• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 The elephant
 The elephant hunt in Africa
 The tiger hunt
 Elephant corral in Ceylon
 The elephant and the tailor
 The camel
 The giraffe
 The Arab horse
 The polar bear
 The narwhal
 The walrus
 The reindeer
 The stag
 The Newfoundland dog
 The cockatoo
 The parrot
 The gray parrot
 The antelope
 The shepherd dog
 The mastiff
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: Pictures and stories of natural history
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027904/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pictures and stories of natural history
Physical Description: 112 p., 16 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thomas Nelson & Sons ( Publisher )
Publisher: T. Nelson and Sons
Place of Publication: London ;
Edinburgh ;
New York
Publication Date: 1874
 Subjects
Subject: Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Zoology -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1874
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
General Note: Plates printed in colors.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027904
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002236013
notis - ALH6481
oclc - 60551844

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Half Title
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    The elephant
        Plate
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The elephant hunt in Africa
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    The tiger hunt
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Plate
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Elephant corral in Ceylon
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The elephant and the tailor
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Plate
        Page 31
        Page 32
    The camel
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    The giraffe
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    The Arab horse
        Page 44
        Plate
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    The polar bear
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Plate
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    The narwhal
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Plate
        Page 57
        Page 58
    The walrus
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Plate
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    The reindeer
        Page 66
        Plate
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    The stag
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Plate
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    The Newfoundland dog
        Page 76
        Plate
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    The cockatoo
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Plate
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    The parrot
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Plate
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    The gray parrot
        Page 92
        Plate
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    The antelope
        Page 98
        Plate
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    The shepherd dog
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Plate
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    The mastiff
        Page 108
        Plate
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text























Ar.






























PICTURES AND STORIES OF NATURAL HISTORY.









PICTURES AND


NATURAL HISTORY.















SECOYID Su.ITZS



T. _felson anb -onw, 'onbon,, bbiiiburgh, li b ~a.Al'tu orlt.

IS74.


STORIES















S" --



S- )M, IE, listen to me, and I will tell
.,- ,' Some stories you will like full well:
\ Of Beasts that roam o'er forest and plain,
(-, Of Birds that flutter to and fro,
S Of Monsters that live in the billowy main,
And on the coasts of ice and snow;
Of the Elephant huge, so gentle yet strong;
Of the Tiger fierce, and crafty, and sleek;
Of the Camel that plods its way along
The desert-sands with a spirit meek:
Come, listen to me, and I will tell
Some stories you will like full well.

Come, listen to me, and I will tell
Some stories you will like full well:-
Of the Arab Horse, whose arrowy speed
Is a thing to gaze at and admire;
In truth, he makes a noble steed,
With his limbs of strength and his eye of fire !








vi PREFACE.

Of the Polar Bear which haunts the Zone
Where looms for ever a cold, keen sky;
Or the Stag which reigns in the moorlands lone,
And tosses his antlered head on high !
Come, listen to me, and I will tell
Some stories you will like full well.

Come, listen to me, and I will tell
Some stories you will like full well:
Of the Dog who tends the wandering sheep,
Many a tale you now may hear;
Or of him who faithful watch will keep
When darkness gathers your home anear:
Or I will speak of the Cockatoo,
With his plumage gay and accents wild;
Of the Parrot, bird of more modest hue,
Chattering amain, like thoughtless child !
Come, listen to me, and I will tell
Some stories you will like full well:-

Stories of Beasts that roam the plain,
Stories of Birds that roam in air,
Stories of Monsters in the main-
What wonderful stories, without compare !


























rr- i~-t N ;


THE ELEPHANT, ...

ELEPHANT HUNT IN AFRICA, ...

THE TIGER HUNT, ...


ELEPHANT CORRAL IN CEYLON,

STORY OF THE ELEPHANT AND

THE CAMEL, ... ...

THE GIRAFFE, ...

THE ARAB HORSE, .. ...

THE POLAR BEAR, ...

THE NARWHAL, ... ... ...

THE WALRUS,... .

THE REINDEER, ... ... ...

THE STAG, ... ......

THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG,.


... ... ... ... ... 13

... ... ... ... 19


... ...... ... 23

THE TAILOR, ... ... ... 29

.. ... ... 33


.. .... ... 38

... ... ... ... ... 44

... ... ... ... ... 49

... ... ... ... 55

... ... ... ... ... 59

... ... ... ... ... 66

... ...... ... 71

... ... ... ... ... 76










viii CONTENTS.


THE COCKATOO, ... .... .. ... .. ... ... 81

THE PARROT, .. ..... .. ... .. ... ... 87

THE GRAY PARROT, ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 92

THE ANTELOPE, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 98

THE SHEPHERD DOG, ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 103

THE MASTIFF, ... ... ... .. .. ... .. ... 108

















'too
























































































. . . .









THE ELEPHANT.


SJl IE home of the elephant is in the
( Ai, deep shady forest.
The forests in hot countries reach
a great many miles. The trees grow
thick and tall, and make it almost dark.
The elephant likes the shade. He will
stand in the coolest place he can find. He
will keep flapping his ears, to drive away
the flies; or he will, pull down a bough
with his trunk, and fan himself with it.
But he likes better still to get into a
stream of water. He sucks the water up in
his trunk, and then spouts it all over his
body. He is so fond of bathing that he
cannot be happy away from the water.
And he is very fond of fruit. Many nice






10 THE ELEPHANT.

fruits grow in the forest, and they serve
him for food. Besides the fruit, he eats the
leaves and the young tender boughs of the
trees.
There is plenty for him in his native
forest. But sometimes he is not content.
When the crops of rice and Indian corn are
getting ripe in the fields, he thinks he
should like a taste of them. Then he does
a great deal of mischief. He will come out
of the forest and go trampling along with
his clumsy feet. When he gets to a garden
or field, he will break down the fence and
walk in. It will be in the night, when
people are asleep, and the elephant will
have it all his own way. He will eat as
much as he can, and trample down more
than he eats.
When the man who owns the field gets
up the next morning, he will find no






THE ELEPHANT.


elephant, for the elephant is gone back to
the forest. But all the nice young crop
will be spoiled.
A great many flowers grow in the forest.
Some of these have a very sweet scent, and
the elephant likes the smell of them.
Sometimes he will gather them with his
trunk, and make them into a nosegay, and
seem very pleased with them. And he
likes best to eat those trees that have a
pleasant smell. He will eat the orange-
tree quite up, so that not a bit of it is left!
When the elephants move about in the
forest, the oldest elephant goes first. The
little elephants and their mothers are in
the middle of the troop, that they may be
the safest. They march along with a great
trampling noise. The boughs of the trees
bend and break before them.
No one dares to attack a herd of ele-






THE ELEPHANT.


phants marching through the forest. But
if an elephant stays behind, the hunters
will try to take him. They want his teeth,
and the two ivory tusks that grow on each
side of his mouth. Or they want to tame
him, and make him carry and draw like
the horse or the camel.
He can do things that the horse cannot.
He can wait on his master, like a servant.
Look at the elephant in the picture. He
is sweeping with a broom, and making a
great dust. He holds the broom in his
trunk, as if he were holding it in his
hand.
His trunk is as useful to him as if it
were a hand, and he can move it about as
he likes. When he wants to eat, he takes
the food up with his trunk and puts it into
his mouth. He can pick up a pin as well
as you can. Or he can untie a knot, or






ELEPHANT HUNT IN AFRICA. 13

unlock a door, or even be taught to write
with a pen!
The man in the picture is the elephant's
keeper. He has an iron rod in his hand
to guide him with. When he says Kneel
down," the elephant will bend his knees,
and let him get on his back. A word will
be enough to make the elephant set off, or
to make him stop.



ELEPHANT HUNT IN AFRICA.

THE elephant that lives in Africa is not
tamed and made to work. It used to be,
once upon a time. The soldiers, when they
went to battle, were mounted on the backs
of elephants. But it did not always answer.
For if the elephants were driven back, they
would run trampling down their own party,






14 ELEPHANT HUNT IN AFRICA.

and would do as much mischief on one side
as on the other.
In these days the people who live in Africa
do not take the trouble to tame the ele-
phant. When they go to hunt, they try to
kill him. They want his tusks, and his
teeth, which are ivory; and a great many
elephants are killed for nothing but the
ivory.
The white men use guns to shoot the
elephant with. And those tribes that are
subject to the English, use guns too.
But the plan of the natives is to hunt the
elephant with spears, as you see in the
picture.
The natives have first to find out where
the elephant is. He does not often show
himself. He keeps in the thickest and
coolest part of the forest, and is so hidden
by the shrubs and trees, that they may be






















.J 'L'll i







EL.EHN -, IN AF '
ELEPHANT, _-






16 ELEPHANT HUNT IN AFRICA.

close to him and yet not see him. But the
natives go about looking on the ground for
what they call the spoor of the elephant.
That means the mark of his foot upon the
ground. They are very clever in guessing
what sort of an elephant it is that has made
the spoor, and they follow the spoor all
through the forest till they come to where
the elephant is.
If they do not see him, they stand quite
still and listen. They listen to hear him
breathe; for he makes a funny noise when
he breathes, like the bubbling of water.
When they have come to the end of the
spoor, they are sure to hear the bubbling
noise; by which they know the elephant is
close by.
If you look at the picture, you will see
that the hunt has begun. There is a
mother elephant, with her two young ones.






ELEPHANT HUNT IN AFRICA. 17

She stood browsing under the trees, her
little ones beside her. All at once, some-
thing sharp hurt her and made her start.
It was a spear. The man who threw it is
hidden behind a tree, where the elephant
cannot see him. You can see many black
faces peering from among the bushes. A
man is going to throw a second spear. The
elephant is angry. She throws her trunk
into the air, and makes a shrill noise like a
trumpet. She goes trampling off among
the trees, her little ones with her. The
men keep out of her way. If she saw them,
she would run full at them, and trample
them to death.
They let her run as far as she likes.
When she gets a good way off, she will stop,
and fancy she is out of danger. But the
men follow her, step by step. She stands
resting herself and getting her breath after
2A






18 ELEPHANT HUNT IN AFRICA.

the run she has had, when there comes an-
other spear. The black faces peer at her
through the bushes. The poor elephant has
to set off again. This time her body has a
great many spears sticking in it.
She will be driven about in this way by
the hunters. They are very patient, and
keep on day after day. She gets weak
from loss of blood, and cannot run any
more. At last she falls down and dies, and
the hunters carry away her tusks and her
teeth.
Thus, in spite of the size and strength of
the elephant, man-with his gift of reason,
and his skill-is able to subdue it, and
make himself the master.


o'- U-.









THE TIGER HUNT.


T is not very safe to hunt the tiger, as
you may think if you look at the
picture.
People are more afraid of the tiger
than they are of the lion. The tiger is so
cruel, that they always try to hunt him
down if they can.
He lives in the jungle. The jungle is a
part of the forest where the grass and shrubs
grow so thick that it is hard work for the
hunters to force their way along. And any
moment the tiger may spring out upon them.
The hunters ride, as you see, on the back
of an elephant. They sit in a car, that in
India is called a howdah.
The elephant knows his way through the






THE TIGER HUNT.


forest, for he lived there before he wais caught
and tamed by his master.
He is very careful that his master does
not get hurt by the branches of the trees
that hang over his head. He will pull them
down with his trunk, or push them out of
the way.
The elephant knows when a tiger is near.
He makes a shrill cry, and the men on his
back get their spears and guns ready.
In a very few minutes the tiger springs
out of the jungle. He makes a dr-arlful
growling, and his eyes sparkle like fire.
The elephant knows what to do. He lifts
up his trunk in the air, to be out of the way.
If the tiger were to lay hold of his trunk,
the elephant could not defend himself or
his master either. The tiger will come
springing with great force ; but the elephant
tries to knock.lhim down with his -i ;1l.
































Ott

7iI
I 4;i






II







THE TIGER HUNT


The men in the howdah fire off' their guns.
If the tiger is wounded and falls, the ele-
phant sets his great foot upon him, and
crushes him to death.
But sometimes it happens that the ele-
phant is not so brave or so quick. Then it
is very l,:ad for the men in the howdah.
The tiger will climb up the side of the
elephant like a cat, and there is no knowing
what mischief he may not do.
Once upon a time some men went to
hunt the tiger. The elephant did not like
to face the tiger, and turned round to get
away. In a moment the tiger climbed up
his side, as you see him do in the picture.
He laid hold of one of the men with his
sharp teeth, and dragged him down on to
the ground. Then he threw him over his
back as easily as a cat would a mouse, and
set off with him to the jungle!






THE TIGER HUNT.


Do you wonder what became of the poor
man ? He lay on the back of the tiger, and
every now and then his face was scratched
by the thorns and briers through which he
was being dragged. He had a pair of
pistols in his belt, and he drew one of them
out and took aim at the tiger's head. He
fired, but missed the tiger, and only made
him angry and give the man a shake. But
the man drew out his other pistol, and fired
again. This time he did not miss his aim,
and the tiger fell dead on the spot.
He was glad he had killed the tiger. But
he was still more glad when he heard voices,
and the trampling of the elephant. His
friends had come after him, and would carry
him away in safety.
The tiger is very handsome with his
striped skin. But he is more fierce and
cruel than any of the creatures that live in






ELEPHANT CORRAL IN CEYLON.


the forest. When a tigress has had her
cubs shot by the hunter, she will follow him
to the town where he lives. She is mad
with rage, and will rush into the streets.
It is a good thing that there are not very
many tigers.



ELEPHANT CORRAL IN CEYLON.

THERE are a great many elephants in the
Island of Ceylon, and the people who live
there are very fond of trying to catch them.
It is great riches to them to get the ele-
phants; for they can sell them as soon as
they are tame enough. And even if one
dies in being caught, there are his ivory
tusks, which are worth a good deal of money.
The first thing the natives do is to choose
a place near to the forest, and make a






24 ELEPHANT CORRAL IN CEYLON.

fence round it, as we might do to pen cattle
in. Only we should not make it so large,
or so strong, for each post in the fence is
really the trunk of a tree.
The space inside the fence is called a
corral. The fence has open places like
great door-ways left in it, where the ele-
phants are to get in. That is, when they
come rushing towards it, which the natives
will contrive to make them do by-and-by.
All the time the corral is being got
ready, the elephants are safe and happy
in the forest. But they begin to see blaz-
ing lights all round them. These lights
are the fires that the natives are making to
frighten the elephants.
The fires seem at first a long way off.
But they come nearer and nearer, until the
poor elephants are hemmed in by fires on
all sides but one. Behind the flames are





















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i 1.

fs^


3'

I,


ELEPHANT CORRAL IN CEYLON.


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ELEPHANT CORRAL IN CEYLON.


crowds of men, with white shining sticks
and spears in their hands. The men knock
these sticks about, and brandish their spears,
and make a great shouting noise, to frighten
the elephants as much as they can.
The elephants look about, to see which
way they can escape from the noise. Only
one way is left open, and the whole herd
sets off with a furious rush down it. That
one way leads them to the corral! As soon
as the elephants are in the corral, the natives
bar up the door-ways, so that they cannot
get out again. Then the poor elephants
find themselves penned in, as safe as if they
were in prison.
In the meantime the natives have plenty
to do. The corral is very much crowded,
as you see, and one by one the elephants
must be got out.
Do you see those two men riding upon






ELEPHANT CORRAL IN CEYLON.


elephants? Those elephants are tame ones.
They were once caught in the corral them-
selves; but they have been well taught, and
are quite willing to catch their old friends
of the forest.
The natives on foot have also plenty to do.
They have just got an elephant out of the
corral, and are barring the door-way behind
him. He seems in a great passion; but the
tame elephants know how to manage him.
They will come, one on each side of him,
and will stroke him with their trunks, and
seem to talk to him. He gets a little more
quiet while the tame elephants are with
him, and they entice him to follow them
away from the corral. They stop when
they come to a good strong tree. The
natives keep close behind, and begin in a
minute to coil the rope round and round
the tree. I mean the rope that is hanging






ELEPHANT CORRAL IN CEYLON.


to the elephant's leg. The elephant does
not take any notice of what they are doing,
so long as his false friends are with him.
But as soon as he is tied fast to the, tree,
they go away and leave him. He wants to
go after them; and when he finds that he
cannot, he screams, and roars, and struggles
as if he would pull down the tree!
The natives soon come back, and bring him
cocoa-nuts and plenty of nice green leaves
to eat. He is too angry to eat at present,
and he tosses the cocoa-nuts about, and
tramples them under his feet. But in spite
of his rage he cannot help getting hungry.
By-and-by he is glad to take all the nuts
and good things the natives can bring him.
He gets tame and gentle. And in a little
time he can be ridden about, and made to
do anything his master likes.








THE ELEPHANT AND THE TAILOR.


r:' HOPE you are not tired of the ele-
i'-I phant. I have something more to
Sell you about him.
When the elephant has been tamed
he is very gentle, and does as he is bid.
But he does not like to be teased ; and he
will not put up with it either. You will
see this if you look at the picture.
That man is a tailor, and sits at work in
his shop. It is in India, and people wear
long loose robes of silk or of muslin. He
is making a robe of crimson silk, and it
lies upon his knee.
A little time ago the elephant went down
the street, and passed the tailor's shop. As
he was going by, the tailor called to him to






30 THE ELEPHANT AND THE TAILOR.

stop, and held out his hand, as if he had
something to give him. But instead of this,
he was going to play him a trick. The
elephant put his trunk into the shop, think-
ing he should have some cake or some
fruit. No such thing. The unkind tailor
only gave the elephant's trunk a prick with
his needle. Then he laughed; and all the
men in the shop laughed with him.
The elephant did not like to be made
fun of. But he seemed to take no notice,
and walked away. He did not forget it;
and what is more, he made up his mind
to punish the tailor !
The next day the elephant went down
the street again. Before he came to the
tailor's shop, he stopped at a puddle of
dirty water. Here he filled his trunk with
the dirty water, and went on again. He
went on to the tailor's shop-and what do






































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... .. ........
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if mll m qlr







THE ELEPHANT AND THE TAILOR. 31

you think he did? The tailor was sitting
at work as usual, and the smart crimson
robe lay on his knee. The elephant came
to a stand. He looked at the tailor, and
then lifted up his trunk and squirted the
dirty water all over him!
I am afraid the smart robe on his knee
will be spoiled. And perhaps he will have
learned to do as he would be done by, and
not be so fond of teasing.
But I can tell you another little story
about the elephant.
If any one is kind to him, he never for-
gets it. A poor woman had a stall in the
market and sold fruit. An elephant used
to go by, and always stopped to look at her
stall. She knew how fond the elephant was
of fruit; and she used, now and then, to
give him some.
One day the elephant went into a passion






THE ELEPHANT AND THE TAILOR.


with his keeper. He broke loose, and ran
through the market, trampling down every
thing before him. The people at the stalls
ran away as fast as they could. The poor
woman left her stall and ran too. But she
forgot, in her fright, that her little child
was sitting on the ground, close by the
stall! It was just in the elephant's way,
and you would think it must have been
trampled to death. But the elephant knew
the child again, and knew that this was the
stall where he had been fed with fruit.
Though he was in a passion, he stopped. He
looked at the child, and picked it up with
his trunk. Then he set it out of his way,
and went on. You may think how glad
the poor woman was to see her child safe.
Is it not better to be kind to dumb
animals, than to tease them and to play
them tricks ?











THE CAMEL.


.. .
i-~
(, lOD has made the camel so that he
<-\<1 can live in the desert.
4 The desert is a great salldy plain,
S that reaches many hundred miles.
The sand is very hot, for the burning sun
shines all day upon it.
It would scorch your feet to walk upon
the hot sand. But the camel's feet are
made on purpose, and it does not hurt them
at all.
Sometimes the wind rises in the desert,
and whirls the ~an d round and round in the
air. The men lie down on their faces, and
try to keep the sand out of their mouths
and out of their noses. The camel is better
off than they are. He can shut his nose
3r






THE CAMEL.


quite tight-so tight that not a bit of sand
can get in.
Water is very scarce in the desert. The
wells of water are so far apart, that men
sometimes die of thirst as they go from one
well to another. But the camel can go
many days without drinking; and I can
tell you how it is. He has a pouch in his
stomach, and he fills it with water. This
keeps the camel from being thirsty.
And he can smell water a very long way
off. When the men have drunk up all the
water they carry with them, they think they
must die of thirst. No well is to be seen,
and they don't know where to find one.
But the camel pricks up his ears, and
snuffs with his nose in the air, as if he
smelt something. He jogs on a little faster,
and a little faster still. The men do not
try to stop him. They know that he smells






THE CAMEL. 35

water; and so it is. There is a well, miles
away in the distance, and the camel is
making his way to it. There the poor
thirsty people can drink as much as they
like.
Perhaps it is night when they get to the
well, and the camel is turned loose to get
his own supper. He will eat the nice bit
of grass that grows near the water. But he
is not dainty, and if there is no grass, he
makes his supper on the plants that live in
the sand, and that are all over prickles and
spikes.
The men would not think such plants
were of any use, if they did not see the
camel eat them.
The camel in the picture belongs to an
Arab. You can see the tent he lives in.
The tree that grows by the side of the
tent is a date-palm. The dates are nice to






THE CAMEL.


eat: they are as good to the Arab as bread
is to us.
And you see what a load the camel has
upon his back. The camel has been taught
to carry a heavy load; and I will tell you
how. When he was quite a little camel, his
master made him kneel down once every
day. Then he put a weight upon his back,
and made him get up again. He went on
doing this every day, and every day he put
a greater weight upon the camel's back.
When the camel was grown up, his back
had got used to burdens, and he could carry
a very great load.
All the time the camel is being loaded
he makes a noise, as if he would complain
of his hard lot. He knows just how much
he can carry. If his master puts a little
too much upon him, he will not get up
until some of the load is taken off. Then






THE CAMEL.


he will get up and set off with good-will,
and be patient and happy, let his hardships
be what they will.
The Arab does not drive his camel with
a whip. Instead of that, he sings a song;
and the camel is so pleased with the music
that he quickens his pace, and goes as fast
as he can.
The hair of the camel falls off once a
year; and the Arab uses it to make war
clothing of. You have read in the Bible
that John the Baptist had a garment of
camel's hair, when he was in the desert.
There are two kinds of camels. The
Arab's camel has one hump, and is called
by a very long name. It is called a Drome-
dary, and is more used to ride upon than
to carry burdens. The other camel has two
humps. He cannot go so fast, but he can
carry a greater weight upon his back.









THE GIRAFFE.


IIE cameleopard is called the giraffe,
( and as that is a shorter name, we
had better use it.
What a strange-looking animal
he is! His head is like the head of a
deer, and his eyes are very bright indeed.
He has a long thin tongue, which is of
great use to him. You see in the
picture how he is putting it out to lay
hold of the branch of a tree. He wants
to get the leaves off to eat them. He will
strip them off one by one, till not a leaf
is left.
He can eat grass if he likes, but it is not
easy for him to stoop his long neck to the
ground. He has to stand with his front






THE GIRAFFE. 39

legs so wide apart that it gives him a very
awkward look.
He is rather dainty. He will only eat
the softest part of the grass; and when he
is feeding on a tree, if there are any thorns
on it, he will strip them off and throw them
away.
The giraffe lives in the woods and sandy
plains of Africa. He is very harmless. He
has neither teeth nor claws to fight with,
and if he is in danger, he can only run
away.
He is in danger from the lion. When
the giraffe comes to a pool to drink, he
often finds the lion there before him. The
lion makes a loud roaring, and springs on
his back. Then the poor giraffe gallops
away as fast as he can. But he cannot get
rid of the lion. Though his back is so
sloping the lion holds himself on it, and






40 THE GIRAFFE.

will not let go till the giraffe falls and
dies.
Besides the lion, there is the Arab. He
thinks the flesh of the giraffe nice to eat.
And he uses the handsome spotted skin
for his shield, and his sandals, and for
many other things.
For a long time no one hunted the giraffe
but the Arabs. But when it was found out
that such a strange-looking creature was
living in Africa, people at home wanted to
see him.
A clever hunter was sent over to Africa
to bring back a giraffe alive.
The Arabs were willing to help him, and
that was a good thing. The Arabs knew
better than he did how to hunt the giraffe.
They rode on their Arab horses, that are so
swift, and that I am going to tell you about
by-and-by.






THE GIRAFFE. 41

Very soon the party of hunters came
upon a giraffe and her young one. The
old giraffe was too large and strong to be
taken alive. The Arabs wanted her flesh
to eat while they were in the desert. They
killed her, and though the little one ran
away they did not mind. They felt they
should very soon find it. They were too
tired to follow it just then.
They went into their tent, and began to
cook their dinner. Their dinner was some
slices of meat from the giraffe. They asked
the hunter to eat with them, and he
thought it very nice.
Early the next morning they started
again, and soon saw the mark of the little
giraffe on the sand.
It was easy to catch the little giraffe. It
was not so strong as its mother, and could
not run so fast.






42 THE GIRAFFE

When it was caught, the Arabs were very
kind to it. They stayed in the desert for
a few days to tame it, and to make it follow
them. They gave it milk from a camel
they had brought with them, and it was
soon quite tame and willing to go where
they liked.
Four of the giraffes were brought to
England alive, and the Arabs came with
them.
They got to London early one morning.
They were going to be taken to the gardens
in the Park, and to live there for people to
look at.
The Arabs led them through the streets;
and you might think they would be afraid.
For the streets of London are not at all
like the desert they had left. But they
did not seem to mind. They walked along
without giving any trouble; and when they






THE GIRAFFE. 43

got to the gardens they let the Arabs lead
them in.
Crowds of people came to see the giraffes,
and to see the Arabs who were with them.
The giraffe is fond of sugar, or any thing
sweet. The Arab used to take a lump of
sugar in his hand, and the giraffe would
follow him about as if he were begging for
it. He would get it out of his hand with
that long thin tongue I told you about.
A lady stood looking at the giraffe getting
the sugar. Her bonnet was trimmed with
flowers and berries. The giraffe took them
for real berries. He stooped his long neck
and bit them off!


I-. -^-?










THE ARAB HORSE.


/:jOU have read in the Bible of people
t J dwelling in tents. The Arabs live
c _i in tents now, and they are just like
those the Bible tells us about.
The Arab would not be happy if he were
made to stay long in one place. So a
tent suits him better than a house. He
can set it up where he likes, and when
he is tired of living there, he can take it
down again, and carry it off somewhere
else.
If he is rich, he has plenty of flocks and
herds to drive before him. And he has
camels to carry his tents and his goods.
But what he loves and values more than
them all is his horse.
























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r.:
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THE ARAB HORSE. 45

In the picture the Arab is standing by
his horse, and just going to mount.
His horse can carry him a great many
miles without stopping. And he seems as
fond of going about as his master is.
An Arab once was so fond of riding, that
he spent three or four weeks on horseback!
He would gallop off from his tent a dozen
times a day, make a long circuit, and come
back again. He would ride with his spear
in his hand, and his robe flying behind him
in the wind.
His horse did not seem at all tired with
these gallops. And when he came back to
the tent, he would paw the ground, and
want to be off again as soon as his master
would let him.
The Arab looks upon his horse as his
best friend. When the little foal is born,
the Arab takes it in his arms. He will






THE ARAB HORSE.


nurse and cherish it, as if it were a baby, till
it gets strong enough to stand. Then he
sets it on the ground, and watches it as it
totters about and tries to walk. As it
grows older it is left to run about in the
tent, like a dog. The children make a
great fuss with it, and are very fond of it
indeed. The women feed it with camel's
milk, and take care of it. They would not
part with it for any money.
The horse, as you may think, grows up
to be very fond of his master, and will
never fail him. If he is in danger, the
horse will put out all his strength, and
gallop so fast that nothing can overtake him.
And the Arab could not hunt if it were
not for his horse. None but an Arab horse
is swift enough, or strong enough, to hunt
the ostrich.
The ostrich is the great bird of the desert.






THE ARAB HORSE.


It is taller than a man, and its long legs
can take very wide strides. As it runs, its
wings help it along, though they are too
small to fly with. It gets over the ground
so fast, that not even the Aral horse has
any chance of catching it. But the ostrich
has not so much sense as the horse. Instead
of running in a straight line, it keeps going
from one side to the other. The horse all
the while gallops along, without turning to
the right or to the left. So that he keeps
getting nearer and nearer to the ostrich.
At last the ostrich gets tired, and hides its
head in the sand. Then the Arab can
take it.
Its fine feathers are what he wants; and
they are sent to England for the ladies to
wear in their hats and bonnets.
And besides the ostrich, the Arab hunts
the giraffe. This is very hard work indeed.






48 THE ARAB HORSE.

And if the horse were not very strong, he
could not do it. Sometimes the giraffe
will bound away to a rock or mountain.
He can climb as well as a goat can, and
the horse cannot follow him. Then the
giraffe gets away. But if it is on level
ground, the horse will never give up the
chase. He will press on, without food or
rest, till he has run down the poor giraffe.
The Arab is so fond of his horse that he
will very seldom part with him. An
Englishman was once on his travels in the
desert. He wanted an Arab horse, and he
told an Arab if he would sell his horse, he
would give him a great deal of money.
The Arab only laughed and rode away.
You might think he must have been rich,
to refuse so much money. But no such
thing! All he had in the world was his
horse!









THE POLAR BEAR.


-WAYVE you ever seen a white bear?
(!fi? He does not live in England. If
you look in the map, you will see
the North Pole marked. In the
country round the North Pole the white
bear lives, and that is why he is called the
Polar bear.
It is very cold where the white bear
lives. The ground is covered with snow
and the sea is blocked up with ice.
The bear does not mind the cold. See
what a warm fur coat he has on! God has
given it to him, so that he cannot feel the
frost.
You and I could not walk upon the ice
as he does. But the soles of his feet
4n






50 THE POLAR BEAR.

have long hairs growing to them; so that
he treads as safely as if he had a pair
of fur boots on.
The bear lives near the sea-coast, for he
knows how to swim. He likes the water
as well as the land. And in the water he
can find plenty to eat.
You would not think it a pleasant sea to
swim in. In the winter it is quite frozen
over, and is as hard as iron. In the sum-
mer the ice does not go away. It floats
about in great blocks like the one in the
picture.
I must tell you about the bear in the
picture, and how he came on the block
of ice.
He is very fond of catching a seal for
his dinner. The seal lives in the water,
and has a funny round head, and a tail like
a fish. Now and then the seal pops up its















l'l'l" ,,Ia ,'
A4 1%V-1



If I;







THE POLAR BEAR


head and looks about it. Sometimes it
will come out of the water, and drag itself
a little way, for it hardly knows how to
walk. And then it will lie down on the
ice, and go to sleep. But if any noise
wakens it, up it jumps and dives down
into the water. And the water is the
safest place for it. Now the bear, when he
wants his dinner, begins to look about for
a seal. He prowls over the ice, smelling
as he goes, until he gets to a hole where
the ice is melted. Here he stops. He
knows that this is a likely place for a seal
to pop up its head. He has only to wait
and have patience.
Sometimes he has not long to wait. Up
will come the round head of a seal. And
this is just what the bear wants. He drags
the poor seal out of the water, tears it to
pieces, and eats it.






52 THE POLAR BEAR.

But the bear does not always get his
dinner so quickly. The seal is a very
cunning creature, and is not always caught.
Then the bear gets tired of waiting. He
will jump into the water and swim about
looking for something to eat. Nothing
comes amiss to him. A bit of dead whale
he thinks a great treat.
He swims a long way from home, and is
glad to get upon a block of ice and rest
himself. From one block of ice he goes to
another. There is no knowing where he
may not travel to. If he reaches the shore
of some far off country, he is sure to get
into trouble. The people who live there
are not at all glad to see him. They will
come down to the shore and kill him.
The bear in the picture has gone from
one block of ice to another. At last he
spies a boat with two men in it. He is so






THE POLAR BEAR.


hungry, he would not mind having one of
the men for his dinner.
They have been looking at him as he lay
on the ice. His white coat was so like the
ice, they hardly knew what he was. But
he has come quite close, and has put one
paw on the edge of the boat. The men
will have to fight for their lives.
One man has struck him with a spear;
but the bear has got the spear between his
teeth. It is a good thing that the other
man has a hatchet in his hand. He will
bring it down on the bear's head with
all his might. Then the bear will let go
the spear, and perhaps he will fall down
and die.
When the bear is dead the men will take
his nice warm fur, and make jackets and
caps of it, like those in the picture.
I must tell you what happens to the






THE POLAR BEAR.


mother bear in the winter. She lies down
behind a block of ice, or else she scratches
a hole in the snow and gets into it. There
she sleeps till the spring. When she comes
out again she is very thin and very hungry.
She has two little cubs, no bigger than
two little rabbits. She is a very good
mother to her cubs. When she has caught
a seal, she will divide it between them, and
hardly keep a bit for herself. And if her
little cubs get killed, the poor mother will
lie down and die of grief.



._ :- _,~ ~ -. ..

-S i_ _--
*-l' a-.F_'___









THE NARWHAL.


7^BHAT can that curious-looking crea-
f ture be in the picture?
< It is called the narwhal. It has
its home in the seas where the
great whale lives.
It is a kind of whale, only not so large
or so clumsy. People have even called it
the white whale."
They like to hunt it when they can.
That long tusk which you see is ivory,
like the tusk of the elephant.
And that is why the man in the boat
wants to kill the poor narwhal.
It is not very easy to catch sight of the
narwhal. It is so shy that it keeps quite
out of reach of man.






56 THE NARWHAL.

The man in the boat has been hunting
about for a long time.
Do you see what a funny little canoe it is ?
There is a round hole in the middle, and
here the man sits and paddles himself along.
There is a great ball of rope behind him.
One end of the rope is tied to the spear
he has in his hand.
The spear is called a harpoon, and it is
the weapon with which he is going to kill
the narwhal.
You might fancy the narwhal was very
fierce. It looks fierce with its great tusk.
But it is really gentle and harmless. It
plays about in the water with its com-
panions, and does no harm to anything.
Its skin is very handsome, as you see,
and has spots all over it. And the narwhal
swims and glides about in a very graceful
manner.



































F
I
,- I.




+j5
LC
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L rF a







THE NARWHAL. 57

Will the man in the boat be able to kill
the narwhal ?
I think he will. He will strike it with
his harpoon. Then it will dive down deep
into the water, quite out of reach. But the
harpoon will stick fast in its body. And
the rope will keep tied to the end of the
harpoon.
The rope on the ball will unwind very
quickly indeed, as the narwhal keeps pulling
at it. But the man has taken care to have
plenty of rope. Before it has quite un-
wound itself, the narwhal is tired and stops.
Though it looks like a great fish, it does
not breathe as the fishes do. It breathes
the air, as you and I do. So that it has to
come up to the top of the water, or it
would die.
The man guesses where it will come up.
He has the other end of the rope in his






THE NARWHAL.


hand; so the narwhal has not got loose.
He paddles along very fast, and soon comes
up to the poor tired creature. Then he
strikes it with a fresh harpoon.
Again the narwhal dives down. But
this time it does not stay so long as before.
When it comes up to breathe, its enemy is
waiting for it. And so the hunt goes on,
until the narwhal is killed.
Now and then a narwhal is found that
has two tusks.
The narwhal in the picture is one of
these rare creatures.




_ra^^^^^*.









THE WALRUS.


HE walrus lives in the cold seas of the
north, where there are great blocks
of ice floating about in the water.
The whale lives in these seas too,
and the walrus is almost as big as the whale.
The picture will show you what a curious
creature the walrus is. He has a funny
round head like a seal, and two long tusks
that look as if they could do a great deal
of mischief.
It is not pleasant to be in a boat when a
walrus is trying to upset it. He will knock
a hole in the side of the boat with his tusks,
so that the water can get in. His eyes
look very bright and fierce while he is
doing it. But he is not really fierce. He






00 THE WALRUS.

is gentle enough when he is let alone, and
he only attacks the boat because a harpoon
has been thrown at him. He does not at-
tempt to hurt the sailors, though he has
knocked their boat to pieces.
He is very fond of his friends, the other
walruses, who are swimming about in the
sea. If one of them gets struck with a
harpoon, he will dive down and fetch a
whole crowd of walruses and help to rescue
him, so that the sailors have often to get
away as fast as they can.
As for the mother walrus, there is nothing
she will not do to protect her little one
from danger. When she is hurt by the
harpoon, her great fear is lest her little one
should be hurt too. She will hide it under
her body and try to cover it with her fins.
No matter how badly she is hurt, if only
her little one can be safe.













SI, t









"'2
'






























.....' ....... ..
.! .







THE WALRUS.


The little walrus is just as fond of its
mother, and will keep as close to her as it
can. Not long ago some sailors, who were
out in those seas looking for whales, killed
a mother walrus; she was one of a great
herd, and her little one was with her. The
sailors tied the body of the mother walrus
to the boat, and dragged it along towards
the ship. The little one went after it, and
kept as close as it could. It kept diving
and swimming round and round, and would
not go away. At last the sailors threw a
noose made of rope over its head and its
two paws, and caught it. Then it was
lifted on deck, and made fast to a ring so
that it could not get away.
At first the little walrus would not eat
anything. But by-and-by it began to pick
up the bits of pork given it by the sailors.
It would have liked shrimps and mussels






62 THE WALRUS.

better, and as soon as the ship came to land
the sailors got plenty of shrimps for it
to eat.
The little walrus was put in a box with
holes in it for it to breathe through, and
sent to one of the public gardens in Lon-
don.
The two great tusks that you see growing
from the mouth of the walrus, are very
long and heavy.
I will tell you what use they are to him.
He can scrape the shrimps and shell-fish
out of the sand with them. And he can
use them to help him to climb up the
blocks of ice. Sometimes, when he wants
to go to sleep, he sticks them into the
ice, and rests upon them. But this is
not always safe. It may happen that the
tide goes out, and leaves the poor walrus
hanging by his tusks to the rock. If he





THE WALRUS. 63

cannot get loose he is in danger of hanging
there till he dies.
People try to kill the walrus for the sake
of his tusks and of his skin. His skin is
very thick, and makes good strong leather.
And the fat of his great body is made into
oil. So that it is quite worth while to go
out to hunt the walrus as well as the whale.
The walrus greatly enjoys himself in the
water. He blows up the water through
holes in his head as the whale does, and
makes a loud noise that can be heard a
long way off.
It is not so easy to kill him with the har-
poon as it is to kill the whale. His skin is
so thick and tough, that the spear will not
always go through it. But when the walrus
is on shore, it is more easy to kill him.
The walrus likes to spend part of his time
on land. Many hundred walruses often






THE WALRUS.


lie stretched on shore, or on the blocks of
ice, taking their naps. The sailors have to
be very quick indeed, or the whole herd
will wake, and in a few moments pop into
the water.
I will tell you how the sailors do. They
steal round till they get to the last row of
walruses; I mean those which lie close to
the water's edge. If the walrus can once get
into the sea he is safe; but the sailors do
not mean that he should. They fire off
their guns, and shoot as many of the herd
as they can. The poor walruses who are
shot lie dead at the water's edge. Then
the other walruses who have been roused
up by the noise of the shooting, begin to
be in a great fright. They make at once
for the sea. But it is not very easy to get
there. They cannot walk well, for their
hind feet are joined like a fin, and they






THE WALRUS.


shuffle along rather than walk. Besides,
there are the dead bodies of their friends
lying in the way, and it takes some time
to get over them. They are in a great
hurry, as you may think, and jostle and
push against each other, and hurt each
other very much with their tusks. But
with all their efforts they cannot make
their escape. Some of them are wounded,
and many more are killed.
When the walrus finds there is no way
of getting back to the sea, he will some-
times turn on the man who is trying to kill
him. Then he strikes out with his great
finny paws, and is as fierce as at other
times he is gentle. But he is so clumsy
on the land, that, in spite of his courage, he
has often the worst of it. And the fight
ends by his falling a victim to the weapons
of his enemy.
5p,









THE REINDEER.


-APLAND is a very cold country to
,-. live in, and the Laplander would
6- be badly off if it were not for the
W reindeer.
If he wants to go from one place to
another, he can harness his reindeer to a
sledge, and drive over the snow, as you see
him doing in the picture. The reindeer
whirls the sledge along at a great rate, and
can go many miles without stopping.
And look how the Laplander is wrapped
up, to keep him from the cold For all his
warm clothes he has to thank the reindeer.
His coat and his cap are made of the skin,
that has all the thick soft hair left upon it.
And besides his coat and his cap, his boots
























Jj "4 ;.1


'











"3







THE REINDEER. 67

and his gloves are made of it as well. And
at night, though it freezes so sharp, he lies
warm and snug. His bed and his blankets
are both made of the deer skin
The horse could not live in Lapland
through the winter. The cold would soon
kill it. And it would have nothing to eat.
There are no grassy meadows, or corn fields,
as there are in England.
I dare say you wonder how the reindeer
gets a living. But God provides food for
all the creatures He has made. And so
the reindeer finds plenty to eat even in
Lapland. A little plant grows all over the
ground, and on the trunks of the trees. It
is not pretty to look at, but God has placed
it there for the reindeer to eat. It is called
the reindeer moss.
In the winter, when the snow covers the
ground, the reindeer have to root about






68 THE REINDEER.

with their noses to find the moss. But if
the hard ice covers the ground, then the
reindeer cannot get at the moss. The Lap-
lander has no other food for them, so he
cuts down some of the trees, and lets the
deer peel off the moss that grows upon
them. But he is glad when the ice on
the ground begins to thaw. If it lasted a
very long time, the reindeer would die of
hunger.
The Laplander is a rich man when he
has a herd of reindeer. They are so hardy
he need not have any stables or sheds to
keep them in. He need only drive them
to the mountains in summer, and bring
them down to the plains in winter.
You will see that the reindeer is as good
as a horse to the Laplander. And now I
am going to tell you that it is of the same
use to him as the cow is to us. The milk






THE REINDEER.


of the reindeer is very nice and sweet; and
the herd are driven up every day to be
milked.
When the reindeer are being milked the
women have to light a fire, that the smoke
may drive the gnl;its away, or else the deer
would not stand still.
There are a great many more gnats in
Lapland than there are in England. They
fill the air like a cloud of dust, and if you
were to open your mouth it would be full
of gnats in a minute!
The deer are very much afraid of the
gnats, and would run any where to get away
from them. They run up to the tops of the
mountains, where it is too cold for the
gnats to live. There is no food for them
on the mountains; but they would rather
go without eating than be bitten by the
gnats.






70 THE REINDEER.

The Laplander does not want them to
get thin and weak. He wants them to
feed on the moss which is growing on the
plains below. So he and his dogs go after
them to drive them back again.
There is a great deal of noise and running
about before the deer are made to come
down. When they have been brought back,
the Laplander and his dogs stay with them
all day, to keep them in the place where
their food is to be found.
He may well wish them to get fat. All
the long winter, he and his wife and chil-
dren live on the dried flesh of the rein-
deer.
The reindeer are killed as cows and
sheep are with us. And the Laplander
wants no other meat. The tongue is
thought the best bit, and is often sent to
England.









THE STAG.


1-1N the days of old, when the Norman
f,.. kings sat upon the throne, there were
\" forests in England. The trees grew
thick, and mb'e overhead.
Here the stags used to run wild. And
the kings were so fond of hunting, that they
did not wish the trees to be cut down, or
the land to be sown with corn. They liked
better to ride with their men through the
glades and deep dells, looking for the deer.
And because the forests were not large
enough, they caused the villages to be
burned, and the land laid waste, to make
more room for the deer.
Those days are gone by. The forests
have long ago been cut down, and the land






72 THE STAG.

is made to yield crops of grass and corn.
There are but few places left where the
stag runs wild.
In England, he lives in the grounds or
park of some rich man.
When he is hunted, he is driven out of
the park into the open country. The
hunters and the dogs ride after him in full
cry. But they do not mean to kill him.
When the dogs come up to him, they take
hold of him without hurting him. They
have been taught to do so. For the stag
will be taken back into the park, and
perhaps hunted a second time.
But in Scotland, where the stag runs
wild, he meets with a much worse fate.
He is driven out of his native thicket by
the cry of the hounds. He is fleet almost
as the wind, and soon leaves them behind.
Then he stops and listens. There is no
























































































P.7







THE STAG. 73

sound either of the dogs or of the men.
He is too far off to hear them. You may
see him, in the picture, standing with his
head erect and his ears on the stretch. He
soon forgets the danger he has been in, and
thinks himself secure.
But again he hears the sound of the
hunters. They have found him out, and
are coming in the distance. Off he runs at
full speed. But he stops sooner than he
did before.
Again he listens, and again he hears the
dogs. He is getting spent, and cannot run
so long a distance. The dogs are gaining
upon him, and there is no c-,ape.
His last resource is to jump into a stream
or river, and swim across it. He will even
be so cunning as to keep under water, and
let nothing be seen but the tip of his nose!
At length the poor stag is run down. He





THE STAG.


turns and faces the dogs, and strikes at
them with his horns. He is said then to
" stand at bay."
In these days, when people are so fond
of guns, they go out to shoot at the stag on
the hills and moors of Scotland. This is
called deer-stalking."
The hunter has to climb the mountains,
and run stooping along, for fear the herd
should see him. He will lie hidden behind
some rock or stone for hours at a time,
watching for a pair of horns moving among
the fern. Then he will creep as near to the
stag as he can, and fire his gun. If the
stag is not killed he will gallop away, and
the dogs after him.
Once a year the great spreading horns of
the stag drop off. For a little while he is
without any horns at all. Then he hides
himself in the thicket, and never comes out






THE STAG. 75

except at night. But in ten days the new
horns begin to grow; and in three months'
time they are as handsome as they were
before.
The little fawn lives in the deepest part
of the thicket, and keeps close by the side
of its mother. The mother is called a hind.
She is a very timid creature, and will run
away at the rustling of a leaf. But when
her fawn is in danger, she becomes bold in
its defence. If she hears the cry of the
hunters, she will run before them, and lead
them away from the place where her little
one lies hidden.









THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG.


It`iHE Newfoundland dog gets his long
( name from the Island of Newfound-
"'' land. That is his native place, and
Sif you look on the map of North
America you will find out where it is.
He is very useful in his own country.
He is so large and strong that he can work
like a pony.
The people there cut down the trees, and
send them to the sea coast. The wood is
sold for timber, and taken away in ships.
But it is a long way to the coast, and the
trees are packed on sledges. Who do you
think draws the sledge? Three or four of
the great dogs!
The master puts them in harness, and













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.. -. .. .



Al ,

la
.74r







THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 77

sends them off with the wood. They know
the way quite well, and do not want any
one to go with them. When they come to
the sea coast, they know where to stop.
And when they have got rid of the load of
wood, they trot home again with the empty
sledge.
Besides drawing the sledge, this dog can
do a great many other things. He carries
a basket in his mouth, if his master tells
him. He never lets it drop or leaves it
behind. If any one tried to steal it from
him, he would be very angry, and most
likely bite. But he does not often bite.
He is the most gentle of all the dogs. He
will let his master's children play with him,
and pull his ears, and ride on his back, and
do what they like with him.
I dare -iy you have seen one of these
great dogs swim about in the water. He






ih THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG.

likes the water, and is as much at home
there as he is on the land. If you threw
in a stick and told him to fetch it out, he
would wag his tail, and be very pleased.
He would jump in and swim after the stick,
and soon bring it back again.
The dog in the picture has been into the
water. He has a rope in his mouth, and he
is bringing it to his master. His master is
standing on the shore, waiting for him.
There has been a great storm, and a ship
has been driven on the sands. The sailors
cannot get her off again, and she will soon
be broken in pieces by the waves. The
sailors are in danger of being drowned; for
no boat can get near them, and the people
on shore cannot do anything to help them.
A little time ago the dog's master came
down to the beach, to see what was the
matter. He was very sorry for the poor






THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 79

men in the ship, and he thought he would
make his dog do something to help them.
He put his stick in Ponto's mouth (for Ponto
was the name of the dog), and told him to
carry it out to the ship.
The dog knew what he meant, and jumped
into the water. He had hard work to swim,
for the sea was so rough it drove him back.
But he tried again, and at last got very near
to the ship with the stick in his mouth.
The sailors were very glad to see him.
They knew he was come to help them, and
they got a long rope, and threw one end
to him. Ponto dropped the stick and laid
hold of the rope. Then he turned round,
and began to swim back to the shore. He
wanted to take the rope to his master.
This was just what his master had sent him
for. He knew that the sailors would make
their end of the rope fast to the ship. And






80 THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG.

the men on shore would make their end fast.
And there would be a kind of bridge made
by the rope for the sailors to get along to
the shore.
In the picture, the good dog has just
brought the end of the rope to his master.
Very soon all the poor sailors in the ship
will be safe on land. They will owe their
lives to the courage of the dog.
I will tell you why this kind of dog can
swim so well. His toes are joined one to
the other, a little like the toes of the duck.
The duck's feet are called webbed feet. The
dog's feet are half webbed, because the toes
join only half way up.









THE COCKATOO.


ri ;N the deep, dark forests of hot countries
i S^ there are many curious things.
There are large bright flowers
growing on the trunks of the trees,
or hanging down by long threads from the
branches. And there are flocks of birds,
dressed in gay plumage, such as we never
see in England.
If you were going through one of these
forests, you would very likely hear a loud
shrill cry of" Cockatoo cockatoo!"
If you looked up you would see a great
many gaily dressed birds a little like
parrots. They are called cockatoos because
of their note.
The cockatoos like to make a loud noise
6B





THE COCKATOO.


and screaming. They like, too, to twist
themselves about, and to swing from the
bough by their claws. In fact, they can
play all manner of antics.
A poor soldier once lost his way, and had
to spend a night in the forest.
He scrambled up a tree as high as he
could get, but he could not go to sleep for
the elephants and wild beasts that were
roaming about.
When morning came, the parrots and
the cockatoos made such a loud noise
that the soldier was glad to slip down
from his tree, and to run first one way
and then another, to try and get out of
hearing.
The cockatoos in the picture seem as if
they were talking to each other.
Do you notice what a hooked bill they
each of them have ?




























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7- .i



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ii I
I 51






THE COCKATOO.


That strong, hard bill helps the cockatoo
to get its food. Its food often lies hidden
in a nut. It will have to break or crush
the shell before it can get at the kernel.
The beak is strong enough to break or
crush anything.
Plenty of nice ripe fruits grow on the
trees where the cockatoo lives. So that it
is in no danger of being hungry and not
finding plenty to eat.
It uses its foot for a hand to hold its
food. Then its toes serve it for fingers.
There are four toes on each foot. Two
are placed before and two behind.
You see in the picture how the birds lay
hold of the branch with their toes and sit
at their ease.
But it is not so easy for them to stand
on level ground. The toes have nothing
to clasp or perch upon. The cockatoo has






84 THE COCKATOO.

then to balance itself with its wings, or it
would tumble over.
When it wants to climb about among
the branches, it hooks itself up by its toes,
and swings, and climbs, and makes its way
along just as it likes.
It leads a very happy life among the cool
green branches.
One of the cockatoos in the picture has
its plumage tinged with rose colour. It is
called the rose-crested cockatoo.
The crest of feathers on its head is bright
orange.
It lives in the thick forests of Sumatra,
and is not quite so clever as the rest of its
tribe. It cannot be taught so easily. But
it makes as much noise, and is never tired
of twisting itself about and making all
manner of antics.
It is never still a minute.





THE COCKATOO.


The other cockatoo in the picture has
white feathers. But its crest is tinged with
light yellow, and there is a tinge of yellow
about its wings.
People call it the sulphur-crested cocka-
too, because the yellow tinge is the colour
of sulphur.
It lives in New South Wales, on the
banks of the rivers.
In that country large flocks of yellow
cockatoos are often seen flying about.
But they are so shy that they will not
let you come near them.
When the yellow cockatoo wants to make
her nest and lay her eggs, she does not take
much trouble. She does not build a nest
of soft moss as the little robins do in Eng-
land. She chooses rather a curious place to
make it in. She fixes on some rotten
bough that is full of black mould.





THE COCKATOO.


She makes her nest of the black mould
within the bough, and here she lays two
white eggs.
If anybody went by he would be sure to
find out the nest. Perhaps he might not
see it all at once. But he will soon spy
out a little heap of bark that lies on the
ground close by.
The cockatoo has been stripping the bark
off the branches, and has let it fall upon
the ground.
Then the man who is going by begins
to look about him. He is almost certain
to find the nest in the rotten bough. And
he will see in it two little cockatoos with
their feathers nearly grown. Then he is
glad. People in that country think the
little cockatoos are very nice to eat, and
he carries them away with him.









THE PARFROT.


HI- E parrot lives in a country where it
/ is summer all the year round. The
"4 leaves are always green, and the
4" flowers are always blooming. There
is the bright little humming-bird darting
about in the sun. And at night the fire-
fly flits to and fro, shining like a tiny star.
The parrot makes his home in the forest.
He can find shade there in the heat of the
day. If you were going through the forest,
you would hear such a noise and chatter
in the boughs over your head, that you
would wonder what was the matter. If
you looked up, you would see a great many
parrots sitting on the boughs.
They have a nice life of it in the forest.




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