The Florida anthropologist

Material Information

The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Place of Publication:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Publication Date:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
v.69 no.4, December, 2016
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Florida Anthropologist Society, Inc. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
01569447 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )

Full Text
The F lorida Anthropolo gist
Published by the Florida Anthropological Society
Volume 69 Number 4 December 2016
0 99
....Yiiiii ...ii i! iiii iii iiii
0I ..........0i i i i ii~ i~ i~ i~ ~ i i i ii iiii ii ' ii i'" i ii~ i ', ,, ... .............................................................. .. ..........
............................ i iiii i

The Florida Anthropologist is published by the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc., P.O. Box 12563, Pensacola, FL 32591 Subscription is by membership in the Society. Membership is NOT restricted to residents of the State of Florida nor to the United States of America. Membership may be initiated at any time during the year, and covers the ensuing twelve month period. Dues shall be payable on the anniversary of the initial dues payment. Members shall receive copies of all publications distributed by the Society during the 12 months of their membership year. Annual dues are as follows: student $15, individual $30, family $35, institutional $30, sustaining $100 or more, patron $1000 or more, and benefactor $2500. Foreign subscriptions are an additional $25 U.S. to cover added postage and handling costs for individual, family, or institutional membership categories. Copies of the journal will only be sent to members with current paid dues. Please contact the Editors for information on recent back issues.
Requests for information on the Society, membership application forms, and notifications of changes of address should be sent to the Membership Secretary. Donations should be sent to the Treasurer or may be routed through the Editors to facilitate acknowledgment in subsequent issues of the journal (unless anonymity is requested). Submissions of manuscripts should be sent to the Editors. Publications for review should be submitted to the Book Review Editor. Authors please follow The Florida Anthropologist style guide (on-line at in preparing manuscripts for submission to the journal and contact the Editors with specific questions. The journal is formatted using Adobe In Design. All manuscripts must be submitted via e-mail to the journal Editors in final form in Microsoft Word format. Address changes should be made AT LEAST 30 DAYS prior to the mailing of the next issue. The post office will not forward bulk mail nor retain such mail when "temporary hold" orders exist. Such mail is returned to the Society postage due. The journal is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December of each year.
Officers of the Society
President: Theresa Schober, 1902 Florrie Ct., North Fort Myers, FL 33917 ( First Vice President: Jason Wenzel, Gulf Coast State College, Social Sciences Division, 5230 West Hwy 98, Panama City, FL 32401 (
Second Vice President: Emily Jane Murray, 8 Mulvey St., Apt. B, St. Augustine, FL 32084 ( Recording Secretary: Jon-Simon Suarez, 8 Mulvey St., Apt. B, St. Augustine, FL 32084 ( Membership Secretary: Pat Balanzategui, P.O. Box 1135, St. Augustine, FL 32085 ( Treasurer: Joanne Talley, P.O. Box 788, Hobe Sound, FL 33475 ( Directors at Large: Gregg Harding, 207 East Main St., Pensacola, FL 32534 (; Linda Geary, 510 South Carolina Dr., Stuart, FL 34994 ( Immediate Past President: Jeffrey T. Moates, 4202 East Fowler Ave., NEC 116, Tampa, FL 33620 ( Newsletter Editor: Sarah Bennett, 2615 Crestwood Ave., New Smyrna Beach, FL 32168 (
Journal Editorial Staff
Co-Editors: Jeffrey P. Du Vernay, 4202 East Fowler Ave., NES 107, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (editors. Julie Rogers Saccente, 1251 Lakeview Rd., Clearwater, FL 33756 (editors.fl.anthropologist@
Book Review Editor: Rebecca O'Sullivan, 4202 East Fowler Ave., NEC 116, Tampa FL 33620 ( Editorial Assistant: George M. Luer, 3222 Old Oak Dr., Sarasota, FL 34239-50 19 ( Printer: Durra-Print, 717 South Woodward Ave., Tallahassee, FL 32304 Bulk Mail: Modern Mailers, Inc., 877 West Orange Ave., Tallahassee, FL 32310
Editorial Review Board
Albert C. Goodyear, Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (
Jeffrey M. Mitchem, Arkansas Archeological Survey, P.O. Box 241l, Parkin, AR 72373 ( Nancy Marie White, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-8100 (
Robert J. Austin, P.O. Box 2818, Riverview, FL 33568-28 18 (
NOTE: In addition to the above Editorial Review Board members, the review comments of others knowledgeable in a manuscript's subject matter are solicited as part of our peer review process.

Volume 69 Number 4 v
December 2016
* *
Louis D. TESAR
Published by the
ISSN 0015-3893

-Q 0
n ft
tlNcE 19SI
An Endowment to Support production of The Florida Anthropologist,
the scholarly journal published quarterly by the
Florida Anthropological Society since 1947
Donations are being accepted from individuals, corporations, and foundations.
Inquiries and gifts can be directed to:
Jeffrey P. Du Vernay, Ph.D. Center for Virtualization and Applied Spatial Technologies University of South Florida 4202 East Fowler Avenue, NES1O7 Tampa, FL 33620
The Florida Anthropological Society is a non-profit organization under
section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.
Contributions are tax-deductible as provided by section 170 of the code.

Welcome to the December 2016 issue of The Florida their recent archaeological investigations on St. Vincent Island,
Anthropologist. This final issue of the year includes situated directly southwest of the mouth of the Apalachicola
three articles, field school summaries for a number of the River in northwest Florida. These investigations included both archaeological field schools completed throughout Florida this field survey and testing as well as collections-based research year, and an In Memoriam. and documentation. Using the data derived from their efforts,
The first article of the issue is co-authored by Mark Donop, White and Kimble provide a comprehensive description and George Kamenov, Tiffany Birakis, and Matthew Woodside, summary of human occupation and activity on the Island,
and is focused on a rare Galena artifact recovered from which they indicate spanned from Paleoindian through Palmetto Mound, a mortuary mound site located in coastal historic times. Additionally, they discuss some of the public Levy County near Cedar Key. The artifact was recovered by archaeology aspects of their project, including coordinating avocational archaeologist Montague Tallant in the 1930s and with Federal land management and local volunteers to help is part of the larger Tallant Collection curated by the South mitigate illegal artifact collecting on the island and better Florida Museum of Bradenton. With this paper, Donop and report new archaeological finds. colleagues present a description of the physical characteristics Next, the issue features multiple summaries of of the artifact and share the results of their multi-collector archaeological field schools completed this year in Florida. inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP- Our solicitation for summaries netted a total of five, including
MS) testing on the piece completed to discern its lead isotopic summaries from the University of North Florida, University composition and source. The authors indicate that the results of Florida, University of South Florida and two from the of this testing show the galena likely originates from a known University of West Florida. We thank the authors of these (and previously isotopically investigated) galena source in summaries for taking the time to write and submit them to the Southeastern Missouri. With these data in mind, they briefly journal. discuss the topic of precolumbian exchange and how their Finally, the issue closes with an In Memoriam for David
results compare with other sourced galena artifacts found in Phelps, archaeologist and former editor of The Florida Florida. Additionally, the authors consider the potential health Anthropologist. We extend a sincere thank you to Dorothy hazards of ritual uses of galena and frame this discussion Block for submitting this In Memoriam, and she wishes to within a wider, cross-cultural context. extend thanks and appreciation to George Luer for his help
The next article is written by Louis Tesar. The focus and encouragement while she wrote and assembled this piece. of Tesar's paper is the Vero Beach mammoth engraving We hope you enjoy the issue.
featured on a fossilized bone fragment found by an amateur
collector near the Old Vero site in Indian River County. The Jeffrey P. Du Vernay engraving was first analyzed and reported by Barbara Purdy Julie Rogers Saccente and colleagues, including in the December 2012 issue of The
Florida Anthropologist. With this paper, Tesar directly calls
into question their conclusion that the mammoth engraving is
of a Paleoindian period origin and not a modern day creation.
Tesar bases this questioning along various fronts including
through an examination of a cast made of the bone fragment
(the original reportedly was sold on the antiquities market),
a comparative analysis with other engraved bone artifacts
recovered in Florida and through replicative engraving
experiments he completed himself. Tesar closes by suggesting
that his review of the mammoth engraving also is instructive
to issues related to the antiquities market and the threat of
commercial collectors to the State's archaeological resources.
The additional financial cost associated with printing Louis'
article in color was paid for by the author.
The third article of the issue is co-authored by Nancy
White and Elicia Kimble, and provides a thorough synthesis of

MARK C. DONOP', GEORGE D. KAMENOV2, TIFFANY E. BIRAKIS3, MATTHEW D. WOODSIDE3 'Department ofAnthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 'Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 3South Florida Museum, Bradenton, Florida 34205
Introduction: Galena Artifact from Palmetto Mound "Levi Co., FL" was mentioned but not analyzed in a study by
(8LV2) the Illinois State Museum (Walthall 1981:48).
Fifteen galena artifacts from nine sites in Florida have been
A rare, recently rediscovered galena (lead sulphide) analyzed and sourced (see Figure 1, Table 1). The provenance artifact collected in the 1930s from the Palmetto Mound of all of the artifacts except one was determined by comparing (8LV2) precolumbian (ca. 2700-700 years before present [BP]) their lead isotope ratios to those of naturally occurring mortuary complex north of Cedar Key is exceptional for its deposits using conventional solid source mass spectrometry large size and distant provenance (Figure 1). Concentrations and solid source thermal ionization mass spectrometry (Austin of precolumbian galena artifacts are scarce in Florida and et al. 2000:125; Farquhar and Fletcher 1980; Ghosh 2008:84). usually weigh between 0.1-550 g (Austin and Matusik The source of the galena artifact from the McKeithen site was
2014:6-7). Most research has focused on the origins and based on trace elements determined by atomic absorption exchange patterns of galena. Galena artifacts are most often spectrophotometry (Milanich et al. 1984:62; Walthall 1981:33, found at mortuary sites like Palmetto Mound but their role in 54). All of the analyzed artifacts found in Florida from the ritual practice remains largely unknown (Austin and Matusik Early to Middle Woodland Period (ca. 2500-1500 BP), Middle 2014:5; Walthall 1981:3-4). The goal of this research was Woodland Period (ca. 2200-1500 BP), and Mississippian to determine the physical properties of the Palmetto Mound Period (ca. 1000-500 BP) are from Central Missouri (CM) or galena artifact, use multi-collector inductively coupled plasma Southeastern Missouri (SEM) geological sources (Austin et al. mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) to determine its lead (Pb) 2000:126-127; Ghosh 2008:81,86). isotopic composition and origin, and discuss its possible uses
as a potentially hazardous ritual object. Palmetto Mound (8LV2)
Galena and Galena Artifacts in Florida The Palmetto Mound is a major precolumbian mortuary
mound on a small island north of Cedar Key in Levy County
Native Americans in the precolumbian period used the on the north peninsular Gulf Coast 400-500 m directly west mineral galena (PbS) to make a variety of objects. Galena of the monumental Shell Mound (8LV42) (Sassaman et al. is cubic, lead-grey with a metallic luster and has a specific 2013, 2015) (see Figure 1). A shovel test pit survey of the gravity of 7.4-7.6 and a Mohs scale of hardness of 2.5 (Allaby island indicated that it lacked evidence of domestic activity 2013:235) (Figure 2). The mineral is widely distributed in and was dedicated to mortuary activity at the mound (Figure hydrothermal veins and syngenetic exhalative deposits and as 3) (Donop 2015:106-107). Ceramics in donated private replacement in limestone and dolomite rocks and is often found collections indicate that this multicomponent sand and shell associated with sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, barite, quartz, burial mound was used primarily during the Weeden Island fluorite, and calcite. Galena is the primary ore of lead. In the Period (ca. 1650-1000 BP). However, accelerator mass Eastern and Central United States, major sources of galena spectrometry (AMS) assays obtained from recent fieldwork are found in the Mississippi River Valley states of Arkansas, conducted by the Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology Oklahoma, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, and Wisconsin (LSA) at the University of Florida (UF) and samples from and minor sources in Tennessee and Kentucky and along the the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) indicate it Appalachians from Virginia to Alabama (Ghosh 2008:78-79). may have been used from 2765-675 cal BP (Donop 2015:115). Missouri is the top producer of galena and lead in the United Evidence indicates that hundreds of burials and approximately States, the latter primarily used in lead-acid batteries, one thousand ceramic vessels were interred in the mound,
Galena from precolumbian contexts in Florida is relatively including rare, nonlocal anthropomorphic and zoomorphic rare. Galena artifacts have been found as raw material, pendants effigy vessels (Donop et al. 2016). Palmetto Mound has been or plummets, beads, powder, and bird effigies. At least 54 nearly destroyed by private collectors and archaeologists over galena artifacts have been recovered from precolumbian the last 150 years, and it is now protected by the U.S. Fish archaeological sites in Florida with most associated with & Wildlife Service as part of the Lower Suwannee National Woodland Period (ca. 2500-1000 BP) burial mounds (Austin Wildlife Refuge. Artifacts made of exotic materials such as and Matusik 20 14:3-5). A galena artifact from "Cedar Key" in greenstone, copper, and galena have been found at the site,

mg:lgiflig i;!!!::: Palmefto Mound (8LV2).

depression or facet 7.8 cm x 4.4 cm x 2.6 cm deep is the only clear evidence of anthropogenic use wear.
Pb Isotope Analysis
Multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) was used to measure the Pb isotopes from Tallant's galena. An approximately 1 mm3 sample of artifact A7080 was extracted from a small, damaged area of the artifact that had exposed fresh, silvery galena. The sample was dissolved in Optima-grade nitric acid (HNO3), spiked in thallium (TI) and introduced in a "Nu-Plasma" MCICP-MS. Pb ratios were measured using the Tl-normalization technique of Kamenov et al. (2004). The long-term NBS 981 lead standard values for the lab are as follows: 206Pb/204Pb = 16.937 (0.004, 2a), 207Pb/204Pb = 15.490 (+0.003, 2c), and 208Pb/204Pb = 36.695 (+0.009, 2y). The isotope ratios Figure 2. Photograph of natural galena by Mark C. Donop from artifact A7080 are virtually identical to those from the
courtesy of George D. Kamenov. Kingston Mine in the Washington County Barite District of
Southeastern Missouri (Goldhaber et al. 1995:1883) (Table types, although this has not yet been definitively determined. In 2). Note that the reported Pb isotope data in Goldhaber et 2016, research focused on Tallant's collection from Palmetto al. (1995) were obtained with older instrumentation with 0.1 Mound at the SFM led to the staff's rediscovery of the galena percent analytical error on the Pb ratios. Therefore, artifact artifact (catalog # A7080) in the geology area of the museum. A7080 is indistinguishable from the Kingston galena. The mine is approximately 1200 kilometers in a straight line to Analysis Palmetto Mound although the actual route, presumably using
the nearby (30-35 km) Mississippi River and other waterways, The basic physical characteristics and provenance would have been considerably longer (see Figure 1). of Tallant's galena artifact A7080 was measured using conventional methods, three-dimensional (3D) imaging, and Discussion
lead (Pb) isotope analysis. It measured approximately 13 cm x 11 cm x 9 cm and weighed 9.45 lbs or 4286.5 g which is Size nearly the same as Tallant's measurement of 9.5 lbs. Artifact A7080 was 3D imaged using a NextEngine 3D Scanner at The literature suggests that artifact A7080 is the largest
the SFM (Figure 4). It is somewhat rounded and exhibits a measured galena artifact found in a precolumbian context in generalized, light-colored oxidation (Figure 5). A ground, oval Florida (Austin and Matusik 2014:5-8). Another large galena
Table 1. Provenance of Precolumbian Galena Artifacts in Florida by Time Period
Site Name Site ft n Time Period Source
Miami Circle 8DA12 4 Early to Middle Woodland CM
Block Sterns 8LE 148 1 Middle Woodland CM
Oak Knoll 8LL729 3 Middle Woodland CM
Fort Center 8GL 13 1 Middle Woodland CM-SEM
Royce Mound 8HG676 1 Middle Woodland CM-SEM
McKeithen 8CO017 1 Middle Woodland SEM
Lake Jackson 8LE 1 2 Mississippian CM
Pineland 8LL33 1 Mississippian CM-SEM
Harley Means Wassica R., Jefferson Co. 1 Unknown CM

artifact, a "mass of galena, considerably larger than a closed Exchange hand," was recovered from the Nichols site (8WA3) but it was not weighed and its dimensions were not recorded This study supports the pattern that all analyzed
(Moore 1902:281-282). Many galena artifacts were counted precolumbian galena artifacts found in Florida originated and loosely described but not weighed making it difficult to from Missouri. The Southeastern Missouri provenance for assess the size of artifact A7080 relative to other specimens artifact A7080 is very similar to the other nine artifacts that in the Southeast. have been sourced. Although there are natural galena sources
closer to Florida, the ones from Missouri are often exposed in
Contur =25c
Palmetto Mound (8 LV2) Taliants"subrnound pit"
Contour = 25cm 10
M Meters
Figure 3. Topographic map of Palmetto Mound (8LV2) courtesy of Micah P. Monks including Montague Tallant's "submound pit" area where artifact A7080 was found.

veins and deposits that are more easily accessible (Austin et were expanded during the Midwestern Hopewell Tradition al. 2000:124; Austin and Matusik 2014:3; Walthall 1981:43). (ca. 2200-1600 BP) of the Middle Woodland Period to include In the Washington County Barite District, barite and galena the Flint and Apalachicola Rivers in southern Georgia and occurred in exposed fractured rock and in red clay where northwest Florida (Austin et al. 2000:128; Walthall 1981:10thousands of people operated productive small pit-mines with 11). The results of neutron activation analysis (NAA) recently only hand tools in the early 1900s. conducted on samples of Weeden Island Period ceramic
Major exchange routes linked galena sources in Missouri effigies recovered near artifact A7080 suggest that many of with waterways that connected them to Florida. These routes them originated to the north-northwest in the same Flinthave roots in the Late Archaic Period (ca. 5800-3200 BP) Apalachicola region (Donop et al. 2016). where galena was transported to the nearby Mississippi River and brought to places such as Poverty Point in Louisiana Use Wear (Walthall 1981:37; Walthall 1982). These exchange systems The ground facet on artifact A7080 indicates that it was used to produce galena powder. Ethnohistoric accounts of "black lead," "something that looked like silver ore," and "lead ore" indicate that ground galena was used as facial paint by Native Americans in the Southeast (Swanton 1946:243, 529-530). In the 1500s, the French obtained "bits of some type of ore" and "lead" from the Timucuan people of Florida (Hann 1996:37; Swanton 1922:348). Freshly ground galena gives off a silvery luster but it can also appear black, grey, or even white when oxidized.
Cross-cultural Comparison (Kohl)
12cm The question has been posed whether the use of galena
powder paint had insidious health consequences for a segment Figure 4. Snapshot of 3D model of Tallant's galena of some Native American societies (Walthall 1981:2-3). In the
(A7080) courtesy of Tiffany E. Birakis. Southeast, there is some evidence that the bones of galenausing Middle Woodland Period Copena and Mississippian Period Moundville people contained significantly higher lead levels than populations that did not use the mineral (Thurmond 1975). Precolumbian galena use may have had a significant effect on the lead isotope levels of human remains used to determine their provenance. Research focused on moder Native American health concerns related to the use of galena could not be found.
A robust body of data for ancient and modern galenai based facial paint from the Near East, Africa, and South Asia
~can be found in recent literature that may help to inform the use ~of galena-based facial paint in the precolumbian Southeast. A ~common dark eye cosmetic called kohl also known as alkohl, ~al-kahal, surma, saoott, kajal, and tiro often contains galena.
~Kohl containers used in Egypt during the Middle to New , .......... 12 cm Kingdom (ca. 4040-3070 BP) were found to contain galena
and anglesite (oxidized galena) in the majority of the samples (Hardy et al. 2006; Hardy and Rollinson 2011). Thirty-three Figure 5. Photograph of the ground facet courtesy of percent of modern kohl samples from Egypt, Qatar, Yemen, Tiffany E. Birakis. the United Arab Emirates, and Oman were found to contain
Table 2. Lead Isotope Ratios from Tallant's Galena A7080
Sample 26pb/24pb 27pb/24pb 28pb/24pb 28pb/26pb 27pb/26pb
Galena A7O8O 22.1707 15.965 41.123 1.8548 0.720097
Kingston Mine 22.182 15.962 41.166

galena as their main component (Hardy et al. 1998; Hardy et Acknowledgements
al. 2002; Hardy et al. 2006; Hardy et al. 2008).
Kohl containing galena and other lead compounds We would like to thank several institutions and persons
are reported to have several positive effects. Kohl is used for their assistance with our research. Thanks to the staff as a beauty enhancer and is believed to have a variety of at The South Florida Museum for their help locating and beneficial effects that include the prevention and treatment of studying Tallant's galena artifact. Thanks to Richard Kanaski eye ailments, improving vision, preventing umbilical stump of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service for granting permission infections, protection from excessive sunlight, and increased to Kenneth Sassaman and the personnel of the Laboratory production of antimicrobial nitric oxide (Mahmood et al. 2009; of Southeastern Archaeology (LSA) and the students of Mahmood et al. 2015). Kohl is also used for religious purposes the 2014 Lower Archaeological Field School to conduct and it is applied to children's eyes and conjunctive tissue to fieldwork at Palmetto Mound (8LV2). Thanks to Neill Wallis counteract the "evil eye," a curse believed to be prevalent in the at the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) for his Mediterranean, North Africa, Near East, and Latin America. comments and map.
The primary health concern regarding the use of galenabased kohl is lead exposure and poisoning. The Centers for References Cited
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that blood
lead levels (BLL) for adults should be limited to 10 tg/dL and Allaby, Michael
5 tg/dL for children ages 1-5 years (CDC 2012b, 2015:230). 2013 A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences. Oxford Although lead does not easily penetrate the skin, it can be University Press, University of Oxford.
absorbed through conjunctive eye tissue and particularly the
gut. Lead poisoning can cause anemia, kidney problems, Austin, Robert J., and Angela Matusik neurological damage, and other problems including death. The 2014 Galena Distribution in Florida. Implications for CDC has reported cases of infant and childhood lead poisoning Prehistoric Trade. Paper presented at the 66th
with BLLs of 13 jsg/dL and 27 gg/dL caused by the use of Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological
tiro from Nigeria and kajal from Afghanistan respectively Society, Punta Gorda.
(CDC 2012a, 2013). In an unusual homicide case, an Egyptian
woman's blood was found to have a BLL of approximately Austin, Robert J., Ronald M. Farquhar, and Karen J. Walker 3341 jig/dL after she was killed with an omelet sandwich 2000 Isotope Analysis of Galena from Prehistoric
mixed with kohl (Mohamed et al. 2007). The U.S. Food and Archaeological Sites in South Florida. Florida
Drug Administration (FDA) has banned folk medicines and Scientist 63(2):123-131.
cosmetics containing lead, including kohl (FDA 2003).
Bennett, Thomas P.
Conclusions 2011 The Legacy: South Florida Museum. University
Press of America, Inc. Lanham.
Tallant's galena (catalog # A7080) was a large, exotic resource
that was intentionally interred in Palmetto Mound despite the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) fact that it was a valuable consumable commodity. Itcouldhave 2012a Infant Lead Poisoning Associated with Use of been "killed" like so many of the mortuary ceramics at Palmetto Tiro, an Eye Cosmetic from Nigeria Boston, Mound or made into many smaller finished objects such as Massachusetts, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality
plummets or beads but instead was used over an unknown Weekly Report (MMWR) 61(30):574-576.
period of time as a possible source of dangerously powerful
ritual paint. Tallant's galena probably traveled traditional routes 201 2b New Blood Lead Level Information. Electronic of exchange established in the Late Archaic Period that were document,!
expanded in the Middle Woodland to include Florida. These blood_lead_levels.htm, accessed June 1, 2016.
exchange systems served to not only redistribute rare, exotic
materials such as galena and copper but to maintain distant 2013 Childhood Lead Exposure Associated with the Use social relations and the exchange of ritual knowledge. The of Kajal, an Eye Cosmetic from Afghanistanapplication of galena powder to the body without knowledge Albuquerque, New Mexico, 2013. Morbidity and
of its proper use would have been hazardous and potentially Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 62(46):917-919.
deadly. Tallant's galena may have been a potent ritual object
that was incorporated into the mound in an effort to empower it 2015 Fourth National Report on Exposure to as a sacred, non-portable "bundle" that was accessed by ritual Environmental Chemicals, Updated Tables, February practitioners for mortuary purposes for many years (e.g. Nieves 2015. Electronic document, Zedeio 2008; Pauketat 2013). Perhaps shamans periodically exposurereport/index.html, accessed June 1, 2016.
exhumed the galena and used its powder to prepare themselves
for important mortuary rituals.

Donop, Mark C. Hardy, Andrew D., Alexander J. Farrant, Gavyn K. Rollinson,
2015 Palmetto Mound (8LV2). Lower Suwannee Peter Barss, and Ragini Vaishnav
Archaeological Survey 2013-2014. Shell Mound 2008 A study of the chemical composition of traditional
and Cedar Key Tracts. Technical Report 21, pp. eye cosmetics ("kohls") used in Qatar and Yemen.
103-115. Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Journal of Cosmetic Science 59:399-418.
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,
Gainesville. Hardy, Andrew D., and Gavyn K. Rollinson
2011 Black eye cosmetics ofancient Egypt.Pharmaceutical Donop, Mark C., Neill J. Wallis, and Ann S. Cordell Historian. 41(1):9-13.
2016 Production and Provenance: Weeden Island
Mortuary Effigies from the Woodland Gulf Coast. Kamenov, George D., Paul A. Mueller, and Michael R. Perfit Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the 2004 Optimization of mixed Pb-T1 solutions for high Society of American Archaeology (SAA). Orlando. precision isotopic analyses by MC-ICP-MS. Journal
ofAnalytical Atomic Spectrometry 19:1262-1267.
Farquhar, Ronald M., and Ian Robert Fletcher
1980 Lead Isotope Identification of Sources of Galena Mahmood, Zafar Alam, SM Zoha, Khan Usmanghani,
from Some Prehistoric Indian Sites in Ontario, Mohtasheem Hasan, Obaid Ali, Sarwat Jahan, Aftab Saeed,
Canada. Science 207:604-643. Rabail Zaihd, and Misbah Zubair
2009 Kohl (surma): retrospect and prospect. Pakistan Ghosh, Sanghamitra Journal ofPharmaceutical Sciences 22(1): 107-122.
2008 Heavy Stable Isotope Investigations in Environmental
Science and Archaeology. Ph.D. dissertation, Mahmood, Zafar Alam, Iqbal Azhar, and S. Waseemuddin
Department of Geological Sciences, Florida State Ahmed
University, Tallahassee. 2015 Kohl Use in Antiquity: Effects on the Eye. In History
of Toxicology and Environmental Health: toxicology
Goldhaber, Martin B., Stanley E. Church, Bruce R. Doe, John in antiquity II, edited by Philip Wexler, pp. 68-78.
N. Aleinikoff, Joyce C. Brannon, Frank A. Podosek, Elwin L. Academic Press, London.
Mosier, Cliff D. Taylor, and Carol A. Gent
1995 Lead and sulphur isotope investigations of Paleozoic Milanich, Jerald T., Ann S. Cordell, Vernon J. Knight, Jr.,
sedimentary rocks from the southern Midcontinent Timothy A. Kohler, and Brenda J. Sigler-Lavelle
of the United States; Implications for paleohydrology 1984 McKeithen Weeden Island.: The Culture of Northern and ore genesis of the Southeast Missouri lead belts. Florida, A.D. 200-900. New World Archaeological
Economic Geology 90(7):1875-1910. Record. Academic Press, Inc., Orlando.
Hann, John H. Mohamed, Khaled M., Gafer R. Ahmed, Nady S. Aly, and
1996 History of the Timucua Indians and Missions. Abd-Elmonem M. Abd-Elmoty
University Press of Florida, Gainesville. 2007 Determination of Lead in Biological Specimens
from a Homicidal Poisoning Case with Kohl (Lead
Hardy, Andrew D., Ragini Vaishnav, Samira Al-Kharusi, Sulphide). Paper presented at The Egyptian Society
Hector H. Sutherland, and Michael A. Worthing of Environmental Toxicology Conference, Seattle.
1998 Composition of eye cosmetics (kohls) used in Oman.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 60:223-234. Moore, C.B.
1902 Certain aboriginal remains of the northwest Florida Hardy, Andrew D., Hector H. Sutherland, and Ragini Vaishnav coast, Part II. Journal of the Academy of Natural
2002 A study of the composition of some eye cosmetics Sciences of Philadelphia 12:127-355.
(kohls) used in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology 80:137-145. Nieves Zedefio, Maria
2008 Bundled Worlds: The Roles and Interactions of Hardy, Andrew D., Richard I. Walton, Ragini Vaishnay, Complex Objects from the North American Plains.
Kathryn A. Myers, Mathew R. Power, and Duncan Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory
Pirrie 15(4):362-378.
2006 Egyptian eye cosmetics ("Kohls"): Past and
present. In Physical Techniques in the Study of Pauketat, Timothy R.
Art, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage, edited by 2013 An Archaeology of the Cosmos: Rethinking Agency Dudley Creagh and David Bradley, Vol. 1, pp. 173- and Religion in Ancient America. Routledge, New
203. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. York.

Sassaman, Kenneth E., Andrea Palmiotto, Ginessa J. Mahar, 1982 Galena Analysis and Poverty Point Trade. Micah P. Mones, and Paulette S. McFadden Midcontinental Journal ofArchaeology 7(1): 133-148.
2013 Archaeological Investigations at Shell Mound
(8LV42), Levy County, Florida: 2012 Testing. Willey, Gordon R.
Technical Report 16. Laboratory of Southeastern 1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. University
Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, Press of Florida, Gainesville
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Sassaman, Kenneth E., Ginessa J. Mahar, Mark C. Donop, Jessica A. Jenkins, Anthony Boucher, Cristina I. Oliveira, and Joshua Goodwin
2015 Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey 20132014: Shell Mound and Cedar Key Tracts. Technical Report 21. Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,
Sassaman, Kenneth E., Neill J. Wallis, Paulette S. McFadden, Ginessa J. Mahar, Jessica A. Jenkins, Mark C. Donop, Micah P. Mones, Andrea Palmiotto, Anthony Boucher, Joshua M. Goodwin, and Cristina I. Oliveira 2016 Keeping Pace With Rising Sea: The First 6 Years of
the Lower Suwannee Archaeological Survey, Gulf Coastal Florida. The Journal of Island and Coastal
Archaeology 00:1-27.
Swanton, John R.
1922 Early History of the Creek Indians and Their
Neighbors. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, No. 73. Government Printing Office. Washington
1946 The Indians of the Southeastern United States.
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin, No. 137.
Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.
Tallant, Montague
n.d. Unpublished journal. Copy on file, South Florida
Museum, Bradenton.
Thurmond, Anita
1975 Lead Levels in Prehistoric Alabama Indians.
Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Alabama, Birmingham.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2003 Kohl, Kajal, Al-Kahal, or Surma: By Any Name,
Beware of Lead Poisoning. Electronic document, http ://www.
Products/ucml137250.htm, accessed June 1, 2016.
Walthall, John A.
1981 Galena and Aboriginal Trade in Eastern North
America. Scientific Papers, Vol. XVII, Illinois State
Museum, Springfield.

Louis D. TESAR
Archaeologist (retired), 788 Winding Creek Road, Quincy, Florida 32351
Introduction to the conclusion of Purdy et al. (2011) and Purdy(21)I
believe that it is the latter and my reasons and evidencefolw
Purdy et al. (2011) published the result of their analysis
of an engraved proboscidean (i.e., mammoth) image on a Background Information
mineralized bone reportedly found near the Old Vero site
(81R9) in Vero Beach, Florida. They note the similarity of the The Vero Beach mammoth engraving was repre engraving on the Vero bone to Old World Upper Paleolithic by James Kennedy to have been found "'in northernVr art styles and provide their reasons for concluding that it Beach" (Purdy et al. 2011:2908), "near the Old VeoSt is not a forgery (Purdy et al. 2011:2912). They conclude (81R9)" (Purdy 20 12:205). "A small sample was remve that the drawing was made prior to the extinction of the from an area away from the incising" and subjectedtore mammoth and that it "likely represents one of the first earth element analysis, which demonstrated that thefsi verified Paleoindian representations of a proboscidean in the bone came from the site 81R9 late Pleistocene bone deost Western hemisphere" (Purdy et al. 2011:2913). or those in proximity to that site (Purdy 2012:205; Pudye
On October 5, 2012, at an archaeological resources al. 2011:2910, 2913). Thus, the object is not an exampeo meeting in Monticello, Florida, I joined others in viewing European Paleolithic art brought to Florida. a cast of a large fossil bone fragment with an engraved Purdy asserts: "It is not known if the bone fromVr
mammoth image that came from Vero Beach, Florida. The Beach was engraved when the bone was still green(feh cast belonging to Andrew C. Hemmings was of the object or already mineralized" (2012:206). How would thaisu reported by Purdy et al. (2011). When I prepared flatbed be resolved? scanner Photoshop images of the cast' I noticed features Archaeologists have for the past hundred years excaae in the enlarged images that seemed inconsistent with the and studied bone and stone artifacts. For more thanfot description of the bone image and the associated conclusions years those observations have been supplementedwt of Purdy et al. (2011). the results of replication studies. For example, mebr
The December 2012 issue of The Florida Anthropologist of the Society of Primitive Technology are devotedtosc included an article by Dr. Purdy published partly in response activities and annually publish two issues of the Bulltno to "verbal and written negative reactions to the original Primitive Technology. Based on my more than forty'yar, o report of the mammoth bone/engraving investigations ... archaeological research, both field investigations and atfc (Purdy et al. 2011)" (Purdy 20 12:205). Purdy (20 12:205- analysis, and participation in artifact replication activiis 214) provides a relatively complete presentation on the fossil offer the following explanation and examples.

black pyrolusite (Mn02) patinated surface color, is partially mineralized as a result of submerged deposition in calcitic silts, and has only minor surface degrading in the decorated area; although, its spatula shaped portion was broken. Note the characteristic grooved cut marks left from use of stone tools. Also note the crisp unspalled edges of the cut marks.
In contrast to fresh bone, bone that has been left exposed on the ground surface or buried in well-drained acidic sandy soil degrades, becomes increasingly chalk-like, and develops a brittle, friable surface. Incising or engraving the surface of such weathered bone consistently results in spalling along the cut edge margins.
Figure 4 depicts a portion of an engraved bone artifact that is a forgery made using partially degraded bone. This
__________forgery was allegedly found at an upland Marion County, Florida site. Note the partially degraded bone surface and the spalling along the brittle edges of the cut lines and the rough-edged pitted series resulting from engraving a variable density surface, identified in the figure by numbers 1 and 2, respectively. Such pseudo-rotary like pitting is similar in appearance to but distinct from that produced by a drill bit or Dremel tool (e.g., compare it with the Figure 1 image).
Brittle surface characteristics also are common on partially mineralized bone from Florida's rivers and fossil bone deposits. For comparative purposes I prepared a series of engraved copies of the mammoth image on an unprovenienced partially mineralized, dark brown pyrolusite (Mn02) patinated, large Pleistocene animal bone fragment from a North Florida Figure 1. Carved fresh bone figurine, a modern fertility karst river. I used different tools to prepare each image. Most fetish (?), found at site 8HG678. Note the crisp cut edges of my engraved mammoth images in this replication study
and characteristic rotating bit divot marks. Rotated breach the dark mineral surface deposit and reveal a burnt
scanned images and enlargements prepared by Louis D. umber colored underlying layer. That breach demonstrates the
Tesar for Anne Reynolds and used here with her permission. engravings post-date the pyrolusite patina.
from the site prepared as rotated scanned images for Anne .
Reynolds and is used here with her permission.
Figure 2 depicts a Native American artifact made of fresh
bone that was collected at the Tick Island shell midden in the St. Johns River valley, Volusia County, Florida (see Otto and Bullen 1978). The bone was cut and its surface ground to a flat-based spatula shape. Grinding in the basal joint area exposed interior marrow. The rectilinear engraved line pattern cuts to the marrow surface in some areas giving the bottom of the groove in such areas a somewhat pitted appearance. Triangular-shaped cut gouges along the outer edges of some cut lines complete the design. Note the absence of spalling |
along the crisp engraved line and gouge edges. The saturated shell environment preserved the bone while imparting only a minor water stain.
Figure 3 also depicts a Native American artifact made
of fresh bone that was engraved, cut and smoothed, probably E E 1
during the Middle or Late Archaic Period. It was collected from the eroded bottom of the Wacissa River and listed and Figure 2. Engraved fresh bone pin from the Tick Island photographically depicted in the collector's Isolated Finds site. Scanned rotated images of this artifact in E. Moore's Form report (Florida Master Site File IF report # 681)2. It collection were prepared by Louis D. Tesar and the
was recently donated by the collector to the Florida Division cropped image element and enlargement are used here of Historical Resources (BAR accession 16.93). It has a with Mr. Moore's permission.

Figure 3. Carved and engraved fresh bone prehistoric artifact with a black pyrolusite (MnO2) patination from the Wacissa River on the eastern boundary of Northwest Florida. Rotated scanned photographic images were prepared by Louis D. Tesar and part of one image and an enlargement to show cut mark detail are used here with permission of the Florida
Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research (BAR accession 16.93).
Louis D.Tesar scanned image
Portion of engraved partly
degraded bone artifact; a the s weathe
forgery allegedly found
:at a Marion County, Florida
Figure 4. Portion of engraved degraded bone artifact allegedly found in Marion County, Florida. Note the spelling (1) along the edge of the cut lines. Also note the rough-edged pseudo-rotary like pitted series (2) resulting from engraving a variable density surface. The artifact image was prepared by Louis D. Tesar and is used with owner permission. Also note that the light patina and exterior surface degrading are absent from the engraved cut mark surface, demonstrating that they post-date the surface weathering.
Stone gravers, saws and shaves, shark teeth and other and eroded surface irregularities affect the straightness of the sharp-edged pointed animal teeth were used by Native cut line axis. The pattern is completed by repeatedly graving
Americans to carve and decorate bone artifacts. Those the same lines until the desired depth is achieved.
tools manifest characteristic cut marks, including V-shaped Quartz crystal artifacts are found at Paleoindian sites in engraved/incised grooves, often with parallel striations created Georgia (Anderson et al. 1990:77-83) and elsewhere (Gramly by the irregular stone or regular shark tooth edges. Use wear 1990:24). While the raw material came from locations outside dulling of the tool cutting edge gradually results in the bottom of Florida, quartz projectile points and hexagonal quartz of the cut grove becoming more rounded. Changing hardness crystal artifacts also have been found at Florida sites (Figure

5 right). Figure 5 (left) depicts a mammoth image that I made cut edges. As noted, fresh bone usually has uniform surface using a hexagonal quartz crystal. Note the V-shaped groove smoothness and density qualities that do not distort graver cut formed by the pointed crystal tip and the spalling along the line repetition efforts and rarely results in spalled cut edges. cut edge of the degraded surface material. Also note the Figure 7 depicts mammoth images that I made using
rough-edged pitted series (top left enlarged detail) resulting needle tip-shaped (left) and pointed cone-shaped (right) from engraving a variable density surface. The pseudo-rotary diamond encrusted Dremel bits. The enlargements show the like pitting is similar to but distinct from that produced by a V-shaped grooves produced when the bits were used as handdrill bit or Dremel (see Figure 1; also see Figure 4 for another held gravers and the rounded rotary marked grooves produced pseudo-rotary like pitting example). with the bits mounted in the Dremel that are identified in the
Figure 6 (left) depicts a mammoth image that I made figure as numbers 1 and 2, respectively. The rotary groves using an expedient chert flake tool: a burinated graver. The are wider and smoother than expected as the socketed tool graver is similar in form to those reported from Paleoindian shafts had an off-centered vibration when in use. I did not take sites (Gramly 1990:13) and gravers also occur at later sites. time to buy a replacement Dremel to correct the fabrication I dulled the lateral edges to facilitate safe hand-held use problem. I decided the results of the tool defect were useful when I made the tool. Figure 6 (right) depicts a graver from to show rotary bit made U-shaped groove fabrication that the Paleoindian-Early Archaic component at site 8WA329 obscures rotary divot marks, such as those depicted in Figure 1. (Wakulla Springs Lodge). Note the scratched sides of the Figure 8 depicts a fragment of an animal jaw that
V-shaped cut grooves that resulted from the burinated flake was engraved when the bone was fresh, as demonstrated edge scars. The irregular material density and surface qualities by the uniform cut marks that lack edge spalling. The of the degraded bone made it difficult to repeatedly grave the artifact subsequently surface degraded and became partially same cut groove during manufacture of the image. Also note mineralized when it was inundated in a clear-water karst river the brittle surface spalling of the degraded bone along the system. It lacks the black to very dark brown pyrolusite (MnO2)
8JA65 8JE337 test unit
Gravers made from
hexagonal crystal quartz
i Crystal
Simpson PPK
from Santa Fe River, Florida
Figure 5. (Left) Mammoth image engraved using the pointed tip of a hexagonal quartz crystal. Enlargements show brittle edge spalling and pseudo-rotary like cut marks. (Right) Quartz crystal gravers and Paleoindian period Simpson PPK from
Florida sites. Scanned images prepared by Louis D. Tesar. BAR artifact images used with Florida Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research permission.

4 jk
Chert BAR
Flake 8WA329
Graver Burinated Graver;
core blade with
cortex, chert
Figure 6. (Left) Mammoth image engraved using the burinated tip of an expedient chert flake tool. Enlargement depicts
scratched sides of V-shaped cut grooves and brittle surface edge spalling of degraded bone. (Right) Burinated graver example from site 8WA329. Scanned images prepared by Louis D. Tesar and the 8WA329 artifact image is used with Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research permission.
Needle Tip Pointed
-Shaped Cone-Shaped
Diamond Diamond
Encrusted Encrusted
Dremel Dremel
Used As A Used As A
e (Graver (1) Graver (1) AdA
AAnd As A Dremel (2) Dremel (2)
Figure 7. Mammoth images engraved using needle tip-shaped (Left) and pointed cone-shaped (Right) diamond encrusted Dremel bits as gravers and drill bits. Enlargement shows V-shaped graver grooves (1) and rounded rotary marked grooves
(2). Images prepared by Louis D. Tesar.

2 U BAR Catalog
m Engraved Animal Jaw Fragment
Figure 8. Engraved fresh animal jaw bone (fragment). Enlargement shows crisp engraved cut marks and subsequent uniform surface weathering. Image prepared by Louis D. Tesar and used with Florida Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research permission.
patination occurring on artifacts in many Florida River settings. to the bottom of the right foreleg" (Purdy et al. 2011:2909). The artifact (Catalog number is in the collection Figure 9 (top) depicts an image of the Smithsonian prepared managed by the Florida Department of State, Division of cast given to Andrew C. Hemmings and Figure 9 (bottom) Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research. depicts enlargements of the engraved image to show decorative
The examples shown above demonstrate the surface element details.
and cut mark characteristics of engraved fresh (green) bone, Using an optical microscope, Purdy et al. (2011:2911) weathered bone, and partially mineralized weathered bone of report the image reveals "the margins of the cut mark on the various ages and from different settings. Their comparison bone are smoothed and rounded and the floor of the cut mark assists in determining whether the Vero Beach bone was shows the same coloration and environmental inclusions as the fresh or weathered when the mammoth image was engraved rest of the bone." Purdy et al. (2011:2911) interpret widened on its surface. cut edges as the result of subsequent surface weathering
erosion, rather than edge spalling that occurred from engraving
The Vero Beach Mammoth Engraved Bone already brittle weathered bone. They conclude those features
indicate the effect of natural weathering and that the engraving
The engraved Vero Beach, Florida mineralized bone was was not done recently. However, please compare Purdy et al. sent to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., where 2011:2909-2910 [Figures l b and Figure 3b, respectively] with a mold and casts of it were made (Purdy 20 12:205). A flexible this report Figures 4-7 and 9 for an alternative interpretation. mold formed on the surface of an object will have the same They also fail to explain how the broken bone edges surface details, although in mirror image. Fabrication details became battered and rounded without that weathering process of the Vero Beach mammoth engraving are revealed on a cast affecting the more delicate, shallow engraving (see Purdy et of the object made by Smithsonian Institution staff. Surface al. 2011:2909 Figure l a and this report Figure 9 top). And staining and a clear (transparent) sealant preservative were yet, providing alternative interpretive information Purdy applied to the white-colored cast material to give it a more (20 12:206) cites March 8, 2010 personal correspondence from realistic river stained appearance. The sealant on the cast Thomas W. Stafford, Jr., in which he concludes that the bone imparts a minuscule more rounded appearance to the cut lines has post-mortem grooves and lines likely caused by "root than would be seen in the mold. Nonetheless, the casts reveal etching, fungal growth, in situ abrasion against other bones a wealth of visual information on the object's surface features or harder objects in the sediments, damage and erosion during and the characteristics of the cut marks. stream transport, and insect, snail, and other invertebrates
The dimensions of the Vero Beach mammoth engraving using the bone as a source of nutrition or calcium;" and, also are as follows: "The length of the design is ca. 7.5 cm (3 inches) observes: "The lines making up the engraved image extend from the top of the head to the tip of the tail; the height of the across the shallow grooves. Therefore, the engraving was design is ca. 4.5 cm (1.75 inches) from the top of the head done after the shallow groves formed."

Modern Fabrication of the Vero Beach Purdy et al. (2011:2911) write that scanning electron
Mammoth Engraving microscope imaging of an incision of the engraved tusk
"supports the probability that ... the bottom of the incised line
Given the information provided above, I disagree and the surrounding materials aged at the same time in the
with the Purdy et al. (2011:2912) assertion that Reflective same environment." While they meant the statement to be Transformation Imaging "suggests that the engraving occurred applied more broadly, I suggest that the following comments before the bone broke and/or weathered." The engraving by Stafford indicate a more restricted time line application. clearly occurred long after the bone had broken and weathered, Stafford, who inspected the object on March 5, 2010, and I suspect after the mineralization process had begun. The notes: "The black to very dark brown pyrolusite (Mn02) question then is "when did the engraving occur?" patination on the bone is extremely thin ... and is a distinct
Figure 9. (top) View of exterior surface of the cast of the Vero Beach bone fragment with the mammoth engraving. (bottom) Enlarged views of the engraved image to show degraded bone spalled cut mark edges (1), pseudo-rotary like cut marks
(2), and one of few U-shaped cut grooves (3). Scanned images prepared by Louis D. Tesar and used with permission of Andrew C. Hemmings, owner of the cast.

layer that exists on the bone surface;" that "such coatings facilitate the commercial collection, buying and selling of require years to a few decades, not millennia, to form;" and artifacts from state-owned and -controlled lands, particularly concludes: "I feel that the pyrolusite is a twentieth century sovereignty submerged land. Two bills submitted during the patination initiated by geochemical conditions caused by canal 2015 legislative session did not excluded items from human construction" (Purdy 2012:206-207 citing Stafford March 8, burial sites, thereby negating the present protective provisions 2010 personal correspondence). of both Chapters 267 and 872, Florida Statutes, had they
It seems likely that canal construction at Vero Beach and succeeded in becoming law. subsequent land use excavation in the area exposed Pleistocene
bone remains, one of which was collected and subsequently Acknowledgments
engraved. Considering that issue Purdy hypothesizes that
if the engraving is modem then the bone and its subsequent I thank Dr. Andrew C. Hemmings for permitting me to
modification likely occurred between 1910-1960 "based on prepare flatbed scanner photographic images of his cast of the Vero the history of the Old Vero site" (2012:206). Beach bone with an engraved mammoth image and for granting
Purdy (2012:210-214) discusses Sellard's 1915 and permission to use the images in this and other presentations. I
1916 investigations at site 81R9 and the Tarzan Park tourist also thank the owners of the Florida artifacts who granted similar attraction that operated from 1932 to about 1934 and featured permission to prepare and use scanned images of the other Vero Pleistocene remains. Purdy (2012:212) acknowledges, artifacts depicted in this report. Further, I thank the Editors of "1934 to the twenty-first century furnishes sufficient time, this journal and the three reviewers of an earlier version of this as mentioned by Thomas W. Stafford, Jr., for the thin patina article that suffered from excessive redundancies. The present of pyrolusite to form on the surface of the incised bone if it version markedly benefited from their comments and suggestions. was created for Tarzan Park and then discarded in the vicinity
when the facility closed." References Cited
While Purdy (2012:206) considered and subsequently
rejected fabrication of the engraving between 1910-1960, one Anderson, David G., R. Gerald Ledbetter, and Lisa O'Steen of the anonymous reviewers (2016, Reviewer 2 Comments) 1990 Paleoindian Period Archaeology of Georgia. University
of a draft version of this article wrote: "Frank Vento, staff of Georgia, Laboratory of Archaeology Series Report
Geologist on the Vero Project, contacted a mineralogist who Number 28/Georgia Archaeological Research Design
indicated that in the proper wet conditions a thin coating of Paper No, 6, Athens.
MnO2 can form in as little as 2 days. Also, we recovered
coins post 2000 in the overburden that are coated with this as Gramly, Richard Michael well. It is entirely possible to fake the patina by just putting 1990 Guide to the Paleo-Indian Artifacts of North America. the carving in the ground on site for a short, necessarily wet, Persimmon Press Monographs in Archaeology, Buffalo,
period of time." Thus, is has been demonstrated that the New York.
engraving of the mammoth image on the mineralized bone
could have occurred more recently, following which it could Otto, L. Jahn, and Ripley P. Bullen have been placed in the wet setting for it to acquire its thin 1978 The Tick Island Site, St. Johns River, Florida. Florida pyrolusite patination coating. Anthropological Society Publications 10.
Conclusions Purdy, Barbara A.
2012 The Mammoth Engraving from Vero Beach, Florida:
I believe that I and, as Purdy (20 12:205) notes, others Ancient or Recent? The Florida Anthropologist
have an honest difference of opinion with Purdy et al. (2011) 65(4):205-2 17.
and Purdy (2012) on the antiquity of the mammoth engraving.
Purdy (2012:215) reports that the object was sold on the Purdy, Barbara A., Kevin S. Jones, John J. Macholsky, Gerald antiquities market and is unavailable for further study. The Bourne, Richard C. Hulbert, Jr., Bruce J. MacFadden, Krista mold of the object, however, retains the surface details of L. Church, Michael W. Warren, Thomas F. Jorstad, Dennis J. the object and I hope that it and casts made from it will be Stanford, Melvin J. Wachowiak, and Robert J. Speakman available to others for study to determine whether I am correct 2011 Earliest art in the Americas: incised image of a or in error concerning my interpretation of the object's surface proboscidian on mineralized extinct animal bone from features as they relate to its fabrication and antiquity. Vero Beach, Florida. Journal of Archaeological Science
My review here also is intended to serve as a cautionary 38:2908-2913.
note lest similar "ancient art" be "found" and make its way
into the antiquities market. Indeed, with respect to authentic Watts, Steve artifacts that market has stimulated groups of commercial 1999 Bone Working Basics. In Primitive Technology: A collectors and represents a growing threat to Florida's Book of Earth Skills, edited by David Wescott, pp 62archaeological resources. The threat includes a concerted 64, Society of Primitive Technology. Gibbs-Smith
effort to amend Florida's historic preservation laws to Publisher, Salt Lake City.

End Notes Recreational divers collected thousands of artifacts and
Pleistocene faunal remains from Florida's rivers, particularly 1. The cast of the mineralized bone with an engraved at springheads and along karst drainage systems. The advent of mammoth image was one of several prepared at the Smithsonian the self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) Institution and was given to Andrew C. Hemmings without markedly increased the capability of divers to explore
restrictions on its use (Andrew C. Hemmings personal underwater settings in their search for prehistoric and historic
communication with Louis D. Tesar, October 5, 2012). Dr. antiquities and vertebrate fossils in Florida's shallow coastal Hemmings gave me permission to prepare flatbed scanner waters and rivers. The collection activities began as and for
Photoshop images of the cast. the majority of divers continued as a hobbyist activity, but in
I scanned the entire cast (exterior and interior) at 600 recent decades have been subverted by growing numbers of dpi and specific decorated areas at 1200 dpi and 2400 dpi. divers engaged in collecting objects for their monetary value Layering 1200 and 2400 dpi images on a 600 dpi background and sale to antiquities collectors. produces enlargements without loss of image quality. Copies The lowered acidity of calcium carbonate laden and
of the scanned images were provided to Dr. Hemmings for his anaerobic soils in submerged sites have preserved fragile use, and I received his permission to likewise use them without organic cultural remains generally absent in upland sites. Thus, restriction. They are incorporated in comparative artifact type submerged archaeological sites with stratigraphic integrity files of thousands of scanned images of antiquities, primarily are recognized as being of exceptional cultural significance. stone and ceramic, and recently fabricated objects that I have Florida has more such sites than any other state. They are the prepared and assembled since 2002. state-owned sites identified for preservation and restricted
The scanned images permitted me to study in detail the professional archaeological investigation. They are also the same features on the object as those studied by Purdy et al. sites most sought after by artifact collectors, especially those (2011). Also, I have used original scanned images that I made searching for items to sell on the antiquities market. of objects with owner permission as they require no reprinting In spite of the growing lure of the antiquities market, permission as would already published images. several long term hobbyist collectors have donated their
collections or artifacts of particular interest and significance in 2. The carved bone artifact from the Wacissa River was those collections to publicly managed museums, anthropology collected May 20, 2003 and reported in accordance with departments, and/or to the Florida Division of Historical
Isolated Finds (IF) Program procedures, before that program Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research to assure their was terminated. It was listed and photographically depicted public display and professional analysis. The conscientious in the collector's Isolated Finds Form report (Florida Master efforts of such collectors are encouraged and lauded. The Site File IF report # 681) and ownership of it and the other stewardship of Florida's cultural resources depends on the reported artifact was subsequently conveyed to the collector diligence of its citizens. in accordance with program procedures. As I worked in the same office complex, the collector brought the bone artifact to me to prepare scanned images as I had done with other collector artifacts. However, in recognition of its importance, on October 21, 2016 the collector donated the bone artifact to the Florida Division of Historical Resources and it has been accessioned as BAR 16.93.
It is noted that the IF program was terminated when it became apparent that there was a widespread non-reporting problem; one documented in part by images of artifacts offered for sale on eBay. The problem centered on individuals collecting for commercial sale purposes, as they reportedly did not wish to chance the State exercising its option to retain ownership of important artifact examples. The problem grew as those individuals spread rumors that the State was keeping all high market value artifacts. In fact, during the existence of the IF program no artifacts were "taken" from finds reported by collectors; although, digital images and molds were made of some of them and subsequently some were donated to the State by the collectors. In fact all of the unreported artifacts collected from Florida rivers during and subsequent to the termination of the Isolated Finds program remain State property, since transfer of State title to the collector could only occur for those artifacts reported in accordance with IF program procedures.

Department ofAnthropology, University of South Florida, 4202 East. Fowler Avenue, SOC 107, Tampa, FL 33620 E-mail: nmw@usfedu, ekimble@usfedu
Recent archaeological research on St. Vincent Island, might be off the middle-west side of the north shore, under St. a National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and northwest Florida's Vincent Sound, just west of the Pickalene oyster bar. largest barrier island (Figures 1, 2), has documented an Historically, the island had a string of wealthy owners,
extensive material record dating from Paleo-Indian through who used it mostly as a hunting preserve (Hornaday 1909), protohistoric times. Field survey, limited testing, and archival even importing exotic game animals; large Asian Sambar and collections research now permit a comprehensive deer remain today. In 1968 St. Vincent became one of over
examination of the human habitation and long-term use of 500 refuges run by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, with the island. The data alter existing interpretations of settlement patterns w R.. I 9M "M
and other reconstructions of past GO I
native life in this region for some ...
time periods.
Environmental Setting
St. Vincent is the closest barrier island to the mainland in the Apalachicola delta region. Indian Pass, at its northwest end, named after the highly visible archaeological record on both sides of it, is only 500 m wide. At the southeast end, the island is separated from the west
~La k e
end of Little St. George Island by Wfno
West Pass, which is less than 1 km wide. St. Vincent Sound, the arm of Apalachicola Bay that separates st. Joseph say the island from the mainland, is less than two meters deep in most places (Twichell et al. 2007).
St. Vincent differs from the other barrier islands in that it is triangular and wide, not long and thin, 14 km east-west at the north end, and a Pickalone St Vincent
maximum 6 km north-south. Its I a
ridge-and-swale topography has india, pas ****
dune/beach ridges 1-2 meters high Cape San Bias
and ca. 30 meters apart (Campbell 1986). Over its 4000-year lifetime, ..............more than 100 ridges formed during wet a
the late Holocene (Forrest 2007) as G. ,,,
the island began to accrete (Campbell G u I f o f Me x i c o
1986; Stapor and Tanner 1977). Fresh water accumulates in swales, ponds, and small creeks (Edmiston Figure 1. Location of St. Vincent Island in northwest Florida's Apalachicola 2008:40). A possible drowned spring delta region.

. core
aSt. Vincent Sound
C ~ ~361 33 ..
G ulf of N~xco... '
0 2
2. St. Vincent Island: (top) map showing sites (prefix "8FR" omitted from site numbers), subsurface tests, and network of dirt roads; (bottom) LiDAR image showing elevation; darker shading indicates higher elevations of ridges, up to 2 m (adapted from White and Kimble 2016:Figure 4, by Jeff Du Vernay).
many habitats managed for wildlife and the visiting public, constantly washing out of the north and east shores. and 80 miles of dirt roads (Davis and Mokray 2000). Most St. Vincent could be one of the oldest barrier islands in
recreational use of the island is around the main entrance at Florida (Stapor and Tanner 1977). The east side of the north the northwest point and the west side of the north shore. At the shore is the oldest segment, with three major east-southeastsoutheast tip are the standing early nineteenth-century house trending ridges (now the lowest at <2 m high) formed in and maintenance structures. Prehistoric shell middens are sequence. Sea level research in the Gulf of Mexico has

centered on the dating and formation processes of St. Vincent's
beach ridges and involves much debate (Thomas 2011 has a
good summary). The more recent work has archaeological
corroboration (Balsillie and Donoghue 2004; Walker et al.
1995). The youngest ridges, on the western and southern
sides, probably date to about 400-500 years ago (Donoghue
1991:77). Stapor and Tanner (1977:35) proposed that, since
beach-ridge height is related to wave height, sea level must
have been about 1.5 m lower than at present in order to form
the oldest beach ridges that are now only one meter high. We
collaborated with geologists Frank Stapor and Joe Donoghue to
obtain new dates to address questions of sea-level fluctuations.
The hypothesis that a sea-level high-stand of approximately
.7 m above present occurred at some time between 1300 and
1000 years ago (Balsillie and Donoghue 2004; Donoghue and
White 1995:655; Walker et al. 1995) is supported by our work Figure 3. Shell midden deposits estimated to be 2 m thick, (discussed below), from Pickalene midden area, St. Vincent 5 and 6 sites
Our new data suggest that the oldest archaeological (8FR364 and 365), in the 1970s; considerably less remains materials from the island are Paleo-Indian projectile points, today (photo courtesy of Frank Stapor). at ca. 13,000 years B.P., deposited by people living there
during the Pleistocene when the area was not an island but Although the Gulf, Bay, and Sound waters were too well inland, and probably riverbank. Fiber-tempered pottery, saline to drink, they provided abundant aquatic species for the oldest ceramics in North America at about 4000+ B.P., past peoples to harvest. The inlet of Big Bayou cuts into the observed eroding out of deep peat deposits on the north shore, north shore of the island, expanding the available sheltered may have been deposited as the island was forming. The coastline for settlement and protection of watercraft. Besides prehistoric cultural evidence comprises an almost continuous seafood, terrestrial animals and birds are also abundant. shell-midden ridge or strata extending along the western St. Vincent Island has forests of pine, oak, palm, cypress portion of the north shore of the island (and probably once wetlands, and a wide variety of other trees, as well as a large continuous along the eastern portion of the north shore until amount of brushy vegetation, such as rosemary and sea oats most washed away), and also about halfway down the east growing on the dunes (Johnson and Barbour 1990). Multiple shore, and along the north shore of the Big Bayou inlet, habitat types identified on the island include wetlands, dunes
Storms in the last three to five decades have washed away with live oak and other trees, cabbage palm stands, and four much of the archaeological deposits and have redeposited different slash-pine communities. The broad spectrum of plant shell-midden material, sometimes making it hard to tell communities provides habitat for abundant animals, including what is original midden and what is disturbed. Given their 11 amphibian, 42 reptile, 39 fish, 277 bird, and 28 mammal positions relative to winds, rain, and waves, St. Vincent and species, even the occasional manatee during warm months the other barrier formations are always extremely dynamic (McCarthy 2004; U.S. Department of the Interior 2012). The landforms. A single storm can rip off pieces from one area island is an important stop-off point for neotropical migratory and redeposit them elsewhere; historic shoreline loss on Little birds and a nesting place for loggerheads and other sea turtles. St. George Island is estimated at between 0.2 and 4.3 m per St. Vincent is said to have been the first place eagles nested in year (Donoghue et al. 1990:6; Sankar 2015 :xv, 113). Lately, Florida as they recovered from the population crash caused by however, storm regimes may have become even more intense the insecticide DDT in the 1 960s (Cernlean 2015:120). (Joe Donoghue, personal communication, 2010). Figure 3
shows the appearance of the Pickalene Midden area (center History of Investigation
west side of north shore) in the 1 970s, recently damaged by a
storm even then, but still showing 2 m of shell midden in the Recorded archaeology on St. Vincent Island began during exposed bank. Our 2009 excavations, into the thickest portion the last half-century with Florida State University's David of the St. Vincent 5 site (8FR364) near the place in the photo, Phelps. Probably responding to information from the refuge about 40 m back from the shoreline, encountered only 1 m manager at the time, Phelps visited and excavated at a few of shell midden, which thinned out moving northward toward sites, but never wrote a report. It is not known exactly where the shore. Why recent storms are so much more destructive his excavations were, and site numbers he assigned were is unknown. We suspect human action, including that related confusing. He took materials and records when he went to to climate change, and think it is worth investigating why East Carolina University in 1970. Some were returned, and archaeological sites that have existed there for at least 1500 there are boxes of artifacts in the FSU collections labeled St. years are suddenly disappearing. Meanwhile, a major goal of Vincent Island, but it was difficult to make sense of them as our work has been simply to document what is still present, they had either no proveniences or confusing proveniences including what might have been salvaged by others. with contradictory labels.

James Miller, John Griffin, and colleagues at Cultural research for years at the Bureau of Archaeological Research Resources Management, Inc., Tallahassee, surveyed on St. in Tallahassee and the Florida Museum of Natural History Vincent Island in November 1978 in advance of proposed in Gainesville. Standard field methods were employed: 50construction of refuge facilities, concentrating on a few areas cm2 shovel tests at judgmentally-chosen locations; all soils during their nine fieldworker-days. They noted that the 14 sites screened through 1/4" mesh; waterscreening through 1/8" mesh known at that time were all shell middens discovered mostly at the test units, 1-liter soil samples for permanent curation by refuge personnel (Miller et al. 1980:2, 5). They assigned and 9-liter soil samples from all levels processed by flotation site numbers for the Florida Master Site File that corresponded (A fraction 1/4" [6.35 mm] screen; B fraction .034" [.86 mm] as closely as possible with Phelps's data. Accompanying them screen; C fraction .0016" [.29 mm] screen). Our coverage was geologist Frank W. Stapor, who had been at FSU and of the island interior was expanded with information from a
worked with Phelps in the late 1960s and early '70s. Stapor geological testing project (Forrest 2007) that had involved sought to reconstruct regional sea-level fluctuations using St. extensive machine trenching. The public archaeology Vincent geological and archaeological data. Miller et al. (1980) component of the project included outreach to avocational, revisited and/or summarized Phelps's sites and recorded some which brought in great amounts of information. One collector new ones. Stapor and William F. Tanner (1977) studied past had been obtaining materials for 25 years, coming to realize sea-level evidence observed within the stratification at the it was illegal; but he kept notes, a computer database, and Paradise Point site, 8FR71, at the northeast tip of the island, artifacts in labeled plastic boxes. He allowed us to study these on the oldest beach ridge, where shell midden layers lay over materials and then in 2013 decided to donate the whole huge and under a stratum of gray clay deposited by what they collection (which we had to retrieve from Mississippi, where
considered to be a higher-than-present sea-level stand. The he had moved). We have no reason to doubt that these artifacts implication was that people came before and after that time, came from the assigned sites, especially because he wrote when it was dry land. Another coastal expert, geologist Joe detailed, word-processed, dated field notes after each trip to Donoghue, continued this research (Balsillie and Donoghue the island. 2004; Donoghue 1991). Luckily, we could coordinate our We documented 19 aboriginal archaeological sites (Table
2010 work at Paradise Point with that of these geologists. 1), most with multiple cultural components and possible In 1981, Southeastern Wildlife Services (now Southeastern components (Table 2). All are shoreline shell middens of Archaeological Services, Inc.) of Athens, Georgia, conducted varying density. They are detailed in Kimble's (2012) M.A. archaeological testing at Paradise Point. A human burial had thesis and our comprehensive report (White and Kimble just washed out, and detrimental erosion continued. The two- 2016) and summarized by time period below. No prehistoric man field crew spent 10 autumn days mapping and digging cultural materials were present in the island interior, whether
10 excavation units, recovering Fort Walton and Woodland in our subsurface tests or the geological trenches (shown in materials, and documenting the gray clay layer as well Figure 2). Two historic sites, a shipwreck and a Civil War
(Braley1982). fort's earthworks (FR56 and FR359, respectively), along
In April of 2004, more human skeletal materials were with early twentieth-century structures, sit on the southeast discovered on the island's north shore near Pickalene Bar, near tip of the island, near the Gulf of Mexico, and are not further the St. Vincent 6 site, 8FR365, which has occupation ranging discussed here. It is no surprise that Native American sites from Late Archaic through protohistoric. After some looting extend continuously along the north and east shores, but are and illegal transport of bones, NWR staff recovered the not present on the south and southwest shores facing the Gulf.
remains. Following consultation with Native American tribal The fresh water, sheltered locales, less dynamic waves and representatives, as required by federal regulations, Southeast shallower water of the bay sides were more attractive. In the Region NWR archaeologist Richard Kanaski excavated and center of the west side of the north shore, an oyster reef named
reburied the remains at an undisclosed location. Pickalene Bar runs north-south across St. Vincent Sound, and
off the northeast tip of the island is another rich oyster reef,
Current Research Dry Bar (see Figure 1), though oysters are available in any
bay waters. The abundance of these shellfish and other aquatic
The University of South Florida (USF) comprehensive resources explains the concentrations of sites in these areas.
survey project was undertaken at the request of the local While Miller et al. (1980) drew discrete polygons indicating volunteer group, the Supporters of St. Vincent National site boundaries, we often found that the differently-numbered
Wildlife Refuge, who saw how federal refuge managers had sites merged at these arbitrary edges, but we kept to the struggled to deal with protecting the resources. With the USF established site numbers to make data comparable. archaeological field school in summer 2009, we surveyed the
north and east shorelines, parts of the interior and remaining Paleo-Indian
shorelines, and many kilometers of the dirt roads. We also
shovel-tested to establish site boundaries and check interior Four sites produced a total of 21 Paleo-Indian points. A areas with no known sites, and conducted test excavation at Dalton was recovered from the surface during salvage at the the St. Vincent 5 site, 8FR364. We returned in March 2010 Paradise Point site (Braley 1982), but the remainder all came for testing at Paradise Point, and did archival and collections from the donated collection (Figure 4), and help validate the

Table 1. Native American archaeological sites on St. Vincent Island
No. Name Location Cultural Components
8FR71 Paradise Point E side of N shore Paleo? MArch, LArch, EWd? MWd, LWd, FW, Lamar, LC/Sem
8FR352 St. Vincent Island Ferry N shore right across Indian Pass LArch? MWd? LWd? FW, Lamar
8FR354 St. Vincent Point N end of E shore point Paleo, EWd, FW
8FR356 Big Bayou 1 S shore Big Bayou Wd? FW?
8FR357 Big Bayou 2 S shore Big Bayou 800 m E of Fr356 FW
8FR360 St. Vincent 1 N shore L Arch, E/MWd, FW?
8FR361 St. Vincent 2 N shore LArch, E/MWd, FW
8FR362 St. Vincent 3 N shore Paleo, Arch, EWd, MWd? LWd? FW
8FR363 St. Vincent 4 N shore E/MWd
8FR364 St. Vincent 5 (Pickalene midden) N shore Paleo, EArch, MArch, LArch, EWd, MWd, LWd? FW, Lamar
8FR365 St. Vincent 6 N shore LArch, EWd, MWd? LWd? FW, Lamar, LC-Sem?
8FR366 St. Vincent 7 N shore MWd, LWd? FW Z
8FR367 St. Vincent 8 N shore EWd, MWd
8FR368 St. Vincent 9 N shore FW
8FR369 St. Vincent 10 SW shore (mouth of) Big Bayou FW, LC-Sem?
8FR370 St. Vincent 11 NE shore (mouth of) Big Bayou MWd, LWd? hist Amer
8FR1265 Big Bayou S S shore Big Bayou 1 km W of Fr356 FW
8FR1277 Mallard Slough SE shore S side of Mallard Slough FW?
8FR1367 Little Redfish Cr E side of N shore EArch, MArch, LArch, MWd, LWd? FW, hist Amer
Abbreviations: N-north, S-south, E-east, Paleo-Paleo-Indian, EArch-Early Archaic, MArch-Middle Archaic, LArch-Late Archaic, EWd-Early Woodland, MWd-Middle Woodland, LWd-Late Woodland, FW-Fort Walton, LC-Sem-Lower Creek to Seminole, hist-historic, Amer-American

Table 2. Archaeological components at the 19 Native American sites on St. Vincent Island
Cultural affiliation No. of components (possible additional components)
Paleo-Indian 4
Early Archaic 2
Middle Archaic 2
general Archaic 3
Late Archaic (fiber-tempered ceramics) 7 (1) Early Woodland 9 (2)
Middle Woodland 9 (4)
Late Woodland 2 (7)
Fort Walton 14(3)
Lamar (protohistoric unknown Indian) 4
Creek/Seminole 2(1)
b f
S h
Figure 4. Paleo-Indian points from St. Vincent Island: from St. Vincent 3 site, (a-f) unfluted Clovis (?), USF#JC8Fr362-13-1.27, .39, .45, .52; (g) Santa Fe or Simpson (?) also locally called Chipola point, USF#JC8Fr362-13-1.27; (h) Beaver Lake (?), USF#JC8Fr362-13-1.39; (i-l) probable Clovis (i is resharpened into a graver or chisel), USF# JC8Fr362-13-.39, .45, .52); (m) from Paradise Point site: Clovis (?) USF#JC8Fr71-1.23.

collection's reliability since such rare artifacts would be hard The new evidence from St. Vincent Island suggests that the to obtain if they were not actually there already. The points first people moved along continually, covering the whole include fluted/unfluted Clovis, Santa Fe or Simpson, Suwanee, landscape, and the only reason so few Paleo-Indian sites are and possible Beaver Lake types. They suggest that what is known from the lower valley and coast is that they are deeply now the coast was inhabited as early as the first humans got buried in the Holocene delta. The reason they were found on to northwest Florida, up to 13,000 years ago. All four sites St. Vincent is that recent erosion and sea-level rise cutting are shell middens with later prehistoric cultural components as into the shoreline uncovered those deeply buried deposits and well, and two each are close to the two oyster bars. washed them out onto the beach.
Paleo-Indian habitation on what is now St. Vincent
Island is far older than the island's formation. The points Archaic
are not very eroded or water-worn, with a few (e.g., Figure
4c, d) even retaining some translucent, unweathered areas Preceramic Archaic components are present at four sites, of the chert. They appear to have washed out recently from indicated mostly by points from the donated collection: Early buried deposits at the four sites. These sites may have been Archaic Bolen, Hardaway/ Lost Lake corner-notched types chosen for early settlement because they were on what was (Figure 5), Middle Archaic Benton and other stemmed types, the riverbank during the late Pleistocene. Geological research, and Florida Archaic Stemmed types attributable to Middle including coring in Apalachicola Bay, indicates that the river or Late Archaic (Bullen 1975; Cambron and Hulse 1964). once flowed much farther to the west than its present mouth They indicate long habitation at many locales (probably also indicates (Donoghue et al. 1990). After sea level rose at the riverbank) while the island was still mainland and throughout end of the Pleistocene, the elevated former riverbanks may the period during which sea level rose and the island took have formed a foundation for the later buildup of the barrier shape. At present, we cannot tell if/when there was a hiatus island, as wind- and wave-driven sand piled up on them (and in occupation, as would be expected after sea-level rise then later peoples returned to deposit shell middens). Another and before or during the formation of the barrier island, attraction for Paleo-Indian settlement might have been nearby though this would be a fruitful research topic; such a hiatus springs flowing into the ancient river. A deep spot in St. might have happened around 4000-5000 B.P. (Middle-Late Vincent Sound right near Pickalene Bar could be a drowned Archaic). The points are mostly of pale local chert except for spring. Oysters can be more numerous in areas where more a few of dark-colored non-local stone that may have come fresh water helps keep their predators down, so the location of from afar. Some are eroded and worn but many others, like the Paleo-Indian materials near the two large modem oyster the Paleo-Indian points, are not, suggesting they too came bars might not be unexpected (though oysters would not have from once securely-buried deposits now exposed through the been there during the Pleistocene since the coast of 10,000 increased modern erosion. years ago is today so far out in the Gulf). USF archaeology Ceramic Late Archaic components, present at seven sites, lab data show another Paleo-Indian point found by a collector are represented by plain fiber-tempered pottery, including on the east side of the river mouth, also near a large oyster many water-worn smoothed sherds. Over 80 chert microtools bar. Work in Apalachee Bay, 120 km to the east, has identified (Figure 6) are also from this time period (up to 4500 years Paleo-Indian and Archaic points and other habitation evidence ago; White 2003a, b). Relationships with mound-building at drowned freshwater springs along paleo-channels of the Late Archaic adaptations at Poverty Point, in northeast Aucilla River, some 6-9 km offshore, 4-6 m underwater Louisiana and across the Gulf Coast, are indicated by the (Faught 2004). But the much larger Apalachicola River has
built up a huge delta extending into Apalachicola Bay and the
Gulf (unlike at Apalachee Bay), covering its ancient channels
in tens or hundreds of meters of sediment. The accident of
increased erosion just in recent decades must be what exposed
the long-hidden Paleo-Indian materials.
Paleo-Indian evidence has been scarce in the region
outside the upper and middle valley of the Chipola River, the
Apalachicola's largest tributary (see Figure 1), some 150 km
distant by water from St. Vincent Island. This concentration
along the Chipola was thought to be because that smaller
river was once the original main river channel during the
Pleistocene (White and Trauner 1987). The ancient points
from St. Vincent, as well as some other new data, now require
us to re-examine the picture of the region's earliest settlement
(White 2016). A popular model for the Southeast hypothesized
a few inland "staging areas" from which the earliest human Figure 5. Probable Lost Lake projectile points (very groups moved out to inhabit wider regions (e.g., Anderson weathered) from the Early Archaic component at the and Sassaman 2012:50), with coastal settlement coming later. St. Vincent 5 site (USF# JC8Fr364-15-85 and -100).

microtools, and also fragments of characteristic clay balls or be recovered if dropped into water amid these vast wetlands. Poverty Point Objects, as well as a tiny disk bead of red jasper The clay balls have been demonstrated to be for cooking and (Figure 7). Poverty Point-related material culture is distributed perhaps other less utilitarian function, such as group identity across low-lying wetlands of the northern Gulf Coast, with (Hays et al. 2016). The jasper bead is decorative, but may relatively easy connection by water from the major centers have had social, ritual, or even spiritual symbolism. The great of Poverty Point and Claiborne in northeast Louisiana and extent of Poverty Point interaction networks across waterways southeast Mississippi, respectively, to northwest Florida (e.g., of the Deep South and the Gulf of Mexico to northwest Florida Gibson 2000). Microtools may have been for fashioning indicates significant interconnection of Archaic societies and
wooden artifacts, which are not only easier to make out of easy transport of people, things, and ideas by water. more abundant raw material, but also are able to float and
... ............................. ..........
S6 I nt5 i U
FE W6 aeAcaccetmcool rmteS.Vnet5sie(S#J8r6-5110 olco' ubr nsm)

Figure 7. Exotic artifacts from St. Vincent Island, St. Vincent 5 site: (a) cut mica fragment, USF# JC8Fr364-15-181; (b) galena cube, USF# JC8Fr364-15-182; (c) jasper disc bead, USF# JC8Fr364-15-273; (d) quartz crystal pendant, USF# JC8Fr364-15-119); from Little Redfish Creek site: (e) quartz crystal pendant, USF# JC8Fr1367-14-1-13.
Woodland Incised. Notably, however, it is the only one of 30 Middle
Woodland mounds in the Apalachicola-lower Chattahoochee Early Woodland occupation on St. Vincent Island is seen valley not known (so far) to have Swift Creek pottery. The at nine sites, with two others producing materials that may also sites with the largest Middle Woodland components were St. be of this time period. One clearly diagnostic ceramic type is Deptford Simple-Stamped. Though the check-stamped pottery that began to be made at this time, some 3000 years ago, looks like all the other check-stamped of subsequent times through the contact period, it can be labeled as Deptford Check-Stamped if it has either linear checks (lands of one direction more pronounced than lands of the other direction) or a tetrapodal vessel base.
Middle Woodland components were recognized at nine sites, with an additional possible four others. These are characterized by both Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped and early Weeden Island Incised, Punctated, and Plain ceramics (Figure 8), typical diagnostics in this region (White 2014). In addition, a large number of exotics, such as quartz crystal pendants, a galena cube, and a i
cut mica fragment (see Figure 7) are assumed to be from this time period, associated with the height of burial mound ceremonialism. The nearest known Middle Woodland burial mound is just across Indian Pass from St. Vincent, on the mainland peninsula: the Indian Pass Mound, 8GU 1 (Moore 1902:211-214). It f .........
had numerous Middle Woodland graves with _______________________________elaborate funerary goods, and is known for its Figure 8. Middle Woodland ceramics from St. Vincent 5 site: (a-e) Swift early Weeden Island ceramics, including a type Creek Complicated-Stamped (drilled holes probably for repair), UTSF# JCwith thin, parallel looped and straight incisions 8Fr364-15-2); (1) Weeden Island Incised (#-4); (g) Weeden Island Plain with that Willey (1949:425-27) named Indian Pass raised animal effigy leg (#-6).

Vincent 5, on the west side of the north shore, and the Paradise al. 2012). It is unclear if sociopolitical organization differed Point site at the northeast tip of the island. Both were tested (as from coast to interior. The nearest Fort Walton temple mound described below). center is Pierce Mounds, today in the city of Apalachicola,
Late Woodland materials were identified for certain at some 10-20 km across the bay from St. Vincent Island. Mobile only two sites, with seven more possible components from this fisherfolk could have traveled there for important occasions time period. Few artifact types are truly diagnostic for Late involving social aggregation, economic interaction, sports, Woodland. It is characterized by mostly check-stamped and religious or other ritual events. Two cobmarked sherds among plain ceramics and late Weeden Island types such as Carrabelle the thousands from St. Vincent island suggest interaction with Punctate/Incised and Keith Incised. By this time there are few inland farmers. Perhaps smoked fish or shellfish and coastal or no early Weeden Island or Swift Creek ceramics or Middle yaupon holly used to brew traditional black drink were traded Woodland exotic materials. Dates on our test excavation at inland for maize? the St. Vincent 5 site showed continuous or repeated Middle
through Late Woodland habitation (discussed below). Protohistoric/Historic Native Americans
Fort Walton Old World invaders are first recorded on the northern Gulf
Coast with the Panfilo de Narvaiez expedition in 1528 (Covey
The most abundant diagnostic artifacts from St. Vincent 1961), which moved north through the Florida peninsula and Island are Fort Walton Incised and Point Washington Incised into Tallahassee, then to the coast before sailing away. Though potsherds, including several rim effigies (Figure 9). Late it is debated whether they visited the Apalachicola delta region, prehistoric Fort Walton components were present at 14 sites, we think Narvitez's crew made it to St. Vincent Island. They and possibly at three additional sites that had the gritty plain were desperate and eating their horses at the "Bay of Horses" pottery typical of this time period. Inland Fort Walton people (probably St. Marks, south of Tallahassee), when they decided in the Apalachicola delta region were intensive agriculturalists to build rafts and move by water instead of trek overland. They who produced maize and other cultigens, while also hunting, left on 22 September 1528, sailing westward for seven days in fishing, and gathering wild plants and animals. On the sheltered, shallow waters out of sight of the open Gulf. This
coast and in estuarine areas, however, Fort Walton groups route had to have been through Apalachicola Bay behind the apparently continued subsistence strategies of their ancestors, barrier islands, including along the north shore of St. Vincent collecting only wild resources, especially aquatic species, as Island. Such a route matches the description (Covey 1961:47demonstrated in the continuous record of many shell midden 50) in the only chronicle of the expedition, by Alvar N iez sites; they apparently did not farm, but may have obtained Cabeza de Vaca, one of the only four who ultimately survived agricultural products from upriver (White 2014; White et it. They were medieval men with little knowledge of seafaring,
Figure 9. Fort Walton ceramics from Paradise Point site: (a-e) Fort Walton Incised, all rims except e is body sherd, USF# JC8Fr71-1.4; (f) Point Washington Incised rim with interior-facing bird effigy (#1.2).

but modem kayakers can go from St. Marks to St. Vincent in in the rest of the valley or on the coast. Some names of native between 5-9 days. The Spaniards approached an island close groups are known the Chine, Chatot or Chacato, Sabacola, to the mainland, and stopped there to steal some Indian canoes, Tawasa (Hann 2006) but there is no archaeological evidence and then at some Indian houses to steal food (dried skates or for where they lived, though the Spanish at the Apalachee rays and roe). They then went another 2 leagues (between 5.25 mission of San Luis in Tallahassee recorded the Chine as and 10 miles [8.5-16 kin]) until they reached a strait (which being coastal dwellers. These protohistoric native groups they named San Miguel) through which they passed to emerge had a different material culture, generic incised ceramics that at the open ocean. St. Vincent is 8-9 miles (12-14 kin) wide at may be diagnostic of the mission period and representative its wide north end, and comes very close to the mainland at of the amalgamated societies of refugees and survivors left Indian Pass; San Miguel strait had to have been Indian Pass. after devastation from colonial violence and diseases. Such After stopping at the end of this strait to use the canoes to coalescent societies struggled to survive with new, blended repair their rafts, the hapless explorers then proceeded on identities (Ethridge 2009), though we do not always know the rest of their historic journey. They may have left a few which named Indian groups they represented or how to of their artifacts and/or germs, and they certainly document recognize them archaeologically. the presence of natives living and fishing on the island's north One interesting archaeological manifestation dating shore in the early fall season. around 1700 is Lamar, characterized by distinctive Lamar
After this Spanish intrusion in the early sixteenth century, Complicated-Stamped ceramics, usually with heavy grit Fort Walton material culture disappeared by 1650-1700. temper, folded and notched rims, and sloppy stamped patterns By the mission period in the later 1600s, there are a few on the surface (Figure 10). Not many Lamar sites are known documented Spanish attempts to establish settlements near the from the Apalachicola delta area (White et al. 2012), nor are headwaters of the Apalachicola River and forks of the Flint the ethnic identities of the people. Lamar pottery was also and Chattahoochee, but little information on who was living characteristic of the Apalachee Indians at the Spanish missions
Figure 10. Lamar sherds from the St. Vincent 5 site, all USF# JC8Fr364-15-1.1" (a) Lamar Complicated-Stamped with cross-in-circle motif common in the late prehistoric Southeast (though it might also be a sloppy, large-grit-tempered Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped); (b-d) Lamar Plain with varieties of notched, folded rim treatments (c is grog-tempered, with a square chunk of dark red grog visible in bottom of photo).

in Tallahassee, and other groups such as the Cherokee in Testing Woodland Components at Two Sites
north Georgia, though the Apalachee ceramics were heavily
grog-tempered and the rest of Lamar is mostly grit-tempered. St. Vincent 5 site, 8FR364 Whoever Lamar people were, they also disappeared, by the
early eighteenth century. Spain's missions in Florida were St. Vincent 5 site, at Pickalene Bar, was selected for destroyed in 1704 by the British and their Creek Indian allies testing as it contained the most intact and diverse midden attacking from Georgia. Lamar ceramics are known from four components. Abundant cultural materials have been recovered St. Vincent sites, supporting the model that they represent here, especially after recent storms, which took out sections unknown Indians fleeing these attacks and moving westward of midden, even some of the shell road, then redeoposited to French territory. Lamar sites are mostly on the bay sides of them back on top of the site. Our 1 -x- 1 -m test unit, located barrier islands, where people might have stopped safely during back from the shore in the thickest midden, aimed to find such flight. Later, Creeks themselves moved into the upper intact deposits and get controlled information. We chose a Apalachicola, and must have visited St. Vincent Island rarely, spot near a recent treefall where thick black sand with oyster as two, possibly three sites have a couple of sherds of their shells and artifacts clung to upended roots. This unit, Test Unit distinctive Chattahoochee Brushed pottery; one of these, St. A, turned out to be a good sample of undisturbed MiddleVincent 10 site, 8FR369 also produced a British and an Indian to-Late-Woodland deposits, solid oyster midden extending a (local chert) gunflint. meter deep, with dark midden sand devoid of shell continuing
another 10 cm below that until the culturally-sterile white
Other Material Culture beach sand was reached. We also picked up Fort Walton sherds
on the shoreline surface, but nothing from all the other time
Other prehistoric artifacts not assignable to a particular periods, whose habitation debris has probably washed away. time period or cultural affiliation have been picked up on Table 3 lists materials recovered by the USF investigations. St. Vincent Island's beaches. Multiple greenstone celts The arbitrary 10-cm levels of TUA produced only four are probably from Fort Walton or Middle Woodland times. diagnostics among the check-stamped and plain sherds: two Shell pins, awls and other columella tools, pendants, scoops, Keith Incised and two Swift Creek Complicated-Stamped. spatulas, and scrapers have also been recovered, as well as A radiocarbon date on charcoal from Level 4 was a good some debitage from shellworking, mostly with lightning indicator of Late Woodland, at cal. A.D. 870-1010 (2-sigma
whelk (Busycon sinistrum), and occasionally horse conch range). Charcoal from Level 10, the deepest shell refuse (Triplofusus giganteus). A curious item is a cut trianglar deposits, dated to cal. A.D. 560-660 (2-sigma), indicating a section from a quahog (Mercenaria) clamshell; at least a half time late in the Middle Woodland. The dates suggest that the dozen of these were found, as well as a whole shell minus 60 cm of deposits between these two levels took about 330 a cut triangle, all from the St.Vincent 5 site, 8FR364. This years to accumulate, averaging 18 cm of shell garbage per species is not usually found in panhandle shell middens or century for this area of the site. other sites, except when its hard, thick shell is made into Some of the Middle Woodland artifacts from St. Vincent tools, but the function of such objects is unknown. At several 5 in the donated collection are elaborate (see Figures 7, 8); sites a collector picked up dozens of lumpy, rounded fossils high-status items not pictured include a ceramic ear (?) disk that appear to be dolphin internal ear bones; though these are fragment and several shiny stones. Such objects may indicate probably natural, it is equally likely that past people picked special behavior, even while people stayed at the fishing camp. them up for some purpose. Surface lithic materials recovered by collectors included
points, scrapers, microtools, cores, a large biface (27 cm
Native People long, 1.9 kg), and debitage of agatized coral, local chert, and
Tallahatta sandstone (probably from Alabama); any of these
Though no burial mound is known on St. Vincent Island, may be associated with the Woodland components. Ground human remains representing approximately seven individuals stone from the site included 44 greenstone celt fragments and have washed out of St. Vincent Island over the years (Braley hones of sandstone and limestone. 1982; White and Kimble 2016), one from Paradise Point site Flotation samples from each level of TUA (totaling 99 (8FR71) and the rest from St. Vincent 5 or 6 sites, 8FR364- liters of soil) contained abundant faunal remains, which were 365. The two most recent were reburied, as noted. The other analyzed by Rochelle Marrinan and her paleonutrition class five sets of remains (teeth, jaws, a cranial fragment), recovered at Florida State University. Table 4 presents a composite decades ago, were studied by bioarchaeologists and found tabulation of these, including number of identified specimens to represent three young adults with worn but healthy teeth (NISP) and minimum number of individuals (MNI) for (one had two healed blows to the head), and two middle- each animal that they represent. Some 30 vertebrate and 18 aged men with worn teeth and dental problems (one with invertebrate taxa were identified; 80 percent of the biomass temporomandibular joint disorder [TMJD]). The ages and and 92 percent of the individual animals represented were
cultural affiliations of these remains are unknown. ray-finned fish, especially mullet, but also drums, catfishes,
seatrout, and gar. Birds, chameleon, crab, and land and sea
turtle bones were identified. Mammals represented were deer,

Table 3. Cultural materials from USF investigations at St. Vincent 5 site, 8FR364, surface and TUA levels (counts [N], weights [Wt] to nearest gram).
Provenience: Surface L 1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L 0 Li Mixed Totals
Type N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt N Wt
Fort Walton Inc 4 56 4 56
Lake Jackson 1 21 1 21
Pensacola Incised 1 24 1 24
shell-t plain 4 16 4 16
shell/grog-t plain 4 59 4 59
shell/grit/grog-t pl 3 46 3 46
shell/grit-t plain 3 37 3 37
Swift Cr C-St 1 1 1 3 2 4
Keith Incised 1 6 1 6 2 12
check-st 31 523 14 67 25 172 6 126 29 239 10 46 23 76 7 64 3 12 1 7 1 4 150 1436
fabric-impressed 1 8 1 8
indet stamped 2 9 2 9
indet incised 7 41 1 4 4 17 2 7 2 5 16 74
indet punctate 1 3 1 2 2 5
grit&grog-t plain 18 2152 3 20 2 8
grit-t plain 15 129 1 1 1 1 1 4 18 135
grog-tplain 98 1151 58 245 20 56 14 107 43 164 8 22 4 15 11 92 22 310 7 59 3 9 1 11 289 2241
limestone-t plain 1 8 1 2 2 10
sand-t plain 8 64 99 137 48 91 43 85 67 78 15 19 14 43 11 67 20 48 8 31 7 30 3 1 6 23 349 717
TOTALSHERDS 197 2382 173 461 94 320 69 339 144 505 33 87 42 236 31 230 49 385 17 95 13 49 3 1 8 38 873 5128
clay lump 1 3 1 1 2 4
glass sherd 1 3 1 3
stone (natural?) 1 1 1 1
slate frag modem I.1 8 1 8
mica? frag 1 1 .. 1 1
whelk shell tool 1 311 1 311
shell columella tool 1 27 1 27

Table 4. Composite list of faunal remains from USF Investigations at 8FR364, identified by Rochelle Marrinan, Alexandra Parsons, and FSU students. Scientific Name Taxonomic Name NISP % Wt (g) % Biomass % Burnt % Worked .% MNI
Mammal, Large probably deer, bear, panther 5 0.03 13.0 1.21 264.5751 2.1 1 .74 0 0.
Mammal, Medium probably raccoon, dog, fox 1 0. 0 0.6 0.06 16.6087 0.13 00 000
Mammal, Small probably rabbits, squirrels 6 0.03 0.9 0.08 23.9231 0.19 .0 0.00
Mammal unidentified mammal 5 0.03 2.7 0.2 5 64.3024 0.5i 10.00 00 0
Sylvilagus spp. rabbits 1 0.01 0.6 0.06 16.6087 0.13 0. 1 74
Sigmodon hispidus hispid cotton rat 12 0.07 0.5 0.05 14.0953 0.11000il0 2 14
Cetacea whale 1 0.01 67.6 6.28 1166.6807 934 .0 00 1 074
Odocoileus virginianus white-tailed deer 4 0 -0 24.2 2.25 462.8431 3.710.00 1 074
All Mammals 35 0.20 110.1 10.23 2029.6373 16.25 1 00.4 0 00 5 3.70
Ayes unidentified birds 12 0.09 2.4 0.34 67.1527 0.54 .00 0.00 1 074
Anas crecca teal (duck) 1 0.1 00.0 00.0 1 0
Larus marinus great black-backed gull 1 0.2 000 00.0 1 00.0
Fulica americana American coot 1 0.5 00. 0.0 1
Corvus brachyrynchos fish crow 1 0.5 00.0 '000 1 0
All Birds unidentified birds 16 0.09 3.7 0.34 67.1527 0.54 0.00 00. 1 0.74
Testudines unidentified turtles 33 0.18 14.1 1.31 186.1988 1.49 3 22 000 0
Kinosternidae mud or musk turtles 8 0.04 3.1 0.29 67.4858 0.54 0.000 2 4
Cheloniidae sea turtles 2 0.01 6.9 0.64 115.3530 0.92 .00 1 074
All turtles 43 0.2* 24.1 2.24 369.0376 296 3 2.22 0 000 3 222
Iguanidae probably chameleon 5 0.03 0.3 0.03 5.5863 0 .04 0.0 0.00 2 148
Actinopterygii ray-finned fishes 14502 1 615.9 57.21 5364.1790 42.96 105 7778 000.
Lepisosteus spp. gar 2 1 13.8 i128 247.3444 1.98 0.00 0.00 2 1.48
Elops saurus ladyfish 3 Q.2 0.1 0.1 4.5709 0.400>0 1 0.74

Scientific Name Taxonomic Name NISP % Wt (g) % Biomass % Burnt % Worked % MNI %
Clupeidae herrings 72 0.40 2.0 0.19 51.7409 0.410 3 222
Siluriformes all catfishes 4 0.02 0.3 0.03 6.3572 0.07 000.
Ictaluridae freshwater catfishes 1 0.01 0.1 0.01 2.2387 0.02 1 4
Ariidae marine catfishes 365 2.04 42.2 3.92 698.3077 5.59 1 04 12
Ariopsisfelis hardhead catfish 90 0.50 17.6 1.63 304.2545 2.44 1 74 000
Bagre marinus gafftopsail catfish 15 0.08 3.8 0.35 70.9242 0.57 0.00
Mugilspp. mullet 1137 6.34: 124.6 11.57 1470.1770 1177 13 93 000 76
Caranx sp. probably jack crevalle 2 0.01 2.8 0.26 96.2718 0.77 0. 04 1 4
Sparidae porgies 1 0.01 0.1 0.01 1.9055 0.2 00 0.00 1 .74
Archosargus probatocephalus sheepshead 55 0.31 25.6 2.38 313.0263 2.5 .00 3 z2
Sciaenidae drums 5 0.03 1.0 0.09 38.9045 0.31 0 00 .
Cynoscion spp. seatrout 87 0.49 15.6 1.45 297.1065 2.385 7 00 9 7
Micropogonias undulatus Atlantic croaker 6 0.03 1.2 0.11 44.5240 0.36000 2 1
Pogonias cromis black drum 148 0.83 37.2 3.46 565.1995 4.53 3 .22 2
Sciaenopsocellatus redfish 44 0.25 13.7 1.27 269.8816 2.161 074 6 4. 0
Paralichthyidae flounder family 69 0.38 7.8 072 163.6682 1.3100 2
Diodontidae puffers 1 0.01 0.1 0.01 4.5709 0.040 4
All bony fishes 16609 92.66 925.5 85.97 10015.1532 80.21 129 95.56 0 00 124 91
Unidentified Vertebrate all unidentified fragments 1216 6.78 12.8 1.19 00 2 1.48 1 1000
Total Vertebrate 17924 100.00 1076.5 100.00 12486.5670 100I00 135 100 1 10 135 0
Decapoda crabs 6 66.67 0.4 36.36 15.9841 38.73
Callinectes sp. blue crab 3 3.33 0.7 63.64 25.2918 61.27 2 1
All crabs 9 100.001.1 100.00 41.2760 100.00 2 0 .02 .

Scientific Name Taxonomic Name NISP % Wt (g) % Biomass % Burnt % Worked % MNI %
Mollusca unidentified mollusks 7 0.04 8.1 0.75 8.2377 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.
Bivalvia unidentified bivalves 9 1.34 6.5 0.07 33.9454 1.75 0.0 0.00 000
Arcidae arks 1 0.15 1.3 0.01 11.3627 0.58 .00 0.00 0.0
Anadara brasiliana incongruous ark 32 4.77 26.1 0.27 87.3606 4.49 .00 0.0 3 1.4
Anadara transversa transverse ark 19 2.83 36.6 .37 109.9429 5.65 0.00 0.00 6 2.9
Geukensia demissa atlantic 98 14.61 20.3 0.21 73.6372 3.79 0.00 0 2 0.97
Cryptopleura costata angel wing 26 3.87 24.8 0.25 84.3776 4.34 0.00 0.0 2 .97
Crassostrea virginica eastern oyster 486 72.43 9732.7 98.83 1543.7833 7.4 .00 0.0 194 93.72
Total bivalves 671 100.00 9848.3 100.00 1944.4097 1000 0 0.00 0 0.00 207 100.00
Gastropoda unidentified gastropods 26 24.76 63.8 .31 90.5459 6.24 0.00 0.00 3 8.57
Littorina irrorata marsh periwinkle 2 1.90 1.7 0.17 1.1393 0.08 0.00 .00 1 2 86
Busycon sp. whelks 1 0.95 3.6 0.36 4.9644 0.34 0.00 0.00 1 2.86
Busycon contrarium lightning whelk 2 1.90 380.5 37.65 549.7411 37.91 .00 1 1111 2 5.71
Fasciolariidae horse and tulip conchs 1 0.95 34.0 3.36 47.9506 3.31 0.00 0.00 1 2.86
Pleuroploca gigantea Florida horse conch 53 50.48 217.7 21.54 312.7786 21.57 0.00 7 77.78 10 28.57
7 10
Melongena corona Florida crown conch 8 7.62 178.4 17.65 255.8049 1764 0.00 1 11.11 6 17.14
Polynices duplicatus atlantic moon snail 11 10.48 130.9 12.95 187.1152 12.9 0.00 0.0 10 28.57
Odostomia impressa impressed odostome 1 0.95 0.1 0.01 0.1330 0.01 0.00 0.00 1 2.86
Total marine gastropods 105 100.00 1010.7 100.00 1450.1729 100 00 0 000 9 100.00 35 100.00
Total Marine molluscs 783 20004 10867.1 200.75 3402.8203 200.07 0 0.00 9 100.00 242 200.00
Gastropoda unidentified terrestrial snail 7 004 0.1 0.01 0.1445 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.00
Euglandina rosea rose snail 1 0.01 0.2 0.02 0.2735 0. 0 0.00 0.00 1 0.74
Polygyra sp. 2 0 0.1 .01 0.1445 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 1.48
Total terrestrial snails 10 01 6 0.4 0.04 0.5626 i0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 2.22

rabbit, rat, other small creatures and, surprisingly, whale. Though the tide came in quickly, drowning the lower Invertebrates were mostly oyster but included conchs, whelks, midden exposed in our test, we were able to recover cultural ark shells, marsh periwinkle, other bivalves and gastropods, materials and also take from the upper midden a soil sample, and terrestrial snails. a horizontal core (Figure 11) for optimally-stimulated
luminescence (OSL) dating, which requires sand grains not
Paradise Point Site, 8FR 71 exposed to sunlight since burial. The date returned, 550+50
B.P. or about A.D. 1400, fits well with the Fort Walton
On the east side of the island's north shore and close ceramics of the upper midden. Donoghue also obtained to the other rich oyster bar, Paradise Point offered a good, other new radiocarbon dates on shell from the upper midden if limited research opportunity. The site is difficult to reach, at 770+60 B.P. (-A.D. 1180) and from the lower midden at requiring an airboat (or wading some 700 m), and the work 1500+60 and 1430+50 (about A.D. 450 and 520, respectively). needed complex scheduling around winter tides and limited These confirm the characterization of the upper midden as Fort daylight. Geologists Donoghue and Stapor and students Walton and the lower as Middle to Late Woodland. Other site joined us to excavate a 1 -m wide shoreline profile that showed components are known from collectors' materials, including 30 cm of blackish oyster shell midden overlying about 30 cm possible Paleo-Indian, Archaic, and Woodland points, a of browner clayey sand and less dense shell. Below this was large-biface cache, fiber-tempered sherds, greenstone celt the 20-cm-thick gray clay stratum (Munsell Gley 1 3/N or fragments, a micaceous rock, and shell tools. But most of the 3/10Y, very dark greenish gray) with no artifacts, interpreted site has washed away, taking along the potential for testing to be the result of a sea-level stand higher than at present. these earlier components. Below that was at least 10 more cm of oyster shell midden.
Braley's (1982) work had included a radiocarbon date placing Research Summary
this lower, Woodland midden at about A.D. 630-700, but
the date was on shell, not charcoal, so possibly questionable The evidence of Paleo-Indian occupation from St. because of the marine reservoir effect. The upper midden is Vincent Island's shorelines has augmented and altered the clearly Fort Walton. known settlement pattern of the first inhabitants of the
Figure 11. Geologist Frank Stapor pounds horizontal core tube into the profile at Paradise Point site, 8FR71, right above dark clay stratum representing higher-than-present sea level, to get OSL date, 10 March 2010.

Apalachicola valley region. It demonstrates that Paleo- Service's management of the Refuge's cultural resources. St. Indian sites throughout the South may be greatly obscured Vincent is famous for illegal artifact collecting, which is difficult by Holocene geomorphological processes in a large alluvial to prevent since its 12,350 acres cannot be regularly patrolled. valley, so it is a mistake to think that "absence of evidence A monitoring program we established with the Supporters of is evidence of absence" until data are obtained from deeply St. Vincent organization trains volunteers to photograph and buried, intact sources. The newly-recorded Paleo-Indian and document in situ the ceramics and other materials washing out Archaic components indicate mainland occupation here before of the shoreline without picking them up. Recommendations Holocene sea-level rise and the formation of the barrier island outlined in our draft technical report (submitted to the FWS some 4000-5000 years ago, probably because the river (and for review pursuant to an ARPA permit) also include better perhaps springs) ran nearby and attracted human habitation. signs, more public education, and other policies to help protect
The relative remoteness of St. Vincent and similar islands the rapidly disappearing archaeological record.
that we perceive today may be more of a recent historical The wide extent of this project encompasses another
phenomenon, a result of our modem expertise in traveling to crucial aspect of public archaeology: sharing of data by most places by land vehicles. To natives whose fastest means collectors. Most visitors to St. Vincent pick things up, and of travel was by water, an island close to the mainland and many know it is illegal; some save information and materials rich in resources would be the equivalent of today's attractive that would otherwise be lost with the receding shoreline. We shopping mall complex, with grocery stores, restaurants, and hope our work has discouraged casual collectors, or turned nearby inexpensive housing. Late Archaic peoples with fiber- them into careful monitors who understand the archaeology tempered pottery, chert microtools, and Poverty-Point-related and the legal and ethical issues and can contribute, instead of clay and stone objects were present as soon as the island damaging the resource more. formed. The Woodland occupation is extensive, and the Fort The vast amount of additional data on St. Vincent Island, Walton evidence even more so. The rich aquatic ecosystems from collections beyond what professional survey could supported frequent, possibly long-term habitation of St. obtain, has enormously expanded archaeological interpretation Vincent over prehistoric time, even through the late prehistoric for the whole Apalachicola region, especially for the leastperiod, when interior societies became more sedentary known, oldest time periods. Collectors' biases are obvious:
farmers. Protohistoric Native Americans producing Lamar relatively little plain pottery, but many sherds with elaborate ceramics and apparently some later Creek/Seminole Indians decoration, unusual items of all kinds, and abundant lithic made short-term visits to the island. materials points, other tools, debitage which our fieldwork
At least as early as Late Archaic times, people came just did not produce. We hope to have demonstrated the value to fish, especially for mullet. Schooling mullet are easily of learning from private collections, even those that may have available, especially in early fall, about the time of a full-moon been obtained under less than approved circumstances. Many cold front, when they move, fat with roe, en masse into the professionals now recognize that such information adds new sea to spawn, "long streaks in the Gulf, roiling the surface"; a dimensions to archaeological interpretation. Pitblado (2014) single fisher with a boat and net can catch more than 70 fish has eloquently demonstrated how our current knowledge of in a short time (Watts 1975:91). Prehistoric peoples covered Paleo-Indian adaptation across the U.S. would have been the sheltered north and east shores with cumulative, linear impossible without collectors' data; she contends that we have midden refuse, which may represent thousands of (seasonal?) an ethical obligation to use such data as well as we can. We visits over some 5 millennia. Beyond just seasonal or agree, and are grateful for the help of others who share our
continual trips for subsistence, there may have been elements passion for the past. of prestige or obtaining special seasonal foods. The material
record that includes burials and presumably high-status and Acknowledgements
non-utilitarian items such as quartz crystal pendants, a jasper
bead, and a galena cube, demonstrate that there may have been We thank many for help with this research. Rochelle ceremonial activities associated with the island (or else these Marrinan, with Alexandra Parsons and the Florida State were favored charms to insure good fishing!). University paleonutrition class, graciously provided faunal
Stratigraphic evidence at Paradise Point, on the oldest identifications and analyses, including consultation at the ridge of the island, helps geological interpretation of a time Florida Museum of Natural History's comparative collection. of higher sea level, a possible occupational hiatus, after which USF bioarchaeologist Rosie Bongiovanni and Florida Division Fort Walton people apparently came right back to these good of Historical Resources' Dave Dickel analyzed the human fishing grounds. There is great additional potential on the skeletal remains. Denise Williams, head of the Supporters island for research on seasonality and settlement through time, of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refure, encouraged us to do zooarchaeological, geological, and other issues. this project and contributed her active work in the volunteer
monitor program. Rick Kanaski, regional archaeologist for
Public Archaeology the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, provided encouragement,
patience, and the federal archaeological permit for fieldwork
Major goals of our project also included contributing (no. STVNWRO32009). St. Vincent Refuge staff, including to public archaeology and aiding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife former manager Monica Harris, manager Shelley Stiaes, office

manager Charlotte Chumney, and others facilitated all research Cambron and Hulse efforts. In the field, the incomparable Dale Shiver and assistant 1964 Handbook of Alabama Archaeology, Part I, Point Eddie Eckley transported us to the island daily, loaned their Types. Archaeological Research Association of equipment, and rescued us when we got stuck. Donations Alabama, Inc., University, Alabama. Alabama
to support student work given by USF alumna and devoted Archaeological Society, Huntsville.
archaeologist Dorothy Ward and Nick Baldwin of the Friends of St. Joseph Bay Preserves provided the only funding for the Campbell, Kenneth M. project. Marie and Joey Romanelli donated 11 trips to/from the 1986 St. Vincent Island (St. Vincent National Wildlife island on the St. Vincent shuttle service. The St. Joseph Bay Refuge), Florida. Geological Society of America Buffer State Preserve of the Apalachicola National Estuarine Centennial Field Guide, Southeastern Section
Research Reserve (ANERR) provided crew lodging, and 14:351-353.
staff Pat Millender and Jimmy Moses worked a day with the crew and helped fix the USF truck when it lost 4-wheel-drive Cerulean, Susan capability. Special thanks go to the intrepid 2009 USF student 2015 Coming to Pass. Florida's Coastal Island in a Gulf of field school crew. Chad Braley of Southeastern Archaeological Change. University of Georgia Press, Athens.
Services in Athens, Georgia, and Jim Miller, former state archaeologist of Florida, provided details of their earlier Covey, Cyclone, translator work, and Charlie Ewen, at East Carolina University, found 1961 Cabeza de Vaca's Adventures in the Unknown Interior data on the Phelps collections there. Geologist Joe Donoghue, of America. Collier Books, New York (translation of now at University of Central Florida, was there for advice the 1537 work by Alvar NTfiez Cabeza de Vaca).
and fieldwork for many years; he and geologist Frank Stapor, now at Tennessee Tech University, helped with excavations Davis, J. H., and Mokray, M. F. at Paradise Point and provided dates to interpret sea level 2000 Assessment of the Effect of Road Construction and fluctuations. Stapor also sent old photos and documents. Jeff Other Modifications of Surface-Water Flow at St.
Du Vernay provided the LiDAR map. Kimble is grateful to the Vincent National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin County
Florida Archaeological Council for a John W. Griffin Student Florida. US Geological Survey Water Resource
Award, which paid for the two radiocarbon dates. Honors Investigations Report 00-4007.
student Kaitlyn Keffer organized the large donated collection. We appreciate collectors who shared data, especially the donor Donoghue, Joseph F. of the USF JC collection. Also, many thanks to Rick Kanaski, 1991 St. Vincent Island. In-Field Guidebook, Research Rich Weinstein, an anonymous reviewer, and editors Saccente Conference on Quaternary Coastal Evolution.
and Du Vernay for helpful comments on drafts of this article. Society for Sedimentary Geology and IGCP Project
274. Florida State University, Tallahassee.
References Cited
Donoghue, Joseph F., Demirpolat Suleyman, and William F. Anderson, David G., and Kenneth E. Sassaman Tanner
2012 Recent Developments in Southeastern Archaeology. 1990 Recent Shoreline Changes, Northeastern Gulf of
From Colonization to Complexity. SAA Press, Mexico. In Coastal Sediments and Processes, edited
Society for American Archaeology, Washington, by William F. Tanner, F. Stapor, and R. Hummell,
D.C. pp. 51-66. Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium
on Coastal Sedimentology. Department of Geology,
Balsillie, James H., and Donoghue, Joseph F. Florida State University, Tallahassee.
2004 High Resolution Sea-Level History for the Gulf of
Mexico Since the Last Glacial Maximum. Florida Donoghue, Joseph F., and Nancy Marie White
Geological Survey Report of Investigation No. 103, 1995 Late Holocene Sea-Level Change and Delta Tallahassee. Migration, Apalachicola River Region, Northwest
Florida, U.S.A. Journal of Coastal Research
Braley, Chad 0. 1 1(3):65 1-663.
1982 Archaeological Testing and Evaluation of the
Paradise Point Site (8Fr9]), St. Vincent National Edmiston, H. Lee
Wildlife Refuge, Franklin County, Florida. Report to 2008 A River Meets the Bay. The Apalachicola Estuarine the Southeast Region, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. System. Apalachicola National Estuarine Research
Southeastern Wildlife Services, Inc., Athens, Georgia. Reserve, Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Electronic document, http://www.dep.
Bullen, Ripley P. A Guide to The Identification of Florida Projectile RiverMeets_the_Bay.pdf, accessed January 10,
Points, Revised Edition. Kendall Books, Gainesville. 2014.

Ethridge, Robbie Moore, Clarence B.
2009 Introduction. Mapping the Mississippian Shatter 1902 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida
Zone. In Mapping the Mississippian Shatter Zone, Coast, Part II. Journal of the Academy of Natural
edited by R. Ethridge and S. Shuck-Hall, pp. 1-62. Sciences 12:123-355. Philadelphia.
University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.
Pitblado, Bonnie
Faught, Michael K. 2014 An Argument for Ethical, Proactive, Archaeologist2004 The Underwater Archaeology of Paleolandscapes, Artifact Collector Collaboration. American Antiquiy
Apalachee Bay, Florida. American Antiquity 69:275- 79:401-424.
Sankar, Ravi Darwin
Forrest, Beth M. 2015 Quantifying the Effects of Increased Storminess
2007 Evolution of the Beach Ridge Strandplain on and Sea-Level Change on the Morphology of Sandy
St. Vincent Island, Florida. Ph.D. Dissertation, Barrier Islands along the Northwestern and Atlantic
Department of Geological Sciences, Florida State Coasts of Florida. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation,
University, Tallahassee. Electronic document, http:// Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric 82544, Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee.
accessed 13 December 2016.
Stapor, Frank W., and William F. Tanner
Gibson, Jon L. 1977 Late Holocene Mean Sea Level Data from St.
2000 The Ancient Mounds of Poverty Point. University Vincent Island and the Shape of the Late Holocene
Press of Florida, Gainesville. Mean Sea Level Curve. In Coastal Sedimentology
edited by William F. Tanner, pp. 35-68. Department
Hann, John H. of Geology Florida State University, Tallahassee.
2006 The Native World Beyond Apalachee. West Florida
and the Chattahoochee Valley. University Press of Thomas, David Hurst
Florida, Gainesville. 2011 Why ThisArchaeologist Cares about Geoarchaeology:
Some Pasts and Futures of St. Catherines Island. In
Hays, Christopher T., Richard A. Weinstein, and James B. Geoarchaeology of St. Catherine Island, Georgia,
Stoltman edited by G. Bishop, H. Rollins, and D. Thomas, pp
2016 Poverty Point Objects Reconsidered. Southeastern 25-66. Anthropological Papers No. 24, American
Archaeology 35(3):213-236. Museum of Natural History, New York.
Hornaday, William T. Twichell, David C., Brian D. Andrews, H. Lee Edmiston, and
1909 A Monograph on St. Vincent's Game Preserve. William R. Stevenson
Illustrated Buffalo Express, May 30, 1909. 2007 Geophysical Mapping of Oyster Habitats in a
Record Company, St. Augustine, Florida [stored at Shallow Estuary; Apalachicola Bay, Florida. U.S.
Florida State University Strozier Library special Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1381.
collections, Tallahassee].
U.S. Department of the Interior
Kimble, Elicia 2012 Comprehensive Conservation Plan and
2012 Archaeological Survey and Testing on St. Vincent Environmental Assessment. St. Vincent National
Island, Northwest Florida. M.A. thesis, Department Wildlife Refuge. Franklin and Gulf Counties, Florida.
of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region,
Electronic document, http://scholarcommons.usf. Atlanta, Georgia.
edu/etd/4349/, accessed May 20, 2015.
Walker, Karen J., Frank W. Stapor, and William H. Marquardt McCarthy, Kevin M. 1995 Archaeological Evidence for a 1750-1450 BP
2004 Apalachicola Bay Pineapple Press, Inc., Sarasota. Higher-than-Present Sea Level Along Florida's Gulf
Coast. In Holocene Cycles." Climate, Sea Levels, and
Miller, James J., John W. Griffin, and Mildred L. Fryman Sedimentation, edited by C. W. Finkl, Jr., pp. 2051980 Archeological and Historical Survey of St. Vincent 218. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue No.
National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Cultural Resource 17.
Management, Inc., Tallahassee.
Watts, Betty M.
1975 The Watery Wlderness of Apalach, Florida. Apalach Books, Tallahassee.

White, Nancy Marie
2003a Testing Partially Submerged Shell Middens in the
Apalachicola Estuarine Wetlands, Franklin County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 56(1): 15-45.
2003b Late Archaic in the Apalachicola/Lower
Chattahoochee Valley of Northwest Florida, Southwest Georgia, Southeast Alabama. The Florida
Anthropologist 56(2): 69-90.
2013 Pierce Mounds Complex, An Ancient Capital in
Northwest Florida. Report to George Mahr and to the Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
Department of Anthropology, University of South
Florida, Tampa.
2014 Woodland and Mississippian in Northwest Florida
- Part of the South but Different. In New Histories of Pre-Columbian Florida, edited by N. Wallis and A. Randall, pp 223-242. University Press of Florida,
2016 Paleo-Indian in the Apalachicola-Lower
Chattahoochee Valley Region. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological
Conference, Athens, GA.
White, Nancy Marie, Jeffrey P. Du Vernay, and Amber J. Yuellig
2012 Fort Walton Culture in the Apalachicola Valley,
Northwest Florida. In Late Prehistoric Florida.
Archaeology at the Edge of the Mississippian World,
edited by K. Ashley and N. White, pp. 231-274.
University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
White, Nancy Marie, and Elicia Kimble 2016 Archaeological Survey and Testing on St. Vincent
Island, Northwest Florida. Draft report submitted to the Regional Historic Preservation Office, Southeast Region, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hardeville,
South Carolina.
White, Nancy Marie, and Audrey Trauner 1987 Archaeological Survey in the Chipola River Valley,
Northwest Florida. Report to the Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee. Department of
Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections Vol. 113. Washington,

2016 University of North Florida (UNF) Summer formed an L-shaped block along the shell heap's southern
Archaeological Field School periphery, Units 6-7 formed a 1 x 4 m trench on its eastern
flank, and Unit 8 was placed on its northern edge. Units 2
Keith Ashley and S. Lee Johns and 3 demonstrated extensive shell crushing in their upper
levels suggesting heavy impact as a result of historic period
The Caracasi l site (8DU21730) was the scene of the 2016 shell mining activities. Units 4 and 5 were placed 16 m to the University of North Florida (UNF) summer archaeological southeast, adjacent to a productive shovel test. Unit 9 sampled field school. It was selected for testing because of its St. a separate shell heap, 8 m east of Units 6-7. Johns II (A.D. 900-1250) component. Located on Naval Sampled shell middens were composed mostly of oyster,
Station Mayport, Florida, the site currently lies in a maritime with minor amounts of Atlantic ribbed mussel, stout tagelus, hammock, fringed on three sides by expansive tidal marshes, shark eye and whelk. Quahog clam was surprisingly rare. near the mouth of the St. Johns River. All archaeological work Subsurface features were limited to a few shell-filled pits. at the site was performed with the permission of the U.S. Navy. In addition, distinct coquina concentrations were identified Five weeks in the field were followed by another five weeks within areas of the oyster-dominated shell midden. Coquina is in the lab, analyzing all artifacts and a small sample of animal a small clam that inhabits the ocean surf zone. Because of its bone. annual growth cycle, its maximum shell length can be used to
The Caracasi site was recently identified during a CRM determine the season of coquina death. Currently, three coquina project by SEARCH, Inc. who surveyed a 19-acre parcel samples have been analyzed, with all results suggesting a
belonging to the U.S. Navy and identified intact St. Johns fall harvest of September-November. A radiometric assay on II shell middens (Hendryx and Nelson 2016). A series of oyster shell from the heap yielded a date of A.D. 1070-1170. archaeological sites previously had been recorded nearby on St. Johns II pottery types dominated in all unit and feature private lands, including two sand burial mounds. The Mayport contexts. In fact, only one Woodland period sherd (Unit 5) was Mound (8DU96), a Swift Creek mounded cemetery, was once recovered during unit excavations. Non-ceramic artifacts from located approximately 180 m south of Caracasi, prior to its the field school were limited and include a fossilized shark destruction during subdivision development in the late 1960s. tooth and bone fragment, a stone biface fragment, a few lithic
Positioned 150 m southeast of the Mayport Mound was the flakes, and an intricately incised segment of a bone pin.
Atosi2 Mound (8DU97, formerly known as Mayport Mound Preliminary results of ongoing faunal analysis mirror our
2), which was razed during the building of a convenience store current understanding of St. Johns II subsistence. Greater than in the early 1970s. This burial mound was partly excavated 14" bone from a few unit levels has been completed to date. The by a local amateur group before its leveling, and many of assemblage is overwhelmingly bony fish, with relatively small the artifacts are now curated at the Jacksonville Museum of amounts of cartilaginous fish (including three shark teeth), Science and History. Pottery from the mound and an AMS reptile, bird, crab, and mammal. The dominant fish species
assay on soot (A.D. 890-980) from one of the St. Johns II identified in Unit 1 include sea trout, redfish, flounder, and vessels date the mound to local St. Johns II period, catfish. Clearly, St. Johns II people at the site were not maize
Armed with this preliminary information, the UNF field farmers but fisher-hunter-gatherers who harvested the rich and school set out to test the Caracasi site in greater detail. Due diverse aquatic resources of the St. Johns River estuary. to time constraints, we focused on the eastern part of the site, In sum, the Caracasi site appears to represent the only which had revealed intact shell midden deposits and high intact section of a once extensive St. Johns II site spread pottery frequencies during CRM shovel testing. Ten 50 cm2 intermittently across a broad area north of the Atosi Mound. shovel tests were dug to fill in the initial site grid. We decided The lack of archaeological investigations in the intervening to center excavations around a cluster of oyster shell heaps. area prior to subdivision development of private lands After clearing this area of vegetation, we realized that what we hampers our understanding of the precise nature and layout thought were individual shell heaps were in fact the remnants of this St. Johns II community. Radiometric dates from the of one large mounded shell midden that had apparently been two areas suggest a pre-thirteenth century date for St. Johns II mined for shell; much of its interior had been taken away, activities. Based on ceramic and faunal evidence, the sampled leaving vertical, shell exposed walls. It is estimated that the shell middens at Caracasi indicate every day domestic refuse, mounded shell midden originally measured about 16 x 12 m several hundred meters from coeval mortuary activity to the and was likely 80-100 cm high. south.
Nine 1 x 2 m units were excavated (Figure 1). Units 1-3

Figure 1. UNF excavations at the Caracasi site.
End Notes: Jeffries Wyman of Harvard University. Although the site was
mined for shell in the early twentieth century, remnants are
1. Caracasi is a Timucua Indian word for a specific species of preserved on property of the field school host, the Juniper Club
fish. Early Spanish translate it as corvina (Aaron Broadwell of Louisville, Kentucky. Moreover, subterranean deposits not 2016, personal communication), a fish of the Sciaenidae observed by Wyman and escaping mining are distributed along family, commonly called croakers or drums. the full extent of Silver Glen Run and beyond. Over six prior
2. Atosi is a Timucuan word for owl (Aaron Broadwell 2016, field schools, starting in 2007, centered on the most prominent
personal communication). deposits; efforts in 2016 aimed to fill gaps in coverage.
Among the gaps was the lack of definitive evidence for
Reference Cited the basal component of the largest shell deposit, the one that
impressed Wyman most, at the mouth of Silver Glen Run. We
Hendryx, Greg, and Blue Nelson learned in 2007 that the south ridge of this massive U-shaped
2016 Executive Summary: Phase I Archaeological Survey mound was constructed about 4,000 years ago. We also
at Naval Station Mayport, Duval County, Florida. knew from earlier work that the opposite, north ridge housed Report submitted by SEARCH, Inc. to the U.S. Navy. abundant pottery of comparable age, and Zack Gilmore (2016) determined that much of it was nonlocal, evidently brought to
University of Florida's St. Johns Archaeological Field Silver Glen at times of regional gathering. But we had good School 2016 reason to believe that older deposits existed beneath the mined
surface of the north ridge. Subsurface tests in prior years failed
Kenneth E. Sassaman to locate intact deposits, owing to the fact that mining actually
extended well below the present-day surface and was later
After a two-year hiatus, the St. Johns Archaeological Field infilled to reclaim the land. One portion that escaped such School returned to Silver Glen Run in 2016 to explore places impact was at the west end of the north ridge, where concreted below, between, and beyond locations of prior investigation, shell impeded mining operations. Wielding chisels, hammers, Silver Glen (8LA1) was the location of one of the largest and pry bars, field school students managed to cut through the deposits of freshwater shell when it was visited in the 1870s by hardened fill to reach the bottom, just at the top of the present-

day water table (Figure 1). A single AMS assay on charcoal tangible citations to ancient times (Randall 2015). Contiun at the base of the profile provided a two-sigma calibrated age this line of research, field school students excavated tesunt estimate of 10,500-10,260 B.P. This is the oldest age estimate just outside the margins of the shell ridge (Figure 2).' or for archaeological deposits along Silver Glen and although it pits were found, some evidently old, some clearly nts does not signal the onset of shell mounding at the site, it is old. On balance,, it would appear that the spatial confomt consistent with the onset of spring flow and the beginning of between the oldest pits and the shell ridge at Locus A hls an enduring, if intermittent land-use pattern that culminated in Nonetheless, at least one large pit to the west of the shelrig the construction of massive shell mounds. may prove to be the exception to the rule. An age estimae o
Shell mounding along Silver Glen Run actually predates this feature is pending. the early pottery period by at least 2,000 years. Since its start, the field school has investigated the remnants of what we call Locus A, a 200-in-long shell ridge that was also mined for shell. Stratigraphic testing showed that the ridge went up after about 6,000 years ago, and below the ridge are large pit features dating as old as 9,000 cal B.P. Our University of Oklahoma field school partner, Asa Randall, determined that the older pits extended the full length of the shell ridge, lending credence to his idea that later mound builders were creating
Figure 2. Field school students exploring the margiso mined shell ridge at Locus A of Silver Glen. The'lrg shell-filled pit in the far corner is typical of many o h subsurface features of the site.
Finally, field school students this year enjoyed h ...... ..adventure of reconnaissance work at an unrecorded shelst 4.5 km to the south of Silver Glen, on Little JuniperRn Two small, adjoining hammocks are located in an extnsv swamp where Little Juniper Run drains into Lake Geoge short visit years ago to what the Juniper Club calls Ki'ssl verified the presence of shell deposits across both hammcs

Isle mortuary program may well be a variation on the pond through Historic periods. Research questions regarding burial tradition. the identity of Indians around Pensacola Bay immediately
The St. Johns Archaeological Field School will reconvene prior to, during, and immediately after Luna's short-lived at Silver Glen next year, in 2018, when Asa Randall and settlement were addressed by targeting shell middens found students from the University of Oklahoma will join forces across the neighborhood. This work also supported graduate with University of Florida students to continue to delve into a thesis research being undertaken by Courtney Boren. Spoonhistory that was severely impacted by mining nearly a century auger tests, probing, and shovel tests were used to identify ago but is now under the good stewardship of the Juniper Club. concentrations of shell and Native American materials. Units We hope to be able to conduct more extensive testing at Kitt's were then placed to capture data regarding the integrity and Isle, provided, that is, we can devise a dewatering operation to structure of the midden deposits, as well as any other associated draw down the water table enough to reach the basal deposits. features and artifacts. Silver Glen and its surroundings still have much to teach us. A possible Mississippian component of the site was revealed by two shovel tests excavated a few months prior to References Cited the summer field school. Units placed in this area yielded a high
concentration of late prehistoric and possibly protohistoric Gilmore, Zackary I. pottery. One unit contained a bell-shaped basin feature
2016 Gathering at Silver Glen: Community and History with a sand-tempered plain Mississippian partial vessel. A
in Late Archaic Florida. University Press of Florida, neighboring unit revealed a large shell-filled pit feature. This Gainesville. feature contained Late Mississippian ceramics, various types
of shell (mostly oyster), a variety of faunal remains (mammal, Randall, Asa R. bird, fish, and turtle), and a coprolite. Feature excavation photo
2015 Constructing Histories: Archaic Freshwater Shell is presented in Figure 1.
Mounds and Social Landscapes of the St. Johns River,
Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
University of West Florida 2016 Campus Summer Field School Summary
Courtney Boren, Hillary Jolly-Kinison, Llew Kinison, Jennifer Knutson, Katherine Sims, and Ramie A. Gougeon, Ph.D.
One section of the University of West Florida's (UWF) 10-week-long field schools is divided into two 5-week halves between which the students learn maritime and terrestrial archaeological field methods. This year, students in the Combined Terrestrial/Maritime archaeological field school had the unique experience of excavating on both the land site and shipwrecks of the 1559 Tristain de Luna settlement. We additionally contributed to the thesis research of two graduate students on two other sites in Escambia and Santa Rosa counties. Students gained experience through shovel testing, excavating units and features, mapping, completing proper documentation, and developing research strategies. Graduate supervisory training is also a critical component of the field school experience. Principal Investigator Dr. Ramie Gougeon was assisted by UWF graduate students Courtney Boren, Hillary Jolly, Llew Kinison, Dillon Roy, Michael DuBose, Katherine Sims, and Jennifer Knutson. Adrianne Sams Walker with the UWF Historic Trust coordinated our field operations at Arcadia Mills.
This summer, the combined field school had the Fgr .IW obndfedsho tdn ml
opportunity to work on Native American components recently Kovaks ex WFCavaties afsell fealtuent Emily
identified by UWF Institute of Archaeology staff within theKvasecatsahllftueo8E1 Luna settlement site. It should be noted that Native American materials have been found in many areas of the settlement A shallow but expansive Native American shell midden
site and likely represent small, discrete resource extraction was encountered by the Luna field school and turned over to sites and longer-term habitation sites dating from the Archaic the Combined section for excavation. After spoon-auger tests

and probing to establish the limits of the shell deposits, units is made up of colonial and modem ceramics. Lab analysis were excavated to eventually comprise a 7 m x 1 m trench will attempt to identify artifacts used by the small number of (Figure 2). The uncovered sheet-like shell midden ranged colonial Huguenot families during the time when west Florida from roughly 20-30 cm below the surface along the trench, was a British province. More archaeological evidence will and contained European goods above and along the top of it. be forthcoming as the Phase I survey continued into the fall The midden itself contained shells (predominantly oyster), season after the field school ended. Mississippian pottery sherds, fish and turtle bone fragments, Summer 2016 was also marked by UWF archaeologists and a few chert flakes. Numerous samples of carbonized continuing the long tradition of collaboration at Arcadia Mill in material, soil, and sherds were collected in order to obtain Milton, Florida. Arcadia Mill was once the largest nineteenthradiometric and OSL dates for these features. century water-powered industrial complex in northwest Florida,
and the archaeological components surrounding the footprint of the family home have been the subject of recent study by UWF field schools. Arcadia's pending acquisition of a 3.7-acre parcel formerly associated with Arcadia's agricultural fields prompted a Phase I shovel test survey. Students excavated 25 shovel tests in 50 m intervals around the perimeter of the p and in 25 m intervals around a historic home located in the center of the parcel. All artifacts recovered from the survey seem to be related to the construction and maintenance of the 1935 house. Additional field time was dedicated to coletn data for the thesis research of graduate student Katherine Sims, who is investigating the yard of an eighteenth-century cabin associated with the Arcadia family home. A total of 133 auger tests and targeted shovel tests were positioned around the cabin's yard with the goal of detecting subtle stratigraphic differences between activity areas (Figure 3).
Figure 2. UJWF Combined field school students and
supervisors starting a long profile drawing.
The 1760's French Huguenot colony of Campbell Town was briefly located on northwest Escambia Bay near UWF's campus in Pensacola. Graduate student Jen Knutson is searching for Campbell Town and used part of the Combined field school in her efforts. Thanks to the community's support and collaboration, almost twenty homeowners granted permission for UWF students to conduct shovel testing on their properties. Field investigations fell within a three-mile radius and ultimately resulted in some 90 shovel tests conducted in urban areas, residential neighborhoods, and approximately 340 acres of heavily-wooded and undeveloped tracts. Our
survey revealed a few previously undocumented prehistoric sites as well as expanding or defining the boundaries of some others. Much of the ceramic assemblage uncovered during the summer is Native American, including those of the Historic Figure 3. UWF Combined field school student shows the period, while the remaining five percent of the assemblage results of a spoon auger test at Arcadia Mill.

Analysis of materials from all of our projects began with test survey at the Kenan Field site. Students learned the basics the fall semester lab course taken by many of our field school of using a total station, shovel testing, and excavating in levels students. Some preliminary results from the Luna settlement while learning about Mississippian culture through the large excavations were presented at the Society of Historical amount of cultural materials yielded by the shovel tests. Archaeology meetings in January 2017, and will be featured The 2016 crew also had the opportunity to assist M.A. at the Pensacola Archaeological Society "Summer Field student Collette Witcher with her thesis project mapping
School Preview" meeting this spring. Continued work on the postbellum Gullah Geechee homesteads. Students gained Native American components of the Luna settlement site is experience in the various methods of reconnaissance survey being explored for the 2017 field school. As always, we invite and the opportunity to observe late nineteeth to mid-twentiethinterested readers to "like" our Facebook page (https://www. century historic archaeological sites. Using 1929 soil maps to identify potential site locations, the fieldwork consisted of
locating, recording, and conducting one shovel test per site.
2016 University of South Florida (USF) Summer Field A total of 15 domestic sites were discovered and 12 shovel
School Summary tests were performed. All shovel tests were positive and
together with the surface collections reveal a range of artifacts
Collette Witcher, Katherine Padula, and Jean Louise Lammie that indicate what daily life was like for Sapelo Island's Geechee residents. Glass bottles predominate, but students
During the 2016 summer session, six undergraduate and also discovered a variety of historic ceramics including flow three graduate students from the University of South Florida, blue transfer print and pearlware. Survey will continue in the under the direction of Dr. Thomas Pluckhahn, participated in winter to record any remaining potential sites and interviews a six week field school that encompassed several locations with the Geechee community members will shed light on the (Figure 1). Students spent the first week of the program on meaning of these sites as a part of their heritage. Sapelo Island, Georgia, before returning to Florida for the Following work at Sapelo, the group returned to Florida final five weeks. During the session students assisted with four for the remainder of the field season. At Crystal River different ongoing projects with vastly different research goals. Archaeological State Park, in conjunction with members
On Sapelo Island, students assisted University of Georgia of the FPAN West-Central office, the group opened up two Ph.D. candidate Brandon Ritchison with his large-scale shovel test units on a modem "mound" created from river-bottom
Figure 1. The University of South Florida field crew. From left to right: Savannah Rudolph, Brianna Ridge, Colette Witcher, Rachael Westfall, Teddy Horowitz, Jean Louise Lamamie, Shannon McGuffey, Kira Benton, Katherine Padula.

dredge. The mound is used by park staff for educational course is preceded by a one week scientific training preparation.
purposes, but needed some cleanup. Students learned how to UWF students, UWF professors, and graduate students taught excavate test units and also gained experience speaking to the methods of maritime archaeology to undergraduate students public about the excavation and distinguishing modem from who participated in Phase I survey and Phase II archaeological prehistoric artifacts. investigations on a wide range of submerged cultural resources,
In addition to work at Crystal River, students assisted USF located in a variety of marine environments. Students were also master's student Katherine Padula with her thesis research in given the opportunity to work in the UWF conservation lab, Homosassa, Citrus County. Aiming to uncover artifacts or learning how to identify and conserve archaeological material
structural remains related to David Levy Yulee's Margarita recovered from marine sites and assist in the processing of Plantation, students excavated shovel tests at both Yulee survey data. Representative fieldwork photographs are presented Sugar Mill Ruins Historic State Park and on adjacent private in Figures 1 and 2. property. Despite a few dozen shovel tests and plenty of UWF received a Special Category Grant from the State of
limestone less than 10 cultural materials were found. Survey Florida, Department of State, Division of Historical Recourse of adjacent private properties continues, in the fall of 2014. This grant allowed for continued Phase II
investigation of the Emanuel Point II shipwreck (EPII), a
Summary of the University of West Florida's Maritime sixteenth-century wreck associated with Don Tristan de Luna
Archaeological Field Methods Course 2016 y Arellano's colonization fleet. Over the course of 10 weeks,
students participated in the excavation, recordation, and
Meghan Mumford interpretation of 1 m x 1 m test excavation units in the midships
area of EPII and in the exposed structure aft of the sternpost of
The 2016 University of West Florida (UWF) maritime field EPII. Exposed hull structure included the mainmast step complex school afforded students an extremely rewarding experience amidships, and what has been preliminarily interpreted as the filled with educational hands-on learning and new discoveries, broken super structure of EPII in an area aft of the sternpost. Most students participated in a 10-week combined field school Students also participated in the screening and sorting of artifacts consisting of five weeks of onsite training on a terrestrial site recovered during the EPII excavations and learned identification followed by five weeks training on underwater sites. The and recording techniques for artifacts in the conservation lab.
Figure 1. EPII Artifacts. Photograph courtesy of the University of West Florida.

Phase I survey included an introduction to and magnetometer anomaly with a 59nT reading was investigated
implementation of side scan sonar and magnetometer survey, by UWF staff and students who reported the presence of the processing of respective data, and target diving to ground ballast stones and possible timbers. The initial investigation truth anomalies. The survey conducted during the field school yielded artifacts primarily associated with Don Tristin de season coincided with the continued survey of Pensacola Bay Luna y Arellano's colonization fleet, consisting of Spanish to locate the four remaining ships associated with Don Tristan majolica, olive jar, concreted fastener fragments, and varying de Luna y Arellano's colonization fleet. Students were also sizes of ballast. Students then assisted in establishing a baseline introduced to sub-bottom survey and data processing. over the anomaly and exposed cultural material. They also
Additional Phase I recordation of known resources was performed a 40 m x 40 m hand held magnetometer survey at used to teach students techniques such as base line offset I m intervals, and aided in the installation and excavations and trilateration. These techniques were used on nineteenth- of two 1 m x 1 m test units on the potential site. Excavations century schooner barges located in Blackwater River known exposed intact wooden structure consisting of six articulated as the Shield's Point wrecks. Students also were exposed frames, outer hull planking, and two longitudinal stringers, to various resources in the Blackwater River including a one with two rabbets. The artifact assemblage and exposed nineteenth-century paddle wheel steamer, the Columbia, and structure have been identified by UWF staff archaeologist a nineteenth-century single screw steamer, the City of Tampa. as a third shipwreck associated with Don Tristin de Luna y Students completed orientation dives on each vessel, exposing Arellano's colonization fleet! This experience offered UWF them to two different submerged cultural resources located in staff and students a unique opportunity to participate in the different environments within the same river system. initial discovery, recordation, excavation, and identification of
During the Phase I survey of Pensacola Bay, a another rare sixteenth-century vessel, EPIII!
Figure 2. Exploring EPIII. Photograph courtesy of UWF Division of Anthropology and Archaeology.

David Sutton Phelps, Jr. (1929 to 2009)
David Sutton Phelps, Jr., Ph.D. died February 21, 2009, in Fort Pierce, Florida. During a career that spanned half a century, he made important contributions to the historic and precolumbian archaeology of the southeastern United States and mid-Atlantic regions. Phelps worked as Assistant (1964 to 1968) and Associate Professor (1968 to 1970) ofAnthropology at Florida State University (FSU) in Tallahassee, Florida. For three years during his time there (1967 to 1969), he served as Editor of The Florida Anthropologist. He initiated important improvements to the journal, such as increasing its size to an
8.5 x 11 inch format.
Phelps was born on July 25, 1929, in Gatesville, North Carolina, to a wealthy and prominent local family. Just three months and one day after his birth, the stock market crash wiped out his family's fortune. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Phelps spent summers with favorite Uncle Asa Gray and Aunt Vafhtie Phelps to help his mother make ends meet. In the summer of 1938, his aunt and uncle volunteered at the Town Creek Indian Mound in Mt. Gilead, North Carolina. The nine year-old Phelps took great interest in the excavations, an experience that proved to be the most influential of his youth.
Phelps attended Warwick High School in New Port News, Virginia, where he was quarterback of the football team and active in the drama department, playing Sir Lancelot in a production of King Arthur's Camelot. Ever a ladies' man, Figure 1. A young Phelps in 1948, training with the
Phelps enjoyed sharing his southern charm with pretty girls of United States Air Force.
all descriptions, especially cheerleaders from rival schools.
In 1946, at 17, he fled a turbulent home life and, lying He continued to assist at the Hardaway site, finding that about his age, signed on as an ordinary seaman in the Merchant comparative study of artifacts found there and at Town Creek Marine. Employed by ESSO (now Exxon), he barged around allowed him to develop a chronology for Town Creek's early
the Americas. Once mooring at Fort Lauderdale, he fell in components. At Town Creek, Phelps was involved in the love with the natural beauty of Florida and resolved, some day, discovery of an ossuary from the Pee Dee culture (A.D. 1000 to live there. to 1500), a South Appalachian variant of Mississippi culture.
In 1948, he enlisted in the United States Air Force (Figure The feature was preserved in situ as an example of a Pee Dee 1), serving first as a radio operator on cargo runs to and from mortuary house. Phelps also completed reconstruction of the Alaska. Later, he was sent to Germany, where he participated "priests' house" started by his predecessor, Stanley South (Coe in the Berlin Airlift. He was honorably discharged in 1952 as et al. 1995). a Sergeant. In 1953, he married Peggy Joann Sisson, a native During his time at Town Creek, Phelps began to develop of Mississippi, a union lasting 40 years. an approach to archaeology that included investigating
In the summer of 1958, Phelps' life took a fortuitous informant reports about the location and nature of sites. In turn when he joined excavations as a field technician at the addition to writing site reports and working to develop capital Hardaway site (31S5T4) in Stanley County, North Carolina improvements at Town Creek, Phelps worked tirelessly to (Coe et al. 1995). The Hardaway site is listed in the National educate the local community and tourists about Town Creek. Register of Historic Places, with Paleoindian through Early He presented lectures to community groups, school children, Archaic components. After working there, he was offered the and tourists, and he gave interviews for radio programs. In position of Supervisor of Archaeology at Town Creek (3 1MG2 this outreach, he was a pioneer in Public Archaeology. Today, and 3 1MG3), a position he held for 14 months. Town Creek Indian Mound has become a very significant site

for public education and interpretation. It is a North Carolina W
Historic Site and a National Historic Landmark, with a major Late Archaic Pottery Tra
reconstructed stockade, mortuary structures, and interpretive in the American Southeast
videos and events.
In 1959, Phelps left Town Creek and attended the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, where he completed a B.A. in Anthropology in 1960. He started M.A. studies there, but in 1962 he transferred to the Ph.D. program in Anthropology at ]TLE R E
Tulane University in New Orleans. At Tulane, he was directed TA"
by Dr. Robert Wauchope for whom Phelps served as a research ..j
assistant for the Handbook of Middle American Indians and The Archaeology of Northern Mesoamerica. Phelps enjoyed the distinction of being the first person to be graduated by NO OOD
Tulane with a Ph.D. in Anthropology, in 1964 (Figure 2). His dissertation was titled The Final Phases of the Eastern GE
Figure 3. Phelps did pioneering research on Norwood and Thom's Creek Pottery. Map modified from Sassaman (1993).
that they were merely transitional phenomena. Someday, they will receive the recognition originally intended and deserved.
As part of his Norwood research, Phelps (1966a) visited the Tucker site (8FR4) in Franklin County, Florida. There, he followed in the footsteps of William Sears. Phelps found Norwood and Fort Walton components, previously unreported. Indeed, his finds of fiber-tempered pottery at the Tucker site inspired the "Norwood" name, which honors the Norwood family of Tallahassee, who owned a cottage at the Tucker site.
Phelps viewed Deptford Simple Stamped as evolving from Norwood Simple Stamped. In a related paper presented to the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Phelps (1 966b) presented a preliminary definition of the Deptford Cross Stamped type. He suggested that with the emergence of the Deptford phase, the cross-stamped type increased in relative frequency.
~In 1968, Phelps refined another Late Archaic-period phase
by naming three new types in the Thom's Creek ceramic series: Figure 2. Phelps working on his dissertation, ca. 1964, plain, incised, and simple stamped. He included discussions Tulane University, Louisiana. of manufacture and rim and lip forms (Phelps 1968). Phelps'
Thomn's Creek Simple Stamped is sometimes disputed because Immediately after graduation, Phelps joined the faculty at of its similarity to other types in the region.
FSU. He made a major contribution to Florida Archaeology Phelps (1969) also made significant contributions to our by naming and defining the Norwood culture. He viewed it as understanding of Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture in northwest an important, distinct Late Archaic-period culture that produced Florida. He recognized three types of sites: middens mound fiber-tempered pottery in Florida's eastern panhandle region and and midden complexes, and multiple mound centers. adjacent southern Georgia (Figure 3). The Norwood culture In 1970, Phelps presented a paper to the Internationalen was the equivalent of other regional, coeval cultures, such as Amerikanistenkongress in Stuttgart-Munchen, where he Orange, Stallings, and Wheeler (Phelps 1965, 1966a). Ceramic interpreted the presence of Mesoamerican glyph motifs in types included Norwood Plain and Norwood Simple Stamped. ceramics of the southeastern United States. Possible diffusion He described Norwood Plain as "rougher" than plain sherds of of Mesoamerican iconography around the Gulf coast and into the Orange and Stallings series. He described Norwood Simple the mainland southeast intrigued Phelps throughout his life. Stamped as having parallel, linear, dowel impressions. Also in 1970, Phelps left FSU, accepting a new faculty
Phelps' Norwood culture and ceramic series have tended appointment at East Carolina University (ECU) in Greenville, to be overlooked. Indeed, they were misunderstood by some North Carolina. There, he established a thriving and highly archaeologists, such as Ripley Bullen who erroneously thought regarded program in anthropology and archaeology. At ECU,

Phelps' research provided baseline data about the prehistory of North Carolina's Coastal Plain. Phelps served ECU in many capacities, including Director of the Archaeology Laboratory, Associate Director of the Institute for Historical and Cultural Research, Director of the Coastal Archaeology Office, and Director of the North Carolina Studies Program.
Phelps was the principal investigator for dozens of field excavations in North Carolina. Projects of note include excavations at Tar River, which yielded evidence of human occupation more than 11,000 years ago. He also excavated Neoheroka Fort, a Tuscarora War site, and the Baum site, a multicomponent site containing an Algonkian Ossuary feature dating to the Late Woodland period's Colington phase (Phelps 1980a, 1991). For both, he wrote nominations to the National Figure 4. In 1998, Phelps excavated the Kendall family Register of Historic Places (Phelps 1980b, 1992). signet ring from the Cape Creek site, Hatteras Island,
Among archaeologists working in North Carolina today, North Carolina.
there is a general recognition of the great importance of Phelps' Archaeology of the North Carolina Coast and Coastal was flooded twice and destroyed by Hurricanes Frances and Plain. Problems and Hypotheses (1983). While Phelps' Jeanne in 2004. Despite the loss ts personal archives,
primary interest in archaeology focused on Native American he continued to present public talks and to consult with cultures, his "jurisdiction" included Roanoke Island and the colleagues in Palm Beach County. In 2006, he advised them Outer Banks, and so it was through that avenue that he became as they worked on the report for the Boyer Survey of Lake immersed in colonial archaeology as well. Okeechobee (Davenport et al. 2011). He is missed by his
Phelps is highly regarded also for his contributions Florida friends and by many in the Carolina region. to prehistoric archeology in the mid-Atlantic region. He furthered our understanding of the complex, ranked, References Cited
agricultural societies of the southern Algonkian culture (Phelps 1982, 1984, 1985). His work helped to clarify Block, Dorothy
the territorial range of the Carolina Algonkian people, 2005 A Middle Woodland Ceramic TypologyforHatteras who he proposed ranged from the Neuse River northward Island, North Carolina. M.A. Thesis, Department
to Chesapeake Bay's Tidewater region. The Carolina of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca
Algonkians were the southernmost Algonkian language Raton.
speakers, and Algonkian groups bore the brunt of European colonialism from the mid-Atlantic region northward. Coe, Joffre with contributions by Thomas D. Burke, S. Homes
Phelps assisted the Meherrin tribe of Winton, North Hogue, Billy L Oliver, Stanley South, Michael Trinkley, and Carolina, as they navigated the process of federal recognition. Jack H. Wilson, Jr. (Foreword by Leland G. Ferguson) He also assisted the Roanoake-Hatteras tribe to be recognized 1995 Town Creek Indian Mound. A Native American by the State of North Carolina. Legacy. University of North Carolina Press.
Phelps' work in coastal North Carolina was so prolific
that it cannot be given justice here. Suffice it to say that his Davenport, Christian, Gregory Mount, and George "Boots" contributions to colonial archaeology are the stuff of legend. Boyer, with Robert Austin, Dorothy Block, and Matthew Most notably, he was the discoverer and excavator of a DeFelice sixteenth-century signet ring during the last field season of his 2011 The Boyer Survey." An Archaeological Investigation life (1998), at the Cape Creek site (31iDRi) in Dare County, of Lake Okeechobee. Report prepared in fulfillment
on Hatteras Island. The ring's discovery raised interest among of JA-32 State Research Permit, Number (0607.67), colonial archaeologists because of the mystery of the Lost Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
Colony. The find drew media attention, but the ring could not be tied to the Lost Colony (Figure 4). Phelps, David Sutton
Phelps was honored late in his career by ECU when they 1964 The Final Phases of the Eastern Archaic. Ph. D. disdedicated the David S. Phelps, Jr., Archaeology Laboratory. sertation, Department of Anthropology, Tulane UniWhile in retirement, he continued to contribute to the profession versity, New Orleans. by participating in events hosted by the South East Florida Archaeological Society in Stuart, Florida. In 2003 and 2004, 1965 The Norwood Series of Fiber Tempered Ceramics. Phelps supervised graduate research in archaeology for Florida Southeastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin Atlantic University, including a Middle Woodland Ceramic 2:65-69.
Typology for Hatteras Island, North Carolina (Block 2005).
In a tragic twist of fate, his retirement home in Fort Pierce 1 966a Early and Late Components of the Tucker Site

(8FR4). The Florida Anthropologist 19:11-38. Carolina Division of Archives and History. Raleigh.
1966b Deptford Cross-Stamped: A Preliminary Statement. Sassaman, Kenneth E.
Southeastern Archaeological Conference Newsletter 1993 Early Pottery in the Southeast: Tradition and 10:123-127. Innovation in Cooking Technology. University of
Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. 1968 Thom's Creek Ceramics in the Central Savannah
River Locality. The Florida Anthropologist 21:17- Wauchope, Robert, series editor; Gordon F. Ekholm and
30. Ignacio Bernal, volume editors
1971 Handbook of Middle American Indians Volumes 10 1969 Swift Creek and Santa Rosa in Northwest Florida. and 11, The Archaeology of Northern Mesoamerica.
University of South Carolina Institute ofArchaeology University of Texas Press.
andAnthropology Notebook:6-9, 14-24.
1970 Mesoamerican Glyph Motifs on Southeastern Submitted by:
Pottery. In VerhandlungdesXXXVHIIIInternationalen Dorothy Block, 306 N.E. 1st Avenue #202, Boynton Beach,
Amerikanistenkongress II, edited by T. Williams, pp. FL 33435
89-99. Stuttgart-Munchen.
1980a Archaeological Salvage of an Ossuary at the Baum
Site, Currituck County, North Carolina. Archaeology
Laboratory, East Carolina University, Greenville.
1980b National Register Nomination: Baum Site, 31Ck9,
Currituck County, North Carolina. On file, North Carolina Division of Archives and History, Raleigh.
1982 A Summary of Colington Phase Sites in the Tidewater
Zone of North Carolina. Report prepared for the Archaeology Branch, North Carolina Division of
Archives and History, Raleigh.
1983 Archaeology of the North Carolina Coast and Coastal
Plain: Problems and Hypotheses. In The Prehistory of North Carolina, edited by M. Mathis and J. Crow, pp. 1-51. Reprinted 1990. North Carolina Division
of Archives and History. Raleigh.
1984 Archaeology of the Native Americans: The Carolina
Algonkians. (Final Report of Grant Activities, 198384; 36 pages). North Carolina Division of Archives
and History, Raleigh.
1985 The Carolina Algonkians: Archaeology and History.
Tar Heel Junior Historian 24:16-19.
1991 Excavations at Neoheroka Fort: Tuscarora Battle Site
of 1713. Friends of North Carolina Archaeology
Newsletter 7(2):1.
1992 Neoheroka Fort: 279 Years After the Battle. North
Carolina Literary Review (New Series): 102-103.
Phelps, David Sutton, John Byrd, and Charles Heath 2007 National Register Nomination: Neoheroka Fort,
Greene County, North Carolina. On file, North

About the Authors
Mark C. Donop is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Florida. He has conducted archaeological research in Florida, Texas, and North Carolina, as well as Brazil, Tobago, Peru, and Guyana. Donop's doctoral dissertation research is focused on the long history of the Palmetto Mound (8LV2) archaeological site and its role in local and regional ritual practice.
George D. Kamenov is an isotope geochemist at the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Florida. He manages the ICP-MS laboratory at the department. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Florida. His research is focused on using isotopes as tracers in Earth and Environmental Sciences and Anthropology.
Tiffany E. Birakis was raised in Myakka City, Florida. Tiffany's curiosity for archaeology was sparked at a young age when she would find pottery sherds on her family's rural property. She studied anthropology at the University of South Florida and participated in the Eleftherna field school in Crete, Greece. Tiffany was an assistant curator for the Collier County Museum system in Naples, FL, before returning to Bradenton where she is currently the Assistant Curator of Collections and Exhibitions at the South Florida Museum. She is also a board member of the Manatee County Heritage Preservation Board, and strives to educate visitors and the local community about the region's rich cultural history.
Matthew D. Woodside was born and raised in the San Francisco Bay Area. Matt studied architecture, worked as a flight instructor, a general contractor and historic preservationist before moving to Sioux Falls, South Dakota where he worked with South Dakota State Fish and Game. For the past six years he has been the Director of Exhibitions and Chief Curator at the South Florida Museum in Bradenton, Florida. Matt and his wife April are avid amateur archaeologists and enjoy fishing, kayaking, camping and exploring the back roads of Florida with their children Zachary (age 7) and Kate (age 5).
Louis D. Tesar received his B.S. and M.S. in Anthropology from Florida State University. After 35 years as a professional archaeologist with the Florida Department of State, he retired from the Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research in 2012. Beginning in 1965, he has authored and co-authored more than one hundred reports and articles on archaeological investigations and artifact identification, including aspects of fabrication and use-wear traits. For more than a decade he has prepared flat-bed scanner and digital camera photographic images of hundreds of stone, ceramic, shell, bone, metal and wood artifacts that have been assembled in comparative type files. During that same time he also replicated and documented activities replicating many of those types of artifacts.
Nancy Marie White is a professor of anthropology at the University of South Florida and Registered Professional Archaeologist. Her recent research focuses on the archaeology of the Apalachicola-lower Chattahoochee valley region of northwest Florida, southwest Georgia, and southeast Alabama.
Elicia Kimble is a graduate of the University of South Florida with a B. A. in anthropology and an M. A. in applied anthropology. After working in CRM in various states throughout the Southeast she returned to the University of South Florida in 2013, where she works as the undergraduate academic advisor in the Department of Anthropology.

i;.;.; Join the Florida Anthropological Society
Florida Anthropological Society membership categories and rates:
Student: $15 (with a copy of a current student ID) Regular: $30 Family $35
Institutional: $30 Sustaining: $100 Patron: $1000
Benefactor: $2500
" Student membership is open to graduate, undergraduate, and high school students. A photocopy of
your current student ID must accompany payment
Add $25 for foreign address
" Membership forms are also available at
" The Society publishes the journal The Florida Anthropologist and newsletters, normally quarterly and
sponsors an annual meeting hosted by a local chapter
Telephone Email
FAS Chapter
___I agree to abide by the Code of Ethics of the Florida Anthropological Society
Mail to:
Florida Anthropological Society d/o Pat Balanzategui
P0 Box 1135 St. Augustine, FL 32085

Chapters of the Flori~da Anthropological Society
1. Ancient Ones Archaeological Society of North Central Florida 1
3001 SW College Road, Building 8, Ocala, FL 34474
2. Archaeological Society of Southern Florida
2495 NW 35th Avenue, Miami, FL 33142
3. Central Florida Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 948083, Maitland, FL 32794 7
4. Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society4
P.O. Box 1563, Pinellas Park, FL 33780 5. Emerald Coast Archaeological Society
d/o Indian Temple Mound Museum
139 Miracle Strip Parkway SE, Fort Walton Beach, FL 32548
6. Gold Coast Anthropological Society 14 1
6720 East Tropical Way, Plantation, FL 33317
7. Indian River Anthropological Society 1
P.O. Box 73, Cocoa, FL 32923 16
8. Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy
80 Bear Point Lane, Lake Placid, FL 33852
9. Panhandle Archaeological Society 63
P.O. Box 20026, Tallahassee, FL 32316 1

0 0

Louis D. TESAR
Copyright 2016 by the
ISSN 0015-3893