is life itself, their services being in constant demand. She is now
considered a young lady (for all girls after the age of about thirteen are so called),
and has to learn cookery in all its branches, which art she has to practise daily for
the benefit of the whole family. Germans have strange ambition to excel in English
cookery, principally beef-steak, roast-beef, and plum-pudding. The former, which
they call beuf-stitck,' is made in private families in this way :-The meat, being
cut into thin lean pieces, is put into the frying-pan with pepper and salt, and is then
slowly fried in butter until it looks like a piece of Russian leather. At the hotels,
where they are anxious to please the taste of the English, which they are told inclines


towards raw meat, they cut the beef into thick pieces, and, after just turning them in
the pan over a slow fire, they are brought on the table quite raw inside.


"The rossbif' is the dish on the preparation of which the Germans pride them-
selves most. In order to make it look quite English, as they think, they commence
by trimming it into the form of a ball. This being done, it is cooked in some strange


fashion, scarcely half roasted, and when put upon the table it looks a shining black,
as if it had been japanned all over."
There is much more to be said about girl life in Germany, but we must note
one or two matters about boy lfe.
"What is the reason," says our lady German correspondent, "of a boy-baby
being held everywhere in Germany in greater esteem than a girl? He is petted
from the very first, and crammed with flour and milk made into pap, often to such
an extent that his eyes and nose seem almost buried between his cheeks. This
done, both mamma and nurse pronounce him 'a charming boy,' and he is then
carried about in triumph by the latter on a large square feather pillow. The cover
of this is trimmed with beautiful lace, and coloured ribbons for strings on two
opposite sides. The latter being tied together, the little fellow lies inside like a silk-
worm in a cocoon, and calmly surveys the arrangements which are being made for
the increase of his size. These consist in boiling flour-milk and broth, besides feeding
him at short intervals with bread-and-butter and cakes, until the time arrives for
his learning to walk. It will then be found that, owing to his being so very fat, he
cannot be put on his legs with safety, except while being held in leading-strings.
Very young boys in Germany have a funny appearance, their dress being a small
copy of their papa's, with the exception of the coat, for which a tight-fitting bodice,
S with buttons all round, is substituted. As they grow older they are dressed in a
short tunic and trousers made of cloth, in which they look very well. They are sent to
school at a very early age, where discipline is maintained by a cane. This is used very
generally in the schools, and even by the clergyman who instructs them in religion."
Turning from the children, we must remark that there is one sad point in the
character of the Germans-the want of reverence for the sabbath, even among those
who are called Protestants. It is the day chosen for travelling, and for concerts,
balls, and the theatre. The chief market of the week in a town is mostly held on the
holy day; and thus the season given by God to men for rest, when the thoughts
may be raised to heaven, is perverted to the love of gain and worldly pleasure.
Time is lost that should be spent in seeking the salvation of the soul, and serving the
Saviour of men.


THE city of Hamburg, one of the great seaports of Germany, is about eighty
miles up the River Elbe. As we approach it by water, forests of ships' masts are
seen, and the quays on the banks are covered with goods from almost every land in

JATI7; ~r---

1ili IIw

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-BU-(' -AKE-O



the world. When we step on shore crowds of people appear to throng the
streets, for the city contains about two hundred thousand people. It is said that
no city of its size in the world is more busy or wealthy. Its merchants are as
princes, and as generous as they are rich.
On entering Hamburg for the first time, you are quite bewildered with the
din around you. People of all nations are talking together, but if you know no
language except English you can manage tolerably well, for almost everybody
speaks English more or less, as a matter of business necessity. When you are
settled a little, and have time to look about you, there is plenty to amuse and
gratify the taste.
The city is very fine, not so much in respect to its public buildings as its
private streets, and mansions, and squares. The great fire of 1842 (which de-
stroyed sixty streets, and nearly two thousand houses) turned out for the good of
Hamburg. It spared the finest streets; and in place of the narrow, dirty rows
of lanes which were destroyed, there are now splendid ranges of wide -streets,
reminding one of the very finest of those of London or Paris. The most re-
markable buildings are St. Michael's Church, with a steeple of the vast height
of 456 feet, and the Exchange, which, although in the very midst of the great
fire, was saved.
The business at the Exchange is chiefly from one to two o'clock, and no
stranger should neglect to visit it, and listen to the noise of the assembled mer-
clants as they buy and sell, and arrange about the coming and going of ships.
The city abounds with good hotels and coffee-houses, and with large and
well-conducted public hospitals. The poor are well provided for, and hardly a
S Wbeggar is to be met with. Schools abound, and nearly all the old monasteries
I d convents are now turned into benevolent institutions of one kind or other.
he religion of four-fifths of the inhabitants is Protestant. There are said to be
seven thousand Jews in the city.
The Binnen Alster is a large lake, in the heart of the town; it is charming
to lounge here in summer evenings, delighting in the pure, cool air and the
fragrance wafted from the baskets of the flower-girls, and listening to the music
of numerous bands. The walks on the tree-planted ramparts inclosing the city
are also very fine, and pleasant trips may be made in the suburbs.
One of the best sights in Hamburg, as in other foreign cities, is to be
found in the great market. Here you may see the country people in their
peculiar dresses, offering for sale the produce of their gardens and farms.
Many of the market-women still dress in the fashion of those of olden times.
Some of them wear strange head-wings on each side of the face, formed of a


kind of cloth. From behind they are a large bow, which hangs over the
shoulders. And then a stranger cannot but observe the hat, like a basket turned
upside down, and the finely-worked body-dress, as a breastplate, together with
the deeply-fringed sash, which make her an object of special attention to a
visitor from a foreign land.
Sugar-baking, hat-making, and printing are largely carried on in Hamburg,
and in the latter branch of trade many books and tracts, teaching the great
truths of the gospel, are sent forth every year throughout Germany.

hilt, _I j_
I A-. 1_


SPAIN is in the south-western part of Europe. Its greatest length is about 560 miles,
and average breadth 330. Population, 16,641,000. Chief city, Madrid.

PANIARDS are of a dark, swarthy complexion, with regular features and
dark eyes. They are grave in manners, dignified and slow in their
walk, and are said to be proud and revengeful in temper. Their dress
varies in different provinces, but the old national dress is a large cloak
or blanket, short braided jacket, and broad crimson or striped sash.
The females dress in dark gowns and bright-coloured shawls. Their
hair is dressed with much care, and at the back of the head a large, high
comb is fixed, to which is fastened a kind of scarf, called a mantilla, hanging very
gracefully over the shoulders. A fashionable comb is a foot long, and is worth two
or three pounds in our money. Sometimes a poor woman will spend all the money
she has to buy an expensive comb. The fans also are very costly. Almost every
ttle girl is seen with a fan in her hand.
The life of a Spaniard has but few changes. His food is scanty, the favourite
repast being a compound of chicken, beef, and pork, with beans and peas. But
this luxurious fare is only for holidays and great feasts, and for the better class
of persons; more commonly, the beans and peas, with garlic and oil, form the
dinner of the tradesman and common people. Chocolate, sugar and water, or weak
wine, is the usual beverage. They are very fond of smoking. Travellers tell us that
in the streets, and at home, in the coffee-house, and on a journey, from morning
to night a cigar is in the mouth of a Spaniard. "Physicians smoke in visiting their
patients, statesmen when in their councils, judges upon the bench, and prisoners
at the bar. The only time in the day when they cease to smoke is when they take
their mid-day nap, called a siesta-a custom of all classes throughout the land."
The streets of the cities and country roads swarm with beggars and strolling
musicians. The latter are generally of the gipsy class. They collect money of the
passengers to the sounds of bagpipe, guitar, tambourine, and song.
Great changes have come over Spain during the last three centuries. It was
formerly among the first countries in Europe for commerce; but in the course of a

, ,'


E' 2


few ages it had not a single shipyard left. It was once famous for the number and
produce of its looms: these are now few and little esteemed. Its quicksilver mines
supplied the whole world; they are now nearly all closed.
There are some fine palaces and public buildings, built in former times, as the
Royal Palace at Madrid. But, in general, its once famous cities were left for ages
to fall into decay; and the inhabitants lived in a condition of the greatest
ignorance. It is said that out of a
population of sixteen millions only one-
fourth can read or write. Of late,
however, there has been an increasing
t improvement in the people and in the
state of their towns.
i '. _. In regard to the religion of the
SSpaniards much cannot be said that is
iiii favourable. It has been asserted that
people attend the churches chiefly to see
Sthe fine processions, to hear the music,
'i and perhaps to bow the knee before the
,statue of the Virgin Mary. Some of the
images are richly adorned with jewels.
The diamonds on one of them are valued
at more than twenty thousand pounds.
'.. -- Tens of thousands of Spaniards have
-never seen a copy of the Bible; great
numbers do not know that there is such
'. '. a book. Instead of looking by faith to
Jesus only as a Mediator and Saviour,
they trust to saints and angels as their
STiRET MUSICIAN. advocates before God. But there is a
bright light appearing in the dark cloud, and we hope that a happier day is
dawning upon Spain; when, instead of trusting for salvation in vain religious
rites and on human meiits, people shall be brought to receive a pure gospel, and
know the blessed truth, that only the blood of Jesus Christ can take away sin.
Let us give one instance of the good work which has commenced in Spain:-
One sabbath afternoon in 1857, a young man was passing along the principal
walk of Gibraltar. He knew no other religion than that of Romanism; but that
had lost its hold on him. He was a play-writer by profession. As he was one day
walking he was engaged in designing a new drama, when he suddenly heard the bell


of a Protestant chapel. He was attracted to the place, and entered it. The simple
service very much affected him, accustomed as he was only to the glittering and
showy ceremonies of Popery. The truths, too, which he heard were new to him.
In the sermon the minister made constant reference to the Bible; but Matamoras
had never seen one before. As he passed out of the chapel he asked an attendant
where he could buy a copy of the Scriptures. The attendant told him he should
have a New Testament without money, and gave him one. The play-writer hastened
to his lodgings and gave up the whole night to its study.
SThe reading of that New Testa-
ment, together with a tract entitled
"Andrew Dunn," led Matamoras to
become a Protestant Christian. He
gave up the writing of plays, and de-
voted himself to making known the "
gospel among his countrymen. Soon
numbers met together to hear the
word of God, and in many towns there
were companies of converts from Rom-
anism. The priests were alarmed, and .
urged the queen who then reigned ,- ._I
in Spain to put down these meetings. F'i-c. Ii
In the town of Malaga a young candi- .m
date for the priesthood was seen read- '
ing a Testament, and it was made f- .
known from whom he had received SPANISH LADY.
it. Matamoras was then arrested,
tried, and condemned to several years' hard labour in the galleys.
When it became known in England and other countries that a good man was so
severely treated for only reading the Bible, and encouraging others to read it,
protests were sent to the queen from various lands, and after some delay she was
constrained to order him to be set at liberty, on condition that he should be banished
from his native country for life. Matamoras is now dead. He remained faithful
to his Christian profession to the last.
Since his time the Bible has freely gone forth into Spain, Christian books and
tracts have been widely circulated, and numbers of the people, it is hoped, have
received the truth as it is in Jesus, and have learned the only way in which a sinner
can be saved.

PORTUGAL is the most westerly kingdom of Europe. Its entire population is about
3,500,000; but including the island of Madeira and the Azores, which belong to it, the
inhabitants are 4,400,000. Chief city, Lisbon.

N many respects the Portuguese resemble the Spaniards. They have
black hair and eyes, and swarthy complexions; their teeth are white, as
only a few smoke, though they are very fond of snuff.
The greater part of this people are poor and ignorant. Their
cities are described as pleasant to view from a distance, but on entering
f' the walls, dirt and destitution appear through most of the streets.
Travellers also describe the country villages as wretched in the extreme;
the houses are filthy, and the peasants dejected, idle, and spiritless. Beggars are
very numerous; they infest every town and village, and not only entreat, but
impudently demand your money.
"The dress of the Portuguese women," says a lady traveller, would not be
unbecoming, if they had a better notion of personal cleanliness." On high days
they wear cloaks of black or scarlet colour, and pink, green, or yellow silk shoes,
with which they walk through the most disgusting dirt and mud. The form of
female dress does not undergo a change once in an age: and fancy dressmakers and
milliners are as much unknown in Lisbon as they were in ancient Sparta."
Our engraving represents a sailor and a fisherwoman of Oporto, a city on the
sea-coast. The men wear sashes of different colours, in which is commonly seen a
The food of the labouring classes is beans and chesnuts, which are ground and
made into bread, or used in soups and stews, and on this fare they will toil in the
summer under a burning sun, half-naked and bareheaded; or, in winter, under
drenching rains, with nothing else to protect them than a straw-thatched hovel.
The better classes enjoy a salted pilchard with a few heads of garlic; and a piece of
salted cod is a dish to adorn a feast.
Among the peculiarities of the Portuguese, the following are to be noticed.
They commonly refuse to carry burthens, which they say is work only suited to

-II -_ ..,

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beasts. Women, when they ride, sit with the left side towards the horse's head;
and a postilion rides on the left horse. Tailors sit at their work like shoe-
makers. A tavern is known by a vine-bush; and a house to be let by a piece
of blank paper. The custom of wearing boots and black conical caps is peculiar to
"The Portuguese are behind almost every nation in Europe in agriculture.
The soil is neither manured nor tilled as it ought to be; and the plough is merely
three pieces of wood, awkwardly fastened together, and imperfectly aided by wheels."
In former ages the Portuguese were the boldest adventurers by sea. To them
we owe the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, Brazil, the coast of Guinea,
and the passage by sea to the East Indies. But the moderns have lost nearly all
the spirit of their forefathers.
Popery is the religion of the land; there are not so many priests and monks
and nuns as there once were; most of the monasteries have been broken up, and
their wealth taken for the use of the State.
An English traveller took a seat, day by day, by the side of a fountain that
stood just outside a city, and talked to the people as they came to draw water.
He spoke to them about the Bible, and found that very few had ever heard of such
a book--hardly one could give an account of its contents. The "water of life is
kept from the people by the craft of men.

* 'I


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CONTINENTAL ITALY, in the south of Europe, is 700 miles in length, with a variable
breadth of 25 to 350 miles. There are also three large islands inhabited by the Italian
race-Sardinia, Sicily, and Corsica, with several smaller ones, as Elba, Malta, and others.
A few years since Italy was divided into several kingdoms and.states, as Sardinia, Naples,
Tuscany, Parma, Modena, Venetia, and the Papal States; but these have been united under
one crown, and form the kingdom of Italy. Population in 1869, 25,944,915. Capital
city, Rome.

HE early Italians are described by Horace, a Latin poet, as a strong,
busy, and cheerful race, well used to labour, frugal in their food, and
happy in their cottage homes. But during a long course of ages they
have fallen from their high estate; and, especially under the influence
of the Roman Catholic religion, have become a far inferior race to their
?1 forefathers, whether in their physical condition, manners, or virtues.
Goldsmith, in his beautiful poem, "The Traveller," after giving a
picture of the loveliness of the country, thus speaks of the people:-
"But small the bliss that sense alone bestows,
And sensual bliss is all the nation knows;
In florid beauty groves and fields appear;
Man seems the only growth that dwindles here.
Contrasted faults through all his manners reign;
Though poor, luxurious; though submissive, vain;
Though grave, yet trifling; zealous, yet untrue;
And even in penance, planning sins anew."

"In no part of Europe is the education of the humbler classes so neglected
as in Italy, taken as a whole. The instruction of the poor is in the hands of
the priests, and nothing can be worse conducted. It is a wonder .to find a
rustic that can read, and a mechanic in a town that can write his own name
is equally rare." The Italians are said to be "at once the most refined and
the most superstitious in Europe, the most cultivated and the most immoral.
There is abundance of misery in many an Italian city amidst all the gay out-



E -T-T_ ----- -.T

i- -- _2 -


side." Notwithstanding, the land is the delight of travellers for its scenery, and
for the fine ruins of buildings of former ages.
The people are grave and reserved in manners, though they give themselves
-- --ii
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-- _- .- -

up to pleasures the most childish. In complexion they are dark. The dress of
the peasants is very rough-a sheep-skin jacket, scant trousers, and cords binding
rags on their legs instead of stockings; or else their legs are wholly bare. Their


tall hats are generally ornamented with a peacock's feather. In some parts the
women secure their hair in folds with a large silver bodkin; in other places they
fold linen on the top of the head, with the ends falling over the side or behind.
A class known in some of the cities as Lazzaroni have scarcely any dwell-
ing-houses, but sleep every night under such shelter as they can find. Such
as have wives and families live in the suburbs in any chamber they can scoop

lli ... ,..., .. .. ',! 111F :1 .,


out of the mountains. They are known for their laziness: and though it is easy
to earn enough money to buy the light food of the country, they are generally
In the city streets, especially those of Naples, there are different kinds of
" small trades "-as the sea-fruit" seller, or the dealer in mussels and cockles;


the chesnut-merchant; and especially the maccaroni-cook. Under a temporary
awning there is a moveable stove; and from the broad copper pan at the top
there usually rise volumes of steam, whose sight and savoury scent are irre-
sistible to an Italian. A porty figure stands by, with a white cap on his jet-
black head, a blue waistcoat, and white apron round his waist. In one hand
he holds yards and yards of smoking maccaroni, which folds and falls as softly
as ribbon into a plate below. He is provoking the eager appetite of a laz-
zaroni, whilst his assistant cook is shrieking forth his invitations to a dinner.



One of the most interesting cities of the present Kingdom of Italy is
VENICE. It is called the Queen of the Adriatic," the Lady of Lombardy,"
and the Bride of the Sea." Its rise and progress are very remarkable. It
stands at the bottom of the Adriatic Sea, where seventy-two marshy islands
are separated by narrow channels. Here in remote times a few fishermen
dwelt. But in the course of ages a people called Veneti emigrated to this out-
of-the-way region, to escape their enemies, the Huns and the Goths. They laid
the foundation of a city on strong piles of wood, which were driven deep into


the mud. The situation is indeed very singular, as is described by the poet
"There is a glorious city in the sea:
The sea is in the broad, the narrow streets,
Ebbing and flowing; and the salt sea-weed
Clings to the marble of her palaces.
No track of men, nor footsteps to and fro,
Lead to her gates. The path lies o'er the sea,
Invisible; and from the land we went,
As to a floating city,-steering in,
And gliding up her streets as in a dream,
So smoothly, silently,-by many a dome,
Mosque-like, and many a stately portico,
The statues ranged along in azure sky-
By many a pile in more than eastern splendour,
Of old the residence of merchant kings."

The city has many fine palaces. Its bridges, too, are much to be noticed.
One of these is called. "The Bridge of Sighs," as over it prisoners passed from
the court where they were sentenced to the prison where they were to die.
All the principal houses are built on the sides of the canals. The canals are the
streets of Venice; and the gondolas are its coaches and omnibuses.
The modern Venetians are a lively, temperate people, and kind and obliging
to friends and strangers. The dress of the principal persons in winter is a
black cloth robe, trimmed with fur, and secured round the waist with a girdle.
In summer their attire is much lighter. A woollen cap instead of a hat is
carried, more under the arm than on the head. The noble ladies wear very
little jewellery or finery; and, except in the first year of their marriage, they
appear abroad in black dress.

Rome was once the capital of the world: its buildings and its works of
art still make it a place of great interest. The present inhabitants are a very
mixed race, and have little claim to be the descendants of the old Romans.
They are pale, spiritless, and sullen. Rarely are they seen to smile, are resent-
ful, and commonly live an idle and purposeless life. On the other hand, they
have some good qualities: they are generally very sober, are fond of their
children, and are obliging to strangers.
Like other Italians, the men wear very wide cloaks, wrapping round the body;


pieces of cloth tied with cords about the legs, sandals on their feet, and hats having
crowns like a sugar-loaf. The women of the lower classes commonly wear a scarlet
spencer with sleeves, and for a head-dress a piece of white linen, thickened on the
crown by numerous folds, with the end hanging down behind to the shoulders.
A common vice at Rome is want of r
cleanliness. It is the vice of all classes.
The monks have a disgusting appearance,--
and some of the most interesting objects '
can scarcely be approached from the ac- ,.- ...
cumulation of filth. A recent visitor
states:-" The streets, public places,
houses, and the persons of the bulk of '
the population would all be improved by
scrubbing, washing, and combing."
"There is a drawback," says Lord '
Dudley, upon the splendid and interest-
ing objects in Rome, which I own dimi-
nishes their effect, in my eyes at least, "
to a wonderful degree. It is the extreme l
filth and shabbiness of the wretched
town that surrounds them. In Rome :.
you search in vain for cleanliness or :_
neatness. There is not a single wide: .
street, and but one handsome square.
Poverty and dirt pursue you to the 2_
gates of every monument, ancient and
modern, public or private. You never .1-
saw any place so nasty or so beggarly."
Eight days before Lent there begins
a season of amusement known as the
"Carnival." The chief scene of it is a
promenade called the Corso; every room, MODERN ROMANS.
window, and balcony of this street is
rented, and often at a very high price. The amusements commence in the after-
noon. The Corso is crowded with an immense throng on foot, and with two
long trains of carriages. Many persons of each rank wear masks and personate
different characters.
The masks seemed to be without design, unless it were to provoke a laugh.


I can scarcely convey to you an idea of them. Perhaps the oddity was more in
the air and manner of the masker than in the dress."*
"A shower of lime" is one great feature of the Roman carnival; for the
universal privilege is then assumed of throwing lime-mlde imitations of sugar-
plums, which are made for the express purpose, into the face of every person
that is met. "Some persons throw away in a single afternoon two or three
bushels. They who occupy the windows and balconies throw them down on those
who pass beneath. They who move along the street assail not only those they
meet on foot or in carriages, but those who. stand at the windows, and are
firing down upon them from above. Just consider all the vast ten thousands
that crowd through the Corso engaged in this work. Every man that wears a
dark-coloured coat looks like a miller. Every lady, with her gay dress, looks
as though she had just come out of a meal-barrel; and every carriage looks
like a lime-cart. The amusements of each of the eight days of the carnival are
only a repetition of the follies of the preceding day.
"Before the close of each day's sport, a cry is heard, 'Clear the way!'
and a company of dragoons, mounted upon spirited steeds and fully armed,
are seen riding, as though upon a race, from the head of the Corso down
through this mass of living beings till the centre of the street is cleared. At
the firing of a second gun, five or six spirited horses are let loose to run
through the whole length of the Corso, each without a rider, urged on not only
by little bells tied about them and a self-acting spur that strikes constantly
against their sides, but by the shouts of the multitude, through the centre of
whom they dash along with the speed of the wind. This is the closing scene
of each day's amusement during the carnival."
On the last day, the same diversions are continued, but with greatly increased
intensity, until the same hour.
"The game of the Moccoletti-the word in the singular meaning a little
lamp or candle-snuff-' the last gay madness of the carnival,' now takes place.
The sellers of little tapers, resembling what are called Christmas candles in
England, carry on a busy trade. As day declines, these tapers begin flashing
here and there; in the windows, on the housetops, in the balconies, in the car-
riages, in the hands of the foot-passengers, little by, little, more and more, until
the Corso is one great blaze of fire. Then everybody present has but one
object; that is, to extinguish other people's candles, and keep his own alight;
and everybody, man, woman, or child, gentleman or lady, prince or peasant, native
or foreigner, yells and screams and roars, 'Without a light! Without a light!'
Glimpses of the Old World," by the Rev. J, A, Clalk,


until nothing is heard but a chorus of those words, mingled with peals of
laughter. The amusement goes on until the bells ring from the church steeples,
and the carnival is over in an instant-put out, like a taper, with a breath."*
A very favourite image, especially with the common people, is the most holy
Bambino." The word bambino is simply the Italian for child," and is applied
to this particular image of the holy Child Jesus, about which they tell very strange
and absurd tales. It is a small doll made of wood, about two feet in length;
not unlike, except in its dress, the dolls made for the amusement of children.
On its head is a royal crown of gold, studded
with rubies, emeralds, and diamonds. From its
neck to its feet it is wrapped in swaddling -:- -
clothes. The two little feet are seen projecting .,'
beneath; so that the face, hands, and feet of V ,
the image are alone visible.t The clothes are
covered with jewels-rubies, emeralds, and dia- -F
monds, worth several thousand pounds--in fact, -
the Bambino is a blaze of splendour. ."
The Romans believe that the presence of the ', i .- .
Bambino in the chamber of sickness is of the M4, .'
greatest benefit. If any person is so very ill that :
recovery would seem doubtful, its presence, they -
think, will settle the question; for it is believed .
that recovery or death can always be determined -
according as the face of the patient becomes pale .r.
or flushed on its introduction. Such notions of -m ;
course lead the friends of the sick to send for the .
Bambino. The monks, however, will not permit' :,
-its presence unless on the payment of a large
sum; and thus many a family is made poor by
the money they give, and the convent enriched .
by what it receives.
But, strange as all this may seem, it is not near so strange as the sight
of the Bambino when going to visit its patients. It is a common saying
among the people of Rome, that the little doctor receives more and better fees
from the sick than all the medical men put together. It is certain, at least
"Rome: its Edifices and its People."
t The engraving is copied from a picture entitled, The True Effigy of the Miraculous Bambino
of Ara Cceli, dedicated to the piety and veneration of the devout of the said church." The picture
was bought in Rome by an English lady. *


that it is brought to visit its patients in grander style; for a state coach is
kept for it-a coach quite as fine as that of a cardinal or the pope. In this
coach the Bambino is placed, accompanied by some priests in full dress: and
onward they move, stately and slow, as a rapid movement' is thought incon-
sistent with the dignity of the image; and then, as it passes, every head is
uncovered, and every knee is bent, in the streets through which it passes. And
this is the religion of Rome! Oh, when will the people give up their vain
delusions, and believe in the free salvation declared unto them in the Epistle
to the Romans?

r. ~7

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DENMARK, the markc or country of the Danes, is now one of the minor kingdoms
of Europe in regard to population, which is about 1,800,000. The land is flat; it has
no large rivers, only a few narrow streams; but there are many arms of the sea, which
are called fiords. Chief city, Copenhagen.

GES ago the Danes were little better than a race of pirates. They
sailed forth from their bays, and carried fire and sword to the peaceful
shores of other countries. They were the terror of the English, and
we have in history the record of many a sharp battle between the two
peoples, more particularly in the days of king Alfred. One portion
of the Danish population is still known as Angles, and are believed to
be the descendants of an ancient German race, from whom the name
Angle-land, or England, is derived. (See p. 10.)
In person, the Danes have regular features, with yellowish hair, and are
strong, tall, and stout. Their dress is similar to the Germans. Oat cakes and
rye-bread, with fish and cheese, form their chief food. Education is common
even among the poorest; there are very few indeed who cannot read and write.
Parents are bound to send their children to school, and if they are unable to
pay the fees, the education is given at the public expense. The Danes are a
Protestant people.
The chief city is Copenhagen. "I had imagined to find it," says a traveller,
"a dull, gloomy kind of place, with low wooden houses, few shops, and no fine
buildings, but it was quite otherwise. There are fine houses and splendid shops,
filled with choicest goods. In the best streets there are generally two shops in
each house; the one is entered by descending a few steps beneath the pavement,
the other by ascending an equal number of steps: so that often along a street
there is a double tier of shops, the upper always the best, the lower generally
bakers, grocers, crockery shops, or eating-houses. In the latter, I noticed deep
plates full of thick sour cream, piled one upon another in the windows: this is
a national dish in Denmark, and is taken before dinner as soup. There is a great
deal of bustle in this and the other chief thoroughfares-so many people moving

=--u -- -




about that it is difficult to get along, and we were reminded of the streets of
London and Paris.
"Copenhagen, in proportion to its size, is one of the most thickly populated
cities in Europe; it contains about 140,000 inhabitants. After a visit to the post-
office, we came to the fruit, vegetable, and fish market, and the most picturesque
spot in the city. It is crowded, especially on market days, with women in all
sorts of quaint and varied costumes, and with carts full of fruit and flowers.
This city is rich in collections of arts and curiosities. The collection in the
Palace of Rosenberg is by far the most precious of all; indeed, it is one of
the most wealthy in Europe. It is marvellously rich in jewels, plate, and all
kinds of costly objects. Goblets, drinking-horns, precious caskets were displayed in
rapid succession to our gaze, of which king Christian's silver horn, a wonderful
piece of workmanship, was the most remarkable; also porcelain of all ages, and from
all countries, in rich profusion of design. The glass is unrivalled, and is of the
finest workmanship. Next comes a room full of royal robes, uniforms, and orders of
Danish sovereigns. The celebrated horse furniture, presented by Christian Iv. to
his eldest son on his marriage, in 1644, is a blaze of jewels, on the richest velvet;
it cost forty thousand pounds. The largest and finest apartment in the castle
is a long room hung with tapestry, representing the warlike deeds of Christian v.
At one end stands a massive silver throne. One room is covered with mirrors-
ceiling, walls, and even floor, except a small space to walk round."
There are several pleasant walks about the city, especially on the ramparts,
which extend nearly all round the city, and are planted with a double row of
lime-trees, forming shady avenues. Here are twenty-four bastions, on each of
which stands a miller's house with a windmill on the top of it.
Another agreeable walk, and a great favourite with the people, is that to the
Palace of Frederiksberg, a mile or so from the city. We pass through a magnificent
avenue of limes and horse-chesnuts, inclosing a wide road and broad well-kept
paths. This splendid avenue is half a mile long, and on a gentle rise all the
way to the palace; on each side are neat and tasteful villas, inclosed in pretty
gardens; but nearer to Frederiksberg the road is lined with a succession of tea-
gardens (as we should call them), fitted up with merry-go-rounds and almost every
kind of amusement. The extensive park and gardens of Frederiksberg are full
of fine trees, and beautifully laid out in the English style. The palace itself
is situated on an eminence some distance from the entrance to the grounds. From
the terrace before it, the eye ranges over an extensive prospect by land and sea;
the city, with its many towers and windmills, lies beneath, encircled on the land
side by green meadows and waving corn-fields; the shining waters of the Sound"


appear dotted with numerous sails, and the horizon is bounded by the long, low
line of the Swedish coast. Taken altogether, a trip to Copenhagen is one of the
most pleasant that can be enjoyed.


THE country of the Swedes is in the north-western part of Europe, and was
formerly known as a portion of the Scandinavian peninsula. It is united with Norway
under the same crown; and has a population of 4,170,000. Chief city, Stockholm.

nHE people of Sweden are divided into four classes: nobility, clergy,
burghers or citizens, and peasants. The first are amongst the oldest of
their class in Europe.
In general, the homes of the Swedes are not very comfortable, and
black bread and salt fish are the common food of the people. In remote
parts of the land they are often forced to grind the bark of trees, which,
mixed with a small portion of rye, is made into cakes.
All classes can read and write. A bookseller's shop is in every small town, and
the long hours of a winter's evening are often devoted by the people to books.
There is not much change of fashion among Swedes. Some of their dresses
are very peculiar, and are the same in style as those their great-grandfathers wore.
One thing looks very odd to a stranger: at a wedding the bride and bridegroom
are commonly dressed in black.
A description of one town may apply to nearly all the rest. "When I went
out of the hotel on a sunshiny morning," says Miss Bunbury,' "I went about
and about, and said Where is Upsala ?' and my companion said, 'You are in it;'
and I answered, 'No, I am in a clean, modern, good-looking town, of new wooden
houses, painted or coloured in all colours, chiefly red; the streets are wide, very
wide indeed; and the whole thing looks as if it had sprung up in a night by the
work of a few carpenters' hands.' There is an old orange-coloured castle, partly
in ruins, up there on a great elevation, from whence you see interminably around,
over one vast plain, almost unbroken by a tree, the wildest, barest, most uninteresting
scene I ever beheld. There is an immense brick cathedral, deformed by Swedish
taste in renovation, standing in an open space. There are multitudes of men, young
and middle-aged, walking everywhere about with cigars or pipes in their mouths,
and hideous boys' caps, of white jean, on their heads, and no other academic
Life in Sweden and Norway."

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dress. Whenever they get together in groups, or set out on their favourite
annual tours, they sing a great deal, make much noise, and generally act rather
rudely. These are the students."
The established religion of the land is Lutheran; but it is said by those who
have visited the country that spiritual Christianity has but little hold on the
people.' There has been, however, a revival of true godliness of late years.
As in other northern countries, out-door exercises, especially sledging in winter,
are common among all classes. "In Stockholm innumerable sledges quietly glide
over the snow, and there is heard a constant tinkling of bells on the horses' harness,
warning the foot-passengers to get out of the way. Butcher boys, instead of carrying
their load in the usual manner, skim over the streets with it on a sledge: pushing it
forward, they mount on the pole behind, and ride as long as the impetus lasts, and
then descend and repeat the motion. Women draw sledges to market; and children
on small sledges are seen enjoying their sport. All kinds of that vehicle are to be
met with, from the beautiful royal one, with its splendid leopard skins, to the rudest
sledge engaged in industry and labour."

~W _~85-~

"~s~-- iL-

NORWAY, or "the kingdom of gulfs," as it has been called, in the north of Europe,
was formerly under the power of the Danish crown; it is now joined to the kingdom
of Sweden. In the broadest part it is about three hundred miles across. Population,
1,700,000. Capital, Christiania.

HE Norwegians in personal appearance are tall and strong, and in dis-
position are cheerful, honest, kind-hearted, and hospitable. In reference
Sto the latter quality, it may be stated that a traveller found painted
Over the door of one of their country houses, Velkommen, or Welcome."
The family received him, although a stranger, with great kindness and
S civility, and well provided for all his wants. They are also very polite
in their manners to each other, and to visitors, and will firmly shake
the hand for the smallest benefit received, even for the payment of what is their
due. The constant use of ardent spirits, however, to which the inhabitants of cold
climates are very prone, renders drunkenness a common vice among the lower classes.
Fishing is the chief employment of many of the people, and fish their
principal food. The riches of the deep make up for the poverty of the soil. The
shortness of the summer for agricultural labour, and the ruggedness of the land,
are against their relying on the produce of their fields.
Peasant life is one of great hardship. The necks and breasts of the villagers
are often exposed to the storm, and only on special occasions will they wear any wrap
around the throat. With snow-shoes and long skates they drive over wild regions
where ice and snow cover the ground nine months in the year; or they climb
steep rocks in search of birds and their eggs, or push out to sea in bold, hazardous
fishing excursions, cheered at times in their night adventures by the light of the
aurora borealis, or startled by meteoric showers.
In all the large towns there are public schools. Drawing schools," as they
are called, are also maintained, chiefly at the public cost, in which artisans and
others may study modelling, drawing, and other useful branches of knowledge.*
The schoolmaster is a person of great importance in country towns and
villages. It chiefly devolves on him to catechise the young after Divine service
Laing's Residence in Norway."


on Sunday. Our engraving, showing such a scene, is from a painting by a
Norwegian artist, which was exhibited at the Great Exhibition in London, and
which excited much attention. The people are very fond of music, which is
commonly taught in the country by the parish organist. Their long winter


evenings are enlivened with part singing, and as they have generally sweet and
agreeable voices, which they cultivate with much care, the time is made to pass
away very pleasantly.


Their style of dress varies in different districts. The women are often seen
in leather jackets, and the men in a grey suit with large buttons, a red cap, and
large heavy boots. A bride's wedding suit is sometimes peculiar. She commonly
wears a crown made of gilt metal, adorned with precious stones, or imitations of
them, a silver chain round the neck, and large silver brooches and bracelets,
silver rings round the waist, and silver buckles in the shoes, with red gloves and
red stockings! Such certainly was the dress of a farmer's daughter on her wedding-
day, as seen by a traveller.
The coldness of the climate in winter compels the peasants to resort to strange
devices to protect themselves from its severity. In the day-time bears' and wolves'
skins are closely drawn around. At night they lie in a sort of crib, or box,
and cover themselves with down plucked from the bodies of eider-ducks.
Lutheranism is the established religion of Norway; but, as with the
Swedes, the mass of the people are not much under the influence of the spirit of
true godliness. There is, however, a little flock," and an increasing one, who
are constrained in love and faith to give themselves unto Him who loved them,
and who gave Himself for them."


THE empire of Russia spreads in one direction more than 5,000 miles, and consists
of one-seventh of the land of the whole earth. A great part is in Europe, but it extends
into Asia. The people are various, as Tartars, Kalmucks, Finns, Lapps, Cossacks, and
Juscovites, or the true Russians. The entire population is nearly 78,400,000. Chief
cities, St. Petersburg and Moscow.

HE sovereign of this vast empire is called the Czar. He is also known
as the Emperor of all the Russias; and the Autocrat, which means sole
Let us walk into a Russian small town or village, and look at the
People. We find the men to be stout, strong, and mostly rather tall;
& their hair is dark brown or red; they wear thick, bushy beards, and
their faces look grave and yet good-natured. The common people seem
nearly all dressed alike. The men wear a tunic-coat or jacket, fastened about the
waist with a belt, and wide trousers, with the bottoms stuffed into long boots.
A fur cap, without a brim, is on the head, and sometimes wrappers, made of wool,
are about the legs instead of stockings. They need to dress themselves warmly,
as a large portion of the country is ice-bound for nine months of the year. The
ice on some of the rivers is often three feet and a-half thick, and waggons, heavily
laden, can pass over it with perfect safety.
The women do not in winter go much out of doors, and are, therefore, not so
warmly clad; in summer their dresses are neat and pretty. The dress of young females
is generally a crimson skirt, a long white apron, bordered with ribbon, and fastened
by a gaily-tasselled cord. In winter they put on a pelisse, which they strangely
call a "soul-warmer." They are fond of necklaces and head ornaments. Our
picture of a village family is taken from a native Russian print.
The style of the wooden houses in the villages is also to be seen in the engraving.
They are built of rough logs of timber, and their ends are brought out to view.
The inside is not much better finished, the spaces between the logs being filled
with moss or flax, which hangs down in tatters; a great stove, made chiefly of
tiles, stands in the middle of the principal room. Wooden benches are fixed around,

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which serve as seats, and as couches to rest on at night. On a shelf is a lamp,
which is lighted on holidays, but in houses of rank is always kept burning. Much
cannot be said of the cleanliness or comfort of the house, as dogs, cats, fowls,
and pigeons mingle with the children of the family, and often share the same
sheepskins as a bed to lie on.
The Russians are a civil people, and are taught from their early years to behave
with great respect to their superiors, and to regard the emperor as their "great
father." We cannot speak favourably of their learning and book knowledge, as
they are generally very ignorant, and in some parts of the empire are only half-
They have many amusements, and among the common people they are those
which require strength and activity; riding in a sledge is a favourite pastime.
This sledge is often little better than a rough wooden box, without springs, and
filled with hay, to save the rider's bones from being bruised or hurt. But in the
cities this vehicle is made into many fanciful shapes, as swans or serpents, and is
lined with crimson cloth, and covered with the most costly furs. A fine black
horse, with harness studded with silver, dashes along with the sledge, urged forward
by the constant cry of the driver, Faster, faster," while the whip is knocked loudly
against the foot-board, and seldom laid on the horse's back. Even the emperor
himself is seen at times driving one of these sledges.
The Russian sledge-driver treats his horse with great kindness, and, gently
embracing it, says: "Now, my pretty pigeon, make use of thy legs." Steady,
my sweetheart; take care of that stone." "Come, my little father, what art thou
turning thy head for ?" "There, my white pigeon, that is the pace."
Another amusement is to pile up an artificial hill of ice and snow to a great
height, or build up brick walls, covered with ice and snow, then slide down this
height in a sledge, and with such force as to urge it up an opposite incline.
This sport, known as the "flying mountain," requires great care, or the heedless
driver will find himself overturned.
Let us now look into a town-bazaar or market. Here are sold all manner
of things; rows of stalls are covered with dresses for men and women, boots and
caps, saddles, silver ware, pictures, furs, rugs, and all kinds of food. This last
is generally sold in a particular quarter of the bazaar. Here a crowd of Russians
may be eating fish, cooked in a special way. No sooner does the dealer catch
the eye of a passer-by, than he plunges one of the slices of fish into a pot of
green oil, sprinkles it from a large salt-stand, and offers it hot and dripping, and
with a polite bow, to his intended customer. The Muscovite can seldom resist the
tempting morsel, and, thrusting his hani.:i.nto his pocket for a few kopecks (or


copper coins), buys the well-oiled fish; then, seating himself on a bench, he devours
the greasy lump, and then another, and another, until his beard shines with the
droppings of the savoury sauce.
Other supplies of food, for the poorer classes, consist of black rye-bread,
cabbages, soup, onions, cucumbers, and sour fruit.


As we pass through many of the villages we shall see that they are inhabited by
particular classes. One village consists almost entirely of hatters and cap-makers; in
another they are all tailors; another, workers of metals; another, makers of tables
and chairs. In one village thread is spun, and in a second it is woven; whilst
in some, farmers and their men take up their abode.


Russians belong to what is called the Greek Church. In the great cities the
religious services are conducted with much splendour, but in small towns and
villages with great neglect and want of seriousness. Praying to saints and to the
Virgin Mary, fasts, the worship of relics, and other vain superstitions, take the
place, we fear, of that faith in Christ which sanctifies the heart, and regulates
the life according to the will of God.
On the eve of Easter Sunday the streets of the great city of Moscow are
silent, till on a sudden, as the clock strikes twelve at night, the thunder of cannon
and the bells of 250 churches, give a signal; then the streets and church towers
are gaily illuminated, and the people rush one towards another with the cry,
"Christ is risen!" But, sad to tell, multitudes afterwards give themselves up to
revelry. It seems as though their consciences were quite at ease, having just
attended to the rules of their church to fast and keep Lent. There are, however,
faithful men in some parts of the land, who are seeking to lead the people to the
knowledge of a purer faith. May the number be increased of those who are looking
to Jesus as their Saviour, and are learning of him the way of life!


Tx Hu:GAxxAN

HUNGARY, known to the old Romans as Dacia, now forms a part of the Austrian
empire. The boundaries of the kingdom are unsettled, but they are generally stated as
about 250 miles from north to south, and 500 from east to west. Population, 14,500,000.
Joint capital, Buda and Pesth.

HE people of this land are of a mixed race. There are Hungarians
proper, or Magyars (who originally came from Central Asia), Selavonians,
Wallachians, Croats, Servians, and several other distinct tribes. Sixty
thousand gipsies wander about the country, who are often little more
than brigands and robbers.
4 There is a great contrast in the condition of the natives of Hungary.
Wealth and luxury appear close by the side of the most miserable
poverty. There are scarcely any of middle-class rank, except in some of the cities.
The nobles live in great state, and pass their time in hunting and feasting. One of
high rank is reported to be the owner of thirty-four castles, some of which are
of great strength and magnificence. Families of this class are very hospitable
and fond of display.
But the state of the poor is wretched in the extreme; they are slaves to
the nobility. A broad hat, with coarse jacket and trousers, and a dirty woollen
cloak, form the dress of the peasants, which are worn all days alike, in summer
and winter-when engaged as swineherds or when attending church on the
Sunday. The only change is on feast-days, when flowers and peacock feathers
adorn the hat and dress. Their dwellings of mud are comfortless hovels. The
children of the family, unwashed, and almost undressed, play from morning to
night among the pigs and goats, which stroll about the doorway.
A Hungarian writer says:-" I confess that it grieves my heart to see nine-
tenths of the people of my beloved country in a condition in which poverty and
contempt reduce the great mass to crawl in the dust; so that they are unable
to raise themselves from their moral and mental degradation to a better state,
worthy the dignity of human nature."
Buda and Pesth, which form the capital, are built on the opposite banks


of the Danube, a noble river, which flows through the land. The first city
stands on vine-clad hills. It is an ancient place, and possesses a fine castle on
the heights, in which the kings of Hungary formerly lived. It is connected




with its modern companion, Pesth, by a bridge built on boats. This latter
place is the commercial town.
Hungary was one of the first countries in Europe to welcome the Reforma-



tion. The Christian religion had been originally introduced into the land towards
the end of the tenth century; but it became debased by the corruptions of Popery.
Yet God did not leave himself without witness, for there appeared from time to
time those who loved the simple gospel, and who made it known to their countrymen
in deep-wooded valleys and mountain recesses. Soon times of persecution arose.
All who refused to receive the Romish superstitions were banished or cast into
dungeons. On one occasion three hundred ministers were sent to the galleys,
and made to labour as slaves. All Protestant schools were closed, the circula-
tion of the Holy Bible and books of piety were prohibited, and the fiercest and
most cruel attempts were made to force the people to abandon the reformed faith.
Protestants, however, made a long and brave struggle for the truth. At length
their enemies triumphed, and for several ages the evangelical doctrines were
repressed by the strong arm of state power. But better times have come, and
the government of Austria has been led to grant more liberty, so that now there
are openings for the gospel again to be spread over the land. The Christian press
is at work, and books and tracts, in the several dialects of the people, are being
translated and freely circulated. Colporteurs, or book-hawkers, carry them to
every place, and an earnest spirit of inquiry is awakened among all classes.

POLAND, in North- eastern Europe, was for ages a flourishing kingdom; but after long
and severe struggles it was subdued and spoiled by the power of Russia, Austria, and
Prussia. It is now divided among the conquerors, the first possessing the largest share.
In days of prosperity it had a population of 11,000,000, but which is now reduced to about
5,000,000. Its ancient capital was Warsaw.

HE Poles were formerly noted for their courage and independence, but are
now held by their masters in a state of great subjection. In personal
appearance those of rank are tall and of noble bearing. Their counte-
nances are open and generous; and in manners they are polite and lively.
But the poorer classes are generally short in stature, and rude and slovenly
S in their habits. A scanty supply of food, and the hard service which they
render to their taskmasters, tend to make them a debased and impo-
verished race.
In regard to dress, the English and French style now commonly prevails;
though there are many who still adhere to the old national fashion-a bright-
coloured and braided waistcoat with sleeves, an upper robe, or cloak, a sash fastened
round the body, leggings of yellow leather, and a fur cap, while a sword hangs at
the side, as a mark of noble birth. The ladies, who are usually fair and graceful in
manner, wear a Polonaise, or pelisse edged with fur.
The working classes seldom use shoes, their clothes are scant and coarse, and
their ragged children run after the carriages of travellers with a piteous cry of
Kleba, kleba, or "Bread, bread." On Sunday the female peasantry adorn themselves
in a tawdry patchwork of glowing colours.
There are many Jews in Poland, who are usually the innkeepers of the country,
and wretched and dirty ones they are indeed.
The Poles belong partly to the Romish and partly to the Greek church. Some
efforts are being made to make known to them a purer faith, among which is the
printing of religious tracts in their own tongue.
Farmers are the most thriving class of the common people of the land.


With them harvest-home, as among other people, is a time of great festivity.
Our engraving, from a Polish print, represents a scene sometimes witnessed on
such occasions.




YC -U 1' ,X' Y SiC

LAPLAND, the most northerly country of Europe, is about 330 miles in length, and
700 in breadth. It does not possess any towns; the people live in small villages. The
number of the population is unknown.

.HE Lapps are among the shortest of the human race. Men rarely exceed
four feet, and are reckoned tall if they reach to five feet. They are
copper-coloured ; their hair is lank and long; and their eyes narrow and
In their long winter season they clothe themselves in deer and
bearskins, with the hair turned inside, and with collars of fur. A cap
of fur is worn on the head; the hands are wrapped in mittens stuffed
with straw. The feet are bandaged, and on journeys are fastened to very long skates.
In front hang a tobacco-pouch, a large knife, and other articles. For his entire
dress-shoes, coat, trousers, cap, and gloves-he is indebted to the reindeer, that
animal which is the companion of his travels. In the short summer that enlivens
his country, he changes this dress for one made of a kind of cloth. When spoken
to by a stranger he turns his head askance, and whilst he fills a short tobacco-pipe
he looks over the shoulder, slyly peeping, as it were, instead of looking directly at
the face of the person who speaks to him.
There is not much difference in the dress of the women. It is, perhaps, more
ornamented; and, in front, her scissors, pincushion, and other useful articles are
suspended. A mother carries her child in a sort of pouch, lined with wool or moss,
by a strap fastened over the shoulder. Others are carried in a peculiar manner, as
described by Professor Forbes*:-" I saw a young mother," he says, who brought
her infant of four months old out of one of the huts, and seating herself on the
sunny side of it, proceeded to pack up the child for the night in its little wooden
cradle, whilst half-a-dozen of us looked at her all the time. The cradle was cut out
of the solid wood, and covered with leather, flaps of which were so arranged as to
lace across the top with leather thongs; the inside and the little pillow were made
"Iceland: its Volcanoes, Geysers, and Glaciers."


soft with reindeer moss, and the infant fitted the space so exactly that it could stir
neither hand nor foot. A hood protected the head, whilst it admitted air freely.
When the packing was finished, the little creature was speedily rocked to sleep.
Children who are rather older are carried as in our print.
The huts of the Lapps are small, and inside are not unlike a baker's oven in
shape. They are entered by two long passages, through which it is necessary to
crawl to gain admission. These openings are of different widths; through the
smallest the men go forth; but a wife dare not attempt this entry, lest she should
meet with her husband, or any other man, who is about to go forth to hunt, as it
would be deemed a bad sign, and cause him to fail of success.
Professor Forbes gives an agreeable account of his interview with this people.
Starting with some fellow-travellers from a little town, and forcing their way through
a low kind of wood, he says:-" We crossed a stream, and the Lapp camp was
before us on a dry and pleasant grassy space, about two and a half English miles
from the sea. Some piles of sticks and mounds, which seemed like no human
habitation, first took our attention. The piles of sticks (as we found) formed a sort
of skeleton shed, which can be inclosed in bad weather by a kind of rude covering.
They contain barrels, clothes, and many strange utensils and stores, which, in fine
weather, are exposed, suspended from the bare poles. Two low, round mounds of
turf, overlaid with sticks and branches in a most disorderly fashion, composed the
habitations of a multitude of men, women, and children, who seemed at first sight
to be countless. Their appearance-uncouth, squalid, and small in the extreme-
was, I thought, decidedly unpleasant. But an attentive survey brought out some
more favourable features. The countenance was altogether unlike any I had seen,
but by no means without intelligence, and even a certain sweetness of expression.
Notwithstanding that our party was tolerably numerous, they showed no signs
either of distrust or of shyness; and whilst some of them entered into conversation
with one of the gentlemen who knew a little of their speech, and others went,
attended by several small active dogs, to bring some reindeer from the heights, for
inspection, the greater part remained quietly in their huts, as we had found them,
quite regardless of our presence. On inquiring into their occupation, we were
surprised to find them possessed of some well-printed and well-cared-for books,
particularly a quarto Bible, in the Finnish language. We found some of them also
engaged in writing. This was a matter of surprise, when we had been led to expect
something near to barbarism; and we soon had a proof that their claims to religious
impressions were not slight; for they quite refused to taste the spirits which were
freely offered to them, though it is well known that excessive and besotting drunken-
ness used to be the great sin of the Lappish tribes, and still is of those who have

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not been converted to habits of order and religion by the zealous efforts of the
Swedish missionaries who have toiled amongst them. The Lapp hut, inside, is
formed of wood, by means of curved ribs, which unite near the centre in a ring,
which is open, and allows free escape for the smoke, the fire being lighted in the
centre of the floor. The outside is covered with turf. The door is of wood on one
side. The inmates recline on skins on the floor, with their feet towards the fire,
and behind them, on a row of stones near the wall of the hut, are their various
utensils. Their clothing-chiefly of tanned skins and woollen stuffs-looked very
dirty. The whole wealth of the Lapps consists of reindeer. The two families who
frequent this valley possessed about seven hundred reindeer. A few of them were
driven, for our inspection, into a circular enclosure of wooden palings, where they
are habitually milked. One of the men cleverly caught them by the horns with a
lasso, or loose rope. The deer are small, but some of them carry immense branching
horns, the weight of which they seem almost unable to support. They make a low
grunting noise, almost like a pig; the milk is small in quantity, and very rich."
The affection of the Lapps for the reindeer is very strong. A Russian
gentleman, travelling in Lapland, took back with him to St. Petersburg a young
Lapp girl to be educated. She was lively and intelligent, quick at learning, and
soon acquired many of the habits and accomplishments of civilised life. After
about two years, some of her countrymen came to St. Petersburg, having charge of
a herd of reindeer. She was taken to see them, and was much affected at the sight.
The next morning she was missing, and was never seen in the city more. The
familiar reindeer had brought back the remembrance of her country; it was too
strong for her adopted habits, and she found means to get back to the home and the
wild free life, which, with all their hardships, she loved the best.


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