The Florida anthropologist

Material Information

The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Place of Publication:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Publication Date:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
v.65 no.4, December, 2012
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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Copyright Florida Anthropologist Society, Inc. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
01569447 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )

Full Text
4- 5 rn
JUPITER CRASH SITE, CC n Burial Shell Brown Sand Gumbo/ "Old" Shell JUPITER.CRASH.SITE.CC..Q.urial.....Midden and Shell Muck Midden

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Volume 65 Number 4
December 2012 E1
BoosK REVIEW 255
Cover: Images from this issue's articles: (from the top) Purdy, Randall and Tucker, and Penders. Representing the
Field School summaries is Rachel Iannelli (UF) as she excavated near Feature 1 at the Parnell site.
Published by the
ISSN 0015-3893

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The Florida Anthropologist,
the scholarly journal published quarterly by
the Florida Anthropological Society since 1948.
Donations are now being accepted from
individuals, corporations, and foundations.
Inquiries and gifts can be directed to:
Keith H. Ashley, Editor
The Florida Anthropologist
Archaeology Laboratory4

This issue brings the 2012 volume of The Florida Johns River region-to argue that shell was much more than a
Anthropologist to a close. Within the following pages you will mere food source to the preceramic occupants along the river. find three articles, a book review, and a string of 2012 field A missile crash site is the subject of the final article by school summaries. Also included is a summary of the 2012 Tom Penders This is a new topic to the pages of The Florida Lazarus Award, which was first presented in the September Anthropologist. In this article, Penders introduces us to the 2012 issue. Due to a printing glitch a portion of the summary fledgling field of Aerospace archaeology. He discusses the was excluded, so we are running it again in its entirety. From U.S. missile program within the context of the Cold War. After a temporal perspective, the articles in this volume represent presenting the findings of a reconnaissance survey, Penders extremes: one focuses on an alleged Paleoindian artifact and proceeds to equate an archaeological site (8BR2087) within another one reports on a mid-twentieth century missile crash the boundaries of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station with site, both of which spotlight the east-central part of the state. a specific missile mishap that occurred in 1959. With Cape The third article deals with one of the earliest documented Canaveral located in our own backyard, this should be a field mortuary mounds along the St. Johns River. of study with a bright future in Florida.
The first article by Barbara Purdy revolves around a recent As has been the case for the past four year, the December controversy with far-reaching implications. At the center issue contains summaries of a series of archaeological field of the debate is a mineralized fragment of late Pleistocene school conducted in Florida within the spring or summer of animal bone with an engraved impression of what appears 2012. These include the Lighthouse Archaeological Maritime to be a mammoth. The artifact was recovered by an amateur Program/Plymouth State University underwater field school collector, purportedly near the famous Old Vero site in Indian (Meide); Valencia College work at the Oakland Cemetery River County. As Purdy notes, this site was the subject of in Orange County (Wenzel, Harding, and Gidusko); Crystal an early twentieth century controversy over the relationship River Early Village Archaeological Project field school by between late Pleistocene age animal bones and human skeletal the University of South Florida and Ohio State University remains recovered during canal construction. The current (Pluckhahn and Thompson); Florida Museum of Natural article is a follow-up to a 2011 piece published by Dr. Purdy History's Suwannee Valley Field School at the Parnell Mound and colleagues in the Journal of Archaeological, where they in Columbia County (Wallis); St. Johns Archaeological reported the results of sophisticated analysis on the mineralized Field School at Silver Glen Springs Run along the middle bone and engraving. In this article, Purdy reviews these results St. Johns River by the University of Florida and University but focuses more on the possible sources (both ancient and of Oklahoma (Randall and Sassaman); University of West modem) used to depict the mammoth engraved on the bone. Florida 2012 Campus Field School survey and testing along In addition, she recounts events in the Vero area that transpired Thompson's Bayou in Escambia County (Hooker and Walls); in the decades following canal construction that might have a 2012 Mission Escambe Excavations by the University of bearing on the legitimacy of the artifact. Does Purdy present West Florida at the eighteenth century Mission San Joseph a convincing case for the authenticity of the artifact? You will de Escambe (McMahon and Dadiego); and the University have to judge for yourself, of North Florida's field school search for a French fort and
In the next article, Asa Randall and Bryan Tucker argue excavation of a Spanish mission (Ashley and Thunen).
for the existence of preceramic Archaic Mt. Taylor mortuary Next is a book review by Gordon Rakita followed by a mounds along the middle St. Johns River, particularly summary of the 2012 Lazarus Award winner. With respect the Bluffion Burial Mound. This stratified sand and shell to the latter, an incomplete version was published in the monument was previously dug by Jefferies Wyman and September 2012 issue. We hope you enjoy this issue of The
Clarence B. Moore during the final quarter of the nineteenth Florida Anthropologist. century. The mound was also excavated by William Sears a
little more than fifty years ago. Randall and Tucker reexamine Keith H. Ashley mound construction based on these investigations and subject
a fragment of human bone from Sear's Burial 1 to radiometric
dating to demonstrate that the mound is indeed an Archaic
burial facility. Moreover, the authors use the horizontal
and vertical positioning of shell deposits in the mound in
conjunction with recent research centered on the middle St.

1the 65th Annual Meeting of the A
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In 2009, a collector noticed a mammoth image on a On March 27, 2009, I traveled to Vero Beach, met with
mineralized bone he found near the Old Vero Site (81R9). the collector James Kennedy, and saw the incised bone and the The bone and engraving were analyzed at the University area where it was found near the Main Relief Canal (pictures of Florida and the Smithsonian Institution. No evidence of and correspondence in possession of the author; see especially forgery emerged. Still, concern lingers about its antiquity. letter from W.E. Roddenberry dated March 31, 2009). I made Its significance, if it was created more than 13,000 years ago arrangements with curators at the Florida Museum of Natural when Ice Age artists could personally observe these animals, History, forensic anthropologists at the C.A. Pound Human cannot be overstated. In this paper, I discuss the possibility Identification Laboratory, and a professor of art to examine that the mammoth engraving from the Old Vero site is a recent the bone and the engraving at the University of Florida in replica of an already existing design. Gainesville, on April 13, 2009. At that time, photographs were
In the fall of 2011, I embarked on a supplementary taken at the Florida Museum of Natural History (Figure 2a, b). study of the mammoth engraving from Vero Beach, Florida. I I sent pictures of the engraved bone to various archaeologists undertook this project for the following reasons: and paleontologists in America and abroad asking for their
reactions, most of which were enthusiastic but cautious
1. No artifact had been authenticated previously in the (personal communications in possession of the author from Western Hemisphere that contains the image of an extinct Paul G. Bahn, Russell W. Graham, C. Andrew Hemmings, Ice Age animal. Steven Holen, H. Gregory McDonald, Gary S. Morgan.
2. There were verbal and written negative reactions to Thomas W. Stafford, Jr.).
the original report of the mammoth bone/engraving In mid-May 2009, 1 was allowed to bring the bone to
investigations, as published in the Journal of Gainesville again, where it was studied using an optical
Archaeological Science (Purdy et al. 2011).Who knows microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM).
how many other Doubting Thomases did not speak up? A small sample was removed from an area away from 3. Despite the sophisticated analyses to which the bone was the incising for rare earth element (REE) analysis, and
subjected by a team of reputable scientists, an absolute the chemical composition of the surface of the bone was date for the engraving itself could not be determined using determined by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (FDXS).
currently available methods, or by using the methods at The specimen then traveled to the Smithsonian Institution our disposal. in Washington, D.C., where casts were made. Reflectance
4. When science cannot furnish an indisputable conclusion, Transformation Imaging (RTI) on a cast and mold of the bone
proxy evidence may reveal facts that confirm, support, supported the microscopy work, which suggested no evidence question, or refute the scientific endeavor, that the engraving was made recently. Photographs of the cast
were made at the Smithsonian. See Purdy et al. (2011) for an
Background explanation of techniques used and their results.
It had been determined previously that the mineralized
On February 28, 2009, I received a letter about and bones from the fossil bed at the Old Vero site did not pictures of a bone from a late Pleistocene animal engraved contain enough collagen to conduct radiocarbon or DNA with the image of a mammoth (Figure 1 a, b; other pictures and analyses (Thomas W. Stafford, personal communication, correspondence in possession of the author). The specimen 2008; MacFadden et al. 2012), but in late September 2011, was recovered by an amateur collector near the location where Smithsonian personnel extracted samples from the engraved extinct late Pleistocene fauna and human bones were discovered bone in an attempt to date it and determine the species. The in the early twentieth century (Sellards 1916). An extensive results of these efforts are unknown. literature exists from that time describing the Old Vero Site Several conclusions were drawn from the studies and the reactions of professional geologists, archaeologists, conducted on the bone containing an image of a proboscidean physical anthropologists, and botanists (e.g., Berr 1917; recovered near the Old Vero Site in Indian River County, Hrdlicka 1918; Sellards et al. 1917). See Purdy (2008) for a Florida. description of the site and a summary of the controversy that
has never been resolved regarding the association of human 1. The bone is from an extinct late Pleistocene animal, and animal bones there (but see MacFadden et al. 2012). probably mammoth, mastodon, or giant sloth.

2. REE analysis determined that the antiquity and origin of the 1950s (Weigel 1962).
the bone match other specimens from the fossil stratum at On March 5, 2010, Thomas W. Stafford, Jr. of the Centre the Old Vero site (see also MacFadden et al. 2012). of GeoGenetics spent several hours examining the bone and 3. The image on the bone is very weathered; therefore, it the engraving. His observations and conclusions are extracted
was not created recently. below from personal correspondence dated March 8, 2010:
The Challenge
There are shallow grooves that cross the surface
It is not known if the bone from Vero Beach was engraved of the bone [refer to Figures 1 and 2]. These grooves when the bone was still green (fresh) or already mineralized, are not anatomical features; they are postmortem Also, the rate of weathering of the engraving could not be alterations to the bone. Surfaces of fossil bones determined using currently available methods. Therefore, it contain grooves and lines that can be caused by has not been possible to assign an absolute date to the time vertebrate animals or humans, but the most common when the image was created. This situation raises the question: ones are from root etching, fungal growth, in situ Was the image created ca. 13,000 years ago or sometime abrasion against other bones or harder objects in
during the twentieth century? the sediments, damage and erosion during stream
That the incision is weathered rules out the possibility transport, and insect, snail, and other invertebrates that it was produced very recently, but if it was not created using the bone as a source of nutrition or calcium. ca. 13,000 years ago, I am hypothesizing that it originated no This behavior is especially common in aquatic earlier than ca. 1910-1915 and no later than ca. 1930-1960. My environments. primary defense of this presumption is based on the history of The lines making up the engraved image extend the Old Vero site itself. The fauna, including proboscideans, across the shallow grooves. Therefore, the engraving were first recovered during canal construction between 1913 was done after the shallow grooves formed. and 1916, and no excavations have been conducted there since The black to very dark brown pyrolusite (Mn
Figures la and lb. The engraved mineralized bone from
Vero Beach: a) (above) the bone fragment showing the difficult to see small incising of a mammoth; b)(right)
close-up of the image. (The thin white lines were added
by the editors to slightly enhance the engraved image)

patination on the bone is extremely thin (<100 early twentieth centuries opened a Pandora's box of tm) and is a distinct layer that exists on the incentives for sensational artistic expressions. Existing bone's surface. The boundary between the MnO2 beliefs crumbled and soon collapsed catastrophically as
layer and underlying bone is extremely sharp unquestionable evidence mounted from the early 1800s
and smooth and is not gradational. This indicates onward demonstrating that humans and strange beasts of that patination was rapid and did not occur over a bygone day had lived at the same time and in the same enough time to penetrate deeply into the bone. places. While we all stand on the shoulders of those who
The MnO2 coating usually implies came before, crucial changes occur when certain individuals
considerable geological age; however, when the meaningfully synthesize knowledge accumulated by waters contain dissolved Mn, Fe, and other metals their predecessors, or discover indisputable evidence that that exist in oxidizing solutions, such coatings causes a major paradigm shift. Georges Cuvier, Boucher de require years to a few decades, not millennia, to Perthes, Charles Darwin, Edouard Lartet, Marcellin Boule, form. and other nineteenth century visionaries belong in this
The engraved lines forming the mammoth group. It is because of them, we learned for sure and certain
postdate the shallow postmortem grooves, but that the world was not created in 4004 B.C. Technological
they predate the formation of the MnO2 patina, advances in communication made it possible for people to I [Stafford] feel that the pyrolusite is a twentieth learn quickly about important events and people, such as century patination initiated by geochemical cave paintings, Cro Magnon Man, Neanderthals, La Brea
conditions caused by canal construction. Tar Pits, Piltdown Man (a hoax), Queen Nefertiti, and King
Tut's Tomb. Did local conditions at Vero Beach spark the
imagination of a talented individual to engrave a mammoth
The Supplementary Study image; if so, what did the artist use as a model?
Significant revelations of the nineteenth and
Figures 2a and 2b. The engraved mineralized bone
from Vero Beach when photographed with special
lighting: a) (above) the bone fragment showing the
small incising of a mammoth; b) (left) close-up of the
exquisite image (picture credit, Jeff Gage, FLMNH).

Now the question is, could some of the 159 mammoths have
been created after 1575 when people stayed there to avoid bad
weather or enemies? It is known that modem graffiti adorns
the walls of many caves along with ancient art. At Rouffignac
.Cave, for example, letters are seen very close to The Patriarch (Figure 3), which guards the entrance. But it is alwayo iet
get an expert's opinion. Paul G. Bahn's comments are extracted
below from personal communication dated November 18,
F, 2011:
It is simply not true that the art of Rouffignac Cave
Figure 3. The Patriarch: a mammoth depiction that was known in the sixteenth century. I know this is
guards the entrance to Rouffignac Cave, France. constantly claimed by guides and books, but Suzanne
de St. Mathurin showed conclusively in an article
many years ago that these early descriptions of the
Mammoth Images cave use the word paintures which can only refer to
the natural colours of the cave's formations. Had they
Only a few sources can be used to depict Ice Age seen animal images, they would have called them
mammoths: (1) live animals, (2) Upper Paleolithic cave or dessins, not paintures. There remain doubts about
portable art, (3) reconstructions of preserved frozen specimens a handful of the black drawings in the cave and its from the Siberian or Canadian Arctic, (4) careful studies of ceiling where there may have been some additions skeletal material from locations such as Rancho La Brea, by Resistance people during the war. However, the
and (5) images created by modem artists; that is, artists who cave has 10 km of galleries on 3 levels with images were born after late Pleistocene extinctions occurred. All of throughout, and the vast majority of them are these provide a possible genesis for the Vero Beach object. unquestionably authentic. Fake cave art is extremely Obviously, if the mammoth engraving is genuine, it was rare (far rarer than fake portable art) (see also Bahn
designed when the artist could use a living proboscidean as a 1993, 1997; Breuil 1959). model. The four other sources need to be addressed.
Upper Paleolithic Cave and Portable Art Even though five-hundred mammoth images have been
found in Upper Paleolithic caves, none of them-including
Only a few sources can be used to depict Ice Age here those at Rouffignac Cave-look exactly like the engraving are hundreds of decorated caves, but not all of them were on the mineralized bone from Vero Beach. As a result, it is discovered prior to 1950 and not all of them contain images impossible to state that it is a replica or a modified version of of proboscideans. On the other hand, there are 159 mammoths cave art. Alpert (2010) studied the design and concluded that depicted in Rouffignac Cave. Rouffignac Cave, first reported "[t]his mammoth image seems to fit well with the European in 1575, was used as a place of refuge throughout the centuries, opus but not so well that it can be called a copy of any particular including a French Resistance hideout during World War II. example. .. is the work of a particularly gifted individual."
Figures 4a and 4b. Adams mammoth, a frozen specimen from Siberia,, (a) (above left) as depicted in the late 1700s by Boltunov who purchased the tusks (note the missing trunk, lack of high shoulders and sloping back); b) (above right) as reassembled by Wilhelm Gottlieb Tilesius.

Figures 5a, 5b, 5c, and 5d. Examples of Upper Paleolithic mammoth images showing a great diversity in art styles but consistent portrayal of high shoulders, sloping back, short tail, recurved tusks, diminutive ears, and hand-like projection on the tip of the trunk: a) Rouffignac (left top); b) Pech Merle (left above); c) Font de Guame (top right); d) Combarelles (above right).
By the early twentieth century, other preserved frozen
Frozen Mammoths specimens had been retrieved from northern Siberia (e.g., the
famous Beresovka mammoth), but all of them were missing
Bones and tusks from Siberian mammoths were utilized some key anatomical elements, and the carcasses had to be for millennia for shelters, fuel, weapons, and works of art. cut into pieces to transport. It is unlikely, therefore, that frozen Chinese writings of the fourth century B.C. mention fossil mammoths from Siberia furnished the blueprint from which ivory traded from Siberia, but it was not until the seventeenth the image on the mineralized bone from Vero Beach was century A.D. that reports of frozen mammoths reached created.
Europe. By the early nineteenth century, there was interest in
collecting an entire carcass, including hair, skin, bones, flesh, Reconstructions from Mammoth Skeletons internal organs, and information about diet.
............ ...... .............
The Adams mammoth was collected in 1806 by Mikhail Charles R. Knight (1935:14) praises the efforts of
Adams. A drawing of it made by Boltunov, who had bought individuals who attempt to assemble ancient animal bones to the tusks a few years earlier, may be the first picture ever their original form attempted of a frozen proboscidean (Figure 4a). Note that the
trunk is missing, and it looks like a giant boar (Lister and Bahn
2007:49, 51,137). It took Wilhelm Gottlieb Tilesius five years By applying liberal doses of the collector's great to reassemble the remains using, as a model, an elephant given panacea for ills of the bony structure, namely shellac, to Peter the Great from the Shah of Persia in 1713. As a result, which fills and hardens in the cracks and holds the the reconstruction lacked the high shoulders and sloping back entire mass more firmly together...The pose of each of an extinct specimen. Tilesius also placed the tusks on the animal is very carefully decided upon by experts wrong sides (Figure 4b); this error was not corrected until before a single bone is put into position...and very 1899. often a small model of the creature is reconstructed
attepte of frzenprobsciean(Figre a).Notetha th
oFiue 5a, 5bnc 5pcmend. Exmlesis alof paer alessoithc mamimals howin careull denied ipn rtexperts
wong sdes t figre rnkb) thirrr as (let to)rr ec untileoe (lf above); c) bon e isut ito rit;
899.faou ofteasmva mao thdetal of the m crauei esrce

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A A I..I.
Figure 6. Example of portable art from La Madeleine, France with an engraving of a mammoth on a fragment of mammoth ivory (see text for source).
as a further guide. No one.. .can conceive of the vast original images created by our ancient ancestors. The truth is, amount of thought, time and trouble that goes into as anyone knows who has had the opportunity to visit the caves,
the mounting of even the simplest skeletal formation. the images on those walls are not nearly as clear as shown in Months are sometimes required to assemble properly art books. See Bahn (1997:144,165) to compare Henri Breuil's
the bones... which may be mounted in lifelike versions of engraved aurochs from Teyjat (Dordogne) and the
positions in order to bring out better the habits of the "sorcerer" from Trois Freres (Ariege) to the actual images. In creature in question. addition, again from Bahn (1997:50,185) are examples of how
tracings of cave art differ from artist to artist. Lastly, it is not
surprising that even if a recent artist might draw a mammoth
Knight also stresses the importance of cooperation between based on an image created by another artist, it would not look scientists and artists. But despite conscientious efforts and identical but would contain the personal touches of the copying admirable results, it is virtually impossible to know precisely artist. To demonstrate, throughout Lister and Bahn (2007), how an animal looked and moved based on its skeletal twelve illustrators are credited with portraying mammoths,
structure. A famous example of an erroneous interpretation all of which look like mammoths, but none are the same; and occurred in the early nineteenth century. Charles Wilson Peale, none resemble the Vero Beach image. an artist who also had a great interest in natural history, led
a scientific expedition in the Hudson River Valley. He later Conditions at Vero
established the Philadelphia Museum, where he put together
the skeleton of a mastodon with the tusks pointing downward How much of the above information was known in the (Conniff 2010). rural town of Vero, Florida in the early twentieth century that
may have resulted in recently engraved mineralized bones
Mammoth Images Created by Modern Artists accidentally or intentionally ending up in spoil piles created by
canal construction or for other reasons? As mentioned earlier,
The information presented in the above paragraphs leads the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were periods of to the conclusion that the most accurate depictions of late Ice great discoveries and revelations about the past. They were Age animals--including mammoths with their high head and also times of important new technologies and demands shoulders, recurved tusks, hand-shaped trunk tip, small ears, resulting from population growth and development. and diminutive tail--come from the Upper Paleolithic when
people "saw these great brutes pass in slow motion before Canal Construction their very eyes" (Knight 1935:94). It is interesting to note
how much diversity exists in these early depictions (Figure The recovery of animal bones at Vero during canal 5). These portrayals have survived on cave walls and on construction began soon after F. H. Sellards (1916:130) portable objects, including the engraving on mammoth ivory learned about their existence, but his advice is puzzling discovered by Edouard Lartet in 1864 at La Madeleine (Lartet
and Christy 1865-1875; also Boule and Vallois 1957; Figure 6)
and, perhaps, on the engraved bone from Vero Beach (Figures At the time of the discovery of vertebrate fossils at l and 2). Vero in 1913, the writer suggested to Mr. Weills, who
Since the early nineteenth century, paleontologists and had reported the fossils, the possibility, which at that artists--e.g., Georges Cuvier, Henri Breuil, Edouard Lartet, time seemed remote, of finding human bones in a bed Edouard Piette, Andre Leroi-Gourhan, and Charles R.
Knight--have been adding their own interpretations to the

containing such considerable numbers of land contemporaneity of man with a Pleistocene fauna is definitely
vertebrates, established for the first time in America." But Sellards was
bucking some powerful opposition from individuals such
as Ales Hrdlicka of the United States National Museum
Human remains were removed from that deposit beginning (Smithsonian), and also because proof of human presence in in 1915 (Figure 7), but why did Sellards, a geologist, make America prior to the extinction of late Pleistocene fauna was this suggestion in 1913? The most obvious explanation is that not accepted until ca. 1925. Regarding this topic, the saying Sellards knew of the recovery of extinct fauna at the La Brea "chance favors only the prepared mind," attributed to Louis Tar Pits in California and of the human remains that were Pasteur in the mid-nineteenth century, seems only to apply to first reported in popular sources in 1912 and subsequently Sellards in the early twentieth century. published in Science (Merriam 1914). Proof of this connection Because the definitive artifacts have disappeared is found when Sellards compares the dire wolf, Canis dirus, namely, the chert biface and the tusk and bird bone with from Rancho La Brea (Merriam 1912) with Vero specimens possible incisings and because the sensationalism and says "the comparison of the Florida wolf with this great surrounding the unique finds at the Old Vero site may have wolf of the Pacific Coast has been greatly facilitated by having stimulated the imaginations of creative individuals, there at hand a complete skeleton... kindly furnished by Professor remains lingering concern about the antiquity of the mammoth J.C. Merriam of the University of California" (Sellards image first reported in 2009. Nevertheless, up to this point, no 1916:153). concrete evidence has been presented to demonstrate that it is
Further on, Sellards (1916:160 and Plate 22; Figure 8) a modem depiction of an Ice Age animal. "Uniqueness itself is mentions that the Pleistocene human inhabitants of Vero were no guide to fakery" (Bahn 1998:154). making flint and bone implements and that they had "acquired Controversy about the Old Vero Site faded for a few years the art or custom of engraving on bone, this conclusion being until Frederic B. Loomis (1924) reported human bones and supported by the discovery in place in the Pleistocene bed of artifacts in association with extinct fauna at the Singleton site a bone and of a proboscidean tusk having markings which in Melbourne a few miles north of Vero. Like Sellards, Loomis seemingly were made by tools.. .the flints may have served as was accused ofjumping to conclusions and was lambasted by tools for this purpose." his contemporaries (see e.g., Holmes 1918, 1925)
Sellards (1917:250) was very aware of discoveries in the
rest of the world. He mentions Cro Magnon Man of 25,000 [I] feel it a duty to hold and enforce the view that the
years ago as having essentially modern features, and "[t]he evidences of Pleistocene man recorded by Loomis at presence of man in the Pleistocene of Europe has long been Melbourne, as well as those obtained by Sellards and known, and his assumed absence from the Pleistocene of others at Vero, are not only inadequate but dangerous
America is based entirely on negative evidence" (Sellards to the cause of science (Holmes 1925:258). et al. 1917:24). E.H. Sellards (1916:160) was ahead of his
time when he stated: "By these discoveries in Florida the
Figure 7. View of the south bank of the canal at Vero Beach in the early twentieth century (the arrows point to the
locations of two fairly complete human skeletons).

Disparaging criticisms are sometimes made by individuals whose scientific credentials are inferior to those they are criticizing. The response of Loomis (1925:436) to Holmes' remarks should be read by everyone, especially those who believe they can judge the conclusions of their colleagues without seeing the evidence firsthand. The three localities excavated at Melbourne from ca. 1923-1929 added credibility to the Vero site, and Loomis' name figures in the discussion S..about Tarzan Park.
Tarzan Park
A tourist attraction called Tarzan Park (Figure 9) was open seasonally in Vero Beach from December 1932 until sometime in 1934 or 1935(?). Tarzan Park has raised questions regarding the authenticity of the mammoth engraving recovered in the area:
1. The facility was conceived by John H. Chase of Youngstown, Ohio. John Chase and Frederic Loomis graduated in the same class from Amherst College in 1896 (Amherst College, General Catalogue 1821-1900:101102).
2. Tarzan Park was located in the area of E.H. Sellards' investigations of 1913-1916.
Figures 8a and 8b. Artifacts recovered at the Old Vero 3. An artist worked at the facility as an illustrator and
site from 1913-1916 that have gone missing: a) (above) landscaper; there were exhibits of paintings, life-sized
stone point; b) (below) tusk and bird bone that appear to cutouts, and casts of animals. be incised. 4. 1934 to the twenty-first century furnishes sufficient time,
as mentioned by Thomas W. Stafford, Jr. for the thin patina of pyrolusite to form on the surface of the incised R............ "L R, P. bone if it was created for Tarzan Park, and then discarded
in the vicinity when the facility closed.
Because of the uniqueness of the mammoth engraving and its significance to the Paleoamerican occupation of the Western Hemisphere, if it is ancient, it is imperative to demonstrate .,ii beyond question that the engraving was not created during i i the last century. In the following paragraphs, I describe what
: : is known about Tarzan Park and its activities, as well as the
: i~i',i: ii~i~i~iipossible influence and participation of various individuals. ii ::: ,ii ii iii !:i:' :, 12Specific details pertaining to the opening and purpose of .iii!iii~i!iiii~i,.: :,. ,, :Tarzan Park are contained in accounts from the Vero Beach ::i {!!!!!:! ?:ii!!ii !iiii iPress Journal (VBPJ 1932-1937), the Youngstown Vindicator i~ii~iii~~iil':! i { "(YV 1933; 1935; 1943), the Washington Reporter (1956), and i. v ::<: i iiii!iil.... : i~i Chase (1934).
i{ From January to March 1932, John Chase was in Vero !i~~i~i! i: ii, .77 !iBeach conducting investigations at the Main Canal north ................... :"of town when he recovered the tibia of a human female(?).
>i :::: : i! IDuring this time the widow of Isaac M. Weills contributed to iiiiili ... :,: :i~ ,the Tarzan Park ground sloth and mammoth bones that had
..... been collected by her husband. Weills along with Frank Ayers .... =: i: had worked closely with E.H. Sellards during the original 3- excavations from 1913-1916, and Ayers assisted in the
::i: :'::: i:::!:!ii?>.constrnction of Tarzan Park. Chase presented the high school ~with a book containing illustrations of prehistoric animals,

Figure 9. Howdy House at the entrance to Tarzan Park, a tourist facility at Vero Beach from ca. 1932-34 (from Chase 1934).
and suggested that students in art classes make large-scale directly below Vero Man. While most of the bones inserted drawings of them. into the bank of the canal came from that area originally, there
On November 4, 1932, Chase returned to Vero Beach are suggestions that "when necessary, museum duplicates from his summer home in Youngstown and was involved with were brought in to supplement the display" (VBPJ 12-23a contest offering a cash prize for the winning story about a 32). Also, while no specific location is mentioned, in 1932 human skull that had been on display in Maher's Department "the more interesting fossils [from the Bon Terra Farm in Store window. This may have been a stunt to gain publicity for Flagler County] had been rented to novelty shops as a tourist Tarzan Park, which opened on December 27th. attraction" (Neill 1953:171).
The entrance to Tarzan Park, called Howdy House or There is no indication in any of the articles about Tarzan
Station 1, was located just south of the Rose Garden Tea Room Park that paintings, engravings, or replicas of fauna recovered on the Dixie Highway near Vero Beach. Books and pictures of from the Old Vero site were on sale in Howdy House at the scientists at work were located there. A trail was cut to Station entrance. Nevertheless, Warner Sanford, an artist, was at the No. 2, a hundred yards down the stream. The face of the canal site and "painted in a background of prehistoric trees and other bank had been sheared off perpendicularly, and a stratum of plants; and models of prehistoric men and animals, life-size, clear white sand was exposed halfway between the top of the were placed about the six-acre tract in the brush" (YV 1935). bank and the surface of the water. Station No. 3 contained an Sanford attended the Art Institute of Chicago as a young man almost complete skeleton (casts as well as mineralized bones) in 1924-1925. One individual who recently critiqued the Vero of a saber tooth cat inserted in the vertical bank of the sand. Beach specimen reported herein observed that the engraving Beyond the saber tooth were the ribs and huge leg bones of resembled the style of Charles R. Knight and implied that the ground sloth. A sloth, glyptodont, tapir, and extinct horses it might be a Knight replica.2 Knight was under contract in were displayed nearby. Mammoth and mastodon bones were 1926 to the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History; he also inserted in the sand at Station No. 4, and there were exhibits of traveled frequently to Palm Beach, Florida. This suggests, but peccaries and the American camel. Spectators at Station No. does not prove, that there may have been interaction between
5 could see an exact replica of the "Adam of America." The Knight and Sanford. female tibia Chase had found earlier was placed in the sand Tarzan Park was a minor success in 1932-33. Admission

Figures 10a andlOb. a) (above) Ivory tool with incising manufactured from proboscidean tusk; and b) (below) early stone bifaces from Florida (Alvin Hendrix collection).
was 20 cents. It closed for the summer of 1933 and opened 0 1 2
again on November 8, 1933. New signs were placed along the highway and at Howdy House in order to direct travelers to Tarzan Park, and also to impress the super showmen Messmer and Damon, producers of The World a Million Years Ago at the Chicago World's Fair (VBPJ 12-29-33). There is no evidence that they arrived in Vero Beach to see Chase's innovative 6-acre, 200-yard outdoor trail museum with fossils arranged in their original location in the canal bank, which was cut away to show the different strata. In February 1935, Jerome J. Foxman, a high school graduate and student of John Chase in Youngstown, Ohio excavated north of the Main Canal (VBPJ 2-15-35), but it is not clear if Tarzan Park was still open. There is no further mention of Tarzan Park to my knowledge, or of IX
the whereabouts of the exhibits, the specimens that had been inserted in the canal bank, or those recovered by Chase, Ayers, and Foxman.
John H. Chase was the Executive Secretary of the i
Youngstown Playground Association. He sounds like a! Renaissance Man or, perhaps more accurately, a jack-of- all- i
trades. His obituary speaks of his boundless enthusiasm and the primary focus of his extensive projects: "His zeal and inspiration rose highest when he could interest boys and girls in plants, animals, stars, rocks, minerals, experiments, or play" (YV 4-23-43; Ohio Academy of Science 1943). now extinct animals, manufacturing beautiful stone bifaces,
One wonders how far he might go to do these things. One and making tools from proboscidean tusks (Figure 10). In article (paraphrased) says that Chase found Adam and Eve in the twenty-first century, there still remains a lack of absolute the Garden of Eden in a six-acre bone yard along with huge documentation that these early Americans created images as egg-laying monsters munching apples from a grove near the the "great brutes pass[ed] in slow motion before their very Fountain of Youth (YV 5-14-33). eyes" (Knight 1935: 94). None of the analytical techniques
applied to the engraved bone from Vero Beach determined that Summary and Conclusions the engraving is recent (Purdy et al. 2011). An examination
of evidence using a supplementary approach has not revealed The question of human presence in the Westeru any proof of falsification. I conclude that the artist created the
Hemisphere along with late Pleistocene fauna, while still a image by viewing either a living specimen or by modifying the controversial issue in the early twentieth century, was answered style of another artist. indisputably by 1926. People were here. They were hunting It is important to mention that the image on the bone

is very difficult to see (see Figure 1), and is recognizable citrus acreage in Florida where Frank Ayers lived. primarily because of talented photography and excellent 4. On December 15, 2012, I learned that the engraved bone lighting (see Figure 2). This brings up two additional points from Vero Beach has been sold and now, unfortunately, that could explain the rarity of Ice Age works of art: (1) resides in California somewhere. The depositional environment that favored the outstanding
preservation of Pleistocene fauna in Florida may also have Acknowledgments
preserved engravings that have eroded in other regions of
the country, and (2) geologists, paleontologists, and other This investigation was stimulated by the observation scientists who investigate late Pleistocene deposits may not of geoscientist Thomas W. Stafford, Jr. that the thin patina notice engravings because their research does not focus on of pyrolusite on the surface of the incised bone from Vero human activities. Beach, Florida could indicate that the engraving dates to
One other factor that deserves comment is that metal the last century. Three other individuals played a major role apparently was not used to create the image from Vero Beach. in furnishing documents and ideas that were invaluable in If a modem artist created the design to demonstrate his or verifying specific points made in this manuscript. Paul G. her talents, or even if the specimen was intended for sale to Bahn, author of many important books about prehistoric art, the tourist trade, why wouldn't a metal implement be used to patiently answered my inquiries about mammoth depictions produce the engraving? The bone is mineralized and would in Upper Paleolithic caves. Pamela J. Cooper, Supervisor, be difficult to incise without metal. Further investigation Archive Center & Genealogy Department, Indian River might reveal if twentieth century artists used metal tools to County Main Library, Vero Beach supplied newspaper incise mineralized bones or, more importantly, if they incised clippings and other publications pertaining to Tarzan Park and mineralized bones at all. John H. Chase. Pamela L. Speis, Archivist, Mahoning Valley
"When the Pleistocene ended, so did Pleistocene art" Historical Society, Youngstown, Ohio tirelessly pursued (Guthrie 2005:401). At this point, all evidence suggests that numerous articles that helped tie together relationships the engraved bone from Vero Beach is an authentic specimen, between various individuals involved with activities in Vero which may be more than 13,000 years old. Future excavations Beach, Florida from 1913 to the 1940s.Thanks also to Adrian at the Old Vero site by a professional interdisciplinary team Lister, Alexei Tikhonov, and R. Dale Guthrie for responding may furnish additional art objects recovered in context under to various mammoth questions, and to Mathew Sams of the controlled conditions eliminating any doubt that they are School of the Art Institute of Chicago for information about genuine.4 Warner Sanford. Lastly, I am indebted to James Kennedy of
Vero Beach for finding the engraved bone and keeping my life
Notes interesting since February 2009.
1. "The best that I can do for you is to say that when you References Cited
have examined all things as carefully as Dr. Sellards has, you will be of the same opinion as he is. Being an
eyewitness to the measurements and fossil finds as well Alpert, Barbara Olins
as of the photos taken with the fossils in place, I can make 2010 A Context for the Vero Beach Engraved Mammoth
the above statement. It is immaterial to me whether you or Mastodon. Paper presented at the "Pleistocene
or anyone else believes the statement as made by the art of the Americas" symposium, IFRAO Congress,
Doctor. The facts still stand. Galileo said, 'I can afford to France.
wait ., for when they [are through] investigating, they
will be of the same opinion,' and so it will be when full Bahn, Paul G.
investigatons have been made of the fossils." Written by 1993 The "Dead Wood Stage" of Prehistoric Art Studies:
Isaac M. Weills to Ales Hrdlicka; from the November Style is Not Enough. In Rock Art Studies: The
1916 field notes of E.H. Sellards, archived at the Florida Post-Sty listic Era, edited by M. Lorblanchet and
Geological Survey, Tallahassee and transcribed by Jeffrey Paul Bahn, pp. 51-59. Oxbow Books, Oxford.
M. Mitchem in December 1999 and January 2000. 1997 Journey Through the Ice Age. Weidenfeld &
2. As an aside, it is worth mentioning that Knight worked Nicolson, London.
at McClure's Magazine in the late 1 890s with Gustav 1998 Prehistoric Art. Cambridge University Press,
Verbeek. Verbeek is credited with creating the artwork Cambridge.
for The Killing of the Mammoth (Tukeman 1899). Their
styles are similar. Berry, Edward W.
3. These accounts are very interesting. For example, Isaac 1917 The Fossil Plants from Vero, Florida. Florida State
M. Weills was a pharmacist in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Geological Survey, 9tlh Annual Report, pp. 19-33.
who in 1908 married Nancy J. Hughes owner of extensive Tallahassee.

Boule, Marcellin, and Henri V. Vallois 1925 The Florida Man. Science 62:436.
1957 Fossil Men. Revised edition, first published in 1922
by Marcellin Boule. The Dryden Press. N.Y. MacFadden, Bruce J., Barbara A. Purdy, Krista L. Church,
and Thomas W. Stafford, Jr.
Breuil, Henri 2012 Humans were Contemporaneous with Late
1959 Des Preuves de L'Authenticit6 des Figures Pari6tales Pleistocene Mammals in Florida: Evidence
de la Caverne de Routtignac. Bulletin de la Societe from Rare Earth Elemental Analyses. Journal of
Prehistoire Frangaise 56:82-92. Vertebrate Paleontology 32:708-716.
Chase, John H. Merriam, John C.
1934 Tarzan Park, the American Garden of Eden. 1912 The Fauna of Rancho La Brea. Part 2. Canidae.
American Motor Traveler 3:3-5,15. Memoirs of the University of California 1(2).
1914 Preliminary Report on the Discovery of Human Conniff, Richard Remains in an Asphalt Deposit at Rancho La Brea.
2010 Mammoths and Mastodons: All American Science 40:197-203.
Monsters. Smithsonian Magazine, April. (Charles
Wilson Peale, 1801 tusks upside down shown in his Neill, Wilfred T.
Philadelphia museum). 1953 Notes on the Supposed Association of Artifacts
and Extinct Vertebrates in Flagler County, Florida.
Guthrie, R. Dale American Antiquity 19:170-171. Ohio Academy of
2005 The Nature ofPaleolithic Art. University of Science
Chicago Press, Chicago. 1943 Report of the Committee on Necrology. Report of
the Fifty-Third Annual Meeting, 43:156.
Holmes, William H.
1918 Discussion and Correspondence on the Antiquity of Purdy, Barbara A.
Man in America. Science 47:561-562. 2008 Florida 's People During the Last Ice Age.
1925 The Antiquity Phantom in American Archeology. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Science 62:256- 258.
Purdy, Barbara A., Kevin S. Jones, John J. Macholsky, Gerald Hrdlicka, Ales Bourne, Richard C. Hulbert, Jr., Bruce J. MacFadden, Krista
1918 Recent Discoveries Attributed to Early Man in L. Church, Michael W. Warren, Thomas F. Jorstad, Dennis J.
America. Bureau ofAmerican Ethnology Bulletin Stanford, Melvin J. Wachowiak, Robert J. Speakman
66, Washington, D.C. 2011 Earliest Art in the Americas: Incised Image of a
Proboscidean on a Mineralized Extinct Animal
Knight, Charles R. Bone from Vero Beach, Florida. Journal of
1935 Before the Dawn of History. McGraw-Hill Book Archaeological Science 38:2908-2913.
Co., Inc., New York.
Sellards, E.H.
Lartet, Edouard, and H. Christy 1916 Human Remains and Associated Fossils from the
1865-1875 Pleistocene of Florida. Florida State Geological
Reliquiae Aquitanicae: Being Contributions to Survey, 8th Annual Report, pp. 123-160. Tallahassee.
theArchaeology and Palaeontology of P~rigord, 1917 Further Notes on Human Remains from Vero,
Vol. 1., Paris. Florida. American Anthropologist 19:239-251.
Sellards, E.H., Rollin T. Chamberlin, T. Wayland Vaughan, A. Lister, Adrian, and Paul G. Bahn Hrdlicka, O.P. Hay, and G.G. MacCurdy
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American Journal of Science 8:503-508.

Vero Beach Press Journal (VBPJ) 1932-1937 January 29, 1932; February 5, 26,1932; March 4, 1932; October 7, 1932; November 4, 1932; December, 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, 1932; January 13, 1933; February 17, 1933; March 3, 10, 1933; April 28May 26, 1933; July 14, 1933; August 4, 1933; November 3, 1933; December 29, 1933; February 15, 1935; March 15, 1935; February 19, 1937.
Washington Reporter
1956 Todays of Yesteryears, Tuesday, July20, 1926.
Weigel, Robert D.
1962 Fossil Vertebrates of Vero, Florida. Florida
Geological Survey Special Publication No. 10.
Youngstown Vindicator
1933 Chase Finds Bones of Prehistoric Humans. May 14,
p. 4, column I (Part 1).
1935 Rayen Graduate Digs in South for Kin of Famous
'Vero Man.' February 24, p. 4.
1943 John H. Chase Dies in Sleep; Naturalist Gained
Wide Honor, April 23.


email. bryan. tucker@dnr state. ga. us
One of the most significant developments in Southeastern Taylor cultural affiliation. Stable isotope ratios derived from archaeology is the recognition that hunter-gatherers tooth enamel suggest that the individual interred at Bluffton constructed mortuary mounds during the Archaic period, subsisted primarily on riverine resources. We conclude with Although considerable debate will remain as to the significance brief remarks on the implication of these data for Archaic of these practices, it is clear that Archaic communities cannot culture history. be reduced to their subsistence strategies alone. One center of
intensive mound construction, and perhaps the earliest, is the Mount Taylor Mortuary Mounds of the St. Johns River middle St. Johns River valley in northeast Florida. This region
is best known for its many shell mounds, some of which Before the 1990s, archaeologists had experience with
enclosed mortuary mounds composed of sand, shell, objects, preceramic mortuary mounds-they just did not realize it. and human interments. Shell mounds predate the onset of Indeed, most archaeologists active in the late nineteenth pottery production and are the hallmark of the Archaic Mount through the middle of the twentieth century intercepted Taylor period, ca. 7300-4600 cal B.P.(Goggin 1952; Randall mortuary deposits that lacked pottery. For culture historians, 2008; Wheeler et al. 2000), which coincides with the middle and the antiquarians before them, the onset of mound and late Archaic periods in the Southeastern United States building was a trait that neatly separated Woodland societies (Figure 1). Shell mounds are often interpreted as simple trash from the earlier (and presumably socially "simple") Archaic heaps, the consequence of many meals discarded in settlement communities (e.g., Goggin 1952:53). Although the lack of locations by hunter-gatherers. However, recent research pottery in some mounded mortuary deposits was noticed, most on shell mound formation suggests that this assumption is researchers assumed the mound was constructed during the in error, and that many were likely constructed rapidly in later Woodland period. the context of large-scale gatherings (Randall 2010, 2011; Two studies demonstrate how the presumptive Woodland Sassaman and Randall 2012). Regardless, the realization that origins of monumentality were unfounded and confounding. Mount Taylor communities constructed mortuary mounds has First, Aten's (1999) reconstruction of Bullen's salvage been a decidedly recent observation (e.g., Russo 1994). excavations at Harris Creek (8V024) established that a basal
In this paper, we briefly outline why Archaic mortuary mortuary mound was constructed during Mount Taylor times. mounds are underrepresented in the literature and report an In an earlier work, Jahn and Bullen (1978) reported a mound AMS assay and stable isotope values acquired from human sequence constructed of shell and sand into which at least bone and teeth from the Bluffton Burial Mound (8V023). 168 individuals were interred. The lack of pottery, coupled Although known to be a mortuary mound since the nineteenth with the structured deposits, presented a difficulty for the century, the mound has attained an uneasy status in the culture- authors. Nevertheless, Jahn and Bullen (1978:21) could assert history of northeast Florida because it lacked pottery. In his that "later Indians dug a tremendous hole in a preexisting synthesis of northeast Florida's archaeological record, Goggin preceramic Archaic midden, built some type of charnel house (1952:89) did not provide a culture-historical affiliation for the herein, introduced vast quantities of white sand in which they Bluffion Burial Mound. Sears (1960:59), who excavated the serially interred hundreds of burials which had been collecting mound in 1959, concluded that it was likely constructed after in the charnel house (or houses), covered the complex with the Archaic. More recently, several authors (Beasley 2008; the Archaic midden material previously removed." To be Endonino 2010; Mitchem 1999; Randall and Sassaman 2010; fair, radiocarbon determinations were only available after the Wheeler et al. 2000) have suggested that the burial mound report was written, so we will never know how Bullen would was of preceramic origin. As we report, the radiocarbon have regarded the situation. A reanalysis of the stratigraphy determination demonstrates that the initial burial dates to and artifacts by Aten (1999), coupled with radiocarbon assays the Mount Taylor period, and more specifically the Thornhill from the burial mound and human remains (Tucker 2009), Lake phase, and it was interred amidst objects of Mount indicates the mound was constructed during the Mount Taylor

Southeastern United States Middle St. Johns River Bluffton Burial Mound (8V023)
Mississippian St. Johns Ii
Late Woodland t. . . .
2000 Middle Woodland
St. Johns I
3000 Early Woodland
S4000 Orange
Late Archaic
5000 Thornhill Lake
> -- Burial 3
6000 +
0Early Mount Taylor
Middle Archaic
Figure 1. Comparison of the middle to late Holocene cultural sequence for the Southeast United States (after Anderson and Sassaman [2012:Table 1-11), the middle St. Johns River valley, and the 2-sigma calibrated radiocarbon assay fro the Bluffton Burial Mound (8VO23).
period, between 7100 and 5600 years ago. Taylor phase (ca. 7300-5600 cal B.P.) is characterized by the
Second, in a similar case, C. B. Moore (1894b) failed emergence of shellfishing and the construction of mortuary to find pottery in two conical mounds at the Thornhill Lake mounds with white sand and shell (e.g., Harris Creek). We could complex (8VO58-60). Instead of concluding that preceramic also add to this phase the early development of ceremonial communities were responsible for the mortuary, Moore shell mounds, such as the Hontoon Dead Creek (8V0214) and
(1894b:173) mused that "it is evident that, with the makers Live Oak (8V041) mounds (Sassaman and Randall 2012). of the mounds at Thornhill Lake, the custom of interring Shellfishing continued during the subsequent Thornhill Lake earthenware with the dead did not obtain." As argued by phase (ca. 5600-4600 cal B.P.), but with significant changes in Jon Endonino (2008, 2010), this logic was reproduced by mortuary ritual and exchange. Burial mounds were constructed Goggin, who was loath to determine a culture-historical predominantly of sand with some shell (e.g., Thornhill Lake affiliation for the site or the objects recovered within it. Most and Tomoka Mounds [8V08 1] on the adjacent Atlantic coast). problematic for Goggin were the bannerstones recovered Exchange relationships enabled the acquisition of objects from the mortuary mound which he knew to be of Archaic from the Midsouth (e.g., bannerstones, stone beads) and age elsewhere. Through a series of excavations, and supported southern Florida (e.g., Strombus gigas shell celts) (Wheeler et with radiocarbon determinations, Endonino has conclusively al. 2000). The non-shell objects were frequently deposited in shown that the mounds at Thornhill were constructed during sand mounds, while the shell celts have been found in a wide Mount Taylor times, likely between 5600 and 4500 years ago. range of contexts.
These two reappraisals, coupled with a critical review
of the literature, suggest that Mount Taylor mortuary mound Excavations at the Bluffton Burial Mound
construction was widespread (Beasley 2008; Endonino 2010;
Piatek 1994; Wheeler et al. 2000). Moreover, our knowledge In this context of revision, a reanalysis of the Bluffion of Mount Taylor chronology has become more refined. We Burial Mound (8V023) is highly relevant. This mound was now recognize that changes occurred in material culture, social composed of sand and shell, and measured 30.5 m in diameter interaction, monumentality, and settlement location during the and 4.9 m high. It was similar in shape and scale to the mortuary Mount Taylor period. Beasley (2008) and Endonino (2008, mounds at Thoruhill Lake and Tomoka. The Bluffion Burial 2010), for example, have proposed subdividing the Mount Mound was not isolated but was part of the larger Bluffion Taylor period on the basis of notable differences in material Complex (8V022), situated on the St. Johns River, south culture and mortuary ritual (Figure 1). The Early Mount of Astor (Figure 2a). Like many shell mounds along the St.

A Atlantic Ocean B ----%. Shell \Sand/Shell
% Dome ~\ Mounds
S \ Silver Glen%
Springs (8MR123)
. 8V023\
Harris Creek
(8V024) \
Current Surface
Thornhill Lake Pre-mining Site Extent ", Shell Field
(8VO58-60) Elevated Topography
0 so 100
CD 5
0 5m
2 30
Burial Shell Brown Sand Gumbo/ "Old" Shell
Bura Midden and Shell Muck Midden
Figures 2a, 2b, and 2c. The Bluffton Complex (8V022--23), Volusia County, Florida. A) Location of Bluffton Complex and other Archaic sites mentioned in the text. B) Reconstructed plan of the Bluffton Complex superimposed on current terrain (after Wheeler et al. [20001). C) Stratigraphic cross-section of the Bluffton Burial Mound (8VO23), showing the location of burials (redrawn from Sears [1960:56-571).
Johns, Bluffton succumbed to shell mining in the middle of the shell deposits atop a shell deposit. At the core of the mound, twentieth century (Wheeler et al. 2000). Prior to mining, the but offset from its center, the shell was arranged in a small complex was composed of extensive low-lying shell deposits, ridge. All interments were superficial, and few objects (hafted and elevated shell deposits including a large shell dome and bifaces, a stone bead, and an antler tool) were recovered. ridge that fronted the river; additionally two sand and shell Moore noted that the core of the mound contained neither mounds were situated inland and separated from the shell ridge pottery nor burials and suggested it was built for an unknown (Figure 2b). The Bluffton Burial Mound is the southernmost purpose. He concluded that further work would resolve the of the two inland mounds. Wheeler and colleagues (2000) matter, but the landowner did not grant him permission. reconstructed the location and configuration of the Bluffton The most extensive investigation was reported by complex from aerial photographs and pre-mining descriptions. William Sears (1960), whose excavations replicated and Bullen's (1955) salvage tests in the shell mound portion of expanded upon Moore's work. Sears was sure that he had Bluffion determined that it emerged during the Mount Taylor intercepted a purposefully constructed burial mound that was and Orange periods. The presence of spiculate-paste wares in built by depositing discrete layers of sand, muck, and basketthe surface deposits attests to St. Johns period occupation as loaded shell midden containing Archaic-aged objects. Like well. his predecessors, Sears (1960:56) was frustrated by the lack
The Bluffion Burial Mound has been the subject of of pottery within the mound, writing that his "excavation
successive investigations, summarized by Wheeler and produced some new problems, and contributed to the solution
colleagues (2000). Jefferies Wyman (1875:37) dug into the of none." While excavating the core of the mound, Sears upper portion of one sand and shell mound (perhaps 8V023) exposed a well-stratified mortuary (Figure 2c). The base of and reported fragmentary human bone and discrete interments the mound was composed of "Old Midden", characterized by lacking any objects. In 1892, C. B. Moore (1 894a:46-47) lenses of crushed bivalve (Unionidae) and Florida apple snail trenched the mound. He documented stratified sand and (Pomacca paludosa) shells. Sears thought the surface was

burned based on the presence of calcined and cemented shells collection curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History and wood ash. Atop the old shell deposit, and in the middle of (Accession #4138, Catalog #ANT94795). The fragment was the burned area, was a partially flexed male interment (Burial sent to the Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 3). Around this individual Sears noted the presence of a tan- Laboratory where the sample was pre-treated in accordance brown organic material that contained masses of fish bones, with standard procedures and an AMS analysis was conducted. which he speculated was alligator feces. One can envision The lab returned a conventional age estimate of 480060 B.P. other processes that might have similar consequences, such (AA-X9108A; human bone; 613C = -16.7%o). This produces a as depositing a layer of shell-free, but vertebrate fauna-rich, 2-sigma calibrated age range from 5660-5320 cal B.P, and midden on top of the burial. Furthermore, Moore's excavation a median age of 5520 cal B.P. The date was calibrated with did not intercept this burial, and he makes no mention of a OxCal 4.1 (Bronk Ramsey 1995) using the IntCal09 terrestrial similar matrix. Lacking a bulk sample from this deposit for calibration curve (Reimer et al. 2009). This calibrated fine screening, we can neither verify nor invalidate this line determination places Burial 3, and arguably the entire mortuary of reasoning. facility within the Thornhill Lake phase of the Mount Taylor
A meter-thick deposit of brown sand, composing the core period, as defined by Beasley (2008) and Endonino (2008). of the mound, was erected over Burial 3. This sand deposit was We would note that this calibrated age is potentially too covered over with lenses of shell, "gumbo" or black muck, old. It is well known that marine organisms will have depleted and sand. In profile, the underlying shell deposit is roughly 14C values due to the reservoir effect, and will result in coterminous with the lateral distribution of sand and shell seemingly older radiocarbon determinations (Thomas 2008). layers. After this core was constructed, a flexed individual Consumers of these resources will also have depleted '4C (Burial 1) was interred on the western aspect of the mound. values, but the effect will be less significant and depend on the Finally, the core was capped with up to 2 m of "dirty pre-ceramic percentage of marine foods in the diet. Fortunately, we know shell midden" (Sears 1960:57) composed predominantly the local marine offsets for northern Florida, and so this effect
of banded mystery snail (Viviparus georgianus). Basket can be counteracted. Equally influential, however, is the effect
loading was visible to Sears in profile. Based on the lack of of consuming riverine resources from karst landscapes that feathering at the contacts of these deposits, Sears argued that can result in radiocarbon assays appearing too old, in some the mound was constructed rapidly, and that the cohesiveness cases up to hundreds of years (Cook et al. 2002; Keaveney of the sand, shell, and gumbo may have been selected for and Reimer 2012). The correction factor for the freshwater geotechnical reasons (i.e., to maintain the shape of the mound effect has not yet been determined along the St. Johns. Based during construction). Only a few objects were recovered on correction factors developed in Europe (e.g., Cook et al. during testing. Post-Archaic objects were only found on the 2002), the Bluffton Burial Mound assay would still date to the surface or in intrusive grave pits. These included St. Johns Thornhill Lake phase, but not necessarily at the beginning of Plain sherds and what he referred to as a "copy of a Carabelle the phase. Thus, we urge caution in using this, or any human Punctated sherd on chalky pottery" (Sears 1960:59). The other bone, in chronological modeling. objects were, in Sears's (1960:59) terms, "associated with the In addition to the AMS sample, a right lower second archaic shell midden used as mound building material." These molar was collected from Burial 3 for stable isotope analysis, included eight marine shell tools and one stemmed hafted as a portion of Tucker's doctoral research. The use of carbon biface. The biface was recovered 2 ft. from Burial 3 on the and oxygen isotopes in archaeology is now common place, same level. In Sears's estimation, the mound was built for the and they have been used to reconstruct the diet and movement interment of a single individual (Burial 3), perhaps during of ancient Floridians (DeLeon 1998; Hutchinson et al. 2000; early St. Johns I times. Hutchinson et al. 2004; Quinn et al. 2008; Turner et al. 2005;
Tuross et al. 1994). The single sample was not included in
Radiocarbon and Stable Isotope Analysis Tucker's dissertation, but provides further context for the
primary interment. Ratios of carbon and oxygen were measured
It is clear that Sears, Moore, and perhaps Wyman from the tooth enamel using a Micromass PRISM mass
encountered a dedicated mortuary mound at B luffton that spectrometer in the Department of Geological Sciences at the was constructed rapidly. Less clear, however, is who built it. University of Florida employing methods detailed elsewhere The bulk of the mound, the base, and associated objects all (Tucker 2009). Multiple measurements were collected from fit comfortably within the Mount Taylor culture. However, the enamel of Burial 3 and produced an average 6'3C pDB of any radiocarbon determination on materials acquired from the -10O.9%o and an average 618OpDB of -1 .40. These values are midden would date mound fill--potentially excavated from consistent with samples from the nearby Harris Creek site that earlier deposits--and not the burial event itself. To this end, produced an average 613CpDB of-il1.4%oo and an average 610pDB it was determined that only a radiocarbon assay on human of -1 .8Oo. Additionally a 6'3Cco1 ratio from bone collagen is bone could resolve the matter. Bryan Tucker, as part of his also available from the Bluffton burial--carbon isotope ratios dissertation research on early mortuary practices along the from collagen are typically measured during AMS dating. St. Johns River, selected a well-preserved but undiagnostic The average 613Cco from Bluffton was -1 6.7Ooo compared to fragment of human long bone from the central burial (Burial a 613Cco of -16.5%0 from the Harris Creek site. Isotopically, 3) excavated by Sears. The sample was obtained from the the individual from Bluffton is virtually indistinguishable

from the individuals at Harris Creek, who were interpreted as observations of the stratigraphy at Bluffton, then we must subsisting primarily on terrestrial and riverine food resources also admit that shellfish held a complicated position within and restricting their mobility to the St. Johns River valley Mount Taylor lifeways and may have been important as more (Quinn et al. 2008:2352). than a food source. Not only was the burial and subsequent
sand mound superimposed on a stacked sequence of shellfish
Discussion and Conclusions remains, but much of the later fill was composed of basketloaded shell midden apparently mined from existing deposits.
That the Bluffton Burial Mound is Archaic should not Bluffion is not the only mound in which earlier shell deposits come as a surprise. Several researchers have surmised that it were used as fill. At Silver Glen Springs, an anomalously was preceramic in origin. As a singular data point it is nice early assay was acquired on shell in a sub-mortuary deposit to know, but not very informative. It does, however, open up pit (Randall et al. 2011). Piatek (1994) has suggested that the numerous questions regarding the history of monumentality in upper portions of Mound Six at the Tomoka Mound Complex northeast Florida. First, the precise chronology for the Mount (8V08 1) on the Atlantic coast were similarly composed of Taylor period deposits in the shell mound (8V022) adjacent relict midden deposits. Given that sand was readily available, to the Bluffton Burial Mound remains poorly understood. A the mining and deposition of midden materials likely reflect a radiocarbon assay from preceramic levels attempted by Bullen deliberate choice on the part of the community (Randall 2011). (1958) on animal bone fell within the known range of the Research that recognizes the many uses of shellfish (new and Orange period, and ionium-uranium series dating of Busycon ancient) will likely be a profitable avenue to reveal the politics shell gouges from preceramic levels were wildly imprecise and histories of Archaic societies. (Bullen and Sackett 1958). However, Bullen (1955) did report The goal of this paper was to describe the context and a steatite bannerstone, in addition to Strombus celts, in shell results of an AMS analysis of the Bluffton Burial Mound and deposits below pottery-bearing strata in the Bluffton shell to present light stable isotopic data from Burial 3. Based on mound. Neill (1954) also reported that bannerstones had been the analysis, as well as the objects described from the mound, found during shell mining operations there. Accepting that we are confident that the mound was constructed during the bannerstones and celts are likely restricted to the Thornhill Thornhill Lake phase of the Mount Taylor period. We are not Lake phase, their presence implies that construction of the the first to argue that the mound was preceramic. In terms of burial mound was roughly coeval with inhabitation of the diet and mobility, the individual is indistinguishable from the nearby shell complex. population interred at the nearby, and chronologically earlier,
At a larger scale of analysis, the onset of sand mortuary Harris Creek site. With these data in hand, we believe the mound construction along the St. Johns appears to have been a culture-historical affiliation of the mound is now a closed widespread phenomenon. Including the Bluffton Burial Mound, case, and it is time to consider much more important issues there are now three mortuaries well-dated between 5900 and regarding the significance of monumentality among northeast 5300 years ago. Endonino's (2010) research at Thornhill Lake Florida's Archaic communities. indicates that sand mound construction was initiated there
sometime after 5900 years ago, and was completed prior to the Acknowledgments
onset of the Orange period 4600 years ago. In this case, two
mounds similar in shape and scale to 8V023 were constructed Funding for this project was generously provided to on top of a preexisting shell mound. North ofBluffton, anAMS John Krigbaum and Bryan Tucker by NSF Dissertation assay from a mortuary sand deposit at the Silver Glen Spring Improvement Grant H 0710894. Donna Ruhl of the Florida site (8MR123) yielded a 2-sigma age estimate of 5850-5590 Museum of Natural History provided expert help in accessing cal B.P. (Randall et al. 2011). Extensive mining in the 1920s the Bluffton Collections. Jason Curtis of the Department obliterated the final configuration of the mortuary mound, and of Geological Sciences at the University of Florida aided so its arrangement remains unknown. The mounded deposits, in processing the isotopic samples. This paper was greatly however, are contemporaneous with, or slightly earlier than, improved by the comments of three anonymous reviewers. the onset of intensive shell deposition at the spring pool. These
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Missile crash sites offer a tangible reminder of the Cold Cold War and a race with the former Soviet Union to develop War and the United States of America's competition with the Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) and Intermediate Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union) Range Ballistic Missiles (IRBM), with the ultimate goal in the race into space and the quest for military superiority, of launching and delivering both conventional and nuclear Missile crash sites belong to the recent past and can provide warheads. From 1949 to 1964, a large variety of missiles and valuable data on the development of missile and rocket rockets were launched from CCAFS, including converted Nazi programs; topics included within the rapidly developing V-2 missiles renamed Bumpers, the grandparents of today's discipline of modem conflict archaeology. The early United Tomahawk Cruise Missile (Matadors, Navahos, Snarks, and States (US) missile program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Bomarcs); submarine-based missiles such as the Navy's Station (CCAFS) was most noted for the high number of Polaris missile; Explorer 1, the first United States satellite;
mission failures. The Atlantic waters are known to contain and Project Mercury, which took the first US astronaut into the debris and wreckage of many of these failed missions. space. Missile and rocket components were tested in facilities Others are known to have crashed on land, but for many years across the United States. no terrestrial crash sites at CCAFS had been subjected to a While manned space flight was being conducted at formal cultural resources assessment. This changed with the CCAFS with the Gemini and early Apollo moon missions, investigation of the Jupiter Missile Crash Site (8BR2087) in ICBM and IRBM development continued to be the focus from 2007 and again in 2012. 1964 to 1979, with the testing of the Atlas, Delta, Minuteman,
This article provides a brief background discussion on and Titan programs. The National Aeronautic and Space the Cold War and the Jupiter missile program, introduces the Administration (NASA), which shared CCAFS with the reader to the emerging field of aerospace archaeology, and United States Air Force, had moved their operations to the then discusses the Jupiter Missile Crash site. As part of this Kennedy Space Center by 1970, leaving CCAFS as a missile analysis, I evaluate a series of missile crash candidates using testing and launch facility solely for unmanned missions. archaeological and documentary evidence to determine the Since 1979, the 45th Space Wing of the United States Air probable identity of the missile launch and crash responsible Force has launched a variety of payloads into space aboard for 8BR2087. Atlas, Atlas Centaur, Delta, and Titan rockets. This includes
supporting NASA exploratory missions to Mars, Saturn, and
Background various points throughout the solar system (Penders 2011).
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is located along the The Cold War and the Rise of the US Missile Programs Atlantic Coast of Brevard County, Florida. CCAFS is situated
on the Canaveral Peninsula, a barrier island approximately The start and end dates of the Cold War have been 249 km south of Jacksonville, 338 km north of Miami, and debated by historians. Some suggest it began in the 194596 km east of Orlando. The northern boundary of CCAFS 1948 timeframe and ended in 1989, having begun as a dispute
abuts Kennedy Space Center and the southern boundary over the division of Europe. For others, the Cold War began
borders Port Canaveral. CCAFS is bounded to the east by the in 1917 with the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and ended Atlantic Ocean and to the west by the Banana River Lagoon in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union, having been a (Figure 1). CCAFS occupies approximately 15,800 acres of conflict between Bolshevism and democracy. For this paper, I land and provides space launch capability for governmental, use 1945 and the end of World War II as the start of the Cold civil, and commercial satellites. The Jupiter Missile Crash Site War, because it is the most widely accepted date. I end it with (8BR2087) is located on CCAFS east of Pier Road and Fuel the fall of the USSR in 1991. The term "Cold War" was first Storage Area 3 and west of the beach dune line (Figure 2). used in 1947 by Bernard Baruch, senior advisor to President
When most people think of Cape Canaveral, they Harry Truman, in reference to the frequently occurring crises
automatically associate it with sending humans into space. between the US and USSR (Bair 2003; Mannino 1999; However, that was not the original purpose for establishing Sturdevant and Orndorff 2009). CCAFS. After World War II, the United States entered into the The beginning of the Cold War was marked by the

Figure 1. Location of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Florida.
devastating years of warfare in Europe during World War II. the doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD), which By the war's end, approximately 36.5 million Europeans had assumed that each side had enough nuclear weaponry to died in the conflict and millions more were homeless. Refugee destroy the other side; and that either side, if attacked for any camps and rationing dominated much of Europe. The US, reason by the other, would retaliate without fail with equal or wanting to realize free elections and free trade, was committed greater force resulting in mutual, total, and assured destruction. to helping Europe recover from the war. Communists, aided The payoff of the MAD doctrine was expected to be a tense, by the USSR, were threatening elected goverments across yet stable, global peace (Bair 2003; Mannino 1999). Europe. The first few years of the early Cold War (1945- It was within the escalating tension between the US and
1948) were more political than military. This changed in USSR that the Soviet Union demonstrated its military and February 1948 when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, space technological advantage. In 1957, they launched the with covert backing from the USSR, overthrew the elected first ICBM and their satellites Sputnik 1 and 2. The Sputnik goverment in that country. Then, in reaction to the democratic launches greatly increased the attention of" the US goverment consolidation of West Germany, the USSR blockaded Allied- and the general public to the issues of technology and space controlled West Berlin in a bid to consolidate their hold on the capabilities and led to a generalized fear that the US was German capital (Bair 2003; Mannino 1999). lagging behind the Soviets. As a result, funding to military and
During the Cold War, Soviet policy was designed to space programs was increased in order for the US to catch assure the military security of the USSR by keeping down the up. This gap, known as the "missile gap," was the perception defeated Germany and by creating ally governments in Easteru that the number of deployed Soviet missiles was significantly Europe in order to facilitate the rise and ultimate success of greater than that deployed by the US. Throughout the late Communism. In the event of a war, these allied countries 1950s and 1960s, the missile gap became a US presidential also would form a buffer between USSR and the West. The campaign platform and was used to pump funding into US "Iron Curtain," a phrase coined in 1946 by Winston Churchill military and space programs (Bair 2003; Mannino 1999; in discussing Soviet domination in Easteru Europe, became Sturdevant and Orudorff 2009). a physical reality in the form of border defenses between
the countries of Westeru and Easteru Europe. The wall that Jupiter Missile Program divided East and West Berlin became the most well-known
section of this dividing line. By 1952, the Cold War map of the Set in this political and socio-ideological climate was East versus the West in Europe had been drawn (Bair 2003; the development of the Jupiter IRBM. In the fall of 1954, Mannino 1999). President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the Technological
The US doctrine during the early years of the Cold War was Capabilities Panel of the Science Advisory Committee, Office to use missile and air warfare systems to attack both frontline of Defense Management to conduct an in-depth study of the and rear troops and to destroy rear area (USSR) logistical nation's defenses. The committee forwarded their report, assets. The official nuclear policy of the US developed into along with a separate National Security Council paper, to the

President on February 14, 1955. They urged the President and the National Security Council to assign Project Atlas, an ICBM program, the highest national priority. At the same time, the panel recommended development of land- and seabased variants of a 2,414-km-range IRBM concurrent with that of the Atlas ICBM. By mid-1955, four missile programs X
existed: the Air Force Atlas and Titan (ICBMs), the Air Force Thor (IRBM), and the Army Jupiter IRBM; all of which were tested at CCAFS. The Navy eventually became a partner in the Army's missile development program (Grimwood and Strowd y.
1962; Kyle 2011; Lonnquest and Winkler 1996; Sturdevant and Orndorff 2009).
In November 1956, Secretary of Defense Charles Wilson gave the Air Force sole responsibility for building and operating all surface-launched missiles with a range in excess of 322 km. After pleas by the Army, the Department of Defense allowed them to continue developing Jupiter as an alternative to the Air Force's Thor IRBM program, which was having a host of technical problems. Although it eventually became the first operational IRBM employed by the United States, the Jupiter was never given tremendous attention by the Air Force. In 1958, following the Soviet Union's success with Sputnik I, a new IRBM plan was approved by President Eisenhower. This plan placed a renewed emphasis on the Jupiter missile program as a means to quickly catch up to the .-J
USSR (Grimwood and Strowd 1962; Kyle 2011; Lonnquest and Winkler 1996; Sturdevant and Orndorff 2009).
Project Jupiter was a family of missiles that represented a follow-up to the Redstone IRBM by using the proven Redstone missile as a test platform (Figure 3). Beginning in September 7 75
1955, the Army launched 28 Jupiter A and C missiles from 881
CCAFS. Jupiter A testing focused on general design criteria, the guidance system, and propulsion thrust control. It also served as a test of the Redstone missile performance at a time when that system was still under development. The Jupiter C was really a modified Redstone. The Jupiter IRBM was Figure 2. Location of the Jupiter Missile Crash Site finless and stubby-looking, a result of the original air-mobility (8BR2087) on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, requirement, as well as a design to fit in submarine launchtubes. It used a gimbaled rocket engine for stability and version of the Apollo-Saturn I, known as the Saturn I Block I control. The Jupiter first stage was powered by an engine that (Grimwood and Strowd 1962; Lonnquest and Winkler 1996; burned liquid oxygen (LOX) and a kerosene mixture liquid Wade 2007). fuel, known as RP- 1. An ablative (melting or vaporizing) technology reentry vehicle shrouded a one-megaton warhead Jupiter Missile System Operations at CCAFS that separated from the Jupiter following detonation of explosive bolts. A solid-fueled motor supplied final velocity In 1955, Launch Complexes 5 and 6 (LC-5/6) were the trimming (Figure 4) (Grimwood and Strowd 1962; Kyle 2011; first ballistic missile launch complexes built at CCAFS. This Lonnquest and Winkler 1996; Wade 2007). launch facility consisted of a blockhouse and twin flat concrete
Although short-lived, the Jupiter program played a vital pads. Most of the early Jupiters would fly from this launch role in the history of the US space program. The Jupiter was complex. Built specifically for the Jupiter program in 1956, the first mobile strategic IRBM to use the ablative heat shield LC-26 was constructed just north of LC-5/6. The setup there on the nosecone section. Development of the Jupiter missile mirrored LC-5/6 with dual launch pads (LC-26A and B) and led directly to the launch of America's first satellite aboard a a blockhouse. Once completed LC-26 and LC-5/6 formed a Juno I rocket and played a role in the NASA program to send contiguous 244-x-854-m complex with a single set of railroad humans to the moon. The Jupiter missile acted as the first stage tracks that allowed two A-frame mobile service towers (launch for the Juno II rockets, which carried a number of scientific gantries) to move along the pad centerline. By mid-1958, an payloads into space. Inert Jupiter missile shells ballasted with additional set of railroad tracks was installed that permitted the water were used as "dummy" upper stages for the earliest towers to shuffle between all pads (Turner et al. 1994).

23,35 m 21.13 m
18.29 m
2.67 m 1,78m 178m 2.67 m
Figure 3. Jupiter missile family. Once launched, the Jupiter's engine would bum for 157 the flight, the missile, at an altitude of 618 kin, reached the seconds, boosting the missile to a speed of Mach 15.4 and an point farthest from the Earth along its elliptical flight path. altitude of 117 km. Two seconds after the main engine burned From there, it began its gradual descent toward the target out and fell away, the solid-fuel vernier motor fired. The (Figure 5). The May 1957 of a Jupiter prototype from CCAFS vernier burned for approximately 12 seconds until the missile was the US's first successful IRBM launch (Grimwood and reached the desired velocity, whereupon the engine shut down Strowd 1962; Lonnquest and Winkler 1996; Wade 2007). and detached from the reentry vehicle. Almost 10 minutes into
SECTION82'-I-POWER UNITN 60,3'-Figure 4. Anatomy of a Jupiter missile.

Aerospace Archaeology and the Value of Investigating War-era issues one must not forget the paranoia of the time
Missile Crash Sites and the potential for being unable to find documentation as
a result of the classified nature of records associated with The Cold War falls within the recent past, or as Gonzailez- places and events of the period. In Uncovering the Arsenals of Ruibal (2008) describes the period after World War I, Armageddon. The Historical Archaeology of North American
supermodernality. Many today can remember incidents Cold War Ballistic Missile Launch Sites, Hanson (2010:158)
within this period, such as the Vietnam War, manned-space reminds us that: program, and Cuban Missile Crisis. Until recently, however, the archaeology of the recent past (and the Cold War) has been essentially ignored. One reason is likely due to the fact that an Certainly our interpretations of Cold War sites are artifact or site must be more than 50 years old to be eligible complicated first and foremost by the central role for listing in the National Register of Historic Places or at that national security and governmental secrecy least 100 years old in the case of the Archaeological Resource played in their design, development, planning and Protection Act; exceptions do exist, however. The period of construction, but there is more to the story than that.
the past 50 years has been described as a "blurred region" Any interpretations of Cold War sites are likewise
or "black hole" (Gonzalez-Ruibal 2008; Rathje and Murphy decidedly incomplete without a broad appreciation
2001; Rathje et al. 2002). Many Cold War sites are reaching of the various cultural, technical, political and
the 50-year old mark and thus are beginning to receive some psychological forces that helped shape them. During
attention. the Cold War era, one of the most powerful social
The archaeology of the recent past is becoming an forces at work was that of paranoia.
important sub-discipline within anthropology; not only are anthropologists and archaeologists becoming involved but so are historians. Written accounts of the recent past should not While many archaeologists have worked on a variety be taken as the sole source of our understanding of this period, of modern conflict sites (predominantly World War I and We have to be willing to challenge the accuracy of text-based World War II sites), another burgeoning field is aerospace histories. Archaeology and material cultural studies are a much archaeology. Aerospace archaeology is a new and quickly needed voice in the study of supermodernality, particularly in growing sub-discipline of archaeology. The first two the case of Cold War-era research. When dealing with Cold conference symposiums associated with this field were held
< y"fL ""-..,,"-' TARGET
Figure 5. Stages of the flight of a Jupiter IRBM.

at the 2008 and 2010 annual meetings of the Society for society: "....rocketry has influenced the entire strucue n Historical Archaeology, and the first comprehensive book conduct of national and international politics and ecoic~ to address aerospace archaeology- Handbook of Space (Emme in Siddiqi 2006:452). Indeed, the ICBMs andIR:
Engineering, Archaeology and Heritage (Darrin and O'Leary stand as icons of the Cold War. They conveyed animotn 2009)- was published in 2009. This volume covers a variety message: that the end of world could happen with oeluc of topics including the archaeological investigations of space- of a ballistic missile. related sites on Earth, preservation of space vehicles, as well This reinforces how important missiles and roces(n as the investigation and preservation of Apollo landing sites on their crash sites) are to our understanding of theCodWr the moon. modern conflict archaeology, the recent past and ouaio'
Aerospace archaeology, as I defined it, is the identification, vision of the arms and space races. While numerougera documentation, recovery, and preservation of sites important in histories and documents about the various missile porm aerospace history, development of Cold War missiles, rockets exist, studying and preserving the actual objectsarjuts and aircraft, and the space program. This includes crash sites, important. The physical remains at crash sitescaofe launch sites, silos, facilities, tracking stations, etc. It should information on manufacturing processes, materialsitra further incorporate a field of study loosely known as aviation fittings, modifications, and even paint finishes, information archaeology, which focuses on military (mostly World War I available from other sources. Although missiles at motcrs and 11) aircraft crash sites. sites are fragmentary, significant ancillary items such segn
To date most Cold War and aerospace archaeology parts and electrical and navigational equipment maysuvie
investigations have been limited to missile defense systems In some cases, these may have a research value indepneto such as radar stations, Nike missile batteries, and missile the missile or rocket in which they were installed. silos. With a few exceptions, the actual missiles themselves
have been largely ignored as have missile crash sites. The Archaeological Investigations at the Jupiter MissieCrs physical remains found at crash sites, combined with historic site (8BR2087) documents and eyewitness accounts, provide an invaluable
means for reconstructing, and, in some cases, reassessing our Site Description understanding of Cold War missiles and rockets.
In the early years of the US missile and rocket program, The Jupiter Missile Crash site is located wti h mishaps occurred with a high frequency. In our race to beat over wash plain adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. Theatr the USSR in missile development and into space, accidents portion of the site is broad, flat land sparsely coveredwt(e were quickly reviewed and forgotten. In many cases no reports grapes, prickly pear cactus, sea oats, and a variety o rse on the failures exist. Investigating and preserving these sites and vines. To the west, this ecosystem transitions Int enl affords the opportunity to revisit and document these moments undulating dunes and swales covered with sparsetthc in recent world history. In The History of Rocket Technology. stands of cabbage palm, sea grape, prickly pear caculv Essays on Research, Development and Utility, published oak, wiregrass, sea oats, and a variety of vines andgass
during the height of the Cold War, Emme (1964) succinctly While the soil in this area quickly drains water, tesae sums up the impact of rockets and its related technology on accumulate rainwater and over wash from the oceanadtd

to drain more slowly. During times of heavy rain standing water can be present for months.
An impact crater is located between the open flat plain and dune and swale areas. It is quite distinctive with a 50-cm to I m high sand rim delineating its edges. The crater measures 15.2 m in diameter and approximately 3 m deep. It is now thickly overgrown with native vegetation and water of unknown depth is present in the base of the crater. A V
Initial Discovery
The 45th Space Wing Installation Restoration Program (IRP) was created in 1984 to investigate and remediate contamination to the environment from a variety of sources. From 1993 to 1995, IRP contracted Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. to conduct preliminary site assessments of 29 locations on CCAFS thought to have possible environmental contamination. Among these loci was the Jupiter Missile Crash site, which they identified as a crater based on a 1960 aerial photograph and its spatial relationship with Pier Road and Fuel Storage Area 3. Parsons Engineering Science, Inc used a GPS unit and compared the coordinates with those in the CCAFS Basic Information Guides, which contain maps of all the facilities on CCAFS along with x/y coordinates in State Plane NAD 27. In the field, they noted several other smaller depressions, and debris was found "scattered throughout the area." In addition, they noted a roped-off area close to the crater with an old sign that read "Explosives Demolition AreaKeep Out." As part of their investigation, Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. (1995: 3.18.1-2) interviewed a member of the Figure 6. Aerial photograph from 1960 showing missile CCAFS Safety Office who stated: impact crater (USAF 1960)
In 1997, BEM Systems, Inc. performed confirmatory In 1959 or 1960, a Jupiter missile was launched sampling at the 29 possible contamination sites, including
from Launch Complex 5/6. The missile lost control the Jupiter Missile Crash site. They restated most of the
soon after launch and crashed into the beach, leaving information in the 1995 report, and it appears the crater behind the crater visible show in the 1960 photo. remained unchanged, as they described it as "a depression
On impact the rocket exploded, with an equivalent located 500 ft east of Fuel Storage Area 3 and... 50 ft in
yield of 20,000 lbs. of explosives. The Jupiter missile diameter and 10 ft deep" (BEM 1998:2.1-2.2). Surprisingly, was fueled with Rocket Propellant # 1 (RP-1) blocks, no mention is made of the associated debris field in the BEM which is a type of kerosene, with liquid oxygen report. At the Jupiter Missile Crash site surface water and
(LOX) as the oxidizer. Most of the kerosene was sediment samples were taken from within the crater, as well as
believed to have been consumed in the explosion, from groundwater adjacent to the crater. Interestingly, no soil
The JMCS1 was not used as a disposal area or for any samples were taken from within the debris field. Laboratory other purpose, testing found elevated metals in the samples, but since they did
not exceed screening criteria, no further action was deemed necessary. As a result the site was forgotten until 2007, when Because the site is located 800 m south of the Explosive it was investigated by the 45th Space Wing Cultural Resources Disposal Facility, it was assumed the crater was created by Manager (Penders 2012). the detonation of explosive materials. Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. (1995) interviewed a person who worked in Preliminary Field and Document Investigations Ordnance Services and confirmed that the Jupiter Missile Crash Site could not have been an operational disposal range The archaeological investigation of the Jupiter Missile due to its proximity to Fuel Storage Area 3. According to their Crash site began in February 2007 when I found information report, the interviewee stated that "it is common practice to concerning the crash during document research on previously sight a disposal area a minimum distance of 3,000 ft from a unrecorded historic structures associated with nearby fuel storage area." Launch Complex 5/6. At the time, it was thought that given

JUPITER CRASH SITE, CCAFS, FL software. This dataset allows the user to navigate across
N the historic landscape by seeing the user movingacross.the
7i historic aerial photograph (Baxter and Britt 2006).
In the field, the HAMMERTM enabled us to locate the crater without conducting a grid-based surface survey, saving a significant amount of time. While searching for the crater, missile parts were observed on the ground surface from the CRS rr crater extending to the south and southwest. The presence of
LEGEND: so many missile fragments on the surface was th to be
FINDS unusual. One would expect that after a crash the debris would
V 2- have been removed. It was thought that the site could provide
4+ additional information, so a formal archaeological sre a
warranted (Penders 2012).
Although BEM Systems, Inc. identified the site as a ca. 30 120 180 1959 -1960 Jupiter missile crash that launched from C56
their identification was based a single informant's interview. Because of the number of launch mishaps over the years Figure 7. Proposed crash direction and debris field coupled with the number of launch complexes (8 complexes
distribution, with 2 pads each) within a 1.6 km radius of the site, it was
quite possible that the crater and debris field were created by the crater's close proximity to the beach combined with the any number of launches. In order to verify that the site was number of tropical storms and hurricanes in the 10 years created by a Jupiter missile launch mishap, I conducted a data since the site's discovery, no physical evidence, including search, cross-referencing all launch accidents with associated the crater itself, would be found. Before committing to a launch complexes. A thorough review of the descriptions of full-scale archaeological investigation, a preliminary search individual mishaps from each launch complex narrowed the was conducted of historical aerial photographs on file at the origin of the crater to five possible candidates (Table 1): two 45th Space Wing. The 1960 aerial photograph used in the launches from LC-5/6 in 1956, two launches from LC-26 environmental assessment of the site was found (Figure 6). This (one in 1958 and one in 1959), and one from LC-17 in 1997 photograph, which showed the crater, was digitized and then (Penders 2012). loaded into a Hand-held Apparatus for Mobile Mapping and The 1997 Delta II launch from LC-17 was immediately
Expedited Reporting (HAMMERTM) unit, which integrates a removed from consideration due to the author's involvement small hand-held computer running Windows CE with a global in the launch. From 1994 to 2001, I was employed as an positioning system, laser distance meter, camera, compass, Environmental Health Specialist and was involved with launch and inclinometer so that data can be collected digitally and support operations at Kennedy Space Center and CCAFS. I stored as a single geographical information system (GIS) file. was not only a witness to the incident but also involved with The data are displayed in GIS on the device utilizing ArcPad the post-launch recovery. The launch vehicle exploded above
Figure 8. Missile components identified from the site.

the pad, spreading debris over a large area. It would not have reconnaissance documented field conditions and assessed the left an impact crater at the Jupiter site. Any debris found on amount of work required to survey the site. The investigation the site from that launch incident would be readily identifiable was initially hampered by extremely heavy rains that left and the potential was low for such material being present, approximately 40 percent of the site under standing water. In since almost all the fragments were identified and recovered fact, a formal survey of the entire site had to be delayed for from the investigation area in 1997. seven months to allow the portions of the site time to dry out.
The two launches from LC-5/6 were considered, but In February 2008, an archaeological reconnaissance
one (Juno I) was immediately eliminated based on launch survey was conducted of the site. A pedestrian survey was information and vehicle type. The other candidate, the October performed with the assistance of the staff of the 45th Space 31, 1956 launch of Jupiter A, RS-25 from LC-6 does fit with Wing Natural Assets Flight. Because crew members possessed the informant's description in the 1995 Parsons Engineering varying levels of field experience, they were instructed to mark Science report. While initially considered because of the every human-made object observed on the ground surface with launch pad's closeness to the site, it was later removed from pin flags and flagging tape. After establishing the missile's consideration after the field investigation identified the initial point of contact with the ground (i.e. the crater), survey presence of specific components found only on later models. lines were walked from east to west and north to south at 10-i The July 16, 1959 launch of the Juno II AM-9 vehicle from intervals across a 500-x-500-m area (Penders 2012). LC-5 also was eliminated, because the missile flipped over The surface survey resulted in the demarcation of a debris during launch and was destroyed five seconds into flight by field substantially larger than expected; the horizontal extent range safety (Cleary 1995; Wade 2007). of the scattered debris was not described in any detail in the
Based on background research, the two Jupiter launches 1997 BEM report. The survey also observed modem trash on from LC-26B were considered the site that resulted from ocean over wash during storms and
the most likely candidates. According to John Hilliard other past human activities. In the northwestern part of the
(personal communication, 2009), a former engineer on the site the crew also recovered debris missed during the 1997 Jupiter missile program at CCAFS, the AM-9 launch is the Delta II accident investigation. While all these materials most probable candidate of the two suspected missiles because were documented, they were excluded from data analysis it "would have performed the pitch in-flight maneuver and to concentrate on the Jupiter-associated materials. While would be moving downrange at 49 seconds into launch." the crater and site were located with the HAMMERTM unit,
Hilliard further stated "Jupiter AM-23 is unlikely because the technical issues arose that prevented its use during the actual missile would still be over the pad and the pitch of the missile field survey. This was dealt with by using a Trimble GPS unit to go downrange had not started." It was Hillard's opinion and digital camera to record all specimens in the field (Penders that AM-9 would have been farther away from the pad and 2012). more likely at the crater location than AM-23. A photograph at Spennemann (2009:791) claims that spacecraft sites have the Air Force Space and Missile and Space Museum shows a "immediately after impact, total integrity," unlike the object Jupiter mishap above LC-26B and is labeled as being AM-23 that crashed, which loses its integrity from the mishap (e.g., (John Hilliard, personal communication, 2009; Emily Perry, crash, explosion, etc.). In other words, once a crash has occurs, personal communication, 2012). the crash site instantly has integrity. But like any other site
In May 2012, I was contacted by the US Army Redstone it has the potential to loose integrity over time. Employing Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama in response to my request the methods used to investigate aircraft accidents requires for information on the AM-9 mishap. Their records indicated total removal of all objects from the site to a laboratory. that AM-9 exploded above the pad, and a video film of AM-9 While serving to document the site, this approach destroys exploding above LC-26B was located at the National Archives its archaeological integrity (Spennemann 2009). Due to the and Records Administration (US Army 1959). This contradicts lack of documentation, both from the operational standpoint the information provided by Hilliard. Based on the interview of the launch and subsequent crash and archaeological data, a of the safety officer conducted in 1995, description of the decision was made in 2008 to remove identifiable artifacts for accident, data from the Redstone Arsenal, and supporting analysis in order to have physical evidence should the site be film evidence showing the missile exploding above the pad, destroyed by a storm event (it is approximately 300 m from the I have to eliminate Jupiter AM-9. This leaves Jupiter AM-23, ocean). It is important to note that each artifact on the ground launched on September 15, 1959, as the most likely candidate. was georeferenced, photographed, and marked with a survey Jupiter AM-23 was erratic at lift-off and the missile destroyed flag. Because they were readily identifiable, the fuel line itself after 13 seconds, just before command destruct2 (Cleary section, baffles, and exhaust port were removed for curation 1995; Wade 2007). Given the number of launches from LC-26 and the flags left in place. and the fact it was more than 50 years ago, it is understandable By training I am a prehistoric archaeologist with no how Hilliard may have confused the two mishaps. background in aerospace archaeology or formal training in
vehicle accident investigations. Following the 2008 survey, I
Reconnaissance Surveys reviewed several publications on aircraft/spacecraft accident
investigations (e.g., ICAO 2003; NASA 1984; NTSB 2002),
After the crater was located in the field, a cursory surface which eventually triggered a new investigation in May 2012.

This survey focused on identifying the locations of specific before 1957, including Jupiter A, RS-25 launched from LC-5 missile parts in relationship to the proximity of the crater and to in 1956. The recovery of these baffles point to a 1957 or later each other. The 2008 survey had concentrated on documenting Jupiter missile crash site. the placement of artifacts across the site not their relationship With missile explosion at any depth upon impact, direct to each other and structural location within the missile itself. destruction of the missile due to explosion results in the Furthermore, the 2012 study examined the crater itself to dispersal of debris over a spatially restricted area. This area look at its morphology, which could potentially identify the is referred to as the region of destruction or the sphere of trajectory of the missile when it crashed (see Coleman and destruction. The number of fragments formed by an explosion Bussey 2005; Kurov and Dolzhanskiy 1963; US Army 1992, is dependent on missile weight, weight and characteristics of 1996 for discussions on crater formation). the fuel (liquid vs. solid propellant), mechanical characteristics
Before returning to the field, a research design was of the metal, and angle of missile impact against the obstacle. created that incorporated archaeological methods as well as Upon the explosion of the missile, the fragments are scattered those established by NASA (1983), National Transportation in space in a non-uniform manner. Approximately 20 percent Safety Board (NSTB 2002), and International Civil Aviation of the energy and fragments is directly involved in the impact, Organization (ICAO 2003) for use in aircraft and spacecraft while 70 percent of the fragmentation occurs on the main body. mishap investigations. It is interesting to note how similar the The remaining 10 percent is to the rear of the missile (Cooper latter methodologies are to those of a standard archaeological 1996; Kurov and Dolzhanskiy 1963). With most of the fuel reconnaissance survey; for example, establishing a grid, in the midsection of the missile, this would explain why over mapping, and documenting the distribution of fragments. All 90 percent of the identifiable Jupiter missile debris at the site guidelines for spacecraft/aircraft mishap investigations include was mid-body skin fragments and accordion tank baffles. Very a check for the presence of all major components at the accident few pieces of the nose cone were found at the site, and it is site, which should provide a good indication of whether or not assumed that it was totally destroyed during the impact and structural failure contributed to the incident. Furthermore, subsequent explosion. As stated, most of the fragments were the guidelines task the investigator to identify initial impact from the main body. However, tank parts and accordion baffles marks and major ground scars; locate and number significant were found close to where the mid-body was located on the pieces of debris, document evidence of fire, and photograph missile and most were to the west of the centerline through the all pertinent items. In addition, the investigator is charged with debris field. documenting the orientation of craters, scars, impact angles, One question I had during the investigation was why and debris. were the missile fragments discovered in situ? If the crash had
been investigated shortly after impact, we would expect the
Reconnaissance Survey Results fragments to have been mapped and collected from the site.
This leads to two questions: was there a formal investigation
The 2008 Survey immediately after the crash and were only selected sections
of the missile removed? According to Hilliard (personal
A total of 412 specimens was found scattered across a 280 communication, 2009) an investigation to determine the cause x 150 m area during the 2008 surface survey of the site (Figure of the crash was likely undertaken. However, he did indicate 7). Of these, 44 were pieces of modem debris (e.g., plastic and whether crash information was determined in the field or from glass bottles, aluminum cans, wood), 10 were associated with telemetry data without seeing the crash site; if the latter was the 1997 Delta II explosion, and 358 were directly associated the case, the crash site was likely ignored. This is supported with the Jupiter missile. Of the 358 Jupiter specimens, 325 by Cleary (1991), who noted that specific objectives were were unidentified fragments thought to be exterior skin or tank established for each missile flight test and the degree of parts, 26 were baffes from inside the liquid oxygen and fuel success (or failure) was judged by the extent to which data tanks, one fuel line section, and one was an exhaust port from relative to those objectives were obtained. A failure might the base of the missile (Figure 8). actually constitute a successful test, depending on how well
It should be noted that Delta and Jupiter missile parts are the test flight met the pre-launch objectives. Moreover, it was distinguishable from one another by material of manufacture. usually possible to establish the exact cause of a flight failure Delta II parts identified at the site tended to be carbon-fiber by analyzing the data collected by range instrumentation rather sheets or insulation foam. These were either missed during than examining the vehicle remains. the 1997 Delta II investigation or were deposited at the site In the 1 950s there was a greater than 60-percent failure through wave action. Jupiter missile fragments were aluminum rate for missile and rocket launches at CCAFS. The time and or steel alloy. The accordion tank baffles were installed on expense required to remove every fragment from every failure Jupiter missiles in 1957, after it was discovered that fuel would have been prohibitive from a manpower standpoint. sloshing caused the missile to tilt during flight and become Therefore, only critical fragments possibly related to the failure unstable leading to launch mishaps (Grimwood and Strowd would have been recovered. Some other fragments might have 1962). The presence of accordion baffle fragments at the site been recovered for safety reasons, or if they were the cause eliminates any Jupiter or Redstone missile variants launched of operational problems (Cleary 1991; John Hilliard, personal

communication, 2009). The demarcation of the site with sign ,'
and rope, as described during the 1993-1995 environmental investigation, suggests that some components were likely Tt
removed from the site sometime after the crash. Today, accident investigations require an attempt at 100-percent recovery and removal of vehicle debris (which is considered LOW ANGLE IMPACT CRATER
The 2012 Survey. Locating the Missile's Point of Origin
Using the methods for mishap investigations, an attempt was made in 2012 to confirm the point of origin of the missile that crashed at the site by studying the crater and associated debris field artifact distribution. Within 1.6 km of the site are LCs 5/6, 17, 18, 25/29, 26, 30, and 31/32. To determine HIGH-MEDIUM ANGLE IMPACT CRATER
the point of origin of the missile that caused the crater and debris field and to identify the possible missile type among those known to have been launched from the launch sites, I IM
employed the location methods used by the US military to ascertain the origins of artillery, mortar, and rocket fire based o" on the analyses of impact craters. By accurately locating the crater and determining the direction of flight, the azimuth will
pass through or near the point of origin (Coleman and Bussey 2005; US Army 1992, 1996). IMPACT C"RATFRS
The first step was to assess the morphology of the crater. A low-angle impact would result in the missile bouncing or ricocheting along the surface of the ground (Figure 9). After Figure 9. Types of impact craters.
impact, it follows its trajectory in a straight line creating a grooved furrow or series of furrows from ricocheting. The near the surface was at a high-angle, creating a circular crater. missile normally deflects upward and, at the same time, To trace the origin of the missile from the crater and debris
changes direction, usually to the right as the result of its spin field, main-axis crater analysis was used. First, two stakes and (rotation). This creates a furrow or series of furrows and a rope were installed along the main axis of the crater in order sometimes does not detonate. If it does explode, the burst and to divide it into symmetrical halves. Based on this axis, the momentum of the shell carry the effects forward and to the orientation of the debris field should point in the direction of sides (side sprays) to the point of origin (Coleman and Bussey the origin of the launch. A Brunton compass reading was then 2005; Cooper 1996; Kurov and Dolzhanskiy 1963; US Army taken along the line dividing the crater and along the orientation
1992, 1996). of the debris field. The resultant measurement represents the
Both vertical and high- to medium-angle impact craters direction to the launch point (Coleman and Bussey 2005; US are formed by impact and explosion at or near the ground Army 1992, 1996). Figure 10 illustrates this methodology. surface (see Figure 9). When a missile or rocket hits the If the missile crashed immediately upon liftoff the debris
ground surface it accelerates the surface material downward field would have been limited to an area around the launch while the ground's resistance slows it. The shock wave moves complex. If the missile had crashed into the site after leaving forward, and at the same time, back through the missile. The the launch pad we would expect the debris field to be oriented initial compression of the surface pushes material around the west-northwest toward LC-26. However, the methodology sides of the crater, causing it to squirt out at the same time employed in the field (Coleman and Bussey 2005; US Army that the missile is being fragmented and traveling outward 1992, 1996) suggests a south-southwest orientation toward from the point of impact. While both create a circular-shaped LC-5/6 (see Figure 7). The location of the mid-body tank crater, high- to medium-angle impacts have debris exploding baffles and fuel components corroborate a south-southwest to outward in a fan shape toward the point of origin (Coleman northeast orientation to the site. Since we know that AM-23 and Bussey 2005; Cooper 1996; US Army 1992, 1996). A became erratic after liftoff, I propose the missile became outvertical impact (straight down) crater would have a debris field of-control and curved around from LC-26B to the southwest radiating outward (see Figure 9). The explosion that creates a and then turned northeast, where it crashed nose-first, creating crater takes place directly or just above the surface and will be the crater at the site (Figure 11). smaller than the missile that embeds itself in the ground surface and then exploded. The morphology of the Jupiter Crash site Conclusions
crater, based on the 2012 survey as well as an examination of the 1960 aerial photograph, indicates that missile impact at or Based on this study, I propose that the Jupiter Missile

and then curving to the northeast and crashing nose-first; Destroying itself after only 13 seconds of flight. This crash TO LAUNCH PAD
TO LAUNCH PADcreated an impact crater and forced debris into a southwestern direction. Missile pieces from the Jupiter Crash site not collected in 2008 are still located at the site today. It is unclear I t .if a crash investigation was conducted, but it appears likely
that larger fragments were removed from the site sometime soon after the incident and before the next launch. J ,The Jupiter Missile Crash site has brought to the forefront
%0j JI" the need to document and protect missile crash sites. During
$ the course of the investigation, little written information was
found regarding the details of the crash that created the site C as is the case with most of the early missile mishaps. They
appear to have been nothing more than a footnote in history or a stepping stone to advance the technology. Once the vehicle crashed it was quickly forgotten. Preserving these sites and Artifacts provides physical evidence that can be a stimulus to future research on missile and rocket systems, and not just the missile and rocket program as a whole. What do the missiles and rockets tell us about the period from which they came? DIRECTION-MEASURING When investigating missile/rocket crash sites one should
INSTRUMENT consider several research points. The first is whether or not the
site includes components of a missile or rocket of which very few or no known complete examples survive. If they are well Figure 10. Stake and line method for identifying missile preserved, do they include key components such as engines, point of origin (adapted from Coleman and Bussey 2005). avionics etc. Second, is the missile or rocket associated with a significant US defense or space programs and/or persons of Crash site is the result of a Jupiter AM-23 launched from importance. Third, is there potential for additional information LC26-B on September 15, 1959. The flight was erratic at lift- to be gathered warranting the crash site be left in situ. off and veered off its easterly flight path turning southwest
F 11. P d t o of J t A 3 .

Notes Cleary, M. C.
1991 The 6555th, Missile and Space Launches Through 1 The abbreviation JMCS was used by Parsons and the 1970. 45th Space Wing History Office, Patrick Air
IRP office as a convenient way to identify the site. It is Force Base, FL.
common on DoD and NASA installations to use acronyms 1995 Eastern Range Launch Site Summary, Facilities
to identify sites and facilities and can be quite confusing and Launches 1950 through 1994. 45th Space Wing
to the uninitiated. History Office, Patrick Air Force Base, Fl.
2. All rockets and missiles contain explosive charges so they
can be destroyed in the event that they go out of control Coleman, Edward J., and Ricco R. Bussey
on launch and endanger a populated area or to prevent 2005 A Primer on Indirect Fire Crater Analysis in Iraq and
an information from being used by unauthorized persons Afghanistan. FieldArtillery July-August 2005:38in the event that it is lost or stolen. The self-destruct 45.
mechanism is activated by launch personnel on the ground
and is known as Command Destruct. Cooper, Paul W.
1996 Explosives Engineering. Wiley-VCH, Inc., New Acknowledgements York.
I would like to thank to following people who made Darrin, Ann Garrison and Beth Laura O'Leary
this project possible. Mark Cleary, former 45th Space Wing 2009 Handbook of Space Engineering, Archaeology and historian; Nicholas J. Saunders, Department of Archaeology Heritage. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl.
and Anthropology at the University of Bristol for his suggestions and comments regarding this paper and the study Emme, Eugene M. (editor) of modern conflict archaeology; the staff of CERL for the loan 1964 History of Rocket Technology. Wayne University of the HAMMERTM; unit John Hilliard, former employee at Press, Detroit.
CCAFS and currently a volunteer at the Air Force Space and Missile Museum; the staff of US Army Redstone Arsenal; Gonzailez-Ruibal, Alfredo Elaine Williams of the Indian River Anthropological Society; 2008 Time to destroy: An Archaeology of Deb Ziel who created all the figures in this paper, and for the Supermodernity. Current Anthropology 49: 247-279. comments and suggestions by the anonymous reviewers and editors of The Florida Anthropologist. Grimwood, James M., and Frances Strowd
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LAMP 2012 Field School and plates, the ship's bell (complete with iron clapper and
wooden headstock), a flintlock pistol, ship's fittings and
Chuck Meide rigging components, a brass candlestick, belt and shoe
buckles, and two iron cannons, one of which bore the date
The Lighthouse Archaeological Maritime Program, or 1780. No intact hull remains have been encountered to date,
LAMP, is a non-profit organization that serves as the research although a few isolated timbers appear to have come from arm of the St. Augustine Lighthouse & Museum. Based the ship's fabric. One of the most significant finds was made
at St. Augustine, LAMP focuses primarily on the history this year in the conservation laboratory, where many students of the nation's oldest port through historical and maritime volunteer after the close of each field school. This find was archaeological research. LAMP has overseen a field school a small pewter button that, when cleaned by electrolysis, in Maritime Archaeology every summer since 2007. That revealed a tiny crown over the letters "RP." This signifies it
initial field school was accredited by Flinders University in was a Royal Provincials regimental button, whose members South Australia, and in the following years by Plymouth State were loyal colonists recruited for the duration of the war, and University in New Hampshire. it is a significant piece of evidence supporting our current
Students earn four credit hours of graduate or interpretation of the shipwreck.
undergraduate credit during this four-week field school. Topics The 2012 field school, which ran from June 4th- 29th covered include scientific diving protocols, basic seamanship, was a great success (Figure 1)! Eleven undergraduate students public archaeology, marine remote sensing survey, regional from universities across the U.S. and Canada attended, along maritime history, historic ship construction, legislation with seven field school supervisors. The supervisors are related to shipwrecks, conservation of waterlogged artifacts, former field school students, graduate students, or recent and underwater archaeology methods, including hydraulic graduates of a master's program who, along with the four probing, dredge excavation, recording, and artifact recovery. LAMP staff archaeologists, oversee the daily operations of Since 2010, the field school has focused on excavations at the field school. The weather was uncharacteristically bad this the Storm Wreck, a late 18th-century shipwreck believed to year. While usually there are few if any days of seas too rough represent a refugee ship evacuating Loyalists from Charleston to work offshore, this June (2012) saw two tropical storms to St. Augustine at the close of the American Revolution. Field and a nor'easter, and the field school students only saw four school students from across the country have assisted in every days working on the shipwreck. The remainder of the field facet of this ongoing excavation, including the recovery of school was spent testing magnetic targets in the Tolomato iron and copper cauldrons, an iron tea kettle, pewter spoons River north of St. Augustine, diving on a ballast pile off St.
Figure 1.The LAMP crew at work

Augustine's waterfront between the Castillo de San Marcos During the spring semester of 2012, Valencia College and the Bridge of Lions, and conducting training exercises in students engaged in a survey of the Oakland Cemetery in Alexander Springs near Altoona. While the students spent less Oakland, Florida, with the assistance of the Central Florida time working on the Storm Wreck, they ended up with a more Anthropological Society, the East Central Region office of the varied experience working on different sites in multiple diving Florida Public Archaeology Network, and students from the environments. In addition, the students heard from a series of University of Central Florida. Oakland has been the focus of guest speakers who presented aspects of their research from an applied anthropological research program since 2007 when Florida and as far away as the Caribbean and Ireland. an archaeological survey of a pioneer homestead was initiated.
As is usually the case, a number of field school students The goals and objectives of our research at the cemetery were stayed on to work with LAMP archaeologists for the remainder to provide Valencia students with direct field experience in of the summer field season. These students did get to participate gravemarker recording, enhance the contextualization of in further excavations at the Storm Wreck, and assisted with a archaeological data from associated domestic sites, provide number of interesting discoveries including three muskets and comparative data for the Old Oakland African American what appears to be a long, curved sword still in its scabbard. Cemetery, and support community outreach efforts. Other opportunities undertaken by our 2012 field school Building on an earlier survey of the Oakland Cemetery
students were two training workshops offered shortly after the (Johnson and Olausen 1995), each gravemarker was recorded close of field school: a weeklong Remote Sensing Workshop, by noting any textual details along with gravemarker form, and a weeklong Museum and Archaeological Conservation material, condition, and volumetric measurements (Figures 2,
Workshop. More information on LAMP's field school and 3). At least one photograph was taken of each gravemarker.
other training opportunities is available at our webpage at One of our analytical objectives with this data is to enhance our understanding of social status, consumer choice, life
expectancy, and mortuary practices along time, space, and
Valencia College: Oakland Cemetery, Oakland, Orange form. With a minimum of 393 marked graves, the Oakland
County, Florida Cemetery headstones depict quite vibrantly the life and times
of the town's early pioneers and later settlers. Many of the
Jason Wenzel, Gregg Harding, and Kevin Gidusko earlier markers include a consistent and widespread series
of motifs such as verdant vegetation on the perimeter of the
inscription, opening heavenly gates, glowing crowns above
heavenly mansions, as well as doves and lambs resting atop
gravestones. From the mid-1920s through the present, the
Sgravestones show a decline in iconographic and textual
Figures 2 and 3. Valencia College students and Central
Florida Anthropological Society volunteers recording
gravemarkers at the Oakland Cemetery (left and above).

The cemetery was established in 1874 with the inaugural a diverse variety of students and volunteers about cultural interment of Minnie Speer, the daughter of one of Oakland's heritage and field methodology in a more convenient and lessfounders, James Gamble Speer, and is comprised largely invasive way than traditional archaeological investigations. of many of the town's Euro-American pioneer families and When conducted in a community where several domestic some of their recently departed descendants. Some of the sites have been subjected to archaeological investigations, headstones we recorded represent graves of individuals who cemetery recording can provide data that helps enhance our once resided at domestic sites that have been the subject of understanding about the lives and culture of those represented archaeological investigations from 2007 to 2012: Hull, Petris, by associated graves. Furthermore, the students learn important Brock, Hartsfield, and Mather-Smith. insights about the ongoing processes of cultural identity,
Prior to engagement in field work, Valencia students and change, and conflict inferred from the material culture along volunteers were provided with an orientation at the beginning the lines of class, race, religion, and gender, while helping of the semester that included a town tour showcasing various to make direct contributions to preservation efforts in a fast historical and archaeological sites. One of the stops included growing historic community in an applied and public setting. the site of the former Mather-Smith estate. Fred and Grace
Mather-Smith were originally interred in mausoleums at References Cited
their estate after their deaths in 1941 and 1962 respectively.
Later, their remains were reinterred to subsurface graves Bacon, Eve in the Oakland Cemetery in response to vandalism of the 1974 Oakland-The Early Years. Chuluota, Florida, The mausoleums (Bacon 1974). Mickler House Publishers.
Another notable grave-stone is that of Leo C. Borgard
(1895-1920), whose marker serves as an invaluable tool Brotemarkle, Ben to instruct students about one important and contentious 2005 Crossing Division Street. An Oral History of the aspect of local history and its relation to cemetery studies. African-American Community in Orlando. Cocoa,
On November 2, 1920, a race riot erupted nearby in Ocoee Florida, The Florida Historical Society Press.
when an African-American in the community, Mose Norman,
attempted to vote in local elections. Members of the Ku Klux Johnson, Sidney and Stephen Olausen Klan (KKK) had previously made known that voting by non- 1995 Florida Master Site File form for Oakland Cemetery whites would be not tolerated in Orange County (Brotemarkle (80R8119). On file, Florida Master Site File,
2005). The situation escalated until a white mob burned out Tallahassee.
the African-American section of Ocoee, and at least 4 blacks
and 2 whites died from the exchange of gunfire. Borgard is Maguire, Nancy Lillian notable for being one of two Euro-Americans to die during 2010 A History of Ocoee and its Pioneers. Ocoee, the ordeal when he was fatally wounded by a gunshot from Florida: Ocoee Historical Commission.
July Perry, another African American who voted prior to
Norman's attempt, and later lynched by a white mob (Maguire Thompson, Sharyn with Lynette Strangstad 2010). Borgard's memorial pillar displays quite fancifully his 2004 Florida's Historic Cemeteries: A Preservation dedication to the Masons and the KKK. Facing his grave, one Handbook, Florida Division of Historical Resources,
sees two hooded Klansmen astride horses under a statement Tallahassee.
that reads, "Non Silba, Sed Anthar" or "Not for ourselves, for
others", which was part of a Latin phrase used by the KKK.
Historic cemeteries are an important aspect of a
community's history and heritage. They present a material CREVAP 2012: Joint U1SF and 05SUArchaeological Field culture that is a reflection of local people and events (Thompson Schools 2004). The public archaeology component of the Oakland
Cemetery Project allowed members of the surrounding Thomas J. Pluckhahn and Victor D. Thompson
communities and other local students to join Valencia students
in the study and preservation of Oakland's history. In addition, The summer of 2012 marked the second field season cemetery recording projects such as these hold the benefit of the Crystal River Early Village Archaeological Project of offering an accessible outreach environment to a diverse (CREVAP), an NSF-funded research project investigating public audience. This resulted in a more inclusive body of the dynamics of early village societies at the famous Crystal students and volunteers who may not otherwise have been River site (8C1 1) and its contemporaries in west-central able to participate due to some of the physical demands that Florida. The summer session was conducted as a joint field archaeological excavation often requires. Cemetery recording school of the University of South Florida (USE) and the projects such as ours also allows for a more flexible Saturdays- Ohio State University (OSU). The work was supervised by only work schedule throughout the semester without concerns Principal Investigators Drs. Tom Pluckhahn (USF) and Victor about protecting open test units from severe weather Thompson (formerly of OSU, now University of Georgia).
Historic cemeteries provide a suitable setting for teaching Additional field direction was provided by graduate students

a trench on one of its slopes. Preliminary results suggest the mound was constructed in the Late Woodland period, like the nearby platform mound at site 8C41, which we investigated in 2011.
The 2012 field season was a great success, despite challenges arising from Tropical Storm Debbie, but abetted by newfound accommodations in downtown Crystal River (within walking distance of an Irish bar with an impressive selection of craft beers). We anticipate at least one more field season of CREVAP and look forward to continued great archaeology and camaraderie.
2012 Florida Museum of Natural History Suwannee Valley Field School: The Parnell Mound
Neill J. Wallis
The 2012 Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) Field School conducted survey and excavations at the Pamell Mound site (8C0326), a Suwannee Valley culture site near White Springs. The field school also recorded and investigated the Buck site (8CO 1201), a small contemporaneous site located nearby. The project was directed by Neill Wallis and assisted by graduate students Rachel Jannelli and Micah Mones.
The Suwannee Valley archaeological culture follows the McKeithen Weeden Island (Weeden Island I) and weeden Island II cultures of North Florida and dates to ca. A.D. 900 to 1500 (Worth 2012). Although Mississippi period components were known to exist as part of multi-component and mixed sites in the region following the survey efforts of Brenda Sigler-Lavelle and Ken Johnson during the 1970s and 1980s, Figure 4. Crystal River Early Village Archaeological few have been the focus of systematic excavations. Perhaps
Project Students in their traditional field school pose the lone exception is extensive work at the Fig Springs site behind directors Pluckhahn and Thompson. led by Weisman (1992) that enabled Worth (2012) to refine the
late period chronology and better characterize the Suwannee Kassie Kemp (USF), Ellen Burlingame Turck (formerly of Valley culture. The Suwannee Valley culture is presumed to
OSU), Christina Perry Sampson (University of Michigan), and represent the ancestors of the Utina Timucua who occupied the Margaret Spivey (Washington University). Undergraduates region during the early colonial era, but there are curiously few students were primarily from USF and OSU, but also from the archaeological correlates of the chiefdoms that the Spanish University of Central Florida and USF St. Petersburg (Figure described. 4). Preliminary investigations by FLMNH in 2011 identified
Field investigations in 2012 concentrated at Crystal River, Parnell as a relatively "pure" Suwannee Valley culture site, where two test trenches were excavated in midden areas. These a rarity in the region. The goal of the 2012 field school are some of the first controlled excavations to reach the lower was to define the habitation areas surrounding the mound levels of the midden at Crystal River since Bullen's work more and collect data to help further refine the Suwannee Valley than fifty years ago. The excavations revealed a surprising chronology and describe village life. Students produced a number of features (both postholes and pits), suggesting topographic map of the site using a total station, delineated the relatively intensive domestic occupation during portions of distribution of artifacts through systematic shovel testing and the site's history. Analysis of the artifacts and column samples test excavations, and discovered and excavated a very large pit is ongoing. feature 40 m north-northwest of the mound summit. The field
In addition to the work at Crystal River, we also school completed a total of 139 shovel tests and 32 square
investigated site 8C140, part of the Roberts Island Shell Mound meters of test and block excavation. Complex. This site, which is located only a few hundred meters The Buck site is located half a kilometer north of the downstream from Crystal River, includes a flat-topped mound Pamnell Mound and consists of an approximately 30-in wide, that was used as the foundation for a home constructed in the high-density area of lithic debitage and Suwannee Valley series 1 950s. We conducted GPR survey of the mound and excavated sherds (Figure 5). Like many sites in the area, acidic sands

Figure 5. UF Students shovel test across the Buck site with the site's namesake standing watch (center)
lend very poor preservation conditions for organic materials, of very large pottery sherds, many representing significant and no cultural features were recorded. The site is likely a portions of vessels. These sherds differ from those in other small habitation that is roughly contemporaneous with the areas of the site, not only in their size but also in the size of the nearby Parnell Mound site. Small sites like this one seem to be vessels of which they are a part. Lochloosa Punctated and Fig dispersed widely across Mississippi-period North Florida and Springs Roughened pottery predominated, followed by Prairie might correspond with the advent of maize agriculture in the Cordmarked and sand-tempered plain, as well as occasional region (Milanich 1994:349-350), though no incontrovertible St. Johns Plain and St. Johns Check-Stamped and at least two evidence of pre-Columbian maize has been recovered here incised Fort Walton series sherds. (Ashley and White 2012:16). Within the feature were also abundant lithic artifacts.
The sand mound at Parnell is situated on the edge of a These included over a dozen Pinellas points, most made of terrace that overlooks a large pond and swamp. The mound is a poor quality local phosphate chert, numerous lithic flakes heavily deranged after illicit digging, some of it with heavy that included several varieties of chert and silicified corals, machinery, but its original dimensions are apparent, measuring sandstone abraders, and "nutting stones," the latter defined by 27 m across and between 2 and 3.5 m high above the natural numerous small cupules grinded into flat slabs of sandstone. ground surface from various vantage points along the terrace. Also encountered were numerous large iron concretions and Artifacts are distributed widely across a 200-m wide area ferruginous sandstone, notably larger and more abundant than around the mound, however, intensive shovel testing revealed those from other areas of the site where they were found at three discrete clusters near the mound. One of these clusters the bottom of excavation units, above a culturally sterile clay corresponds with a large cultural feature discovered 40 m horizon. Also recovered in the feature were three small nodules north-northwest of the mound summit of hematite and two quartz crystal fragments. AMS assays on
This feature, the only one recorded at the site, was a pit charcoal from near the base of the feature yielded a 2-sigma approximately 2.5 m by 3 m in diameter and extends half a calibrated range of A.D. 1160 to 1260, firmly anchoring it meter below the former grounds surface (Figure 6). The feature within the Mississippi period. consisted of a dark black charcoal-filled stain covered by an Rather than uncovering the remains of daily village organically enriched brown sand deposit filled with artifacts life, our investigations at Pamnell identified the location of a and fauna. The feature was also surrounded by a 2-in wide substantial feast, where food was prepared en masse (perhaps zone of very high artifact density. Within this massive feature in an earth oven), consumed, and soon after deposited and and the immediately surrounding deposit were thousands of covered over. These are likely the remains of a major event for large deer bone fragments representing numerous individuals, which people congregated from surrounding residential sites, perhaps as many as several dozen. Although laboratory such as the small "hamlet" recorded half a kilometer away at
analysis is just underway, we observed in the field that elements the Buck site. Fine screen and bulk samples taken from this corresponding to the meatiest portions of the deer are almost feature will provide a treasure trove of information pertaining exclusively represented (femur, humerus, radius, ulna, tibia, to diet, food preparation, cuisine, and feasting. scapula, thoracic vertebrae), and these were often articulated.
These elements, and their articulation, are likely to be the References Cited
remains of shoulders and haunches that were roasted whole.
In addition to deer, which overwhelm the faunal assemblage, Ashley, Keith H., and Nancy Marie White laboratory analysis has so far identified shark teeth, dog teeth, 2012 Late Prehistoric Florida: An Introduction. In Late gopher tortoise, black bear, and various turtles and fish. Prehistoric Florida." Archaeology at the Edge of the
In association with this mass of bone were hundreds Mississi/pian World, edited by Keith Ashley and

Nancy Marie White, pp. 1-28. University Press of The St. Johns Archaeological Field School in 2012
Florida, Gainesville. continued investigations of the precolumbian history of Silver
Glen Spring run, one of the most intensively and longestMilanich, Jerald T. occupied landforms along the St. Johns River. Fed by the
1994 Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. University first magnitude Silver Glen Spring, the run issues into Lake
Press of Florida, Gainesville. George. Prior to shell mining in the 1920s, this landform
housed at least four shell mounds in addition to a variety of Weisman, Brent R. shell and non-shell bearing deposits. This season brought
1992 Excavations of the Franciscan Frontier. together students from the University of Florida (UF) and the
Archaeology of the Fig Springs Mission. University University of Oklahoma (UO), who conducted separate block Press of Florida, Gainesville. excavations at a Mount Taylor shell mound and a St. Johns
II village, in addition to reconnaissance survey. They also Worth, John E. greatly enjoyed the hospitality of the Juniper Club, who have
2012 An Overview of the Suwannee Valley Culture. In graciously hosted the field school since 2007.
Late Prehistoric Florida. Archaeology at the Edge One area of concentrated investigations is the remnants of the Mississippian World, edited by Keith Ashley of a 200-m long shell ridge, referred to as Locus A. Our and Nancy Marie White, pp. 149-171. University prior excavations demonstrated that shell mining left intact Press of Florida, Gainesville. escarpments on the margins of the mound. When cut back
and excavated down to basal deposits these 3-m deep profiles provide windows into the mound's history during the Mount St. Johns Archaeological Field School: Silver Glen Taylor period. This season, we shifted strategies and excavated
Springs Run five 2-x-2-m units arranged in a 6-x-4-m block with the goal
of delineating architecture and affiliated features. These units Asa R. Randall and Kenneth E. Sassaman intercepted 1.5-m thick basal deposits not impacted by the
mining process. The search for discrete habitation spaces did
..... .....
Figure 6. Micah Monks excavates a final level in the excavation block at Parnell Mound alongside a remaining portion of the three meter long profile of Feature 1.

Figure 7. UF students excavating at the Silver Glen Springs Run site.
not pan out. Instead, we encountered two episodes of intensive features and middens dating primarily to the St. Johns II period. pit digging. The younger pits, lying near the current ground Block excavation at the north end of the site, overlooking the surface, possibly date to approximately 6300 years ago. These pool, is aimed at locating definitive evidence for architecture, tended to be straight-walled with round to flat bottoms and and beyond that, community patterning. Prior survey across measured 1- to 1.5-m wide and up to 1 m deep. The pit bases the landform showed that pits and subsurface midden deposits were often heavily oxidized suggesting they were initially are arranged in circular fashion around an area (plaza?) devoid used for roasting. Most exhibited complex fill sequences of shell. Structured by the dissertation research of UF Ph.D. composed of alternating shellfish species and contained a student Elyse Anderson, testing at Locus C this year expanded diverse faunal assemblage along with objects typical of the the north block to follow posthole patterns observed last year, Mount Taylor period, such as bone and marine shell tools. and opened units in east-central portion of the "plaza," as well These pits intruded into a much older deposit characterized as downslope, towards the pool, where a 1.5-m-thick midden by organically enriched soil with some shell and vertebrate extends back into St. Johns I and Orange times. Anderson's fauna. Continued excavation revealed that this deposit was research engages the analytical potential of relational in fact an amalgam of pits that measured up to 1-m wide ontologies in explaining patterned variation in faunal remains. and 1-m deep. These are differentiated from the upper pits Spatial dimensions of the village layout, such as cardinality, are by containing considerably less shell, no clear evidence for expected to have counterparts in the way animal remains are burning, and diffuse margins. Their depth and disposition treated, particularly as deposits. Much fieldwork is needed to suggested that they were very old, which is borne out by a sample more broadly across the entire village, but one unusual radiocarbon assay placing their fill as early as 8800 years ago. find this past summer suggests that more surprises may be in This assay is the oldest for a shell-bearing deposit in Florida store. In a test unit located equidistant between the spring pool and fills in a crucial time period otherwise obscured by rising and a sand burial mound 250 m to the southeast, the students water tables on the St. Johns. Future research will be required encountered a large, shallow pit filled with ash and unburned to confirm this find, but it highlights how Silver Glen Springs snail shell. An AMS age estimate on charcoal from the pit is has been an important location for most of the Holocene. In pending, and it could prove to be an Orange period pit (two this regard, the results of a vibracore survey of the wetlands areas of intensive activity during the Orange period lie to the fronting Locus A-conducted this season by UF Ph.D. student south and east). Either way, its location between the pool and Jason O'Donoughue whose dissertation research considers the the boil is not likely to be coincidental. importance of springs and wetlands to inhabitants of the St. Finally, as part of our dual research and teaching Johns-will no doubt be instructive. mission, all field school students are trained in reconnaissance
The second major project of the 2012 field school was techniques. Using LiDAR and aerial imagery, we identified a expanded testing at Locus C, a ridge nose overlooking the ca. 400-m long, 3-m high landform deep in cypress swamp to spring pool of Silver Glen (Figure 7). Prior testing at Locus C the south of the spring run. This arrangement is consistent with established the presence of a well-preserved assemblage of pit other known Mount Taylor shell mounds in the region, and

we hypothesized that this feature represented an unrecorded dense undergrowth. Throughout these landscapes, students mound. Initially with trepidation and then zeal, the survey uncovered small, discrete sites and larger, diffuse scatters. crew cut a 600-m long transect through the swamp. At the Last year, excavations at Thompson's Landing uncovered
end, the students did not discover a shell mound, but instead a large shell midden that consisted of several types of marsh something just as interesting. The "mound" is actually a relict clams (Rangia cuneata and Polymesoda caroliniana) as well sand dune or terrace consisting of well drained sand. Shovel as oyster, and reptile, fish, and mammal bones. Analysis of testing recovered a low-density but nonetheless fascinating data from these units revealed a wealth of information about assemblage of large St. Johns Plain and Check Stamped subsistence strategies and settlement patterns for Native
sherds. Continued testing of this site will be necessary to Americans in the Pensacola area. fully understand its significance, but the social and ecological As part of her Master's thesis research, Lauren Walls conditions that brought attention here during St. Johns II times designed a survey and testing plan for the site this summer. The deserve considered thought. goal of this research was to identify discrete shell middens at
Thompson's Landing to test ideas about subsistence strategies University of West Florida 2012 Campus Field School in the Woodland and Mississippi periods. Field school students
began work on Thompson's Landing by setting up four Sarah M. Hooker and Lauren Walls 10-x- 1 0-m grids to be surveyed with small spoon augers at 1-m
intervals. Students recorded the coordinates, soil profile, and For the 2012 summer semester, the University of West any cultural material in each auger sample, particularly noting Florida again offered the Campus Survey field school, newly the presence/absence of shell. These data were used to plan the added in 2011 as the terrestrial portion of the Combined placement of I m x I m test units. A soil resistivity survey was Terrestrial/Maritime field school. The Campus Survey portion also done over the same grids. In theory, the resistivity survey was designed specifically to provide students with training measures the ability of an electrical current to run through across a full complement of archaeological techniques. The 10-week field school is split in half with one group of students participating in the terrestrial portion while the other group -4
trains in maritime techniques; after 5 weeks the groups switch. One goal for students was to learn a variety of terrestrial techniques. The structure of the field school allowed students to participate in both a Phase I archaeological survey and Phase II intensive testing (Figure 8). Students learned the techniques and principles behind shovel testing and test unit excavation, as well as mapping, proper documentation, and research development. This year also included auger testing on four 10-x- 10-m grids and a soil resistivity survey.
Currently, several projects for further development of the UWF campus are being discussed, and the Campus Survey field school provides an excellent opportunity to explore the.... areas for cultural resources. The area chosen for this summer's survey also relates to the long-term research agenda of the Principal Investigator, Dr. Ramie Gougeon. One goal is to determine whether the survey area contained any prehistoric sites related to Thompson's Landing (8ES950), the site of the Phase II testing.
Students surveyed approximately 30 acres along
Thompson's Bayou (which runs along the northwestern side of campus). This area was chosen because it is potentially subject to new development of the UWF campus. The survey consisted i of 173 shovel tests, set along 16 transects, each 25- to 50-in apart. A total of 12 sites was recorded or revisited. Most of the i sites are prehistoric, but several are historic and relate to fish ............................................
camps set up along the bayou. The survey allowed students toiiii ; il ;;,
gain experience pacing distances and maintaining a bearing using a compass. An important skill for all archaeologists is to..... learn how to read landforms--determining what the landscape used to look like and what processes shaped it. Approximately half of the survey area was open, running between campus Figure 8. UWF Campus Field School students conducting buildings and the bayou, while the rest was covered in an auger survey of Thompson's Landing.

............ ........... .... .. .!
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Figure 9. Summer 2012 Junior Archaeologists at the Weedon Island site currently under investigation by archaeologists.
the soil, with values changing based on the soil conditions, 2012 Mission Escambe Excavations including the presence of midden deposits. However, due to
heavy rains prior to the survey and malfunctioning equipment, Patty McMahon and Danielle Dadiego the results were inconclusive. Based on the auger testing,
students opened a total of nine test units and found intact The University of West Florida's Colonial Frontiers field shell middens in six. Three of the discrete midden deposits school returned for a fourth year of excavation at the site of identified contained almost exclusively Woodland materials, Mission San Joseph de Escambe, led by principal investigator such as Deptford Check Stamped ceramics. Another midden Dr. John Worth and assisted by graduate site supervisor contained shell-tempered sherds dating to the Mississippian Danielle Dadiego and graduate field director Patty McMahon period. for the project. Two additional graduate students supervised
A potential Late Archaic component was identified below the crew of six undergraduates for the duration of the ten-week an amorphous sheet-like Woodland period midden. A potential project. (Figure 9) historic/modern midden likely related to a historic fish camp Fray Marcos de Hita established the mission in 1741 with was also inspected. Laboratory analysis is currently being approximately 30 Apalachee Indians. The mission village conducted by several of the field school students as they learn would have been home to about 8 to 10 families, living in how to process and identify the materials they recovered in residential structures. A church and friary would have also the field. been present at the site. Due to the increasing hostility of the
Ms. Walls will be analyzing all of the materials recovered French and Indian War, in 1760 a Spanish cavalry garrison from the midden contexts for her thesis research, and plans from San Miguel de Panzacola (present day downtown to have a conclusive report completed by the end of the 2013 Pensacola) was sent upriver to the mission. This would have field season. Her research questions focus on the changing necessitated a barracks for the 8 to 15 soldiers, a stable for the subsistence activities evident at this site throughout the horses, and a stockade. Unfortunately, a hurricane destroyed Woodland period. Flotation samples were taken from each many of the structures that were near completion in 1760, and discrete midden, and are currently being processed and in April of 1761, a band of 28 Creek Indian raiders attacked analyzed to try to identify locally gathered or cultivated and burned the mission, and those who were not captured plant materials. Additionally, patterns in the processing, or killed abandoned the village and relocated outside of San consumption, and discard of subsistence related materials in Miguel. the middens will be investigated. Excavations from the past three years at the mission had
revealed a number of architectural features, including the north

curtain of the stockade wall and, about 20 m to the south, a A secondary goal of this year's field school concerned the number of overlapping wall trenches. The primary objectives previously unexplored area between the stockade wall and the of the 2012 excavations focused on further exploring these overlapping wall trenches. Five 50-x-50-cm shovel tests were features in an attempt to better understand the size and opened to get a glimpse of the types of material remainspresent organization of the mission complex. in this area of the site. Students identified two features in the
A previously identified nineteenth century artesian well shovel tests, and one shovel test recovered numerous artifacts disturbed the stockade wall in the west, so students opened including various types of majolica, Native ceramics, beads, units north, south, and west of the well in hopes of finding and some small faunal remains. A 1-x-2-m unit was opened either a continuation of the stockade or an analogous north- adjacent to this highly productive shovel test to further explore south running trench that could possibly be the west curtain both the midden and a clay lens feature. Once a larger area was wall. While no such features were revealed in any of those opened, it appeared that the clay layer was actually a clay floor, units, a number of other mission-period features and artifacts partially burned. The rich midden, located directly beneath were uncovered in this area, including post holes, smudge pits the clay floor, continued to produce numerous mission-period (corncob and charcoal), and a daub concentration. This area ceramic sherds as well as European ceramics, beads, glass, also produced some of the largest mission-period ceramic and lead shot. This area of the site is also favorable for future sherds recovered to date from the site. excavation, based on its heavy artifact concentration, and the
At the opposite end of the stockade wall, we continued presence of the only evidence of a burned area at the site.
opening units to the east, searching for a corner. Despite heavy The continued research at San Joseph de Escambe has disturbance from burrowing critters, large and small, in the brought to light a wealth of information about the Apalachee general vicinity, the site supervisor was able to identify the Indians, the Spanish mission system, and colonial Spanish northeast comer of the stockade. An adjacent unit directly military life in the eighteenth century. The work conducted at south revealed a trench of comparable construction to the the mission and in the historical documents provides insight known stockade wall, though the east curtain, closest to the into life during this complex and at times tumultuous period bluff and the river, appears to be slightly more substantial of Florida's past. in size. Another unit was opened 8 m to the south along the
projected bearing of the curtain wall. As expected, excavation 2012 University of North Florida (UNF) Field School revealed a trench of similar construction. Artifacts recovered
from the east stockade wall include numerous wrought nails Keith Ashley and Robert L. Thunen (recorded in situ), mission-period pottery, and a Corualine
d'Aleppo trade bead. Future excavations in this area of the site The 2012 UNF Archaeological Field School had two will include opening up a larger area around the northeastern components. The first was the search for evidence of the comer as well as farther south to determine how much of the La Caroline Colony, better known as Fort Caroline. In June site was enclosed within the stockade and, optimistically, of 1564, the French established the La Caroline colony, discover a third wall. somewhere on the south side of the St. Johns River, 5-10 miles
In the southern area of the mission site, previous from its mouth. The French colony was short-lived, however, excavations had revealed no fewer than five separate mission- and fifteen months after its founding it fell to Spanish forces. period wall trenches, some of which were overlapping. The Immediately following its downfall, the fort became the scene goal for the field season was to delineate the footprint of at of a Spanish garrison known as San Mateo (1565-1569). June least one of these structures (a residential unit would have 2014 will mark the 450th anniversary of the founding of the been approximately 4-x-6 in). Students opened up a 2-x-2-m French colony. unit following two parallel, east-west trending wall trenches. As part of a State Historic Preservation grant, UNF has Neither of these wall trenches cornered within the confines of undertaken an archaeological survey to find the long lost this unit, though two more north-south trending trenches were French fort. Sixteen UNF students spent three weeks in May revealed during excavation. As a result, the crew focused their (2012) shovel testing high ground along tidal marshes and energies on following only one of the wall trenches, to both creeks in the Theodore Roosevelt Preserve (National Park the east and the west. Despite discovering eight crosscutting Service). Although no evidence of the French community was north-south trenches while tracing the wall trench for 13 m, uncovered during the summer, we did recover large amounts of the quest for corners in this area of the site was unsuccessful. Native pottery that dates mostly to the Woodland period (500 At this point, the size of the structure is outside the realm of B.C. A.D. 800). Shovel testing for Fort Caroline resumed in private domiciles, and could likely be the church or some the late summer and will continue until June, 2013. other public structure. Future excavations in this area will The remainder of the summer was spent at the Cedar Point likely continue to focus on exploring architectural features to site (8DU8 1), situated at the southern end of Black Hammock better understand the nature of the structure(s) and their role in Island (also on National Park Service property) (Figure 10). the mission. Mission-period artifacts recovered from this area Both the UNF student and public archaeological field schools include both Native and European ceramics, an iron fishhook, participated in this excavation. The site is the location of and seed beads. the late seventeenth century Spanish mission and Mocama

Indian community of Santa Cruz de Guadalquini. According maize and peaches, whereas faunal remains include pig, deer, to Spanish documents, the mission existed in this location for a variety of small mammals and reptiles, and a rich diversity only 12 years (1684-1694). of estuarine fish and shellfish.
The 2012 field season focused on expanding Block C, an A wide variety of mission-period artifacts have been excavation block previously investigated in 2007, 2009, and recovered from the site over the past three field seasons, 2011. Twenty-five 1 -x-2-m units (52 M2) were excavated over a including Native (e.g., San Marcos, colonoware) and Spanish 6-week period, bringing the total size of Block C to 140 M2. Our (e.g., olive jar, majolicas) pottery, shell and bone tools, glass primary objective during the 2012 field season was to expose trade beads, clay tobacco pipe fragments, gunflints, nails, the remainder of a posthole pattern (designated Structure and religious crosses and finger rings. Earlier Woodland and 1) partially revealed in 2009 and 2011. We are currently Mississippi period components were identified as well. wrapping up analysis, so all we can offer at this time are a At this point in time we are still not sure what type of few preliminary statements. Forty-three subsurface features mission-period structure we have uncovered, but it pears ve been recorded in Block C to date (8 new and 2 previously that the building's western two-thirds was daubed. The identified features were excavated in 2012). Twenty of these undaubed eastern third contained the mission period shell features are large postholes filled with densely-packed shell midden, although scattered shell and mission-period pottery midden, including Mission-period artifacts, animal bones, and were distributed across the entire block. The small size of the estuarine shells. The postholes ranged in diameter from about building combined with the absence of human burials within 45 cm to more than 70 cm, and in depth from 35 cm to 85 cm. or near the structure strongly suggests that it is not a church. In cross section, the majority of postholes revealed the outline The size of Structure 1 is similar to that of convents or friaries of a flat-bottomed post. Some of the postholes excavated this at other mission sites in La Florida. It is unclear whether Santa summer contained intact pieces of wooden posts. Cruz had a resident priest or shared one with the nerby mission
Eighteen postholes denote a rectangular structure that of San Juan del Puerto. Adding to our interpretive predicament measures approximately 10-x-7 m. Two additional shell- is that we do not know what Native houses in coastal missions filled postholes lie within the structure and two occur looked like in the 1680s. It is possible that the structure served outside the building to the south. Within the eastern part of multiple functions either concurrently or sequentially, perhaps the structure, we identified a few small, shell-less postholes as a living quarter (west) and a kitchen. and a few amorphous, rather shallow, areas of burned wood. From shovel tests, as part of an ongoing survey for Fort What is lacking from the exposed interior is any evidence of a Caroline, to block excavations at the Santa Cruz mission, prepared clay floor. In the western part of the excavation block students and community members received training and we uncovered large amounts of daub, indicating that a portion experience in two important periods of northeastern Florida of the building was plastered with clay. that help to illuminate interactions between Native groups and
Shell middens were encountered within Block C. Although Europeans. It was a unique opportunity for all participants to thin (about 10 cm thick), a productive Mission-period shell make an important contribution to Florida archaeology. midden yielded a variety of refuse. Botanical remains include
Figure 10. UNF students excavating at the Mission of Santa Cruz.

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Lynne P. Sullivan & Robert C. Mainfort Jr. (eds.) discusses the "spectacles" witnessed by Mississippian peoples
Mississippian Mortuary Practices: Beyond Hierarchy and the and how these mortuary events presented tableaux that Representationalist Perspective referenced "abstract ideas without necessarily reproducing
University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 2010. that practice" while Brown talks "Bones and corpses..arranged
as actors in a drama." Two of the chapters, by Sullivan and
Gordon F.M.Rakita Harle and Boudreaux delve into issues of gender roles and
Department of Anthropology, UNF, Jacksonville, FL 32224 representation. For example, Sullivan and Harle note that the two contemporaneous groups they study represented gender
While Mississippian Mortuary Practices had its genesis in roles in different ways in their respective mortuary programs. a symposium organized by the editors at the 2006 Southeastern On the other hand, Boudreaux notes that at Town Creek, Archaeological Conference meetings, as the editors indicate in women may well have played roles as community leaders and their Preface, a book on Mississippian period mortuary ritual that their status as leaders within the community may have was long-overdue. The fourteen chapters within cover the been tied to their status within their kinship group. Seven of full geographic scope of Mississippian period culture from the chapters (Pauketat, Wilson et al., Cook, Marcoux, FisherSpiro in the west to Town Creek in the east, Aztalan in the Carroll & Mainfort, Boudreaux, Sullivan and Harle, and north to Moundville in the south. Far from being a collection Frankin et al.) deal variously with issues of cultural identity, of individual papers with each author going their own way, ethnicity, and group or kinship membership. On the other Sullivan and Mainfort have assembled chapters that advance hand, Brown cogently argues that the process of materializing a theoretical approach to the analysis of prehistoric mortuary cosmological order at Spiro in the placement of secondary practices. Far from mimicking theoretical developments burials is possible because of the loss of personal identity with
in other regions, these authors are developing novel new secondary burials; "..individual identities do not make sense interpretive perspectives, as a starting point for analyzing secondary burials." A number
The book takes as it central purpose the transcending of of chapters (principally those by Brown, King, Wilson and what they term the representationist approach to mortuary colleagues, Goldstein, and Simek and Cressler) take on the practices in archaeology. The term comes from the tendency issues of sacred landscapes and the role human burials may of many scholars to see either a single mortuary ritual as play in developing and sanctifying geophysical settings. For representative of the deceased's social role or the aggregate example, Goldstein warns "The placement of human bone mortuary rituals as representative of the society's social across a Mississippian site is not random, and archaeologists structure. In the United States, this approach is best represented should examine both the distribution of human bone across the by the Saxe-Binford programme (Rakita & Buikstra 2005). site and the distribution of human bone vis-a-vis the humanThe grip of the representationist approach among American created features on the site." Alternatively, Simek and Cressler, archaeologists is firm despite decades of criticism. This is using a dataset that stands out from the rest, examines the longcertainly true in the Southwest and it is equally palpable in term use of caves in the southern Appalachian mountains as most studies of Mississippian mortuary rites. The authors sacred repositories for human remains over several millennia. of this volume do their best to escape the confines of this This chapters concern with the longue dur~e of mortuary approach. They do not ignore status, ranking, and social practices is echoed in chapters by Goldstein, Pauketat, Brown, structure (i.e. they don't deny the value of Saxe-Binford) but and Mainfort and Fisher-Carroll, among others. seek to go beyond it. Indeed, some chapters (notably those by I have a few minor issues with the volume. Some of the Marcoux and Boudreaux) start with the assumptions of Saxe- reproduced maps are difficult to read due to small text and Binford. But each chapter goes beyond by focusing attention indistinct shading variations (e.g. figures 6.6 and 7.2), and at upon those placing or dealing with the dead rather than simply least one (figure 13.2) was substandard and should have been upon the dead themselves. This attention to performance and redrawn. In one case, a site was described as lying within practice mirrors development in the archaeology of ritual North Carolina (the Plum Grove site, page 265) and yet was broadly (Rakita & Buikstra 2008). shown on an accompanying map (figure 13.5) to be located in
Several themes wind their way throughout the various Tennessee. On page 140, an editorial call-out for table 8.8 was chapters in the volume and rather than providing a description left in the text. And finally, I located an apparent numerical of each chapter, I group them via these themes. For example, discrepancy in chapter 5 (table 5.1 lists 83 burials but the the chapters by Mainfort and Fisher-Carroll, Brown, and Sherratt diagram in Figure 5.4 shows 84 burials). These Pauketat see elements of theater or performance within the issues are mostly cosmetic, though the chapter 5 data issue is mortuary practices they examine. Pauketat in particular somewhat more problematic.

However, there are a number of positive features of this References Cited
volume that far out-weigh the negative. For one thing, each of the chapters seriously engages with the empirical record. Rakita, G. F. M. and J. E. Buikstra By that I mean that with the exception of the introductory 2005 Introduction, In Interacting with the Dead chapter by the editors, each author articulates their theoretical Perspectives on Mortuary Archaeology for the New framework with a rich set of archaeological data. In some Millenium, edited by Gordon F.M. Rakita, Jane
cases (e.g. Fisher-Carroll & Mainfort) that data is quantitative, E. Buikstra, Lane A. Beck, & Sloan R. Williams, in others (e.g. Simek & Cressler) it is more qualitative in University Press of Florida, Gainesville. pp. 1-11.
nature. Regardless, it is the articulation of theory and data that 2008 Feather Waving or The Numinous?: Archaeological makes the chapters compelling case studies. A second positive Perspectives on Ritual, Religion, and Ideology.
aspect is that many of the authors work with pre-published An Introduction to An Archaeological Perspective
data. The best examples are the two studies co-authored by on Ritual, Religion, and Ideology from American
Mainfort (though I could also point to many other chapters). Antiquity and Latin American Antiquity, compiled
We have an unfortunate habit in archaeology to avoid datasets by Gordon F. M. Rakita and Jane E. Buikstra, SAA
after they are examined once. Yet, restudy of data and Press, Washington, D.C. pp. 1-17.
reevaluation of prior conclusions are hallmarks of science. As Goldstein points out in her chapter, prior interpretations often color our current understanding. A third positive aspect of the volume was the focus on variability. As someone with a primary research agenda centered in the American Southwest and northern Mexico, I was less familiar with the range of variation exhibited in Mississippian funerary practices then I wished. This volume was a tremendous remedy. In their own ways, each author explores variation in mortuary ritual caused by change over time or the specific mortuary process or program in place. Finally, I sincerely wished that this volume, like many electronic resources these days, had each citation hyperlinked. I found myself frequently turning to the bibliography to identify sources used within the various chapters. I do not mean this as a criticism; far from it. My flipping allowed me to remember old gems of mortuary studies or discover new sources that I wanted to consult on my own. This flipping of mine is evidence of the rich collection of previous studies that the various authors were drawing upon in their chapters.
All in all, this is a volume of contributions that goes far to break the grip of the representationist approach in Mississippian period mortuary studies. There is much to recommend it not only to Mississippian experts but to those of us who work with mortuary remains in other areas of the world. The cases studies of performative, non-representationalist approaches to human funerary ritual are examples that will enrich our models and interpretations of burial datasets.

administered over 5 million dollars in grants from state, federal, Steven W. Martin was honored with the prestigious and private sources. He managed numerous preservation William C. Lazarus Memorial Award at the FAS 64th Annual planning and master plan projects, administered dozens of Meeting in Tallahassee. He was nominated by Patty Flynn, contracts, and developed scopes of work and contracts for President of the Gold Coast Anthropological Society (GCAS). archaeological research on known and unrecorded sites. In
FAS President Patty Flynn presented a plaque to Mr. Martin 2006, Steve even wrote a successful Special Category Grant "for promoting archaeological and historical preservation, proposal for archaeological work on vandalized Big Mound education, and research in Florida, May 12, 2012." Key.
Steve Martin is well-known to FAS members for his years Steve's efforts for Florida's cultural heritage have been of service to the Society. He has been an officer on the FAS extraordinary, and a number of other organizations have Board, including four years as First Vice-President (1998- recognized him, too. Besides awards from FAS in 2002 and 2000, 2009-2011) and two years as Second Vice-President 2004 (above), Steve was honored by the Florida Park Service (2007-2009). Steve has written and lobbied successfully in 1998 and 2000. He was cited for outstanding achievement for many Florida Archaeology Month grants. He has helped by the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation in 2002, and produce three Florida Archaeology Month posters, including he received a "Steward of Heritage Award" from the Florida "Florida Springs" in 2002, "Cultural Landscapes" in 2003, Archaeological Council, also in 2002. Now, in 2012, FAS is and "Native People/Native Plants" in 2010. pleased to honor Steve Martin with the William C. Lazarus
Earlier, in the mid-1990s, Steve was on the editorial Memorial Award. committee for the FAS video, "Shadows and Reflections." In 2002 at the FAS Annual Meeting in St. Petersburg, Steve was presented a "President's Award" for outstanding work by FAS President Jack Thompson. In 2003, Steve chaired the Planning Committee for the FAS Annual Meeting in Tallahassee, hosted by the Panhandle Archaeological Society. In 2004 at the FAS Annual Meeting in Fort Lauderdale, Steve was honored by FAS President Sheila Stewart for his contributions to the Society.
Steve received an Associate of Arts degree from Florida State University in 1975 and a Bachelor of Science degree in Journalism-Communications and Environmental Studies from the University of Florida in 1977. From 1984 to 1990, he worked for the Florida Park Service's Office of Policy and Planning. From 1990 to 2007, Steve continued with the Florida Park Service, serving as Historic Resources Administrator and Cultural Resources Manager. Since then, he has worked in the private sector and for the state Division of Emergency Management.
Steve's passion includes preserving historic structures and landscapes. While working for the Florida Park Service, he helped establish procedures for managing nearly 350 historic structures, 1,200 archaeological sites, and 45 cultural landscapes in 158 state parks. He worked with the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) to ensure compliance with preservation standards and guidelines. Steve also initiated many educational programs, such as with the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation, University of Florida, Florida State University, and the National Park Service.
During his years with the Florida Park Service, Steve's management and grant writing skills became legendary. He conducted assessments and documented historic structures, developed preservation plans and priorities, and wrote and/or

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About the Authors
Thomas Penders received his BS and MS in Anthropology from Florida State University. He is currently the Cultural Resources Manager for the 45th Space Wing, USAF at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Patrick Air Force Base. He owns and operates his own consulting firm, is a volunteer archaeological consultant for the Brevard County Environmentally Endangered Lands Program, and is the principal investigator for archaeological projects conducted by the Indian River Anthropological Society. His areas of interest are aerospace archaeology, Indian River Cultural Area, Mississippian Period archaeology, and wet site archaeology.
Barbara A. Purdy is Professor Emerita of Anthropology and Curator Emerita in Archaeology, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida. Her primary archaeological research interests are stone tool technology, water-saturated sites, and Paleoamericans.
Gordon F.M. Rakita is a bioarchaeologist and Associate Professor of Anthropology in the Department of Sociology & Anthropology. He earned his B.A. in Anthropology from University of North Carolina at Greensboro and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of New Mexico. His areas of expertise include bioarchaeology, physical anthropology, archaeology, evolutionary theory, anthropological approaches to mortuary and other ritual behavior, analytical data management and statistical analyses, and emergent social inequality and complexity. He is Co-Director of the 76 Draw Archaeological Project. He currently serves as President of the UNF Faculty Association and holds an adjunct faculty appointment with the Department of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico. He is Associate Editor for the Society for American Archaeology Press and Program Chair for the Society's 2013 Annual meetings. Before coming to UNF in 2003, he was Principal Investigator and Analytical Director for SWCA Environmental Consultants of Flagstaff, Arizona.
Asa R. Randall is currently Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Oklahoma. He earned his doctorate from the University of Florida in 2010. His research examines the histories and changing significance of shell mounds on the St. Johns River, Florida.
Bryan Tucker is the State Archaeologist and Archaeology Section Chief for Georgia. He received a Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Florida in 2009. Dr. Tucker specializes in the archaeological and bioarchaeological study of hunter-gatherer mobility during the Archaic period in the SE US.

Keith H. Ashley, Dept of Anthropology, UNF U.S. POSTAGE
Bldg 51, 1 UNF Drive PAID
Jacksonville, FL 32224-2659 TALLAHASSEE, FL
Volume 65 Number 4
December 2012
From the Editors 203
A Mammoth Engraving from Vero Beach, Florida: Ancient or Recent Barbara A. Purdy 205
A Mount Taylor Period Radiocarbon Assay from the Bluffton Burial Mound (8VO23) Asa Randall and Bryan Tucker 219
Aerospace Archaeology and the Study of Missle Crash Sites: An Example from the Jupiter Missle Crash Site (8BR2087), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Brevard County, Florida Thomas E. Penders 227
2012 Field School Summaries 243
Book Review 255
Sullivan and Mainfort (eds.) Mississippian Mortuary Practices. Beyond Hierarchy and the Representationalist Perspective. Gordon F.M. Rakita
ERRATUM: FAS 2012 Award
George M. Luer 257
About the Authors 260
Copyright 2012 by the
ISSN 0015-3893