Group Title: National geographical series
Title: First lessons in geography
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027882/00001
 Material Information
Title: First lessons in geography on the plan of object teaching : designed for beginners
Series Title: National geographical series
Alternate Title: Monteith's first lessons in geography
Physical Description: 68 p. : ill., maps (some col.) ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Monteith, James ( Author, Primary )
A.S. Barnes & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: A.S. Barnes and Company
Place of Publication: New York
Chicago
Publication Date: 1874
Copyright Date: 1873
 Subjects
Subject: Geography -- Textbooks -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1874   ( rbgenr )
Maps -- 1874   ( gmgpc )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1874   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1874
Genre: Textbooks   ( rbgenr )
Maps   ( gmgpc )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by James Monteith.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements on back cover.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027882
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002234517
notis - ALH4949
oclc - 60551827

Full Text


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NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES.


FIRST LESSONS

IN


GEOGRAPHY:

ON THE

PLAN OF OBJECT TEACHING.









DESIGNED FOR BEGINNERS.


BY JAMES MONTEITH,
AUTHOR OF A SERIES OF GEOGRAPHIES, MAPS, AND GLOBES.



A. S. BARNES AND COMPANY,
NEW YORK AND CHICAGO.
1874.









CONTENTS.

PAGE
DEFINITIONS ............................................. 12
MAPS.
PAGE PAGE
WESTERN HEMISPHERE ....... 13 SOUTHERN STATES ... ....... 42
EASTERN HEMISPHERE........ 20 WESTERN STATES ............ 46
NORTH AMERICA ............ 22 SOUTH AMERICA .............. 50
UNITED STATES ............. 26 EUROPE ..................... 54
EASTERN STATES ............ 34 ASIA ................... ... 58
M IDDLE STATES .............. 38 AFRICA ..................... 62

















OBJECT LESSONS.
PAGE PAGE
THE EARTH ...............6-II WESTERN STATES ............ 49
NATURAL DIVISIONS ....... 15, I6 SOUTH AMERICA ............. 53
NORTH AMERICA ............. 25 EUROPE .................... .57
UNITED STATES.............32, 33 ASIA ........................ 6'
EASTERN STATES............. 37 AFRICA ..................... 65
MIDDLE STATES .............. 41 PLANTS ..................66, 67
SOUTHERN STATES ........... 45 GENERAL REVIEW ............ 68

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by
JAMES MONTEITH,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District
of New York.
.Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1873, by
JAMES MONTEITH,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.











PREFACE.


THE plan of this little work is such, that the subject is pre-
sented in the most simple form.
It treats of GENERAL FEATURES, such as the locality and
description of Continents, Countries, States, Rivers, Mountains,
&c., without d. --11; prematurely upon details which embarrass
the learner in his first effort.
The MAPS are free from all meridians, parallels of latitude,
and any superabundance of names; thereby giving a greater
prominence to the general divisions of land and water.
The plan of Object Teaching, by which the mind re-
ceives impressions through the medium of the eye, is here so
combined with the Map Exercises, that a child just able to read
is at once interested and instructed.




NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL SERIES.
MONTEITH'S FIRST LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.
MONTEITH'S INTRODUCTION TO MANUAL.
MONTEITH'S MANUAL OF GEOGRAPHY.
Those children who have mastered the First Lessons may, if the teacher elect, be
put at once into the Manual of Geography."
MONTEITH'S COMPREHENSIVE GEOGRAPHY
is a new work for intermediate and higher classes. It contains Relief Maps, Map
Drawing, and Globe Segments.
MONTEITH'S PHYSICAL AND POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
also for intermediate and higher grades, makes Physical Geography a prominent feature,
and treats it as a science.
MONTEITH'S CLASS-ROOM MAPS.
With names all laid down. By varying their distance from the pupils, they may be used
as reference, or as outline maps. 30 by 36 inches.
MONTEITH'S COMPLETE SCHOOL GLOBES,
6, 9, and 12 inches in diameter, mounted.
MONTEITH'S UNITED STATES HISTORY.
Plan of the author's Manual," for beginners







3n the 23eginning












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FIRST LESSONS



GEOGRAPHY.


LESSON I.
THIS is a picture of the WORLD or EARTH upon
which we live. It is a GREAT BALL. The part you see
is the outside or SURFACE, and is either land or water.
The parts of this picture which appear smooth and
light represent the WATER; the rough and dark parts,
the LAND; and you may know that on the Earth's
surface, there is MORE WATER than land.
Look at the picture, and you will observe ships
sailing on the water. That great body of water is
called an OCEAN, and ships can sail on any part of
it, and in any direction. The spots you see in the
Ocean are portions of land, called ISLANDS, because
there is water all around them.
If you look at the land, on this picture, you will
notice black, rough places in it: these are the highest







8 LESSON II.

parts of the land, and are called MOUNTAINS. The
low places between the mountains are called VAL-
LEYS.
On the land, you will see white places; these rep-
resent LAKES, which are bodies of water surrounded
by the land; and RIVERS, which are streams of water
flowing through the land.
The land is higher than the rivers, and the rivers
are higher than the ocean; therefore, the rain that
falls on the land runs into the rivers, and the rivers
flow toward the ocean.
There are FIVE OCEANS on the Earth, named the
PACIFIC, ATLANTIC, INDIAN, NORTHERN or ARCTIC,
and SOUTHERN or ANTARCTIC. The largest is the
Pacific or mild Ocean, which is the one you see be-
fore you in the picture.
The water shown at the upper part of the picture
is the Northern or Arctic Ocean, and that at the
lower part, the Southern or Antarctic.
There are two oceans on the side of the Earth
not shown in the picture; they are the Atlantic
Ocean, and the Indian Ocean.
Ships sail on all these oceans, as you see them
here on the Pacific-just as flies travel around an
orange. A fly travels on the outside or SURFACE of
an orange; people and ships move on the SURFACE








LESSON III. 9

of the Earth. The fields, hills, roads, rivers, and
ponds, are parts of the Earth's SURFACE.
Look again at the picture, and you will see land
all along the right hand side, stretching from the
upper part of the picture almost to the lower, or
from the NORTH to the SOUTH. That land is AMER-
ICA. At the middle, or CENTER, the land is very
narrow, and because it is a narrow neck of land it is
called an ISTHMrus. The land from this isthmus
toward the north is NORTH AMERICA, and that from
the isthmus toward the south is SOUTH America,
North America and South America are joined to
each other by the ISTHMUS OF DARIEN or PANAMA.
Point to North America,-to South America.
On the right hand side of this picture or illustra-
tion you may observe a steamship sailing on the
Atlantic Ocean. That is but a small part of the
Atlantic. From what land does the steamship ap-
pear to be sailing? To what land is it sailing? Is
it sailing north, or south ?
The land which you see on the left hand side of
this picture is a part of Asia. The other part of
Asia is on the side of the earth opposite that which
is here represented; also Europe and Africa. North
America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa
are GRAND DIVISIONS of the land on the Earth.







1i LESSON IV.


ABOUT DAY AND NIGHT.

The right hand side of the picture appears light,
and the left hand side, dark. That is because the
Sun is represented to be shining on the right hand
side, where it is DAY; the opposite side being in the
shade, has NIGHT.
On the picture, in North and South America, it is
day; in Asia, it is night. To cause day in Asia, the
Earth must turn around so as to bring Asia toward
the Sun. Now, any little boy or girl can tell whether
America will have day or night, when Asia has day.
The side of the Earth which is toward the Sun has
day, and the opposite side has night; therefore, as the
Earth turns around, or whirls like a top, every place
will have day, then night, then day again, and so on
continually. The Sun shines on one half of the Earth
at a time. If the Earth did not whirl about, it would
be day continually on the side toward the Sun, and
continual night in all countries on the opposite side.
As God caused the Sun to shine upon the Earth to
give day, what change would take place with day and
night, if He should cause the Sun to cease shining?
Look again at the picture, and you will notice the
Sun shining on one side of the Earth, and the Moon
shining on the opposite side, where it is night. The








LESSON V. ii

world is at that time between the Sun and Moon,
which is always the case when you see the Moon full
and bright. The STARS you see at night are large
shining bodies like the Sun, but appear smaller than
the Moon or the Sun, because they are much further
from us. The Earth is larger than the Moon, and
the Sun is much larger than the Earth. The Moon
is nearer to us than the Sun.
On the picture you see CLOUDS. Very few little
children know what clouds are, and how rain comes
from them. So a few words will be here said about
them. You have all seen rising from boiling water,
something that appears like smoke. It is not smoke,
but VAPOR, to which the water is changed by the heat;
and if you would hold a cold basin over that vapor,
you would see the vapor turn again to water. In the
same way, heat causes vapor to rise from the ocean,
lakes, rivers, ponds, etc., and float in the air, until it
meets cold air, when it is changed back to water, and
returns in the form of drops, and is called RAIN.
So the vAPOR rises from the water; and, while in
the form of clouds, the wind blows it over the dry
ground, until it is turned into drops, when it comes
down to water the grain, the grass, and the flowers;
which, by their bright looks and sweet odors, express
their joy and thankfulness to God, who alone can do
such wonders.








2 LESSON VI.









. -

.- _x. .......... :




What is Geography?
A description of the Earth's surface.
What is the Earth ?
The planet or body on which we live.
What is the shape of the Earth ?
Round, like a ball.
Of what is the Earth's surface composed?
Land and water
What is a Continent?
The largest division of the land.
How many Continents are there ?
Two; the Eastern and the Western.
On which Continent do we live?
On the Western Continent.








LESSON VII. 13

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What are the divisions of the Western Continent?
North America and South America.
What are the divisions of the Eastern Continent?
Europe, Asia, and Africa.
What is an Ocean ?
The largest division of the water.
How many Oceans are there ?
Five; Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern or
Antarctic, Northern or Arctic.
Which is the largest Ocean ?
The Pacific Ocean.
What is an Island ?
A portion of land entirely surrounded by water.
What is a Peninsula?
A portion of land almost surrounded by water.
What is a Lake ? 1
A body of water almost surrounded by land.
}1 1








14 LESSON VIII.

What is an Isthmus?
A neck joining two larger portions of land.
What is a Strait?
A passage connecting two larger bodies of water.
What is a Cape?
"A point of land extending into the water.
What is a Mountain?
A vast elevation of land.
What is a Hill?
A small elevation of land.
What is a Volcano?
A mountain which sends out fire, smoke; and lava.
SWhat is a Valley?
The low land between hills or mountains.
What is a Plain?
A level tract of land.
What is a Desert?
A barren region of country.
i Whai is a Sea?
The division of water next in size to an ocean.
What is a Gulf or Bay?
A body of water extending into the land.
What is a River?
A stream of water flowing through the land.
By what are Rivers formed?
By Springs. I
What is a COtaract or Waterfall?
Water flowing over a precipice.
~ ---








LESSON IX. 15







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The pupils will, upon this illustration, point out
the different divisions of-land and water.
Point to a MOUNTAIN. Why? Ans. Because it is
a vast elevation of land. Point to a VOLCANO. Why?
Ans. Because it is a Mountain which sends out fire,
I smoke, and lava. Point out the following, and give
the reason:-A HILL-VALLEY-ISLAND-PENIN-
SI .A- -LAKE-ISTH-MUS-STRAIT-CAPE.-PLAIN-
SBv-RIvER. In which of these do you see a church ?
Show which house stands on a hill-on a mountain.
On difch division are the cattle grazing ?
Poit t aMOUTAN. hy .dns Beaue iJ








16 LESSON X.





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"WETT -----CENTRE-- E. T

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What is a Map?
A picture of the whole, or a part, of the Earth's
Surface.
What are the directions on a Map ?
Toward the top, North; toward the bottom,
South; to the right, East; to the left, West.

In what direction from the center of the picture is the Island?
North.
In what direction is the Volcano? The Cape?
The Bay? The Lake? The Strait.? The Mountains?
The Isthmus ?
What is in the East? In the West? In the South? In the
North? In the Northwest? In the Southeast? In the
Noitheast? In the Southwest?







LESSON XI. 17








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Here is shown a part of a RIVER with a sail-boat
on it. A man is sitting in the stern of the boat, and,
by means of the helm or rudder, he steers it in any
direction. The forward part of a boat is called the
bows. A sloop has one mast; a schooner, two.
On the BANK or edge of this river is a windmill,
with its long arms spread, which, being broad and
light, are blown by the wind round and round, like a
great wheel. In the mill are two large flat stones,
one of which is moved against the other, face to face,
by the arms; so that whatever the miller places be-
Stween the stones is ground fine like flour.
Corn when ripe and dry is ground into Indian
.-meal or corn meal; oats when ground we call oat
Seal; wheat or rye ground, is flour. Tell how corn
is planted, and when it ripens.





WESTERN HEMISPHERE.



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LESSON XII. 19

In what Division of the Earth do Where, then, is the Atlantic
we live? Ocean ?
In North America. East of America.

What Division south of North When you look at the setting Sun,
America? what Ocean is before you?
South America. The Pacific Ocean.
Where does the Sun set?
When you look at the rising In the West.
Sun, what Ocean is before
you ? Where is the Pacific Ocean?
The Atlantic Ocean. West of America.

Where does the Sun rise ? What Ocean north of America ?
In the East. The Northern Ocean.


----



LESSON XIII.

What Strait connects the Pacific Do you live in North America or
Ocean with the Northern in South America?
Ocean ?
Seans ? What Ocean east of America?,
What Oean south of America?
SWhat Ocean west of America?
What/isthmus joins South Amc- I
rica to North America? Where is the Northern Ocean?
whichh is the most northern Where is the Southern Ocean ?
Country of North America?
What Bay of Greenland .) In what Ocean are the Sandwich
WVhat Bay west of Grecnlind? Islands?
What 2Nountains is N. AN. erica?
What Mountains N. America? In what Ocean are the Cape
Shat Mountains in S. America? Verd Islands?






EASTERN HEMISPHERE.
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LESSON XIV. 21

i What are the Divisions of the Which is furthest south?
Eastern Continent? Africa.
Europe, Asia, and Af- What Ocean east of Asia?
rica. Pacific Ocean.-
Which is the largest?
Which is the largest? What Ocean south of Asia?
Asia. Indian Ocean.
Which is the smallest?
Europe. What Ocean west of Africa?
Atlantic Ocean.
Which is furthest to the right, or
east ? What Sea south of Europe ?
Asia. Mediterranean Sea.







LESSON XV.

What Seas southeast of Europe? What Oceans do you find on the
What Sea northeast of Africa? Eastern Hemisphere ?
What Desert in Africa? What Division between the At-
lantic and Indian Oceans?
What Country in the southeast i
of Asia? '. What Division west of Asia?
What Country in the southwest What Division south of Europe?
of Asia? Between what Divisions is the
R Mediterranean Sea?
What Islands in the west of Eu-
Spe ? Between what is the Red Sea?
icht is the largest Island in Where is the Cape of Good
tie World? Australia. Hope?






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LESSON XVI. 23
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North America? United States ?
Arctic, Atlantic, and Pa- British America.
cific. What Country south of the
United States ?
What Country furthest north? Mexic
Greenland.
What Territory in the north-
What Country furthest south ? western part of N. America.
Central America. Alaska.

In what Country do we live? What Peninsula in the south?
In the United States. Yucatan.






LESSON XvTI.

Between what two Oceans is the Name the Countries of North
United States? Amnerica.
What Bay west of Greenland? Which are the largest two Coun-
"tries of North America?
What Bay in British America?
Between what two Countries
IWhat large Gulf south of the i.i the United States?
United States? In what Country is Hudson's
tWhiat large Sea southeast of Bay?
North America? Between what two Countries is
hat Mountains in Norih Bafin's Bay?
An'rica? What large Island southeast ct I
.,st!oIus south of North tie United Stats?
A;:rca Where is Cape Farewell?
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24 LESSON XVIII.


NORTH AMERICA.














COLUMBUS DISCOVERED AMERICA, OCT, I2TH 1492.
-. ___=













[ Indians.
After whom was America namveed ?
A man named Americus, or Amerigo.
What can you say of the Northern part of N.America?
It is very cold.
What of the Southern part of N. America ?
It is very warm.

------ 7-1-







LESSON XIX. 25










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ICEBERGS NEAR GREENLAND.
This picture represents icebergs, and ships near
them. Icebergs are great bodies of solid ice, reach-
ing much higher than the masts of a ship, and ex-
tending downward to a great distance below the
surface of the water. They will float in the water,
and every year some ships are wrecked by coming
in contact with them.
Icebergs are most numerous in the Arctic Ocean.
Men have sailed through Paffin's Bay, as far north
Sas the ship you see in the map.
The names of those men who have become famous
for their adventures in the frozen regions north of
*, Ortlb A-merica, are Sir John Franklin, Dr. Kane,
Il n, Dr. Hayes.







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f LESSON XX. LESSON XXI.
t What is this Country called? What large River flows south into the Gulf
The United States, or the Union. of Mexico ?
IHow many States are there? What large Rivers flow into the Mississippi?
"How arc they divided? Which is the largest of those Rivers?
lisio Eastern, Middle, Western, Rivrs ow into the Mi.soui Rie r?
and Southern States.
Into hIliat does the Ohio River iow?
SV--;-', is the largest State?
.I.: S, *What River between Tcxa.s and Mexico?
SWhich is the smallest State ? What Mountains extend through the Western
hode Island. rlrt of the United States?
SWhich i fuhst south? ..t Mountains nearer the Pacific Coast?
"AVhich is frtdhLst south?
0l'orida. What Ocean east of the United States? West?
IWhich iJ furthest northeast? Maine. What Country north ?
*W-l.t States border on the Pacific Ocean? What Country and Gulf south?
California and Oregon. In what State do you live?
What State in the north is almost surrounded What States surround your State?
by Lakes?
Michigan. Mention the great Lakes.
Which is the largest of those Lakes? Where is Lake Superior?
SLake Superior. What Lake in Utah? North of Minnesota? ;
"--I







00
LESSON XXII. LESSON XXIII.

SWhat State is furthest northeast? South? What Country east of Maine?
"West? What Dominion north of New York? Canada.
Between what Ocean and Gulf is Florida? What three States east of New York?
What three States touch Lake Superior? What two south?
What four States touch Lake Michigan? What State and lake north of Ohio?
SWhat four States touch Lake Erie? What River south? State east? West?
What States border on the Pacific Ocean ? What State north of Iowa? South?
What State north of Virginia?
What States border on the Gulf of Mexico?
What State south? West? Northwest?
What States border on the Atlantic Ocean?
What State north of Louisiana?
What States on the east side of Mississippi What State east? West?
River?
What States north of Kentucky?
What States on the west side?
What State west? East? Northeast? South?
What three States on the north side of the
Ohio River? What Cape east of North Carolina?
What two on the south side? What Cape south of Florida?
" ".t Territories do the f v What large Island south of Florida?
.nt1 wins Territories do the yStrait between Florida and Cuba
Mountains extend? What Strait between Florida and Cuba?







LESSON XXIV. 29

THE UNITED STATES.


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GEORGE WASH NGTON.
Who governed this country about m0o years ago?
The king of England.
How did the Americans obtain their freedom?
By a war which lasted nearly eight years.
What great man led the American army ?
George Washington, who became the first Presi-
dent of the United States.







30 LESSON XXV.


CAPITALS.



CAPITAL OF THE UNITED STATES.
WASHINGTON, on the Potomac River.

EASTERN STATES.
States. Capitals. Situation.
MAINE, Augusta, on the Kennebec River.
NEW HAMPSHIRE, Concord, on the Merrimac.
VERMONT, Montpelier, on the Onion.
MASSAC HUSETTS, Boston, on Boston H-:,'A'.
S P ro v id e n c e on P r o v id e .7 i.
RHODE ISLAND, )
SNewport, on Narragansett Bay.
NNECTICUT Hartford, on the Connecticut.
S New Haven, on New Haven Bay.






LESSON XXVI.

MIDDLE STATES.
States. Capitals. Situation.
NEW YORK, Albany, on the Hudson River.
NEW JERSEY, Trenton, on the Delaware.
PENNSYLVANIA, Harrisburg, on the Susquehanna.
DELAWARE, Dover, on L7nes' Creek. i
kon-net'e-kut.
-------~~ ~~"~- I








LESSON XXVII. 31


SOUTHERN STATES.
States. Capitals. Situation.
MARYLAND, Annapolis, on the Scvern River.
VIRGINIA, Richmond, on the yaics.
NORTH CAROLINA, Raleigh, near the 'Nuse.
SOUTH CAROLINA, Columbia, on the Congaree.
GEORGia, Atlanta, near the Ciattauhoochee.
FLORIDA, Tailahassee, Inland.
ALABAMA, Mo1riomcry, on the A/aebama.
MississIrpr, Ji::'n, on the Pearl.
LOUISIANA, Newv Orleans, on the .
TEXAS, Austin, on the Colorado.
WEST VIRGINIA, Charleston, on the anawkha.




LESSON XXVIII.

WESTERN STATES,
States. Capitals. Situation.
ARKANSA', Little Rock, on the Arkansas River.
TE:2NFESEE, Nashville, on the CL'ihecrland.
KENTUCKY, Frankfort, on the KA:',ucky.t
SOi-no, Columbus, on the .Scioti.
MICHIGAN, Laising, on the G(7and.
INDIANA, Indianapo' is, on the TV. Fork of White R.
ILtLNOIS, (oy) Springfield, near the .S'anzimejo .
"WIscoNsIN, Mad;oot on Fourth Lake.
IowA, Des Moines, on the Des Moincs.
MISSOURI, Jcfeerson City, on the Aissouri.
jCADLFORNIA, Sacramento, on the Sacra.,ienw.
',l;NNESOTA, St. P F-l, on the Mississipi.
0' LuoN, Saler., on the iVillat -te.
K SAS, Topeka, on the AKa'nsas River.
"\ 11 aA, Carsoa City, on the Car.,on River.
S,:S, Lincoln, on Salt Cr;ck.


-The capital of a state or a country is the city in which its laws are made

-_________________ -- ---- -' i







32 LESSON XXIX.













More than 200 years ago, this country, now called
the United States, as a wilderness, inhabited by
Indians, who subsisted upon fish, and the flesh of I
wild animals which they killed in hunting, and who
lived in huts made of bark and the skins of animals.
No cities were built until the country was settled
by white men, who came from Europe; and, proba-
bly, where your hous now stands, Indians have
chased the buffalo, bear, or some other wild animal.
Many of the white settlers of this country suffered
great cruelties from the Indians, who burned their
houses, and murdered men, women, and children, as
you see in the picture. At present, there are no
savages east of the Mississippi.
The first inhabitants of a place are called settlers
or colonists.
f ----.







LESSON XXX. 33





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The people of the United States are famous for
perseverance and inventive genius. A few years ago,
people rode in stage-coaches over rough and hilly
roads; but now they travel by steamboat or railroad.
A STEAMBOAT is moved along by the two large
wheels revolving in the water. The wheels are
moved by STEAM, which rises from boiling water.
Traveling by steamboat began about sixty years
ago; and by railroad, about forty years ago.
A STEAMSHIP differs from a Steamboat in having
sails besides the steam power. A SAILING VESSEL is
moved by the wind blowing against the sails.
The TELEGRAPH you see in the picture is a long
iron wire supported by tall poles. At each end of
the wire there is an instrument, by which men send
messages with lightning velocity. The telegraph was
invented by Prof. Morse, about thirty years ago.

i ___ __







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LESSON XXXI. 35

How many Eastern States are What large River between Ver-
there? Sir.. mont and New Hampshire?
What two States north of Massa- Connecticut River.
chusetts? Through what States does it
New Hampshire and flow?
Vermont. Massachusetts and Con-
What two States south of Massa- necticut.
chusetts? What Rivers in Maine?
Connecticut and Rhode Kennebec and Penob-
Island. scot.
What State west? What River in New Hampshire?
New York. Merrimac River.






LESSON XXXII.

"Which of the Eastern States Name the Eastern States.
touch the Atlantic Ocean? Which is the largest?
Which touch New York? Which is the smallest?
What Lake between Vermont Where are theGreen Mountains?
and New York? e a t
Where are the White Moun-
What Country north of the East- tains ?
ern States?
e What large River flows into
SWhat Country east of Mine? Long Island Sound?
What large Island south of Con- What Cape in the eastern part
necticut ? of Massachusetts ?
What water between Connecti- What three Rivers flow into the
cut and Long Island? Atlantic Ocean?
i I








36 LESSON XXXIII.






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SHIP-BUILDING IN MAINE.-The ship with flags flying is about to be LAUNCHFD, or Sli(i lown on
a wooden track into the water; after which it will receive its masts and sails. There are
more ships built in Maine than in any other State.
What are these six States together called?
New England.
Who first came to New England?
People from England, called Puritans, also Pil-
grims.
In what does Massachusetts excel every other State?
In the manufacture of cotton and woolen goods,
and of boots and shoes.
Where was the first cotton-mill in the United States built?
In Rhode Island.
For whit is Connecticut noted?
For the manufacture of woolen and cotton goods,
iron and wooden wares, clocks and buttons.







LESSON XXXIV. 37


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This is a view of a canal and a manufactory. In
the foreground are sheep and cattle, which are raised
in Vermont in large numbers.
COTTON is a soft, white substance obtained from the
cotton-plant, which grows in the Southern States. It
is brought in bales to the manufactories of the East-
ern States; where, by means of machinery, it is drawn
out and twisted into threads, and then it is woven into
cloth. It can be dyed or printed in colors. Muslins
and calicoes for ladies' dresses are made of cotton.
WOOL grows upon sheep, and is cut in warm wea-
ther. It is made into threads by spinning, then woven.
Blankets and winter clothing are made of wool. So,
cotton is obtained from a plant; wool, from an animal.
A CANAL is like a great ditch filled with water, so
that boats may be drawn along by horses or mules
which walk on a TOW-PATH at fhe side of the canal.







MIDDLE STATES.











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LESSON XXXV. 39

How many Middle States are What Country north of New
there? Four. York?
Which is the largest? Canada.
New York. What two Lakes on the West?
Which is next in size? Ontario and Erie.
Pennsylvania. What large River in the eastern
part of New York?
Which is next? Hudson River.
New Jersey.
What large River in the west-
Which is the smallest? ern part of New York?
Delaware. Genesee River.






LESSON XXXVI.

What River between Pennsyl- What Bay between New Jersey
vania and New Jersey? and Delaware?
What large River flows through Name the Middle States?
the eastern part of Pennsyl- What States south of New York ?
vania ? What States east of New York ?
What two Rivers meet in the Where is Lake Erie?
western part? Where is Lake Ontario?
What large River flows north- Where is the Hudson River?
east from Lake Ontario? Lawr
Where is the St. Lawrence?
What Mountains in Pennsyl- Into what Lake does the Gene-
vania? see River flow?
What Mountains in New What Lake northeast of New
York? York?








40 LESSON XXXVII.







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TRAIN OF CARS IN FULL SPEED.

For what are the Middle States noted ?
For Canals and Railroads.
What can you say of New York ?
It has more inhabitants than any other State.
For what is Pennsylvania celebrated ?
For Coal and Iron.
What does New Jersey produce ?
Fine fruits and vegetables.
What does Delaware produce ?
Excellent wheat, Indian corn, and peaches.
What does the word Pennsylvania mean ?
Penn's Woods.






LESSON XXXVIII. 41


.' -.- '" "












WILLIAM PENN, a Quaker, came from England to
this country, about two hundred years ago, with
many other Quakers, and formed a colony or set-
tlement in Pennsylvania.
Penn was very wise and kind in his dealings with
the Indians, and paid them for all the land which his
people occupied; consequently, the Indians respect-
ed and loved the Quakers very much; and Pennsyl-
vania was the only American colony formed without
bloodshed. It has now more inhabitants than any
other State in the Union, except New York.
On the left of the picture are Indian women called
SsqAws, carrying -their PAPPOOSES, or babies, which
hang on their backs like soldiers' knapsacks.







SOUTHER-NSTATES (




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LESSON XXXIX. 43

How many Southern States are What States north of Florida?
there? Eleven. Georgia and Alabama.
Which is the largest? What Bay cast of Virginia?
Texas. Chesapeake Bay.
Which is furthest south? What River flows through the-
Florida. northern part of Alabama?
What division of laid is Florida? Tennessee River.
A Peninsula.
Into what River does the Ten-
What Island south of Florida? nessee flow?
Cuba. Into the Ohio River.







LESSON XL.

What River between South Caro- tween the Southern States
lina and Georgia? and the Ohio River?
Into what Ocean and Gulf do Name the Southern States.
the Rivers of the Southern Which of them touch the Atlan-
States flow? tic Ocean.
In what Mountains do most of Name the States that touch the
them rise? Gulf of Mexico.
What three ranges of Mountains What two Southern States touch
on this map? the Mississippi River?
Which are the most mountainous Between what Ocean and Gulf
of the Southern States? is Florida?
W -'hat tvo Western States he-! Where is Cape Sable?









44 LESSON XLI.





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HARPER FERRY i, the village shown in this picture. The river on the left, running under
the bridge, and disappearing in the distance, is the POTOMAC, on the left of which is Mary-
land, and on the right is Virginia. The river running from the right and meeting the Poto-
mac is the SHENANDOAIH. You see MARYLAND HEIGHTS on the left side of the Potomac,
and LOUDON HEIGHTS on the right.

What is the Climate of the Southern States?
Very warm.

What are raised on the plantations of the Southern States ?
Cotton, Corn, Sugar-cane, and Tobacco.

What State excels in the production of Sugar?
Louisiana.

What Presidents were born in Virginia ?
Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Harri-
son, Taylor, and Tyler.
__________________







LESSON XLII. 45







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On the right of this picture you see the tall SUGAR-
CANE growing; in the front, COTTON; and in the cen-
ter., TOBACCO. The sugar-cane is cut and taken to the
crushing-mill, where the juice is pressed out, and after-
wards boiled,-the sugar settling to the bottom of the
kettles, and the .MOLASSES remaining at the top.
The leaves of the tobacco-plant are dried before
they are ready for use. (See page 67.)
Cotton is a plant which is extensively cultivated in
the Southern States. It is formed in a kind of nut-
shell, which bursts, and the cotton appears. It is then
picked from the covering, and taken to the mill, to be
separated from the seeds contained inside. It is after-
wards spun into threads, then woven into cloth. The
soft, white substance which you have seen growing
on the top of a thistle, resembles cotton on the plant.







WESTERN STATES.

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LESSON XLIII. 47

How many Western States are What two south of the Ohio?
there? Sirxteezn. Kentucky and Tennes-
What three are furthest north? see.
Minnesota, Michigan, What Lake north of Michigan?
and Wisconsin. Lake Superior.
What four are on the west side What Lake east of Michigan?
of the Mississippi River? Lake Huron.
Minnesota, Iowa, Mis-
souri, and Arkansas. What Lake west of Michigan?
Lake Michigan.
What three lie on the north side
of the Ohio River? What Lake north of Ohio?
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois. Lake Erie.






LESSON XLIV.

Into what River do nearly all What States border on Lake
the other Rivers of the Superior? On Lake Michi-
Western States flow? gan? On Lake Erie?
Which flow into the western side What River in Ohio? In Illinois?
of the Mississippi? What River between Indiana
Which into the eastern side? and Illinois?
What States south of Tennes-
In what State does the Missis- see
sippi rise? What States east of Kentucky?
What Rivers flow into the Which is the coldest, or most
Ohio River? northern, of the Western
I ti.1 Western States do not ap- States?
jr on this map? (See p. 3.) Which is the warmest?








48 LESSON XLV.


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AN API LE-ORCHARD IN THE WEST.
Which is the largest section of the Union ?
The Western States.
In what arc the people chiefly engaged?
In Farming.
I What are raised on their extensive farms?
Corn, wheat, oats, rye, and fruit; besides horses,
cattle, sheep, and hogs, in large numbers.
What State is noted for gold?
California.
Which are the most populous of the Western States?
Ohio and Illinois.
What State is noted for corn, wheat, and oats ?
Illinois.







LESSON XLVI. 49
















This is a picture of an overflow of the Mississippi
River. Look at your map of the United States,
and observe that the greater part of our country is
drained by that river; that is, the rain that falls in
the States and Territories between the Alleghany
and Rocky Mountains, runs into rivers which flow
directly or indirectly into the Mississippi. This is
caused by the land sloping downward from these
two chains of mountains where the land is highest,
to the Mississippi River where it is lowest.

To prevent inundations or freshets, which do great
damage to houses, farms, and cattle, the people have
raised banks, called LEVEES, along the river,







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LESSON XLVII. 51

"What natural division of land is I What Bay northwest?
South America? Bay of Panama.
A Peninsula. Which is the largest River in
What Division of the Earth is South America?
north of South America? Amazon River.
North America? How long is the Amazon?
What Ocean east? Four thousand miles.
Atlantic Ocean. What River further north than
SWhat Ocean west ? the Amazon?
Pacific Ocean. Orinoco River.
What Sea north? What Rivers in the southeast?
Caribbe'an Sea. Parana and Uruguay.






LESSON XLVIII.

Into what Ocean do nearly all Between what two Oceans is
the Rivers of South America South America?
flow? Where is the Caribbe'an Sea?
Which is the largest Country in What Countries border on that
South America? Sea?
SWhich are further north? What Countries border on the
SWhich further south? Atlantic?
SWhat great chain of Mountains W which on the Pacific?
in South America? Which is inland?
Near what Coast do they extend? What Capes on the North?
i What Mountains in Brazil? East? South? West?
SWhat precious stones are found What Strait between Patagonia
there? and Terra-del-Fuego?








52 LESSON XLIX.


SOUTH AMERICA.


-2
-. _. ,,
















For what is South America noted ?
For the largest rivers and longest mountain-chain
in the world.
What precious stones are found in Brazil?
Diamonds.
What has been obtained in Bolivia?
Silver in large quantities.
What animals roam over the vast grassy plains of South America?
Horses and cattle in immense numbers.
What remarkable species of serpent in South America ?
The Boa Constrictor, which is able to destroy
animals as large as deer or buffaloes.







LESSON L. 53








9ii l -." -i -" -i i---






Here is a view of the Andes Mountains, which rise
sixty times as high as the highest church steeple you
ever saw;,they are so high that their tops are contin-
ually covered with snow. Some are volcanoes.
EARTHQUAKES sometimes occur, and destroy whole
cities, killing many of the inhabitants. An earthquake
is a violent shaking of a part of the Earth.
Travelers cross the Andes on the backs of mules,
which are much safer than horses in such dangerous
places. Indians, with chairs fastened on their backs,
sometimes carry travelers over the mountains with
safety.
Immense birds, called CONDORS, are found here,
which often destroy sheep and cattle, tearing them
with beak and claws.













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LESSON LI. 55

What Ocean north of Europe? Which is the largest Country in
The Arctic Ocean. Europe?
What Ocean west of Europe? Russia.
The Atlantic Ocean. Which is the smallest?
What Sea south of Europe? Switzerland.
The Mediterranean Sea. What two Countries touch Rus-
What is the Mediterranean Sea? sia on the southwest?
The largest Sea in the Austria and Turkey.
world. What Country south of Tur-
What Bay west of France ? key?
The Bay of Biscay. Greece.






LESSON LII.

SWhat two Countries west of the What two Oceans touch Europe ?
North Sea ?
What five large Seas do you find
SWhat Country west of England? on the map of Europe?
What Country south of England? What four Kivers ?
What Country south of France? What Strait connects the Mediter-
SWhat Country west of Spain ? ranean Sea with the Atlantic.
Where are the Alps Mountains? What Cape in the northern part
of Europe ?
Where are the Pyrenees Mo unt-. e n
Sut? W hat Sea east of Italy?
Where is.the coldest part of Eu- Where is the White Sea ?
Srope Mention all the Countries of Eu-
SWhere is the warmest part ? rope.
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56 LESSON LIII.






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WILLIAM TE'LL, a heroic Swiss, in his efforts to obtain liberty for his country, was captured;
and, for punishment, was cruelly ordered to shoot an apple placed on the head of his own
little son. The arrow cut the apple in two, without injuring the child. This occurred
nmure than 50o years ago.

What can you say of Europe?
It is the smallest Grand Division of the Earth.
Which are the most important divisions of Europe ?
England, Germany, Russia, and France.
What are the inhabitants of Europe called ?
Europeans.
What does the southern part of Europe produce extensively?
Grapes, Oranges, Lemons, Figs, and Olives.
What important School-law in Prussia?
All the boys and girls are compelled to attend
school regularly.







LESSON LIV. 57














HFere is a view in the northern part of Europe,
which is noted for the great length of its winters,
and of its winter nights and summer days.
For several weeks in winter, the people there do
not see the sun; but for the same length of time in
summer, the sun does not set.
The men you see in the picture are called Lap-
landers, because they live in Lapland. They travel
from place to place in sleds drawn rapidly by rein-
deer. The milk and flesh of these animals are used
for food, and their skins for clothing. A Laplander's
wealth is known by the number of reindeer he owns.
In the southern part of Europe the climate is
mild and pleasant; orii-,ns, lemons, figs, olives,
grapes, and other fruits being raised in abundance.






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LESSON LV. LESSON LVI.
What Ocean north of Asia? What Sea between Arabia and Africa?
Arctic Ocean. Which is the largest Sea west of Asia?
What Ocean east? What two Seas between Asia and Europe?
Pacific Ocean, What Sea east of the Caspian Sea?
What Ocean south? What large Country in the northern part of
Indian Ocean. Asia?
To what Empire does Siberia belong?
What Grand Division west? What Empire south of Siberia?.
Europe. What Country in the southeastern part of the
What Grand Division southwest? Chinese Empire?
Africa. What Country west of Chinese Empire?
What two Countries of Asia furthest west?
What Sea and Bay south ?
Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. What Country between the Arabian Sea and
Bay of Bengal?
What four Seas east? What two Countries northwest of Hindoostan?
Kamtschatka, Okhotsk, Japan, Between what two Countries is the Persian
and Yellow. Gulf?
What Mountains between Chinese Empire and
at Sea southeastSiberia Between Hindoostan and Thibet?
China Sea. Two chains between Asia and Europe? a
t5o








60 LESSON LVII.

















f
.- '.'











THn GREAT WALT. OF CHINA was built more than two thousand years ago, to protect the Chi-
ese from their enemies on the north. It extends over hills and plains, is about thirty
feet high, and so broad that six horses can walk abreast on tile top of it. Its length is 1,50
miles, or about the distance between Maine and Texas. It is strengthened by large square
towers.
What can you say of Asia?
Asia is the largest and the first inhabited Grand
Division of the Earth.
Who were our first parents ?
Adam and Eve, who lived in Asia.
Where was our Saviour burn ?
In the western part of Asia.
Of what does the Empire of Japan consist?
Of Islands, the largest of which is Niphon.
What articles come from Asia?
Furs from Siberia, Tea from China, and Coffee
from Arabia and Java.







LESSON LVIII. 61


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"This is a picture of a HEATHEN T-EMPLE or place of
worship. It contains frightful looking objects, be-
fore which you see people falling on their knees and
faces. They are IDOLS, or false gods, which these
people worship. They are made chiefly of stone or
wood. Such people are called IDOLATERS, PAGANS,
or HEATHENS. They believe these idols can hear
their prayers, and grant what they ask.
You will be surprised to learn that there are mil-
lions of idolaters. They live in Asia, Africa, and the
islands of the Pacific Ocean.
Missionaries have been sent from the United
States and Europe to teach those ignorant people
about the TRUE GOD who says, in his command-
ments, THOU SHALT HAVE NO OTHER GODS BUT ME."
You will be surprised to learn that there are mil-








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LESSON LIX. 63

What Division of land is Africa? What Division of the Earth?
A Peninsula. Asia.
Between what two Oceans is What Isthmus between Africa
Africa? and Asia?
Atlantic and Indian. The Isthmus of Suez.
What Division of the Earth What Gulf west of Africa?
north of Africa? Gulf of Guinea.
Europe. What large Island southeast of
What Sea north of Africa? Africa?
Mediterranean Sea. Madagascar.
What Sea northeast of Africa? What Cape in the south?
Red Sea. Cape of Good Hope.






LESSON LX.

Which are the largest Rivers in With what Ocean is the Mediter-
Africa? ranean Sea connected?
What Plain in the north? With what Ocean is the Red Sea
connected?
What Region south of the Great cnet
t t t t What three Countries of Africa
Desert?
touch Lhe Red Sea?
What Country west of Soudan? W large River flows through
What Region east of Guinea? them into the Mediterranean
Sea?
SWhat Mountains in the eastern
part of Africa? What large River flows into the
Gulf of Guinea?
VWhat Lake in Soudan?
WhaOn which side of Africa is Gui-
SWhat Cities in Africa? nea?







64 LESSON LXI.















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A SAND-STORM IN THE DESERT. The travelers and camels lie on the ground for a few minutes,
until the storm has passed over.

What can you say of Africa?
It is the hottest Grand Division of the Earth.
What Animals in Africa?
The Elephant, Lion, Leopard, Hyena, Zebra,
and others.
What dangerous Reptiles in Africa?
Crocodiles, and Serpents of enormous size.
What Trees abound in the forests?
The Cocoa-nut, Date, and other Palm-trees.
Palm-oil is used in making soap and candles.
What storms sometimes overtake Caravans in the Great Desert?
Storms of scorching sand, raised by the wind.








LESSON LXII. 65




Aik












mals, and Great Desert.
The Great Desert is about 3,000 miles long, and
1,000 miles wide. It contains vast sandy plains
which are dry, hot, and barren, except in some green
places, called OASES. People cross the desert in
large companies, called CARAVANS, in order to de-
fend themselves from robbers. Camels are used in
crossing the desert.
Lions, elephants, and other wild animals are found
in Africa as well as Asia.
Elephants are hunted for the ivory, of which their
tusks are composed. Many have been tamed, and
are very gentle.
ar eygnle.









66 LESSON LXIII.

COFFEE TREE. TEA PLANT.
The Tea A
Plant grows
to the height
of five or six '
feet, and is cul- .
tivated in Chi- i .
na and Japan.
The leaves are
gathered when

on heated pans. --'
The color of t r i
green tea is due -
to a coloring -
matter that is
dusted over it
in the pans.
"The branches of the Coffee Tree are loaded with berries, which look
like red cherries. Each berry contains two grains or seeds of a light green
color, which resemble beanscut into halves. These are roasted and ground
before the coffee is ready for use.
Coffee comes from Arabia, Java, South America, and the West Indies.

"W heat,
Rye and Oats
". \,o I grow on the top ,'
.,, of the plants or ..
Stalks. W len ,
ripe they are cut
something like
Grass; then the
grain is removed I ,
from the husk,
,! by being thrash- '
ed or beaten. I ,
The stems or
stalks we call
straw. M,
WHEAT. OATS.








LESSON LXIV. 67

INDIAN CORN. TOBACCO-PLANT.
i.? Indian Corn, or
M1aize, grows upon
a stalk higher and
S thicker than that of
the other grains. It
is found in ears on
,>-\ the plant. When
ripe and dry, the
grain is ground into
S Indian, or corn meal. .
"TheTobacco "
"X r, Plant, when fully '




grown, is cut, and The Cotton Plant
hung up to dry. From produces a pod which
the leaves are made contains the white,
smoking and chewing downy substance called
tobacco, cigars, and cotton, which is spun
snuff. Tobacco was into threads, then wov-
first used in America. en into cloth.
SPINNING-WItEEL. -

Flax is a plant
"which has a slender
stalk, and grows to the I
S height of two or three
feet. The skin or bark
--consists of fine fibers
that may be separated
and spun into thread,
""then woven or made in- i
to cloth, called Linen,
Cambric, Lawn, Lace, iIf
&c. The seeds yield -'
S an oil called Linseed
S1 -. Oil.
THE COTTON PLANT. FLAX.










68 GENERAL REVIEW.


COUNTRIES, STR41TS.
Where situated? Bound them. Between what lands are they ? Wlat waters
United States ? Brazil ? do ey connect ?
Greenland ? Spain? Davis'? Hudson's?
Russia? Siberia? Magellan? Behring's?
China? Mexico? Florida? Gibraltar?
England? Persia?
Venezuela ? Central America ?
Hindoostan? Prussia? RIVERS.
Arabia? Scotland?
Turkestan ? Ireland ? Where do they rise? What courses do they
Patagonia? Turkey? take? Into what waters do they flow?
Austria? Argentine Republic? Amazon? Mississippi?
France? Italy ? Nile? Delaware?
British America? Egypt? Missouri? Rio Grande?
Susquehanna? Ohio?
rtT7TM MO Genesee? Hudson?
MOUNT1tNS, Mackenzie's? Savannah?
re are they situatedSt. Lawrence? La Plata?
Whcre are they situated) Potomac ? Columbia?
i .1-,' Blue Ridge? Kennebec? Tennessee?
: I,,.,i White? Niger ? Cumberland?
Andes? Altai? Orinoco? Danube?
il i ..r,* Pyrenees? Connecticut? Arkansas?
Moon? Ural?

LKES.
C4PES. LKES.
CA'PE Where are they What are their outlets?
lfWhere are they ? Ito ,whlat waters do
they P-ject ? Superior? Huron?
Great Bear? Champlain?
Cod? Farewell? Great Salt? Maravi?
Good lHope? Horn? Ontario ? Michigan ?
Hatteras ? St. Roque? Great Slave? Erie ?

ISL NDS. CITIES,
Where are they? By ,hat waters are in what Countries or States are they On
they surrounded? or near what waters?
Greenland? Iceland? London? Rio Janeiro?
Australia? Madagascar? New York? St. Louis?
West Indies? Jlpan Is.? Constantinople? Galveston?
Cuba? Sicily ? Mexico? St. Paul?
Terra del Fuego? Niphon ? Lima? Atlanta ?
Lisbon? Montpelier?
SES, GULF ND BAYS. Boston? Harrisburg?
8E4N, GULFS pND BiYS. i, i.; .,.. ,, Havana?
i',r, Cincinnati?
Where are they ? Into what waters do Buffalo Cnharetoni?
they open ? Montgomery? Nashville?
MediterraneanS.? G. of Guinea? Madrid? San Fiancisco?
G. of Mexico? B. of Panama ? Dublin? New Haven ?
Arabian S. ? G. of California ? Albany? Cakcutta?
Hludson's B.? Yellow S.? St. Pitersburg? Jeffrson City?
Black S.? S. of Kamtschatka? Montreal? Annapolis?
China S. ? Baffin's B. ? New Orleans ? Trunton?
B. of Biscay? ?y.-1. .r. B.? Philadelphia? Santa Fe?
S. of Japan? (- I Lawvrence? Cairo? Tallahasse&?
White S. ? Baltic S. ? Richmond? Pittsburg ?






















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