Citation
The Florida anthropologist

Material Information

Title:
The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Creator:
Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publisher:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Edition:
v. 31 no. 2, pt. 2, June, 1978
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-
General Note:
Florida Anthropological Society Publications: Number 9.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Florida Anthropologist Society, Inc. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
01569447 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )

Full Text
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS
NUMBER 9
THE CANTON STREET SITE, ST. PETERSBURG, FLORIDA
by
Ripley P. Bullen, Walter Askew, Lee M. Feder,
and Richard L. McDonnell
Edited by
Jerald T. Milanich
The Florida Anthropologist, Volume 31, Number 2, Part 2
June 1978


THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly in March,
June, September, and December by the Florida Anthropological
Society, Inc., c/o Room 130, The Florida State Museum, The
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Subscription
is by membership in the Society for individuals and institu
tions interested in the aims of the Society. Annual dues are
$8.00; student members $5.00. Requests for memberships and
general inquiries should be addressed to the Secretary; dues,
changes of address, and orders for back issues to the Treas
urer' manuscripts for publication to the Editor; and newsletter
items to the President. Address changes should be made at
least 30 days prior to the mailing of the next issue. Second
class postage paid at Gainesville, Florida 32601.
OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
President: George Percy
Div. of Archives, History and Records
Management, The Capitol, Tallahassee,
FL 32304
1st Vice President: Jerry Hyde
4233 Oristano Road
Jacksonville, FL 32210
2nd Vice President: Thomas Watson
203 Caroline Avenue
Panama City, FL 32401
Secretary: Marion M. Almy
5321 Avenida del Mare
Sarasota, FL 33581
EDITORIAL STAFF
Editor: Jerald T. Milanich
Florida State Museum
Gainesville, FL 32611
Editorial Board:
Judith A. Bense
Dept, of Sociology and Anthropo
logy, Univ. of West Florida
Kathleen A. Deagan
Dept, of Anthropology
Florida State University
Treasurer: Norcott Henriquez
1510 Dewey St., Hollywood,
FL 33020
Directors-at-Large
Three years: Adelaide K. Bullen
Florida State Museum
Gainesville, FL 32611
Two years: Thomas Watson
203 Caroline Avenue
Panama City, FL 32401
One year: Robert E. Johnson
4250 Melrose Avenue
Jacksonville, FL 32210
Editorial Assistant:
Ann S. Cordell
University of Florida
Roger T. Grange, Jr.
Dept, of Anthropology
Univ. of South Florida
John W. Griffin
Cultural Resource Management, Inc.
St. Augustine, Florida


THE CANTON STREET SITE, ST. PETERSBURG, FLORIDA
Contents Page
List of Figures ii
List of Tables iii
Editor's Note iv
Specimens 5
Ceramics 5
Other clay objects 9
Ground and pecked stone 9
Objects of bone 12
Objects of shell 12
Chipped stone 15
Conclusions 22
References Cited
27


List of Figures
Page
1. Map of Tampa Bay locating Canton Street site 2
2. Plan of Canton Street site locating excavated area.... 3
3. Florida Transitional period sherds from Canton Street.. 7
4. Variations in Perico Linear Punctated 8
5. Various incised sherds 8
6. Variations in punctated decoration 10
7. Miscellaneous sherds 10
8. Miscellaneous specimens 11
9. Specimens of bone, stone, and clay 11
10. Artifacts of shell, stone, and clay 14
11. Busycon picks 14
12. Basally and corner notched points 17
13. Stemmed and side notched points 17
14. Various stemmed and corner notched points 18
15. Perforators, blades, knives, and scrapers 20
16. Bifacial knives, perforated oyster shell 20
17. Small ovate scrapers 21
li


4
List of Tables
Page
1. Vertical distribution of steatite and ceramics at
Canton Street 6
2. Vertical distribution of shell artifacts 13
3. Vertical distribution of projectile points 16
iii


Editor's Note
The Canton Street site manuscript was prepared by Ripley
P. Bullen in consultation with the other authors prior to his
death in late 1976. In addition to having completed the text,
Ripley had prepared mock-ups and the legends for the figures.
The only changes that have been made to the text are the addi
tion of most of the citations and very minor editing. Malinda
Stafford of the Florida State Museum prepared Figures 1 and 2,
and I prepared Figures 3-17, using Ripley's mock-ups and legends.
Publication of this monograph is made possible by a grant
from The Wentworth Foundation created by the late A. Fillmore
Wentworth. The Florida Anthropological Society, Inc., greatly
appreciates this assistance.
Jerald T. Milanich
January 20, 1978
IV


THE CANTON STREET SITE, ST. PETERSBURG, FLORIDA
Ripley P. Bullen, Walter Askew, Lee M. Feder, and Richard L. McDonnell
Many Indian sites are known for the southern end of Pinellas
Peninsula, that part of the peninsula that juts southward to form
the upper lip of the mouth of Tampa Bay (Fig. 1). With the great
expansion in construction, only traces of these sites can still
be found. By 1969, seven houses had been built on the area that
came to be known as the Canton Street site (Fig. 2). Since sur
face collections from the Canton Street site (Pi-55) yielded
ceramic types indicative of a cultural setting not well docu
mented in this area, and since the site was located in a private
residential section undergoing construction, the full energy of
the newly formed Suncoast Archaeological Society was mobilized in
order to salvage as much information as possible prior to complete
development.
Excavation started in January 1970 under the direction of
Ray Robinson and terminated June 30th of the same year. Those
participating as excavators were John Arnaldi, Norma and Roger
Bilodeau, Bill Conger, Ramo Corteggiano, Lee Feder, Eleanor and
Charles Hess, Lawrence Keese, John Lunceford, Maj. George
Robinson, Nelly and Ray Robinson, Hazel Shinner, Anita Trow,
Charles Trow, and Thomas Weismann. Our great appreciation is
due the owner of the land, Mrs. Shirley M. Palmer, for permission
to do this work. During the winter of 1971 and the spring of
1972, Walter Askew, Lee Feder, and Richard McDonnell brought
the specimens and records to the Florida State Museum in
Gainesville where the typology was worked out in collaboration
with Ripley P. Bullen. Subsequently Lee Feder, combining field
and typological data, prepared the vertical distribution tables
for pottery and artifacts other than projectile points. Speci
mens were photographed by Kay Purinton, Staff Photographer at
the Florida State Museum. Depth data for projectile points
was transferred to a duplicate set of photographs and formed
the basis for the preparation of their vertical distribution
table. Askew prepared the maps and an early draft of the
introductory material. Bullen wrote the section on artifact
description and, as senior author, is responsible for interpre
tations .
As shown in Figure 2, the Canton Street site is more or
less contained in the area south of 62nd Avenue South and
between Canton and 30th Streets South, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Earlier construction on the midden proper and land fill at the
shore have made an exact determination of the perimeter uncer
tain as well as its exact relationship to the original shore
line. We believe, however, the dotted lines in Figure 2 express
these relationships sufficiently well for the purposes of this
report. The 80- by 150-foot lot, where the excavation took


2
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL
Fig. 1. Map of Tampa Bay area locating Canton Street site.


CANTON STREET
3
N
Fig. 2. Plan of Canton Street site locating excavated area


4
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL
place was relatively untouched and partially overgrown with
scrub oaks, palmettos, and slash pines. Little evidence of
potholing or other disturbance was noted. The midden itself
consisted of a compact mass of shellfish remains within which
other food remains, pottery, and other cultural products were
contained.
In preparation for excavation, the site was surveyed using
the southeast property marker as the datum point. Measurements
taken from the street level found the highest elevation of the
midden to be about 5.66 feet. The lot was gridded into 10- by
10-foot squares but the actual excavation was confined to a 70-
by 80-foot plot with a 10-foot buffer zone left on the northern,
eastern, and southern sides to prevent spoil from spilling onto
adjoining property and continuous sidewalk. Squares were
excavated in arbitrary 6-inch levels with 2-foot walls separating
adjacent squares. Upon completion of each unit, these walls
were also excavated. For sifting purposes a 1/3 inch mesh
screen was utilized and recovery was essentially complete,
although tiny items like minute chips and seeds were not held
by the screens. Flotation was not attempted. Over half of
the squares were excavated to apparently sterile soil and
samples of faunal and shellfish remains were collected. No
human skeletal material was encountered.
While our 70- by 80-foot excavation grid contained a total
of 56 10- by 10-foot squares, only 27 were excavated. Of these,
2A6 and A7 have been omitted from the tabulations (Tables
1-3) because their materials were listed as from 7 to 25 inches
and they were not dug deeper. Material from E6 was listed by
12- instead of 6-inch levels while that from F6 was listed in
part O to 18 inches and 18 to 30 inches and in part 0-36 inches.
Sometimes unique or special artifacts in these squares are
given specific depths and in those cases the data were .used.
The vertical tabulations, then, are primarily based on 23 10-
by 10-foot squares or a total area of 2300 square feet. Of
these 23 squares, 11 were only dug to a depth of 24 inches.
This means that our density distributions are skewed somewhat
in favor of higher levels.- "Color lines" in the excavated
part of the midden were essentially horizontal so that this
skewing does not seriously affect the stratigraphic picture
because of our large sample, but it should be remembered that
the number of specimens below 24 inches is much smaller than
would have been the case if these squares had been excavated to
a greater depth.
Shellfish remains included those of Busycon contrarium,
Busycon perversum, Pleuroploca gigantea, Dinocardium robusturn,
Strombus alatus, Fasciolaria tulipa, various pectens, oysters,
and clams. .Other food remains, in apparent order of frequency
were fish, turtle, deer, and bird bones. Three racoon jaws
and single instances of dog, bear, rabbit, alligator, shark,
and sting ray bones were noted. One unexpected specimen was a
Macrocalista shell, apparently a trade item since such shells are
not present in the Tampa Bay area today.


CANTON STREET
5
Specimens
Typical specimens are illustrated in Figures 3-17. In
selecting examples for illustration we tried to include those
that would give an idea of the range of variation in pottery
decoration and shapes of chipped tools. The vertical distribu
tion tables (Tables 1-3), of course, include all identifiable
examples with each broken fragment, irrespective of size, counted
as a unit. Typology follows closely published definitions for
ceramics, projectile points, and tools of bone or shell.
Additional comments will be found below as well as remarks
regarding similar specimens and comparative data.
Ceramics-As we have used the terms, Perico Plain sherds have fine
to medium crushed limestone temper and frequently incurving rims
while Pasco Plain has medium- to large^sized temper and straight
rims. Plain sherds of these types are not illustrated but these
differences can be seen on incised sherds in Figure 5 where "j_"
and "1" exhibit incurving rims and "e", "i", and "k" straight
rims. In both cases, decoration represents the transfer of
straight line incised designs from Orange and St. Johns Incised
(Fig. 3, e-g;, k) to the slightly later limestone tempered wares.
Two Perico Plain sherds had flat, inward slanting lips typical
of Belle Glade Plain vessels (Fig. 7, a-b). The only evidence
of paint consisted of traces of red coloring on a sandy limestone
tempered sherd (Fig. 7, c). Pasco Incised and Plain may have
flat bottoms but Perico containers, as far as is known, always
are bowl shaped.
Canton Street is the first site to produce a large sample
of Perico ceramics. It is interesting to note the variations
in Perico Linear Punctated which occur on both fine and coarse
tempered vessels (Fig. 4). Decoration such as is shown on the
seventh sherd in Figure 4 is the same as that found later in the
Glades area further south on Ft. Drum Incised or Sanibel
Incised (Willey 1949:28, PI. 3) where incurving rims are also com
mon. Similarly, incised triangular areas filled with punctations
(Fig. 6, f-g) seem to be prototypes for Sarasota Incised of
later times, and in Figure 6 resemble some Weeded Island
Punctated examples.
All St. Johns ceramics at Canton Street are of the soft
and predominantly thick variety of chalky paste which is common
in the Florida Transitional period. Some contain the red
lumps (crushed sherds) frequently present in St. Johns paste
of the Florida Transitional and early St. Johns I periods. The
St. Johns Pinched vessels (Fig. 3, a-d) are similar to those
from the Zabski site on Merritt Island at Cape Canaveral (Atkins
and MacMahan 1967) and closely resemble Tammany Pinched containers
of the Tchefuncte culture of Louisiana (Ford and Quimby 1945).
A clay tempered plain sherd,"h" in Figure 3, could well represent
a Tchefuncte Plain trade vessel (Ford and Quimby 1945).


Table 1. Vertical distribution of steatite and ceramics at Canton Street
CTi
Depths in inches
Typology
0-6
6-12
12-18
18-24
24-30
30-36
36-42
42-53
53-60
Total:
Steatite
1
6
6
2
1
3
19
Pinellas Plain
1
2
3
Englewood Incised^
1
1
quartz tempered plain
1
1
contorted paste, plain
3
1
1
1
6
unique incised
1
1
malleated surface
1
1
clay tempered plain
1
1
Perico Punctated A
8
3
10
3
1
25
Perico Punctated B
1
1
1
3
Perico Punctated (other)
3
1
2
2
8
Perico Linear Punctated
1
22
21
4
2
3
53
Perico Incised
1
6
2
9
Perico Plain
9
38
30
3
27
15
5
127
Pasco Incised
2
2
Pasco Plain
312
654
1189
357
328
75
11
4
1
2931
sand tempered pinched
1
1
sand tempered incised
4
1
5
sand tempered plain
188
568
1072
457
142
56
10
5
2
2500
St. Johns Pinched
1
1
2
St. Johns Incised
2
15
15
2
10
44
St. Johns Plain
103
278
184
59
23
7
5
659
Norwood Plain
4
6
7
1
1
19
Orange Punctated
1
1
Orange Incised
2
2
Orange Plain
2
5
6
4
4
1
3
2
20
47
Totals
638
1608
2553
898
542
163
35
11
23
6471
a
Has Englewood paste?
provenience seems extremely unlikely.
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL


CANTON STREET
7
Fig. 3. Florida Transitional period sherds from Canton Street site.
a-d, St. Johns Pinched (a-b contain some sand temper); e-g, St. Johns
Incised; _h, clay tempered plain; i, Norwood Plain; j_, Orange Plain;
k, St. Johns Incised with undecorated flat bottom.


J331
Variations in Perico Linear
Punctated.
Fig. 4
oo
W
0 12 3
l
in.
Fig. 5. Various incised sherds.
a, c-d, f-h, j_r L' Perico Incised; b, Perico
Punctated B; e, L, k, Pasco Incised; m-n,
sand tempered incised; o, Perico Linear Punc
tated; p, clay tempered incised; c[, Englewood
Incised.
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL


CANTON STREET
9
Norwood Plain (Figs. 3, i; 7, d) contains an appreciable
amount of sand as well as vegetable temper while Orange Plain
(Fig. 3, j_) contains no added sand as temper. Pottery tempered
with quartz sand is occasionally found in the northern part of
the peninsula. It is interesting to note that the one example
at Canton Street was relatively shallow while the clay tempered
sherd mentioned above was rather deep in the deposit.
Other clay objects Here we would include a tetrapod (Fig. 9, t)
and a clay ball (Fig. 10, m). The former, undecorated and of a
soft paste, reflects Tchefuncte or Deptford influences. The
latter, with an indentation in one end, resembles closely a
clay ball from Poverty Point (Ford and Webb 1956:42).
Ground and pecked stone Steatite occurred both in the form of
ornaments (Figs. 9, i) and as fragments of steatite vessels.
The latter were fairly plentiful and represented various grades
of this material (Fig. 7, e-lj. Two rim fragments have notched
lips (Fig. 9, e-f_) Such decoration on steatite rims has not
been previously noted for Florida except for South Indian Fields
near Melbourne (Rouse 1951:223) but is fairly common at Poverty
Point in Louisiana.
Sandstone vessels, rather rare in Florida, were represented
by a sherd (Fig. 8, b). Such containers are also present at
Poverty Point in Louisiana (Ford and Webb 1956:111).
Undoubtedly, our most interesting specimen is an imitation
animal jaw carved of brown colored, exotic slate (Fig. 9, b)
and found between depths of 6 and 12 inches. This amazing
object, only about 2 inches long, has an outward protuberance
at the front suggestive of the socket of a canine tooth. The
three side teeth have raised central portions reminiscent of a
raccoon or a dog. The broken-out hole near the ramus shows
it to have been made for suspension or for attachment to another
part. On the outside, upper view in Figure 9, it exhibits
incised decoration: two diagonal lines in the ramus area and
one vertical and three short horizontal ones below the base of
the canine.
Two fairly similar specimens are known for Tick Island
near the St. Johns River in eastern Florida. One, made of shell,
has rounded edges and no incision but does show a ramus, four
side teeth, and a rather exaggerated canine tooth. The other
is finely carved and stylized like the Canton Street specimen.
It shows four instead of three teeth with the canine complete
and well separated from the other teeth. It is decorated with
a horizontal incised line a little below the gum line. These
three miniature imitations of animal jaws are reminiscent of
cut wolf (?) jaws also found at Tick Island (Bullen and Benson
1967). All are suggestive of similar ceremonialism.


in.
Fig. 6. Variations in punctated decoration.
a-b, d, sand tempered punctated; c, e, c[-1,
Perico Punctated; f_, unnamed Perico incised;
m, Orange Punctated.
M
O
Fig. 7. Miscellaneous sherds.
a-b, Perico Plain with Belle Glade type
lip; c, sandy Pasco, red painted; d,
Norwood Plain; e-f, steatite sherds
with notched lips; g_, quartz tempered
plain; h-1, steatite body sherds!
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL


0 12 3
in.
Fig. 8. Miscellaneous specimens.
a, crude side scraper or chopper; b, frag
ment of sandstone vessel, inside surface is
smooth; c, portion of small St. Johns Incised
vessel.
in.
Fig. 9. Specimens of bone, stone, and clay.
a, perforated shark's tooth; b, imitation
animal jaw, carved of stone; c, piece of
resinous material; d, fragment of ornament
made of reddish clay stone; e, cut and ground
bone; £_, clay tetrapod; £, worked antler;
h, drilled alligator tooth, i, steatite
'crescent; j_-k, incised fish bone; ]L,
drilled fossil bone; m-o, awls.
CANTON STREET


12
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL
A bola stone (Fig. 10, h) about 1.25 inches in diameter,
has a flat bottom while the rest of the surface has been pecked
to approximate a sphere. Presumably this ball was attached to
a cord by means of rawhide which was drawn together and tied
to the cord at the flattened area.
Other "worked stone" includes a piece of resinous material,
part of an object made of reddish clay stone, a drilled fossil
bone (Figs. 9, c-d, 1; 10, h), and various fossil nubbins and
pebbles. The last, nworked, and common in the Tampa Bay area,
were probably brought to the site as curiosities.
Objects of bone Artifacts of bone include a drilled shark's
tooth (Fig. 9, a), two worked fish bones (Fig. 9, j_-k) a drilled
alligator tooth (Fig. 9, h), a simple bone point, possible fish
hook tip, parts of points and awls, (Fig. 9, m-o), and various
cut or otherwise worked bone and antler (Fig. 9, e, g) These
objects were found between depths of 12 and 36 inches but, except
for 6 fragments of bone awls in the lowest level and the drilled
shark's tooth in Level 5, they concentrated in Levels 3 and 4.
Objects of shell Artifacts of shell from Canton Street are
listed in Table 2 and the better examples illustrated in Figures
10-11. Little needs to be added descriptively. It is interesting
to note that of the three discs one is drilled for suspension,
one is plain, and the third is incised. One wonders about the
functional meaning of these variations. Apparently shell discs
were used for different purposes.
Strombus gigas shellfish are not native to the Tampa Bay
region nor have shells of this animal been found in middens of
the region as food remains. Celts found at Canton Street made
of the lips of Strombus gigas shells, hence, must represent trade
with or collecting expeditions to extreme south Florida. This
comment also applies to a Macrocallista shell found in Level 6.
Chronologically, the Canton Street site, belonging to the
Florida Transitional period, spans the time between the close
of the Archaic and the development of the Deptford and South
eastern coastal ceramic traditions. It is interesting to note
that many of the shell tools such as celts, Busycon picks, and
columella chisels have been found in earlier preceramic middens
as well as those postdating the Canton Street site. The method
of hafting Busycon picks seems to have changed during the life
of the Canton Street site. Archaic forms were hafted by means
of a single, elongate-oval hole in the top (Type X). After the
time of Christ these tools were hafted by two holes in the side
or by one hole in the side and a notch in the lip. Both forms
were found at Canton Street as well as a variation (Type AX)
combining both forms (Fig. 11, c). This is the logical transi
tional form.


CANTON STREET
13
Table 2. Vertical distribution of shell artifacts.
Depths
in inches
Typology
0-6
6-12
12-18
18-24 24-30 30-36
shell discs
Ia
1
2b
drilled cresent
lc
Oliva shell beads
1
1 1
perforated Pecten
shell
1
perforated area
shell
1
perforated oyster
shell
1
columella plummets
1
1
Strombus gigas
celts
1
1
2
Busycon hammers,
Type A
2
Busycon hammers,
Type X
1
2
2
Busycon pick,
Type AX
1
Busycon pick,
Type X
1 1
Busycon dipper (?)
1
Busycon cups (?)
3
Melongena hand
hammer
1
Fasciolaria columella
hammer
1
columella hammers
2
3 4
columella chisel
1
worked columellae
2
2
cut and worked
shell
1
2 2
Totals
1
9
18
14 1 9
aHas two drill holes,
Fig.
10, a
; kQne
incised, Fig. 10,
cFig. 10, f.
52
" H n I-H iH 1I CM ^ CM LD II CM 1I CO H pH <3> iI


0 12 3 0
I__A I L.
in.
Fig. 10. Artifacts of shell, stone, and clay.
a, two-hole shell disc, b^c, plain and incised shell
discs; d-e, Oliva and Olivella shell beads; f_,
drilled shell crescent; g, carved shell ear plug (?);
h, drilled fossil bone (same as Fig. 9, ]J ; _i-k,
shell pendants; 1, bola stone; m, clay ball; n,
curved shell gouge; o, shell celt; p-g., perforated
shell ornaments.
1 2
-1 L.
in.
3
J
Fig. 11. Busycon picks; note
holes in tops.
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL


CANTON STREET
15
It is believed Canton Street is the earliest site to produce
plumb-bob shaped shell pendants (Fig. 10, i-j_) As similar
objects are first known in the Southeast at Poverty Point in
Louisiana, this may be another instance of influences from that
site.
The perforated oyster shell (Fig. 6, h) is the first known
appearance of that trait. Similar artifacts have been found near
skulls of Deptford period burials at Crystal River site some
distance further north along the Gulf of Mexico.
Chipped stone Chipped stone specimens are illustrated in
Figures 8, and 12 to 17. They may be loosely divided into pro
jectile points, perforators, knives and scrapers. All are made
of Florida chert, a few of the fossil coral variety of the Tampa
Bay region. Workmanship is not particularly good and minor
shape variations made classification into subtypes difficult.
Chert chips and flakes were rather common in all levels. As
hammerstones and cores or core trimming flakes were very rare,
these chips imply the finishing or reworking of tools at the
site, not primary manufacturing.
Practically all projectile points sufficiently complete for
classification are illustrated in Figures 12-14. These have been
classified under the system currently in use in Florida (Bullen
1975) and their vertical distribution is presented in Table 3. It
may be assumed that more points would have been found in lower
levels if all squares had been dug to the base of the midden.
Tables 1-3 indicate the peaks of the vertical density curves
for pottery, shell artifacts, and projectile points all fall in
Level 3, i.e. between depths of 12 and 18 inches. The few
points in the lowest levels would seem to correlate with the
sand-tempered plain and Pasco Plain sherds found in these same
levels. Hernando points (Fig. 12, a-e) have the highest prove
nience and would seem to correlate with the Perico and St. Johns
ceramics as opposed to Pasco and sand-tempered sherds which seem
to have a slightly lower provenience. However, this correlation
is weak. About all that can be said is that Hernando points are
the most recent while the only points found in the lowest levels
were stemmed. There is a slight, but very slight, suggestion in
Table 3 that Culbreath points are a little earlier than Lafayette
points. In an endeavor to show more significant vertical differ
ences in projectile points at Canton Street, we reclassified them
using various sorting criteria. In all cases we came out with
essentially the same distribution as shown in Table 3.
Other chipped stone specimens included a large, crude side-
scraper or chopper (Fig. 8, a), various types of small, more-or-
less ovate scrapers (Fig. 17), perforators, hafted end scrapers,



Table 3. Vertical distribution of projectile points.
Typology Depths in Inches
Hernando
Citrus
Lafayette
Culbreath
Unique corner notched
Small side notched
Large side notched
Small Archaic stemmed
Archaic stemmed
36 39 42 45 48
1
1
Totals
5
4
17
3
2
5
1
12
5
Totals
31 11 1 20 3823 1
1 54
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL


0 12 3

in.
Fig. 12. Basally and corner notched points.
a-e, Hernando; f, h, j_, Citrus; g;, _l-m, o, Lafayette; i, k, n, £, Culbreath.
Fig. 13. Stemmed and side notched points.
a-c, small Archaic stemmed; d, g-h, g_, 1,
Lafayette; e-f, m-n, c[, small side notched;
large side notched; k, Archaic stemmed;
p, narrow Lafayette.
CANTON STREET


18
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL
0 12 3 4
i i i i i
in.
Fig. 14. Various stemmed and corner notched points.
a-d, q, Sy Lafayette; e-f, unique corner notched;
g-k, m-o, small Archaic stemmed; _1, £, t-u, Archaic
Stemmed; r, asymmetric hafted knife.


CANTON STREET
19
drills, blades, hafted curved scrapers, trianguloid or ovate
knives (Figs. 15-17) and various worked fragments and utilized
flakes. Of these, 3 scrapers, 8 worked fragments, and 2 utilized
flakes came from depths greater than 24 inches. Otherwise,
specimens, including the three types just mentioned, were found
from the surface downward to a depth of 24 inches with the great
est number being in the 12- to 18-inch zone with the exception
of asymmetric trianguloid knives (Fig. 16, d-e) which were also
abundant in the 18- to 24-inch zone. Four specialized specimens
(Fig. 15, _i-l) were limited to Level 4 or between depths of 18
to 24 inches.
Of considerable interest are 5 drill-like tools made on
small blades (Fig. 15, a-b) or flakes (Fig. 15, c-e). All,
except the first one which may have been hafted, have wide basal
areas and could easily have been held between the fingers and
used with a rotary motion to drill holes. Three have bulbous
bases and resemble closely some of the Jaketown perforators as
found at the Poverty Point site in Louisiana.
Small and large hafted end scrapers are illustrated as "f"
and "g" in Figure 15. In both cases, the wider end has been
chipped into a scraping edge with the narrower end arranged for
hafting. Quite different are the hafted scrapers with curved
edges illustrated in the lower part of Figure 15 (n-g_) These
have bases like those of Culbreath and Lafayette points and may
have been made from broken projectile points. Similar hafted
scraperswith the same baseswere found in Zone 9 at Site J-5
on the bank of the Chattahoochee River in association with St.
Johns Incised pottery and charcoal which produced a radiocarbon
date of 1240 B.C. (Bullen 1958:338-339, 341).
Four specimens from Level 4 (Fig. 15, i-,1) are unique for
this collection. The first, a cruciform Archaic type drill may
be a reworked point. Two are true blades with their lower ends
crudely chipped to form scraper-like edges. The fourth (Fig. 15,
k), resembling a backed blade, shows the results of a lot of
rough usage along its sharpened edge. Its notched corner may
indicate hafting or that this is another reworked specimen.
Little can be added descriptively to the visual representa
tions of ovate and asymmetric trianguloid knives (Fig. 16).
They may or may not have been hafted, were relatively common
near the close of the Archaic period, would function well as
skinning knives for small animals, and do not seem to represent
blanks for the manufacture of projectile points as intermediate
forms are not found. It is a little surprising to find so many
at Canton Street.
The same comment might be made regarding the seemingly
large number of scraping tools (Fig. 17) found at Canton Street,
but it must be borne in mind that the volume excavated here is


Fig. 15. Perforators, blades, knives, and
scrapers.
a-e, perforators; f, small reamer or scraper
worked for hafting; g, end scraper worked for
hafting; h, knife; i, Archaic drill; £,1^ end
scrapers on blades; k, specialized side scraper
or "saw"; m, ovate knife; n-c[, hafted scrapers;
r, worked tool, use unknown.
o
Fig. 16. Bifacial knives, perforated oyster
shell.
a-£, ovate trianguloid knives; h, perforated
oyster shell.
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL


XJI cl
CANTON STREET
21
0
3
Fig. 17. Small ovate scrapers.
, thumbnail scrapers; i-_l, o-g, small end scrapers;
, r-Sy thick scrapers; t, combination scraper-knife.


22
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL
many times that at other sites of the same period. Stylistically
Scrapers resemble those of the Archaic period. None closely resem
ble the nicely made, fairly thin scrapers of the Paleo-Indian and
Dalton periods. Some are keeled and two (Fig. 17, i1, q) may have
been hafted. Some are fairly thick and two (Fig. 17, r-s.) particu
larly so.
Conclusions
The vertical distribution of specimens at Canton Street
(Tables 1-3) suggest the major occupation at that site to have
occurred during one relatively short period of time and to be the
expression of one cultural manifestation. Late pottery types,
Pinellas Plain and contorted paste plain, have a superficial dis
tribution and may be interpreted as indicating casual use of the
site during later periods (Table 1). (In this interpretation we
are disregarding the Englewood Incised sherd recorded for the
sixth level. It should date to approximately the same time period
as Pinellas Plain.) As there were no definitive Deptford, Swift
Creek, or Weeden Island period sherds found (with the possible
exception of one tetrapod), it seems a safe assumption that the
major occupation ended before the introduction of Deptford ceramics
or before 600-500 B.C.
The large and sudden increase in the number of Orange Plain
sherds in the lowest level (Table 1) suggest an underlying or
nearby fiber-tempered ceramic component. The scattering of Orange
ceramics at higher levels surely indicates mechanical admixture
from this earlier component and not simultaneous occupation by two
groups of people, one tempering their pottery with fibrous material
and the other theirs with sand or crushed limestone.
There is a suggestion in the relative vertical distribution of
sand-tempered, Pasco, and St. Johns Plain sherds (as shown in Table
1 ) that the introduction of mineral tempered wares occurred before
that of the chalky or virtually temperless St. Johns pottery. We
prefer, however, to believe that St. Johns Plain and Incised were
introduced into the Tampa Bay area, as well as west Florida, at
the close of the Orange period ca. 1100-1000 B.C., before the
development of Pasco and Perico Incised. These last would then be
copies of St. Johns Incised designs on limestone tempered pottery
in the same manner as St. Johns Incised designs copied the earlier
Orange Incised designs. This would imply a hiatus at the Canton
Street site in the very early part of post-Orange times and that
the beginning of the main occupation did not occur until around
1000-900 B.C.
Inspection of Tablesl-3 shows that most artifacts increased in
quantity fairly regularly from lower levels up to a maximum in the
12- to 18-inch zone and then decreased in numbers over a much
shorter distance to the surface of the site. This distribution is
like that of a sine curve skewed to the left (in the tables) or
upper levels. This skewed curve has been noted at other sites and


CANTON STREET
23
seems to be typical of single period sites occupied for a reason
able length of time during which the population and intensity of
occupation increased. In other words, communities tend to grow
over a long period of time while their abandonment may occur much
more rapidly.
It was mentioned earlier that the hafting method used for
Busycon picks and hammers changed during the Transitional period
from Type X with a hole in the top to two holes or a hole and a
notch in the side. Some support for this theory is given in Table
2 where Type X has the lowest distribution, and Type A the highest
while Type AX occupies an intermediate position. It is also inter
esting to note the presence in the Florida Transitional period, as
evidenced at Canton Street, of the first appearance of decorative,
status, and ceremonial objects such as beads, perforated shells,
plummets, and prepared or imitation animal jaws. Archaic deposits
in Florida are not noted for the presence of quantities of these
objects although decoration on bone tools and pottery was certainly
present during the closing phases of the Archaic.
Artifacts found at the Canton Street site show it to have
been occupied during the Florida Transitional period (Bullen 1959),
circa 900-600 B.C. Such artifacts include Hernando and Citrus
basally notched points, thick soft St. Johns Incised and Plain
pottery sometimes containing red inclusions (crushed sherds),
limestone tempered Pasco Incised, Plain and Perico Punctated
and Linear Punctated, Norwood Plain (semi-fiber-tempered, semi
sand-tempered) and an unnamed sand tempered incised pottery. All
of these were listed in the original definition of this period
(Bullen 1959:45) as were the following linked traits: Orange Plain
and Incised sherds of the Orange 4 subperiod exhibiting simple
straight-line decoration; steatite vessel fragments; and casually
made, small and medium-sized Archaic-like stemmed points-r-all of
which were also found at Canton Street. These linked traits are
carryovers from the Orange period subdivision of Archaic times.
Steatite vessels may also have still been in use at the start of
the Deptford period but more are found in Florida Transitional
deposits than those of earlier or later periods.
An early Florida Transitional component is Zone 9 at Site J-5
on the west bank of the Chattahoochee River (Bullen 1958) where
Orange Plain, St. Johns Incised and Plain sherds, fragments of
steatite vessels, Culbreath and Lafayette points, and many hafted
scrapers with bases the same as those on these points were exca
vated. All of these artifacts were duplicated at Canton Street
but it produced a wider range of artifacts suggesting industrial
development after the occupation at Zone 9 of Site J-5 which is
radiocarbon dated about 1260 B.C.
The Transitional period Zabski site on Merritt Island near
Cape Canaveral produced no fiber-tempered pottery and has a radio
carbon date of 875 B.C. (Atkins and MacMahan 1967) Like Canton


24
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL
Street, a test at Zabski produced Culbreath and Lafayette points,
perforated shark's teeth, steatite fragments, and St. Johns Plain,
Incised, and Pinched pottery; while from the beach, directly
below the midden, was found casually made Archaic-like stemmed
points, 18 limestone tempered Perico and Pasco Plain as well as
Perico Punctated and Linear Punctated pottery. The limestone
tempered pottery must represent trade from the Tampa Bay-Hernando
County region where these ceramic types are fairly abundant. St.
Johns Pinched sherds were relatively more common at Zabski than
at Canton Street, but in both cases indicate communication with
people then living in what is now called Louisiana. There are
other sherds at ZabskiSt. Johns Indented, Side Lugged, and
Triangular Punctatedwhich also indicate extra territorial influ
ences but which seem to have bypassed Canton Street. The Zabski
site would seem to correlate with the lower middle levels at
Canton Street.
As some of the specimens are the same while others are differ
ent, we must have either temporal or regional differences. Influ
ences at Zabski and Canton Street from the Louisiana region could
have traveled across north Florida without getting as far south
as Canton Street. The resultant diffusion and lack of diffusion
would tend to produce the regionalism noted for a little later
period of time.
The Bayshore and Wash Island sites on the Gulf Coast some
distance north of Tampa Bay and Tick Island near the St. Johns
River in east Florida are other locations where Transitional
material has been found. The first two are small midden sites
eroded by the Gulf while the latter has been removed by dragline
operations, so that they cannot produce any stratigraphic data.
However, they do support the theory of developing regionalism.
While St. Johns Incised is common to all these sites, St. Johns
Pinched, Indented, and Side Lugged are present in appreciable
quantities at Tick Island (as at Zabski) while they are absent or
extremely rare at the Gulf sites. On the other hand, the Pasco
Incised and Perico Punctated and Linear Punctatedas well as
Plainare very common at the Gulf sites (and at Canton Street)
but are a minority ware at Zabski and barely represented at Tick
Island (and Zellwood and Sunday Bluff).
We have mentioned various archaeological traits common to both
the Florida Transitional period and the large Poverty Point site
in Louisiana. Such traits found at Canton Street include a clay
ball (Fig. 10, m) clay tempered pottery (Fig. 3, h), the great
similarity between St. Johns Pinched (Fig. 3, a-d) and Tammany
Pinched of Louisiana (from Poverty Point, FSM Cat. No. 103299) ,
sandstone vessels (Fig. 8, b), steatite sherds with notched lips
(Fig. 7, e-f.) and Jaketown perforators (Fig. 15, c-e) (See also
Warren, Thompson, and Bullen 1967:160 for other examples in the
Goodyear collection.) To this should be added the presence at
both sites of linear punctation and, most importantly, the presence
at Poverty Point of St. Johns Incised containers, made of St. Johns


CANTON STREET
25
paste but originally classified as Tchefuncte Incised (FSM Cat.
No. 103297). [Note: Milanich examined a sample of Poverty Point
sherds in the FSM collections in January, 1978. The "Tchefuncte"
Incised sherds indeed contain the sponge spicules characteristic
of St. Johns paste, while the other Poverty Point sherds do not.]
Neither the quantity of each example nor the percentage of total
traits present indicate any suggestion of mass migrations but
they do indicate communication and participation in the same inter
action sphere. The process at work may be trade as suggested by
the acquisition of steatite vessels of exotic material and the
presence of Florida made vessels in Louisiana. Some of the
objectssuch as Jaketown perforators and the Poverty Point clay
ballhowever, seem to be locally made copies as they are made of
local materials. Perhaps copies were made of traded items. Cer
tainly, trade in some form must have occurred for a long time as
steatite vessels are radiocarbon dated to 1380 B.C. at the Summer
Haven site a little south of St. Augustine (Sample M-1014 from
Level 4, Bullen 1972:15).
When the Florida Transitional period was outlined in 1959, it
was conceived of as a dynamic period during which various ideas,
techniques, and artifacts diffused over substantial distances.
This diffusion required people and it was deduced that a consider
able moving about of small groups of people occurred. The arti-
factual admixture at the Canton Street site seems to suggest such
a picture. The two major pottery waressand tempered and lime
stone temperedare present in each level in approximately equal
amounts. These potteries are most frequent in the 12- to 18-inch
zone, approximately at the peak of the frequency curves for
Perico and St. Johns wares. The most common decorated types are
Perico Linear Punctated, St. Johns Incised, and Perico Punctated
A (Table 1) which represent three disparate techniques for the
application of decoration. It is hard to believe that one homoge
neous group of potters with a common ceramic tradition made all
these ceramic variations involving different pastes, decorative
techniques, and concomitant design variations. It seems more
likely we had a small group of presumedly related families living
at Canton Street but that the potters of each family group came
from other locations, each with its separate (tribal or clan)
ceramic tradition. Otherwise, the exchange of vessels between
different settlements must have been much greater than we imagine.
A similar picture is presented by the typological variation
in projectile points (Table 3). At least three major traditions
are represented: basally notched (Hernando and Citrus),. side and
corner notched (Lafayette, Culbreath, and others), and small to
medium-sized Archaic stemmed forms. At other sites the basally
notched points have been correlated with Perico ceramics. At the
Culbreath Bayou site, across Old Tampa Bay, Lafayette points
seemed to be associated with St. Johns Incised pottery while
Culbreath points came from lower (non-ceramic) layers (Warren,
Thompson, and Bullen 1967). At Flint Ridge some miles north of
St. Petersburg, Mark Brooks found a similar correlation between
Lafayette points and St. Johns Incised pottery (Warren, Thompson,


26
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL
and Bullen 1967:161). In Zone 9 at site J-5 beside the
Chattahoochee River, Culbreath and Archaic stemmed points were
mixed with St. Johns Incised and Orange Plain pottery (Bullen
1958:339). At Zabski on Merritt Island, Culbreath and Lafayette
points were associated with St. Johns Incised, Pinched, Indented,
Side Lugged, and triangular Punctated vessels. The common trait
in the above sites is St. Johns Incised pottery but at Canton
Street, where Lafayette points are relatively common (Table 3),
this pottery type is not the most common.
A diffusion theory may explain many of the variations
mentioned above. Near the close of the Archaic, Culbreath and
slightly later Lafayette points may have been introduced into
Florida from the northwest but they did not entirely replace
local stemmed forms. Possibly Lafayettes are merely idiosyn
cratic variations of Culbreath points. Very likely the new forms
were really knives which required strong attachments to handles
because of the great pressure which could be exerted. They did
not replace projectile points which did not require so much
strength against lateral pressures. Stemmed projectile points
were still the mode but as there was little likelihood they would
ever function as knives, they became smaller and less care was
exerted in their manufacture.
Soft St. Johns vessels replaced fiber-tempered containers
along the Gulf Coast as in east Florida. Shortly sand temper
may have been introduced from Georgia where it seems to have
been used earlier than in Florida. In response to this stimula
tion some pottery in the Gulf Coast-Tampa Bay region developed
crushed limestone as a substitute for sand as temper. Perico
Punctated A may reflect St. Johns Triangular Punctated. The
technique and arrangement is also similar to that of Stallings
Punctated of Georgia. Perico Linear Punctated probably reflects
influences from the Tchefuncte of Louisiana where linear puncta-
tion is also found. By this time some Florida Indians were
making basally notched Hernando and Citrus points or knives.
It is possible at Canton Street that a family, whose material
culture included basally notched points and Perico Linear
Punctated pottery, moved in and were accepted by the other
Cantonese. This would have enriched the culture of those already
in residence and not violate the archaeological data excavated at
the Canton Street site.
We need much more data to define and date influences which
were transmitted across and into Florida during the Transitional
period. This is particularly true in respect to the difficult
problems of independent invention, parallel development, and
diffusion. Excavations at the Canton Street site considerably
increase our knowledge of this important period and support the
theory that it was a dynamic period when new ideas and influ
ences were chasing each other across Florida and the Gulf Coastal
Plain.


CANTON STREET
27
References Cited
Atkins, Steve, and Jeannie MacMahan
1967 The Zabski Site, Merritt Island, Florida. Florida
Anthropologist 20:133-145.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1958 Six Sites near the Chattahoochee River in the Jim
Woodruff Reservoir Area, Florida. In River Basin
Surveys Papers, ed. by Frank H.H. Roberts, Paper
14. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American
Ethnology. Washington, D.C.
1959 The Transitional Period of Florida. Southeastern
Archaeological Conference Newsletter 6:43-53.
Chapel Hill.
1972 The Orange Period of Peninsular Florida. In
Fiber-Tempered Pottery in Southeastern United
States and Northern Colombia: Its Origins,
Context, and Significance, ed. by R.P. Bullen and
J.B. Stoltman, pp. 9-33. Florida Anthropological
Society Publications 6. Gainesville.
1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile
Points. Gainesville: Kendall Books.
Bullen, Ripley P., and Carl A. Benson
1967 Cut Wolf Jaws from Tick Island, Florida. Florida
Anthropologist 20:175-177.
Ford, James A., and George I. Quimby, Jr.
1945 The Tchefuncte Culture, An Early Occupation of the
Lower Mississippi Valley. Memoirs of the Society
for American Archaeology, No. 2. Menasha.
Ford, James A., and Clarence H. Webb
1956 Poverty Point, A Late Archaic Site in Louisiana.
Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of
Natural History, Vol. 46, Pt. 1. New York.
Rouse, Irving
1951 A Survey of Indian River Archeology, Florida.
Yale University Publications in Anthropology 44.
New Haven.


28
BULLEN, ASKEW, FEDER, AND McDONNELL
Warren,
Lyman 0., William Thompson, and Ripley P. Bullen
1967 The Culbreath Bayou Site, Hillsborough County,
Florida. Florida Anthropologist 20:146-163.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology 42. New Haven.
St. Petersburg and Gainesville
March 1974


PUBLICATIONS of the Society appear at irregular intervals as
funds permit. Funding is provided by dues, special gifts, or
subsidies provided by the author. PUBLICATIONS are distributed
to all members of the Society on issuance. Additional copies
may be purchased from the Treasurer (see inside front cover).
1. Two Archeological Sites in Brevard County, Florida, by
Hale G. Smith, 1949. Price $2.00.
2. The Safety Harbor Site, Pinellas County, Florida, by
John W. Griffin and Ripley P. Bullen, 1950. Out of print
3.
The Terra Ceia Site, Manatee County, Florida,
Ripley P. Bullen, 1951.
by
Out of print
4.The European and the Indian, by
Hale G. Smith, 1956.
Out of print
5.Florida Anthropology, edited by
Charles H. Fairbanks, 1958.
Price $2.00.
6.Fiber-Tempered Pottery in Southeastern United States
and Northern Colombia: Its Origins, Context, and
Significance, edited by Ripley P. Bullen and James
B. Stoltman, 1972. Price $2.00.
7. Florida Spring Confirmed as 10,000 Year Old Early Man
Site, by Carl J. Clausen, H.K. Brooks, and A.B.
Weslowsky, 1975. Price $2.00.
8. The Palmer Site, by Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen,
1976. Price $3.00.
The Canton Street Site, St. Petersburg, Florida, by
Ripley P. Bullen, Walter Askew, Lee M. Feder, and
Richard L. McDonnell, 1978. Price $2.00.
9.