THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Published by the FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. VOLUME 49, NUMBER 1 MARCH 1996
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published by the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc., P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, Floria362 Subscription is by membership in the Society. Membership is NOT restricted to residents of the State of Florida nor to teUie States of America. Membership is for the calendar year. Januga 1st through December 3 1 st. Membership may be initiatel o n current year by remitting dues for that year ON OR BEFORE SEPTEMBER 30TH of that year. Dues postmarked or hand-elvee on October 1st or later will be applied to membership in the following calendar year. Annual dues are as follows: indiviul$5 family $35, institutional $25, sustaining $35 or more, patron $100 or more, and life $500. Foreign subscriptions are an adtoa $5 U.S. to cover added postage and handling costs for individual, family, or institutional membership categories. Copisol h journal will only be sent to members with current paid dues. Back issues may be ordered from the Graves Museum of Arcaolg and Natural History, 481 5. Federal Highway, Dania, FL 33004.
Requests for information on the Society, membership application forms, and notifications of changes of address should besetoth Membership Secretary. Donations should be sent to the Treasurer or may be routed through the Editor to facilitate acknowldmn in subsequent issues of the journal (unless anonymity is requested). Submissions of manuscripts should be sent to thEdtr Publications for review should be submitted to the Book Review Editor. Authors please follow The Florida Anthropologist:sye ud (49[l],9 1996, pp. 37-43) in preparing manuscripts for submission to the journal and contact the Editor with specific questions ubi five (5) copies for use in peer review. Only one set of original graphics need be submitted. Address changes should bemaeA LEAST 30 DAYS prior to the mailing of the next issue. The post office will not forward bulk mail nor retain such malwe "temporary hold" orders exist. Such mail is returned to the Society postage due. The journal is published quarterly in MarhJue September, and December of each year.
OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
President: Jacquelyn Piper, P.O. Box 608, St. Petersburg, FL 33731 First Vice President: Loren R. Blakeley, 6505 Gulfport Blvd. S., St. Petersburg, FL 33707 Second Vice President: George M. Luer, 3222 Old Oak Drive, Sarasota, FL 34239-5019 Corresponding Secretary: Annette Snapp, P.O. Box 1982, Fort Myers, FL 33902-1982 Membership Secretary: Terry Simpson, P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, FL 33682 Treasurer and Registered Agent: Jack Thompson, 576 Retreat Drive, Apt. 202, Naples, FL 33963 Directors at Large: Nina T. Borremans, P.O. Box 5142, Gainesville, FL 32602 (One Year); Dot Moore, P.O. Box 54 e Smyrna Beach, FL 32170 (Two Years); Cynthia Cerrato, Rte. 13, Box 837A, Lake City, FL 32055 (Three Years). Newsletter Editor: Ryan J. Wheeler, 1508 N.W. 1st Lane, Apt. 2, Gainesville, FL 32603
JOURNAL EDITORIAL STAFF
Editor: Robert J. Austin, P.O. Box 919, St. Petersburg, FL 33731 Book Review Editor: Brent R. Weisman, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620810 Technical Editor: Jack Austin, 4545 Dartmouth Avenue N., St. Petersburg, FL 33713 Editorial Assistants: George M. Luer, 3222 Old Oak Drive, Sarasota, FL 34239; Pamela Vojnovski, P.O. Box 919, St. Persug FL 33731
Volume 49 Number 1 March 1996
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Editor's Page. Robert J. Austin ARTICLES
Key Marco Revisited. Arthur R. Lee Relocating Cushing's Key Marco. Quentin Quesnell Recent Excavations at the Key Marco Site, 8CR48, Collier County, Florida. Randolph J. Widmer 10
Whelk Shell Damage -- Two Alternative Views. Robert H. Gore 27
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society. Loren R. Blakeley 29
Smith: Rivers of Change: Essays on Early Agriculture in North America and Emergence of Agriculture. Donna L. Ruhi 33
Blanchard: Old Songs, New Words: Understanding the Lives of Ancient Peoples in Southwest Florida Through Archaeology. Arthur R. Lee 34
Editorial Policy and Style Guide for The Florida Anthropologist and Florida Anthropological Society Publications 37
About the Authors 46
Cover: Reflections by Elizabeth Neily
Copyright 1996 by the
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
You will notice a few changes to The Florida Anthropologist interesting illustration for every issue. But it alsowileae beginning with this issue. The format has been changed slightly readers to quickly locate specific issues by providingavsa to give a more professional appearance, but also to save space. clue to individual numbers within each volume.Abre A smaller type face will be used for references, acknowl- description of this issue's cover, and a short biographia sec edgments, and notes. Readers thumbing through an issue to of the artist, are included on the About the Authorspaetth search for a particular title hopefully will find the running back of the journal. headers useful. In an effort to encourage more submissions of Finally, I have included a Style Guide in this issuet ass short articles by nonprofessionals, I am making the NEWS AND authors preparing manuscripts for submission to the FAJ aeu NOTES section that debuted in the last issue a regular, reoccur- adherence to the style guide by authors will reduce teaon ring feature. In addition to news items, the section will contain of time required to edit manuscripts, and should acceeat h descriptive articles on recent finds and field projects, as well as review process. reports of current research. The CHAPTER SPOTLIGHT, a The FA has experienced several design changesoeth
popular feature that was inaugurated by Louis Tesar, will course of it history. I hope you will find these mostrentos continue as a place for each FAS chapter to highlight its to be a positive development. in the journal's evolutin accomplishments. The FA has published a spotlight on nearly all Turning now to the contents, the articles in this su r of the local chapters and we are now beginning to start around devoted to last summer's excavation at Key Marcowhcwa again. I encourage all of the chapters to begin thinking about directed by Randolph Widmer. The field crew was cmoe and preparing summaries of recent activities and to submit them entirely of volunteers, and the project is a fine exampeoih for publication in future issues of the journal. benefits that can be realized when professional archaooit
I have also added the position of Book Review Editor to the and avocationalists work together. In the lead article r e journal's Editorial Staff, and Brent Weisman has agreed to fill provides a brief introduction that explains how andwy h this position. The Book Review Editor will actively solicit project occurred. This is followed by Quentin Quesnels ae publications for review, select appropriate reviewers for specific that relates his successful effort to use historicalmpst books, receive review manuscripts, and coordinate with the relocate Cushing's excavations and relate these to feauen Editor. My goal in creating this position is to increase the landmarks on modern-day Marco Island. His deteciewr number of books that are reviewed in the FA as well as the enabled the 1995 excavations to be placed in the gorpi range of subject matter. context of the larger site with greater accuracy. Rnop
Another change is the cover. In 1980, during Bob Carr's Widmer provides a summary of the excavation and apeii editorship, the FA began publishing a different photograph or nary interpretation of the findings. Although much anayi tl illustration on the cover of every issue. Eventually, the covers needs to be accomplished, his thoughts regarding h, e came to be related to an article or theme specific to each issue. Marco site, and its place in the evolution of southwest lrd Prior to 1980, the journal cover contained the Florida Anthropo- chiefdoms are certain to engender much thought,dicson
KEY MARCO REVISITED
ARnUR R. LEE
1250 9th Ave. North, Naples, Florida 33940
A century ago, artifacts fashioned of wood and other organic years before (Widmer 1974). He was quick to appreciate the matter, as well as shell, bone, and stone, were taken from the immediacy of the situation and, following an on-site inspection, muck of a Key Marco bay front by Frank Hamilton Cushing of agreed to devote his summer to the salvage work. The owner
the Smithsonian Institution. They were presented to a world posed no objection, the Marco Chapter of the Collier County unprepared for their artistic refinement, or their evidence of a Historical Society and SWFAS promised logistical help, and the sophisticated prehistoric society (Cushing 1896). result was a better look at the people who produced the
Remarkably, this famous site has been little investigated since marvelous artifacts found so long ago. then. It received mention in surveys of Marco Island's archaeo- Placing the new dig site in relation to the Cushing excavation logical holdings by Randolph J. Widmer, Wilburn A. Cockrell, and to the Van Beck's explorations was important to the entire and others. Marion Spjut Gilliland, in her books, The Material venture. Although Wells M. Sawyer of the Pepper-Hearst Culture of Key Marco, Florida (1975) and Key Marco's Buried expedition had made a contour map of the high ground east of Treasure (1989), kept Cushing's finds alive by providing the artifact-yielding muck, relating it exactly on modem maps
accessible information about them. But the site of the communi- was not simple. The Colliers, father W.T. and son W.D., on ty that had produced the artifacts received scant archaeological whose land the original finds were made, had laid out a plot of attention. The sole exception was the work of avocational the town of Marco. In 1928 the area was replatted as part of
archaeologists John C. and Linda M. Van Beck (now of "Collier City" and in 1964 most the area was replatted again as
Tallahassee, then living in Naples), who, in 1963, sank three "Old Marco Village." test pits in the western part of a 4.5 m (15 ft) mound, the Correlating all of these maps was a task Dr. Quesnell assigned
eastern half or more of which had been bulldozed for road fill. himself. The detective story of his efforts, Dr. Wider's Their findings, and an accompanying report of a faunal analysis account of a highly successful, completely volunteer expedition, by Elizabeth Wing, were published in The Florida Anthropolo- and a preliminary account of his findings are contained in the gist (Van Beck and Van Beck 1965; Wing 1965). following pages.
As time passed, the area was built up and the remaining upper Timing of this publication is a happy one. Cushing made his portion of the mound tested by the Van Becks was reduced to exploratory trip to Key Marco in late 1895, and his Pepperits present height, some 2 m (ca. 7 ft) above sea level. But a Hearst expedition followed in the first part of 1896. Thus, this sizeable tract of land, about 4000 m2 (1 acre) in size, was left report marks the 100th anniversary of Cushing's famous untouched. In April, 1995, Dr. Quentin Quesnell of Smith excavation.
College (a Marco Island resident who has made the history of
the island a hobby) learned that this lot was to be the site of an References Cited
apartment building. Fearing destruction of what he knew was
likely to be an important archaeological site, Dr. Quesnell Cushing, Frank Hamilton sounded an alarm which reached me as Chairman of the Collier 1896 Exploration of Ancient Key Dwellers' Remains on the Gulf Coast of County Archaeological and Historical Preservation Board. Florida. Proceeding ofthe American Philosophical Society 35:329-448.
Invstgatonshowed that the land is now owned by Andreas Gilliland, Marion Spjut
Inesgticeon ac n abrGray rKltce 1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco, Florida. University Presses of
Ketcer fMac n HmugGray.M.Ketce Florida, Gainesville.
was advised by the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy 1989 Key Marco's Buried Treasure. Archaeology and Adventure in the of Miami that construction and excavation should be monitored, Nineteenth Century. University of Florida Press, Gainesville.
and that ameliorative salvage excavations be carried out as Van Beck, John C., and Linda M. Van Beck
indiate. Hwevr, rragin fo a roaer nvetigtio ofthe 1965 The Marco Midden, Marco Island, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 18:1-20.
site before construction (a course of action urgently sought by Widmer, Randolph J. the Marco Chapter of the Collier County Historical Society and 1974 A Survey and Assessment of Archaeological Resources of Marco Island, the Southwest Florida Archaeological Society [SWFASJ) Collier County, Florida. Miscellaneous Project Report Series Number
presented problems. No one came forward with the money for 19, Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties, Division of Archives,
History and Records Management, Tallahassee.
a professional investigation. SWFAS offered to help, but it was 1988 The Evolution of the Calusa: A Nonagricultural Chiefdom on the limited to weekend digs. Time was passing. Southwest Coast of Florida. University of Alabama Press. Tuscaloosa.
At this point I telephoned Randolph J. Widmer at the Univer- Wing, Elizabeth sity of Houston (author of The Evolution of the Calusa [Widmer 1965 Animal Bones Associated with Two Indian Sites on Marco Island 1988]) who had done an archaeological survey of Marco Island Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 18:21-28.
VOL. 49 NO. 1 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST MARCH 1996
RELOCATING CUSHING'S KEY MARCO
The Roe/Straut Professor in Humanities, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts 01063
As is so often the case in archaeological research, the site was ft) long from south to north. first given, then chosen. In late March, 1995, a new billboard Since, according to Cushing, the whole of Key Marowsa announced the imminent construction of a large apartment artificial shell island, built up by hand from the sea bdoe building on an empty lot in the middle of the area famed in long period by a large community, it is clear thatthwhl archaeology since 1896 as Frank Hamilton Cushing's Key northern half of "Old Marco" is archaeologically sigifcnad
Marco. That empty lot was one of a very few remaining in that sensitive. Almost certainly, there would be much to b ere general area. The time was now or never for those who wanted from careful excavation anywhere within it. But thispriua Cushing's work to be continued, as he had hoped it would property had some especially interesting aspects ofison (Cushing 1896:360). Consequently, arrangements were made to First of all, it is adjacent to the area investigated byteIa have Randolph Widmer supervise a salvage excavation of this Becks in the early 1960s. From the text of their 1961 rpot important site using volunteers. This paper presents the results the aerial photograph included in that report (Van BecanVn of my attempt to relate the 1995 excavation area geographically Beck 1965:1-3), and the testimony of observers and patciat to the 1896 excavations of Cushing. in their dig, it can be established that the two 5 ft x5ftpoe
made by the Van Becks were 9.5 mi (31 ft) wes( f"h
The Site highway" (today's Bald Eagle Drive), and 48.8 m 10ftin
50.3 m (165 ft) south of the southwest corner of Bl al
There is no doubt that Cushing's Key Marco was a part of the Drive and Palm Street (Figure 3). They dug intothsieo holdings which W. T. Collier, in 1882, had subdivided with his what was left of a mound or mounds that once xene son, W. D. Collier, and on which he had, in 1888, laid out the considerably farther east, but which had mostly beenrmoe first plot of the town of Marco. The original discoveries which to clear a path for the highway in the 1920s. Thenrhn brought Cushing to investigate were made by W. D. Collier in boundary of the property where the new condominiumweet the spring of 1895 in a muck bed about 180 m (600 ft) south of be built lies 37 m (120 ft) south of the southernmostedeoth his house and garden. At that time the Key was already Van Becks' two adjacent squares.
gradually being linked by man and nature to a larger landmass This gave the property in question another specialatrcin to the south which Cushing (1896:349) called "Caximbas It was even closer to Cushing's "Court of the PileDwles
Island." Since the 1920s the linkup has become complete, so than the Van Beck site had been. Cushing's notesanth that today Collier's original holdings (Lots 5 and 7, Section 5, Wells Sawyer map, make it clear that Cushing's excavtoza Township 52 South, Range 26 East) constitute a peninsula on at the southwest corner of Key Marco. The northeast onro the northern end of what is known as "Marco Island" (Figure his "Court of the Pile Dwellers" was only about 107 m(5 t 1). That peninsula goes by the name of "Old Marco," with its from the southwest corner of the property on whichte e southern boundary at "Old Marco Lane. The topographic map apartments were supposed to rise. prepared for the Cushing expedition by Wells Sawyer in early Cockrell (1970:3 1) points out a curious error in h a
QUESNELL CUSHING'S KEY MARCO 5
"Old Marco village MARCO ISLAND
F~0g A (E
0 3000 mft. ,LAo"
Figure 1. Map of Marco Island. Shaded area locates the original holdings of W. T. Collier (Lots 5 and 7, Section
5, Township 52 South, Range 26 East) today known as "Old Marco" or "Old Marco Village."
the road. Bicycling by, I was attracted by the unusual sight and undetermined breadth (see article by Widmer, this issue). This stopped to investigate. Looking into the trench, I saw that, even lay in the southeastern quarter of the property, directly across after the removals by the workmen, the western (roadside) from the sighting of 1992, and is quite possibly part of the same profile of the trench contained an apparently intact wall of construction. closely fitted, large Busycons deliberately arranged. The top of
the visible shell wall lay about 46 cm (18 in) below the surface. Problems of Orientation
The wall extended to the bottom of the excavated trench and
beyond. Its base could not be seen. To determine precisely the location of previous work is not
The point along the road where this wall of giant shells easy. Gushing's Key Marco is portrayed in Sawyer's topographappeared was directly across from a point 6 m (20 ft) north of ic map which Gushing included in his printed report (Gushing the building lot's southern boundary. From there, the presumed 1896:Plate XXX), but it is presented with an apology: "The wall continued northward along the road for a distance of about contour lines.. .necessarily have to be reproduced here in one 6 m. There it abruptly stopped. Questioning of the workmen, color. Therefore, the significant differences between elevations and later inquiries at other places where this cable-laying job and depressions above and below the mean or high tide level are was going on, revealed no other similar discoveries that season. not clearly apparent" (Gushing 1896:421). The 6 m stretch along which those workmen found the According to Gilliland (1989:28), the original colored map has
Busycon wall coincided with the area where Gushing had seen, so deteriorated that today it is less clear than the single-color and Sawyer sketched, what they called "the central elevation of printed version for which Gushing felt he had to apologize. the place" (Gushing 1896:350). That seemed to suggest that the Moreover, shifting sands and busy bulldozers have changed the shell wall may have been part of the underpinnings or founda- face of the area portrayed in the map. Modern buildings, roads, tion of a temple mound that had once stood there. When and canals have extended it in places and have cut through it in
Randolph Widmer came in the summer of 1995 to excavate the others. While the peninsula described above goes by the name property, he found, 46 cm below the surface, not a wall but an of "Old Marco," sometimes even "Olde Marco," the historically entire great platform of Busycons about 1.2 mn (4 ft) high and of significant name, "Key Marco," has been appropriated by a
6 THE FLORIDA ANTMOPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
'] il! '7 -' -- -.#/,J
: (.. _.
,. .:_:-- ... '-. .
-', '. m -, ,.
Figure 2. Wells Sawyer's topographic map of Key Marco made at the time of Cushing's excavation (from Cushing 1896:Plate xxx).
modern real estate development to the south of Marco Island. Cockrell noted that John Goggin and William Sears both This is an area which archaeological records have always referred to the entire big island as "Key Marco." Unfortunately,
referred to as "Horr's Island." the map which is Figure 1 in Marion Gilliland's otherwise
Cockrell (1970) pleaded in favor of restricting the name, "Key helpful book (Gilliland 1989:8) follows the usage of Goggin and Marco," to the area of the original Indian shell island on which Sears. This confronts the reader with a puzzling allusion to "the Cushing worked, suggesting that archaeologists follow contem- six thousand acres of Key Marco," followed immediately by a porary cartographers in using the name "Marco Island" for the quote from Cushing saying it was "about fifty acres in all" great 65 km2 island of which Key Marco is now a tiny part. (Gilliland 1989:7). Clarence Moore used the terms in this way in 1900. But A further complication for someone trying to find the key
QUESNELL CUSHING'S KEY MARCO 7
---W SMEE- ] Site of Van Beck
F .wa 1 Widmer 1995
: - P Scale
U4 0 360 ft
. I, _0 100 m
Figure 3. Map showing the locations of the Van Becks' 1963 excavation and Widmer's 1995 excavation in relation to the main streets and canals of Old Marco Village (from a
location for the first time comes from the placement of the stone In 1910, W. D. Collier transferred a sizable portion of that tablet inscribed, "Site of the 1896 Cushing expedition." This northeast corner to a man named Doxsee for a clam-canning tablet is located at the edge of the principal highway (Bald Eagle operation. The deed describes the Doxsee grant in relation to Drive) leading to and through Old Marco. But the highway and various concrete blocks, two of them on the water's edge and the tablet are in the eastern third of today's peninsula, corre- one of them at the southwest corer, "1012 feet due east of the sponding to the eastern third of Cushing's Key Marco. The northeast corner of the Collier's concrete general store." The Sawyer map and Cushing's text explicitly locate "The Court of Doxsee donation remains identifiable on all subsequent maps. the Pile Dwellers" on the extreme western edge of the key. From it, the situations of Palm Street and of Tampa Avenue can be precisely determined in relation to the Wells Sawyer map.
Pattern of a Solution In 1926, the entire original Collier holdings (Lots 5 and 7,
Section 5, Township 52 South, Range 26 East, Collier County,
If one simply took a modern map of Marco Island and a Florida) were replotted as a part of "Collier City." Underneath
contemporary tax collector's plot of Old Marco and tried to the straight lines of projected new roads and over five hundred compare these directly with Wells Sawyer's map, identification small residential lots, this plot carefully traces the eastern, of details might seem impossible. But, in fact, there are many northern, and western shorelines of the undeveloped island. intermediate documents which can help. From before Cushing's When one superimposes this 1926 plotting on Wells Sawyer's visit, there is the 1876 U. S. government survey plat map and map at a comparable scale (Figure 4), one can easily match the W. T. Collier's 1888 plotting of the northeastern quarter of Key eastern and northern shorelines to his, and then see how the Marco as the "town of Marco." At the time of Cushing's visit, western shoreline curves inward (eastward) at the very place that entire quarter belonged to George Cuthbert (mentioned as Sawyer's map puts the Indian shell wall, which "at that time "Captaln Cuthbert" by Cushing [1896:350]). It came back to connected Key Marco to Caximbas to the South" (Cushing Collier when Cuthbert sold it in 1900. 1896:349).
8 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
GOLLIER GIT Y
. COLLIER COUNTY, F LA. 0 300 ft
a a 14 tooo *
4gl o a t o F 3
mt 6 e a (e
7 o,* 2 .60
o boa /JO
ft j 5
Avenue"onte plot 1926ulat cross Chi'eiy" Maroing mos In 1970 orl shomlined thfa Key Marco,pr 60
12: -5 0
maoecndtemnxcl whr hehgwa "e
Avenue"onte plot wou6ldt cro Ci'eiy" Maroing aos In 1970 orl homlined thfa Key Marco,pr
northerly direction, and where Palm Street would cross it in a westerly one. A replotting of everything west of the highway A huge, significant complex, both in total area and depth, has been took place in 1964 to produce "Old Marco Village." But Palm apparently too hastily assigned to a period solely on the basis of a
Street and the highway (now called "Bald Eagle Drive") remain, 90' X 90' muck pond "excavation" by Cushing, and on the results and from them all else can be identified and placed. of a less than 50 square feet of excavation by the Van Becks in an
QUESNELL CusHING'S KEY MARco9
obviously late area in, or adjacent to, the temple mound. It is felt that the site has not been, to say the least, adequately explored
temporally [Cockrell 1970:32-33].
Widmer, too, lamented the inadequacy of the small-scale approach by the Van Becks, even after Elizabeth Wing's minute analysis of the faunal samples. He implied a desire to see something more significant attempted. "... A sample of two stratigraphic tests is not quantitatively sufficient to evaluate the areal distribution of these components... .The problem still remains that the stratigraphic or occupational history of the site is not sufficiently understood from the samples" (Widmer 1988:92). The judgment of Marion Gilliland summed up a general consensus. "Due to extensive development of the area since then (1896), no future work is likely to be possible" (Gilliland 1989:6).
The 1995 excavations have proven this negative assessment to be premature. Despite modem development, portions of this magnificent site still remain to be investigated.
Cockrell, Wilburn A.
1970 Glades Iland Pre- Glades Settlement and Subsistence Patterns on Marco Island (Collier County, Florida). M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee. Cushing, Frank Hamilton
1896 Exploration of Ancient Key Dwellers' Remains on the Gulf Coast of Florida. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 35:329448.
Gilliland, Marion Spjut
1989 The Material Culture of Key Marco, Florida. Paperback edition.
Florida Classics Library, Port Salerno, FL. Van Beck, John C., and Linda M. Van Beck 1965 The Marco Midden, Marco Island, Florida. Thie Florida Anthropologist 18:1-20.
Widmer, Randolph J.
1988 Thze Evolution of the Calusa. A Nonagricultural Chiefdom on the Southwest Coast of Florida. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT THE KEY MARCO SITE,, 8CR48,, COLLIER COUNTY,, FLORIDA
RANDOLPH J. WIDMER
Department of Anthropology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-5882
In early May, 1995, I received a phone message from Art the property. The latter was essential because the cloepxiLee, Chair of the Collier County Historic Preservation Board, ty of Bald Eagle Drive, a high traffic, pedestriananveil indicating that a property on the location of the Marco Midden thoroughfare, would make our anticipated deep excvtoso site on Marco Island was slated for immediate development and over two meters a potential safety hazard. Jim Caretea asking if I would be interested in overseeing a volunteer effort appointed logistic officer for implementing these requssIas to excavate on this property prior to development. I returned asked to have some 6.4 mm (1 /4 in) screens bt foou Art's call and said that I would be very much interested in this excavation and Bill Tyson, a MIHS member, agredtiul involvement. Fortunately, I had already planned a visit to Fort them. We required some storage space on site for scrn u Lauderdale during the last two weeks of May. I told Art that I field tools and buckets, and this need was graciouslymtb]h would stop on the way down and we could make arrangements Marco Island Boy Scout Troop 234, which loanedusteseo to implement the salvage excavation, their trailer. The MIllS also arranged to securehosnfr
I arrived in Naples on Monday, the 22nd of May. The myself and my student assistants.
following day I visited the site with Art Lee and members of the A contour map of the property, together with a gi ytm Marco Island chapter of the Collier County Historical Society was requested from SWFAS so that we could bgnwr (MIHS). The development site was about 4000 m' (1 acre) in immediately upon my arrival. Elevations and a gridsytmwr extent and was clearly on the Key Marco site. The property had shot in with a transit by a SWFAS team comprise ofJh 60 m of frontage on Bald Eagle Drive and extended west Beriault, Art and Lynn Lee, JoAnn Grey, and Valeielngn
approximately 65 m to a canal that was dredged through the site A contour map (Figure 2) was prepared by John Bral n in the mid-1960s. The property consisted of Lots 3, 4, and 5 of was ready upon my arrival.- The map was mad rirt Block 3 of the Marco Island plat. The area was relatively level obtaining the benchmark elevation of 2.38 m.Intan and appeared to be at least 2 m above the water level in the assumed elevation of 2.70 m was used for the site dtm h canal (Figures 1 and 2). The property was clear of all brush and map contours have since been adjusted by .30 m torfecIh arboreal vegetation; only a ground cover of St. Augustine and 2.38 m datum resulting in the contours in Figure 2ben.0m Johnson grass was present. A swimming pool which had been above the true elevations. filled in was noted in the northwest region of the site, and some Because -this would be a volunteer project that wolm eyt pieces and small slabs of concrete were observed on the site a large extent on untrained personnel, certain procdre(o surface. Having inspected the site, I met with Art, MIHS typically associated with archaeological projects werunetPresident Betsy Perdichizzi, and other members of MIHS to en. Announcement of the excavation was provided t h ei organize the upcoming excavation. We set a target date of June (these and subsequent press releases were handled(yMro
Figure 1. Aerial photograph of the excavation area on the Key Marco site, 8CR48, Marco Island, Collier County, Florida. The view is looking south. The top of the photo is the approximate original southern boundary of the Key Marco site. The Van Beck's excavation was in the bottom left corner of the photo under the apartment complex opposite the end of the canal.
12 THE FLORDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
KEY MARCO SITE
' o oVertical Benchmark
o 2.38m NOVD
0' 070 20 3
contour Interval 1cm
Scale in Meters
Figure 2. Contour map of the excavation area and site grid system.
mation regarding the Cushing excavation of 1896, the signifi- seasoned regulars. Excavation continued six days a week, with cance of the Key Marco cat, SWFAS and MIHS newsletters, Mondays our day off, from June 10 through August 13, rain
and tee shirts were made available to visitors. Some of these permitting. The work day began at 7:00 AM and ended at 2:30 were free while the tee shirts and some of the information PM. These hours were chosen to mitigate the difficulties ol pamphlets were sold. The profits were used to purchase supplies excavation in southwest Florida during the summer season with for the project and the rest went into the Key Marco Cat Fund its intense afternoon heat and typical convectional showers. (MIHS was in the midst of a campaign to have a feline figurine
unearthed by the 1896 Cushing expedition exhibited in Collier Project Goals
County [see Lee 1995]).
I contacted as many anthropology students at the University of Although this was an emergency salvage excavation utilizing Houston as possible to solicit as crew chiefs and assistants, a only volunteers, the purpose of the excavation was exclusively difficult task since classes were over for the summer and many problem-oriented archaeology. Our goals were not motivated students had made other plans. Four students, two graduate and purely by cultural-historical concerns, which had already beer two undergraduate, participated as crew chiefs over various time well established for this site (Cockrell 1970; Gilliland 1975; spans during the excavation. The initial group of students Van Beck and Van Beck 1965; Widmer 1974, 1988). Instead, arrived on June 14 and consisted of Tom Pickering, Ed our concern was to go beyond these already established basc
Thompson, and Marcos Harvey. Ed and Marcos departed line data and obtain information relating to community layout
during July, and we were joined by George Garcia-Herreros on and household behavior. These concerns have been all bul July 14. Rebecca Storey acted as field assistant and arrived on ignored by archaeologists working in south Florida where therc June 17. SWFAS members Don Taggart, Bud and Shirley is a continued emphasis on the test pitting of sites for inductivc
House, and Mitchell Hope formed the core of our seasoned, cultural-historical data instead of a concern for more extensivc experienced field crew with many local volunteers becoming areal excavation to obtain data appropriate for more full)
WIMER EXCAVATIONS AT KEY MARtCO1
reconstructing past lifeways. There are notable exceptions to 3). Unfortunately, these artifacts were not spatially coread this "telephone booth" excavation strategy (as Flannery [1976:3] with dwelling or living surfaces since "... the variousatfat has referred to deep test pits dug in arbitrary levels) at sites in we found in the muck, occurred at unequal depths andial southwest Florida. These include my work at the Solana site sorts of positions and relations" (Cushing 1896:360). Cuhn (Widmer 1986), Morrell's (1969) work at Caxambas on Marco goes on to note that artifacts were haphazardly depositdio Island, and Russo's (1991, 1992) work on Horr's Island. the muck pond by some storm (Cushing 1896:361). ThuI h However, archaeologists are not necessarily to blame for this muck pond in which he found the artifacts, and whichwath situation. Instead, it is the imposing nature of these large shell- exclusive location of his investigation, was not the oiia bearing sites which poses incredible logistical problems for location of the artifacts. Although Cushing did interprt h excavation. Unfortunately, Clarence B. Moore's (1919:401) bench-like shell ridges extending into the central water corta statement that "... our own experience and that of others has bases for piers and/or pile structures, and also found andee convinced us that in the shell-heaps of the southwest Florida mapped a few wooden piles and beams in the muckpn coast, which extend southward from above Cedar Key, practi- (Cushing 1896:442, Plate XXXI), no attempt was maet cally nothing of interest has been found that can compensate one further delineate the character of these structural elemens o for the heavy outlay of time and money needed for their to associate the artifacts he found with them. demolition, still pertains today in the minds of many archaeolo- Not only is there a poor understanding of the behaviorl n gists and granting agencies. However, if one wants to under- spatial context of the Cushing artifact collection, but teei stand more than chronology and subsistence patterns, extensive also a problem with the chronological context of these matras areal excavations rather than telephone booths are required. For Gilliland (1975:257-258) has presented a number of radiocro example, we still have no idea what a Glades period house plan looks like. Our goal was to uncover examples of such a house. .II
After all, I have classified this site as a permanent village with an estimated population of 400 people (Widmer 1988:256), s0 there should be evidence of residences at such a settlement. With these lacunae in mind we wanted to gain an understanding of the community layout at a site of this type. We wanted to know the shape of the houses, whether they were constructed V-A ti:5> on stilt platforms or were instead built on wooden pilings K
constructed on elevated shell platforms as suggested by Cushing '
(1896:357-358) in his characterization of this site as the "Court J
of the Pile Dwellers. Although Cushing indicated that he had t
found evidence for this settlement configuration, he did not provide plan maps or dimensions for these houses or even theirU t pilings. Our goal was to test the validity of Cushing's interpre- ..... 1 tation or see if the pattern suggested in his excavations held true for other areas of the site. VA
We also wanted to understand other behavioral aspects of the Cushing'sA households at this site. Previous research in southwest Florida Cortfth has provided important information on what prehistoric inhabi- Ecvto
14 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
dates on wooden material from the Cushing collection. These nent. This, of course, assumes a lack of radiocarbon assessdates range from 5 B.C. to A.D. 900. This is considerably ments. But this is more usually the case with surface collecolder than the original chronological assessment based on tions.
Mississippian stylistic similarities which would suggest a post- One of the problems with traditional "telephone booth" A.D. 1200 date. Adding to this confusion is the possibility of excavation strategies is that it is difficult to characterize the contamination of the samples because they were treated with stratification in behavioral terms because there is so little area pesticides (Milanich 1978). Therefore, our research focused on exposed. Consequently, the behavioral significance of the strata providing a better context -- behavioral, spatial, and chrono- is ambiguous, difficult to determine, or unknown. Also, it is logical -- for this collection. While our excavations might not difficult if not impossible to relate the exposed strata in one unit resolve directly these chronological and behavioral ambiguities, with those in other units. What results is ambiguous information it would provide more information for assessing the context of regarding the formation processes responsible for site deposition the collection. (Schiffer 1987). It becomes difficult to determine if the strata
While these were our primary objectives, we also were are living surfaces, middens, fill, or something else. Instead,
concerned with addressing established research goals in south- they can only be described with respect to the physical composiwest Florida (Griffin 1988; Marquardt 1992a; Widmer 1988) tion of their matrices (i.e., Marquardt 1992b). Because our
including paleoenvironmental reconstruction and its change excavations were planned to be extensive and were designed to through time, subsistence patterning, the refinement of ceramic uncover living surfaces, we felt we would be able to characsequences, and fine-grained phasing of deposits. The ceramic terize adequately the cultural and natural characteristics of our sequence for the Circum-Glades area is well established due to deposits. This would provide other researchers in the area with the existence of higher frequencies of temporally sensitive behavioral correlates for interpreting the deposits encountered ceramic designs. However, since we would be obtaining in their limited test pits.
substantial quantities of ceramics from stratigraphically con- I would not make such an issue of these concerns if it were trolled proveniences covering an extensive area, we believed it not for the fact that, except in the few instances mentioned would be possible to further refine the ceramic sequence for the above, all of our excavation data in southwest Florida are Ten Thousand Island area. Furthermore, we have subsistence derived from "telephone booths," and so these shortcomings data from the site, although not fine-grained (Wing 1965), and need to be addressed and rectified. Our interest, therefore, was from southwest Florida in general (Griffin 1988; Russo 1991; to go beyond cultural-historical concerns and subsistence Walker 1992; Widmer 1988). We were, as mentioned previous- information generated from telephone booths. We wanted to ly, interested in food preparation and consumption behavior raise the level of research to address settlement configuration associated with houses, so subsistence differences among and household behavior, to include gender roles, task specializaresidences were of importance, particularly since only at the tion, and residential layout, community layout and patterning, Solana site (Widmer 1986) has intrasite subsistence variation and social organization. These larger issues can only be across space been addressed. Our goal here was to expand that addressed by the excavation of extensive areas of settlements, investigation to a large village site. To that end sufficient fine- and so it was necessary to develop an excavation strategy to grained subsistence data would be collected which would accomplish these goals.
provide for a lifetime of analysis. We also planned to obtain
radiocarbon samples from all o'f our proveniences so that our Excavation Strategy
limitations in dating the deposits would be solely a matter of
funding. My considerable experience in the extensive excavation of
Another of the goals we wished to accomplish was to provide shell-bearing sites on the Florida Gulf coast has resulted in a some kind of index or measure for determining a Glades I Early number of considerations for obtaining the data necessary to component. This can be quite~ difficult for sites with small address the research questions posed above. Paramount among ceramic assemblages because typically the decorations are these is the complex depositional and stratigraphic nature of site restricted to the rim portions of the vessels.. Furthermore, deposition. These sites are typically composed of a number of undecorated vessels were used in conjunction with decorated overlapping lenses of natural and cultural deposits which have vessels in Glades I Late and subsequent periods. Because we different physical matrices. These lenses are relatively small in have collected an enormous amount of sherds from the site, it area and can vary in thickness. Differences among these will be possible to determine the ratio of decorated to undeco- discrete strata may be very subtle, consisting perhaps of a rated sherds for each period. This will be performed for rim change in molluscan species composition or in the percentage of and body sherds by mean arc length, weight, and simple count. shell to sand. While these differences can be vertically conThis will allow a ratio of decorated to undecorated sherds for trolled with limited-area test pits, they can in no way be the decorated-period components. Thus, we hope to provide a understood with respect to spatial distribution by the use of quantitative threshold for determining the existence of a pure scattered test pits. In other words, the stratification found in test Glades I Early component. For example, if the ratio is 500 pits cannot be extrapolated to other areas of the site. The default undecorated sherds for every one decorated sherd in Glades I assumption that must be followed is that no two excavation units Late, then an assemblage of at least 500 sherds is necessary to will have the same stratification. This was the assumption which determine if one is dealing with a pure Glades I Early compo- guided my stratigraphic control at the Key Marco site. In
WIDMER EXCAVATIONS AT KEY MARCO 15
practical terms it meant that no excavation unit should be isolated from another. It also meant that the excavation would have to be controlled by natural and cultural levels rather than arbitrary levels. The ultimate goal would be the isolation, and stratigraphic and spatial control, of a series of discrete stratigraphic units following the principles set out by Harris (1986). To accomplish this, excavation units would measure 2 x 2 m and would always be contiguous; in other words, every unit would be adjacent to another unit. In addition, 50-60 cm balks would separate the units with 25-30 cm belonging to each unit, thus forming a waffle-like excavation (Figures 4 and 5). The use of balks served three purposes. First, it provided physical security for the walls of the excavation. This is extremely important in loose sediments like sand, and particularly in deposits consisting of loose shell. Sec- Figure 4. View of the block excavation south the backhoe trench. Lynn Lee is ond, it allowed for better tracking and standing by the trench, Rebecca Storey and W-ilde Nickle are standing in the pit recording of the strata since it was in the foreground, Dolph Widmer is in the background with the shovel, and
possible to observe directly the strata in Tom Pickering is seated taking notes by the pile of Busycon shells. one unit prior to excavation of another since the profile was still present. Finally, it allowed a more precise reconstruction of the stratification since profiles could be taken of all four walls of every excavation unit with some of the profiles only 50-60 cm apart. Stratigraphic control consists of the excavation of units by natural or culturally distinct strata. All strata are initially identified by the physical composition and the characteristics of their matrices. Each distinct stratum is referred to as a Zone and is given a Roman numeral and a description. Zones are then subdivided into arbitrary 10 cm Levels. Excavation proceeds by these arbitrary levels until a new stratum is encountered, at which point a new zone designation is assigned. Each 2 x 2 m excavation unit would then have a series of Zone and Level designations. For example, Zone I, Level 1 would be the first 10 cm within the particular matrix characterizing that zone. If the underlying new stratum or zone is sloping, it is exposed by excavating the overlying stratum Figure 5. Photo illustrating the balks between each 2 x 2 m unit as well as the
separately from the new stratum. sampling columns in the southwest corner of each unit. Don Taggart is working
We used this method of excavating in square N26E50. View is to the south.
16 THE FLoRIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
because we were concerned with capturing each stratum as a would be screened through 6.4 mm hardware cloth to remove discrete unit within a particular horizontal provenience. This the artifacts. meant that we often followed a sloping stratum instead of In addition to these stratigraphic and spatial controls, we also
excavating with strict horizontal slices that could potentially utilized Feature designations for those discrete stratigraphic contain sediments from two different strata. Thus, many of our units that were smaller than our zones. In reality there is no real stratigraphic units did not have the same area as the excavation difference between a zone and a feature. Practically, features unit, nor did they necessarily have flat bottoms. It also meant were those discrete stratigraphic units that had areas smaller that the last level in a zone was sometimes less than 10 cm than the original excavation unit they were found in, although thick. It was often the case that the bottom of a zone was they might be found in more than one unit. We also had another undulating and irregular, or sloping, and it was excavated to category of feature which were Post Molds. These were expose this surface. This took some retraining of many of our distinguished separately from other types of features. Each of experienced personnel who were used to making sure that the the proveniences, including strata within 2 x 2 m unit features, bottoms of their units were flat and level. and post molds, were assigned sequential numbers based on
Because our stratigraphic units were not necessarily level, it their order of discovery. was necessary to control more precisely their exact vertical Post molds were mapped in situ and sectioned to obtain their locations. This was accomplished by taking the elevations of depths and profiles. Elevations were taken of their tops and each comer, and the center of the top and bottom, of each bottoms, and a 150 cc soil sample was recovered from each stratigraphic unit with a transit from a benchmark of known post mold so that the matrix could be physically characterized. elevation. This benchmark was in the centerline of Bald Eagle Features were also mapped in situ and elevations were taken at Drive along the southern property boundary and had an their surfaces and bottoms so that their vertical shapes could be
elevation of 2.38 m above the National Geodetic Vertical determined. We also sifted the remaining matrix, if any, Distance (NGVD). All elevations were taken as absolute through 6.4 mm mesh hardware cloth to recover artifacts. If
readings relative to this benchmark. These would then be there was not a sufficient quantity of sediment matrix to obtain converted to Mean High Water values, since the two are not the all of the samples, the 150 cc soil sample had priority, followed same. Thus, we have absolute elevations on the tops and by the flotation sample, and finally the fine-screen sample.
bottoms of all of our proveniences.
The goal of the horizontal excavation strategy was to characterize carefully the actual physical sedimentary matrix that made Excavation Results
up each zone, and to keep each zone (stratum) separate as a
provenience from those above and below. This would then Initially a backhoe trench was excavated from El5 to E60
result in our profiles matching the excavated proveniences so along the N30.50 line (see Figures 3 and 6). The backhoe had that what was observed in the profiles could then be accurately a bucket width of only 50 cm. It was not possible to measure matched to the excavated samples. In other words, we wanted precisely the strata in the backhoe trench because it was so our artifacts to be directly assignable to the discrete strata that narrow. However, elevations were taken of the various strata they came from originally, the same ones that were mapped in that were encountered by extending a stadia rod down from a our profiles. This is a dramatic departure from previous level line of known elevation. Although the elevations are true, excavation procedures conducted by other researchers in the position of the stadia rod with respect to the strata being
southwest Florida (cf. Marquardt 1992b:9). measured is only an approximation because placement of the
The 2 x 2 m units were selected from within the grid system stadia rod had to be done from the ground surface. The established over the site by SWFAS members. The grid had its elevation of the ground surface at the E16 line was 2.10 m and point of origin approximately 10 m southwest of the site it rose to an elevation of 2.45 m at the E60 line. property in the canal (see Figure 2). A Cartesian coordinate We were careful to keep our trench to the east of the seawall system emanating north and east from this starting point was and west of the street so that we would not undermine the established with the southwest corner of each unit being the grid seawall or interfere with utilities. As a result, the backhoe reference unit. This meant that only two coordinate references trench did not bisect the entire distance of the property. We felt, were possible for each square -- North and East. We felt that however, that the information we obtained in this backhoe cut this would minimize possible confusion and error inherent in a was sufficient for the time we had to excavate so we did not put four quadrant system. In addition, a 50 x 50 cm sampling in any more backhoe trenches. column was left in the southwest corner of each 2 x 2 m unit. The information obtained in this cut determined where we This sampling column was used for taking 150 cc soil samples placed the block excavations. The backhoe trench revealed two for technical characterization of the matrix sediments. The distinct depositional areas. The strata from the El5 line to sampling columns also provided 12 liters of sediment matrix approximately the E35 line consisted of dark gray sand interfrom each stratum for further analysis. Eight liters of this soil mixed with marine shell. From the El5 to the E20 line there would be floated and wet-screened through 1 mm mesh hard- was also a stratum of dense mixed shell buried approximately ware cloth, and the remaining four liters would be fine- .8 m below the surface. This deposit sloped upward to the west. screened through .5 mm mesh. The sediments from the remain- This shell mound is referred to as Mound B. Below this, where ing portion of each stratum in the 2 x 2 m excavation units water was encountered, was a white sand layer at an elevation
WIDMER EXCAVATIONS AT KEY MARCO 17
0 10 20
SCALE IN METERS
Figure 6. Plan map of the excavation showing the backhoe trench and the location of excavation units.
of .57 cm NGVD superimposed over a thin layer of orange- 1.07 m and the thickness of the deposit was 52 cm. stained sun ray venus clams (Macrocallista nimbosa) which The stratification in the backhoe trench was very different to varied from approximately 15 cm to 20 cm thick. This in turn the east of the E40 line. Here the complex stratification was replaced with surf clams (Spisula solidissima) at the E19 consisted of layers of mixed shell, gray sand, loose, clean surf line. This deeply buried shell layer extended east to the E24 line clams, and disintegrating pen shell (Atrina rigida). The surf where it sloped downward following the contour of the underly- clam stratum encountered east of the E40 line was very loose ing white sand which had an elevation of .25 m. This white and without other sediments. On excavation with the backhoe, sand stratum below the shell stratum is considered the original the shell undermined the profile, and so it was difficult to natural beach on which the initial cultural materials were extend the backhoe trench to the water line. This loose, surf deposited. clam stratum was often sandwiched between disintegrated pen
At the E26 line a buried modern concrete pile was encoun- shell strata. The surf clam stratum had a top elevation of 1.06 tered in the backhoe trench. The intrusive pit associated with mn and its surface rose to the east where it had an elevation of this modern disturbance was also visible and extended down into 1.82 mn at the E52 line. the white sand. At the E28 line the lower Spisula solidissima A distinct lightning whelk (Busycon contrarium) stratum was shell stratum was replaced by a higher stratum of Spisula initially encountered at the E56 line and it extended to the E60 solidissima in a gray sand matrix where this zone had a top line, the end of our trench. This stratum rested on loose surf elevation of .72 m and a thickness of 22 cm. The lower surf clams and pen shell layers, and had a top elevation of approxiclam stratum was not found underneath it; only the white sand mately 2 m (Figure 7). This stratum was composed of multiple stratum was present. Unfortunately, the intrusive pit disrupted layers of Busycon shells tightly packed to form a level, prepared the stratigraphic relationships of these two units. This new, platform surface (Figure 8). The Buycon shells were so tightly higher shell stratum sloped upward and became thicker to the packed that excavation of the backhoe trench was able to east so that at the E38 line the top elevation of this stratum was continue to the water line. Here a distinct stratum was found
18 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
which was unlike that seen in the western portion of the backhoe trench. A dark, mottled gray sand and shell deposit was encountered rather than the white sand.
The complex shell stratification in the eastern area of the excavation clearly represented a truncated, buried shell mound and was designated Mound A. It appeared to represent a platform mound with multiple building episodes. This series of superimposed shell layers rose from west to east and was separate and distinct from Mound B to the west. There was no way to determine through stratigraphy the chronological relationships of the two mounds because the shell strata appeared discontinuous and the intrusive pit of the concrete piling obliterated any chance of linking the strata of the east portion of the site with that to the west. The two mound correlate with the same areas seen or Cushing's map and have been so indi Figure 7. View of the Busycon stratum resting on loose surf clams in square cated, along with the approximate
N28E58. Valerie Flannigan is working in the unit. View is to the northwest. position of our backhoe trench, ir
Initially, it was planned to collect th artifacts from the associated backhoe fill in two meter segments along it length. Unfortunately, it was not possi ble to control the collection because o the enthusiasm of the collecting person nel. However, I did track the generic characteristics of artifacts and sedi ments as they came out of the backho trench. In general, the western area c the backhoe trench had the initial at pearance of a typical black-dirt midder There were abundant fish- bone refu, and dense concentrations of potshere and shell tools, as well as more nume ous fragments of charcoal. In the eas ern portion of the trench, east of tl E40 line, artifacts were more spar but more large pieces of charcoal we noted including some which had tl appearance of burned posts. This ar appeared to be a living surface in spi of the denser accumulations of she This initial assessment was based< the relative paucity of midden deb such as faunal bone and potsherds, a the relatively clean, unstained sand Figure 8. View of the prepared Busycon surface in N28E56. Note that each the matrix of the shell. The shell strn
Busycon shell is numbered. were interpreted as living surfat
rather than midden refuse, and so 1
WIDMER EXCAVATIONS AT KEY MARCO 19
bulk of the excavation was focused on the eastern portion of the area of excavation was less because of the balks in most of our backhoe trench. units. If we factor this into the area calculations by subtracting
An initial line of eight 2 x 2 m squares was placed adjacent to the area of the balks, 94.38 m2 was excavated within the 2 x 2 the south margin of the backhoe trench along the N28 line from m units. When this figure is added to that of the backhoe E44 to E60. These were chosen to intercept the Busycon shell trench, a total of 116.38 m2 were actually excavated. platform encountered in the backhoe trench. These pits were The 2 x 2 m units were excavated to depths ranging from as augmented with five 2 x 2 m units extending from the E50 line shallow as .44 m to as deep as 1.74 m. In no area of the to the E60 line along the N28 line, and three 2 x 2 m units excavation were sterile, noncultural strata encountered. In many along the N26 line from E52 to E58. The choice of location was cases we were prohibited from continuing our excavation by dictated by the information found in the initial eight units encroaching water which was encountered as high as .62 m but (Figure 6). fluctuated with the tide. Surprisingly, the water we encountered
A block excavation of 10 2 x 2 m units was excavated was fresh, suggesting the possible occurrence of fresh water
adjacent and to the north of the backhoe trench along the N32 wells at the site, at least during the rainy season. The average and N34 line between the E50 and E60 lines (Figure 6). depth of excavation was 1.08 m with a standard deviation of.37
Unfortunately, only N32E56, N32E58, and N34E56 were m. The total volume of excavated matrix from the 29 2 x 2 m
completely excavated. N34E58 was only excavated to a depth units was 100.46 m3. A total of 54 distinct strata, or zones, of 1.2 m. While the six units between E50 and E60 were exca- were assigned during the excavation. Seventy-two features were vated to uncover postmolds, none of the excavation matrix was recorded and 351 post molds were plotted, mapped, and screened nor were column samples collected. recorded. A total of 772 distinct proveniences, which we called
We decided to excavate a block of four 2 x 2 m units in the Lots, were assigned. western area of the site so that we could investigate the moundlike shell deposit (Mound B) uncovered in the backhoe profile, Site Chronology
and the very deeply buried, orange-stained Macrocallista
stratum. We were concerned that we would not be able to Although the ceramics from the site have not yet been fully
excavate to the water line in the eastern excavation block analyzed, we made careful notes of the decorated sherds as they because of the loose, unconsolidated nature of the surf clams in came out of the units and this information was recorded on our this area, so excavation here allowed us to investigate the lot forms. Our excavation found only Glades I Late through deepest strata without risking collapse of the excavation unit Glades II Early; that is, only the Fort Drum series, Gordon walls. Two of the units were placed immediately north of the Pass Incised, and Sanibel Incised. Furthermore, no exclusively backhoe trench at N32E16 and N32E18, and two were placed Glades I Early component containing only Glades Plain ceramsouth of the backhoe trench at N28E16 and N28E18. The two ics could be isolated. Our findings do not imply that there southern units were abandoned when a modem concrete piling originally was no Glades IIB or later occupation at the site since and its large intrusive pit were discovered in N28E16. Glades III series sherds were found in the excavations made by
Field recording was done on systematized lot forms which the Van Becks (Van Beck and Van Beck 1965) immediately contained top and bottom elevations for each comer and the adjacent to our excavation. This discrepancy is attributable to center of each provenience. It contained a separate description the repeated leveling of the Key Marco site. This activity began of the provenience matrix, the physical characteristics of the shortly after Cushing's excavation. Hrdlicka (1922) visited the sediments in each provenience, and the cultural interpretation of site in 1918 and reported that much of it had been hauled away each provenience. Unit type (i.e., 2 x 2 m unit, feature, or post for fill. He noted that this was particularly so for the northwest mold) and a distinct breakdown of the approximate percentage portion of the site. However, this disturbance was not nearly as of each sediment type (i.e., sand, shell, etc.), were noted as extensive as that which took place in the mid-1960s after the well as the date the unit was started and when it was finished. Van Beck's excavation. This is when the site was leveled to Deposit type (i.e., midden, occupation, post mold, or feature) approximately 2.4 m and canals were dredged through it. The was also identified. Also included on these lot forms was an dredged spoil was apparently used to fill in the area south of the inventory of the types of samples that were recovered from original Key Marco site, joining this key with the mainland. these units and whether profiles or plan maps of the provenience The Van Becks (1965) include an aerial photograph of the were drawn. excavation area which shows a ridge or mound-like area in the
The excavation was photographed extensively with both black vicinity of our excavation. They reported that this mound was and white and color negative film, and six hours of video tape 4.27 mn (14 ft) high and measured 71.6 meters (235 ft) along its were also taken. The appropriate photos and video segments for north-south axis. They further state that the eastern half of the each provenience were recorded on each lot form. All of these mound had been completely removed (Van Beck and Van Beck data were then entered into a computer database to comprise 1965). This correlates closely to the 4.6 m (15 ft) height for the what is referred to as the Master Lot List. mound (which we refer to as Mound C) as indicated on
In all, 29 2 x 2 mn units, or a total of 116 in2, were excavated. Cushing's map (Cushing 1896:420, Plate XXX). This is an The backhoe trench comprised an additional excavated area of elevation which is 2 mn higher than the ground surface which 22 m2 resulting in a total excavated area of 138 in2. This exists anywhere in the area today. Their excavations probed represents a maximum area of excavation. In reality, our actual 2.95 m (9 ft, 8 in) of culture-bearing strata on the northwestern
20 THE FLORA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
slope of Mound C, all of which are above the water table. Our is quite broad (A.D. 500 to A.D. 900) and internal divisions are deepest culture-bearing stratum along the same north-south axis not yet completely understood. Furthermore, we have an that they excavated, but on Mound A which is immediately to enormous number of well controlled radiocarbon samples ready the south of Mound C, was only 1.57 m. If the bottoms of both to date the strata with which the respective styles are associated. excavations are at similar depths, which is a likely assumption
based on our excavation, then 1.38 m of strata have been Architecture
removed from Mound C since the Van Beck's excavation on the
mound's northwest slope. Mound A, as indicated on Cushing's Platforms map, was .30 m (1 ft) higher than Mound C. It is argued that
Mound A was leveled to the same elevation as Mound C. Our block excavation south of the backhoe trench revealed
The Van Becks found Glades III ceramics restricted to the three superimposed, truncated, pyramidal platforms (Figures 9upper nine levels (1.37 m) in both of their units with Glades II 10). These superimposed platforms correspond with the large ceramics found below this depth. These nine levels are at least mound on the eastern central area of Cushing's original site map .01 m above the maximum upper surface of the site today. This which I have labeled Mound A (see Figure 3). 'he entire means that if the stratification of ceramics is similar in both property where our excavation was located corresponds with mounds, at least with respect to the depth of deposits, than the this mound. The sloping southern sides of these platforms were Glades III component, if not the Glades IIB and IIC compo- composed of surf clam shells surfaced with a veneer of pen nents, in the area of Mound A where we excavated, was shells which disintegrated into a crushed powder when uncovremoved subsequent to the Van Beck's excavation. ered. The first two platforms had crushed surf clam and pen
We did find an aceramic shell stratum component at the shell surfaces with the third platform having a Busycon shell
bottom of our excavation underlying Mound B. However, since surface with crushed pen shell on top of it. The platforms were we only excavated this stratum in a single 2 x 2 m unit quadrilateral in shape and oriented approximately north-south.
(N32E16), it is difficult to assess whether this is actually Their north-south dimension appears to be greater than their nonceramic. There were very few artifacts associated with this east-west extent. This is consistent with the axis of this mound zone; mostly fish-bone remains were recovered. However, it is as mapped by Cushing. Unfortunately, our excavation did nol quite extensive, extending for at least 10 m in our backhoe extend northward far enough to intercept the northern edge o trench. We did recover Macrocallista shells for radiocarbon the initial two platforms. However, we do know that the eastdating which will help resolve the uncertain chronological age west dimension of the earliest platform is approximately 6 m of this deposit. All the rest of the shell-bearing strata, as well We found the northern extreme of the Busycon platform on th as non-shell strata above the lowest shell stratum just discussed, N34 line indicating that the north-south extent of the Busyco date to Glades I Late as indicated by the occurrence of the Fort platform is 6 m. It is important to note that this does not mea Drum series ceramics in all of our earliest deposits. that this is the maximum extent of the platform. This Busycot
We have noted in our excavations considerable stylistic surface was intended to increase the size of the platform b
variation within the traditionally defined types Fort Drum extending it eastward beyond our E60 line. This shifting o Incised and Punctated, Gordon Pass Incised, and Sanibel lateral extension of the mound to the east is consistent with th
Incised. It appears that this variation is patterned and we will location of the ultimate construction phase of Mound A, which hopefully be able to generate a temporally sensitive, type-variety has its north-south axis along the eastern edge of Bald Eagl system for these ceramic series. This will have considerable Drive. Unfortunately, we could not extend our excavation utility because the time span encapsulated by these three types farther to the east because of the road and utility lines.
N30E50 02II60 021I66F'
Beo.0l z... I o.k ,I ..3
- *-= 0..'- -- VI- ----- -- = ...
_ . . -' ..... ; .. . . I. .
; ~~~~~.. i ..,v-? .. s '
i -01 iIe----------" -one x.60
.-. o o l I ,, ,,
0oo X... XXZ0*
0 0,5 1.0 Platform1 1 8ort6co .0
SCALE IN METERS *bore NOVO .10
Figure 9. Stratigraphic profile of the east walls of squares N24E54 to N28E54 along the E56 line.
WIDMER EXCAVATIONS AT KEY MARCO 21
The Busycon platform surface consisted of multiple
layers of shell with individual shells placed on their 4- -1 N
sides, for the most part, and paired spire to siphon. We 0 0 4 .% :
carefully mapped the Busycon shells in situ, numbered 0 "."- 0 .o6
them, and recorded their length and width measurements. N,3
Most of the Busycon were large, unmodified shells. N
These measurements will provide a mean size for the BACKHOE TRENCH
shells utilized in the construction of the platforms and ., 0 0:0 0 0, 0 .
0 0 0 0 0O 0 0 0
will be compared with Busycon tools to see if there was o 00 0
differential selection of shells by size for use as tools or --4 Q46 Q4 0 8o -4 4-156
construction material. e 0 0
Although our understanding of the exact dimensions of ,-*,, I SUMMIT
these platforms remains unclear, we do have a good 0 2 4
understanding of the history of platform construction. For I I
example, we know that additions were made not only to Sc.-4 M4 --
raise the height of Mound A, but also to increase its PLATFORM I BASE
surface area. This was done by adding wedge-like,
sloping veneers of shell to a central platform area. These 5 1 0 N
additions consisted of surf clam shells in two instances 4:b: 0,.0.:: o.9
and Busycon shells in a third. The interior portions of the S' 0*40 0
platform, from the N28 line north, are more level and .2 0 0 EI "
have less shell with the notable exception of the Busycon N
shells comprising Platform Three. Here the Busycon BACKHOE TRENCH
shells are thickest towards the east as the platform was .............
expanded in this direction, rather than to the south as in 0. o. 0 0 o 0 0 0
the earlier two construction episodes. 0 0
4a4 "208 4S L 495
In addition to these platform construction phases, we 0 0 o
also found a fourth interior platform surface addition o o
which superseded the final platform construction phase. 0 2 4 54 656
Unlike the other three construction phases, it did not I 1 PLATFORM 2 SUMiT
appear to increase the surface area of the platform. S.ee., Mtm 0"
However, it did extend from the E54 line east to the E50 454
line where it terminated at the eastern limit of our .........
excavation. This could possibly represent a western PLATFORM 2 BSE
platform addition although we have no archaeological" evidence for this.00
0 4' o 0 4 0 0 0
The eastern slope of a second mound was intercepted in 0:
our backhoe trench near the western edge of the proper- 000 Wo .:
ty. As I previously mentioned, we intended to place four 350 oo 5,. 0
2 x 2 m units in this area, but two of the units (N28E16 N
and N28E18) had to be abandoned because of severe BACKHOE TRE NCH ___-____ I_modern disturbance. The two other units (N32E16 and 0~..o
N32E18), located to 'the' rorth of the backhoe trench, *Oo 00 .. Ko o9..30 o o
picked up a small portion Q fthe eastern margin of the 0,. : (-). o 4- ., 9.5, -shell platform which we have labelled Mound B. Unfor- 00
tunately, our excavation in' this area was not extensive 00 0 00 0
enough to allow us to understand much about this 4 062
platform other than its eastern maximum extent took 0 2 4
place after Glades I Late. This is based on the presence I I 1 PLAToRM SUMMI
of Fort Drum series pottery in deposits sealed under the So-.-"-n 4-,: 4-: 4, 4- ,
eastern margin of the shell platform. This lower, Glades
I Late component includes at least one structure built on Figure 10. Plan maps showing the approximate locations of a sand stratum. We do not know if there were earlier Mound A platform construction phases: top) platform
building episodes associated with Mound B that would construction 1; middle) platform construction 2; bottom)
make it contemporary with Mounds A and C. platform construction 3.
22 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
Structures the post molds indicate that there was no interior space. This
latter observation is important because it clearly indicates that Our evidence for structures comes from post mold patterns. if the post molds are contemporary, then their arrangement As mentioned earlier, over 350 post molds were found (Figure represents a stilt platform structure supporting a floor. This 11). These were only mapped and recorded in our 2 x 2 m interpretation is also supported by numerous examples of paired units, although there were suggestions of other post molds in posts (see Figure 11). It is argued that these represent locations our backhoe trench. This results in an average of over 12 post where rotting or failing posts were supplemented by the addition molds per excavation unit and a density of over three post of new posts in the same locations without removing the molds per square meter. This is not the only excavation in existing pilings, thus resulting in the paired post molds observed southwest Florida to reveal a great number of post molds. in the excavation. An additional observation is that not all of the Excavations on nearby Horr's Island revealed over 600 post post molds are vertical. Some are oriented at an angle, further molds (Russo 1991). To date, and this is by no means complete, suggesting that the posts functioned to support an elevated we have metric data on 309 post molds. The average diameter wooden floor. is. 10 m with a standard deviation of .03 m. The mean depth No definitive floor plan can be ascertained to date nor should of the post molds is .16 m with a standard deviation of .13 one be expected if the above interpretation is correct. It seems m indicating a much greater range of post mold depths than unlikely that we will be able to determine the number of diameters. structures that existed at any given time. We do know, based on
Unlike the Horr's Island excavation, the post mold patterns ceramics, that there are at least two structures which are seem to be quadrilateral rather than circular. This can be contemporary. One set of post molds is associated with the shell determined by what are clearly linear rows of post molds. platform area of Mound A and another set of post molds is Sometimes these rows are adjacent to one another and not that associated with non-shell-bearing sand deposits underlying far apart (Figure 11). The extreme density and close spacing of Mound B in the excavation at the west end of our backhoe
0 0 0 0 0
N34150a554 34 N34 58
0 a 0 0 0
0o 0 o 00. 00 o 0 0
"o0 oo0 o 0, 0 0
oo0 0o 0 0
o .oooo~*a~, 0
0*0 0 0 9 0 0 0
0 0 o0 0
32 50 W11 32 500 o o 4 0 o 56 L158
BACKH E TRENCH I
o0. 0 0 0 gooo00
00 00 o0 0 0 00
0 0 000
0 0 0
o 00 0 0 o0 0 0
0 0 0 8
o o 0
8 ( 0 0 0 0
0 2 0
I 1 I 1 I
Figure 11. Plan map showing post molds mapped in the excavation units. Note the line of post molds in squares N28E52 N28E54, and N32E56. Also note the paired post molds in N26E48, N28E48, N28E52, and numerous other units. Two postmold are superimposed in N26E50.
WIDMER EXCAVATIONS AT KEY MARCO 23
trench. Eventually, the post molds will be grouped by their bottom depths to see if they reveal any clusters or patterns that might indicate the number of houses and building episodes. The problem with this technique is that it is highly inductive and there is no clear-cut way, other than trial and error, of determining what the cut-off depths and the range of depths should 144
be for each cluster. 3-!
For now we have identified two distinct elevated pile structures. One of these was situated on the shell platform (Mound A) and the other was resting on a level sand surface which was under the eastern margin of another shell mound (Mound B). This indicates some functional difference between these two structures. Clues to these differences can be found in the features associated with these structures.
A total of 71 archaeological contexts were assigned feature designations. Many of these were discrete lenses of sediments which differed from their adjacent matrix. Larger ceramic scatters also were point provenienced and mapped as discrete contexts and assigned feature numbers. More striking was one particular type of feature which has yet to be described for south Florida. This is what is being referred to as a dedication cache. Dedication caches are a common type of context throughout Mesoamerica (Fash 1991; Schele and Miller 1986), being found both in Classic Maya period lowland sites and in Classic period highland sites such as Teotihuacan. They are characterized as intentional interments of rare or valuable items into the construction fill of buildings and platforms. These acted as ritual offerings to spiritually charge or sanctify the buildings. We have the exact same type of offering pattern at the Key Marco site in the Mound A shell platform in the eastern area of Figure 12. Columbia projectile point plotted in situ. our excavation. I want to make it very clear here that although the type of feature is the same as that observed in Mesoamerica, of seven to nine articulated shark vertebrae. It is this articulaI in no way mean to imply that there is any historical connection tion which clearly indicates that they were placed as whole flesh or diffusion responsible for the appearance of this cultural into the platform. Again, it should be noted that the shell pattern at Key Marco. platform is extremely clean and for the most part devoid of
The features are offerings of valuable, exotic, and useful midden deposits. We found no such features associated with the artifacts placed into the fill of the shell mound platform. These structure under Mound B at the west end of the backhoe features consist of groups of artifacts and individual artifacts. trench.However, this might not be a valid comparison because One feature of note is a chert Columbia projectile point which there is no elevated shell platform associated with this structure. was unused and placed in the clean fill of the shell platform. In Mesoamerica, all residences, be they elite houses or humble This artifact is illustrated in Figure 12. There are no chert dwellings, have dedication caches associated with them; usually deposits in south Florida and the raw material, if not the jade or marine shell in the case of elites, while a few unused finished artifact, would have to have been traded into the area obsidian blades are found in more modest households (Webster from the north. I want to emphasize that the platform fill and Widmer 1992). contained no midden debris indicating that this projectile point However, we in no way expect the pattern at the Key Marco was intentionally placed into its archeological context, not lost, site to be similar to that for Mesoamerica. It seems more It was an offering precisely because of its rarity and because it probable, at least with the data at hand, that it was the distinct was a foreign object. Such rare objects have much social, sociopolitical or ideological context of the Mound A structure
prestige, and ideological significance (Helms 1979, 1988), and which predicated the offerings inside of it. In other words, these would in no way have been lost. It was plotted in situ, mapped, offerings are associated with structures constructed on elevated and photographed. shell platforms rather than non-mound domiciles. The high
Other features consisted of offerings of yellow and red ochre, frequency of these offerings (at least four), with many of them a necklace made out of 20 size-graded, cut Murex florifer representing a number of rare or valuable artifacts, clearly
dilectus shells, and shark steaks. These shark steaks consisted indicates that the shell platform, with its pile-supported, above-
24 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
Figure 13. Speculative, hypothetical reconstruction of the structure on platform Mound A.
ground building, was a culturally important structure. It functionally used in the southeastern U. S. I am not implying, represents greater costs in terms of energy to construct, and however, that it is Mississippian in context, either culturally oi hence greater cultural value or worth than the unmounded chronologically; simply that truncated-pyramidal mound,
structure in the western portion of the site. It is hypothesized constructed of sediments that Suplort structures are referred tc that the western structure represents a typical domestic residence typically as temple mounds. Nor'do I mean to imply that th while the structure on the elevated shell platform represents a structures are purely religious, only that the differences between different social, political, or religious context. Its truncated- the two structures at Key Marco clearly represent a culture pyramidal shape, together with its veneer of glistening, nacer- dichotomy. I argue that this difference in construction techniqu ous, pen shell, clearly indicate that Mound A is a temple is consonant with complex sociopolitical organization character mound. A highly speculative reconstruction of this platform ized by simple village life; in other words, a chiefdom. with its structure is presented in Figure 13. This platform mound structure clearly continued in this are
well into Glades III times based on the ceramics excavated b
Conclusion the Van Becks (1965), whose excavations were on the northwe:
slope of Mound C which is adjacent and to the north of Moun
Our research thus far has revealed that we have a truncated- A. This clearly indicates a spatial continuity in sociopolitic pyramidal, shell mound platform covered with a veneer of differentiation for close to 1000 years, since this mound
penshell which corresponds with the location of the large 4.5 m visible on the Cushing map and was adjacent to the or (15 ft) mound, which we have labeled Mound A, on Cushing's excavated into by the Van Becks. What is important about th original site map. Only the lower half of this platform, consist- continuity is that it positively indicates a chiefdom. This ing of three superimposed building episodes and perhaps a because there is evidence for sequential construction in the san fourth floor addition, remained intact prior to our excavation, place. This lineality is clearly associated with the notion The upper 1.48 m of the mound had been previously removed, ranking, primogenitor, and lineal inheritance. That is whyt This truncated platform mound remnant was in use from A.D. structure retained its location through time by being added 500 to A.D. 900 as represented by its associated ceramics. sequentially. This is exactly the pattern observed in Mississipl A second structure was found in the sand stratum underlying an temple mounds in the interior Southeast. The location talk another mound which we have labeled Mound B. There is no on central importance and represents an unbroken continu
evidence that this structure was built on an elevated, prepared through time. shell platform, and so it is argued that it represents a different What is significant about this observation is that it indica form of social status than the structure associated with Mound that the Key Marco site had a chiefdom type of social structi A. by at least A.D. 500 since we have Ft. Drum series ceram
Mound A clearly represents a temple mound, as this term is directly associated with these building episodes. This means tl
WIDMER EXCAVATIONS AT KEY MARCO 25
the wooden artifacts in the Cushing collection do not have to Anthropologist 48:309-3 10.
have come from a single time period. In point of fact, it makes Marquardt, William H.
more sense that these artifacts would have accumulated in the 1992a Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa (Editor).
muore sensera thes oc atias n o he accumate d ih te Monograph No. 1, Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental
muck pond over the occupational span of the site. Although we Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville.
can never resolve the chronological problem with the Cushing 1992b Recent Archaeological and Paleoenvironmental Investigations in
collections, it is clearly the case that these artifacts, because of Southwest Florida. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the
their complexity of style, which is usually associated with craft Calusa, edited by William H. Marquardt, pp. 9-58. Monograph No.
of sociopolitical 1, Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, University
specialization and a complex chiefdom type of sc aplyias of Florida, Gainesville.
organization, could have been produced and used as early as Milanich, Jerald T.
A.D. 500. Thus, there is nothing out of place with respect to 1978 Temporal Placement of Cushing's Key Marco Site, Florida. American
the existing radiocarbon dates on the Cushing collection. Anthropologist 80:682.
Furthermore, it confirms Cushing's original contention that Moore, Clarence B.
1919 Notes on the Archaeology of Florida. American Anthropologist2l1:400these artifacts were not deposited at one time, but instead 402.
accumulated over a considerable span of time, perhaps as much Morrell, L. Ross
as 1000 years. What our research also shows is that chiefdom- 1969 Fiber-tempered Pottery from Southwest Florida. Paper presented at the
level, sociopolitical complexity emerged on Marco Island some 68th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association,
200 years earlier than I had originally thought (Widmer 1988). New Orleans.
We have only begun to process, let alone analyze, the vast Ruso Michae
1991 Archaic Sedentism on the Florida Coast: A Case Study from Horr's quantity of artifacts that have been recovered from the excava- Island. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida. University Microtion. We hope to be able to more clearly identify house films, Ann Arbor.
patterns, and hopefully date them. We also hope to add to the 1992 Characterization and Function of Archaic Shell and Earth Mounds in
corpus of information on subsistence and technology which is Southwest Florida. Paper presented at the 49th annual meeting of the
Southeastern Archaeological Conference, New Orleans.
rapidly being generated in southwest Florida. We hope to be cheLnaan M a l E. Miller
able to use our excavation to evaluate and identify higher sea- 1986 The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art. Kimbell Art
level stands, as I was able to do at the Solana site, and which Museum, Fort Worth.
have now been confirmed at other southwest Florida sites Schiffer, Michael B.
(Walker et al. 1995). Our work has just begun and we hope to 1987 Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record. University of New
Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
add, through further analysis, to our understanding of one of the Van Beck, John C., and Linda M. Van Beck
most important sites in North America. 1965 The Marco Midden, Marco Island, Florida. The FloridaAnthropologist
References Cited Walker, Karen Jo
1992 The Zooarchaeology of Charlotte Harbor's Prehistoric Maritime Cockrell, Wilburn A. Adaptation: Spatial and Temporal Perspectives. In Culture and
1970 Glades I and Pre-Glades Settlement and Subsistence Patterns on Marco Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited I
- IMarquardt, pp. 265-367. Monograph No. 1, Institute of Archaeology
Island, Collier County, Florida. M.A. thesis, Department of Anthro- and Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville.
apology, Florida State University, Tallahassee. Walker, Karen Jo, Frank W. Stapor, and William H. Marquardt
1986 Explorations of Ancient Key Dwellers Remains on the Gulf Coast of 1995 Archaeological Evidence for a 1750-1450 BP Higher-than-Present Sea 1986Exporaion ofAncint ey welersRemins n te Glf oas ofLevel along Florida's Gulf Coast. Journal of Coastal Research 14:324Florida. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 35:255- 365.
2256. Webster, David L., and Randolph J. Widmer
Fash, William L. 1992 Preliminary Final Report of Excavations at 8N-11, Copan, Honduras.
1991 Sres, WarosadKig.Thmsan usoNw.ok Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, UniversiFlanery Ken V.ty Park, PA. 1976 The Early Mesoamerican Village. Academic Press, New York. Widmer, Randolph J.
Gilliland, Marion Spjut 1974 A Survey and Assessment of Archaeological Resources on Marco
1975 The Material Culture ,of Key Marco. University Presses of Florida, Island, Collier County, Florida. Florida Division of Archives, History,
Gainesville. and Records Management, Bureau of Archaeological Research,
Griffin, John W. Miscellaneous Projects Report Series No. 19, Tallahassee.
1988 The Archaeology of Everglades National Park. National Park Service, 1986 Prehistoric Estuarine Adaptation at the Solana Site, Charlotte County, Southeastern Archaeological Center, Tallahassee. Florida. Florida Division of Archives, History, and Records ManageHarrs, Edward C.
1986 Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy (2nd Edition). Academic 18 et ueuo rhelgclRsacTlaase
198The Evolution of the Calusa: A Nonagricultural Chiefdom on the Press, Orlando. Southwest Florida Coast. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Helm, May W.Wing, Elizabeth S.
1979 Ancient Panama: Chiefs in Search of Power. University of Texas 195AiaBoeAscatdwhToIdanSesnMroIln,
Press, Austin. Foia h lrd nhoooit1:12
1988 Ulysses's Sail: An Ethnographic Odyssey of Power, Knowledge, andFlrd.TeloiaAtopogs182-.
Geographical Distance. Princeton University Press, Princeton. Hrdlicka, Ales
1922 The Anthropology of Florida. Florida Historical Society, De Land. Lee, Arthur R.
1995 Cushing's Cat Figurine Star of Centennial Exhibit. The Florida
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Support production of
The Florida Anthropologist,
the scholarly journal published quarterly by
The Florida Anthropological Society since 1948.
Donations are now being accepted from
individuals, corporations, and foundations.
Inquiries and gifts may be directed to:
The Florida Anthropologist
P.O. Box 919
St. Petersburg, FL 33731
Whelk Shell Damage Two Alternate cases attached one to another. Development is direct; that is, no
Explanations free-swimming planktonic veliger larval stage occurs. The eggs
that hatch first within each case produce young imagos, snails
ROBERT H. GORE that exactly resemble the adults except for size. These "baby"
RE Wildlf S r whelks begin to feed on the remaining unhatched eggs inside the
Naithloriendun Wildlife Sanctuary case. Some of these so-called "nurse eggs," if not completely
consumed or so severely damaged as to preclude hatching,
might then, on completing their development, exhibit various
In a recent short paper in The Florida Anthropologist, George shell deformities that would be carried throughout the remaining M. Luer provided photographs and a discussion of putative life of the surviving individual. As the post-embryonic whelk predator-caused damage to three lightning whelk shells taken becomes a juvenile and then grows into adulthood, new shell from prehistoric middens in the Sarasota area (Luer 1992). Luer material is continually laid down from the whelk's mantle. A proposed that the injuries, consisting of a sharp indentation or deformity at hatching could then become "fixed" into adulthood. bend in the siphonal canal just below the body whorl of the Alternatively, the embryos from southwestern Florida populashell, might have been caused by feeding attempts made by the tions of lightning whelks may be exhibiting a genetic anonly loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, or perhaps stone crabs in siphonal canal formation that is carried primarily within (genus Menippe). While this might be the case for Luer's speci- localized populations. A brief survey of more than 100 specimens, other predators cannot be ruled out. In addition, I suggest mens of lightning whelk from other localities ranging from two other possibilities: that similar deformities can also occur North Carolina around Florida to Texas, including both fossil as a result of intra-egg-case predation or may perhaps be genetic and recent shells, revealed no such deformities. However, the in origin. fact that at least three prehistoric whelk shells (Luer 1992:87),
In their classic Marine Shells of the Western Coast of Florida, and an indeterminate number of modern-day shells (Perry and Louise M. Perry and Jeanne S. Schwengel (1955) discussed Schwengel 1955:164-165) from western Florida, exhibit what
"Busycon contrarium (Conrad) (perversum of authors)", both appears to be the same type of deformity suggests that if this names being earlier epithets for the sinistrally-coiled gastropod hypothesis is true the anomaly is neither recent nor short-term. presently known as Busycon sinistrum Hollister, 1958. Their Moreover, as long as the defect, whether from intra-egg-case statements are worth recounting in full: aggression or genetic anomaly, was not otherwise life-threatening, it would remain evolutionarily "neutral" as far as the
Deformities of shells of B. contrarium are more frequently encoun- species was concerned.
tered than in the shells of any other species of gasteropod [sic] found The above notwithstanding, predation by loggerhead and other in this region. The most common abnormalities involve the long [i.e. sea turtles could indeed account for some whelk-shell damage, siphonal] canal, which may be contorted and bent in almost any particularly if the animal's mantle, the organ that lays down the
direction and at any angle. Occasional specimens show partial or
complete duplication of the canal. Perry has observed a few shelly material, was injured in the predation attempt. Lightning embryonic shells from fresh egg ribbons which show abnormalities whelks bury themselves in the sea floor when not hunting their of development similar to those seen in some adult shells of 50 to molluscan prey, and leave just the upper tip of the siphonal 100 millimeters height [Perry and Schwengel 1955:163-164]. canal exposed to allow intake of seawater for respiration.
Loggerhead turtles, which regularly nest along Gulf coast
The two authors provided an apertural and rear view of one beaches in Florida, prey on a variety of organisms on the aberrant form in Plate 34, Figure 233b, c. The damage appears benthos (including lightning whelks) and in the water column similar to, but not exactly identical with, that illustrated by (LeBuff 1990:41, 45, 47). Thus, the whelk might have only its Luer. siphonal canal eaten, and would then lay down new shell
While the presence of siphonal canal injuries in shells of material over time that exhibited this repair. free-living adult or sub-adult lightning whelks certainly may, at However, predation by a sea turtle is no minor matter. As times, be caused by unsuccessful predation, the fact that similar LeBuff (1990:45) has noted, "The powerful jaws, with their abnormalities are seen in the post-embryonic snails still inhabit- well developed crushing surfaces, enables the turtles to nearly ing their egg case strongly suggests either intra-egg-case pulverize extremely hard and thick-shelled molluscs, and to pry predation or, alternatively, genetic defects as another potential or pull off other foods that are firmly attached to objects on the cause. The lightning whelk lays a characteristic egg "ribbon" sea floor" (emphasis added). It thus seems unlikely that many consisting of numerous, somewhat flattened, cylindrical egg whelks would escape and live to tell the tale.
28 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
While similar predation attempts by stone crabs (genus fully over the sea floor clipping off and eating the exposed
Menippe) also cannot be dismissed as a cause of the observed siphons of herds of buried mud snails (Nassarus vibex) much
injuries, they too would seem less likely, especially in whelks like a barber would trim hair. Small specimens of lightning
larger than the largest stone crab (ca. 13 cm or 5 inches whelks could suffer a similar fate. And while it may be
carapace width). Smaller whelks may be another matter. The stretching a point, the massive, horny, five-part jaws of
large crushing cheliped (the so-called "claw") of stone crabs (as grass-bed-dwelling sea urchins, or even sea stars, could
in other crabs of the family Xanthidae) is an extremely effective inadvertently damage smaller, buried whelks on occasion. predatory device, particularly on oysters and other shellfish, and In conclusion, were the lightning whelk shells reported by few of these animals are likely to survive to lay down new shell Luer damaged by a predatory sea turtle or stone crab? Perhaps. material. Williams (1984:423) noted that in the stone crab "... But bottom-feeding individuals of numerous other predators may
the fingers of the chelae ["claws"] are powerful and if fastened also have caused the damage. Two additional hypotheses deupon a hard object can hardly be pried apart. Strength of this manding equal consideration are intra-egg-case predation and
grip by one male [crab] on a hard object was so great that it possible genetic defects. Both offer alternative explanations for
crushed its own chela and bled to death." Within southwestern observed deformities in mollusc shells found in prehistoric
Florida estuarine and marine waters at least 13 genera and more middens, particularly in southwestern Florida.
than 20 other small, medium, and large species of xanthid crabs are available as predators on juvenile and adult whelks (Wil- Acknowledgments
liams 1984; Gore n.d.).
If another decapod crustacean candidate is needed as a cause I thank Dr. Paula M. Mikkelsen, Assistant Curator, Delaware Museum of
of such whelk-shell deformities in southwestern Florida, an even Natural History, Wilmington, Delaware for graciously surveying the collections more likely predator would be box crabs of the genus Calappa. of Busycon in that institution and providing information on aspects of developmorse lke reato wsould bpees b o c o h g enus alapp. ment, genetics, and life history of the lightning whelk. Mr. George Luer was These large crabs (some species up to 15 cm or 6 inches wide) provided an earlier draft of this manuscript and I thank him for his comments.
also have formidable, large-toothed chelae but with the added I am also grateful to an anonymous reviewer who suggested expanding the list
advantage of a pair of large, rounded, tooth-like protuberances of potential predators that may have caused whelk-shell damage, and offered
near the base of the fixed finger on the major (largest) cheliped. other suggestions that improved the final manuscript. This is Scientific Contribution No. 3 from the Naithloriendun Wildlife Sanctuary, Naples, Calappa uses these protuberances, and the fixed and movable Florida.
fingers of both of its large chelae very much like a living can opener, rotating its molluscan prey through the protuberance References Cited
"lever" and snapping pieces of the shell away until the snail within is exposed enough to be eaten (Shoup 1968). However, Gore, Robert H.
predation attempts by box crabs are normally directed toward n.d. A Key to the Shallow Water Decapod Crustaceans Known or Expected
the outer margin of the aperture of snails (the lip) where shell to Occur in Southwest Florida. Unpublished manuscript in the
material is the thinnest, rather than against the upper siphonal LeBuff, Charles R., Jr. canal where shell material thickens into the massive body whorl. 1990 The Loggerhead Turtle in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Caretta ReEven so, a whelk lucky enough to escape could conceivably search, Inc., Sanibel, FL.
carry the scars of its encounter throughout its life. Luer, George M.
Other benthic-directed or epibenthic predators feeding directly 1992 Was This Whelk Shell Damaged by a Predatory Sea Turtle? The othr fFlorida Anthropologist 45:86-87. on or from above the sea floor could conceivably cause siphonal Perry, Louise M., and Jeanne S. Schwengel
canal damage such as that noted by Luer if their predation was 1955 Marine Shells of the Western Coast of Florida. Paleontological
unsuccessful. Bottom-feeding, shallow-water fishes are a Research Institution, Ithaca, NY.
possible source, and would include nurse, sand tiger, bull, and Shoup, John B.
lemon sharks, eagle and sting rays, bonefish, drums, sea trout, 1968 Shell Opening by Crabs of the Genus Calappa. Science 160:887-888,
plus cover photograph for the issue.
and toadfish among others. Williams, Austin B.
Even more candidates are also found among some invertebrate 1984 Shrimps, Lobsters, and Crabs of the Atlantic Coast of the Eastern
groups. Horseshoe crabs (Class Merostomata) can locate United States, Maine to Florida. Smnithsonian Institution Press,
molluscs using chemosensory stimuli and crush them with their Washington, DC.
heavy jaw parts. Among the Crustacea, prime suspects would include hole-dwelling members of the Order Stomatopoda ("mantis shrimp" or "thumb splitters"), and numerous benthic decapod crustaceans, including spiny and slipper lobsters (families Palinuridae and Scyllaridae, respectively), both of which have formidable, mollusc-crushing mandibles, as well as members of several crab families including large-clawed hermit crabs in the families Diogenidae and Paguridae, swimming crabs in the family Portunidae (particularly the "blue" crabs), and spider crabs (family Majidae). In fact, I have observed majid arrow crabs (Stenorhynchus seticornis) moving purpose-
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society CGCAS was requested to design an archaeological exhibit
window in the new Tampa Bay History Center, located in
LOREN R. BLAKELEY downtown Tampa. The educational and preservation concept
St. Petersburg, Florida 33707 was well received by the general public and resulted in a
$12,500 donation to the Center by a Florida archaeology
Any organization is only as good as its members. The Central enthusiast. Gulf Coast Archaeological Society (CGCAS) is a shining CGCAS members also participated in the "12,000 Years of
example of team spirit among its membership. CGCAS became Gulf Coast Prehistory" exhibit at the St. Petersburg Museum of a chapter of the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS) in 1977, History and the "Indian Summer Festival" held in conjunction and although membership has waxed and waned, a stable core at the same locale. The festival presented over 20 primitive has continued throughout the intervening years. As a result, technologists and also had Native American representation and CGCAS is a well-respected, scientific organization in the Tampa endorsement. Bay Community. Great Explorations, a hands-on science museum in St. PetersCoalition building during the last two years has linked CGCAS burg, recently had a robotized Pleistocene megafauna exhibit with Bay area historical museums, science institutions, and and CGCAS members assisted in the implementation of this preservation and environmental societies. As a result, public educational event. education in preservation of Florida's nonrenewable archaeo- In 1993 and 1995, CGCAS sponsored its own "Archaeology logical and environmental resources has greatly expanded Day" in conjunction with Florida Archaeology Week (FAW). among the general public, including public and private schools, Many primitive technologists were represented as well as Bay library cooperatives, and environmental centers. Members have area museums, science centers, "Earth Day" organizers, and appeared on local educational television programs as cultural resource management groups. During Florida Archaeolhosts, guest speakers, and primitive technology demonstrators. ogy Week, members gave presentations on preservation and
Figure 1. Public archaeology includes child enthusiasts as well as adults. Andy Schubert stands next
to the sign commemorating the Narvaez site in St. Petersburg, Florida.
30 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
The research design team is led by Robert Austin (archaeologist with Janus Research), Terry Simpson (archaeologist with Archaeological Consultants, Inc.), and Howard Hansen (Presi- dent of St. Petersburg Preservation, Inc.). The goal of the
project is nomination of the site to the National Register of Historic Places. The Anderson family would also like to establish a non-profit archaeological conservancy and a cultural center for educational and interpretive purposes on the site. It has long been suspected that the site is the 1528 landing place of Spanish explorer Panfilo de Narvaez, but this has not been substantiated to date. However, European glass beads, iron artifacts (including a large, lead mini ball), and Spanish olive jar sherds have been recovered during the test excavations, along with numerous Native American materials. These artifacts include shell and sandstone plummets, carved bone pins, lithics, and Safety Harbor period ceramics.
Figure 2. CGCAS member Dave Burns excavating at the Narvaez site.
primitive technology at schools, museums, and libraries. These activities were part of the coalition building process that is .. encouraged for all FAS chapters to promote state unity. Similar activities will take place during the 1996 FAW. In fact, the official FAW poster was designed and painted by CGCAS member Elizabeth Neily Trappmann. It is with much pride that two CGCAS members, Dr. Raymond Williams and Walter Askew, received the Ripley Bullen Award and the Lazarus Award in 1995. In November 1994, the Harold Anderson family of St. Petersburg approached CGCAS to investigate their property, the Narvaez Site. The Andersons are well known for their preservation of one of the most intact, culturally significant, Safety Harbor period sites in the Tampa Bay area. CGCAS agreed to draft a professional research design, conduct test excavations, and perform analyses on the recovered materials. This significant project has been the personal goal of CGCAS Director Walter Askew for several decades, and he is considered the Figure 3. CGCAS members at work sorting artifacts in th envoy of the Narvaez Project. St. Petersburg Science Center laboratory.
CHAPTER SPOTLIGHT 31
Volunteer consultants include Dr. Jeffrey Mitchem of the devoting long volunteer hours of study and physical labor to this Arkansas Archaeological Survey who will analyze the prehistor- project including conducting guided tours of the site and lab for ic ceramics, Dr. Marvin Smith of Valdosta State University who the general public. The cooperation and unity between profeswill analyze the European glass beads, and Dr.'s Jonathan sionals and avocationalists is exemplary. Without this unity, the Leader and Albert Goodyear of the South Carolina Institute of project goal could not be reached. Archeology and Anthropology for historic metallurgy and The professionalism exhibited during this project has recently general consultation, respectively. Dr. Kate Hoffman of Janus l Research is consulting with CGCAS on the European ceramics esta ierent headquarr w museum f Cit
and Dr. Dan Marelli of the Florida Marine Research Institute al-n goa isoasit hea useumtn the City oa is analyzing bivalve seasonality.is to assist the museum and the City of Terry Simpson, archaeologist and Vice President of CGCAS, Harbor in their plans to create a new facility with archaeological is the field director, and Pam Vojnovski, archaeologist and Lab and environmental elements. Supervisor at Janus Research, is assistant field director. A chapter receives what its members give -- knowledge, Processing and preliminary lab analysis of the Narvaez artifacts energy, devotion, pride, and passion. "Team CGCAS" is being directed by Robin Van Auken, archaeologist and certainly reflects all of these qualities, and as a result, public
museum curator, at the Science Center of Pinellas County. archaeology and preservation awareness have been greatly There are many more professional and avocational members enhanced in the Tampa Bay community.
Figure 4. CGCAS members water-screening excavated sediments from the Narvaez site.
Wouldn't You Like
R Full Set
The Graves MuThe Graves Museum The Graves Mudoesn't have EVERY seum is the offiissue of The Florida cial repository
Anthropologist and sales repreAn thropologis t
": "' :! :.- s en ta tive o f
'- ": The Florida
ever printed, but it sentative! of.
does have most of e lo
them. And at the An thropolooriginal prices! gist
Filling the gaps
in your book- Nearly a
shelves is only half-century
a matter of of Florida
picking up your archaeotelephone or logical repen, or turning search at
on the FAX ma- yourfn
Graves Museum of Archaeology and
418 South Federal Highway, Dania, FL 33004
Rivers of Change: Essays on Early Agriculture in Eastern North offered insights about which processing methods affect domestiAmerica. Bruce Smith. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washing- cation and, in studies on cereal grains, how long this may take ton, 1992. xvi + 302 pp., figures, tables, references, $49.95 (e.g., Harlan 1977; Harlan et al. 1973). This research has also (cloth) and Emergence of Agriculture. Bruce Smith. Scientific revealed the morphological evidence of domestication from American Library, New York, 1995. xi + 231 pp., figures, ancestral forms with typical traits including an increase in seed further readings, index, $32.95 (cloth). size and a reduction of seed coat thickness which impact natural
seed dispersal abilities. Smith carefully adds that associated with
DONNA L. RUHL these phenotypic changes are the molecular changes to the genes
Florida Museum of Natural History that also reflect the revolutionary impact resulting from human
Gainesville, Florida 32611 interrelationship with generated domesticates. Thus, he correlates both the biological factors and the human intervention
Bruce Smith's writing and breadth of knowledge is masterful, necessary for these creations to occur.
yet clear and concise, which enables him to cover a broad range The 12 chapters in Rivers of Change are divided into four of areas and details on a topic of much importance and interest sections. The first chapter sets the tone and direction of the the origins agriculture. In Rivers of Change, Smith reveals with volume as the four themes that tie the "rivers of change" scholarly detail the botanical and archaeological data that together are expressed. These are: 1) "the actual water courses stimulated the "Floodplain Weed Theory" of independent of the Eastern Woodlands where reoccurring floodplain landdomestication of indigenous plants in the Eastern Woodlands of scapes are the common denominators for the emergence of North America. Switching to a global perspective in the domestication and farming; 2) the interlinked transition of
Emergence of Agriculture, the author adds eastern North indigenous plants and human economic changes from foraging
America to an extant list of independent centers of origin based to farming; 3) the preservation in the archaeobotanical remains, on the research described in the earlier work. which have been recovered and revealed through recent methodIn these books, Smith succinctly and synthetically reviews the ological advances; and 4) the continued interest in the origin of historical and methodological changes in botany (e.g., genetic agriculture in eastern North America" (Smith 1992:4). While research) and archaeology (e.g., the use of Scanning Electron the primary focus is to show the incipient stages of plant Microscopy and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) that have domestication and their connection to the emergence of farming
impacted scientific theories on plant domestication and the communities, Smith interweaves "a number of other streams of origins of agriculture, both in the Eastern Woodlands of North change" -- environmental, scientific, political, and pedagogic -America and around the world. For example, he informs us that that "[meander] as integrating subthemes" throughout the book. Russian botanist and naturalist Nikolai Vavilov was one of the Rivers of Change is a compilation of many articles that have first to propose the "centers of origin" theory around the turn- been published elsewhere. As such, it provides an overview, of-the-century. This theory suggested that a domesticated plant's synthesis, and detailed accounting of much that was published, center of diversity equated to its center of origin. While this primarily throughout the 1980s, concerning a specific complex tenet is no longer accepted, Vavilov's research and collection of of weedy plants: chenopod, cucurbit, marsh elder, sunflower, data promoted field collection which led to the recognition of and, to a lesser degree, maygrass, little barley, and erect knotplant diversity, morphological change, and genetic divergence, weed. This research is continuing and, as a result, some of the Contemporary studies incorporate comparative genetic studies cucurbit and other research of the 1980s needs to be supplealong with the locational mapping and collecting of seeds and mented with more current findings. Nevertheless, the more adplants of a domesticate's possible wild progenitor(s). vanced student and researcher will appreciate this synthesis,
Smith also discusses the research that is occurring in the field albeit recognizing the advances that have been made since its of paleoethnobotany, a discipline that has, within the past 10 to conception and publication. 15 years, emerged as a profitable avenue for empirically testing After reading the detailed Rivers of Change, I occasionally such theories. He points out that a prerequisite for assessing the wished for more data and their expression in charts and graphs reliability and validity of the wild progenitor-domesticate to better support the underlying tenets in The Emergence of phenomenon involves allozyme studies and other genetic tests. Agriculture. The audience for this book, however, is the general Archaeology can provide the ancient botanical remains neces- public, and Smith has written a stimulating and informative sary to conduct such research, as has been the case with barley book that was difficult to put down. Excellent illustrations (Hordeum spontaneum), einkorn wheat (Triticum boeoticum), accompany the text. An important coevolutionary and ethnobioand emmer wheat (Triticum dicocoides). Modern studies have logical perspective prevails as Smith discusses the interrela-
34 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
tionships of plant domestication with animal domestication, References Cited
edaphic, and other integral factors including the edaphic,
climatic, and ecological conditions that facilitated the emergence Harlan, Jack of agriculture. This volume takes you around the world, 1977 The Origins of Cereal Cultures in the Old World. In Origins of
specifically to the places where agriculture emerged indepen- Agriculture, edited by C. Reed, pp. 357-386. Mounton Publishers, The
secifily to miHague. gently time and time again: Harlan, Jack R., J. M. de Wet, and E. Glen Price
1973 Comparative Evolution of Cereals. Evolution 27:311-325.
The Fertile Crescent wild barley and wheats, goats, sheep,
pigs, and cattle.
Europe and Africa emmer and einkorn wheat, barley, New Words, Old Songs: Understanding the Liv
lentils, sheep, goat, pigs, and cattle. Peoples in Southwest Florida Through Archaeology. Charles E.
Africa millet, sorghum, and African rice. Blanchard, illustrated by Merald Clark. Institute of Archaeology
East Asia lowland wet rice, millets, chicken, water buffalo, and Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida, Gainespigs ville, 1995. viii + 136 pp., bibliography, index $14.95
Southeast Asia root and tuber crops. (p pe) $2 .9 (cot)
Middle America corn, beans, squash (orange rind). (paper), $24.95 (cloth).
South America potato, quinua, llama, alpaca, quinea pig. ARTHUR R. LEE
Eastern North America chenopod, squash (yellow/green Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
rind), marsh elder, sunflower, maygrass?, knotweed?, little Craighead Laboratory, Naples, Florida.
Southwestern North America corn, squash. It is by his shoulders that a canoeist learns a water. There are
stretches where the surface has only small ripples, there is little
Smith has skillfully addressed, whenever possible (there are wind, and the muscles can coast in overdrive. Then there are many unanswered or partially answered questions), the where, stretches where the wind forces the canoeist into the middle of what, when, and how of agricultural origins. In the final his craft to keep the prow down, and paddling becomes serious chapter, "The Search for Explanations," Smith considers why business. Such differences in canoe waters were discovered by human cultures sought an agricultural way of life, recognizing educator/musician Charles E. Blanchard on his first trip down that similarities exist between many of these regions. These a tributary and into Charlotte Harbor. He found areas where similarities include the domestication of seed plants rather than open water was smoothed by protective projections from the root crops; the edible wild species that were gathered; human shore, where aching muscles could recover. These protected populations that lived in large, permanent communities; affluent waters frequently led to high, dry, camping places, and he resource availability; and proximity to aquatic habitats bounded marked them on his map. On one of his canoe expeditions by less stable environments. It has been suggested that hunters (escapes from the winters of Connecticut) he found a map in and gatherers became farmers by intentionally manipulating the museum at Boca Grande showing the locations of prehistory environment to increase quantities, thereby reducing risk and sites. These, he noted, coincided with the good camping place, safeguarding reliability. While the similarities noted by Smith and sheltered waters he had marked on his chart. are keys to a broader understanding of why numerous cultures Blanchard ultimately became affiliated with the Florid at different times and places may have selected (accidentally or Museum of Natural History, and he played an important role i intentionally) to domesticate plants and animals, he correctly that institution's share of Lee County's Year of the India, advises that we must continue to generate data in our efforts "to project, directing the component that dealt with the publi, refine and expand our knowledge of this revolutionary turning school system. That effort influenced conception of the Florid point in the history of our planet" (Smith 1995:231). Heritage Education project, now undergoing testing in severe
Linking botanical and archiaeological-historical perspectives counties, with Blanchard a major player. with the scientific advances that have occurred, these volumes The Museum was deep into its Southwest Florida Project, an do much to address the emergence of a discipline called its discoveries made increasingly evident the Calusa's expertis
paleoethnobotany and the empirical d.ata that have been generat- as fishermen, the depth of their association with the water anc ed to support or refute past theories about the origins of in turn, their estuarian self-sufficiency which shielded the trit agriculture in prehistory. I think both of these volumes are from early European encroachment. essential to any studies or courses involving domesticated plant Creation of a popular, instructive book on archaeology w origins and the emergence of agriculture. As a popular treatise, built into plans for the Year of the Indian project, andi Emergence of Agriculture opens its covers to professional and authorship fell to Blanchard. It was decided to make its conten avocational readers alike, providing them with new insights and accessible to young people, but without turning away adults theories. In a sense, these volumes work as companion pieces a delicate balancing act. Coincidentally, Blanchard himself h that provide the interested reader of eastern North American undergone a self-teaching process in archaeology during tl archaeology with regional specifics as well as a refreshing preceding decade: "Talking to myself.. .to untangle the comple broadening of these basic data to a global perspective. ities, reconcile the contradictions, and throw out most of t
BOOK REVIEWS 35
jargon." From his talking to himself comes New Words, Old Songs: "New Words" -- modem archaeology's contribution to understanding; "Old Songs" -- the lifeways of southwest Florida's ancient peoples.
An introduction describes the problem of fleshing out cultures which left few and scattered accounts of themselves, and how modem archaeology goes about that work, making use of scientific tools from many disciplines to decipher clues left in earthworks and middens. The basic problem, lack of direct access to those cultures, is laid, in the second chapter, to the epidemics that wiped out people lacking inherited immunities to European diseases. The book then relates what is known of the people of the shore and their ancestors in the customary time segments -- Paleoindian, Archaic, and Formative -- describing how physical relics are used to reconstruct their cultures. It is common writing practice to insert into narrations whose events are described in general terms, episodes in which the action is slowed to permit a closeup view of events and characters. Blanchard uses fiction in these closeups, describing a hunt of Bison antiquus to dramatize the life and environment of the Paleo people, an oyster feast after ceramics had come into use, and a solstice observance when the mound concentration that now is Pineland was a thriving Calusa center. His unique background gives Blanchard an intimate feel for the water-borne, sea-edge lives he describes. These events, and other parts of the narration, are given life by maps and sketches by Merald Clark, whose original scenes and accurate reproductions of Calusa artifacts make the 136 pages inviting and doubly instructive. A double-page painting etches the mounds and buildings of the Calusa's Pineland against a dramatic sunset to lend realism to the author's reconstruction of a ceremony there. Claudine Payne, who designed the book, made effective use of white space. A half-dozen maps are placed to orient the reader, two score marginal sketches show what various artifacts looked like, and ten full or double-page illustrations lend drama. There are general, more technical, and young peoples' reading lists, and an index.
The book is factually correct, its archaeological content is current, and its description of the growth and death of a people is easily read by nonprofessionals, including young people, without an after-taste of condescension. There is nothing like it on the book market, and it will have a long shelf life.
The Safety Harbor Museum
of Regional History
Tatham Mound Explore Marco Island's
A Time-Capsule Unburied Treasure
Through an unprecedented loan arrangement with the of Native American History Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History
An exhibit of graphic panels and Relish the excitement of discovery
replica artifacts produced by
the Florida Museum of Natural History For the first time in 100 years, one of North America's
most treasured Native American artifacts, the celebrated Key Marco Cat, will return home to Florida for a rare and limited public appearance.
Travel back to 1895-96 when the flamboyant archaeologist, Frank Hamilton Cushing, led the Pepper-Hearst expedition to Marco Island, Florida. Reputed as one of the most significant excavations in American archaeology, this wetland dig yielded artifacts of the vanished Calusa Indians, the sophisticated prehistoric inhabitants of Southwest Florida.
In 1984, archaeologists discovered an American M iraculously preserved in the mangrove muck, Gushing
Indian site that had remained hidden for almost 450 unearthed the Key Marco Cat, a Calusa Panther deity, and
years. Located in a remote section of Florida, the other treasures, to the wonderment of the Victorian world
Tatham Mound proved to be a time capsule of history. and the admiration of subsequent artistic and scientific audiences. Today, the tiny wooden statuette remains one of the most heralded works of Native American art. Excavations revealed that the mound was in use from around A. D. 1100 to the 1540s, from the precolumbian The exhibit reunites the Cat with other artifacts from the dig, on loan from
period the time of the earliest Spanish overland the Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida and is shown with
peitonsi original drawings, watercolors and photographs by expedition photographer/artist,
expeditions. Wells M. Sawyer, from the collection of Marion S. Gilliland. This exhibit was
made possible by Collier County Tourist Development Council funds.
The people who built the mound were related to the Tocobaga, a native American group who spoke a EXHIBIT OPEN: December 7, 1995 April 30, 1996
Timucuan language. The Tocobaga are linked to an ADMISSION: $2.00 per person; children under 12 free
archaeological complex known as the Safety Harbor HOURS: Thursday-Friday 9 am-5 pm
culture, dating between A.D. 900-1725. Monday-Tuesday 9 am 5 pm Saturday Closed
Wednesday 9 am -Spmn Sunday 1lpm -4 pm
Closed on national and county holidays. Call for more information. See the Tatham Mound Exhibit PieRde/od >Ext1
March 1 April 30, 1996 PieRdeRa .. (-Ei N6
Safety Harbor Museum Golden Gate Parkway 3,
of Regional History Photos courtesy C .
Smithsonian Colie tont
39SBasoeBlvd. Institution, G.... ~ne
83726-1668 Hisria tor a nd Dr.O4
HOURS: Tue. -Fri. 10-4 Collier County Museum, located in the Collier County
Sat. & Sun. 1-4 Government Center, 3301 Tamiami Trail East, Naples, Florida 339(
ADMISSION: Adults $1.00 (941) 774-8476
Children Under 12 $ .50
Museum Members Free
EDITORIAL POLICY AND STYLE GUIDE FOR
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST AND
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS
The following guidelines are being published to assist authors responsible for securing written permission, when necessary, for who are preparing manuscripts for submission to The Florida the use of materials protected by U.S. or International copyright Anthropologist (FA), the official quarterly publication of the laws. Written permission is also required to publish material Florida Anthropological Society, and the Florida Anthropologi- that did not originate with the author including photographs, cal Society Publications, an occasional publication that focuses illustrations, and unpublished data. Evidence of permission to on special topics. The guidelines are based on and adopt many publish copyrighted materials or the work of others must be of the style conventions of American Antiquity (1992, 57:749- submitted to the Editor with the author's manuscript. 770), with which most professional archaeologists and students
are familiar. However, many of the journal's non-professional Submissions readers may not have access to this periodical and, furthermore,
the FA style conventions differ in some important ways from Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor, and book review those of American Antiquity. Thus, with the inception of a new manuscripts should be sent to the Book Review Editor, at the journal format, a style guide written specifically for the FA addresses given on the inside front cover of the most recent seemed appropriate, issue of the journal. Manuscripts submitted to The Florida
This style guide supersedes the previous guide published in FA Anthropologist should not be under consideration by any other 1984, 37(1):55-60. Authors are urged to consult the present journal or have been published elsewhere. Manuscripts should style guide carefully before submitting manuscripts to the Editor be sent by first-class mail in an envelope or package strong or Book Review Editor. A perusal of the most recent issue of enough to insure arrival in good condition. Photographs or the journal is also recommended. If there are questions or figures should be placed between two pieces of strong cardboard uncertainties regarding the journal's conventions, authors should for maximum protection. An original and four photocopies of contact the Editor before submitting manuscripts for review, the manuscript must be submitted. Authors should retain a fifth Adherence to the journal's style guide will greatly reduce the copy. High quality photocopies of photographs and illustrations amount of time necessary to edit manuscripts, minimize the time are acceptable for the first submission. Original photographs needed to revise manuscripts, and ultimately will contribute to and illustrations are required to be submitted once manuscripts quicker publication of submitted papers. have been accepted for publication. The final submission should
reflect the revisions requested by the Editor on all matters of
Editorial Policy style and content. Send one printed original along with a 3.5
inch diskette containing the paper in Word Perfect 5.1 or ASCII
The Florida Anthropologist and the Florida Anthropological format. Apple and Macintosh files must be converted to IBM Society Publications publish original papers in the subfields of DOS-compatible software by the author. anthropology with an emphasis on archaeology. Contributions
from allied disciplines are encouraged when concerned with Review of Manuscripts anthropological subjects or problems. The geographical scope
is Florida and adjacent regions. Authors are not paid for their The Editor will acknowledge receipt of manuscripts submitted manuscripts; however, three copies of the journal issue that for publication. Manuscripts considered inappropriate for the includes the published article are provided to authors free of journal, or using inappropriate style, will be returned to authors charge. Additional copies of the journal are provided to authors without review. The Florida Anthropologist is a peer-reviewed at cost. Authors should contact the editor to arrange for journal. Manuscripts will be reviewed by the Editor, at least additional copies of the journal. two Editorial Board members, and, when appropriate, other
professionals knowledgeable in the subject matter presented. All
Author's Responsibilities review comments are confidential and will be used by the Editor
to determine whether or not to accept a manuscript for publicaAuthors must submit their manuscripts (including figures) in tion and to prepare editorial comments. proper form for publication. Authors are solely responsible for The Editor makes the final decision regarding acceptance of the content of their manuscripts, including the accuracy of all a manuscript. Authors will be notified of the Editor's decision citations, references, and mathematical calculations. They are within two to three months of receipt of the manuscript. A
38 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
manuscript may be 1) accepted as is or with minor revisions, 2) If technical terms or concepts are necessary, consider defining accepted on condition that the author respond adequately to these for nontechnical readers. Criticism of the work of others identified problem areas and resubmit the revised manuscript for should be objective and completely referenced. additional review, or 3) rejected outright. If rejected, the original and any unmarked copies of the manuscript, as well as Textual Elements
any original photographs or illustrations, will be returned to the author(s). Photocopies used for review will not be returned and Title may be discarded from the Editor's review files when space is required for more current needs. The title of the manuscript should be typed in bold capital
letters, centered at the top of the first page of text, and followed Page Proofs by two spaces. The name(s) of the author or authors should be
typed in lower-case letters (except for the first letter of first, Proofs of articles accepted for publication are sent to authors, last, and middle names) and centered. Each author's name who are to check them for typographical errors. No text may be should be followed by an affiliation and address which should rewritten at this point, but editorial errors may be corrected and also be centered and typed in lower-case letters with initial significant new data or an absolutely essential correction may capital letters for significant words. Two spaces should follow sometimes be added. All changes and additions by an author are the last author's name and affiliation, and a short, descriptive suggestions only, and may be disregarded at the discretion of phrase that can be used as a running header should be typed in the Editor. Corrected proofs should be returned to the Editor no lower-case letters with initial capital letters for significant later than two weeks after receipt. Later returns may be words. For example: received too late for consideration.
EXCAVATIONS IN WATER-SATURATED DEPOSITS Manuscript Preparation and Form
AT LAKE MONROE, VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA:
The manuscript should be typed on one side only on white bond, 8.5 x 11 in (21.6 x 28 cm) paper. Manuscripts, including Barbara A. Purdy
titles, block quotes, acknowledgments, notes, references, and figure captions, should be double-spaced to facilitate editing. Do Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, not insert extra spaces between paragraphs. All margins should be about one inch (2.54 cm). Use only 10 or 12 pitch type. Gainesville, Florida 32611
Sections of the Manuscript HEADER: Excavations at Lake Monroe
Each of the following sections of the manuscript should be on a separate page or should start a new page. Additional informa- All headings are typed in lower-case letters with initial capital tion on each section is provided below. letters for significant words. Except for introductory words, do
not capitalize articles, prepositions, and conjunctions less than Text (wnih Titead Ato'rnm)]fflainades five letters long. Primary headings should be typed in bold
letters and centered with two lines of spaces above and below. Notes (begin new page) Secondary headings should be typed in italics (or underlined)
Acknowledgments (begin new page) and flush with the left margin. Tertiary headings should be
References Cited (begin new page) typed in italics (or underlined) on the left margin, indented as
Figure Captions (begin new page) part of the paragraph, and followed by a period and two spaces.
Tables (separate page for each) Freape
Biographical Sketch (begin new page) Cardinal Numbers. When cardinal numbers are used...
Pages are numbered consecutively through the References Nubr Cited only.
Geneal SyleCardinal Numbers. When cardinal numbers are used, and Geneal Syleexcept as noted below, spell out numbers zero through nine and Writ clarl an cocisly.Exprss ompex dea siply use Arabic numerals for numbers 10 and greater with commas Writ clarl an cocisly.Exprss ompex dea siply for numbers greater than 10,000. For numbers greater than and in a way that someone who is not familiar with the subject 10,Aai ueasmyb sdt xrs h uniyo
matter can understand. Avoid wordiness and excessive jargon. 10,Aai ueasmyb sdt xrs h uniyo
EDITORIAL POLICY AND STYLE GuIDE 39
thousands or millions while spelling out thousands or millions Table 1. Formulae for converting English units of measure to (e.g., 1 million or 9.27 million). Exceptions include: metric.
1. Spell out any number that begins a sentence. For example:
"Five hundred years ago...; Twenty projectile points..." Multiply By To Get
2. Spell out numbers that are used in a general sense. For
example: "Hundreds of archaeological sites have been Length
reported by amateurs." inches 2.54 centimeters
3. For a series in the same category where the largest feet .3048 meters
contains two or more digits use Arabic numerals for all. yards .9144 meters
For example: "There were 7 flakes in Square A, 56 in miles 1.6093 kilometers
Square B, and 117 in Square C."
4. Use Arabic numerals when referring to site numbers (e.g., Area
8HI27), proveniences (e.g., Square 11 ON500E), measurements (e.g., 3.1 cm, 6 km), or parts of books or articles square inches 6.451 square centimeters
(e.g., Chapter 7, page 3, Figure 1). square feet .0929 square meters
Ordinal Numbers. These are always spelled out. For example: square miles 2.59 square kilometers
"The thirty-fifth anniversary issue of The Florida Anthro- acres .4047 hectares
pologist...; the sixteenth century...; the first example...." An Mass exception is the use of ordinal numbers to refer to papers presented at annual meetings in the References Cited section. ounces 28.3495 grams
For example: "Paper presented at the 45th annual meeting of pounds .4536 kilograms
the Florida Anthropological Society ...." short tons .9072 metric tons
Dates. Dates should be expressed as in the following examples: 450 years; on April 1, 1996; in the sixteenth century (not Volume 16th); during the 1850s (not 1850's or fifties); from 1527-1540 (not 1527-40). The designation A.D. (anno Domini) should be cubic inches 16.3872 cubic centimeters
placed before a date using the Christian chronology, not after cubic yards .7646 cubic meters
(e.g., A.D. 500-600). The designations B.C. (before Christ) should be placed after the numbers used to designate dates Capacity
which predate the Christian era (e.g., 800-500 B.C.). Alternatively, the number for the year followed by the designation B.P. cubic inches .0164 liters
(before Present) may also be used. cubic feet 28.3162 liters
Site Numbers. The conventional Smithsonian Trinomial gallons 3.7853 liters
.ystem should be followed when referring to site numbers (e.g., 8LL235). Do not use hyphens between components of the trinomial system and use only capital letters for county designa- English units are not required to have a metric scale added. tions. To convert from English standard measuring units to metric
use the formulae in Table 1.
Mathematical and Statistical Copy
All measurements, distances, area, volume, and weight should be expressed in the metric system. All measurements should be All mathematical or statistical variables should be italicized or expressed with Arabic numerals except when they appear at the underlined (e.g., F = 12.67; df = 1, 12; p = .05). Never use beginning of a sentence or appear nonspecifically. Metric units leading zeros in text, figures, or tables. Mathematical equations are abbreviated without periods except for liters which is spelled should be set off from the text by spaces above and below the out to avoid confusion with the Arabic numeral "1." Exceptions equation or formula, and centered. For example: include:
1. If reference is made "to measurements that were made or 1; N (S 1)2 + (2N 5)
published originally in English units (e.g., in referenced
publications, maps, etc), these may be added in parenthe- Radiometric Ages and Dates
ses after their metric conversions for clarity.
2. Retain standard English units when they are contained in Where radiocarbon dates are being presented for the first time, a direct quote. In this case, no metric conversions are the following conventions should be followed: 1) The initial necessary, citation in the text should express the uncalibrated radiocarbon
3. Original maps must contain a metric scale but may also age in years B.P. followed by the 1-sigma standard error; 2) the contain an English scale at the author's discretion. sample identification number provided by the laboratory should
4. Copies of previously published maps that have scales in be given; 3) state what material was dated (e.g., shell, bone,
40 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
charred wood); 4) state whether the date has been corrected for presence of projectile points...is not in itself evidence of use of isotopic fractionation and supply the 6 13C value. For example: the site during these early times ..... 3680 60 B.P. (Beta 79188; wood charcoal; 613C = -23.8%0).
Note that the atomic weight of an isotope is indicated by a Spelling superscript preceding the atomic symbol (e.g., 4C not C-14 or
C4). Refer to Webster's Third New International Dictionary. If two
Calibrated dates must be identified as such (e.g., cal B.C. or
cal A.D.) and the particular calibration program that was used or more spellings are given, use the first listed (e.g., archaeolomust be identified (e.g., CALIB 2.0 [Stuiver and Reimer gy, not archeology; catalog, not catalogue; judgment, not judge1986]). he auenthored(eg., shu ld se weter a d d er ment). In all quotations and publication titles, the actual spelling 1986]). The author should state whether calibrated dates are in the original is used. reported as a 1-sigma or 2-sigma range (or ranges when more
than one is possible). For example: "For the date 3680 60
B.P. the two possible calibrated age ranges are 2279-2232 cal Italics B.C. and 2209-1905 cal B.C."
If a large number of dates is being discussed, this information Words in foreign languages are italicized (or underlined). Use can be placed in a table. In this case, the uncalibrated age in standard orthographies, including diacritical marks (and explain years B.P. with the 1-sigma standard error followed by the unusual symbols in the margin). Titles of books, periodicals, calibrated age range (if available) are sufficient in the text. For and other literary works are italicized, as are generic and more detailed information on the reporting of radiometric ages species taxonomic names (e.g., Neofiber alleni or Busycon sp.). and dates, the reader is referred to American Antiquity 57:755756. Capitalization
Quotations Consult the Chicago Manual of Style for capitalization of
Quotations of fewer than five typewritten lines should be nonarchaeological terms. Capitalize the names om eic included in the text enclosed in quotation marks. All quotations archaeological or geographical areas (e.g., Mesoar require a citation. If the names) of the authors) is included in Southeast, Central Gulf Coast). Directional, topographical, and
require ctaton.If he ames) f te atho~s)is ncldedin general geographic terms are not capitalized unless they are the sentence that includes the quotation, then the year and page dereomrperms r poticalre ntes
number(s) should be placed in parentheses following the derived from proper names or political or ethnic enitis( .
numbr~s shuld e pace in arethees flloingthe mesoamerican, southeastern, central Florida; but Maya Lowauthor's name. If the author's name is not included in the text, las, E astern captalize t N
then the name(s), year of publication, and page number(s) lands, Eastern Woodlands). Capitalize taxonomic should be placed in parentheses after the quotation. For generic or higher rank, but use lower case for species or lower example: According to Tesar (1980:246), "following the DeSoto rank (e.g., Pinus elliotti or Homo sapiens). Capitalize proper expedition in 1540 and prior to..." or The Late Archaic "...was names, including Early, Middle, and Late when they a time of considerable population growth, clear regional the name or chronological, cultural, or geographic divisions, but adaptations, and interregional exchange of raw materials" use lower case for taxonomic division names and restrictive (Griffins 967:1) modifiers. For example: Early Archaic period, late Holocene, (Griffin 1967":178). Windover site, Kissimmee River, Lake Okeechobee basin,
Quotations of more than five typewritten lines should be set Hilsovr hiand Alasia River Lakes TleanAn off from the text in a block quote, without quotation marks, Hillsborough and Alafia rivers, but Lakes Tulane a n double spaced, with two lines above and below. For example: Capitalize the proper names of archaeological classes, but use lower case for generic terms. For example: Waller knives,
Clovis fluted points, St. Johns Check Stamped.
The available evidence suggests few if any differences in late Archaic lifeways before and after the appearance of
fiber-tempered pottery. In fact, there appears to be great Hyphenation
uniformity in local settlement patterns and artifact assemblages -- except for the absence or presence of fiber- For rules governing hyphenation of nonarchaeological tempered pottery -- wherever late Archaic sites are found compound words, consult the Chicago Manual of Style or [Milanich 1994:86]. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. Compound words are
spelled without hyphens if they can be considered permanent
When emphasis is added or was already in the original combinations (e.g., rockshelter, subadult, preceramic, postclasmaterial, the source of the emphasis should be noted after the sic, precolumbian, Paleoindian, but mid-Pleistocene, postcitation, within the parentheses. For example: (Boyd et al. Arcliaic, etc.). Prefixes in common use are not hyphenated 1951:101; emphasis add) or (Boyd et al. 1951:101; emphasis in (e.g., noncultural, reanalyze, intrasite). Hyphenate combinations original). Omissions in a quotation are indicated by using three of words that serve an adjectival function (e.g., check-stamped ellipsis points (periods when typed) to indicate where one or pottery, heat-treated lithics, use-wear analysis). Do not hyphenmore words have been omitted. If these occur at the end of a ate a combination of an adverb ending in -ly plus a participle or sentence, then a fourth period must follow. For example: "The adjective (e.g., highly developed species, poorly drained soil).
EDITORiAL POLICY AND STYLE GUIDE 41
Abbreviations or Sam Upchurch (personal communication, 1993). Personal
communications are not included in the References Cited
Abbreviations are used infrequently. Exceptions include section.
acronyms for long titles of agencies, institutions, or organiza- References to publications by government agencies, private tions that are referred to frequently in the text. These always companies, or other organizations should include the full name follow the first introduction of the full name. For example: Soil of the organization in the citation along with the year of Conservation Service (SCS), Florida Museum of Natural publication and page numbers, if necessary. If the citation will
History (FMNH). Metric units are given in abbreviated form occur more than once, then an abbreviated acronym may be when they follow numbers (e.g., 6.4 mm, 7.2 m, 10 kin); the placed in brackets following the first full citation and these same is true for English units when they are used for clarity abbreviations may be used thereafter. For example: (United (e.g., 12 in, 3.5 ft, 25 mi). When referring to square meters or States Army Corps of Engineers [USA COE] 1991) and (USA cubic meters use m2 or M3. Other abbreviations that are COE 1991) or USA COE (1991).
permitted include et al., e.g., i.e., ca., cf., vol., %. Do not use When figures, plates, or tables are included in a citation these ibid. or op. cit. words are spelled out. For example: (Purdy 1981 :Figure 2) not
(Purdy 1981 :Fig. 2). Do not include the page number on which
Common Errors the figure, plate, or table occurs unless there is additional
information on the page that should be cited as well.
The words "data" and "strata" are plural. The proper usage is More detailed instructions on citation format can be found in "The data are..." not "The data is...." Similarly, "strata" is American Antiquity 57:758-761. used to refer to two or more stratigraphic zones or lenses;
"stratum" is used to refer to a single zone or lens. Notes
Stratigraphy is the study of soil strata. The word is often
misused to refer to the various strata at a site as in "The Endnotes are inserted at the end of the text, using a s stratigraphy of the site consists of...." Instead, use "stratigraph- head. Double space all notes and number them consecutivey ic sequence" or "stratification" as in "The stratification of the
sit isbet rprsenedby heproil inFiureL"with superscripts in the order that they appear inthte.
site is best represented by the profile in Figure 1." Endnotes should be used judiciously and be limited to essential
Citations information required for clarification when inclusion of that
information in the text would prove disruptive to the flow of the
References, including references to personal communications, manuscript or would be tangential to the discussion in progress. are placed in the body of the text, not in notes at the bottom of Endnotes do not include references. the page or following the article. The typical citation includes
the author(s) last name(s) followed by the year of publication Acknowledgments
and, where necessary, the page or page numbers. For example:
(Willey 1949), Willey (1949), or Willey (1949:345-347). Acknowledgments are inserted after the Notes section, using
Parentheses are used to enclose the citation except when used a secondary head. All support that went toward completion of with text material that is set off in parentheses or with quoted a manuscript should be cited including intellectual, institutional, text material that has been set off as a block quote, in which financial, and technical. case the citation is enclosed in brackets. Three or more authors
are designated by the use of "et al." after the first author's References Cited
name. For example: (Milanich et al. 1984) or Milanich et al.
(1984). The use of "et al." is limited to text citations; all of the The References Cited section follows the Acknowledgments authors' names must be listed in the References Cited section. and uses a secondary head. It includes only the publications that When several different authors are referenced in a citation, the are cited in the text; i.e., it is not a bibliography. All entries authors should be listed in alphabetical order with the works of must be listed alphabetically by the last name of the senior different authors separated by semicolons. For example: (Bullen author, and chronologically for two or more entries by the same 1975; Carr et al. 1995; Deagan 1979; Luer and Almy 1982; author(s). Use the names as they appear on the publication; i.e., Milanich 1972, 1994). Note that two or more works by a single do not abbreviate first or middle names unless they appear as author or authors are separated by a comma. Two or more abbreviations on the publication. All authors names are includreferences by an author or authors in a single year are designat- ed; do not use "et al." or "and others." Titles of books, ed by lower case letters (e.g., Lee 1995a, 1995b). All citations periodicals, monographs, titled volumes or monographs in a should provide a date if possible. The use of "n.d." or "ins." series, dissertations, theses, and contract reports are italicized should be kept to a minimum and are used only to refer to or underlined. NOTE: The use of italicized or underlined titles unpublished works where a date of completion is impossible to for publications other than books and periodicals differs from determine. Personal communication includes written or spoken previous usage in The Florida Anthropologist and follows the correspondence to the author, and should also include a date. most recent American Antiquity (57:764-769) guidelines. Typical For example (Sam Upchurch, personal communication, 1993) examples of the more common reference formats include:
42 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1)
Book Title Paper Presented at a Meeting
Purdy, Barbara A. Johnson, Robert E., and Dana Ste. Claire
1981 Florida's Prehistoric Stone Technology: A Study of the 1988 Archaeological Investigations in the St. Johns Region of Flintknapping Technique of Early Florida Stone Imple- Florida. Paper presented at the 40th annual meeting of
ment Makers. University Presses of Florida, Gaines- the Florida Anthropological Society, Winter Park.
When listing an unusual reference, include all information needed to enable a reader to identify and locate the source. For Chapter in a Book example:
Lewis, Clifford M. Austin, Robert J.
1978 The Calusa. In Tacachale: Essays on the Indians of 1993 Unpublished field notes, maps, and data sheets from the Florida and Southeastern Georgia During the Historic excavation of the Dragline site in Highlands County,
Period, edited by Jerald Milanich and Samuel Proctor, Florida. On file, Janus Research, St. Petersburg.
pp. 19-49. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
For additional information on the appropriate format for Article in a Periodical references consult American Antiquity 57:763-770.
Dunbar, James S., Michael K. Faught, and S. David Webb Figure Captions
1988 Page/Ladson (8Je59 1): An Underwater Paleo-Indian Site in Northwestern Florida. The Florida Anthropologist Use Arabic numerals and number all figures sequentially in 41:442-453. the order that they appear in the text. Provide a concise
description for each figure, in complete sentences, using
Volume in a Series sentence-style capitalization. For example:
Figure 1. Map of the excavation area showing the distribution Willey, Gordon R. of decorated sherds.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, Vol. 113, Washington, D.C. Use lower-case letters to identify sections of a figure. For example:
Dissertation and Thesis
Figure 2. Sample of decorated ceramic sherds from sites in the Johnson, Kenneth A. Kissimmee River valley: a) St. Johns Check Stamped; b)
1991 The Utina and Potano Peoples of Northern Florida: unidentified cord-marked; c) Matecumbe Incised.
Changing Settlement Systems in the Spanish Colonial
Period. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropolo- Type all captions together, double-spaced, on a separate sheet
gy, University of Florida, Gainesville. or sheets of paper, and place in front of actual figures.
If you consult a University Microfilms copy: Figures
All illustrative material (i.e., maps, photographs, illustrations, Mitchem, Jeffrey M. graphs) are referred to as "Figures.' Do not use "Plates,'
1989 Redefining Safety Harbor:LatePrehistoric/Protohistoric "Maps, or other such terms. Authors are responsible for ,Archaeology in West Peninsular Florida. Ph.D. disserta- supplying camera-ready figures suitable for publication without tion, Department of Anthropology, University of Flori- redrawing or reduction (maximum size is 7 by 9 inches or 17.8 da. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor. by 22.9 cm). Originals should be prepared on good-quality
drawing paper or prepared using a high-quality laser printer. Contract Report PMTs are also acceptable. All lettering must be neatly done
using transfer type, laser printer, or careful hand lettering with Austin, Robert J., and Jacquelyn G. Piper black ink. All lines and lettering must be thick enough and
1986 A Preliminary Cultural Resource Assessment Survey of spaced widely enough to be legible for up to 50 percent the Avon Park Air Force Range, Polk and Highlands reduction. Each figure should be lightly numbered in the margin Counties, Florida. Report prepared for Martin-Marietta with its appropriate figure number. All maps should include a Energy Systems, Inc. by Piper Archaeological Research, scale in meters. Do not use the form "1 cm = 400 in" because Inc., St. Petersburg. Copies available from the Natural many figures are reduced before publication and such scales will
Resources Division, Avon Park Air Force Range. not be accurate after reduction.
EDIToRuL POLICY AND STYLE GUME
Photographs should be good-quality, black and white, glossy prints. Each photograph should be lightly numbered on the back with its appropriate figure number. Photographs of artifacts should include a scale. If no scale is shown in the photograph, then the scale of the object(s) in the photograph should be indicated in the caption.
All tabular material should be separated from the text. Each table is typed on a separate page and numbered consecutively in the order that they are referred to in the manuscript. Use Arabic numerals and provide a short, descriptive title for each table using sentence capitalization. For example:
Table 1. Cross-tabulation of raw material by functional use wear.
When constructing a table, keep in mind the size limitations of the journal. Tables with many columns may have to be placed sideways on the journal page, broken up, or set in reduced type. Provide horizontal rules above and below the column headings and below the last line of data. The table title goes above the first horizontal rule. Each column and row should have a brief heading. Footnotes for the tables should be placed below the bottom horizontal rule. Use superscript, lowercase letters for specific notes.
A brief (2-4 line) biographical sketch should be provided for each author of an article. These are placed on a separate sheet of paper at the end of the manuscript and are double spaced.
Florida's Past Activities Chapters
Florida's history is long: it goes back 10,000 Each spring, an FAS chapter hosts a state- FAS has chapters throughout Florida
years to people who hunted mammoth with wide meeting attended by members of FAS which are open to the interested public. By
stone-tipped spears. and its chapters, and the public. Both pro- joining FAS and one of its chapters, citizens
It is colorful: 7,000 years ago, Florida's Native fessionals and amateurs deliver papers about can take an active part in helping to study and Americans wove cloth as fine as a T-shirt. their activities and investigations. A banquet preserve Florida's heritage. Activities include
features a guest speaker who is usually meetings, field trips, and archaeological digs
It is unique in the world: around 800 years nationally-known in the field of archaeology supervised by professionals.
ago, some Floridians had a civilization so or anthropology. FAS elected officers are
complex that they built long canoe-canals and instated at a business session. FAS Chapters
huge pyramid-shaped mounds of shells and During the year, the FAS Executive Board Write your area's chapter for membership infomasand. holds several meetings. FAS chapters have on today!
You can be part of it! New pages of this story monthly meetings, field trips, and other Archaeological Society of Southern Florida
are being written every week. Teams of activities. 2495 NW 35th Avenue, Miami, FL 33142
amateur and professional archaeologists
together are making fascinating discoveries in county Archaeological Society
the field and in the lab. edera, Dania
You can help save it! Florida's rapid develop- P u b lica tio n sCentral Florida Anthropological Society
ment puts many valuable sites in jeopardy.
Amateur and professional archaeologists, Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
elected officials and planners, and just plain 1. FAS publishes a scientific journal, THE P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, FL 33682
concerned citizens are working together to FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, four times a Indian River Anthropological Society
save this history in the soil. year. Both professionals and amateurs con- 3705 5. Tropical Terrace, Merritt Island, FL 32952
How do you put yourself into this picture? By tribute articles about investigations in Florida Kissimmee Valley Arch. & Hist. Cons. joining the Florida Anthropological Society and nearby areas. These articles keep FAS PO. Box 970, Sebring, FL 33871
(FAS) or one of its chapters, or both, as many members up-to-date on many aspects of
interested citizens do! Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and pre- Northeast Florida Anthropological Society
servation. Many libraries around the nation
and world subscribe to the journal. Pensacola Archaeological Society
. ,P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591
"'. ]. ".. ".St. Augustine Archaeological Association ""_.. .2. aaP.O. Box 1987, St. Augustine, FL 32085
" '-" 2FAS pbihsanewsletter four times aotws lrd
year which keeps FAS members abreast of P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 33941
FAS chapter activities and of pertinent events Time Sifters Archaeology Society Sand news around the state and wider region. P.O. Box 25642, Sarasota, FL 34277
. q /,' ,,.A\ ........ ..... \-A A /,:"":";'' "':'" I v,/ Volusia Anthropological Society
v v v : : :: ':; .': :: -:: : : :: :: : -.'::P .O B o x 5 0 4 N e w S m y r n a F L 3 2 1 7 0
Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
A non-profit organization founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida
Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help f save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
I( featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informative journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on
0 Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.
r--- ----- -- ---------------- -,
Florida Indian 0L YES! I want to join FAS!
Poster I Membership is only $25 per year (individual) and is tax-deductible.
Dancer is the 4 Other rates: $25 institutional, $35 family, $35 or more, sustaining,
main illustration patron $100, and life $500.
of an attractive
and informative [' YES, I would like to donate an additional $6.50, also tax-deductible,
poster depicting and receive a poster by mail (allow 3-5 weeks).
the major tribes n
that once inhabited Florida. .I Name: Available for a
$6.50 donation Address:
to FAS, this 18 by
36-inch poster is
printed maroon city: State: Zip:
and purple on a
cream-colored Telephone'(: )
h MAIL TO:
I FAS Membership, c/o Terry Simpson, CGCAS, P.O. Box 82255,
1 Tampa, FL 33682
Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
A non-profit organization founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida
Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informative journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.
Florida Indian EYES! IwanttojoinFAS!
Poster Membership is only $25 per year (individual) and is tax-deductible.
This Bird-man U Other rates: $25 institutional, $35 family, $35 or more, sustaining,
Dancer is the .
of an attractive
and informative I YES, I would like to donate an additional $6.50, also tax-deductible,
poster depicting ~ n eev otrb al(lo ek)
the major tribes adreevapotrbmalalw3-wek)
that once in- [I
habited Florida. .I Name: _____________________________Available for aI
$6.50 donation I Address: _____________________________to FAS, this 18 by
36-inch poster is
printed maroon City_____________State: Zip:
and purple on a
cream-colored Teepon:( )
heavy paper. "
_ MAIL TO:
II* FAS Membership, d/o Terry Simpson, CGCAS, P.O. Box 82255, I Tampa, FL 33682
46 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1996 VOL. 49(1
About the Authors:
Arthur R. Lee, an avocational archaeologist, is director of the Southwest Florida Archaeological Society's Craighead Laboratory and Editor of the SWFAS newsletter. Art is a past President of the Florida
Quentin Quesnell has taught at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts since 1977 and is currently the Roe/Straut Professor in Humanities. A winter resident of Marco Island for the last eight years, he has
been researching and writing a book on the evolution of Old Marco.
Randolph J. Widmer is Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of Houston. He was an undergraduate at Florida State University and received his Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University. He has had a long interest in the archaeology of the Calusa of southwest Florida and has written a book entitled
The Evolution of the Calusa. He first did field work on Marco Island in the early 1970s.
Robert H. Gore is Director of the Naithloriendun Wildlife Sanctuary in Naples, Florida.
Loren R. Blakeley, a University of South Florida graduate, is second term President of the Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society and First Vice President of the Florida Anthropological Society. Loren uses his artistic talent and interest in primitive pottery manufacturing to stress cultural and environmental
preservation awareness through public archaeology.
Donna L. Ruhl is Archaeologist and Paleoethnobotanist with the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville. Donna is a doctoral candidate at the University of Florida where her Ph.D. research focuses
on the paleoethnobotany of Florida's Spanish missions.
About the Cover:
Reflections by Elizabeth Neily graces this issue's cover. According to Neily, the illustration represents the Calusa belief that the human spirit resides in three places -- the eye, the shadow, and the reflection. The amulet holds the weeping eyes of the great spirit who understands the trials of the human experience. The shadows are of the mangrove estuary that was the source of their wealth and their interdependence on the rhythms of the natural world. The reflection of the moon, the world of the heavens, offers the human spirit replenishment and hope. Neily often turns to Amerindian friends for interpretations. A confident suggested that the tablet was really an abstract image of a temple mound. The rectangles at the bottom are the stairs climbing the mound. The temple rises above the platform. On its roof is the symbol of the four directions
and the hoops symbolize the cycle of life.
About the Artist:
Elizabeth Neily's earliest memories were filled with her father's personal descriptions of the mysteries and splendors of Africa. These awakened a lifetime fascination with the wonder and variety of human culture.
The deep, innocent joy of first friendships was with Micmac Indian children. Her enthusiasm led her to Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia and a B.A. in anthropology. After moving to Florida, Neily discovered the fabulous mosaic of our cultural heritage. Her art has focused on two primary areas of interest. Realizing the need for educational interpretation of the female side of history, she depicts the importance of the role of women, from contact to "boom" times. She is also drawn by her love for the roots of Amerindian culture. Neily resides in St. Petersburg, and is a member of the Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
and the Florida Anthropological Society.
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. Non Profit Org.
POST OFFICE BOX 82255 U.S. POSTAGE
TAMPA, FLORIDA 33682 PAID
Pe No. 1333
Key Marco Revisited. Arthur R. Lee Relocating Cushing's Key Marco. Quentin Quesnell Recent Excavations at the Key Marco Site, 8CR48, Collier County, Florida. Randolph J. Widmer 10
Whelk Shell Damage -- Two Alternative Views. Robert H. Gore 27
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society. Loren R. Blakeley 29
Smith: Rivers of Change: Essays on Early Agriculture in North America and Emergence of Agriculture. Donna L. Ruhi 33
Blanchard: Old Songs, New Words: Understanding the Lives of Ancient Peoples in Southwest Florida Through Archaeology. Arthur R. Lee 34
Editorial Policy and Style Guide for The Florida Anthropologist and Florida Anthropological Society Publications 37
Copyright 1996 by the FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.