Title Page
 Members of the House of Repres...
 November 1984


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Journal of the Florida House of Representatives
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PDIV4 Tuesday,
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Journal of the Florida House of Representatives
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Title: Journal of the Florida House of Representatives
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Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Legislature. -- House of Representatives
Publisher: State of Florida
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Members of the House of Representatives
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    November 1984
        Tuesday, November 20
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
Full Text

of the


November 20,


of the

Seventy-second House
since Statehood in 1845

House of Representatives

[Democrats in Roman (77); Republicans in Italic (43)]
(as of Organization Session)

1. Part of Escambia
Thomas J. "Tom" Tobiassen, Cantonment
2. Part of Escambia
Virginia "Ginger" Bass, Pensacola
3. Parts of Escambia, Santa Rosa
Grover C. Robinson, III, Pensacola
4. Parts of Okaloosa, Santa Rosa
Bolley L. "Bo" Johnson, Milton
5. Parts of Okaloosa, Walton
James G. Ward, Fort Walton Beach
6. Part of Bay
Ronald Clyde "Ron" Johnson, Panama City
7. Holmes, Washington and parts of Bay, Jack-
son, Walton
Sam Mitchell, Vernon
8. Calhoun, Gadsden, Gulf and parts of Bay,
Franklin, Jackson
James Harold Thompson, Quincy
9. Liberty and parts of Franklin, Leon, Wakulla
Alfred J. "Al" Lawson, Jr., Tallahassee
10. Part of Leon
Herbert F. "Herb" Morgan, Tallahassee
11. Dixie, Gilchrist, Jefferson, Lafayette, Levy,
Taylor and parts of Citrus, Marion, Wakulla
Gene Hodges, Cedar Key
12. Columbia, Hamilton, Madison, Suwannee
Wayne Hollingsworth, Lake City
13. Baker, Nassau, Union and parts of Bradford,
George A. Crady, Yulee
14. Part of Duval
Carl Ogden, Jacksonville
15. Part of Duval
Steve Pajcic, Jacksonville
16. Part of Duval
John Thomas, Jacksonville
17. Part of Duval
Corrine Brown, Jacksonville
18. Part of Duval
John W. Lewis, III, Jacksonville
19. Parts of Duval, St. Johns
William G. "Bill" Bankhead, Jacksonville
20. Part of Duval
Thomas L. "Tommy" Hazouri, Jacksonville
21. Clay and parts of Bradford, St. Johns
Frances L. "Chance" Irvine, Orange Park
22. Flagler and parts of Putnam, St. Johns
Hamilton D. Upchurch, St. Augustine
23. Parts of Alachua, Putnam
Sidney "Sid" Martin, Hawthorne
24. Part of Alachua
Jon L. Mills, Gainesville

25. Part of Marion
Christian "Chris" Meffert, Ocala
26. Parts of Citrus, Marion
Dick Locke, Inverness
27. Parts of Lake, Marion, Putnam, Seminole,
Bobby Brantley, Longwood
28. Part of Volusia
Samuel P. Bell, III, Ormond Beach
29. Part of Volusia
T. K. Wetherell, Port Orange
30. Part of Volusia
Tom C. Brown, Port Orange
31. Part of Brevard
Winston W. "Bud" Gardner, Jr., Titusville
32. Part of Brevard
Dixie N. Sansom, Satellite Beach
33. Part of Brevard
Marilyn B. Evans-Jones, Melbourne
34. Parts of Brevard, Orange, Seminole
Carl Selph, Casselberry
35. Part of Seminole
Arthur E. "Art" Grindle, Altamonte Springs
36. Parts of Orange, Seminole
Thomas B. "Tom" Drage, Jr., Orlando
37. Part of Orange
Richard "Rich" Crotty, Orlando
38. Part of Orange
Bruce McEwan, Orlando
39. Part of Orange
Fran Carlton, Orlando
40. Part of Orange
Alzo J. Reddick, Orlando
41. Part of Orange
Daniel Webster, Orlando
42. Parts of Osceola, Polk
C. Fred Jones, Auburndale
43. Part of Polk
Richard E. "Rick" Dantzler, Winter Haven
44. Part of Polk
Charles T. Canady, Lakeland

Beverly B. Burnsed, Lakeland
46. Parts of Lake, Sumter
Everett A. Kelly, Tavares
47. Hernando and parts of Pasco, Sumter
Charles R. "Chuck" Smith, Brooksville
48. Part of Pasco
Raymond B. "Ray" Stewart, Zephyrhills
49. Part of Pasco
John K. Renke, II, New Port Richey
50. Parts of Pasco, Pinellas
Peter M. "Pete" Dunbar, Crystal Beach

51. Part of Pinellas
Byron Combee, Clearwater
52. Part of Pinellas
Betty Easley, Largo
53. Part of Pinellas
Dennis L. Jones, Treasure Island
54. Part of Pinellas
Dorothy Eaton Sample, St. Petersburg
55. Part of Pinellas
Douglas L. "Doug" Jamerson, St. Petersburg
56. Part of Pinellas
Peter Rudy Wallace, St. Petersburg
57. Part of Pinellas
James Christopher Frishe, Pinellas Park
58. Part of Pinellas
T. M. "Tom" Woodruff, St. Petersburg
59. Part of Hillsborough
John A. Grant, Jr., Tampa
60. Part of Hillsborough
Mary Figg, Lutz
61. Parts of Hillsborough, Pasco
Carl Carpenter, Jr., Plant City
62. Part of Hillsborough
S. L. "Spud" Clements, Jr., Brandon
63. Part of Hillsborough
James T. "Jim" Hargrett, Jr., Tampa
64. Part of Hillsborough
Helen Gordon Davis, Tampa
65. Part of Hillsborough
Elvin L. Martinez, Tampa
66. Part of Hillsborough
Mark Gibbons, Tampa
67. Hardee and part of Manatee
Lawrence F. "Larry" Shackelford, Palmetto
68. Part of Manatee
Peggy Simone, Bradenton
69. Parts of Manatee, Sarasota
Harry Jennings, Sarasota
70. Part of Sarasota
James M. Lombard, Osprey
71. Parts of Charlotte, Sarasota
David L. "Dave" Thomas, Englewood
72. Parts of Charlotte, DeSoto, Lee
Vernon Peeples, Punta Gorda
73. Part of Lee
J. Keith Arnold, Fort Myers
74. Part of Lee
Fred R. Dudley, Fort Myers
75. Parts of Collier, Lee
Mary Ellen Hawkins, Naples

76. Glades, Hendry, Highlands and parts of Col-
lier, DeSoto, Okeechobee
Bert J. Harris, Jr., Lake Placid

77. Parts of Brevard, Indian River, Okeechobee,
Osceola, St. Lucie
Irlo "Bud" Bronson, Jr., Kissimmee
78. Parts of Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie
R. Dale Patchett, Vero Beach
79. Parts of Martin, St. Lucie
Charles L. "Chuck" Nergard, Port St. Lucie
80. Parts of Martin, Palm Beach
James C. "Jim" Hill, Jr., Jupiter
81. Part of Palm Beach
James L. "Jim" Watt, Lake Park
82. Part of Palm Beach
Ray Liberti, West Palm Beach
83. Part of Palm Beach
Eleanor Weinstock, Palm Beach
84. Part of Palm Beach
Bernard Kimmel, West Palm Beach
85. Part of Palm Beach
Frank S. Messersmith, Lake Worth
86. Part of Palm Beach
Steve Press, Delray Beach
87. Parts of Broward, Palm Beach
Carol G. Hanson, Boca Raton
88. Part of Broward
Jack N. Tobin, Margate
89. Part of Broward
Joe Titone, Coral Springs
90. Part of Broward
Peter R. Deutsch, Sunrise
91. Part of Broward
Bill Clark, Lauderdale Lakes
92. Part of Broward
Robert J. "Bob" Shelley, Pompano Beach
93. Part of Broward
Deborah P. "Debby" Sanderson, Fort Lauderdale
94. Part of Broward
Tom Gustafson, Fort Lauderdale
95. Part of Broward
Anne Mackenzie, Fort Lauderdale
96. Part of Broward
Thomas H. Armstrong, Plantation
97. Part of Broward
Frederick "Fred" Lippman, Hollywood
98. Part of Broward
Irma S. Rochlin, Hallandale
99. Part of Broward
Walter C. "Walt" Young, Pembroke Pines
100. Parts of Broward, Dade
Ronald A. "Ron" Silver, North Miami Beach
101. Part of Dade
Michael I. "Mike" Abrams, Miami
102. Part of Dade
Elaine Gordon, North Miami

103. Part of Dade
Michael Friedman, Miami Beach

104. Part of Dade
Barry Kutun, Miami Beach
105. Part of Dade
Alberto "Al" Gutman, Miami
106. Part of Dade
Jefferson "Jeff' Reaves, Sr., Miami
107. Part of Dade
James C. "Jim" Burke, Miami
108. Part of Dade
Willie Logan, Jr., Opa Locka
109. Part of Dade
Rodolfo "Rudy" Garcia, Jr., Hialeah
110. Part of Dade
Ileana Ros, Miami
111. Part of Dade
Roberto Casas, Hialeah
112. Part of Dade
Arnhilda Gonzalez-Quevedo, Coral Gables

113. Part of Dade
Luis C. Morse, Miami
114. Part of Dade
Elizabeth "Betty" Metcalf, Coral Gables
115. Part of Dade
Javier D. Souto, Miami
116. Part of Dade
Art Simon, Miami
117. Part of Dade
C. Thomas "Tom" Gallagher, III, Coconut Grove
118. Part of Dade
Dexter W. Lehtinen, Miami
(Rep. Lehtinen changed party affiliation from
Democrat to Republican on March 1, 1985)
119. Part of Dade
Lawrence R. "Larry" Hawkins, Miami
120. Monroe and part of Dade
Joseph B. "Joe" Allen, Jr., Key West

Speaker-James Harold Thompson Clerk--Allen Morris
Speaker pro tempore-Elaine Gordon Sergeant at Arms-Wayne Westmark

t7ej JounjalOF THE

'louse of Iepreseitatives


Tuesday, November 20, 1984

Journal of the House of Representatives for the Organization Session of the Seventy-second House since Statehood in
1845, convened under the Constitution, begun and held at the Capitol in the City of Tallahassee, in the State of Florida,
on Tuesday, November 20, 1984, being the day fixed by the Constitution for the purpose.

Under Rule 3.1, Dr. Allen Morris, Clerk of the preceding session,
delegated the duties of temporary presiding officer to the Honorable H.
Lee Moffitt, retiring Speaker. Mr. Moffitt called the House to order at
10:00 a.m.
The following certified list of Members elected to the House of
Representatives was received:

State of Florida

Department of State

I, GEORGE FIRESTONE, Secretary of State of the State of Florida, do
hereby certify that the following members of the House of Representa-
tives were elected at the General Election held on the 6th day of
November, A.D., 1984, as shown by the election returns on file in this
1-Tom Tobiassen, Cantonment
2-Virginia Bass, Pensacola
3-Grover C. Robinson, III, Pensacola
4-Bolley "Bo" Johnson, Milton
5-James G. Ward, Fort Walton Beach
6-Ron Johnson, Panama City
7-Sam W. Mitchell, Vernon
8--James Harold Thompson, Quincy
9-Alfred (Al) Lawson, Jr., Tallahassee
10-Herbert F. (Herb) Morgan, Tallahassee
11-Gene Hodges, Cedar Key
12-Wayne Hollingsworth, Lake City
13-George Crady, Yulee
14-Carl Ogden, Jacksonville
15-Steve Pajcic, Jacksonville
16-John Thomas, Jacksonville
17-Corrine Brown, Jacksonville
18--John W. Lewis, Jacksonville
19-W. G. "Bill" Bankhead, Jacksonville
20-Tommy Hazouri, Jacksonville
21-F. L. "Chance" Irvine, Orange Park
22-Hamilton D. Upchurch, St. Augustine
23-Sidney Martin, Hawthorne
24--Jon Mills, Gainesville
25-Christian "Chris" Meffert, Ocala
26-Dick Locke, Inverness
27-Bobby Brantley, Longwood
28-Samuel P. Bell, III, Daytona Beach
29-T. K. Wetherell, Port Orange
30-Tom C. Brown, Port Orange
31-W. W. "Bud" Gardner, Titusville
32-Dixie Sansom. Satellite Beach

33-Marilyn Evans-Jones, Melbourne
34-Carl Selph, Casselberry
35-Art Grindle, Altamonte Springs
36--Tom Drage, Jr., Orlando
37-Richard Crotty, Orlando
38-Bruce McEwan, Orlando
39-Fran Carlton, Orlando
40-Alzo J. Reddick, Orlando
41-Daniel Webster, Orlando
42-Fred Jones, Auburndale
43-Rick Dantzler, Winter Haven
44-Charles T. Canady, Lakeland
45-Beverly B. Burnsed, Lakeland
46-Everett A. Kelly, Tavares
47-Charles R. "Chuck" Smith, Brooksville
48-Raymond B. "Ray" Stewart, Zephyrhills
49-John K. Renke, II, New Port Richey
50-Peter M. Dunbar, Dunedin
51-Byron Combee, Clearwater
52-Betty Easley, Largo
53-Dennis L. Jones, Treasure Island
54-Dorothy Eaton Sample, St. Petersburg
55-Doug "Tim" Jamerson, St. Petersburg
56-Peter Rudy Wallace, St. Petersburg
57-James Christopher Frishe, Pinellas Park
58-T. M. "Tom" Woodruff, St. Petersburg
59--John Grant, Tampa
60-Mary Figg, Lutz
61-Carl Carpenter, Jr., Plant City
62-S. L. "Spud" Clements, Brandon
63-James T. (Jim) Hargrett, Jr., Tampa
64-Helen Gordon Davis, Tampa
65-Elvin L. Martinez, Tampa
66-Mark Gibbons, Tampa
67-Lawrence F. Shackelford, Palmetto
68-Peggy Simone, Bradenton
69-Harry Jennings, Sarasota
70-James M. Lombard, Osprey
71-David (Dr. Dave) Thomas, Englewood
72-Vernon Peeples, Punta Gorda
73-J. Keith Arnold, Fort Myers
74-Fred R. Dudley, Cape Coral
75-Mary Ellen Hawkins, Naples
76-Bert J. Harris, Jr., Lake Placid
77-Irlo (Bud) Bronson, Jr., Kissimmee
78-R. Dale Patchett, Vero Beach
79-Charles (Chuck) Nergard, Port St. Lucie
80-James C. Hill, Jr., Hobe Sound
81--Jim Watt, Lake Park
82-Ray Liberti, West Palm Beach
83-Eleanor Weinstock, Palm Beach
84-Bernard Kimmel. West Palm Beach



85-Frank S. Messersmith, Lake Worth
86-Steve Press, Highland Beach
87-Carol G. Hanson, Boca Raton
88-Jack N. Tobin, Margate
89--Joe Titone, Coral Springs
90-Peter Deutsch, Plantation
91-Bill Clark, Lauderdale Lakes
92-Robert J. "Bob" Shelley, Pompano Beach
93-Debby P. Sanderson, Fort Lauderdale
94-Tom Gustafson, Fort Lauderdale
95-Anne Mackenzie, Fort Lauderdale
96-Thomas H. Armstrong, Plantation
97-Fred Lippman, Hollywood
98-Irma Rochlin, Hallandale
99-Walter C. "Walt" Young, Pembroke Pines
100-Ronald (Ron) A. Silver, Miami
101-Mike Abrams, Miami
102-Elaine Gordon, North Miami
103-Michael Friedman, Miami Beach
104-Barry Kutun, Miami Beach
105-Alberto (Al) Gutman, Miami Beach
106--Jeff Reaves, Sr., Miami
107-James (Jim) Burke, Miami
108-Willie Logan, Opa Locka
109-Rodolfo (Rudy) Garcia, Jr., Hialeah
110-Ileana Ros, Miami
111-Roberto Casas, Hialeah
112-Arnhilda Gonzalez-Quevedo, Miami
113-Luis C. Morse, Miami
114-Elizabeth (Betty) Metcalf, Coral Gables
115--Javier Souto, Miami
116-Art Simon, Miami
117-Tom Gallagher, Miami
118-Dexer Lehtinen, Miami
119-Larry Hawkins, Miami
120-Joe Allen, Key West


Prayer was offered by the Reverend Doug Hughes, Gretna Presbyteri-
an Church.

The following Members were recorded present:

Brown, C.
Brown, T. C.

Hawkins, L. R.
Hawkins, M.E.
Johnson, B. L.
Johnson, R. C.
Jones, C. F.
Jones, D. L.


Thomas, D. L.
Thomas, J.

Excused: Representative Pajcic who was in Scottsdale, Arizona
attending a seminar on Fiscal Stability sponsored by the State
Government Affairs Committee of the NCSL; Representative Shelley for
employment reasons.
A quorum was present.
The Members pledged allegiance to the Flag, led by the following
representatives of veterans organizations: Rheubin M. Hair, Sr., State
Department Commander, American Legion; Edwin Shuman, State
Department Commander, Veterans of Foreign Wars; Harry McDonald,
State Department Commander, Disabled American Veterans; Sam
Sidebottom, State Department Chairman, AMVETS; Abe Baker, State
Department Commander, Jewish War Veterans; Col. Charles Lawson,
Legislative Chairman, Reserve Officers Association; Dave Mount,
President, Central Florida PVA; Stan Seidel, Vietnam Veterans of
America; and Raymond A. Burke, State Department Commander,
Marine Corps League.
House Physician
The Chair introduced Dr. Pat Woodward of Quincy, who was serving in
the Clinic today.
Oath Taken by Members
The Members, in groups of four, went to the well where the Oath of
Office prescribed by the Constitution was administered by Judge Ben C.
Willis, Second Judicial Circuit.
Presentation of Guests
The Chair presented the following former Speakers of the House who
were present as guests of Representative Thompson: The Honorable
Donald L. Tucker; the Honorable Ralph H. Haben, Jr. and his wife,
Debbie; the Honorable Doyle E. Conner, now Commissioner of
Agriculture; and the Honorable Ralph D. Turlington, now Commissioner
of Education. Additional guests presented were: U. S. Congressman Sam
Gibbons, former Member of the House from Hillsborough County; Jeb
Bush, son of Vice President George Bush, guest of Representative Tom
Committee from the Senate
A committee from the Senate consisting of Senators Deratany, Kiser,
McPherson, Fox, Plummer, Johnson, and Crawford was received and
announced that the Senate was organized.
Election of the Speaker
The Chair announced the House would now proceed to the election of
Officers and, for the purposes of nominations, motions would be seconded.
Nominations would now be received for Speaker of the House of
Representatives for a term of two years beginning today.
Remarks by Rep. Morgan
Rep. Morgan nominated the Honorable James Harold Thompson for
Speaker with the following remarks:
Mr. Speaker and ladies and gentlemen of the House: This is a very
emotional day for me because today I have the opportunity to nominate
the person who is as close to me as one of my four brothers to be the
Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives. As public officials, we
get to make many introductions, we are involved in numerous
nominations, but in this instance this day, there is no higher privilege
that I have enjoyed in my life to this point nor is it a greater pleasure to
have this opportunity. So I nominate today as Speaker of the Florida
House of Representatives my friend and my counselor for ten years,
Representative James Harold Thompson.
James Harold Thompson is a man of character and human decency.
He's a man that's devoted to principle, a man of conviction, a man of
integrity. He really cares about this state. He cares about its people and
you know that because you've seen him in your communities in the last
several years on many occasions. He's a husband, a father, a practicing

attorney, community leader, the kind of man that each of us looks up to in
our community.


November 20, 1984


James Harold has been often described as a young Abe Lincoln. He's
been compared many times to this country's 16th President. Well, like
that same President-Lincoln-James Harold Thompson's beginnings
are much the same. His earliest training was in poverty and from that
also came a consuming passion for reading and, through reading, for
learning, characteristics that we have learned to appreciate of our 16th
President as well. He's known hard work from his earliest years. His
parents taught him to be steadfast in his convictions, to have an abiding
faith in God, in democracy and in the law. His agricultural background
has given him a feel for the soil and, as a result of that, a true caring for
this state and its environment and its natural assets. He has a genuine
concern for the plight of the poor that comes from only the humble
beginnings that he understood. He is a leader, though, that is able to
move amongst all types of people comfortably and, as a result, appreciates
points of view that are quite often very diverse.

James Harold Thompson cares about the problems and the challenges
of this state in a way that only a person can understand who has traveled
the length and breadth of this state to find out the nature and the depth of
those problems. He looks at those problems of growth for our urban
centers and also those problems of growth for our rural areas that still
remain. James Harold is a man that is frugal in his personal style-that's
a nice way of saying that he's tight [laughter]-and therefore he would
expect us to spend the State's resources in the same manner.

But James Harold Thompson stands, as he will ascend to the
Speakership of this House today, in a particular place in history. As he is
elected today, he will be the first, what we would truthfully call,
post-reapportionment Speaker. The difference between Mr. Moffitt, who
served in a post-reapportionment Speaker's role, is that Mr. Thompson is
truly elected by those who were elected after that reapportionment. He
will be elected today by Members that serve single-member districts in a
House that has more minorities and more women than ever before.
Florida continues to be the fastest-growing major state in the nation and
soon will be the fourth largest. James Harold Thompson will be the
beginning of a chain of Speakers that will take us into the 21st century.

You've seen him develop here on this House floor and through ten years
of leadership, a consensus sometimes from that which would not appear
to even have the potential for compromise. That's the kind of leadership
ability that he brings because he brings with that an understanding of
this state and a realization that we all must come to, that there's no
longer room for sectionalism as we face the challenges of Florida's future.
Symbolically represented by his choice of Representative Elaine Gordon
as his Speaker pro tem is a binding together of that diversity, a factual
statement of the end of sectionalism in this state.

Ralph Waldo Emerson, in speaking of President Lincoln, saw a serene
providence ruling nations and said, "It makes its own instruments,
creates the man for the time, trains him in poverty, inspires his genius,
and arms him for the task." Such is the case with James Harold
Thompson. He's fair, he's intelligent, and perhaps more importantly, he
has vision because it is vision that marks the true leader. President
Lincoln himself said, "Let us have faith that right makes might and in
that faith let us to the end dare to do our duty as we understand it." James
Harold Thompson certainly exemplifies that statement in the responses
that we've seen him make to the issues that have faced us in this House
for ten years. If it isn't right, he doesn't want any part of it.

He's prepared himself for this important responsibility as I mentioned
by traveling the state, but also through education, through experience, as
a tenth-year Member of this House. There's not a one of you that has not
seen him in your district, probably in your local community has
participated with him in meeting with your community leaders and those
that help to make decisions at your local areas.

I walked into the Democratic Caucus in this House in the fall of 1974
and I did not know James Harold Thompson. One of my brothers did-he
had met him on the campaign trail when he had a little problem with his
automobile-but I had not met James Harold until we walked into the

Chamber together in that 1974 Caucus. Today, though, I can tell you that
after ten years, I know him well. I know his abilities as a legislator. I
know the kind of man that he really is and he is in private what he is in

public. Someone has said that, except for the books you read and the
people you meet, you'll be the same person years from now that you are
today. None of us is the same because we've met each other here and we've
been changed by that experience. I'm certainly a different person because
I've known James Harold Thompson and you and I and this State will be
different because we've known him as the Speaker of the Florida House of
Representatives in 1985-86.

It's with the utmost personal pleasure that I place before you in
nomination for Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives my
friend from Gretna, James Harold Thompson.

Remarks by Rep. Ward

Rep. Ward seconded the nomination of Rep. Thompson as Speaker with
the following remarks:

Speaker Moffitt, ladies and gentlemen of the House: I feel privileged to
stand before you today to second the nomination of James Harold
Thompson as Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives. Some four
years ago James Harold was being pressured by many of us to seek the
office of Speaker. When I say "pressured," I mean that he was not actively
seeking to be Speaker of the House and was a very reluctant candidate.
The decision to run for Speaker was a very difficult one. James Harold
understood the commitment that it takes to be Speaker. He understood
the commitment of his family for him to be Speaker and, after much
talking about it, after praying about it, and after finally crying about it,
James Harold, together with Carolyn, made that decision to run. I'm
excited that James Harold decided to run for Speaker because I feel that
Florida and those of us that serve under his leadership will be bettered as
a result of his holding this office.

My friendship with James Harold began eight years ago when I came to
Tallahassee as a freshman Member of this body. As you know, I'm not one
for veneer or artificial image. In fact, I tell my constituents, "What you
see is what you get." This is one reason I was drawn to James Harold
Thompson. He is genuine. His parents are not here today to share these
moments, but have instilled in him the values that have allowed him to
go from the tobacco farms of Gretna to be the Speaker of the Florida
House of Representatives.

Over his ten years of service in the Florida House, James Harold has
always grown where he was planted. He was as dedicated to the task at
hand as Chairman of the Claims Committee as he was as Chairman of the
Rules Committee. He has received many Allen Morris awards for his skill
and excellency in debate, but he has also been recognized scores of times
by others on the outside of our ranks.

James Harold has done these things by showing that he is a leader, that
he can be tough, that he can be compassionate, and that he is a winner. I
have never known James Harold to be willing to lose at anything.
Whether it be legislatively, playing basketball, or shooting quail, he
works hard to win. Because we are collectively responsible for the
successes or the failures of this legislative process, we must choose
carefully the leader who will guide in our deliberations. This vote today,
choosing a Speaker, will be perhaps the most important we cast in our two
years. We must select a Speaker who understands fully the commitment
of being Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives. James Harold
Thompson understands the importance of that commitment we have
made to him, but most importantly, he understands that his commitment
to us is of equal importance. James Harold Thompson has adequately
demonstrated his commitment to us by traveling this state to gain an
insight into the problems in each of our districts so that he can help in
solving these problems. He will continue to fulfill this commitment by
serving as a fair, decisive, and strong Speaker.

He is not only a good husband, a good father, a good attorney, and a
good legislator-some say he's the best quail shot in Gadsden County.
James Harold may not have started this rumor, but he certainly will be
the last to deny this rumor. [laughter] Is James Harold such a good

hunter because of his sharp eye, his poise, and his quick reflexes? I think
it's because he has the natural instincts of a good bird dog. He can freeze

November 20, 1984



his attention on the subject at hand. With little motion he can sniff out the
solutions and point us in the right direction. He doesn't spook when the
fireworks start and the feathers fly. And when the action is over, he
retrieves the victim so gently as not to damage the thinnest of skins.

The media and those of us who have been here a while know of James
Harold's portrayal of Congressman Pepper, the distinguished native of
Taylor County. James Harold does it so well that Congressman Pepper
gets confused as to who's who. Believe me, that's true. [laughter] Mr.
Morgan and myself see in Mr. Thompson a Lincoln figure. Lincoln was
known by many titles besides "Mr. President," but I would venture that
one that pleased him most was "The Great Healer" because he sought not
vengeance nor retribution, but unity for our nation. Physically there's a
likeness-both lean and lanky, soft-spoken and calm while others
breathe fire, with a country-like demeanor that all people come to
respect. Representative Thompson, in addition, is a modest man and, I
know, embarrassed at my attempts and Mr. Morgan's of comparisons.
Just because the introduction of his legislation begins with "Four score
and seven years ago," that in no way implies that he thinks of himself
akin to Mr. Lincoln. [laughter]

Theodore Roosevelt once said, "No man can lead a public career really
worth leading. No man can act with rugged independence in serious crisis
nor strike at great abuses nor afford to make powerful and unscrupulous
foes if he himself is vulnerable in his private character." James Harold
Thompson is not vulnerable, rather he is strong of mind and of will,
compassionate especially to those less fortunate and in need, intelligent
with a profound respect for this House and its Members, and, yes, a healer
who will reach out for those of good will who will put aside our differences,
whether we come from north or south of this great state, and work for all

Make no mistake-we are blessed. All of us will do well to follow his
lead. This is a man destined for greatness, one born to lead, and one who is
fair. James Harold has already honored us with his friendship and his
dedication to work. He will honor us as Speaker. So, Mr. Speaker, ladies
and gentlemen of the House, it is my honor to second the nomination of
James Harold Thompson for Speaker of the House.

Remarks by Rep. Gustafson

Rep. Gustafson seconded the nomination of Rep. Thompson for Speaker
with the following remarks:

Mr. Speaker, Members of the House, honored guests: It is my honor and
pleasure to second the nomination of James Harold Thompson for
Speaker of the House of Representatives. In seconding this nomination, I
first want to recognize that James Harold is about to follow a long
tradition of Representatives serving Gadsden County who became
Speakers of the House of Representatives: Speaker Isaac Ferguson, 1845;
Abraham K. Allison, 1852; S. B. Love, 1861; Marcellus L. Stearns, from
1869 through 1872; and Malachi Martin, 1874. Now, there are several
differences between James Harold and his predecessors from Gadsden.
First, Carolyn Thompson says that James Harold was prettier and
younger than those other Gadsden fellows. [laughter] That's why she
married him. Second, James Harold had to wait 110 years after the last
Gadsden guy took office to return the gavel to glorious Gadsden County.
Third, according to the Democratic Caucus, James Harold Thompson
chose a more conservative Speaker pro tem to preside in his absence than
the prior Gadsden Speakers. [laughter] Finally, the real difference
between James Harold and his predecessors is that, while they lived in
Quincy and Chattahoochee, James Harold had his roots firmly planted in
Gretna soil.

Now, let me talk to you a little bit about Gretna. Nobody's done that so
far. Its name comes from the local dialect reference of"gretny" or gritty.
This term was descriptive of the gritty soil which troubled the railroads
over a hundred years ago in that area. In fact, the soil is so gritty that
even today the citizens of Gretna and in particular, its leading citizen,
James Harold Thompson, is said to possess "true grit." [laughter]

I went to Gretna last Sunday to discuss the impending Thompson
Speakership with some of the town's citizens and I learned several things

about James Harold that you would expect. He's regarded in his
community as a good family man, a quiet cautious man, but with strong
convictions about what is right, a good speaker, and someone who treats
us right. But I also learned a few new things about James Harold. That as
a youngster, James Harold worked in the tobacco fields like a thousand
other laborers without complaining. That on an occasional Saturday
night he might have gotten a little wild, like the rest of us sometimes did,
and that even today his neighbors see him traveling on foot a good bit of
the time, whether it be quail hunting with his sons, jogging with his wife,
or just slow walking with a friend. And finally, that when he met and
married his wife, Carolyn, his close friends knew no finer husband, father
and community leader than their very own James Harold Thompson.

And so we have before us today a Member of this House who is well
known to all of us. As a five-time recipient of the Allen Morris award for
"Most Effective in Debate," we all have recognized James Harold's
special talents that will serve him well as the presiding officer of this
body. As a political leader of the majority party, we all recognize James
Harold's special capability to define the policies and programs that will
occupy the agenda for debate on the floor of this House.

And finally as a friend and highly-respected colleague, we all recognize
the special person that will be sharing with us the unique and often
exhilarating experiences that identify our legislative service together.
Speaker, family man, friend, James Harold Thompson is a very special
person for a very special job. I am honored to second the nomination of
James Harold Thompson for the Speaker for this Florida House of

Remarks by Rep. Watt

Rep. Watt nominated the Honorable R. Dale Patchett for Speaker with
the following remarks:

Mr. Speaker, Members of the House, distinguished guests, ladies and
gentlemen: To our new Members sworn in today, let me say on behalf of
the Republicans, "Welcome and congratulations." Especially to our Latin
Members, "Espanol hablamos aqui." As Speaker Lee Moffitt said four
years ago when he nominated Ralph Haben for Speaker, you are now a
part of the best Legislature in this country.

Robert Kennedy once said, "Some men see things as they are and ask
'why'; I dream things that never were and ask 'why not.' Why not a
Republican Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives? [laughter]
Well, to be honest about it, I suspect it is a little matter of just 17 votes.
When I was first elected in 1978, there were only 31 Republicans in the
House; now we have 43. That's a 40 percent increase. Mr. Mills, Mr.
Gustafson, as Satchel Paige said, "Don't look back. Something might be
gaining on you." [laughter]

I am proud to place in nomination for Speaker an outstanding colleague
and good friend who would bring to the office of Speaker the enthusiasm
of youth and the experience of a veteran. As for youth, Dale Patchett was
born in this half of this century and was first elected to the House at the
age of 26. Dale, his wife Candy, and their daughter Katherine Kay, better
known as Katie, live in Vero Beach. As for experience, Dale begins today
his fifth term.

He has distinguished himself as an authority on our state's natural
resources and his credentials as an environmentalist are evidenced by his
numerous awards from the Florida Audubon Society and the Florida
Sierra Club. As a forester, he is as much at home in the forests of Florida
as the floor of the House. He is as comfortable in a stand of cypress as a
standing committee. A few years ago, Barbara Mandrell had a big hit. It
was called "I Was Country When Country Wasn't Cool." Well, Dale was
an environmentalist when being an environmentalist wasn't cool. He
was an environmentalist before most of us knew what the word meant.

Representative Patchett knows the legislative process very well.

DuPont's second law, penned by former Governor Pierre duPont of
Delaware when he was a Congressman, states that "the speed at which
the legislative process seems to work is in inverse proportion to your


November 20, 1984


enthusiasm for the bill." Dale Patchett, like most of us, understands
duPont's second law very well. When Dale Patchett supports a bill, such
as the Wetlands Protection Act of 1984, which he played a major role in
drafting, he can be frustrated by the slowness of the process. However,
when he opposes a bill which he occasionally does, the process moves too
fast, but not so fast that he doesn't utilize his many skills to try to defeat
it. He knows the process well and well knows how it works.

Beneath his youthful veneer lies the leadership dedicated to preserving
and enhancing the quality of life for all Floridians. If I thought that, by
speaking longer, I might change a vote or two-or possibly 17-I would
but I don't. However, that conclusion in no way dampens my enthusiasm
for placing in nomination the name of R. Dale Patchett of Vero Beach for
Speaker of the House of Representatives. Nuestro dio ventra.

Remarks by Rep. McEwan

Rep. McEwan seconded the nomination of Rep. Patchett for Speaker
with the following remarks:

Mr. Speaker, fellow Members of the House, honored guests: It's hard to
follow someone like Representative Watt, who is such a dynamic speaker
and speaks so eloquently. I think we're all familiar with Representative
R. Dale Patchett's background. He also has received an Allen Morris

But I want to talk to you about Dale Patchett, the people person, the
friend. When I came here four years ago, I was probably more scared and
excited than I am today, and through his leadership, I have come a little
bit far but I'm still a little bit nervous. Dale, when he campaigns-he had
no opponent this year-has "Patchett People" shirts. That's because he is
a people person and people follow Dale and he leads well.

My first year here I didn't learn as much as my second year. My second
year here, Dale and I lived in the same little apartment complex, known
to some of you as "Sine Die Inc." And I learned in my second year that I
was allowed on the Senate floor. Dale said one day, "Let's go down to the
Senate." Well, I said, "Galleries?" And he said, "No, we can go on the
floor." I spent a whole year-you freshmen, I want to teach you right
now-Representative Reddick, I told you that last year, a couple of years
ago-but you are allowed on the Senate floor, which I didn't realize.

Dale has guided me and many others of you throughout your years
here. I've been here four years now and have relied on him heavily for
advice. He has also advised many, many Democrats. If people have a
question on the environment, hunting, fishing, the good spots, they go to
Dale Patchett. He knows the spots. [laughter] When they need advice on
legislation and assistance in drafting legislation, they go to Dale
Patchett. He's a very non-partisan person so I urge you, when you vote for
Speaker of the House, to be non-partisan. This should be a non-partisan
thing. [laughter] As you may recall two years ago, there was a crossover
vote when he ran for Speaker pro tem. I believe he sat right down here
somewhere, but all of a sudden-I think we had 39 Members at that point
and 40 votes appeared for Dale. So we got one crossover vote two years
ago. We just need, as Representative Watt said, about 17 more. So it gives
me great pleasure to second the nomination of my good friend and
neighbor, R. Dale Patchett of Vero Beach, for Speaker of this fine House.
Thank you.

November 20, 1984

Brown, C.
Brown, T. C.

Hawkins, L.R.
Johnson, B. L.
Johnson, R. C.
Jones, C. F.


Thomas, J.

Rep. Thompson was recorded present.

Remarks by Rep. Bankhead Patchett-41

Rep. Bankhead seconded the nomination of Rep. Patchett for Speaker
with the following remarks:

Chairman Moffitt, fellow Members of the House of Representatives,
and guests: When I learned that I was going to have the opportunity to
recommend R. Dale Patchett to you as Speaker of the House, I began to
think about a man that I have known throughout the entirety of my
legislative career. I thought about Dale Patchett, the community leader
who has been sent to the Legislature by his constituents five times, twice
without opposition. I thought about Dale Patchett, the legislator, who
through his tireless work on the Wetlands Bill, the Clean Water Act, and
our Water Quality Assurance Act, has helped preserve for our children
the wonders of Florida's natural resources. I thought about Dale


Hawkins, M.E.

Rep. Patchett was recorded present.

Jones, D. L.

Thomas, D. L.


Patchett, the friend, the person who offered me the hand of friendship
when I first came to this body and advised and encouraged me and others
as we developed our abilities as legislators. It was Dale Patchett with his
great concern for our natural resources who introduced me to the art of
taking soil samples and wildlife management surveys and with whom
I've attended numerous aquatic conferences. I could always find Dale
Patchett in his annex late in the afternoons planning the strategy for the
next day's activities.

But most of all I thought about Dale Patchett, the legislative leader, in
whom we have the confidence to ask to lead us through the next two years
as Florida grows into the fourth largest state in the nation. As Republican
Leader pro tem, Dale was called upon at the end of last session to assume
the duties of Republican Leader at a time when many important issues
were left unresolved-the unitary tax, education, the budget were all
unresolved. Yet Dale's quiet determination and leadership and his
conviction that a two party system can work enabled him to maintain
unity in the Republican Party and to work with the Democratic Party to
resolve those issues in the crucial closing days of last session.

Dale has proven himself as a leader in the Florida House of
Representatives with his friendship and concern for his fellow Members,
his far-reaching legislation and his record of leadership within the
Republican Party. It is a distinct honor and pleasure for me to second the
nomination of R. Dale Patchett as Speaker of the Florida House of

On motion by Rep. Bronson, seconded by Rep. Deutsch, nominations
ceased and Representatives Thompson and Patchett were declared the
nominees for Speaker. When the votes were cast for Speaker, the result



Rep. Thomspon was declared the duly elected Speaker of the House for
a term of two years beginning today.

On motion by Rep. Carlton, seconded by Rep. Harris, the Chair
appointed Representatives Upchurch, Carpenter, R. C. Johnson, Allen,
and Mills as a committee to escort Rep. Thompson and his family to the
rostrum. Judge Willis administered the Oath of Office to the Speaker.

The Chair presented the following family members and friends: Mrs.
Thompson's parents, Mr. and Mrs. Levi Messer from Bonifay; her
brothers and families-Ralph Messer, his wife Betty, and their children
Melody and Christopher, Roy Messer and his wife Donna; Charla Ford
and Grady Peacock, family friends; the Speaker's sister Joanne, her
husband Dr. Edward M. Mason and their daughter Nicki, from Atlanta,
Georgia; and his brother Alexander, and wife Gail, and their daughters,
Melinda and Beverly, from Gretna. The Chair then presented the
Speaker's wife, Carolyn, and their children, Jason, James, and Lee Ann.

Mr. Moffitt handed to Mr. Thompson the gavel signifying his authority
and then presented him as the new Speaker of the House of
Representatives. The committee escorted Mrs. Thompson and children
back to their seats.
Rep. Thompson, in accepting the gavel, said: "The first thing I always
have to do after Lee Moffitt speaks is raise the microphone to a
power-forward level rather than a point-man level. [laughter] Lee, I want
to say again today what I said yesterday, that I cherish the honor that you
bestowed upon me in making me your Rules Chairman. I guess I've
enjoyed that role as much as I've enjoyed anything that I've done in the
Florida House of Representatives, which has been my life and our
family's life for, I guess, ten years now.
"I want to say a special word of thanks to Herb Morgan and to James
Ward and to Tom Gustafson. Herb, I'm glad I didn't have to nominate you
because I don't believe I could have handled it quite as well as you did for
me and I appreciate our friendship. James, it goes without saying, the
many hours we've spent together with our families have been a great
source of pleasure to us all. Tom Gustafson and Lynn, looking forward to a
great future with you as you add to your family.
"I would like to say a special word of thanks today to Judge Willis.
When I saw him as I walked in here, I couldn't help but think that over the
last few years, I hadn't seen him much. He is the Chief Circuit Court
Judge in this circuit and I practiced before him an awful lot, but my
practice before him has been dwindling somewhat as I visited you around
the state, so it was a pleasure to see him today because it reminded me of
more lucrative times. [laughter] But, for your information, Judge Willis
grew up in Quincy and has his roots solidly there, although he has lived in
Leon County most of his adult life. But it's a great honor for me to have
you come and help us out this morning. We appreciate it very much.
"And my relatives and friends-you know you couldn't dwell on that
very long without getting a little emotional either-so let me just say
that, first of all, that it's been alluded to already that women will have
important positions in the House over the next two years and one of the
reasons for that is my personal history in respect for the women who have
been in my life. My mother, of course, was a strong person. My sister
taught me to read on a third grade level before I started the first grade
and gave me money when I went to college and still gives me money if I
ask for it. [laughter] I'm going to pay her back one of these days-hit a big
case, you understand. [laughter] And, of course, Carolyn and our
family-you know how we feel about that and you wouldn't want to dwell
on that much in the situation I'm in right now. But I did say one thing
yesterday that she's waited long and stayed up many nights waiting on
me to call and come home while I was with you and the reception took too
long or the airplane was running late or whatever it was, she's been there
when I needed her and I appreciate it. I want to thank Carolyn's family for
being so supportive through the years. And my neighbor, Grady Peacock,
who picked up when my parents died ten years ago and did all the things
that you would expect family to do for you.
"Now the only thing that I think I need to say at this point-because a

little bit later on, I want to get into what we'll be trying to look forward to
in the next couple of years-is that I want to serve you as your Speaker.

I've worked hard to do it and to prepare myself for that task and I believe
that if we all operate with a sense of fairness, a sense of respect for each
other and particularly for the people we represent-and the way we do
that is just work hard and long and sincerely-that we will accomplish
great things over the next two years. At any rate, we'll do the best that we
can. Thank you."

Election of the Speaker pro tempore

The Speaker announced that nominations would now be received for
Speaker pro tempore of the House of Representatives for a two-year term
beginning today.

Remarks by Rep. Bell

Rep. Bell nominated the Honorable Elaine Gordon for Speaker pro
tempore with the following remarks:

Mr. Speaker Thompson, Mr. Speakers Moffitt, Haben, Tucker, and
whoever else there might be over there, honored guests, colleagues,
friends: It is understandable that Mr. McEwan could be confused in this
process, particularly on a day when Democrats are quoting Abraham
Lincoln and Republicans are quoting Bobby Kennedy, [laughter] and it's
probably going to get worse from the looks of it.

I am honored to have been asked to make this nomination today. In this
age of Sally Ride and Geraldine Ferraro and Jeane Kirkpatrick, there's
probably a temptation to look upon this nomination and election of Elaine
Gordon as Speaker pro tempore of the Florida House of Representatives
as a symbolic event. To a casual observer, today's events will constitute
another important step for women as a prominent woman's advocate
becomes the first woman Speaker pro tempore of the Florida House of
Representatives. However, for those of us who know, this is much more
than a symbolic event. Elaine Gordon is not "just another pretty face";
she is a Complete Legislator.

You know, in recent years, and certainly in the past few months, the
press has attempted to place labels on many of us-Conservative North
Florida Democrat; Liberal South Florida Republican [laughter]; Femi-
nist Advocate, and the like. I think it's very difficult, however, for these
labels to be placed on any of us. And I think Elaine Gordon is the perfect
example of how difficult it is to label a legislator, put him in a slot, and
expect that typical knee-jerk reaction based upon the label.

Elaine Gordon is a liberal supporter of social issues and a strenuous
advocate for funding to help the weak, the helpless, the sick, and those in
need. And yet, as Chairman of the Appropriations Subcommittee for
HRS, she proved to be a tight-fisted balancer of the budget and exercised
considerable fiscal restraint, and insisted on full accountability in every

Elaine Gordon is certainly the champion of the underdog, a fighter for
those who are oppressed, and yet Elaine, as a hard-nosed businesswoman,
practices all those principles of hard work, perseverance, and drive
which would make Adam Smith proud.

Elaine Gordon is tenacious, tough, aggressive. As a matter of fact,
many of us in this Chamber wear the scars of battles that we have had
with Elaine. Her courage has enabled her to stand virtually alone on the
floor of this House to fight for issues that she believed in. And yet, no one
in this House has more compassion and more tenderness for the feelings
of others than Elaine. Elaine's caring concern for both groups and
individuals is a hallmark of her legislative career. It is well known that
Elaine Gordon will/always listen and always care.

Elaine Gordon is unquestionably a woman and has always been a
champion for women's causes, sometimes almost to a fault. And yet she is
also one of the boys. Her hearty sense of humor and love of life makes it
appear easy for her to blend into an atmosphere that was once the
all-male domain of backroom politics.

Elaine Gordon is a recognized and successful politician, office holder
and business person. She has excelled in all of her careers. Yet she has


November 20, 1984


also been a good and caring mother who has raised three children who
have become successful in their own right.

Elaine is a great role model for young women and for young men.
Elaine is a positive-thinking, forward-looking, upbeat person who wears
so very well over the years.

Elaine Gordon is our friend and it is with a great deal of honor that I
nominate Elaine Gordon as Speaker pro tempore of the Florida House of

Remarks by Rep. Burnsed

Rep. Burnsed seconded the nomination of Rep. Gordon for Speaker pro
tempore with the following remarks:

Mr. Speaker Thompson, all other former Mr. Speakers and future Mr.
Speakers--there are so many in the room-colleagues, families, guests:
Today is truly an historic day for each of us and will have a very special
place in memory in each of our hearts. But, for Florida and for this House
of Representatives, it is truly historic as we do elect the first woman
Speaker pro tempore of the Florida House of Representatives.

Eight years ago, as I sat in the old House Chamber for my first
Organizational Session, if anyone had suggested that I would stand
before you today and second the nomination of Elaine Gordon, I would
have suggested that you were in the wrong orbit. For my first encounter
with Elaine, we did not reach instant rapport. [laughter] As a freshman
in 1976, the only thing I knew about Elaine Gordon was what I had seen
in the newspaper, and that was that she was a "flaming liberal." And then
in my first committee meeting, of which Elaine was the Chair, I
proceeded to call her "Madame Chairman" and then I further added
insult to injury and lighted a cigarette. [laughter] But after this quick,
rocky beginning, I got to know and respect Elaine Gordon. So it is truly
with pride that I do second this nomination of my very close, my best
friend in the Florida Legislature.

But what new and different can I tell you about Elaine Gordon? She's
been in the papers for years. Elaine has made headlines from Key West to
Pensacola. But you know when I think about the newspapers, I think of
more than the headlines, and that's the way I think about Elaine
Gordon-more than just the headlines. I tried to draw an analogy of
Elaine and the newspapers, and I don't mean it as comic relief, but I'd like
to relate Elaine to the page that has the puzzles; sometimes it's the comics
page, but there are a lot of puzzles on that newspaper page. She's like the
"Word Scramble"; you figure out the answers to the questions and you're
amazed. Figuring out Elaine is like the Word Scramble, for her likes and
dislikes aren't always what;they seem on the surface. Also on the puzzle
page you have the "Cryptogram." All those jumbled letters baffle you for
"awhile, and then when you get the right combination, it all makes sense.
Elaine Gordon is like the Cryptogram. Then there's the "Word Search"
puzzle, and in searching for words you find that Elaine Gordon is caring;
she's a transplanted Floridian; she's a most successful business woman;
she's a liberal; she's a conservative; she's funny; she's loyal; she's
courageous; she works hard; she plays hard; she likes oysters; she's
compassionate; she's committed; she's hard as nails; she's a devoted
mother; she's emotional; she's stubborn; she's a giving person; she's a
gourmet and yet she's often seen eating a strange assortment of food. She
even shares her halvah, the Democratic Jewish Dade County substitute
for jelly beans. [laughter] She'll fool you; the areas you think she'll
support she won't, and vice versa. She loves to go fishing; she's creative;
she loves Pam, Seth and Brian; but most of all, the word search reveals
that this great lady seeks and finds that which is right.

Therefore, I proudly second the nomination of Elaine Gordon for
Speaker pro tempore of the Florida House of Representatives.

Remarks by Rep. Davis

Rep. Davis seconded the nomination of Rep. Gordon for Speaker pro
tempore with the following remarks:

November 20, 1984

and possessions in a covered wagon, fighting uneven odds in order to
discover a new terrain and a new life.

In the past two years, she has chaired the Appropriations Subcommit-
tee of HRS where her fair-minded consideration of the human service


Mr. Speaker Thompson, Mr. Speaker Moffitt (whom we will all miss),
colleagues and friends and families: A few of these remarks some of you
have heard before, but I have been told that they merited repetition and
so some of you will hear them again.

Unlike Representative Bell, I believe that this year of 1984 is a
watershed year in American political life, when women took their
rightful place in the leadership roles of this country. I was first elected ten
years ago and when I was, one of the greatest honors to me was to know
that I was actually a colleague of a woman I had seen for years traveling
throughout the state, pricking the conscience of women everywhere,
articulating the inequities that existed in their lives, and providing
avenues and redress for their frustrations and their silent suffering.

Within a year, through a series of circumstances, she became the first
woman to chair a substantive committee of the House of Representatives,
the multifaceted committee of HRS, and through her arduous and
perservering efforts, she steered the passage of 33 pieces of legislation
through the House. What did she do? She alleviated the problems of the
homeless and the sick elderly; the deplorable conditions in our mental
institutions; the warehouses that were our Sunland Centers; the
limitations of building, street, and transportation requirements which
served as daily impediments to normal life for our physically
handicapped. As the prime sponsor of the Equal Rights Amendment and
of the Human Rights Act, she has been the particular target of the slings
and arrows of those who will always resist change, but she has responded
to these denigrators with her innate sense of humor and her courage.
Courage, Hemingway said, is the ability to face adversity with
graciousness. And this courage has earned her the attention and respect
of friend and foe alike.

In 1978, when she became Chair of House Administration, one of her
first steps was to raise legislative office requirements, eliminating the
reimbursement, eliminating the intricate reporting system which was
not required by the IRS. When she was denied a chairmanship by the
following leadership, she faced it with her usual characteristic smile and
worked that much harder for the causes of social justice and human
dignity. She is a mirror, and what she reflects are the faces of the women
of past, present, and future-the women who battled for the right to vote;
the women who fought against the bonds of slavery; and the immigrant
women who worked in the sweatshops and who sought the constitutional
freedom of voice and action. These are the strong women that she reflects
from our nation's past. In the present, she reflects still more faces on the
American scene-Betty Friedan, Barbara Jordan, Betty Ford. She is the
old cleaning woman coming home with her shopping bag and tired body
on the bus at 3:00 a.m.; she's the victim of an unwanted pregnancy who
needs another alternative to a coat hanger in a filthy back room; she's the
cancer victim too poor to have her pain-wracked body diagnosed in time;
she is the abused woman beaten by her husband, who is trapped in a
no-exit vise; she is the rape victim who will never forget the nightmare.
For all these women she has provided nurture and assistance by passing
legislation that has eliminated much of their suffering. She's the black
woman bound to an urban ghetto, who must provide economic support
and emotional strength to her children. And how well Elaine knows this,
for personally she has struggled to support her three children almost
single-handedly. She knows that there are many times that you call on all
your physical resources and you pray that you still have them, when
sometimes just staying alive is a victory. She knows, too, all the lonely
nights when you don't know what tomorrow will bring. And so she can
speak so well for all the single-parent families in Florida. But she has
been rewarded in her struggles by her children's fine academic
achievements and current professional attainment, as we see their
glowing faces in this room today. She's the mirror of the woman who runs
the household, who attempts to budget an ever-dwindling income, she
reflects the many women secretaries and clerical workers who keep our
businesses and corporations and government running; she shows the
same strengths and virtues of the pioneer woman, organizing her family


needs of this state has garnered accolades from considerable competing
interests, who have recognized her painstaking efforts to be impartial
and equitable in handling her committee's appropriations responsibili-
ties. At the same time, she has chaired two other subcommittees and she's
served on three other committees. In the past two years she has received
eight awards for her dedication to human services. She has also been
named by the Florida Women's Committee of 100 for outstanding
legislative achievement. She is the only legislator who appears in the
"Florida Women's Hall of Fame. She was selected by the Gantt Report as
one of the ten most outstanding legislators in Florida, and I think her
most auspicious recognition came when she received an honorary degree
of laws from Barry University, so Mr. Speaker, we have another attorney
in this audience. Her leadership and support in the creation of quality
rehabilitative and treatment programs for children has been recognized
by the naming of the Elaine Gordon Treatment Center at South Florida
State Hospital.

Elaine Gordon's ascendancy to the Speakership pro tem, I agree with
Sam, is not a symbol, but it is a breakthrough. She isn't just one woman;
she is the collective dreams of many women and the promised future of
our nation's daughters. Through the tears and the tremendous energy of
yesterday's and today's woman, she is a prophetic mirror-the looking
glass of women who will be doctors, lawyers, corporation presidents and,
yes, even the Presidency. She has given to politics perception, sensitivity,
and compassion. She forecast for us all the women who will succeed in the
future. Her courage and vitality are the sparks that will unite a new
society of prosperity, equality, peace and love, where the American
woman is no longer a second-class citizen and where she shares fifty-fifty
in the benefits and beauty of America.

And so it is with sincere homage, at this great milestone of our state's
history, due to the all-encompassing understanding and recognition of
her talents by Speaker Thompson, I have the privilege and honor to
second the nomination of Representative Elaine Gordon.

Remarks by Rep. Dunbar

Rep. Dunbar nominated the Honorable Betty Easley for Speaker pro
tempore with the following remarks:

Mr. Speaker, Members of the House, guests: It was two weeks ago today
that from around Florida the voters of this state picked those of us in this
Chamber to set the policy of this state for the next two years.
Representative Patchett said it well yesterday-it is our time in
history-and one of the first things that we must do is pick those who will
lead us during our time so that our decisions will be the right ones and,
because they are important and because they affect so many, the qualities
of our leaders must reflect that. To hold such a position of leadership in
this House requires a special dedication and special qualities: the
qualities of compassion, and confidence, and courage, the qualities of
leadership and a concern for Florida and all of its citizens-the most
important qualities that will earn you the respect of the colleagues that
you seek to lead. Betty Easley is such a person and it is my pleasure to
nominate her as the Speaker pro tempore of this House.

It's kind of interesting because, as I listened to Sam Bell and the others
that followed, in their nominations of Elaine Gordon, it really didn't
dawn on me the significance that both major parties today would offer--a
woman in a position of leadership in this House. Maybe that is some
enlightenment on my part or maybe it is the sign of something truly new,
because I've known Betty and want to nominate Betty, because as a
Member of this House since 1972 she has become one of Florida's most
distinguished leaders, man or woman, male or female.

She has served as Chairman of the Republican Caucus; as the
Delegation Chairman for the Pinellas Delegation, which is Florida's
third largest. During her 12 years in this House she has been honored on
43 separate occasions with awards of merit, the Legislative Leaders

Award and, in 1981, one that is particularly special, the Allen Morris
Award for the most effective in committee by all of her colleagues,
Republican and Democrat. There is some significance in that also,
because she was the first woman to be so honored. She was also the first
Republican to be so honored.



She has distinguished herself well beyond the boundaries of Florida
and the confines of these Chambers and the committee rooms. Since 1976
she has held an office in the National Order of Women Legislators and in
1982-83 was honored to serve as their national president. She's active in
activities of the National Conference of State Legislatures and in 1983
was named Legislator of the Year by the National Republican Legislators

She's a mother of four and a grandmother of two, and in a lot of ways I
think she has been honored by her colleagues for her compassion, her
attention to us, her willingness to help, because I think to the remaining
119 of us she is also the House Mother, a term meant with strong affection
for someone who gives good quality of leadership and compassion. She is
our honored colleague, she is my friend. It is my honor to nominate Betty
Easley for Speaker pro tem of this House.

Remarks by Rep. Gallagher

Rep. Gallagher seconded the nomination of Rep. Easley with the
following remarks:

Mr. Speaker and Members of the House, it gives me pleasure to be up
here to second the nomination of Betty Easley to be Speaker pro tem of the
Florida House. You know, this time we're going to have a woman be
Speaker pro tem of the Florida House. When I first got here we had a
woman Minority Leader pro tem who is now Senator, Senator Grizzle.
She didn't win the election; I don't know why, but I guess she was in the
"other party". But this year we have a chance and we're going to see a
woman be Speaker pro tem. I'm very proud that our nominee, Betty
Easley, can stand up among all the women of this state and is well
recognized in the things that she's done in this House as far as education
is concerned, as far as the many issues that we've had over the ten and
twelve years in finance and tax, and all of the major pieces of legislation
that we've worked together on, both Democrat and Republican, for the
people of this state. As many of you know, Betty Easley is a mother, quite
a fisherman, and quite a friend to all of us here. As you know, there's
probably not a more dedicated, caring, or mother-type individual than
Betty Easley is in this House.

With that, I'd like to second the nomination of Betty Easley to be
Speaker pro tem of the Florida House.

Remarks by Rep. Ros

Rep. Ros seconded the nomination of Rep. Easley with the following

Mr. Speaker, Members of the House, and distinguished guests: It is my
pleasure to second the nomination of Representative Betty Easley, a
legislator who has been a trail blazer for women in Florida politics.
Representative Easley truly represents all that is good in a public
servant: fairness, a sense ofjustice, diplomacy, expertise, and dedication,
and none of these is the exclusive domain of either sex. Representative
Easley has been at the forefront of the budget battles, and her hard work
on the Appropriations Committee has kept alive the words "fiscal
accountability." Taxpayers throughout the State of Florida are relieved
to know that a no-nonsense type of legislator like Representative Betty
Easley is carefully watching over state spending.

Because of her efforts, women in Florida politics are now recognized for
their leadership roles on all issues. That is why I am so proud to second
the nomination of our future statewide officer, Representative Betty

On motion by Rep. Hodges, seconded by Rep. Hollingsworth,
nominations ceased and Representatives Gordon and Easley were
declared the nominees for Speaker pro tempore. When the votes were cast
for Speaker pro tempore, the result was:



The Chair
Brown, C.
Brown, T. C.

Hawkins, L. R.
Johnson, B. L.
Johnson, R. C.
Jones, C. F.

Rep. Gordon was recorded present



Hawkins, M. E.


Jones, D. L.

Thomas, J.

Thomas, D. L.

Rep. Easley was recorded present.

Rep. Gordon was declared the duly elected Speaker pro tempore for a
term of two years beginning today.

On motion by Rep. Burke, seconded by Rep. Metcalf, Representatives
Kutun, Kelly, Tobin, Wetherell, and C. Brown were appointed as a
committee to escort Rep. Gordon and her family to the rostrum. Judge
Willis administered the Oath of Office to the Speaker pro tempore.

The Speaker presented the Speaker pro tempore's family: Freda
Weitzman, her mother and David Weitzman, brother; daughter Pam
Gadinsky and husband Michael Snyder; and her sons, Brian and Seth
Gadinsky. Arthur Pearlman, friend, was also presented.

Remarks by Speaker pro tempore

The Speaker presented the new Speaker pro tempore, who addressed
the House as follows:

Thank you. I really thought I would hold up. And for a minute there I
thought maybe James Harold had changed his mind. He didn't vote for
me and I thought oh-oh. [laughter] I shook a little bit when Betty Easley's
name went up on the board. I thought, "I'm in trouble."

I do want to say that the Republicans chose the best person, in my
opinion, that they could have for their leader. Betty and I were elected at
the same time, in '72, and despite our difference in party we have never
really differed about what the future of Florida needs and what we felt we
could give it. She's been my very close friend and ally on many, many
issues, and I am delighted, Betty, that you are going to be a leader in your
party at the same time that I'm going to be a leader in mine.

I want to thank all of my friends that were speaking from the heart
today. I know it's very difficult to express the gratitude to such really good

friends, and especially to understand that nobody gets here alone. No one.
I have friends here that probably most of you don't even realize are
friends of mine from a long, long time ago. Herb talked about it yesterday
at the Caucus, us knowing one another from before he became an elected
Representative, to Speaker Don Tucker whom I consider my mentor. Of
all people, at that particular time and place, he understood that hard
working women deserved just as much leadership and respect as a
colleague as men did. At a very controversial time, and being from North
Florida, he was willing to put his faith in somebody like me. And there are
just so many others. I can't mention them all, but just for all of you to
know that I remember and love every single one of you and that you are a
part of what this office that I am about to undertake is, too.

My children-what can I say? You know, every time Helen (Davis)
talks about my children is when I really let go. When I first decided to run
for office I had to ask them, because it meant that they were the ones that
were going to have to sacrifice because of this. They said, "Absolutely,
Mom, go to it. We'll be with you a hundred percent of the way." And they
have been with me a hundred percent of the way. They have never
disappointed me, and I hope that I will never disappoint them. My mother
is a strong woman, and all of the things that Helen (Davis) said about me
should be said about my mother. She, too, struggled, had to work hard, as
James Harold's mother, and Herb's. I think it's one of the things that
links us. I think that we all come from different parts of the world, but not
from different parts of how we were brought up and what our value
system is.

And that's what makes it a great state to be in, because we can all
recognize our similarities and put aside our differences, which are very,
very small indeed in terms of what it is that we want to accomplish. Just
looking out here now at the diversity in terms of color, in terms of
socio-economic diversity, in terms of the differences in our sexes, and
even in differences of some of the languages that we have as a second
language. It's a wonderful place to be and I'm so looking forward to
serving with all of you. I want you to know that I am terribly honored and
very humbled by the honor bestowed on me today, and I will quote from
my source of strength, Susan B. Anthony, who said, "Failure is
impossible," and vaya con dios.

Election of the Clerk

The Speaker announced that nominations would now be received for
Clerk of the House of Representatives for a term, under Rule 1.3, of two
years from this date.

Remarks by Rep. Gustafson

Rep. Gustafson nominated Dr. Allen Morris for Clerk with the
following remarks:

Mr. Speaker, Members of the House, friends, honored guests: So much
has been said about Dr. Allen Morris over the years as Clerk of the House
of Representatives. His early years in the newspaper business, his role as
consultant to the Committee on Rules & Calendar, his position as Clerk of
the House, have often been specifically referred to on the floor of this
House and I've often wondered where the body of oral history came from.
Well now I know. When I was asked to nominate Dr. Morris, I consulted
with him as to how best to present these remarks. He gave me the
comments of prior nominators and, after explaining them closely to me, I
found that they were, with few changes, identical from year to year. And
it dawned on me that each year, each Member nominating Dr. Morris had
started researching the nominating speech the same way I did. And, like
Representative Burnsed, who has preceded me on many of these
speeches, I began to wonder what new material could be found, so I began
to look for what other facts could be added to the nominating speech. I
looked and I looked and I looked, but I did not find anything new to
discuss. Dr. Morris writes the history of the House, and if there is any new
material anywhere, he has buried it where we will never find it
[laughter]-except that each day each one of us witnesses his

capabilities, his wisdom, his wit, and each day he newly earns our deep
respect. For now, I only want to follow his first directive that he gave me:
keep it short, keep it simple, and don't get sloppy. [laughter]

November 20, 1984



I hope that every Member, and certainly every freshman Member
desiring more information will consult the House Journal at each
Organization Session since 1966 when Dr. Morris began his tenure as
Clerk. Or better yet, do what so many of us have already done: stop by the
Clerk's Office, introduce yourself, read the chalk board of quotes to
remember, get to know, love and respect the finest Clerk of any House of
Representatives anywhere. Mr. Speaker, with a great deal of affection
and admiration, I wish to nominate Dr. Allen Morris for Clerk of the
Florida House of Representatives.

Remarks by Rep. Easley

Rep. Easley seconded the nomination of Dr. Morris for Clerk with the
following remarks:

Mr. Speaker, Madame Speaker pro tem, past Mr. Speakers, ladies and
gentlemen: At least Allen has proven today that he is definitely
bipartisan, or nonpartisan, or partisan. He gave the same instructions
to me that he gave to Tom Gustafson-short, simple, and not sloppy.

Most of us tend to regard Dr. Morris as existing solely for the benefit of
the Legislature, and most certainly for the benefit of this House. After all,
he's the only person alive who can recite from memory the Rules and all of
the Precedents.

We forget that since his long career as journalist he has served each of
the three branches of state government. He was among the founding
members of the Judicial Council. In the Executive Department he was
Vice Chairman of the State Advertising Commission, Secretary of the
Industrial Development Council, and Secretary of the Council of
Economic Development, all the forerunners of the present Department of
Commerce. He has served on the State Library Board and currently is a
member of its successor board. Beginning in 1947, he served as
consultant to the Committee on Rules & Calendar, as codifier of the
rules, and deputy to the then Clerk. He became Clerk July 1, 1966.

He's an author, publisher, and historian nonpareil. Allen Morris is an
adviser, a counselor, an arbiter, and a good friend. It is my honor and
privilege to second the nomination of the very distinguished Dr. Allen
Morris as Clerk of the Florida House of Representatives.

On motion by Rep. T. C. Brown, seconded by Rep. C. F. Jones,
nominations ceased and a unanimous vote was cast for Dr. Allen Morris
as Clerk of the House. Dr. Morris went to the rostrum where Judge Willis
administered the Oath of Office to him.

Remarks by Dr. Morris

Dr. Morris responded, "Thank you, Representative Gustafson and
Representative Easley. Mr. Speaker Thompson, Mr. Speaker Moffitt,
Judge Willis, Members of the House of Representatives and friends: One
of my associates has done some counting and tells me this is my 98th
Regular and Special Legislative Session. Yes, the 98th. That's the
administrations of 21 Speakers. Each new House is a fresh start so service
here, as a Member or as a staffer, need never become stale. So I am truly
grateful to you for returning me to the House which has been my home for
43 eventful years. Thank you again."

Designation of Sergeant at Arms

The Speaker announced the designation of Mr. Wayne Westmark as
Sergeant at Arms and requested the consent of the House. On motion by
Rep. Messersmith, seconded by Rep. Hargrett, the House consented to the
designation of Mr. Westmark as Sergeant at Arms. Mr. Westmark went
to the rostrum where Judge Willis administered the Oath of Office to him.


In acknowledgment, Mr. Westmark said, "Mr. Speaker, at the Caucus
yesterday in Gretna, I acknowledged my designation there with a simple
'Thank you,' and somebody suggested that I cut that speech in half and I
will. Thanks."


Committee to the Governor

On motion by Rep. Lewis, seconded by Rep. Lehtinen, the Speaker
appointed Representatives Selph, Meffert, Figg, Gardner, Peeples, and
Smith as a committee to inform the Governor that the House was

Committee to the Senate

On motion by Rep. Bass, seconded by Rep. Stewart, the Speaker
appointed Representatives Titone, Arnold, Abrams, D. L. Jones, B. L.
Johnson, and Press as a committee to inform the Senate that the House
was organized.

The committees were excused to execute their responsibilities.

Consideration of House Resolution

By Representative Morgan-

HR 1-Org.-A resolution establishing the Rules of the House of

Be It Resolved by the House of Representatives of the State of Florida:

The Rules of the House for the biennium of 1984-1986 shall be the
Rules of the House in force at the end of the 1984 Regular Session, except
as provided now or hereafter:

(a) Rule 6.1 is amended to read:

The Speaker shall, beginning with the Organization Session, appoint
the members of the following standing committees:

Community Affairs
Corrections, Probation & Parole
Criminal Justice
Education, K-12
Ethics & Elections
Finance & Taxation
Governmental Operations
Health & Rehabilitative Services
Health Care & Insurance
Higher Education
House Administration
Natural Resources
Regulated Industries & Licensing
Regulatory Reform
Retirement, Personnel & Collective Bargaining
Rules & Calendar
Tourism & Economic Development
Veterans Affairs

(b) Rule 7.19 is amended to read:

Reviser's bills are nonsubstantive bills initiated by the Joint
Legislative Management Committee pursuant to section 11.242 for one
of the following purposes:

(a) To conform the statutory language to an implied amendment that

occurred as a result of previous legislation.

(b) To purge the Florida Statutes of obsolete or redundant provisions.

(c) To correct errors of typography or format.


Reviser's bills shall always be introduced by the Committee on Rules &
Calendar which may request prior review by another substantive
committee. They shall be submitted as soon as possible prior to or during
each legislative session.

Except with the approval of the Committee on Rules & Calendar,
reviser's bills may be amended only by making deletions.

(c) Rule 8.4 is amended to read:

All bills whether House or Senate, shall be referred by the Speaker to
an appropriate committee except when the bill is being introduced by a
House committee whose jurisdiction embraces the subject of the bill or, if
a Senate bill, the House committee already has a companion bill on the
House Calendar. In such event, said bill shall be referred to the Calendar
or to the Committees on Appropriations or Finance & Taxation as
provided in Rule 8.8. Reviser's bills received from the Senate shall be
referred to the Committee on Rules & Calendar.

All bills affecting public retirement systems shall be referred to the
Committee on Retirement, Personnel & Collective Bargaining. If an
amendment affecting a public retirement system is adopted after having
been offered either from the floor or by a reporting committee other than the
Committee on Retirement, Personnel & Collective Bargaining or a fiscal
impact committee, then the bill with amendment may, at the discretion of
the Speaker, be referred to the Committee on Retirement, Personnel &
Collective Bargaining and, if appropriate, to a fiscal impact committee.

(d) Rule 11.13 is amended to read:

11.13-Appropriate Amendments;-Amendments to Reviser's Bills

Whenever an amendment is offered to the general appropriations bill
which would increase any line item of said bill, such amendment shall
show the amount by line item of the increase and shall decrease a line
item or items in an amount equivalent to or greater than the increase
required by the amendment.

Except with the approval of the Committee On Rules & Calendar,
revised' bills may be .a mended ly by making deletions.

(e) Rule 11.15 is created to read:

11.15-All Amendments Shall Be Transmitted

Amendments adopted by all committees of reference (except those
incorporated in a committee substitute) shall accompany a bill when filed
with the Clerk of the House. No committee shall physically remove an
amendment adopted by a prior committee. Instead, there may be adopted
nullifying language as an amendment to the amendment or as a substitute
for the amendment.

-was read the first time by title. On motions by Rep. Morgan, the rules
were waived and the resolution was read the second time by title and

Waiver of Rules for Committee Meetings

On motion by Rep. Morgan, the rules were waived to allow committees
to formally meet during the week of December 3 through 5 with 5:00 p.m.,
Monday, November 26 as the deadline for filing notices. He further stated
that committees meeting for workshop sessions only, need not file

Address by Speaker Thompson

The Speaker addressed the House as follows:

This is the part of our session this morning where I am to make a few
comments, and I'm sorry for you having to sit there so long and being so

enduring. If you will just endure with me a little longer, it won't take too
long. I'm reminded, Judge Willis, of your former colleague whom I began

November 20, 1984

Florida House has spent more time, gathered more money, or worked
harder to get his people and his majority party elected. But that's over
now, and our mission and role is that Representative Patchett,
Representative Gordon, Representative Easley, and I have a responsibili-
ty to lead you toward fairness for all, and to end up in every situation that


to practice law under, Judge Hugh Taylor of this circuit, who said that
two of the most important requirements for a good judge were to have a
big bladder and be able to sleep with his eyes open. [laughter] That is a
requirement for legislators this morning, and I apologize for that, so I'll
try to keep my remarks brief but I have prepared some.

The first thing I would like to do is to continue my gratitude for the
people who have worked with me through the years, especially my Aide
Wanda Hanna, and Fred Breeze and Myra Mathis, and now Litty
Harnett, and all the people on the staff here in the House of
Representatives that served while I served as chairman of various

The second thing I want to do is continue the line of thought I had a few
moments ago, and I won't dwell on this because-well, I'll say it this
way-very little has been left unsaid about Representative Elaine
Gordon. The only thing I'd like to say is that after we worked our way to
the point that we did about the first of this year and we began to sit down
and make decisions, the thing that we came up with, the two
characteristics that we were looking for in our leadership team were
talent and commitment. I can't think of anything that really
characterizes her any more than those two words-talent and commit-
ment. She is real, she is a real part of this Speakership and will be a great
asset for the State of Florida, and I'm looking forward to working with her
the next two years.

The other thing I wanted to mention was to my good friend and
colleague, the guy that has worked with me as I chaired Natural
Resources and has worked on the issues through the years and has, to
some extent, the same background that I have, love for nature that I have
and that we share, Representative Dale Patchett. Representative
Patchett will be a great leader for the Minority Party over the next two
years. Our contests are now over, now that we have settled who will serve
and who will serve in the various roles in the House, and we will from this
day go forward in that relationship on a unified basis.

The first thing I wanted to mention to you about what we do in the next
two years is, basically, I wanted to mention several things regarding the
way we do business, because most of you know, and you've heard me say
before, that I respect the system more than I do the issues. The issues will
prevail if they are right and correct and just. The system will make them
prevail. And so I don't believe we should violate our system for short-term
gain because I think that would equate into long-term pain.

The first part of our system that I'm very interested in is openness, not
just accessibility to the public, which is of great importance to me, but
also I want the House and this process to be as open and as accessible as
possible to every citizen in our state. That doesn't just mean to me
accessibility in the literal sense. It means conducting this process in a
way that encourages the individual citizens to feel like they are
participants in their government. They need to know that they are
listened to in this House, and I hope you will join me in the next two years
in assuring the public of that.

There are a lot of aspects to the position of being a legislator, a lot of
different interests that we have to listen to. But it is the people that we
represent. We are their employees; we are their servants; we are their
representative voices. As Benjamin Franklin said, "In free governments
the rulers are the servants and the people their superiors and
sovereigns." It's our responsibility to make sure that your constituent,
who works all day and then goes out and coaches a little league team, or
teaches all day and then attends a PTA meeting that night, feels like his
voice is heard here in this House of Representatives. I'm going to do the
best that I can to be sure that they feel that they're heard in that manner.

The second thing I want to talk about, as far as the way we do business,
is fairness. As I've said, I guess in about three different speeches
yesterday, the war is over. I don't believe any Speaker in the history of the


we can in a unified configuration. I urge each of you, Democrat and
Republican alike, to join me in searching for answers to the issues that
will face us. We're going to disagree over these issues at times, and that's
good because it ensures a thorough hearing on all sides, but let's disagree
in a sense of fairness and concern for the individual citizen, and pledge to
work together for a consensus and a compromise.

I want this house to be concerned on an individual basis with people. I
want this House to remember that little league coach; that teacher; that
student; that parent; that employer that borrows a little money, pays a
little interest, hires a few people, and makes our system go; that senior
citizen who has worked all of his or her life and now lives on a fixed
income; or the woman who is pursuing a career and trying to raise a
family in the right way at the same time. I think that, whatever we do, we
should never lose sight of that individual citizen out there, because the
special interests will be well represented and I'm not worried about them;
their voice will be heard. But I am concerned about those people that go
about their business every day, depending on you and me to represent
them here and to carry their torch here, and I hope we'll all remember

The other thing about the way we do business that I'm going to do my
best to accommodate you on is this: decisions have to be made; stands and
positions have to be taken. That's the role of you as leaders in your
communities, and you come here and then you participate in a process
that is governed by leadership rules. I can tell you that when the decision
comes to me and our team, which includes all of us in a bipartisan nature,
we will do just as Representative Easley accuses me of doing, and that is
we will maintain the style of being sweet and nice but at the same time
we'll be firm. I think the public has a right to know where we stand on the
issues, and also the public has a right to expect us to stand on the issues.
We'll do our best to fulfill that obligation.

Some of the issues that I think will be very important I want to discuss
with you very briefly before I get into whom I'm naming to chair the
various committees and how we will approach the issues. The first one is
one that you've heard me discuss throughout the summer and fall and
that is the issue of health care. None of the important issues we will
address is more important to the average person than health care. In 1953
Harry Truman said, "Public health is a peculiar situation. The scientists
have discovered ways to control nearly all the plagues mankind has
suffered from. New medicines such as antibiotics and a host of new drugs
and new scientific equipment are making it possible not only to cure
people but to prolong human life. But the cost for the ordinary person to
get proper treatment is almost prohibitive for people in the middle and
lower income brackets. The very rich can afford them and the very poor
are taken care of by welfare organizations and institutions. The man in
the middle, who is the biggest taxpayer, cannot meet the situation when
members of his family have to go to the hospital and stay there." Things
haven't changed very much since 1953, have they? We'll try to make a

If we're going to adequately address this problem, we will have to
approach it with the attitude-and you've heard me say this on many
occasions-that nothing is sacred. Somehow we have to see to it that
there are incentives for all of those involved to provide health care at the
level of quality which I think we have a right to expect in this country. So
I ask you to think about alternative methods of delivery of health care,
about the need to return to basics, and about the meaning of the
technological advances experienced in this field.

The second issue that I think will be an issue that will be at the
forefront during the next two years is preservation of our natural
resources-nature. After the health of our citizens, the next issue in
importance is the health of our natural resources. I want you to be
thinking about what we're going to do to keep our air and our water pure,
and to keep the awesome beauty of this state from slipping through our
fingers. We've had a million new residents come into Florida since 1980.
Just about a month ago it was discovered that we have become the sixth

largest state, and we're projected to be the fourth largest by 1988, and the
third largest by the end of the century.

I'm the fifth generation of my family to live in Florida and I'd like to
believe that the next five generations have a right to enjoy what I've
enjoyed. We can't afford to simply react to the types of problems that have
shocked and surprised us in recent years. We need to plan, anticipate, and
do all the things that you would do in your personal and business life to
protect this God-given resource that we have-nature.

The third item that I think will be a priority in any Speaker's
administration whether you want it to or not, and fortunately we all want
it to because every one of you runs taking positions on education. Over the
next two years we will have to re-address the K-12 system, and my hope is
that we can refine what we have begun. I think it's important now that we
do not dilute these programs by succumbing to the temptation to adopt
new large-scale programs. It's time now to evaluate what we've done, to
refine where necessary, and concentrate our efforts toward the goals of

In the area of higher education I think we need to take some of our
successful concepts, such as the Eminent Scholars Program, and expand
and build on those. As I have traveled around the state during the past
year, I received a clear message that business leaders recognize the value
of achieving the kind of excellence in higher education that we've been
talking about for years. They are ready for greater cooperation and
participation. Education and business are directly linked and always will
be. It is crucial that our higher education system be able to respond
rapidly and effectively to population growth in this state and to the needs
of the types of industry that Florida is trying to attract.

Now, in order to address these issues and to work within the House
with a spirit of harmony and unification, I am now going to discuss with
you who will be chairing what committee over the next couple of years. I
want to say before I get into this and before we finish up, that at 3:30
Representative Gordon and I will both be available to discuss with the
press these announcements, and wherever we are on whatever they want
to discuss. That way, immediately after the Organization Session this
morning, we will be able to spend some time with our families and our
friends who have come to see us.

The Majority Leader of the House, as I've already indicated, is
Representative Jon Mills. Jon has distinguished himself during the last
two years through his fight for meaningful environmental legislation
and as Majority Leader he will have an active role in dealing with these
and all of the issues facing our state in the next two years. The Majority
Whip for the next two years will be Representative Ron Silver, a veteran
leader from Dade County, Florida, who will be a great asset to the
Majority Office team. There will be three Deputy Majority Leaders:
Representative Abrams, Representative Reddick, and Representative

The agricultural industry in our state is one that is going through a
state of change and concern to many people. There is a great need now for
public awareness of this vital industry, how it works, and for the public to
begin to realize that agriculture is a resource and not a threat. To carry
that message and to chair that committee I have selected Representative
Sam Mitchell, and Representative Larry Shackelford will serve as Vice

To chair the Committee on Appropriations, I have asked Representa-
tive Sam Bell, a veteran legislator and a person who has the respect of
everyone in this state who knows anything about appropriations or
knows anything about our state's government. The appropriations bill is
the skeleton around which all the programs of government are built and,
as I previously announced, the Chairman will be Sam Bell, Vice
Chairman, Gene Hodges.

Subcommittees for the Appropriations Committee will be as follows:
For the HRS/Criminal Justice Subcommittee, I have asked Representa-
tive Elaine Gordon to serve again, as she has done so capably over the last
two years. The other members of that subcommittee are Representatives
Helen Gordon Davis, Mike Friedman, James Hargrett, Ron Johnson,

Fred Lippman, Elvin Martinez, Hamilton Upchurch, Sid Martin, Frank
Messersmith, Mary Ellen Hawkins.


November 20, 1984


Representative Bud Gardner has shown a particular ability to handle
the large number of agencies that fall under the General Government
Subcommittee, and I have asked him to continue doing his very capable
job in that respect. The other members of his subcommittee are as follows:
Representatives Peter Wallace, Fran Carlton, Barry Kutun, Tom
Gustafson, Gene Hodges, Bolley Johnson, Fred Jones, Carl Ogden, James
Ward, Richard Crotty, and Tom Gallagher.

To oversee the educational progress that we hope to make over the next
two years, and especially the vital and important part of education,
educational funding, I have asked Representative Jon Mills to chair the
Education Subcommittee of the Appropriations Committee. The other
members of that subcommittee are Representatives Bill Clark, Tommy
Hazouri, Carl Carpenter, Beverly Burnsed, Herb Morgan, Steve Pajcic,
Art Simon, Eleanor Weinstock, T. K. Wetherell, and Betty Easley.

The Subcommittee on State Employee Benefits is one of very vital
concern to me and to the state in the next two years. I believe that we have
lost sight of some basic business principles in respect to government
employment. I think we need to go back to the basic understanding there
that people should be dealt with fairly and squarely, that they should be
paid well, and that you should expect a lot out of them. For that delicate
and difficult task I have requested that Representative Gene Hodges
chair that as a standing subcommittee of the Committee on Appropria-
tions. The other members of that subcommittee will be Representatives
Bud Gardner, Elaine Gordon, Jon Mills, Tommy Hazouri, Herb Morgan,
and Tom Gallagher.

There is no doubt that what to do about the child care issue and the
continuing focus on children and youth in our state will be of primary
importance over the next two years. I will be continuing the ad hoc
Committee on Children & Youth which I was fortunate to chair over the
past two years, but since we anticipate much more activity and we need
much more work than I was able to perform there, I have asked one of our
veteran members, Representative Helen Gordon Davis, to chair that
committee, and Representative Alzo Reddick will be Vice Chairman.

The Committee on Commerce is one that will deal with the changing
financial climate in Florida. There are questions being asked about
institutions. There are questions being asked about the whole scheme of
banking throughout our nation. In order to chair this most important
committee, I think a member needs the absolute respect of the House and
of the private sector, in order to speak for the House and to sort out what is
right and what is not right in that respect and give us some sense of
direction. For this difficult task I have selected the first woman
Chairman of a Commerce Committee, Representative Beverly Burnsed,
and Vice Chairman will be Representative Jack Tobin.

The relationship between local governments and state government
will continue to be crucial, especially in the areas of planning and
deciding what to do about the future of Florida. To handle this
relationship and all related matters, I have asked one of the most loyal,
hardworking, and dedicated public servants I've ever known, Represen-
tative Sid Martin, to remain as Chairman of the Committee on
Community Affairs, with help from his Vice Chairman, Representative
Willie Logan.

In the field of corrections there is a constant need to make decisions
which are humane but at the same time effective. To work with this
balance, I have asked Representative Chris Meffert to chair the
Committee on Corrections and to receive help from his Vice Chairman,
Representative Jefferson Reaves.

The Criminal Justice Committee deals with issues which remain at the
top of the list of the people of our state, by every poll imaginable,
particularly among our large senior citizen population. To again chair
this very important committee, I have selected Representative Elvin
Martinez. Vice Chairman is Representative Dick Locke.

As I've said earlier about K-12 education, I see us going through a

period of refinement. I think it's important that we have someone at the
helm with the knowledge of that system and also the ability to help advise

November 20, 1984

will be chaired by Representative James Ward. Representative Ward
brings a unique background, having served on a Water Management
Board and having participated in the considerations of that committee
over the past eight years. To help him in that endeavor I have selected
Representative Bud Bronson to be Vice Chairman.


us as to what is right and what is wrong, or where the smoke screens are.
No one could do that better than our veteran member from the Bold New
City or Florida's First Coast, Representative Tommy Hazouri. He will be
aided very capably by a person who has extensive knowledge in that
respect, Representative Ray Stewart.

Ethics & Elections is a committee that is very important to us all. It is
the place where the standards are set, not only for our conduct, but for the
local officers throughout our state. No other person, I think, could bring to
that job the combination of knowing what local officers need and expect,
and also state officers, more than Representative Joe Allen who will chair
that committee over the next two years. His Vice Chairman will be the
very capable Representative Mary Figg.

The Finance & Taxation Committee will be chaired by Representative
Carl Ogden, as has previously been announced. No matter how we feel
about taxes, they're the basis for the activities of government and the
services that we need to provide for our citizens. Vice Chairman of the
Finance & Tax Committee will be Representative Tom Brown.

Governmental Operations is a committee that can take on many colors,
but the color that I would like to see us inundated with this time is one of
governmental efficiency. Is our government getting the benefit of the
dollars it's investing? Are we doing it wisely? Are we being accountable
enough to the public with our government? I have asked Representative
Barry Kutun to chair this very important committee and to have as his
Vice Chairman, Representative Everett Kelly.

Health and rehabilitative services is the thing that we do in the
legislature and in the state that has to do with human dignity, which is a
fundamental element of any great society. The Health & Rehabilitative
Services Committee needs someone with an understanding of people, as
well as their problems and issues. The Chairman of this committee will be
Representative Ron Johnson. Vice Chairman will be Representative
Steve Press.

The issues that I have discussed in respect to health care, whether it's
cost containment or whether it's medical malpractice, or whatever it is
that will have to do with the reforms that I expect us to propose in the next
two years, will be handled in a new committee that will be entitled Health
Care & Insurance. To chair that committee I have selected Representa-
tive Tom Gustafson, and Vice Chairman of that committee will be
Representative Al Lawson.

Excellence in higher education is a goal of the next two years. To chair
that important undertaking I have asked Representative T. K. Wetherell
to serve as Chairman and Representative Jamerson to serve as Vice

The Chairmanship of House Administration was never intended to be a
popular position, and I'm sure that many of you would agree with that,
but it takes somebody who is willing to make some decisions that are in
the best interest of this body and someone who will help keep us out of
trouble. Who better could we get than Representative Spud Clements to
provide his continued leadership in that position?

The Committee on Judiciary oversees the third branch of government
from the perspective of the House of Representatives and for the
legislature. That's where the people go and meet with their justice, and
that's important. The laws in this area affect people's basic and
fundamental rights and must be carefully and wisely considered.
Knowing that he will do this, I have asked Representative Hamilton
Upchurch to remain as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee and
Representative Jim Burke to serve as Vice Chairman.

I have previously announced that the Natural Resources Committee


The pari-mutuel and beverage industries generate quite a bit of tax
revenue for this state, and their nature requires close and careful
regulation by the state. Every citizen requires the services of the public
utilities regulated by the Public Service Commission. To oversee these
important areas [as Chairman of the Committee on Regulated Industries
& Licensing] I have selected my good friend Representative Carl
Carpenter, in spite of his nominating speech yesterday. [laughter] I will
ask Representative Tom Tobiassen to serve as Vice Chairman of that
important committee.

The Committee on Regulatory Reform implements the Sunset and
Sundown process and makes agencies justify laws already in existence.
The standard that that committee applies is that nothing should be a law,
nothing should be regulated, unless it is for the benefit of the public and
the public alone. To maintain that watchdog attitude and to winnow
through that volume of things that have to be done, I have selected and
asked Representative Fred Lippman to chair that most important
committee again. Representative Corrine Brown will be a fine addition as
Vice Chairman, going through the complex issues that will face us there.

As I said about the Subcommittee on State Employee Benefits, I believe
in the old fashioned attitude of paying our employees well and then
expecting a lot out of them. The key, I think, is fairness, and I've asked
one of the most fair people in the House of Representatives,
Representative Walt Young, to chair that committee [Retirement,
Personnel & Collective Bargaining]. His Vice Chairman will be another
person known for his fairness and competence, Representative Bert

Now, you've probably noticed that this script here is so good that I
couldn't possibly have written it myself. Let me read you what Fred
Breeze wrote about Rules: "Who but Herb Morgan could follow in my
footsteps as Chairman of the Rules Committee?" [laughter] Seriously,
there is no one in the House more capable of handling any chore than my
friend Representative Herb Morgan. The Rules Chairmanship is one that
is in complete concert with the Speaker. The Rules Chairman almost has
to feel what the Speaker feels and what you all feel out there. He can head
off dangerous situations, where we would embarrass ourselves. He can
lead us into situations where we will be proud of ourselves. So, as
previously announced, I have asked Herb to do that. I have also asked
Representative George Crady to be Vice Chairman of that committee.
Representative Morgan and I are counting on his parliamentary
background and ability and his advice and counsel as Vice Chairman of
Rules. You can see where he's sitting, if you want to question his
importance in that subject area.

Our biggest industry in this state is tourism. Florida's a low taxing
state, regardless of what some people accuse us of, and this is largely due,
I believe, to our tourism industry. This area requires innovation and an
understanding of the type of Florida that we have to present to visitors.
For Chairman of Tourism & Economic Development jAiave asked
Representative Fran Carlton, who has done such an outstanding job over
the last two years, to continue to serve. Representative Keith Arnold will
serve as Vice Chairman.

Transportation, as I have mentioned, is a very important thing in our
state, and it will be so important for the future because of the growth rate
of the state. The word "infrastructure" begins with transportation, and
the more you travel in the state and go to the more populous areas, the
more you realize that we can't just pave the peninsula. There have to be
innovative alternatives and there has to be some hard work done on those
alternatives, and it will require thorough and genuine leadership. To
lead us on that most important committee as Chairman over the next two
years, I have selected Representative Steve Pajcic, and to help him, a
person who has labored long and hard on that committee and
understands and knows the issues and has been helpful to so many of us
on them, I have selected Representative Bo Johnson as Vice Chairman.

There are eleven major military installations in Florida and there are
over 1.4 million veterans in Florida, and there are about 4600 veterans

moving into Florida every month. Just over a week ago we saw, on
Veterans Day, that we still have a long way to go in addressing the
problems of our veterans, particularly those of the Vietnam War. To chair

the Committee on Veterans Affairs I have asked Representative Larry
Hawkins to continue his good work and services there. Representative
Peter Deutsch will be Vice Chairman.

When I first came to the legislature, I wanted to be on Appropriations,
just like 120 of you did. No, actually there's one of you that said-I won't
even say if its a he or she-you didn't want to be there, but I'll never tell
anybody because that person obviously would never get re-elected,
according to the rest of you. [laughter] But I couldn't do that, I couldn't go
on Appropriations just then, and then in my second term I wanted to go
on. I had the same Speaker, you know, Speaker Tucker, and he couldn't
put me on but he said, "I'll do something good for you," and so he
announced from the rostrum up here that day what I was going to do. I
was going to chair a Committee on Claims and I would look into the
claims bills with the help of a Special Master and then handle those bills
on the floor. Afterwards I said, "Don, I just don't understand it. I don't
believe you've done me right." He said, "Well, let me tell you this, your
Speaker the last four years did the same thing in his second term." I have
asked Representative Vernon Peeples to take on that chore. It is a chore.
It's hard work but it is rewarding work because, as you know, it deals
directly with the people that you represent, and it's a very important

The next two years will bring us, undoubtedly, great consideration
about one of the most important industries in our state, and that is the
citrus industry. The trust funds sunset, we have a Touche Ross Report
that we will have to look into and, as a matter of fact, we have an
emergency situation right now. To chair a Select Committee on Citrus &
Agricultural Funding I have asked Representative Fred Jones to serve as
Chairman, and Representative Dexter Lehtinen will be the Vice

There will also be a Joint Task Force on Governance of K-12 Education.
I've asked Representative Eleanor Weinstock to continue the fine work
that she did as Chairman of the K-12 Committee the last two years. I have
discussed this matter with Senator Johnston and the Senate is very
concerned about the matter and very willing to work hand-in-glove with
us to try to reach a resolution on this issue. So I think we will be well led in
the House to ask Representative Eleanor Weinstock to chair that most
important committee.

In addition to the House standing committees, there are several
standing joint committees chaired by the House and Senate on a rotating
basis. When it is the House's turn, the Chairmen of those committees will
be as follows: Joint Legislative Management, Representative John
Lewis; Joint Legislative Auditing, Representative Tom Brown; Joint
Administrative Procedures, Representative Ray Liberti; Joint Commit-
tee on Information Technology Resources, Representative Anne Mack-
enzie; and the Advisory Council on Intergovernmental Relations,
Representative Chuck Smith.

Just one or two little internal policies that I would like to discuss with
you before I close. I have tried to determine what I would recommend to
you as far as the eight-bill limit. I've asked a lot of you, I found some
difference of opinion, but I finally came to this resolution: no member of
the House has ever been defeated because of a bill he or she did not file. So,
I would like for us to continue to strive for a limited number of eight bills
and focus our attentions primarily on quality and not quantity.

To the Governor, I would say that we look forward to working with him
in a spirit of cooperation and unity, for the best interests of our state. To
Senator Johnston and his team in the Senate, I can say only that we have
worked so well over the summer in preparing ourselves for what is about
to happen, and for the next two years, that I could not ask for better
cooperation either in spirit or in truth, and I look forward sincerely to
working with him.

Now that we've all had the benefit of my thoughts, it's time to settle
down and get to work. Only 14 of you are freshmen; the other 106 are
veterans of at least two sessions, so I expect you to be able to hit the

ground running. Committee meetings will begin on December third, and
we'll be back in Special Session on December sixth and seventh to deal
with the corporate tax, child care, an amendment to the Trust Fund


November 20, 1984


Sunset Act relating to the Division of Bond Finance, and emergencies in
the production of citrus products. Ladies and gentlemen, let's go to work.

Designation of Dean of the House

The Speaker announced the designation of Rep. Ogden as Dean of the

Democratic Leadership

As previously announced by the Speaker, the following Members have
been appointed to Democratic leadership positions: Rep. Jon L. Mills,
Majority Leader; Rep. Ronald A. Silver, Majority Whip; Representatives
Michael I. Abrams, Virginia Bass, and Alzo J. Reddick, Deputy Majority

Remarks by Minority Leader

Rep. R. Dale Patchett, Minority Leader, addressed the House as

Thank you, Mr. Speaker. Ladies and gentlemen of the House, as the
Speaker has said, we have been through a long and tedious, hard-fought
campaign here and he has offered to say that is over. He has fulfilled his
role; I have fulfilled mine in that capacity. We now have the capacity to do
what is right for the State of Florida and that is to work as a legislative
body. I pledge to you, Mr. Speaker, and to the Members of this House that
we will continue to do so and work for the betterment of our citizens.

At the same time the Minority Party has grown in numbers and we feel
that that is here to stay. We feel that this is a recognition of a change in
Florida's history. We feel that we will do our job as we see fit and as we
believe right. We will work with you in every way that we can and where
there are party differences, there will be party differences. Where there
are member differences, we will not have any. I don't believe that politics
should be personal between individuals. It should be on behalf of the
citizens of the State of Florida. I believe that if we listen to the people, as
the Speaker says, and not preach to them, we will have a very successful
two years. I'm looking forward to working with each and every one of you,
with the Speaker who I think we have a lot in common, to work to a
common good and a common goal.

In an effort to do that, we have chosen, and I have chosen for my
leadership team Representative Betty Easley as my pro tempore,
Representative Bruce McEwan as the Caucus Chairman, Representative
Dennis Jones as Floor Whip, Representative Frank Messersmith as Floor

Whip. I have established a new Republican Policy Committee that will be
assisting us and coordinating with the chairmen of your committees to
make sure that we all work hard and understand the issues when they
come before this House. I've asked Representative Bobby Brantley to
chair that and Representative Dan Webster to assist him as a Vice
Chairman. I've also created-in recognition of the strengths and gains of
the Republican Party and in an effort to hang on two years from now
when the roles reverse again, Mr. Speaker, to a campaign cycle-a
committee to help our new Members and to help our old Members stay in
the office-to prove that this isn't a fluke-and I've asked Jim Watt to
chair a Campaign Committee. It is patterned after the Congressional
Campaign Committee and that is a function that we feel very strongly to
show that the coattails ofPresident Reagan were not a fluke, but that the
Party does represent a significant section of the Florida population.

We will treat you fairly. We only request that you treat us fairly, Mr.
Speaker. Thank you very much.

Republican Leadership

Rep. Patchett announced the election in Caucus of the following
Members to Republican leadership positions: Rep. R. Dale Patchett,
Minority Leader; Rep. Betty Easley, Minority Leader pro tempore; Rep.
Bruce McEwan, Minority Caucus Chairman; Representatives D. L. Jones
and Frank Messersmith, Minority Floor Whips. Rep. Patchett also
announced a new Policy Committee with Rep. Brantley as Chairman and
Rep. Webster, Vice Chairman. Rep. Watt will chair a Campaign

On motion by Rep. Simon, the rules were waived and all organizational
remarks were spread upon the Journal.

Special Session

A Joint Proclamation by the President of the Senate and the Speaker of
the House, convening the Legislature in Special Session at 10:00 a.m.
December 6 until midnight, December 7 was read. The Legislature will
be convened for the purpose of considering (1) Repeal of the unitary
apportionment and reporting method for the corporate income tax; (2)
Amendments to Chapter 83-310, Laws of Florida, relating to the
remittance of estimated sales tax; (3) Enactment of replacement revenue
measures and implementing legislation.


Having completed its organization, the House of Representatives, on
motion by Rep. Morgan, adjourned at 1:31 p.m., sine die.

THIS IS TO CERTIFY that the foregoing pages numbered 1 through
15, inclusive, are and constitute a complete, true and correctjournal and
record of the proceedings of the House of Representatives of the State of
Florida at the Organization Session of the Seventy-second House since
Statehood in 1845, convened under the Constitution, held on November
20, 1984.


Tallahassee, Florida
November 20, 1984


November 20, 1984