The Florida anthropologist

Material Information

The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Place of Publication:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Publication Date:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
v.48 no.2, June, 1995
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Florida Anthropologist Society, Inc. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
01569447 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )

Full Text
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q o0 0 0

TIlE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published by the Florida Anthropological Society Inc., P.O. Box 5142, Gainesville, Florida 32602. Subscription is by membership in the Society. Membership is NOT restricted to residents of the State of Florida nor to the United States of America. Membership is for the calendar year, January 1st through December 31st. Membership may be initiated for any current year by remitting dues for that year ON OR BEFORE SEPTEMBER 30TH of that year. Dues postmarked or hand-delivered on October 1st or later will be applied to membership in the following calendar year. Annual dues are as follows: individual $25, family $35, institutional $25, sustaining $35 or more, patron $100 or more, and life $500. Foreign subscriptions are an additional $5 U.S. to cover added postage and handling costs for individual, family or institutional memberships categories. Copies of the journal will only be sent to members with current paid dues. Back issues may be ordered from Graves Museum of Archaeology and Natural History, 481 S. Federal Highway, Dania, FL 33004.
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President: Jacquelyn Piper, P.O. Box 608, St. Petersburg, FL 33731 First Vice President: Loren Blakely, CGCAS, 6505 Gulfport Blvd., St. Petersburg, FL 33707 Second Vice President: George M. Luer, 3222 Old Oak Drive, Sarasota, FL 34239-5019 Corresponding Secretary: Annette Snapp, SWFAS, P.O. Box 82255, Fort Myers, FL 33902-1982 Membership Secretary: Terry Simpson, CGCAS, P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, FL 33682 Treasurer and Registered Agent: Jack Thompson, 576 Retreat Drive, Apt. 202, Naples, FL 33963 Directors-at-Large: Nina T. Borremans, P.O. Box 5142, Gainesville, FL 32602 (One Year); Dot Moore, P.O. Box 504, New Smyrna Behch, FL 32170 (Two Years); Cynthia Cerrato, 200 S. Central Avenue, Umatilla, FL 32784 (Three Years). Newsletter Editor: Ryan J. Wheeler, 1508 N.W. 1st Lane, Apt. 2, Gainesville, FL 32603
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NOTE: In addition to the above Editorial Review Board members, the review comments of others knowledgeable in a manuscript's subject matter are solicited as part of our peer review process.

Volume 48 Number2
June 1995
Page Number
Editor's Page. Brent R. Weisman 71
Hickory Ridge: A Mississippian Period Cemetery in Northwestern Florida. John C. Phillips 72
Bell and Brooks Street: Two Fort Walton Village Sites on Choctawhatchee Bay. Gregory A. Mikell 97
Choctawhatchee Bay Fort Walton, The West Side Story. Gregory A. Mikell 120
An Introduction to the Archaeology of Rookery Bay, Gateway to Florida's Ten Thousand Islands. Brent R. Weisman and Christine L. Newman 133
Tesar, Johnson Sand Pit. Reviewed by Dana Ste. Claire. 146
McGoun, Prehistoric Peoples of South Florida. Reviewed by Michael Wisenbaker. 147
Pauketat, The Ascent of Chiefs. Reviewed by John F. Scarry. 148
Florida Anthropological Society 1995 Presidential Award Recipients. 150
FAS 1995 Chapter Awards for Distinguished Service. 151
William Royal's 90th Birthday Celebrated: A Photomontage by Robin C. Brown. 152
Join the Florida Anthropological Society 153
Cover: Ceramic motifs from the Hickory Ridge site (8ES1280), from the article by John C. Phillips, this issue.
Copyright 1995 by the
ISSN 0015-3893

Brent R. Weisman
In this issue we travel back to the shores of the Fourmile Point-Hogtown Bayou area is striking, but just as
Choctawhatchee Bay, courtesy of Greg Mikell. Greg's articles striking is the virtual absence of sites along the Gulf coast plus the work by John Phillips lead us to some interesting proper. Here exist a series of lakes and limited wetland areas observations regarding the archaeology of the western portion behind the dramatic dunes of Grayton, Blue Mountain, and of the Northwest Florida archaeological culture area. One Topsail Hill that were used by peoples of the Archaic, might argue that the archaeological sequence of South Florida Deptford, Swift Creek, and Weeden Island cultures. Why not is the most uniquely Floridian because understanding it Fort Walton? Perhaps the answer lies in part with the involves the least amount of knowledge as to the sequences and development of the rich estuarine system of Choctawhatchee cultural developments of other regions in Florida or the Bay combined with environmental conditions that made the Southeast. Although outside influences came and went and left coastal lakes and lagoons less hospitable for human habitation. their traces on potsherds or ornaments of decorated shell, the Here might be another opportunity to address the effects of sea core culture, early on, slowly moved forward through time at a level change on cultural development using the environmental pace set by its own demands. Not so for Northwest Florida. approach as applied by Marquardt, Walker, and their To understand what was going on in Choctawhatchee Bay or associates in Southwest Florida. Perdido Bay in A.D. 1200, one must have intimate knowledge, In the "Let the Record Stand Corrected" department (and
as do Phillips and Mikell, of the cultural sequences of adjacent also relevant to our consideration of Choctawhatchee Bay is a regions of Georgia and Alabama and, by extension, virtually letter received from historian Brian Rucker of Pensacola Junior the entire area of the lower Southeast. Certainly the abundance College regarding an article in the March 1972 issue of The of ceramic types found in this portion of Northwest Florida Florida Anthropologist entitled "A Jacksonian Period Sword named for out-of-state locales adds to the impression that Handle from South Walton County." Rucker questions the archaeologists working here speak a different language than attribution of the sword handle to an American fortification in archaeologists working in the peninsula. Thus, communication the Alacqua Creek area in 1814-1818 period, and writes to say between archaeologists in the two areas may always be that no such fortification has been documented. A possible
hindered beyond a certain level of generality, the same way association may exist with a later 1837 blockhouse, but even that archaeologists have difficulty reading technical this is tentative, says Rucker. Interested readers are directed to archaeological literature from other states. On the other hand, his article in the Florida Historical Quarterly, January 1991, the archaeology of Northwest Florida is a point of immediate (Vol. 69), in which the 1837 fortification and related military accessibility for archaeologists working in adjacent areas of the activities concerning the Creek Indian crisis are discussed. Southeast, and provides an important means for them to Finally, I would like to offer my congratulations to the
become interested in Florida archaeology and to bring their winners of the FAS Presidential and Chapter Distinguished perspectives to bear on topics of Florida prehistory. Service awards and to salute their many hours of public service
The second thing that brings comment is Mikell's map in the cause of Florida anthropology. Through your efforts (Figure 1 in his "West Side" article) showing the distribution Florida's past truly is kept alive. of Fort Walton sites in Choctawhatchee Bay. Site density in

John C. Phillips
The Hickory Ridge site (8ES 1280), located in Escambia (1BA1), Santa Rosa Sound (8SR1), Graveyard Point (8SR3), County, Florida, is an undisturbed Pensacola cemetery Maester Creek Mound (8SR870), Fort Walton Temple Mound investigated by the University of West Florida (UWF). The (80K6), and Hogtown Bayou (8WL9). Primarily interested in site was originally recorded in 1983 during a reconnaissance- the spectacular mound and burial sites, Moore published level survey of southwestern Escambia County. At that time detailed descriptions of his work in the Journal of the Academy Hickory Ridge was characterized as a diffuse scatter of Weeden of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. He described mortuary Island artifacts and recent historical material. The site was practices and documented differences in pottery styles between relocated in late 1988 during a systematic Phase I the Mobile-Pensacola and Apalachee Bay regions (Willey archaeological survey undertaken for Escambia County by 1949:24-25). W. H. Holmes (1903), one of the most
UWF (Phillips 1989a). The horizontal limits of the site were significant archaeologists of his day, analyzed Moore's ceramic redefined during this survey, and a concentration of shell- collections from Bear Point on Perdido Bay, as well as several tempered sherds was identified. Most of the sherds derived site collections recovered along Choctawhatchee Bay. His from two partially reconstructible vessels with complex incised work identified three major ceramic ware groups: the Mobilemotifs. These ceramic types are often associated with Pensacola, the Apalachicola, and the Appalachian (Willey
Mississippian period burials in this region. Although no 1949:27). Holmes observed the similarities and differences skeletal material was encountered, the ceramics suggested the among these wares, and noted that a decrease in the Mobilepresence of a cemetery (Phillips 1989a:60). Phase II test Pensacola ware and an increase in the Apalachicola ware excavations conducted in 1989 in the area of these unusual occurred between Choctawhatchee Bay and the Apalachicola ceramics revealed a dense layer of shell-tempered sherds within River. a 15 m by 18 m area, three Mississippian burials, and several The next substantive archaeological work undertaken in reconstructible vessels. This work produced significant data on the region was conducted by researchers from Columbia Mississippian mortuary practices along the northern Gulf University under sponsorship of the National Park Service Coast. The grave goods consisted of Bottle Creek and Bear (Willey 1949). In his monumental Archeology of the Florida Point phase ceramic material, including Moundville Incised Gulf Coast, Willey (1949) developed a prehistoric and Moundville Engraved types, and exotic lithic artifacts and chronological framework and produced the first ceramic whelk shell objects. A radiocarbon date of 500 +/- 60 B. P. typologies for the Gulf Coast. This work defined the Fort (Beta 30702) was obtained from one of the burials. This Walton period and described the shell-tempered pottery of the
article describes the methods and results of the test Pensacola Series. Willey associated the Pensacola Series,
investigations, found near the western extreme of the geographic area of Fort
Walton, with this Mississippian culture. Building on Willey's
Archaeological Setting framework, Wimberly (1960) developed a shell-tempered
ceramic typology for the southwest Alabama region that
Formal archaeological investigations in the north-central remained the standard for many years. In more recent years, Gulf Coast region began with Sternberg's (1876) excavations there have been a number of refinements to Willey's original at the Bear Point site (1BA1), located on the eastern shore of concept of Mississippian culture on the northern Gulf Coast. Perdido Bay. This work listed burials and artifact Brose and Percy (1978) described the "Pensacola-Fort Walton assemblages, and produced a collection of shell-tempered culture" as a coastal adaptation heavily influenced by the vessels. In the 1880s, Walker (1885) identified shell middens Apalachicola-Fort Walton culture. This model views the in the Pensacola and Choctawhatchee Bay systems, and socio-economic adaptation of Pensacola-Fort Walton as very
provided fairly complete descriptions of the archaeological similar to the preceding Weeden Island period with a veneer of materials encountered. At the turn of the century, C. B. Mississippian attributes. Tesar (1980) defined five Fort Moore (1901, 1918) visited the northern Gulf Coast and Walton subareas; the Pensacola-Fort Walton subarea extends
investigated numerous sites. Among these were Bear Point from Choctawhatchee Bay westward to Mobile Bay.

Fuller and Stowe (1982: 48), building on the work of differences between Fort Walton and Pensacola culture Willey (1949), Wimberly (1960), Phillips (1970), and Jenkins (Milanich 1994: 381; [and see Mikell, this issue, ED.]). I (1981), devised a shell-tempered ceramic typology based on contrast to the Fort Walton culture with its multiple mound the type-variety system. With this analytical tool they isolated complexes, agricultural economy, and rigidly stratified social two northern Gulf Coast Mississippian pottery complexes: system, the Pensacola political and economic systems, as a Bottle Creek and Bear Point. Subsequently, Stowe (1985: 145) rule, were probably much less complex (Milanich 1994: 386). identified these manifestations as the "Pensacola variant" and Knight (1984: 200-201) suggests that the Pensacola complex defined the Bottle Creek phase (Stowe 1985:144-149). This represents a coastal adaptation, with a long real late Middle Mississippian phase dates from ca. A.D. 1200- developmental history, that extends from the head of 1450 and extends westward from Choctawhatchee Bay into Choctawhatchee Bay westward to the mouth of the Mississippi
coastal Mississippi (between the Pascagoula and Pearl rivers), River, and northward to the Alabama-Tombigbee confluence. and northward near Selma, Alabama. Concurrent work by This complex has several regional variants that are
Fuller (1985:150-155) defined the Late Mississippian and distinguishable by ceramic assemblages and settlement Proto-historic Bear Point phase; this phase encompasses a strategies. Most of these variants are simple chiefdoms that similar, though somewhat less extensive geographic range. centered around the bay systems in areas with low agricultural Fuller and Stowe's ceramic typology and the resultant phase potential (Bense 1994:234). Implicit in the models of Knight designations represent significant advancements in the effort to (1984) and Fuller and Stowe (1982) are significant influences define the Pensacola complex. originating with Moundville, an extremely large Mississippian
Recent work indicates that there are substantial mound complex on the Black Warrior River in central Alabama.
Figure 1 re
Figure05 HICOR RIDGE octin

Researchers agree that the Pensacola variant, 16 m square with a 2 m grid was centered on Feature 1, and characterized by shell-tempered pottery with similar design shovel tests were excavated at 2 m intervals. Finally, the 30 m elements, is geographically limited to the coastal areas of grid was extended outward and shovel tests were judgmental y extreme northwest Florida and adjacent areas of southwest placed along 5 m transects at 1, 2, or 5 m intervals. These Alabama and Mississippi. Furthermore, Pensacola subsistence judgmentally placed shovel tests were excavated to provide a was based on coastal resources with an admixture of limited better definition of the horizontal limits of the cemetery. The agriculture, depending on the availability of suitable soils. shovel tests measured approximately 30 cm on a side and were Researchers also agree that there is a low frequency.of mound excavated to a depth of at least 50 cm below the surface. The complexes within the geographic range of the Pensacola fill from these small test units was screened through 1/4 in. variant. Beyond this, Pensacola culture is an archaeological hardware cloth. The data were used to plot the horizontal concept that remains poorly understood. distribution and density patterns of the cultural material
recovered within the Hickory Ridge cemetery area.
Site Setting
I m by I m Excavation Units
The Hickory Ridge site lies west of Pensacola on a large
peninsula that is formed by Perdido and Pensacola Bays (see Ten 1 m by 1 m excavation units were placed within the
Figure 1). Perdido Key lies to the south, separating Big 30 m square area surrounding Feature 1. The units were Lagoon from the Gulf of Mexico. The site is situated at an placed in those areas where shovel testing produced the highest elevation of about 20 ft Above Mean Sea Level in a hardwood artifact densities. The strategy for excavating each 1 m unit hammock on the edge of a relict marine terrace. Big Lagoon involved first removing the root mat and light gray sand lies approximately 400 m to the south of the site across an overburden as a unit. This stratum was screened through 1/4 extensive swamp. A first order stream dissects the terrace and in. hardware cloth. The buried land surface contemporaneous flows into the swamp approximately 30 m southwest of the with the cemetery was encountered at the bottom of this gray site; a Mississippian village site (8ES1052) lies 50 m west of sand. The strata below the gray sand overburden were shovel Hickory Ridge across this drainage. The soils on the Hickory shaved and removed in arbitrary 5 cm levels; the fill from Ridge site, classified as Lakewood sand, level phase, are these 5 cm levels also was screened through 1/4 in. hardware highly acidic, excessively drained, and contain very little cloth. The floor of each arbitrary level was troweled to define organic material (Carlisle 1960). The preservation of bone and any features. These units were excavated to at least 10 cm other organics in these sediments is extremely poor. Hickory below the last level that yielded artifacts. Ridge is located in a remote, heavily wooded area of
southwestern Escambia County that has escaped intensive Feature and Burial Excavation
development thus far. Although the area appears to have been
logged on a number of occasions, producing some shallow Eight ceramic concentrations were encountered on the
gullies and washes, these activities do not appear to have buried land surface and in the upper levels of the underlying inflicted serious damage to the site. strata. Each concentration was given a feature designation,
documented, and then removed as a single unit. Carbon
Methodology samples for possible radiometric dating were taken whenever
in situ carbon was encountered.
The original ceramic concentration (Feature 1) that Burials were treated in a manner similar to features;
contained the mortuary-related vessels identified in the Phase I however, no human remains were removed. When human survey provided the focal point for the Phase II testing. A 30 skeletal material was encountered, the remains were exposed m area around this feature was investigated in a systematic and pedestalled and the matrix was processed through a 1/16 manner using shovel testing and excavation of 1 m by 1 m mn. screen. Following the documentation procedures and test units. A plan view of the test excavations is shown in removal of associated artifacts for further analysis, the burials Figure 2. were very carefully covered with screened matrix.
Shovel Testing Laboratory Analysis
The first step was an intensive shovel testing program that Following the field work, all artifacts, carbon samples, was utilized to identify additional ceramic concentrations and level, feature and burial forms, notes, drawings, and to define the horizontal limits of the cemetery. Shovel testing photographs were returned to UWF for processing and proceeded in three stages. First, a 30 m square area analysis. The artifacts were washed, sorted, catalogued, and surrounding Feature 1 was gridded off. Within this 30 m grid, classified. The ceramic analysis included an extensive period shovel tests were excavated at 5 m intervals. Following this, a of vessel reconstruction. The catalogued and classified sherds

180-- A A A A0 Ao A0 o~~
loo--00 0 0 0 Z 0 0 0 Z 0O
A Shovel tests on 30m grid with artifacts A Sterile shovel tests on 30m grid
* Shovel tests on 16m grid with artifacts S A A A A A A O Sterle shovel tests on 16m grld
O O O O O O O O # Additional shovel tests with artifacts
0 Additional sterile shovel tests
0 0 0 o0 0 9
190 -- A ECUA shovel tests with artifacts
O O O O O e e 0 ECUA sterile shovel tests
* O 0 e e O Test excavation units
BOOpriai 3 % I J ECUA test excavation
Ourlale r= a<>x Datum
O O O O O 1-. a Burials
W Burial 2
0 00 ** e
200 --o A A A A 00 0
0 0 0 0 0 ***
0- A A A A 0" A A 0 0
S o o o o 5 i
210 A AX w /
0> 0> 0 0 0> 0 0>0 5 0
0> 0> 0 0 0> 0> 0
220 -360 370 380 390 400
Figure 2. Plan view of investigations.

were placed on a large table. As each vessel was overburden (10 YR 5/1 to 6/1), which blanketed the entiresite
reconstructed, provenience data were recorded, the vertical and and varied in thickness from 5-27 cm. This stratum was a horizontal location of each vessel was plotted, and its deposit of wind-blown sand that originated on the exposed
association with features and burials was identified. Gulf beaches to the south of the site. No artifacts were
recovered in the upper limits of Zone 1. The lower part of the Results zone contained varying amounts of cultural material that
appeared to have been on the surface of the underlying During the Phase II testing, 210 shovel tests were stratum. Zone 2 consisted of a dark yellowish brown to excavated: cultural material was recovered in 57 of these small brownish yellow sand (10YR 4/6 to 6/6), containing numerous test units. As Table 1 shows, 671 artifacts were recovered, artifacts. The top of this stratum appeared to be a buried A These shovel tests revealed that artifacts, primarily shell- horizon. The contact point between Zone 2 and the overlying tempered ceramics, were concentrated within a 15 m by 18 m Zone 1 produced a significant number of large sherds. area (see Figure 2). Inside this small area of deposits, ten 1 m Furthermore, several broken vessels, as well as features and by 1 m units were excavated. These larger excavation units burials, were encountered in the lower portion of this stratum. produced additional ceramic material and revealed 8 features Zone 2 varied in thickness. Along the western boundary of the and 3 burials. Among the ceramic material recovered by cemetery, it was less than 10 cm thick. In the area near the
shovel testing, test excavation, feature removal, and burial burials, this stratum was as much as 60 cm thick. excavation were 30 partially reconstructible vessels. No Zone 3 was culturally sterile. This stratum was a dark
midden deposits were encountered during testing. Figure 3 is yellowish brown sand (10YR 4/6), indistinguishable by color a topographic map of the cemetery area showing the cemetery and texture alone from the overlying Zone 2. Zone 3 could be boundary, as defined by the cultural deposits recovered during distinguished from Zone 2 by its total lack of cultural material. shovel testing, as well as the location of the 1 m by 1 m units, and the features and burials. Cemetery stratigraphy, 1 m by 1 1 m by I m Excavation units
m excavations, features, and burials are discussed below.
Ten 1 m by 1 m units were excavated within the 15 m by
Stratigraphy 18 m area of the site with the greatest density of ceramics (see
Figures 2 and 3). As Table 2 shows, these test units yielded Three stratigraphic zones (Zones 1, 2, and 3) were 2,261 artifacts. Two excavation units, located on the
defined (see Figure 4). The expression of each zone varied northwest side of the cemetery (194R378 and 195R374), from unit to unit. Zone 2, for example, varied considerably in yielded fewer than 100 artifacts each and neither unit produced thickness: along the western edge of the cemetery this stratum features or burials. The remaining eight test units produced was less than 10 cm thick. Zone 1 consisted of a gray sand copious amounts of cultural material, primarily plain shellTable 1. Cultural Material Recovered from Shovel Tests*
Prehistoric Ceramics Count Lithics Count
Pensacola Incised var. Bear Point 19 Tallahatta Quartzite Flake 2
Pensacola Incised var. Gas que 5 Sandstone Flake 1
Moundville Incised var. Moundville 3
Moundville Incised var. Snow's Bend 2 Fauna
D'Olive Incised var. Arnica 25 Modified shell
Bell Plain var. Hale 81 Unmodified shell 1
Mississippi Plain var. Warrior 432 Other
Shell-tempered indeterminate 98 Brick 1
Total Artifacts 671
*summarized from Phillips (1989b)

Table 2. Cultural Material Recoveredfrom Excavation Units*
Cultural Material Test Unit
Prehistoric ceramics 194R378 195R374 196R388 197R380 197R379 199R379 200R379 196R383 195R383 203.5R378.5 Total
Pensacola Incised var. Bear Point 1 16 40 26 19 44 1 147
Pensacola Incised var. Moore 7 1 8
Pensacola Incised var. Gasque 8 8 7 23
Moundville Incised var. Moundville 2 2
Moundville Incised var. Snow's Bend 5 4 2 1 12
Moundville Incised var. unspecified 1 9 10
Moundville Engraved var. unspecified 1 23 24
D'Olive Incised var. Arnica 2 2
Bell Plain var. Hale 5 11 4 7 13 14 54
Mississippi Plain var. Warrior 42 29 558 197 74 109 150 116 189 272 1,736
Shell-tempered indeterminate 4 3 28 61 28 7 17 10 15 34 207
Shell-tempered effigy 2 1 3
Sand-tempered plain 1 2 3 6
Greenstone celt 2 2
Novaculite projectile point/knife 1 1
Chert projectile point/knife 1 1
Tallahatta quartzite flake 1 1
Chert flake 1 1
Ferruginous sandstone flake 1 1
Mica 56 3 14
Hematite 1 1
Whelk columellae I 1 1 3
Indeterminate unmodified shell 1 1 2
Total 53 40 618 307 133 137 232 144 238 359 2,261
* Summarized from Phillips (1989b)

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A DATUM 1O.OOM AMSL ARBITRARY ELEVATION Figure 3. Topographic map of Hickory Ridge Cemetery.

tempered ceramics, as well as features and burials. In most Feature 3, a ceramic concentration sitting on the original units, a dense cap of shell-tempered sherds was encountered at land surface (Zone 2) at approximately 27 cm below datum in the contact point between Zones 1 and 2 (the buried A 203.5R387.5, was a mostly intact Mississippi Plain var.
horizon). Unit 196R388, located on the eastern edge of the Warrior jar and part of a Bell Plain var. Hale plate. The cemetery, produced a large number of sherds at the interface feature was approximately 26 cm in diameter and extended between Zones 1 and 2 and yielded four discrete ceramic from 13-27 cm below datum. Feature 4, located in the concentrations (Features 6, 7, 8, and 9). 197R379 and southeast comer of 203.5R378.5, was a concentration of 197R380 yielded numerous artifacts, including Moundville sherds from three vessels: a Moundville Incised var. Incised var. Snow's Bend and Pensacola Incised var. Bear Moundville jar, a Pensacola Incised var. unspecified jar, and a Point sherds on the buried land surface; Burial One was Mississippi Plain var. Warrior jar. The concentration was encountered in these units at ca. 38 cm below datum. located at 20-23 cm below datum and rested within the upper
Units 199R379 and 200R379 yielded numerous shell- few centimeters of Zone 2, approximately 25 cm southeast of
tempered sherds, including Pensacola Incised var. Bear Point Feature 3. The concentration measured 25 cm by 30 cm. and var. Moore material on the buried land surface. 199R379 Feature 5 was a concentration of sherds from a Mississippi also produced Feature 2, a discrete concentration of Pensacola Plain var. Warrior jar and a Pensacola Incised var. Gasque Incised var. Bear Point sherds. Burial Two was encountered vessel. The feature, located in unit 195R383, extended into in 199R379 and 200R379 at ca. 46 cm below datum. Units the north and west walls of the unit. These sherds were 196R383 and 195R383 yielded a large number of shell concentrated from 13-16 cm below datum at the interface
tempered sherds at the interface between Zones 1 and 2. between Zones 1 and 2. These vessels were associated with Among the ceramics recovered from these units were Pensacola Burial Three. Incised var. Gasque, and Moundville Incised var. Snow's Bend Feature 6 was a concentration of Mississippi Plain var. sherds; 195R383 also yielded Feature 5. Burial Three was Warrior sherds. No vessels could be reconstructed from the encountered in 196R383 and 195R383 at ca. 45 cm below var. Warrior sherds. The feature, located in Unit 196R388,
datum. Unit 203.5R378.5 produced Features 3 and 4, and a rested at the interface between Zones 1 and 2 (16-20 cm below reconstructible Mississippi Plain var. Warrior vessel was datum) and measured 40 cm by 22 cm. Feature 7 was located encountered on the buried land surface. along the south wall of 196R388 and extended into the next
unit to the south. It consisted of a concentration of Mississippi
Features Plain var. Warrior, Bell Plain var. Hale, and Pensacola Incised
var. Moore sherds. Feature 8, a concentration of sherds also
located in the south wall of 196R388 and the unit to the south,
Eight ceramic concentrations were given feature consisted of sherds from a Moundville Incised var. Moundville designations during testing. In addition, one feature was jar and a Mississippi Plain var. Warrior bottle. Additional identified during the Phase I survey. With one exception var. Warrior sherds and an indeterminate shell-tempered sherd (Feature 3), the ceramic concentrations appeared to be also were found in this concentration. The feature was located
purposefully broken vessels; one vessel associated with Feature on the original land surface (top of Zone 2) at a depth of 17 cm 3 appeared to have been intact prior to testing. All ceramic below datum. Feature 9 consisted of sherds from a Pensacola concentrations contained sherds from more than one vessel. Incised var. Moore vessel and several Mississippi Plain var. Two concentrations were associated with burials; Feature 2 Warrior sherds. This concentration, measuring 20 cm by 25 with Burial Two and Feature 5 with Burial Three. The other cm, was located in Unit 196R3 88. The feature extended to a ceramic concentrations may also accompany specific burials; depth of 20 cm below datum and was located at the interface however, a definite association with a given interment could between Zones 1 and 2. not be established during testing. The ceramic material
recovered from the features is presented in Table 3. Burials
Feature 1 was a ceramic concentration identified during
Phase I (Phillips 1989a). The sherds are from a Pensacola Three burials were located during the test excavations.
Incised var. Gasque bottle and a Pensacola Incised var. Due to the extreme acidity of the sediments, bone preservation unspecified bottle that resembles Carthage Incised pottery. was extremely poor. Furthermore, burial pit outlines could Feature 2 was a concentration of Pensacola Incised var. Bear not be discerned because of the organic leaching caused by this Point sherds primarily from one casuela. Located in Unit acidity. This made recognition of the burials difficult. 199R379, the concentration measured 26 cm by 40 cm and Skeletal material could be identified only in situ by the dark
extended from 16-21 cm below datum. The concentration brown organic stains produced by decomposition which rested within the upper 5 cm of Zone 2. The bowl evidently surrounded the bone. In addition to the difficulty in identifying represents a grave offering associated with Burial Two and was the human remains, the lack of observable burial pit outlines placed near the surface above the interment. made it difficult to associate some mortuary furniture with the

Table 3. Ceramics Recovered from Features*
1** 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TOTAL
Pensacola Incised var. Bear Point 22 22
Pensacola incised var. Moore 7 6 13
Pensacola Incised var. Gasque 105 7 112
Pensacola Incised var. unspecified 14 15 29
Moundville Incised var. Moundville 3 5 8
Moundville Incised var. Snow's Bend 1 1
Bell Plain var. Hale 4 2 6
Mississippi Plain var. Warrior 14 23 14 18 25 64 21 32 26 237
Indeterminate shell-tempered 2 5 1 8
TOTAL 133 47 23 37 32 64 30 38 32 436
*summarized from Phillips (1989a,b) ** Phase I
Table 4. Artifacts Associated with Burials*
Artifact Burial 1 Burial 2 Burial 3
Pensacola Incised var. Bear Point vessel 5 3
Pensacola Incised var. Gasque vessel 1
Moundville Incised var. unspecified vessel 1
Moundville Incised var. Snow's Bend vessel
D'Olive Incised var. Arnica vessel
Shell-tempered effigy head Novaculite projectile point
Chert projectile points
Greenstone celt2
Mica 5 6
Whelk columellae11
Total 14 14 3
summarizedd from Phillips (1989b)

I97R379 1 97R381 195R383 195R384
Iooo I- I -- I I
1 9 R 7 ........ ....... ....... ........ ....... ..... ........ ....... ....... .......
9.801Mii i ii
. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. ... ...: .. ...: .: .: .:::::: ::. .:. . . . . . . ..:. :B U R I E D L AL A D S U R F A C E '-'-'-'-'-'-'-*-'-'-*-'-'-':,:*-*-'-'-*. . . . . . . . .
.. . .. . . . .. ..... ... I .. .. .. .
Figure 4. ,Stratigraphy.

burials. Although some grave goods were clearly associated jar, and 1 D'Olive Incised var. Arnica plate (see Figure 6). with individual burials, other associations are presumed These vessels evidently were intentionally broken and placed because of the close horizontal and vertical proximity of above the burial, on or near the surface. A ceramic bird-head artifacts to the human remains. Table 4 presents the artifacts effigy was located approximately 35 cm west of the skeletal associated with burials; the burial descriptions are presented material at a depth of 35 cm below datum. A small amount of below. Burial One is characterized by a dark brown stain mica was recovered from excavation unit levels above the (10YR 3/3) that surrounded a partial cranium, mandible, and remains. The projectile point/knife was recovered at a depth dentition; no postcranial material was observed (see Figure 5). of 29 Cm below datum, approximately 61 cm northeast of the This interment appeared to be a secondary burial. The dark burial. A radiocarbon date taken from a carbonized wood stain was organic in nature rather than a burial pit, and no sample clearly associated with this burial yielded an burial pit outline could be discerned. The remains measured uncorrected date of 500 BP +/- 60 years (Beta 30702). Burial approximately 20 cm by 30 cm and extended from 38-45 cm Two appeared as a dark brown organic stain (10YR 3/3) that
below datum. Several artifacts, including 7 vessels, mica, and surrounded cranial fragments, dentition, and other 1 red and gray chert point appeared to be associated with indeterminate skeletal material including possible long bones; Burial One. Among the associated vessels were 2 small bone preservation was very poor (see Figure 7). No burial pit
Pensacola Incised var. Bear Point subglobular bottles, 1 var. was observed. Burial Two measured approximately 80 cm by Bear Point beaker, 1 var. Bear Point jar, 1 large var. Bear 55 cm'and extended from 46-56 cm below datum. Among the Point casuela, 1 small Moundville Incised var. Snow's Bend grave goods associated with the interment were 3 shellP
............ ........ .. .
.... . ........ .... . . . . . ... .
ui ON
,.~. . . .........
M.~~~~ "0" w a .
Figure. 5. Burial.One

.... ..... i ................. ....... ...........
........... .......++
~ x.
+.:+,++,,+::,,, ~.. ... ... 0:.. ...... + ++ + ., :
i!iiii .... .... .........i :ii'i
+ ....:i ........++ .--........ ................. iii!!!i iii iiiiiii +:+ !!!iii.
.... ........... ... ....... ....I i
- :.: !i~i '+ : ........ !*!!:i~i~i~~i! ii!.-*.'................ --- --------i i~ii
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ . . . . .i]~ : .':: i :~ii!!"+ .... ..:::
...........iii ...............i
....... _.. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. DO .... X
Figure 6. Vessels associated with Burial One: (a-d) Pensacola Incised variety Bear Point; (e) D 'Olive Incised variety Arnica.

.... ... ....... .: .i i? ...i
.... .....~i!i ..................:ii
, ...........
... ... ..
. . . .. . .
.. .. .. ...............ii ... :: ii ::i ~ ~ ~ii. iii:: :! ~ ii ii : '' '" '
Figure 7. Burial Two.
tempered vessels, 1 whelk columella, 2 greenstone celts, poorly preserved umidentiflable bone (see Figure 9). Grave hematite, mica, and 1 projectile point. The three vessels goods associated with Burial Three included 1 small included 1 Pensacola Incised var. Bear Point beaker and 2 var. Moundville Incised var. unspecified jar (Figure i0a), a Bear Point casuelas (see Figure 8). The vessels appeared to concentration of sherds from 1 Pensacola Incised var. Gasque have been intentionally broken and scattered on or near the vessel (Figure l0b), and a whelk columella. Like the vessels surface above the interment. As Figure 7 shows, 1 greenstone in Burials One and Two, these two vessels appeared to have celt fragment was located under the cranium, whereas a been intentionally broken; however, the Moundville Incised
second, complete celt was located approximately 20 cm south vessel was placed near the individual rather than on the of the skeletal remains resting at a depth of 44 cm below original land surface. datum. The whelk columella was located in the cranial area, the hematite was encountered approximately 42 cm southeast Artifacts
of the burial at a depth of 48 cm below datum, and the mica was recovered from excavation units above the burial. The The test excavations at the Hickory Ridge cemetery
projectile point was situatedl 20 cm southeast of the interment produced 3235 artifacts, including prehistoric ceramic, lithic, at a depth of 57 cm below datum. Burial Three appeared as a and shell artifacts, and historical material. Among these are dark yellowish brown stain (lOYR 4/4) that surrounded very 3,202 prehistoric pottery sherds (including 30 partially

1 2 3 4 5
~ 0 1 2 3 4 5 CENTIMETERS
. .. . . ....
.. ........
"a 110 21 3 5P 5
Fiue8 escl ncsdvreyBa oitvsesascae wit BurialETwo.

reconstructible vessels), 25 lithic artifacts, 7 shell artifacts, and largest single class of sherds recovered during the 1 brick. Descriptions of the Phase II cultural materials are investigations. This type is tempered with coarse crushed shell presented below. which has leached out leaving a distinctive pock-marked
surface; the paste is very sandy. The rims are either straight or
Prehistoric Ceramics flared and appendages include plain loop handles and loop
handles with small nodes on top. The vessel forms appear to be
Prehistoric ceramics composed 99 percent of the artifact primarily globular jars (Figure 1 la-b); however, one bottle of assemblage recovered during Phase II testing. Among these this type was recovered. Six reconstructible var. Warrior
are 3,196 shell-tempered sherds and 6 sand- tempered sherds. vessels were recovered. Fuller and Stowe (1982:52-54) place In addition to the plain ceramics, surface decorations include this type within the Bottle Creek phase (A.D. 1200-1450). incised, engraved, and punctated design elements. The
ceramic classification follows several sources including Bell Plain var. Hale Steponaitis (1978, 1983), Jenkins (1981), and Fuller and Reference: Jenkins (1981:65-66)
Stowe (1982). This classification system was utilized although Number of sherds: 144 it is recognized that northern Gulf Coast ceramic typology is Description: Bell Plain var. Hale is tempered with finely the subject of debate and is undergoing revision, crushed shell and exhibits a burnished surface. Vessel forms
recovered from Hickory Ridge include bowls and plates; the
Mississippi Plain var. Warrior rim form is straight. Three animal effigy heads reminiscent of
Reference: Steponaitis (1978:15) a duck in profile were recovered. One reconstructible vessel of
Number of sherds: 2,391 this type was recovered. Bell Plain var. Hale appears to have
Description: Mississippi Plain var. Warrior represents the been used throughout the Mississippian stage, therefore, an
~~, $7 ~ ~.... .. ~ ......2~ ~ .
. .. .
Figure 9. Burial Three.

0 1 2 3 4 5
. .......
CENTIMETERS ..........

A Bs
...... ................. -. ....
.... .... % :i~~~. ....i~ ii i::i i : .... ..... ....... . . .. ... .. .iii ii i iiii i l 1 2 3
:::::::::::::::::::::::::: ........... ............ ...............~i :: i~ii :. i ... E..TI.. T E
. .......
.......,. I... ...V ....
.. ... . .. . . .
.. . ... .
Figure 11. Vessels recovered from Hickory Ridge: (a-b) Misssissippi Plain variety aro;()M udil nie
variety Snow's Bend.

association with the Bottle Creek and Bear Point phases is Stowe (1982:58) associate var. Arnica ceramics with the Bear indicated (Fuller and Stowe 1982:50-52). Point phase (A. D. 1450-1700), though they suggest that the
type may have been introduced during the latter part of the
Moundville Incised var. Moundville Bottle Creek phase.
Reference: Jenkins (1981:77)
Number of sherds: 13 Pensacola Incised var. Gasque
Description: Moundville Incised var. Moundville exhibits the Reference: Fuller and Stowe (1982:74-75) same paste as Mississippi Plain var. Warrior. The surface is Number of sherds: 35 decorated with incised arches that parallel the rim; a series of Description: Pensacola Incised var. Gasque is utilized herein short incisions radiate upward from each arch (Figure 12a). to describe all ceramics with the Bell Plain var. Hale paste and This motif occurs on small globular jars with flared rims, often realistically rendered incised design elements. Fuller and also accompanied by loop handles. Two vessels of this variety Stowe (1982:74-77) originally split these realistic design were reconstructed. This ceramic type is associated with the elements into two varieties: Gasque, with an anthropomorphic Bottle Creek phase (Stowe 1985:149). motif, and Holmes with bird/snake representations. However,
they suggested that var. Holmes could be subsumed by var.
Moundville Incised var. Snow's Bend Gasque and noted that both varieties may be related to
Reference: Jenkins (1981:78) Moundville Engraved var. Hemphill. Steponaitis (1983:56)
Number of sherds: 15 suggested that Moundville Engraved var. Hemphill
Description: Moundville Incised var. Snow's Bend sherds also encompasses a wide array of motifs. Therefore, the Hickory exhibit the same paste as Mississippi Plain var. Warrior. Ridge classification placed the shell-tempered, realistic design Narrow incised arches parallel the rim; a series of small elements into a single class, var. Gasque, that parallels punctations occur above these arches (Figure 12b). The vessel Moundville Engraved var. Hemphill. The var. Gasque motif form is a small globular jar with a flared rim (Figure 1 1c). A prevalent at Hickory Ridge is the raptorial bird such as that on variety of adornos occur on these jars, including lugs, nodes, a large bottle recovered during Phase I (Phillips 1989a) and and loop handles. Two var. Snow's Bend reconstructible shown in Figure 12h. Phase II testing produced part of
vessels were located, one of these was associated with Burial second bottle with this motif (Figure 12g). These sherds One. Moundville Incised var. Snow's Bend is associated with display the crest and feathers of a raptor rendered with cross the Bottle Creek phase (Stowe 1985:149). hatching and zone incisions. The ceramics with realistic
design elements are associated with the Bottle Creek phase
Moundville Incised var. unspecified (Fuller and Stowe 1982:75-77).
Number of sherds: 10
Description: One partially reconstructible small subglobular Pensacola Incised var. Bear Point jar associated with Burial Three was classified as Moundville Reference: Fuller and Stowe (1982:72-73) Incised var. unspecified (Figure 10a). The vessel has the same Number of sherds: 188 paste as Mississippi Plain var. Warrior and the typical Description: Pensacola Incised var. Bear Point exhibits the
Moundville arch. A series of these arches parallel the flared same finely crushed shell tempering and burnished surface rim. Above these arches are randomly placed circular Bell Plain var. Hale. As shown in Figure 13a-c,g, the stylizedpunctations approximately 7 cm in diameter (Figure 12c). The design elements include abstract curvilinear skull motifs, exact chronological placement of this vessel is uncertain, trilobes, barred ovals, and S-shaped figures. Fuller and Stowe although its association in Burial Three with a Pensacola (1982:73) associate the var. Bear Point materials with the Bear Incised var. Gasque vessel, suggests a Bottle Creek phase Point phase. The Hickory Ridge site produced several var. assignation. Bear Point vessel forms. Among these are subglobular bottles,
casuelas, and beakers. The rim forms are primarily vertical,
D'Olive Incised var. Arnica flattened, and often notched; however, the small subglobular
Reference: Fuller and Stowe (1982:57-58) bottles exhibit a smooth, rounded rim. One of the casuelas has
Number of sherds: 27 two pointed nodes on the rim. Eight partially reconstructible
Description: One reconstructible D'Olive Incised var. Arnica vessels, including 3 casuelas, 3 bottles, and 2 beakers, were. vessel was recovered from Hickory Ridge in association with recovered from the cemetery. Pensacola Incised var. Bear Burial One (Figure 6e). The plate is tempered with finely Point vessels were associated with two burials: two crushed shell and has a burnished surface. The design subglobular jars with Burial One (Figure 6b-c) and 1 beaker
element, shown in Figure 12d, includes an incised line and 2 casuelas with Burial Two (Figure 8).
approximately 2 cm below the notched rim. Beneath this
incised line is a series of double incised line arches. Within Pensacola Incised var. Moore these arches are two sets of short parallel incisions. Fuller and Reference: Fuller and Stowe (1982:78-80)

0 o see*
0 o
00 0
0 IL
0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 00
.0 If /Jo

0 1 2 3 4 5
. ............
. .. ... .. .. ..

Number of sherds: 21 surface decoration, no additional chronological statements are
Description: Pensacola Incised var. Moore is incised with offered. highly stylized design elements (Figure 13d-f). These include
nested rectangles and extremely abstract, rectilinear skull Lithics motifs. The rim forms are vertical and many be either squared
or rounded. No vessel forms could be discerned. This is a A total of 25 lithic artifacts was recovered during Phase II
Late Mississippian type probably associated with the Bear testing. Seven raw material types are represented: chert, Point phase (Fuller and Stowe 1982:78-80). novaculite, Tallahatta quartzite, greenstone chloridee schist),
mica, hematite, and sandstone. Two projectile point/knives
Moundville Engraved var. unspecified were recovered from burial contexts. One, associated with
Reference: Steponaitis (1983:54) Burial Two, is a small triangular-shaped novaculite point with
Number of sherds: 24 one shallow side notch. The second, associated with Burial
Description: Hickory Ridge produced 1 partially One, is a red and gray banded chert projectile point/knife with reconstructible Moundville Engraved-like vessel with a Bell wide shallow side notches, an excurvate base, and serrate Plain paste, and 1 nonassociated rim sherd. The vessel is a blade edges. Two greenstone (chlorite schist celts were small subglobular bottle with a pedestal base and a straight associated with Burial Two. One measures 27 cm long by 7.4 rounded rim (Figures 12f and 14a). The design elements cm wide by 4.5 cm thick. The second, broken before disposal,
include five narrow engraved lines, a series of small arches measures 6.7 cm long by 4.2 cm wide by 3 cm thick. A small below these lines, and a series of cross-hatched triangles above amount of mica (N =11) in the form of very small flakes was these lines. In addition, a series of small arches parallel the recovered in the levels above Burials One and Two. In collar of the vessel. These arches are scalloped and exhibit a addition, Burial Two yielded 1 chunk of fine-grained re cross-hatched interior. Stowe (1985:149) places Moundville hematite. Three tertiary Tallahatta quartzite flakes, 1 tertiary Engraved ceramics in the Bottle Creek phase. chert flake, and 2 sandstone flakes complete the lithic
Pensacola Incised var. unspecified
Number of sherds: 15 Shell Artifacts
Description: This partially reconstructible jar with a fourpointed or undulating rim could not be placed in a particular Seven shell artifacts were recovered during testing.
variety of Pensacola Incised (Figures 12e and 14b). This Three partial whelk (Busycon contrarium) columellae were vessel exhibited a burnished surface and a paste typical of Bell recovered; 1 from an excavation unit, 1 from Burial Two, and Plain var. Hale. The modified scroll decoration consists of 1 from Burial Three. Testing also yielded 4 small
two incised lines that parallel the rim. Radiating from these unidentifiable shell fragments. One of these exhibits crossincisions are five more parallel curvilinear lines that encircle hatched striations on one surface. the vessel. The interior of this motif is decorated with a series
of small punctations. The chronological position of this vessel Conclusion
is uncertain.
Hickory Ridge evidently was used exclusively for burialShell-tempered indeterminate of the dead during the Mississippian period. No midden
Number of sherds: 313 deposits or other indications of long-term occupation were
Description: Several shell-temperedl sherds were recovered encountered. Phase II testing revealed three burials and that were too small to classify. These were decorated with a indicated that the cemetery measures about 15 m by 18 m. variety of incised and punctated designs. Among these are Cultural material, including numerous partially reconstructible narrow and wide incisions, fingernail punctations, and reed vessels, was densely concentrated within this small area. The punctations. Pastes that are typical of Mississippi Plain var. investigations indicated that the cemetery has not beenWarrior and Bell Plain var. Hale pastes are represented. significantly disturbed. This was documented primarily by the
horizontal distribution of fitting ceramics; sherds from the
Sand-tempered plain same vessel were most often recovered in very close proximity
Number of sherds: 6 to one another. The vertical distribution and large size of the
Description: Six undecorated sherds tempered with coarse sherds also underscore the integrity of the site. Intact or nearly sand were recovered. Sand tempering enjoyed a long usage intact vessels were positioned within a few centimeters of the
that spanned the Woodland and Mississippian stages. Lacking present land surface. For example, an intact Mississippi Plain_

var. Warrior jar rested on the buried land surface and extended The Hickory Ridge ceramic assemblage exhibits the upward into the overlying wind-blown sand. This vessel was characteristics of both Bottle Creek and Bear Point. The located approximately 15 cm below the present surface. An ceramic decorative elements run the gamut from realistically array of grave offerings accompanied the three burials (see rendered Bottle Creek designs to abstract Bear Point motifs. Table 4). The mortuary furniture included whelk columellae, Moundville influences also can be seen in this ceramic projectile points, greenstone celts, mica, and hematite. The assemblage. Some of the Pensacola Incised var. Gasque archaeological context of these materials suggests that they material is very similar to Moundville Engraved var. Hemphill were placed in the burial pits with the human remains. In (cf.Steponaitis 1983:56). The small Moundville Incised jars, addition to these grave goods, each of the three burials was Moundville Engraved bottle, and a Carthage Incised-like vessel interred beneath several shell-tempered vessels. These vessels also indicate connections with this very large Mississippian site evidently were ceremonially broken and left on or near the in central Alabama. surface after burial. Forming a dense cap over the cemetery, In summary, the investigations revealed that the Hickory
this material was located on or near the contact point between Ridge cemetery contains an undisturbed Mississippian the wind-blown sands of more recent origin and the buried cemetery that probably dates from the fifteenth century A.D. land surface. Some of these vessels appeared archaeologically A carbonized wood sample associated with Burial One yielded as discrete concentrations of large sherds directly above the an uncorrected radiocarbon date of 500 +1- 60 years B.P. burials, whereas other vessels formed part of the dense cap. (Beta 30702) or about A.D. 1450 (1390-1510). The
Nine concentrations of ceramics that included 15 radiocarbon date and the ceramic assemblage indicate a
reconstructible vessels were documented; discrete transitional late Bottle Creek-early Bear Point phase concentrations of broken vessels were located directly over component. The site appears to be an isolated cemetery Burials Two and Three. associated with 8ES1052, a Pensacola village site located
Similar Mississippian burial practices have been reported nearby. Based on the types and quantities of associated elsewhere in northwest Florida. For example, Moore (1901, artifacts, the three burials located by testing appear to be those 1918) noted the occurrence of secondary burials, ceremonially of high status individuals. The pristine nature of the deposits, killed vessels, and dense concentrations of sherds on several and the richness and diversity of the artifact assemblage, Mississippian cemetery sites in northwest Florida. At the affords Hickory Ridge unique status among Mississippian Naval Live Oaks cemetery (8SR36) in Gulf Breeze, Florida, 10 cemeteries in northwest Florida. miles east of Hickory Ridge, Lazarus et al. (1967:104)
reported that "the ceremonial procedure seems to have been the Acknowledgments
same pattern as evident in other ceremonial sites--human
remains deposited in the lower level, some fire, some offering, The author gratefully acknowledges the support and crowned by a layer of sherds near the perimeter." They also assistance of several organizations and individuals. The noted that the sherds were concentrated between 3 in. and 18 archaeological investigations were funded by the Escambia in. below the surface and that the "offering" was either intact County Utilities Authority, and Landfall Development. A note or reconstructible. The mortuary furniture associated with the of thanks is extended to Mr. Mike Green of Landfall for Hickory Ridge burials strongly suggests that these were high supporting and encouraging this work. Thanks also to Dr. Jim status individuals, at least in a local sense. Miller, State Archaeologist and Chief, Florida Bureau of
A number of the grave offerings are exotic in origin. The Archaeological Research for his advice and guidance. A special raw material source for the celts (chlorite schist), for example, note of gratitude is offered to Dr. Judy Bense for editorial is found in the Carolina Piedmont. Novaculite comes from advice and support, to Mr. Le McKenzie for his superb
Arkansas, whereas the red and gray chert point found with graphics, and to Dr. M. J. Smith for her graphical Burial One appears to be either Tuscaloosa gravel or Citronelle contributions. Thanks are due to Ms. Jenny Yearous and Ms. gravel from the interior Gulf Coastal Plain. The ceremonial Alice Harris for the ceramic motif artwork, and to Mr. Dan nature of some of the grave offerings also indicates high status. Mc eo for the artifact photography. Thanks also go to Mr. T'he raptorial bird motif, the celts, and the whelk columellae Bill Baxter, Ms. Amy Carruth, Mr. Warren Carruth, and Mr. appea at Mississippian ceremonial centers throughout the John Wright for assistance in the field, and to the legion of Southeast (for example, Moundville, Lake Jackson, and student volunteers for ceramic reconstruction. Etowah). Milanich (1994:374-375) notes that these symbols
were restricted to the elite. In contrast, lower status References Cited
Mississippian burials often have little or no mortuary furniture.
Given the size and isolation of the cemetery, the small number Bense, Judith A. of individuals interred within it, and the exotic and symbolic 1994 Archaeology of the Southeastern United States: nature of the grave offerings, Hickory Ridge may have been Paleoindian to World War I. Academic Press, New
the burial place for the local elite. York.

Moore, C. B.
Brose, David S., and George S. Percy 1901 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida
1978 Fort Walton Settlement Patterns. In Mississippian Coast, Part L Journal of the Academy of Natural
Settlement Patterns, edited by Bruce D. Smith, pp. 81- Sciences of Philadelphia Vol. XI.
114. Academic Press, New York.
1918 The Northwest Florida Coast Revisited. Journal of the Carlisle, Victor W. Academy of Natural Sciences of
1960 Soil Survey of Escambia County, Florida. U.S. Philadelphia Vol. XVI.
Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
Washington, D.C. Phillips, John C.
1989a Phase One Cultural Resources Survey of Warrington Fuller, R. S. Effluent Diversion Project Disposal Facility for Escambia
1985 The Bear Point Phase and the Pensacola Variant: The County Utilities Authority. University of West Florida,
Protohistoric Period in Southwest Alabama. The Florida Institute of West Florida Archaeology, Report of
Anthropologist 38: 150-155. Investigations No. 23. Pensacola.
Fuller, R. S., and N. R. Stowe 1989b Archaeological Testing of the Hickory Ridge Site
1982A Proposed Typology for Late Shell Tempered Ceramics (8ES1280). University of West Florida, Institute of West
in the Mobile Bay/Mobile Tensaw Delta Region. In Florida Archaeology, Report of Investigations No. 26.
Archaeology in Southwest Alabama: A Collection of Pensacola.
Papers, edited by C. Curren, pp. 45-94. Alabama
Tombigbee Regional Commission, Camden, Alabama. Phillips, Philip
1970 Archaeological Survey in the Lower Yazoo Basin, Holmes, William H. Mississippi, 1949-1955. Papers of the Peabody Museum
1903 Aboriginal Pottery of the Eastern United States. Bureau of Archaeology and Ethnology 60. Harvard University,
of American Ethnology, Annual Report 20. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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Steponaitis, Vincas P.
Jenkins, Ned J. 1978 Some Preliminary Chronological and Technological
1981 Gainesville Lake Area Ceramic Description and Notes on Moundville Pottery. Paper presented at the
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Gainesville Lake Area of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Tennessee.
Waterway, prepared for the U. S. Army Corps of
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Investigations No. 12. Moundville, Alabama. New York.
Knight, Vernon J., Jr. Sternberg, G. M.
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D. Davis, pp. 198-215. University Press of Florida, Advancement of Science 24(2):282-292.
Stowe, Noel R.
Lazarus, Yulee, W. C. Laars, and D. W. Sharon 1985 The Pensacola Variant and the Bottle Creek Phase. The
1967 The Navy Live Oaks Reservation Cemetery Site, 85a36. Florida Anthropologist 38:144- 149.
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Milanich, Jerald T. 1980 Leon County Bicentennial Survey Project: An
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of Historic Sites and Properties, Miscellaneous Project
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You CAAfford the
Old Masters

Gregory A. Mikel
With the help of several "weekend warrior" volunteers and Fairbanks reports indicate that the site contains primarily over a period of nearly four years, I was able to conduct Weeden Island and Fort Walton materials, but distinct areas of limited excavations at two Fort Walton village sites on the the site contained Santa Rosa/Swift Creek and Deptford west end of Choctawhatchee Bay. Between September 1990 deposits (Y. Lazarus 1967). William Lazarus' classification of
and May 1994 important information was obtained from the 5,136 pot sherds, including those recovered by Fairbanks Brooks Street site (80K60) in Fort Walton Beach and the Bell (1958), is proportionally broken down as follows: 18 percent site (80K19) in Destin. Although excavations were limited by are Fort Walton types, 31 percent are Weeden Island types, 10 previous development on these sites, the data recovered are percent are Santa Rosa/Swift Creek types, 5 percent are important because the information helps fill in gaps in our Deptford types, and 36 percent are residual plain or knowledge of the Fort Walton period on Choctawhatchee Bay. unidentified decorated. The excavations initiated the first systematic investigations of The Bell site is located on a high bluff along the south the Brooks Street site and allowed for the sampling of village shore of Choctawhatchee Bay east of Cobb's Point in north areas, the documentation of cultural features, and the recovery Destin. The site is situated primarily in a mixed live oak and of data at both sites that would have been lost to construction. hickory hammock, where some magnolias and numerous Between the time that I finished the excavations described in cedars are present. The hammock is bordered by pine this paper and its appearance in The Florida Anthropologist, flatwoods. According to Lazarus' original 1956 report, the more than 60 percent of the middens that I investigated have site is divided by a small stream, Holly Branch, and extended been destroyed by residential construction. at least 2,000 feet along the bluff. He described the site as an
extensive series of shell middens forming a distinctive black
The Sites sandy midden stratum, averaging 18 inches in depth, that was
plainly visible along the bluff to both sides of Holly Branch
The Bell Site following Hurricane Flossie. Lazarus (1956:2) noted that "the
eastern portion of the site [east of Holly Branch] has surface
The Bell site (80K19) is a large, multicomponent midden mounds of shell while the western portion is practically level site that contains materials associated with the Late Archaic, with several very pronounced pits going down as much as three Deptford, Santa Rosa/Swift Creek, Weeden Island, and Fort feet." Fairbanks (1958) excavated in the western portion of the Walton periods of northwest Florida's prehistory. The site had site as described by Lazarus, whereas my investigations been known to archaeologists and the local community prior to focused on the remaining mounded Fort Walton oyster midden its recording by William Lazarus following Hurricane Flossie heaps in the eastern portion of the site. in 1956. William Lazarus (1956, 1957, 1958, 1962) and A Fort Walton period cemetery (80K35), known
Yulee Lazarus (1967) made several brief reports on the site and variously as the Chambliss site (Scarry 1990), Kelly Cemetery Dr. Charles Fairbanks conducted a field school there in 1958. (Y. Lazarus 1967), or Holly Branch Cemetery (Mikell 1992) Fairbanks (1958) excavated three 10 ft by 10 ft units, site was once located just west of the Bell site. Beginning in
recovering over 2,300 pieces of pottery and other artifacts the 1970s, the western third of the Bell site and all of the from pit features and shell middens. He obtained a Chambliss site were destroyed by residential development.
radiocarbon date from a Fort Walton midden that, when The Bell site currently extends approximately 900 feet east of
calibrated, falls between A.D. 1283 and A.D. 1414 (Fairbanks Holly Branch and some 100 to 200 feet inland from the Bay. 1958; Mikell 1992:60-6 1). Lazarus also recovered and As illustrated in Figure 1, what is left of the Bell site is a
classified thousands of pottery sherds in addition to other linear strip of shell middens situated along the bay shore. artifacts such as celts (2), human figurines (3), ceramic elbow Because the focus of this report is the Fort Walton component pipes (3), a hematite atlatl weight fragment, Archaic and of the Bell site, Figure 1 depicts only midden deposits known Woodland projectile points, and grinding stones. The Lazarus to contain Fort Walton materials, but several other middens are

Slm Excavation Unit 0 40
she ll midden meters
Figure 1. Map of the Bell site, 80K19.

also present. In addition to those depicted in Figure 1, there interested in the site when I observed that their collection may be other Fort Walton middens present on the site that consisted of primarily Pensacola pottery with a few Fort were not accessible to me and still others have been lost to Walton and Weeden Island types. The "exotic pottery" development and erosion. consisted of a shell-tempered sherd with a human head rim
A curious characteristic of the fifteen 1 m by 1 m units effigy. It is described later with the rest of the shoreline which I excavated is that they are in Fort Walton oyster collection. middens that contain only a small amount of Weeden Island
pottery. This is curious because Lazarus (1958) classified 31 Field Methods
percent of the pottery recovered from the site as Weeden Island
types. Reports suggest that Lazarus classified pottery obtained During my investigations, fifteen 1 m by 1 m units were primarily from the western portion of the site (west of Holly excavated at Bell and seven at Brooks Street. Based on the Branch), and I would speculate that most of the pre-Fort presence of exposed shell or raised midden areas on property Walton deposits have now eroded away along the shoreline, where I had permission to dig, excavation units were placed where there was potential for producing useful data. In some
The Brooks Street Site cases, 1 m square excavation units were combined with others
to form contiguous units. A 1/8-inch steel probe was utilized
The Brooks Street site (80K60) is located on the western to determine the horizontal spatial limit of shell middens shore of Choctawhatchee Bay on the north side of the entrance identified by subsurface testing or the presence of surface to Santa Rosa Sound in Fort Walton Beach. The site has been materials. extensively developed for residential use. Brooks Street was Standard archaeological methods were used in conducting recorded by Yulee Lazarus (1968) and a subsequent report was and recording excavations. The majority of the excavated filed in 1973. Like the Bell site, Brooks Street is also matrix was screened through 1/4-inch mesh, but all features multicomponent. Lazarus (1968) classified pottery of the and midden deposits were sampled for flotation and Santa Rosa/Swift Creek, Weeden Island, and Fort Walton radiocarbon-datable materials. Excavation proceeded in 10 cm
periods. It is also rumored that a Fort Walton period burial levels, with features and distinct midden deposits excavated was removed from the site by relic hunters after it was and documented separately. Features were recorded, sectioned, discovered during house construction in 1971. and excavated as subunits immediately following recognition in
The Brooks Street site is located on a low bluff and hill excavation floors or on unit walls. Aside from shell samples that rises 15 feet above the Bay just west of Elliot's Point. The taken for later laboratory analysis, shellfish remains were site is situated primarily in a mixed live oak and hickory sorted by species and/or other analytical category, weighed, hammock, with some magnolia present. According to noted, and discarded in the field as backfill.
Lazarus' original 1968 report, the site was located west of a
small, unnamed stream and extended at least 600 feet along the Excavation Units and Features
shoreline. Lazarus described the site as an area of shell
middens and midden soils along Brooks Street and the Figures 1 and 2 show the location of all excavation units
shoreline. In 1993, Thomas and Associates discovered and completed during the most recent site investigations. All recorded the Alconese site (80K780) located only 200 meters cultural deposits documented during these excavations are west of the previously recorded edge of the Brooks Street site. summarized in Table 1 (Appendix A). In Table 1, percentages Although Thomas et al. (1993:27) describe Alconese as of shellfish remains are based on shell weight for the various
"probably a separate site from 80K60," the ceramic species and categories. A more detailed discussion of the assemblage and midden characteristics of both are very similar. nonmidden cultural features and the various classes of artifacts Alconese and Brooks may be a single large site. My work was and other data are then presented. completed in the east-central portion of the Brooks Street site In addition to numerous shell midden and black sand (as it was originally recorded) in the last undeveloped lot on midden deposits, which are considered archaeological features the site (Figure 2). Excavations were further limited by lack of themselves, six nonmidden features were documented, two at access to other relatively undisturbed areas of the site. Brooks Street and four at Bell. The four features from the Bell
In 1990, I analyzed a collection of 264 Fort Walton and site consist of the two trash-filled fire pits or hearths and two Pensacola pottery sherds from Brooks Street that are housed at ash lenses. Excavations at Brooks Street uncoveredl an ashy the Fort Walton Temple Mound Museum (Mikell 1992:60). lens and a portion of a large hearth. Each of the seven features
The site was brought to my attention again in 1992 when was located beneath a shell midden deposit and four were
property owners contacted me about "exotic" pottery they had sampled for radiocarbon datable materials. No other features found washed out of lots not protected by seawalls. I became were discernable within or below midden deposits, but a few

Estimated Site Boundary 15ft.
50 .. ... 5ft.
...........Santa Rosa Sound
__ --
- 1lmxl m Test Units with recovery
040 *] approximate location of human burials
meters 7/./ tidal flat with eroded shell midden
Figure 2. Map of the Brooks Street site, 80K60.

distinct concentrations of artifacts were noted. black, high density, 24 to 33 cm thick shell midden and a large
hearth (Figure 7). The hearth is designated Feature 2.
The Bell Site Features Feature 2 is a large, shallow (maximum 26 cm deep)
basin-shaped hearth partially exposed in Units 1 and 2. The
Feature 1 is a 22 cm deep, basin-shaped, trash-filled fire portion of the hearth that was excavated, an estimated 30 to 40 pit or hearth located in Unit 4 at the base of shell midden percent of the feature, measures 134 cm by 90 cm and appears deposits in Units 2-4. A profile of Feature 1 and the to be circular in plan view. The black-stained body of the
surrounding deposits and soil matrix is illustrated in Figure 3. feature contains a high density of charred wood and other plant The charcoal-rich pit is roughly circular in plan view and remains and is ringed by a dark gray, ashy shadow. Very little measured 84 cm by 76 cm where it became recognizable in the shell or bone is present in the hearth and only a few Pensacola midden, narrowing to 44 cm by 38 cm near its base. The Incised, Fort Walton Incised, Mississippi Plain, and Bell Plain
black sandy pit fill was full of charred wood and other plant sherds were recovered from it. A charred wood sample remains, burned or partially burned animal bone, a small extracted from Feature 2 yielded a calibrated date range of number of pottery fragments, and a scattering of burned shell. A.D. 1398 to 1482 (Table 2). Table 5 (Appendix A) presents Numerous deer bone fragments (37) were recovered from the a summary of materials recovered from a 35 liter flotation feature. A calibrated radiocarbon date range of A.D. 1296 to sample and pottery taken from the feature. The significance of 1392 (Table 2, Appendix A) was obtained from a charcoal the Brooks Street archaeological features is readily evident and
sample from Feature 1. Also recovered from Feature 1 was a their importance is addressed below along with those from the portion of a plain, smoothed surface Jefferson Ware vessel Bell site. (Figure 4). Table 3 (Appendix A) presents a summary of the
materials recovered from a 32 liter flotation sample and all of Artifacts Recovered
the pottery taken from Feature 1.
Features 2 and 3 are ash lenses associated with middens Long-term prehistoric occupation of both 80K19 and
in Units 6 and 13, respectively. Both are probably the 80K60 is indicated by the artifact assemblage previously
remnants of small fire pits. Feature 2 measured 38 cm by 52 recovered from the sites (W. Lazarus 1956, 1958; Y. Lazarus cm and 19 cm thick at its maximum. It contained charcoal and 1968). I was successful, however, at isolating Fort Walton some charred fish bone. Feature 3 is a 21 cm thick, almost period midden deposits and recovering important data. These circular lens measuring 42 cm in diameter where it became sites produced pottery assemblage and radiocarbon date discernable and tapered to a near basin-shaped bottom. information that will complement other work on the
Charred wood and animal bone were recovered in this feature. Choctawhatchee Bay. Shellfish remains, vertebrate faunal
Feature 4 is 24 cm deep, basin-shaped, oval hearth remains, and pottery make up the vast majority of artifacts measuring 47 cm by 38 cm (see Figure 5). This feature was recovered, but other types of remains were also recovered. A found in Units 14 and 15 below a 29 to 33 cm thick shell few notes on analytical methods are discussed as an midden deposit (Figure 6). A calibrated radiocarbon date introduction to the description of each class of artifacts range of A.D 1372 to 1498 (Table 2) was obtained from recovered.
charred wood in the feature. The hearth contained several
pieces of pottery, burned animal bone and shell, and charred Pottery hickory nut. Table 4 (Appendix A) presents the materials
recovered from a 35 liter flotation sample and all of the pottery A total of 871 pottery sherds and vessel fragments was from Feature 4. recoveredl from both sites during my investigations: 582 from
the Bell site and 289 from Brooks Street. An account of all
The Brooks Street Site Features ceramics recovered from the controlled excavations is
presented in Tables 6 and 7 (Appendix A). Tables 6 and 7 are
Two archaeological features were unearthed in Units 1-4, organized by excavation unit, level, and feature. Table 7 also a 2 m by 2 m unit (Figure 2). Both features are profiled in includes a shoreline surface collection from Brooks Street. Figure 7. Feature 1 is an ash lens that is situated at the base of Selected examples of pottery from the sites are illustrated in a 10 to 15 cm thick, light density midden deposit that contains Figures 8 through 12. scattered shell and pottery. This upper midden is brown to The ceramic analysis is based on existing type-variety
yellowish brown in color. Pottery recovered from the midden typologies that are applicable to the Choctawhatchee Bay and Feature 1 consists of Pensacola Brushed (Lazarus 1961) region. Classification of pottery types follows that of Willey and plain, shell-tempered sherds. Feature 1 charcoal produced (1949), Fuller and Stowe (1982), and Scarry (1985). Other a calibrated date range of A.D. 1512 to 1648 (Table 2). detailed aspects of the ceramic analysis that may be of interest
Feature 1 and the associated midden deposit lie on top of a are outlined in my report on 8WL38 (Mikell 1994:244-246).

North Wall Profile Stratum TU 2 TU 3 TU 4
- ,-,-Feature 1
0 80
Figure 3. North wall profile, Units 2-4 and Feature 1, 80K19.
Figure 4. Partial vessel recovered from Feature 1, 80K19.
North Wall Profile TU 14 TU 15 Stratum
0 40
Figure 5. North wall profile, Units 14-15 and Feature 4, 80K19.

Figure 6. Plan view photograph of Feature 4, 80K19 at 25 cnbs.
North Wall Profile TU 1 TU 2 Stratum
:,:i~i :;:i ......Feature 1 -,i : 11
:i. Feature 2 j; IV
0 40
Figure 7. North wall profile, Units 1-4 and Features 1 and 2, 80K60

The majority of the pottery recovered from the sites effigy is on a Bell Plain sherd (Figure 10) and compares very belongs either to the Fort Walton or Pensacola Series (Tables favorably with examples from two sites on the east end of 6,7). Fort Walton Series types included in the assemblage are: Choctawhatchee Bay. C.B. Moore's mound near Jolly Bay and Fort Walton Incised, Jefferson Ware, Lake Jackson Incised, cemetery near Point Washington have produced similar human Lake Jackson Plain, Lamar Complicated Stamped, Leon Check head effigies (Moore 1901:464, 495). Fuller and Silvia Stamped, Marsh Island Incised, Point Washington Incised, and (1984:36) have also documented similar examples from the residual plain. Pensacola Series types include Bell and Mobile Bay area. Mississippi Plain, D'Olive Incised, Moundville Incised,
Mound Place Incised, and Pensacola Incised. Table 8 Shell and Bone Tools
(Appendix A) presents proportionality data for each
assemblage. A few shell tools or shell tool manufacture by-products
Table 8 illustrates that the sites contain very different were recovered from various midden areas on the Bell site. ceramic assemblages. In terms of a proportion of the entire These shell tools consist of a small, rectangular quahog shell assemblage for each site, Fort Walton types and varieties wedge or chisel; a bevel-edged, rectangular quahog shell account for approximately 84 percent of the pottery recovered scraper; and a whelk columella awl. Shell tool by-products at the Bell site, but only 26.6 percent of the pottery from consist of several pieces of whelk and quahog shell fragments Brooks Street. Given the fact that, with the exception of the and a broken and cut upper whelk shell fragment from which later date from Brooks Street (A.D. 1578), both sites have the columella was extracted. produced similar dates (A.D. 1336-1448), the high percentage Two types of bone tools were recovered from both sites: of Pensacola ceramics at Brooks Street is indicative of the post- deer bone awls and bone projectile point fragments. Three A.D. 1400 influences of the Pensacola culture (Mikell 1992, deer metapodial awls and one mammal longbone distal point 1995). fragment were recovered at the Bell site. One deer bone awl
A variety of vessel shapes is present in the ceramic and one bone point or needle fragment were recovered from assemblages. No whole vessels were recovered from either Brooks Street. site, but enough rim and collar sherds were recovered to
provide a list of vessels forms. Carinated, collared, cazuela, Projectile Points flaring rim, simple restricted, and shallow plate-like bowls,
collared and everted rim jars, and beakers are present in the A single chert projectile point was recovered during my assemblage. Collared vessels, shallow bowls, simple restricted excavations at the Bell site. The point is a broken, white bowls, and everted rim jars are the most frequently occurring chert, triangular arrow point identified as a Pinellas point. forms. Incised decorations occur primarily on the various This type of point is common to Fort Walton, Safety Harbor, forms of bowls and beakers, while plain wares are usually jars. and Apalachee sites (Bullen 1975). The point was recovered in This pattern generally holds true for both Fort Walton and Unit 4 near Feature 1. Pensacola types.
Typical rim modes include Bear Point, Gasque, D'Olive, Grinding Stones and Douglas modes (Fuller and Stowe 1982) for both
Pensacola and some Fort Walton sherds. The most common Six nondescript grinding stone and/or anvil fragments
Fort Walton rim mode is the "ticked" or notched rim originally made from locally occurring sandstone were recovered from described by Willey (1949). At the Bell site, notched rims are domestic refuse middens at both sites. One fragment was the most common rim mode for incised and plain pottery. The recovered from Brooks Street, the rest are from the Bell site. range of variation in notching runs from larger, cruder notches Each fragment has at least one surface that is obviously ground to the very fine notches more often associated with the Bear smooth from use. These types of small grinding stones are Point mode. This range of variation in notching is also present common on sites around the Choctawhatchee Bay. o:n Pensacola Series ceramics, but the Bear Point and Gasque
im modes are the most common form on decoratedl, collared Other Lithic Artifacts and plate-like, shell-tempered ceramics, especially at Brooks
Street. In both assemblages, rim and collar appendages consist
of handles, lugs, and nodes on Lake Jackson Plain, Lake This category includes 16 chert and quartzite flakes
Jackson Incised, and Mississippi Plain sherds and rim effigy (debitage) recovered from the Bell site. The assemblage of adornos on Point Washington, Fort Walton Incised, Mound debitage consists of four flakes with small amounts of cortex
Place Incised, Bell Plain, and Pensacola Incised sherds. and 12 tertiary flakes. Ten of the tertiary flakes are biface
The most striking rim effigy recovered from either site is thinning flakes. The chipped stone debitage suggests that the human head effigy sherd in the Wesley collection. This while tool maintenance occurred at Bell, these stone tools were

ii ~r ;
Figure 8. Selected pottery recovered from the Bell site. Top: Lamar Complicated Stamped var. Early, Lamar Complicated Stamped var. Curlee, Leon Check Stamped, Moundville Incised var. Snow's Bend, Pensacola Incised; Middle: Pensacola Incised var. Pensacola, Pensacola Incised, D'Olive Incised; Bottom: Lake Jackson Incised var. Blounstown.
Figure 9. Selected pottery recovered from the Bell site. Top: Fort Walton Incised var. Choctawhatchee, Fort Walton Incised (2); Middle: Fort Walton Incised (4), Fort Walton Incised var. Choctawhatchee, Lake Jackson Incised var. Walter George (?); Bottom: Point Washington Incised var. Point Washington (2), Marsh Island Incised var. Columbia.

reduced from core materials and manufactured elsewhere. Vertebrate Fauna
A large assemblage of vertebrate faunal remains was
Faunal and Botanical Remains recovered from the Bell site. The Brooks Street site also
yielded faunal remains, but density of faunal materials is lower
Invertebrate Fauna than at Bell. Although no quantification will be presented here,
a cursory analysis of several samples indicates that a rather
homogeneous assemblage is present in various contexts across
Shellfish and estuarine fish remains comprise the vast the site. These samples include materials recovered in 1/4-inch majority of faunal remains at the Bell and Brooks Street sites. screens, flotation samples, and 1/16-inch water-screened bulk The most common shellfish species represented at either site is samples. The vertebrate faunal remains assemblage clearly is Crassostrea virginica (Virginia oyster). On average, oysters dominated by estuarine fish species. White-tailed deer, make up 83 percent, by weight, of all shellfish remains raccoon, opossum, rodent, turkey and other bird, freshwater
sampled and it is readily apparent that each shell midden turtle, freshwater fish, and snake remains are also present. observed on both sites contains a majority of oyster shell. Deer and freshwater turtle bone is common to both sites, but There is little doubt that oysters were an important food other nonestuarine fish bone is only sparsely represented. resource. Table 9 (Appendix A), lists the vertebrate species identified.
Two types of oyster are present at the Bell site: sand
oysters, which are short and broad, inhabit shallow intertidal Botanical Remains waters, and are found in clusters on beaches and bars of
coarse, firmly packed sand; and bed oysters, which are Botanical remains were recovered from both features and
generally larger and longer, inhabit mixed muddy sand, and shell midden contexts at both sites. As with the vertebrate occur either singly or in loose clusters (Kent 1992). Bed faunal remains, a formal quantification of botanical remains is oysters are dominant in the Bell site middens sampled. Sand not attempted here. A cursory examination of flotation and oysters account for 31 percent of the total of these samples radiocarbon samples resulted in the identification of several (144+ pounds). At the Brooks Street site, samples from Units plant foods and wood fuel sources (Appendix A, Table 10). 1-4 are dominated by sand oysters, which make up 72 percent All plant food remains were recovered from the Bell site. One of a 50+ pound sample by weight. Both sand and bed oysters domesticated plant food has been identified at the Bell site, may inhabit the same brackish estuary zone, but sand oysters maize. Fragments of carbonized maize kernels and cupules always occur in the intertidal zone or somewhat shallower and were recovered from three flotation samples taken from the less muddy water than bed oysters (Kent 1992). middens and Feature 1. Carbonized grape seeds, persimmon
Evidence of attaching organisms indicates that water seeds, and hickory nutshell finish out the list of plant food
conditions in the western end of the Bay between A.D. 1300 remains. Wood charcoal identified to genus includes oak, and A.D. 1600 were similar to those indicated by oyster hickory, pine, maple, cedar, and grapevine.
samples from 8WL38 for the mid-bay area (Mikell 1994). The
Choctawhatchee Bay was much less saline and had muddier Significance of the Bell and Brooks Street Sites
bottom areas during the Fort Walton period than it does today.
Like many Fort Walton era oyster middens on the Data collected from the Bell and Brooks Street sites have
Choctawhatchee Bay, the oyster shell assemblage at the Bell provided additional documentation of Fort Walton and site indicates that a healthy population was being exploited. Pensacola settlement on the Choctawhatchee Bay following Compared to the Brooks Street site, the Bell site oysters are, A.D. 1300. The data and materials recovered from these sites on average, 10 to 15 percent larger. are important for several reasons. They are comparable to data
Although other species of shellfish are present in the obtained from other nearby Fort Walton and Pensacola sites, assemblages from both sites, they are relatively few in number the radiocarbon dates further clarify the chronology of Fort compared to oyster. Additional species that occur include Walton and Pensacola developments on the Choctawhatchee, scallop (Argopecten), especially at the Bell site, various conchs and the ceramic assemblages from each site point to and whelks (Melongena, Busycon, Strombus, and Fasciolaria), contemporaneous, but notable variations in Fort Walton and quahog (Mercenaria), moon shells (Naticidae), and marsh clam Pensacola variant sites in the Bay area. (Rangia). These species, like oysters, inhabit or occasionally The Bell site is characteristic of a middle to late Fort inhabit shallow estuarine water. Of these other shellfish, only Walton, or Indian Bayou phase site (Mikell 1992). Of the 667 scallop occurs at frequencies of more than 8 percent of any Fort Walton and Pensacola sherds classified by Lazarus (1957, given sample taken at the Bell site. 1958), 58 percent, not including sand- or grit-tempered or

. .!i ........ ....
Figure 10. Selected pottery recovered from the Brooks Street site. Mound Place Incised var. Walton's Camp rim effigy sherd.
Figure 11. Selected Pensacola pottery reco vered from the Brooks Street site. Top: Pensacola Brushed, Mound Place Incised var. Walton's Camp (3), far right is Tab Tail effigy; Middle: Moundville Incised var. Douglas (?), Moundville Incised var. Moundville, Moundville Incised var. Bottle Creek, Mound ville Incised var. Moundville, D 'Olive Incised var. Dominic; Bottom: Moundville Incised var. Carrollton (?), Mississippi Plain (2).

"residual" plain, are Fort Walton types. I reported on a The upper midden ceramic assemblage may be considered
similar collection (Mikell 1992:59), that contained only 12.2 a protohistoric or early historic assemblage given the date and percent Pensacola sherds. My excavation results indicate that the presence of brushed pottery. Lazarus (1961) reported on the radiocarbon dates, ceramic assemblage, and other aspects the La Casa site (8SR12), which is located on the south side of of the site and its materials are consistent with such an Pensacola Bay. La Casa produced Pensacola pottery, including interpretation. The Bell site middens and cultural materials are Pensacola Brushed ceramics, that were associated with olive jar typical for Fort Walton sites on the Choctawhatchee. fragments and a white clay pipestem. Lazarus did not report
Perhaps the most enticing piece of data resulting from the radiocarbon dates, but I suspect that the later of the Brooks work at the Bell site is the recovery of a large sherd, typically Street site dates could be applicable. Lazarus indicated that 97 identified in northwest Florida as Jefferson Ware, from a trash- percent of the pottery from La Casa is shell tempered. Despite filled hearth or fire pit (Feature 1) dated to between A.D. 1296 being an unimpressive midden deposit, the upper midden at and A.D. 1392. The association of this grit-tempered, plain, Brooks Street is important because it appears to contain only smoothed-surfaced, everted rim jar fragment (Figure 4) with shell-tempered pottery. The upper midden and associated the radiocarbon date raises a few questions about the Jefferson radiocarbon date are tentatively considered to be La Casa phase Ware pottery type. Assuming that the radiocarbon date is not materials because an equivalent phase for the Choctawhatchee a victim of the "old wood effect," one is compelled to question Bay area has not been defined. The Brooks Street site data are the early date for Jefferson Ware pottery. Because the feature not extensive enough to provide the basis for a provisional appeared to be undisturbed, was readily recognized and phase.
carefully excavated, with the sherd clearly within the confines I formerly considered the Brooks Street site to be a late of the feature, and because the radiocarbon date is consistent Fort Walton, Four Mile Point phase site (Mikell 1992:60). with others from the site, I can offer only the following This assignment was based on the analysis of 264 sherds speculations. First, and most probable, there is a great deal of collected from the site, 59 percent of which are Pensacola overlap between Lake Jackson Plain rim decorations and what types. Although the earlier radiocarbon date from Brooks can formally be called Jefferson Ware when both are grit Street is a Four Mile Point phase date, the preponderance of
tempered. The latter occurs only in post-A.D. 1500 to 1600 Pensacola pottery recovered in the lower midden and Feature 2 contexts and is often grog-tempered. Second, the plain pottery in Units 1-4 (80.4 percent) is curious. type, Jefferson Ware, got an early start outside the Apalachee Given the limited scope of these investigations, I am Province area and may be dated somewhat earlier in the unsure what this means, but other sites on the west end of
Apalachicola Valley and Tallahassee Hills as well. Choctawhatchee Bay have yielded assemblages that have
I would go on to suggest that, in large part, the similarly high proportions of Pensacola types. In addition to
distinction between certain Lake Jackson Plain rim modes and the Brooks Street site, excavations by Lazarus (1964) and what are typically identified as Jefferson Ware rim modes is survey/test excavation data obtained by New World Research unclear, if the materials do not come from Mission period (Thomas and Campbell 1993) and Thomas and Associates sites. This vessel fragment is a "'tweener" that could probably (Thomas et al. 1994) indicate that on Eglin Air Force Base, best be identified as Lake Jackson Plain var. Ingram, even Fort Walton sites with the highest proportion of Pensacola though a few other Leon-Jefferson type sherds were recovered ceramics tend to be on the west and northwest portions of from the site (see Table 6 and Figures 8 and 9). With a more Choctawhatchee Bay. Lazarus (1971) stated that west of the conventional Lake Jackson rim treatment the vessel fragment Apalachicola River, the percentage of shell-tempered pottery would have been classified as variety Ingram. increases in Fort Walton assemblages. I would modify this
The Brooks street site is significant for three reasons. statement by focusing on the Choctawhatchee: as one moves Excavation Units 1-4, unlike the other units excavated on the from east to west along either shore of the Bay, the frequency site, documented an undisturbed stratified deposit containing of sites producing high percentages of Pensacola pottery middle to late Pensacola deposits. The upper midden, dated to increases to a maximum on its west end. A comparison of the A.D. 1512 to 1648 by the feature at its base, contains only contemporaneous Brooks Street lower midden pottery and the plain and a few brushed (Pensacola Brushed) shell-tempered Bell site pottery illustrates my point. sherds. The lower midden, dated by the hearth it contains to The Brooks Street site is located within 1 kilometer of the
between A.D. 1398 and A.D. 1482, produced more typical Fort Walton Mound (80K6). Many a Southeastern
Pensacola Series pottery as well as some Fort Walton pottery. archaeologist has queried about the absence of a Fort Walton The calibrated dates do not overlap at one sigma (Table 2) and village site in proximity to the mound. It is speculation, of the pottery in each midden and feature is different. course, but I would suggest that Fort Walton period inhabitants
The upper midden sherds are also much smaller and of the Brooks Street site can be loosely tied to the intrusive
eroded, perhaps trampled, compared to several sherds from the burials in the upper portions of the Fort Walton Mound lower midden, some of which are depicted in Figures 11 and documented by Fairbanks (1960, 1965) and Thanz (n.d.). 12.

mow 7 'Jr. r
Figure 12. Selected Fort Walton pottery recovered from the Brooks Street site. Top: Point Washington var. Chambliss, Fort Walton Incised var. Sneads, Fort Walton Incised (2); Bottom: Fort Walton Incised, Lake Jackson Incised var. Blounstown, Lake Jackson Plain var. Ingram (2).
These burials, like the Brooks Street site lower midden, would have been lost to "progress." The excavation work was contained a majority of Pensacola pottery. Both probably post- also important because it brought together professional date the early construction phases at the mound. archaeologists, avocational archaeologists, and interested
landowners in a voluntary salvage project. The project was of Summary benefit to everyone involved, we have all learned something
Limited excavations at the Bell and Brooks Street sites
have provided some interesting data on the Choctawhatchee Acknowledgments
Bay area Fort Walton period. The Brooks Street site also has
potentially provided information on the protohistoric period on None of this work would have been possible without the the west end of the Bay that markedly contrasts with the interest and cooperation of the property owners, and the protohistoric materials from 8WL38 (see Mikell 1994). enthusiastic work of the volunteers who participated. Thanks
Although excavations were limited by previous development go out to the property owners: Virginia Pryor, the Wesleys, on both sites, the data recovered are important because they Pat and Pierce, Susan Lee, and those who wished to remain would have been lost to development and the data fill in gaps anonymous; to my assistants, Bob Nagel, Bill Reger, Sherry in our knowledge. The excavations initiated the first Wesley, Pat and Shanon Pierce, Bill and Jean Lucus, James systematic sampling of village areas on both sites, Mathews, and Prentice Thomas; to Jenny, who helped get the documenting several cultural features, and recovering data that work done and into print; and to Brent Weisman and the FAS.

Appendix A
Table 1. Summary of Excavation Units (TUs).
Bell Site (80K19)
Unit Size: im2.
Stratigraphy: 3-5 cm of humus; a 19-22 cm thick shell midden and black sand (Stratum 2); a 3-11 cm thick black sand midden (Stratum 3); two layers of culturally sterile gray to brownish-yellow sand to below 1 a (Stratum 4
and Stratum 5).
Notes: Stratum 2 contains primarily whole oyster (77%) and scallop (21%), dense vertebrate faunal remains, and a moderate amount of pottery in organically rich black sand; Stratum 3 contains scattered oyster shell and
small amounts of pottery; cultural deposits truncate at base of Stratum 3. TUs 2-4
Unit Size: 1 by 3 m.
Stratigraphy (Figure 3): 2-8 cm of humus; an 8-22 cm shell midden in dark gray sand (Stratum 2); 12-26 cm thick dark grayish-brown sandy midden with scattered shell (Stratum 3); a layer of culturally sterile gray to
brownish-yellow sand (Stratum 4).
Notes: Stratum 2 contains primarily whole oyster (55%), fragmented oyster (26%), and scallop (17%), dense deposits of vertebrate faunal remains, pottery, and charred plant remains in organically rich black sand, much of the crushed shell is burned; Stratum 3 contains whole and fragmented oyster shell (91%), sparse deposits
of vertebrate faunal remains and pottery. Cultural deposits abruptly disappear at base of Stratum 3.
Features: a trash-filled fire pit or hearth (Feature 1) was encountered in Unit 4 at the base of Stratum 2 and the top of Stratum 3. Feature 1 contained dense deposits of charred wood and other plant remains along with deer and fish bone, some of which is burned, as well as some pottery that includes a large Jefferson Ware
plain sherd.
Radiocarbon Dates: A.D. 1296-1392, charcoal from Feature I (see Table 2). TU 5/6
Unit Size: 1 by 2 t.
Stratigraphy: 2-5 cm of humus; a 20-26 cm thick shell midden in dark gray sand (Stratui 2); gray to light gray sterile sand to below 1 m (Stratum 3 and 4).
Notes: the upper 10 cm of this midden appears to have been disturbed; Stratum 2 contains mixed shellfish remains dominated by oyster (88%), sparse vertebrate faunal remains and a moderate amount of pottery in dark gray
sand and shell; two layers of culturally sterile sand lie below Stratum 2 (Stratum 3/Stratum 4). A few
pieces of shell and pottery were recovered in Stratum 3, below the actual midden deposit.
Features: an ash lens (Feature 2) was present at the base of Stratum 2 in Unit 6. Feature 2 contained only charred wood and ash.
TU 7
Unit Size: 1m2
Stratigraphy: 2-5 cm of humus; a 12-19 cm thick shell midden in dark grayish-brown sand (Stratum 2); light gray
sterile sand to below 1 m (Stratum 3).
Notes: Stratum 2 contains mixed shellfish remains dominated by oyster (68%) and scallop (30%), sparse vertebrate
faunal remains and a moderate amount of pottery; one deep layer of light gray sand lies below Stratum 2. TU 8/9
Unit Size: 1 by 2 in.
Stratigraphy: 3-5cm humus; a 28 to 30 cm thick shell inidden in black sand (Stratum 2); light gray sterile sand to below 1 in (Stratum 3).
Notes: Stratum 2 contains a dense deposit of mixed shellfish remains dominated by oyster shell (78%), sparse
vertebrate faunal remains and a moderate amount of broken pottery. The shell midden in these units overlies
light gray sand.

Table 1 continued.
TUs 10/11
Unit Size: 1 by 2 .
Stratigraphy: 3-4 ci of humus; a 17 to 23 ci thick shell midden in black sand (Stratui 2); a 5 to 20 cm thick dark
grayish-brown sandy midden (Stratum 3); light grayish-brown to gray sterile sand to below 1 m (Stratui 4).
Notes: Stratum 2 contains primarily whole oyster (77%), along with scallop (15%), conch (7%), with burned and
crushed shell and moderate deposits of vertebrate faunal remains, and a fairly large amount of broken
pottery. Stratum 3 contains scattered oyster shell, a small amount of vertebrate faunal material, and a
few pieces of pottery. The midden layers overlie a layer of sterile sand (Stratum 4).
TUs 12/13
Unit Size: 1 by 2 a.
Stratigraphy: 3-4 ca of humus; a 21 to 36 cm thick shell midden in very dark grayish-brown sand (Stratum 2); a
light density midden deposit in gray sand (Stratum 3); light gray sterile sand to below 1 m (Stratum 4).
Notes: Stratum 2 contains primarily whole oyster (47%) and scallop (15%), and conch (8%) along with burned
and crushed oyster shell (30%) associated with dense deposits of vertebrate faunal remains and pottery.
Stratum 3 contains scattered oyster shell, animal bone, and pottery.
Features: an ash lens (Feature 3) was encountered at the base of Stratum 2 in Unit 13. Feature 2 contained one
plain, grit tempered sherd, charred wood, and ash.
TUs 14/15
Unit Size: 1 by 2 m.
Stratigraphy (Figure 6): 3-4 cm of humus; a 28 to 32 cm thick shell midden in black sand (stratum 2); a 17 ci thick
lens of black sand midden in the eastern end of the unit (Stratum 3); grayish-brown to light gray sterile
sand to below 1 m (Stratum 4/Stratum 5)
Notes: Stratum 2 is an organically rich, dense shell midden deposit containing oyster (85%) and scallop shell
(12%), vertebrate faunal remains, a large amount of broken pottery, and charred plant remains. Stratum 3
is lens-shaped with Unit 4 and contained no artifacts other than pottery and charcoal.
Features: Figure 6 illustrates the location of Feature 4 in these units, Feature 4 is a hearth located in the basal
portion of Stratum 2. The hearth contained charred wood and other plant remains, burned animal bone (mostly
fish), and some pottery. Two sherds from the feature are burned.
Radiocarbon Dates: A.D. 1372-1498, charcoal taken from Feature 4 (see Table 2).
Brooks Street (80K60)
TUs 1-4
Unit Size: 2 by 2 m.
Stratigraphy (Figure 7): 6-8 cm of humus; a 16 to 21 ci thick dark brown sandy midden (Stratum 2); a 25 to 28 ci
thick shell midden in very dark grayish-brown sand (Stratum 3); culturally sterile gray sand to below 1 m
(Stratum 4).
Notes: Stratum 2 is a light density midden deposit containing a sparse scatter of oyster shell, small pieces of
pottery and a few pieces of animal bone. Stratum 3 is an organically rich, dense shell midden deposit containing oyster (91%) and Rangia shell (8%), vertebrate faunal remains (fish), a large amount of broken pottery, and charred wood. Stratum 4 contained a few pieces of shell and pottery that appear to be from Stratum 3. The Stratum 3 midden is bounded on top by an ashy lens (Feature 1) and a large hearth on bottom
(Feature 2) in these units.
Features: Figure 7 illustrates Features 1 and 2 in these units. Feature 1 is a charcoal-filled ashy lens at the
base of Stratum 2, Feature 2 is a hearth located in the basal portion of Stratum 3. The hearth contained
charred wood and other plant remains, burned animal bone, and pottery.
Radiocarbon Dates: A.D. 1512-1648, charcoal taken from Feature 1; A.D. 1398-1482, charcoal taken from Feature 2
(see Table 2).

Table 1 continued.
TU 5
Unit Size: in2
Stratigraphy: 4-6 cm of humus; a 10-15 cm thick grayish-brown sandy midden (Stratum 2); light gray to yellowishbrown sterile sand to below 1 m (Stratum 3/Stratum 4).
Notes: Stratum 2 contains scattered mixed shellfish remains dominated by oyster (98%), sparse vertebrate faunal
remains and pottery. The midden in TU 5 appears disturbed. TUs 6/7
Unit Size: 1 by 2 m.
Stratigraphy: 3-6 cm of humus; a 19 to 24 cm thick shell midden in dark grayish-brown sand (Stratum 2); a light
density midden deposit in gray sand (Stratum 3); light gray to yellowish-brown sterile sand to below 1 m
(Stratum 4/Stratum 5).
Notes: Stratum 2 contains primarily scattered whole oyster shell (67%) and some scallop (8%), along with burned
and crushed shell (24%) associated with sparse deposits of vertebrate faunal remains and pottery. Stratu
3 contains very little, scattered oyster shell, animal bone, and pottery.
Table 2.
Bell (80K19) and Brooks Street (80K60) Radiocarbon Analysis Results.
Calibrated Date*
Provenience: Context Aqe (Range 1 sigma) Sample#
80K19 Beta
TU4: Feature 1 580+60 A.D. 1336 64278
fire pit below midden (A.D.1296 to A.D.1392)
TUl4/15: Feature 4 470+70 A.D. 1448 63965
hearth below midden (A.D.1372 to A.D.1498)
TUsl-4: Feature 2 470+50 A.D. 1448 63964
hearth below midden (A.D.1398 to A.D.1482)
TUsl-2: Feature 1 270+60 A.D. 1578 64279
ashy lens (A.D.1512 to A.D.1648)
*Calibration by CALIB (Stuiver and Becker 1986)

Table 3. Feature I (8OK19) Flotation Sample Analysis (32 L).*
Pottery by type/variety I Invertebrate/Vertebrate Fauna I wt. Botanical I wt.
Lake Jackson Plain white-tailed deer 37 276g wood charcoal 67g
var. unspecified 1 freshwater turtle 13 54g hickory nut shell 5 2g
var. Ingram 2 fish (Osteichthyes) 121 47g maize cupules 12 2g
Jefferson Ware** 1 fish (Chondrichthyes) 1 Mississippi Plain bird 1 var. unspecified 2 virginia oyster 57 173g
Pensacola Incised totals 230 551g 17+ 72g
var. unspecified 2
Fort Walton Incised
var. unspecified 1
total 9
*count/weight includes whole elements and fragments
**partial vessel (Figure 4)
Table 4. Feature 4 (80K19) Flotation Sample Analysis (35 L).*
Pottery by type/variety I Invertebrate/Vertebrate Fauna I wt. Botanical I wt.
Lake Jackson Plain white-tailed deer 2 11g wood charcoal 49g
var. unspecified 8 freshwater turtle 12 18g hickory nut shell 26 llg
var. Ingrai 4 fish (Osteichthyes) 223 78g grape seed I var. Chattahoochee 1 virginia oyster 34 98g
Bell Plain crushed/burned shell -- 76g
var. unspecified 3 bay scallop 7 9g
Mississippi Plain
var. unspecified 4 totals 278+ 290g] 7+ 6(
sort Walton Incised
var. unspecified 5
var. Fort Walton 1
Lake Jackson Incised
var. Blounstown 1
Point Washington Incised
var. unspecified 1
Pensacola Incised
var. unspecified 3
total 31
*count/weight includes whole elements and fragments

Table 5. Feature 2 (8OK60) Flotation Sample Analysis (35 L).*
Pottery by type/variety I Invertebrate/Vertebrate Fauna wt. Botanical W wt.
Mississippi Plain freshwater turtle 3 6g wood charcoal 89g
var. unspecified 5 fish (Osteichthyes) 73 105g hickory nut shell 8 1g
Bell Plain white-tailed deer 1 4g
var. unspecified 1 virginia oyster 47 128g
Pensacola Incised shell fragments -- 91g
var. unspecified 3
Fort Walton Incised
var. unspecified 1
totals 10 124+ 334g 8+ 99g
*count/weight includes whole elements and fragments
Table 6. Ceramics Recovered from the Bell Site
by Test Unit, Arbitrary Level, and Feature*.
Tfyje/Cassifioation Tul TLJ2-4 Pea. TU5/6 TU7 TU8/9 TUIO-11 TUi2/13 TU14/15 Pea.Toa
Level: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 4 FORT WALTON SERIES!
Plain Wares
Lake Jackson Plain
var. unspecified 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 8 2 2 1 1 2- . . -26
var. Apalachicola 1 -- - - - 2 - -1 4
var. Chattahoochee - 1 1 - 2 2 1 1 - --10
var. Ingram 3 1-- 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 12 2 40 var. Tallahassee - -- -----------------1
Jefferson Ware 1 1- . . .. 1- --.-.- -3
Residual Plain
sand tempered 2 1 1 2 9 1 9 6 1 4 4 5 2 12 2 3 2 7 1 8 1 8 4 2 6 5 1 109 grit tempered 1- -- 7 6 2 1 11 8 13 2 13 8 1 3 2 8 12 2 11 10 4 13 19735 172 Incised Wares
Fort Walton Incised
var. unspecified 11-- 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 I 1 I - 1 4 1 1 41-2 31
var. Fort Walton - - -.-.-.---- - -- 1- .... -- -------2
var. Cayson .-.. . ..-.-.- -.--. 1
var. Choctawhatchee ---- -- 1 2 1 - - - -- - - -1 5
Lake Jackson Incised
var. unspecified -- I .- --- -3
var. Blounstown I 1 2 -- 2 2 14
Marsh Island Incised
var. Marsh Island --.--.-- -- 1 1- -.. ..... -2
var. Columbia .-.-.-- 1 . ..-. .----- --- 1 . .- ------2
Point Washington Incised
var. unspecified -1-- 1 2 - 1 2-- 1-- 11--- 16
var. Point Washington 1--------------- ----1----------------1------------------------------------ 6
var. Chabliss------------------------------------2 ---------- ---------2
Miscellaneous Wares
Lamar Complicated Stamped
var. early ....- 1---------------------------- 1-----------------------------2
var. Curlee------------------------------------------1-----------------------------------1
Leon Check Stamped
var. Leon---------------------------1 -1---------------------------------------2
Plain Wares
Bell Plain
var. unspecified------------------------1--------------------------------------1 -... 2
Mississippi Plain
var. unspecified 2 1- 5 6 2-2 3 61i- 4 2- .. 12-- 2 2- 111 2 46
var. Pine Log 1----------------------------1 -----------------1 3
var. Warrior--------------------------- ...-. 1----------------------1 -.... 2
Incised Wares
D' Olive Incised
var. unspecified-------------------1--------------- 1 ----------1--------------------4
var". D 'Olive . .- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
Noundville Incised
var. Snow'sm end------------------------1--------------------------------------1 1 3
var. Douglas----------------------------------------------------------------1 -.... 1
Mound Place Incised
var. Waltons Camp -.. .. 1--------------------1 -. --- --- 1-----------......-----3
Pensacola Incised
var. unspecified - -1 1 -2 2 2- 1 -2- .- - -- 1 1- 1- -I 16
var. Pensacola -.... 1---------------------------------------1 -- 1 1- -- 5
Carrebelle Incised---------------------2 . .- 3 .
Carrabells Punctated--------------------------------1 -. . . . . . . . . .- - 1
Wakulla Check stamped -1I3 - -2- - 14 1- -1 -- 2 -2 .. 17
Weedan Island Plain 1----------------------3 1--------------------------1 ..6
Weeden Island Incised--------------------1------------------------------------------------------------ 1
Unid. Check Stamped - -3 -- 11- ---.1 ... ..-1--------------------1 8
TOTAL 149g5 9 2835 9 89 36 3234 23 34 28 4 21 95 23 25 94 29 19 17 28 3817 8 15 582
Ceramics recovered from features are not presented by level
Count includes partial or whole vessel(s) where each specimen = 1

Table 7. Ceramics Recovered from the Brooks Street Site
by Test Unit, Arbitrary Level, and Feature*.
Type/Classification Wesley Collection TUsl-4 Fea. Fea. TUS TU6/7 Total
Level: (Shoreline) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Plain Wares
Lake Jackson Plain
var. unspecified 1 1 1 3
var. Ingram 11 2 1 -- 1 -- -15
var. Jefferson 1 1 1 3
Jefferson Ware 2 ---- 2
Residual Plain
sand tempered 4 1 2 1 8
grit tempered 7 3 8 44 2 3 1 --- 32
Incised Wares
Fort Walton Incised
var. unspecified 2 -- I 3
var. Cayson 1 --- -- -1
var. Sneads 1 .- --- 1
Lake Jackson Incised
var. Blounstown 1 ---- -I
Point Washington Incised
var. Chambliss 1 1 1 3
Plain Wares
Bell Plain
var. unspecified 2 8 3 8 4- 1 1 --- 1 28
var. Hale 2 3 5
Mississippi Plain
var. unspecified 8 15 6 31 10 8 2 5 2 1 1 4 2 2 3 100
var. Warrior 1 1 3 6
Incised Wares
D'Olive Incised
var. Dominic 1 -1 1 3
Moundville Incised
var. unspecified 1 2 1 1 5
var. Bottle Creek 1 1 2
var. Douglas 3 -- --- 3
var. Moundville 1 .---- - -- 1
var. Snow's Bend 3 1 4
Wound Place Incised
var. Waltons Camp 2 1 3
Pensacola Incised
var. unspecified 4 7 3- 3 1 1 20
var. Bear Point 2 -1 3
var. Pensacola 2 1 1 1 --- 5
Brushed Ware
Pensacola Brushed 1 2 1 1 -1 -- 3 1 10
Carrabelle Incised 2 2 4
Carrabelle Punctated 1 1
Wakulla Check Stamped 3 1 2 6
Weeden Island Plain 1 -- -1
Weeden Island Incised 1 1
Unid. Check Stamped 3 1 1 1- 6
TOTAL 75 2516643320 3 10 6 10 4 57 4 1 29
*Ceramics recovered from features are not presented by level

Table 8.
Proportional Summary of Fort Walton and Pensacola Pottery.
Bell site (SKg19)
Type/Variety Count % Total % Decorated Type/Variety count % Total % Decorated
Plain Wares Plain Wares
Lake Jackson Plain Bell Plain
var. unspecified 26 4.8 var. unspecified 2 .4
var. Apalachicola 4 .7 Mississippi Plain
var. Chattahoochee 10 1.8 var. unspecified 46 8.5
var. Ingram 40 7.3 var. Pine Log 3 .5
var. Tallahassee 1 .2 var. Warrior 2 .4
Jefferson Ware 3 .5 Incised Wares
Residual Plain D'Olive Incised
sand tempered 109 20.0 var. unspecified 4 .7 3.1
grit tempered 172 31.6 var. D'Olive 1 .2 .8
Incised Wares Moundville Incised
Fort Walton Incised var. Douglas 4 .7 3.1
var. unspecified 31 5.7 24.6 var. Snow's Bend 1 .2 .8
var. Fort Walton 2 .4 1.5 Mound Place Incised
var. Cayson 1 .2 .8 var. Waltons Camp 3 .5 2.4
var. Choctawhatchee 5 .9 3.9 Pensacola Incised
Lake Jackson Incised var. unspecified 16 2.9 12.7
var. unspecified 3 .5 2.4 var. Pensacola 5 .9 3.9
var. Blounstown 18 3.3 14.3
Marsh Island Incised Total 87 15.9 26.8
var. Columbia 2 .4 1.5
var. Marsh Island 2 .4 1.5
Point Washington Incised
var. unspecified 16 2.9 12.7
var. Point Washington 6 1.1 4.8
var. Chambliss 2 .4 1.5
Miscellaneous Wares
Lamar Complicated Stamped
var. early 2 .4 1.5
var. Curlee 1 .2 .8
Leon Check Stamped
var. Leon 2 .4 1.5
Total 457 84.1 73.2
Brooks Street Site (SOK60)
Type/Variety Count 8 Total % Decorated Type/Variety Count 8 Total 8 Decorated
Plain Wares Plain Wares
Lake Jackson Plain Bell Plain
var. unspecified 3 1.1 var. unspecified 28 10.4
var. Ingram 15 5.5 var. Hale 5 1.9
var. Jefferson 3 1.1 Mississippi Plain
Jefferson Ware 2 .7 var. unspecified 100 37.0
Residual Plain var. Warrior 6 2.2
sand tempered 8 3.0 Incised Wares
grit tempered 32 11.8 D'Olive Incised
Incised Wares var. unspecified 3 1.1 4.4
Fort Walton Incised Moundville Incised
var. unspecified 3 1.1 4.4 var. unspecified 5 1.9 7.8
var. Cayson 1 .4 1.5 var. Bottle Creek 2 .7 2.9
var. Sneads 1 .4 1.5 var. Douglas 3 1.1 4.4
Point Washington Incised var. Moundville 3 1.1 4.4
var. Chambliss 3 1.1 4.4 var. Snow's Bend 1 .4 1.5
Lake Jackson Incised Mound Place Incised
var. Blounstown 1 .4 1.5 var. Waltons Camp 3 1.1 4.4
Pensacola Incised
Total 72 26.6% 13.3% var. unspecified 20 7.4 29.9
var. Bear Point 3 1.1 4.4
var. Pensacola 5 1.9 8.0
Brushed Ware
Pensacola Brushed 10 3.7 14.6
Total 198 73.4% 86.7%

Table 9.
Identified Vertebrate Remains from 80K19 and 80K60.
Class Mammalia: Class Osteichthyes:
Odocoileus virginianus (deer) Lepisosteus spp. (gar)*
Didelphis virginiana (opossum)* Amia calva (bowfin)*
Procyon lotor (racoon) Elops saurus (ladyfish)
Sciurus spp. (squirrel)* Ariidae (saltwater catfishes)
Rodentia (unspecified rodent) Caranx spp. (jack)
Unspecified mammal Sciaenidae (drum fish)
Cynoscion spp. (seatrout)
Class Ayes: Pogonius cromis (black drum)
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)* Sciaenops ocellata (red drum)
Phalacrocqrax spp. (cormorant) Archosarqus probatocephalus
Unspecified bird (sheepshead)
Mugilidae (mullet)
Class Reptilia: Muiail cephalis (mullet)
Trionyx spp. (softshell turtle) Paralichthys spp. (flounder) Pseudemys spp. (cooter/slider) Diodontidae (burrfish/puffer)*
Terrapene carolina (box turtle)* Unidentified fish
Testudinidae (unspecified turtle)
Serpentes (unspecified snake) Class Chondricthyes:
Raja spp. (skates)*
Dasyatis americana (stingray)*
*recovered at 80K19 only
Table 10.
Identified Floral Remains from 80K19 and 80K60.
Plant Food Remains Wood Charcoal
Ze mays (maize)* Ouercus spp. (oak)
Carya spp. (hickory nut)* Carya spp. (hickory)
Vitus virus (grape seed)* Pinus spp. (pine)
Diospyros spp. (persimmon seed)* Ager spp. (maple) spp.*
Cedrus spp. (cedar)*
Vitus vitus (grape vine)
*recovered at 80K19 only

References Cited 1961 Ten Middens on the Naval Live Oaks Reservation, Santa
Rosa County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 14:49-64.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1975 A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile 1962 Site File update, 80K19. Florida Site File, Division of
Points. Revised Edition. Kendall Books, Gainesville. Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
Fairbanks, Charles H. 1964 The Postl's Lake II Site in Okaloosa County, Florida.
1958 Notes on the 1958 Ant. 306 field school at the Bell site The Florida Anthropologist 17:1-16.
(80K19) in Okaloosa County, Florida. On file, The Fort
Walton Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach. 1971 The Fort Walton Culture West of the Apalachicola
River. Southeastern Archaeological Conference
1960 Notes on the 1960 Fort Walton Temple Mound Newsletter 10: 40-48.
Excavations. On file, The Fort Walton Temple Mound
Museum, Fort Walton Beach. Lazarus, Yulee
1967 A Site Containing a High Percentage of Santa 1965 Excavations at the Fort Walton Temple Mound, 1960. Rosa/Swift Creek Complicated Stamped Sherds. Notes on
The Florida Anthropologist 18:239-264. file, The Fort Walton Temple Mound Museum and the
Florida Site File, Division of Historical Resources, Fuller, Richard S. Tallahassee.
1985 The Bear Point Phase of the Pensacola Variant: The
Protohistoric Period in Southwest Alabama. The Florida 1968 Florida Site File 80K60. On file, Division of Historical
Anthropologist 38:150-155. Resources, Tallahassee.
Fuller, Richard S., and Diane E. Silvia 1973 Site File update, 80K19. Florida Site File, Division of
1984 Ceramic Rim Effigies in Southwest Alabama. Journal of Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
Alabama Archaeology 30:1-48.
Mikell, Gregory A.
Fuller, Richard S., and Noel R. Stowe 1992 The Fort Walton Mississippian Variant on the Northwest
1982 A Proposed Typology for Late Shell Tempered Ceramics Florida Gulf Coast. Southeastern Archaeology 11:51-65.
in the Mobile Bay/Mobile Tensaw Delta Region. In
Archaeology in Southwestern Alabama: A Collection of 1994 8WL38, A Protohistoric Village Site on Choctawhatchee
Papers, edited by Cailup Curren, pp. 45-93. Alabama Bay. The Florida Anthropologist 47:233-268.
Tombigbee Commission.
Moore, Clarence B.
Kent, Bretton W. 1901 Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Northwest Florida
1992 Making Dead Oysters Talk, Techniques for Analyzing Coast, Part 1. Journal of the Academy of Natural
Oysters from Archaeological Sites. Maryland Historical Sciences of Philadelphia 11:421-497.
and Cultural Publications, Crownsville.
Scarry, John F.
Lazarus, William 1985 Proposedl Revision of the Fort Walton Ceramic
1956 Florida Site File 80K19. On file, Division of Historical Typology: A Type-Variety System. The Florida
Resources, Tallahassee. Anthropologist 38:199-233.
1957 Notes on the Bell site. Ms. on file, The Fort Walton 1990 Beyond Apalachee Province: Assessing the Evidence for
Temple Mound Museum and the Florida Site File, Early European-Indian Contact in West Florida. In
Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee. Columbian Consequences, Volume 2, Archaeological and
Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands East,
1958 Preliminary report on the Bell site (80K19). Ms. on edited by David Hurst Thomas, pp. 93-105. Smithsonian
file, the Fort Walton Temple Mound Museum and the Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Florida Site File, Division of Historical Resources,

Stuiver, M., and B. Becker
1986 The CALIB Program for Calibration of C-14 Dates and
Its Implications. Radiocarbon 28:863-910.
Thanz, Nina
n.d Excavations at 80k6: The Fort Walton Temple Mound.
Ms. on file, The Fort Walton Temple Mound Museum.
Thomas, Prentice, and Janice Campbell (editors) 1993 Eglin Air Force Base Historic Preservation Plan:
Technical Synthesis of Cultural Resources at Eglin, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa and Walton Counties, Florida. New
World Research, Inc. Report of Investigations No. 192.
Thomas, Prentice, Janice Campbell, James Mathews, and
Joseph Meyer
1994 Cultural Resources Investigations of 80K72,, A
Prehistoric Site on Postl Lake, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Prentice Thomas and Associates, Inc. Report of
Investigations No. 240.
Thomas, Prentice, Joseph Meyer, and Janice Campbell 1993 Survey of the Proposed Brooks Bridge Alternative of the
Fort Walton Beach Bridge Authority, Fort Walton Beach, Florida. Prentice Thomas and Associates, Inc. Report of
Investigations No. 224.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections 113, Washington, D.C.
Gregory A. Mikell
2572 Barron Court
Shalimar, Florida 32579

Gregory A. MikeU
During the past 10 to 15 years much concern has been tempered (Pensacola) differences. Although there are often expressed over the "dearth" (Milanich 1994:358) of stylistic similarities between Pensacola and Fort Walton information related to the Fort Walton period and culture in ceramics, there are many variations as well. Later taxonomic the western Florida Panhandle region (Brose and Percy 1978; classifications exist for Pensacola and Fort Walton pottery Rose 1984; Fuller 1985; Knight 1980; Lazarus 1971; Mikell (Fuller and Stowe 1982; Scarry 1985), but they do not account 1992; Milanich and Fairbanks 1980; Milanich 1994; Scarry for many varieties that are found around the Choctawhatchee. 1985, 1990b). Having lived and worked on the Following Willey in the Choctawhatchee Bay area were
Choctawhatchee for most of the past ten years and having William and Yulee Lazarus. They did good work, but so often worked sites on St. Andrews Bay, it is my opinion that there is I have wished that they could have done more. What a no reason to lament. It has been slow in coming, but the treasure of information they could have assembled if only they dearth is being filled. In reference to the Fort Walton had been able to secure adequate funding, an increased level of archaeological culture and Choctawhatchee Bay, Gordon cooperation with landowners, collectors, developers, and local
Willey once wrote to me that "the West Side Story" will be governments, and if they had received more support from told (personal communication 1993). There is, however, a professional and academic archaeologists. But after all, their major problem left unresolved. Milanich (1994:358, 363, time was the 1950s through the early 1970s and the western 381) describes it as confusion between Fort Walton and panhandle was a backwater. Therein lies the lament, because
Pensacola. I must agree, but only to the extent that the as the area was developed and sites were lost, only a few like confusion exists in some of the literature and not in what is in Bill and Yulee Lazarus were concerned and did anything about the ground. the situation. With few resources at their disposal, Bill and
Yulee produced a limited number of reports on the Fort
The Route to Confusion Walton culture.
As one might expect, the Lazarus' views of Fort Walton
Nowhere is the confusion between Fort Walton and on the Choctawhatchee were heavily influenced by Willey's
Pensacola more notable than in the Choctawhatchee Bay (1949) definition of Fort Walton period culture as modified by
region. To paraphrase Milanich (1994:358): the John Griffin (1949, 1950). Charles Fairbanks (1958, 1965)
Choctawhatchee area is the melting pot of the two cultures. and Hale Smith also worked with them. This influence can be Any melting pot situation is bound to be somewhat confusing. seen in their use of terminology indicating that they considered Imagine what archaeologists will say about modem American the Choctawhatchee Bay area to be part of the Fort Walton cities millennia from now if they do not recover documents culture whereas Pensacola culture was more prevalent to the that provide an outline for the hodge-podge of material they west (Lazarus 1961, 1971; Lazarus and Fornano 1975; Lazarus might find (Macaulay 1979). The confusion has resulted from and Hawkins 1976; Lazarus, Lazarus, and Sharon 1967). too little work and insufficient information being stretched William Lazarus (197 1:42) outlined how the percentage of beyond its limits. Here is how I think the confusion came to Pensacola pottery in Fort Walton period assemblages increases be. west of the Apalachicola Valley, noting that on
Little needs to be said about Willey's influence on how Choctawhatchee Bay they often reached 50 percent of
_Fort Walton and Pensacola are connected (Willey 1949). His assemblages. Lazarus never considered the Choctawhatchee classification of Gulf Coast pottery types is still the classic to assemblages to be Pensacola, however. Much has been made which most refer when dealing with Fort Walton and of the 1971 report, but it should be noted that the ceramic
Pensacola pottery. One thing that Willey (1949:452-466) assemblages Lazarus used in his analyses were primarily made maes clear is that there is basic dichotomy between Fort up of shoreline surface collections and materials recovered by Walton and Pensacola ceramics. The dichotomy is based on avocational collectors (Y. Lazarus, personal communication tempering agents used in the manufacture process, but it goes 1990). Whether or not this affected Lazarus' conclusions, beyond the sand- and grit-tempered (Fort Walton) versus shell- little data from controlled excavations was used in his analysis

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(Lazarus 1971). panhandle sites west of St. Andrews Bay." Whereas Pensacola
Beginning in the late 1960s and 1970s, the amount of potters may have made some sand tempered pottery, it is clear work on Apalachicola Valley and Tallahassee area Fort Walton that they did far less of it in the Mobile Bay and Pensacola Bay sites rapidly increased, while the Choctawhatchee area regions than they did around Choctawhatchee Bay, if Pensacola remained a backwater. Much of this work was a result of potters were ever on the Choctawhatchee. In Milanich implies Federal funding and proximity to supportive academic (1994:384) that the presence of Pensacola pottery is equated
institutions and state agencies. A flurry of publications on with the presence Pensacola people, and that even village Fort Walton culture accompanied and followed this period of midden sites with between 10 and 50 percent Pensacola pottery fieldwork. Some of the more notable publications associated indicate the replacement of Fort Walton culture by "Pensacola with this work are those of Brose and Percy (1978), Brose people." This view apparently leaves little room for the (1984), Scarry (1980, 1981a, 1981b, 1984, 1990a, 1990b), continuation of Fort Walton culture on the Choctawhatchee Tesar (1980), White et al. (1981), White (1982), Jones (1982, past about A.D. 1200 and, in turn, eliminates the possibility of 1994), Payne (1981), and Scarry and Payne (1986). These contact and exchange of ideas or materials between two distinct were very important publications, but they were heavily biased social groups living along less than 300 miles of the Gulf with data from the Apalachicola Valley and Tallahassee Hills Coast. Milanich (1994:386) implies that the presence of areas within the larger Fort Walton culture area. Compared to Pensacola pottery in the Choctawhatchee area cemeteries and the amount of work published and generally available from the the Fort Walton Temple mound place them within the realm of western panhandle, little had changed, until recently. Pensacola. Does this mean that the original Fort Walton type
Not until the early to mid-1980s was there any suggestion site is now a Pensacola type site?
that Choctawhatchee Bay was, indeed, within the Pensacola Others have, however, resisted such a view (Brose 1984,
culture area (Knight 1980, 1984; Scarry 1981a, 1985, 1990a, 1990; Mikell 1990, 1992; Thomas and Campbell 1993). 1990b). This view has caught on and is reflected in Milanich Without the benefit of radiocarbon dated ceramic assemblages, (1994:380) and a draft version of Florida's Comprehensive Lazarus (1961, 1971), Lazarus and Hawkins (1976), and Brose Preservation Plan (Payne 1991a, 1991b). In order to (1984) did not consider the Choctawhatchee as part of the
distinguish the Mississippian-influenced mound builders of the Pensacola culture area. Consider too, that although several Tallahassee Hills and Apalachicola Valley from their less archaeologists (Sears 1977; Scarry 1981a, 1990a; Knight 1980, impressive cousins on the coast, Scarry (1980, 1981a, 1981b, 1984; Fuller 1985; Stowe 1985; Milanich 1994)have 1984, 1985, 1990a) redefined Fort Walton in the glory of its emphasized the differences between Fort Walton and Pensacola "Mississippianess." Knight (1984:200-202) went on to suggest to varying degrees, at least two researchers who are very that Choctawhatchee Fort Walton was really Pensacola, and familiar with what Pensacola culture is and is not, do not Milanich (1994:380-387) has subscribed to a similar notion. subscribe to the "Choctawhatchee Bay = Pensacola" equation
Given the notion that the Choctawhatchee Fort Walton is (Fuller and Stowe 1982; Fuller 1985; Stowe 1985). Fuller equated with Pensacola at some point between A.D. 1200 and (1985:154; personal communication 1990) has suggested the A.D. 1600 there are two reconciliatory options to be existence of a "Choctawhatchee variant of the Fort Walton
considered. First, should the Pensacola variant be redefined to variant" (not the Pensacola variant!) because Pensacola sites incorporate its "Fort Waltoness." Second, did the redefinition around Mobile Bay usually produce very little sand- or gritof Fort Walton (Scarry 1981a, 1984, 1990a; Scarry and Payne tempered Fort Walton pottery. 1986; Milanich 1994) put too much weight on the These questions need answering: Is the late prehistoric to
"Mississippianess" of the Lake Jackson site, mound building protohistoric period on Choctawhatchee Bay to be considered a-_nd agriculture, and the historic Apalachee. Perhaps the Fort Walton, Pensacola, both, or neither? Is Pensacola a late striking developments that occurred at Lake Jackson (Jones prehistoric to protohistoric "veneer" over Fort Walton on the 1994; Payne 1994) and related sites should have been labelled Choctawhatchee? If the Choctawhatchee area is associated something other than Fort Walton if they are, indeed, so with the Pensacola culture after A.D. 1200, why are Fort different than what Willey (1949) originally defined as Fort Walton pottery types so persistent in the ceramic assemblages Walton. that post-date A.D. 1200?
Despite the fact that Pensacola archaeological culture sites Perhaps even these questions seem confusing, but there are largely defined by a preponderance of diagnostic shell- are some basic approaches to clarifying the culture history of tempered pottery types (Fuller 1985; Stowe 1985; Brown and the Choctawhatchee Bay area. Needed are additional
Fuller 1992), Milanich (1994:384) suggests that "sand radiocarbon dates, associated ceramic assemblages, and site
tempered pottery may have also been made by Pensacola type analysis. Data generated by recent work on the
people...the situation is muddied by the presence of Fort Choctawhatchee Bay, and on St. Andrews Bay for that matter, Walton ceramics (which precede) Pensacola at coastal are the key for a basic approach to the problem of the Fort

Walton-Pensacola confusion (Milanich 1994:358, 363, 381). 1993; Thomas et al. 1994a) have conducted tested excavations at 16 Fort Walton sites on Eglin Air Force Base. Nine of these
To End the Confusion sites produced more than 50 percent Pensacola pottery, but in
each case shell-tempered plain pottery was the dominant type
present, and the two sites they document as having the highest
Due largely to the recent efforts of New World Research, percentage of Pensacola pottery are on the East Bay portion of Inc., Thomas and Associates, Inc., and my work on sites the Escambia-Pensacola Bay system. The remaining seven around the Bay, the confusion is clearing. Prior to 1990, there sites yielded assemblages dominated by Fort Walton types. In was only one unpublished radiocarbon date for a Fort Walton 12 of the 16 assemblages, decorated Fort Walton ceramics site on Choctawhatchee Bay. Since then, several radiocarbon (grit-- and sand-tempered pottery) out-numbers decorated dated ceramic assemblages from both shell middens and Pensacola ceramics (shell-tempered pottery). The most notable
archaeological features have been discussed in several pattern among these Eglin sites is the shear dominance of publications and reports. Table 1 briefly summarizes the Pensacola pottery on East Bay sites. Choctawhatchee radiocarbon dates, associated materials, and New World Research/Thomas and Associates have also the sites from which they were recovered, conducted testing and excavation projects on other
Before discussing the recent data from the Choctawhatchee Bay area Fort Walton sites (Thomas 1990; Choctawhatchee area, it is pertinent to express my position on Thomas et al. 1994b). Thomas (1990) and Mikell (1992) ceramic (and other artifact) assemblages recovered from burial reported four radiocarbon dates (Table 1) associated with the sites around the Bay. Quite simply put: too much has been Monday Midden Site (8WL99). My work around the Bay has made of the amount of Pensacola pottery and the presence of included excavations at four large Fort Walton village sites, European (Spanish) goods in Choctawhatchee area cemeteries 80K19, 80K60, 8WL38, and 8WL543 (Mikell 1993, 1994, and burial mounds. First of all, these burial grounds were not 1995) as well as research on several ceramic assemblages from systematically or extensively excavated and we really do not other sites (Mikell 1992). This group of five reports makes up know much about them. Thanks to C.B Moore (1901, 1902, the most recent and most thorough documentation of area's
1918), other unnamed collectors, Adams and Lazarus (1960), Fort Walton sites. With the exception of 80K60, none of and Lazarus and Hawkins (1976) we have limited information these sites have produced ceramic assemblages dominated by on artifacts and skeletal remains from these cemeteries and Pensacola pottery. All available Choctawhatchee Bay area mounds, but we have no idea of how long they were in use. Fort Walton period radiocarbon dates and notes on their Could it be that the Pensacola pottery is most strongly associations are found in Table 1. associated with the latest uses of these burial areas? Could the The pattern that emerges from the investigations Pensacola pottery have been considered special and especially conducted around the Choctawhatchee Bay indicate a Fort well suited for burial furnishings since it may have been Walton emergence from an indigenous Late Weeden Island imported or for other reasons was rare or exotic? Could the culture between A.D. 1000 and A.D. 1200. The Late Weeden association of relatively few European artifacts in these burial Island-Fort Walton transition is known as the Little's Bayou sites skew perceptions of the late prehistoric and protohistoric, phase (Mikell 1993) and is characterized by oyster and Rangia fostering the idea that if there are European goods and shell midden sites on the Bay and midden sites on the Pensacola pottery in a cemetery, they must be Pensacola, now Choctawhatchee River and larger creeks that contain ceramic matter how much Fort Walton pottery is present. assemblages dominated by plain and check stamped (Wakulla)
Several Choctawhatchee area burial grounds are discussed pottery, small amounts of decorated Weeden Island types, and as though they are clearly Pensacola sites, with little or no small amounts of sand- and/or grit-tempered Lake Jackson consideration given to the possibility that they have any Plain, Lakce Jackson Incised, and Fort Walton Incised. Very connection to Fort Walton (Scarry 1990b; Milanich 1994:386), little shell-tempered pottery (less than 10%) is associated with but until the above questions can be answered, a prescription Little's Bayou phase sites. for more caution seems mn order. The pigeon-holing of The Indian Bayou phase (Mikell 1992) represents fully
everything to the west of the Apalachicola Valley as developed Fort Walton between A.D. 1200 and about A.D.
"Pensacola" is also perpetuated by the fact that the only 1400. Indian Bayou phase sites consist mainly of coastal oyster historically (post-1600) Indians in the western panhandle shell midden sites, a few cemeteries, and possibly a few mound named by the Spanish were the Panzacola or associated groups sites, as well as sites on the Choctawhatchee River. Indian such as the Chacato, Chisca, Savacola, Tawasa, and their Bayou phase ceramic assemblages contain several varieties of relatives (Hann 1988a, 1988b). the following types: Fort Walton Incised, Lakce Jackson
More recent information has been obtained from Plain/Lake Jackson Incised, Cool Branch Incised, MarshlIsland habitation sites rather than burial sites. William Lazarus Incised, and some Point Washington Incised. Indian Bayou (1964), New World Research, Inc., and Thomas and phase assemblages show an increase in Pensacola pottery,
Associates, Inc. (Thomas and Campbell 1993; Thomas et al. usually between 10 and 30 percent.

Table 1.
Choctawhatchee Bay Area Fort Walton Radiocarbon Analysis Results.
Calibrated Date*
site Nuuer: Context AQe (Range 1 siqa) Saple# Notes/Reference
LaCasa phase (?)
80K60: ash lens 27060 A.D. 1578 Beta Pensacola Brushed (1) and Mississippi Plain
(Fea.l) (A.D.1512 to A.D.1648) 64279 (2) sherds in feature. Feature size: 34
by 28 cm, 16 cm thick. Ceramics: 100% Pensacola types (Mikell 1995).
Four Mile Point phase
8WL38: fire pit in 380+50 A.D. 1496 Beta Fort Walton Incised (5), Lake Jackson
mound (Fea.2) (A.D.1468 to A.D.1552) 63962 Incised (3), Point Washington Incised (6),
Mississippi (5) and Bell (2) Plain, D'Olive Incised (1), Pensacola Incised (2), and grit and sand-tempered plain sherds (30) in the feature. Feature size: 38 by 107 cm, 51 cm deep. Ceramics: 81% Fort Walton, 19% Pensacola (Mikell 1994).
8WL38: ash lens in 390+50 A.D. 1478 Beta Lake Jackson Incised (I), Lake Jackson
midden (Fea.7) (A.D.1442 to A.D.1527) 64280 Plain (2), and grit-tempered plain (3)
sherds in the feature. Feature size: 61 by 43 cm, 12 cm thick. Ceramics: 100% Fort Walton types (Mikell 1994).
8WL99: shell midden 38060 A.D. 1476 Beta Lake Jackson Plain (1), Pensacola Incised
(A.D.1438 to A.D.1630) 36704 (2), Mississippi and Bell Plain (12) shards
in oyster shell hidden. Unit size: 1m2. Ceramic series proportions: 7% Fort Walton, 93% Pensacola (Thomas 1990).
80K60: hearth below 47050 A.D. 1448 Beta Fort Walton Incised (1), Pensacola Incised
midden (Fea.2) (A.D.1398 to A.D.1482) 63964 (3), Mississippi (5) and Bell (1) Plain
in feature. Feature size: 134 by 90 cm, 26 cm deep. Ceramics: 10% Fort Walton, 90% Pensacola (Mikell 1995).
80K19: hearth below 470+70 A.D. 1448 Beta Fort Walton Incised (2), Lake Jackson
midden (Fea.4) (A.D.1372 to A.D.1498) 63965 Incised (1), Lake Jackson Plain (2),
Pensacola Incised (1), grit- or sandtempered plain (6), and Mississippi Plain
(2) in feature. Feature size: 47 by 38 cm, 24 cm deep. Ceramics: 78% Fort Walton, 22% Pensacola (Mikell 1995).

Table 1 continued.
Calibrated Date*
Site Xber: Context AQe (Rane 1 siqa) Sample. Notes/Reference
80k184: shell midden 410+60 A.D. 1431 Beta Fort Walton Incised (4), Lake Jackson Plain
(A.D.1431 to A.D.1610 39717 (3), Mississippi or Bell Plain (2), and
Chattahoochee Brushed (1) in oyster shell midden. Unit size: i2. Ceramics: 70% Fort Walton, Pensacola=20% (Thomas and Campbell 1993).
8WL99: shell midden 500+70 A.D. 1422 Beta Lake Jackson Plain (4), Fort Walton Incised
(A.D.1331 to A.D.1442) 36706 (1), and Mississippi Plain (1) sherds in
oyster shell midden. Unit size: 12. Ceramics: 83% Fort Walton, 17% Pensacola (Thomas 1990).
8WL38: shell midden 490+60 A.D. 1418 Beta Fort Walton Incised (13), Lake Jackson
(A.D.1378 to A.D.1466) 63966 Incised (12), Marsh Island Incised (6),
Point Washington Incised (25), Fort Walton Beaded (3), Lake Jackson Plain (21), Mississippi (66) and Bell (37) Plain, D'Olive Incised (4), Moundville Incised
(1), Mound Place Incised (3), Pensacola Incised (67), and grit- or sand-tempered plain (149) sherds in oyster shell mdden. Unit size: 6m2. Ceramics: 56% Fort Walton, 44% Pensacola (Mikell 1994).
80k126: shell midden 610+60 A.D. 1367 Beta Fort Walton Incised (1), Mississippi or
(A.D.1283 to A.D.1408) 39704 Bell Plain (40), and Pensacola Incised (6)
sherds in oyster shell midden. Unit size: 1m2. Ceramics: 2% Fort Walton, 98% Pensacola (Thomas and Campbell 1993).
Indian Bayou phase
80k19: shell midden 600+75 A.D. 1363 UGA Cool Branch Incised (3), Fort Walton Incised
(A.D.1283 to A.D.1414) 1-7948 (32), Lake Jackson Incised (8), Marsh Island Incised (6), Point Washington Incised (11), Lake Jackson Plain (26), Pensacola Plain (57), Mound Place Incised (6), Pensacola Incised
(16), residual plain (312) in oyster shell midden. Unit size: 10 by 10 feet. Ceramics: 18% Fort Walton, 16% Pensacola, 66% residual plain (Fairbanks 1958, Mikell 1992).

Table 1 continued.
Calibrated Date*
Site Nuber: Context Aqe (Rane 1 siqga} Saple# Notes/Reference
8WL38: shell midden 580+50 A.D. 1340 Beta Fort Walton Incised (27), Lake Jackson
(A.D.1303 to A.D.1386) 63963 Incised (9), Marsh Island Incised (1),
Point Washington Incised (6), Lake Jackson Plain (14), Mississippi (52) and Bell (7) Plain, D'Olive Incised (1), Moundville Incised (4), Pensacola Incised (12), and grit- or sand-tempered plain (145) sherds in oyster shell hidden. Unit size: 6a2. Ceramics: 73% Fort Walton, 27% Pensacola (Mikell 1994).
80K19: fire pit/trash 580+60 A.D. 1336 Beta Jefferson Ware or Lake Jackson Plain
pit (Fea.l) (A.D.1296 to A.D.1392) 64278 partial vessel, Fort Walton Incised (1),
Pensacola Incised (2), Lake Jackson Plain
(4), and Mississippi Plain (4) sherds in feature. Feature size: 84 by 74 ca, 22 ca deep Ceramic series proportions: 55% Fort Walton, 45% Pensacola (Mikell 1995).
8WL99: shell maidden 670+60 A.D. 1283 Beta Lake Jackson Plain (4), Fort Walton Incised
(A.D.1277 to A.D.1388) 36705 (1), and Mississippi Plain (1) sherds in
oyster shell midden. Unit size: i,2. Ceramics: 83% Fort Walton, 17% Pensacola (Thomas 1990).
8WL38: base of mound 670+50 A.D. 1283 Beta Fort Walton Incised (19), Lake Jackson
(Fea.1) (A.D.1278 to A.D.1367) 64277 Incised (9), Point Washington Incised (26),
Lake Jackson Plain (17), Mississippi (48) and Bell (18) Plain, Mound Place Incised
(1), Pensacola Incised (12), and grit- or sand-tempered plain (223) sherds in oyster shell hidden. Unit size: 8a2. Ceramics: 79% Fort Walton, 21% Pensacola (Mikell 1994).
8WL99: shell hidden 69060 A.D. 1281 Beta Lake Jackson Plain (15), Fort Walton
(A.D.1264 to A.D.1385) 36707 Incised (9), Point Washington Incised (2),
and Mississippi Plain (1) sherds in oyster shell midden. Unit size: 1,2. Ceramics: 96% Fort Walton, 4% Pensacola (Thomas 1990).
8WL38: fire/trash pit 760+70 A.D. 1238 Beta Point Washington Incised (2), Lake Jackson
(Fea.3) (A.D.1189 to A.D.1330) 64276 Plain (1), Bell Plain (1), and grit- or
sand-tempered plain (10) sherds in feature. Feature size: 62 by 64 ca, 32 ca deep. Ceramics: 93% Fort Walton, 7% Pensacola (Mikell

Table 1 continued.
Calibrated Date*
Site NuIber: Context Age (Range 1 siqma) Saple Notes/Reference
Little's Bayou phase
8WL543: pit (Fea.l) 930+50 A.D. 1034 Beta Lake Jackson Plain (4), Fort Walton Incised
below midden (A.D. 965 to A.D.1058) 54894 (1), sand- or grit-tempered plain (9)
sherds in feature. Feature size: 44 by 31 ci, 21 ca deep. Ceramic series proportions: 36% Fort Walton, 64% unidentified plain (Mikell 1993).
80k877: shell midden 380+60 A.D. 1030 Beta Weeden Island Plain (7), Weeden Island In(A.D.990 to A.D.1070) 72231 cised (4), Weeden Island Red Filmed (2),
Wakulla Check Stamped (34), Carrabelle Punctated (1), Lake Jackson Plain (7), Lake Jackson Incised (8), Moundville Incised (2), Pensacola Incised (3), Pensacola Plain (14), and residual plain (454) sherds in an oyster shell midden. Unit size: 1612. Ceramics: 9% Weeden Island=9%, 3% Fort Walton, 4% Pensacola, 84% residual plain (Thomas e. 1994b).
8WL543: shell midden 1030+50 A.D. 938 Beta Wakulla Check Stamped (25), Carrabelle
(A.D. 892 to A.D. 970) 54893 Incised (1) and Punctated (1), Weeden
Island Plain (1), Lake Jackson Plain (2),
unidentified check stamped (12) and residual plain (15) sherds in oyster shell midden. Unit size: 2m2. Ceramics: 70% Weeden Island, 4% Fort Walton, 26% unidentified plain (Mikell 1993).
*Calibration by CALIB (Stuiver and Becker 1986)
The Four Mile Point phase dates to between A.D. 1400 varieties (Fuller and Stowe 1982). Four Mile Point phase
and the period of Spanish colonization, including, for now, the assemblages also contain small amounts of Leon-Jefferson Protohistoric period. Four Mile Point phase sites include pottery types and indicate a decline in the manufacture and use coastal oyster shell midden sites, ceremonial sites, cemeteries, of several varieties of Fort Walton Incised. Fort Walton and mounds, including many that were occupied and used Incised var. Choctawhatchee (Figure 2) is one Fort Walton
during the Indian Bayou phase. Sites associated with this Incised type/variety, however, that remains common to these phase have also been documented on the lower Choctawhatchee late sites. Some apparent Pensacola variant sites (as defined by River. Four Mile Point phase sites contain ceramic preponderance of Pensacola pottery) appear on west end of
assemblages that have increased amounts and varieties of Point Choctawhatchee Bay, especially after A.D. 1500 or so; these Washington Incised, Marsh Island Incised, and Pensacola sites, like the later occupation at 80K60 (Mikell 1995) appear
pottery types, usually between 30 and 50 percent. Pensacola to be related to La Casa phase (Lazarus 1961; Knight 1984) types include both Bottle Creek and Bear Point types and sites on Pensacola Bay.

i .
005 5
IN, c
Figure 2. Fort Walton pottery vessels, a: Fort Walton Incised var. unspecified; b: Fort Walton Incised var. Choctawhatchee; c: Point Washington Incised var. Hogtown Bayou.

Very few sites on the Choctawhatchee (80K60, 80K71, degree of influential social, political, or economic contact and 80K126) have been clearly documented as producing (probably all three) is evident, and such contact could account
ceramic assemblages that consist of more than 70 percent for significant occurrences of diagnostics from two Pensacola pottery types. The preponderance of Pensacola archaeological cultures on individual Choctawhatchee area pottery at 80K71 can be explained by the fact that Lazarus sites. After about A.D. 1550, there is little evidence left of counted numerous sherds from a reconstructed shell-tempered those who lived on the Choctawhatchee, and the Spanish tell us vessel individually (Lazarus 1964), weighting his assemblage little about the populations that lived between Pensacola Bay toward both Pensacola ceramics and a single vessel. The and the Apalachicola Valley. 80K60 and 80K71 assemblages may also be biased. While The Choctawhatchee Fort Walton period can not be
they may be representative of activities on certain portions of painted in black and white, shades of gray tempered by the each site, they were recovered during limited excavation time to which one is referring seem more appropriate. In other efforts and may not be truly representative of village-wide words, the Choctawhatchee area can not be uniformly conditions (Mikell 1995; Thomas et al. 1993). Despite these considered Fort Walton or Pensacola through time. It is both, cautionary notes, it is clear that from the western end of but the vast majority of evidence suggests that the Fort Walton Choctawhatchee Bay to the east side of Pensacola Bay is the cultural roots remain in place across most of the region in spite area where late prehistoric to protohistoric sites begin to of the wave of Pensacola influences. The archaeological consistently produce more Pensacola pottery than Fort Walton record indicates that, with few exceptions, the Choctawhatchee pottery. For anyone who has worked both the Mobile and was the home of Fort Walton populations who witessed and
Choctawhatchee Bay areas, there is no way that late prehistoric apparently accepted increasing Pensacola influences through and protohistoric ceramic assemblages from these areas share time. The continuity and change reflected by the enough stylistic and physical similarities to indicate that they Choctawhatchee area Fort Walton variant need not be from a single Mississippian culture variant, confusing at all.
The West Side Story References Cited
The "west side story" refers to the fact that the Adams, Grey L. and William C. Lazarus
Choctawhatchee is the western end of the Fort Walton culture 1960 Two Skulls from a Fort Walton Period Cemetery area. Milanich (1994:360-36 1) states that ".... the Fort Walton (0k35), Okaloosa County, Florida. The Florida Culture in northwest Florida was never a single political unit Anthropologist 13:109-114. but comprised several regional chiefdoms". The Fort Walton
archaeological culture is one that included social, political, and Brose, David S. economic variations that are tied to the microenvironments 1984 Mississippian Period Cultures in Northwestern Florida. within the landscape across which the people were spread, In Perspectives on Gulf Coast Prehistory, edited by David
including the Choctawhatchee Bay area. Fort Walton D. Davis. University of Florida Press, Gainesville.
settlement and subsistence patterns seem to mimic both the
diversity and continuity of the northwest Florida environment. 1990 Apalachee Impostors. Paper presented at the 47th
The archaeological record of the Choctawhatchee region Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological
reflects a degree of continuity by indicating fairly conservative Conference, Mobile. changes through time, where the evolution of archaeological
cultures is subtly punctuated by new influences and trends. Brose, David 5, and George W. Percy Two such punctuations are evident for the Fort Walton period: 1978 Fort Walton Settlement Patterns. In Mississippian 1) the evolution of Fort Walton out of Late Weeden Island Settlement Patterns, editedl by Bruce D. Smith.
culture, and 2) either the imposed influence or acceptance of Academic Press, New York. Pensacola traits as reflected in late period ceramic assemblages.
Fort Walton grew out of the Late Weeden Island period Brown, Ian W. and Richard S. Fuller, editors
populations that occupied the Bay area between A.D. 1000 and 1992 Bottle Creek Research: Working Papers on the Bottle A.D. 1200 and then, from A.D. 1300 to A.D. 1500, the influx Creek Site (lBa2), Baldwin County, Alabama. Alabama
of Pensacola ceramics occurred. The undeniable presence of Museum of Natural History.
the Pensacola ceramic tradition as a part of the local Fort
Walton variant likely reflects the eastward expansion of Fairbanks, Charles H. Pensacola influence. The Pensacola influence could reflect 1958 Notes on the 1958 Ant.306 field school at the Bell site shifting political alliances, but even if that were the case, the (80k19) in Okaloosa County, Florida. On file, The Fort influx of the Pensacola ceramic tradition is dramatic only on Walton Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach. the west side of Choctawhatchee Bay and at burial sites. Some

1965 Excavations at the Fort Walton Temple Mound, 1960. Lazarus, William C.
The Florida Anthropologist 18:239-264. 1961 Ten Middens on the Naval Live Oaks Reservation, Santa
Rosa County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist Fuller, Richard S. and Noel R. Stowe 14:49- 64.
1982 A Proposed Typology for Late Shell-Tempered Ceramics
in the Mobile Bay/Mobile Tensaw Delta Region. In 1964 The Postl's Lake II Site in Okaloosa County, Florida.
Archaeology in Southwestern Alabama: A Collection of The Florida Anthropologist 17:1-16.
Papers, edited by Cailup Curren, pp. 45-93. Alabama
Tombigbee Commission. 1971 The Fort Walton Culture West of the Apalachicola
River. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Fuller, Richard S. Newsletter 10:40- 48.
1985 The Bear Point Phase of the Pensacola Variant: The
Protohistoric Period in Southwest Alabama. The Florida Lazarus, Yulee W. and Robert J. Fornano
Anthropologist 38:150-155.. 1975 Fort Walton Temple Mound, Further Test Excavations,
DePaux 1973. The Florida Anthropologist 28:159-177. Griffin, John W.,editor
1949 The Florida Indian and His Neighbors. Rollins College Lazarus, Yulee W. and Carolyn B. Hawkins
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Shalimar, Florida 32579

Brent R. Weisman and Christine L. Newman
Located at the northern end of the Ten Thousand Islands remains of wooden docks, and numerous exotic plant species, between Gordon Pass (Naples) and Key Marco is a vast, most notably Sansevieria, commonly known as mother-in-law
pristine mangrove estuary known as Rookery Bay. Rookery tongue. Bay proper receives flow from Henderson Creek and is Taken together, the known prehistoric and historical
buffered from the Gulf of Mexico by a series of narrow barrier archaeological sites of the Rookery Bay National Estuarine islands. Major passes to the Gulf now exist at Gordon Pass on Research Reserve attest to some 3,000 years of human the north, Little Marco Pass in the central area, and Big Marco adaptation to the wetlands and hammock environments of Pass on the south. Long targeted by environmental Rookery Bay. Recorded site locations are shown in Figure 1.
conservation efforts, most of the Bay is now in state ownership
or control, largely through the activities of the Conservation Rookery Bay as Part of the Ten Thousand Islands and Recreation Lands (C.A.R.L.) acquisition program. Archaeological District
C.A.R.L. purchases, added to lands under lease from the
Collier Conservancy and the Audubon Society, form the core Archaeological evidence indicates that the Ten Thousand
and buffer areas for the 10,000-acre Rookery Bay National Islands, which includes the coastal area between Naples Estuarine Research Reserve (RBNERR), managed by the (Gordon Pass) and the Shark River, can be considered a
Florida Department of Environmental Protection. subdivision of the Everglades Area within the South Florida
An archaeological reconnaissance of the Rookery Bay Region (Griffin 1988:117-121) and can be distinguished on the National Estuarine Research Reserve by the Florida Bureau of basis of ceramics from the adjacent Caloosahatchee Area to the Archaeological Research, C.A.R.L. Archaeological Survey, north and (with less contrast) the larger Everglades Area south has resulted in the identification of 18 archaeological sites of the Shark River. It is also important to note that the Ten within the project boundaries. Nine sites reflect the prehistoric Thousand Islands district takes in most of interior Collier aboriginal occupation of the area, and consist of shell mounds, County as well, thereby suggesting some cultural relationship shell middens, black dirt middens, and burial areas. A long between coastal middens and the interior black dirt middens of period of occupation is generally suggested both by the large the Fakahatchee Strand, Picayune Strand, and the Big Cypress. size of several shell sites and the possibility that the burial area The basic ceramic sequence, like that of the Everglades may date to the Archaic period (prior to 1,000 B.C.), but the Area, is known as the Glades sequence. The Glades sequence Glades I Late and Glades II archaeological periods seem to be is divided into periods known as Glades I, II, and III, each particularly well represented, indicating that the bulk of the with further subdivisions (Griffin 1988:120-125, 127-129). prehistoric occupation occurred between about A.D. 750 and Decorated pottery types, most notably Gordon's Pass Incised, A.D. 1200. appear in the Glades I Late period (perhaps by A.D. 500),
The late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century while the types Opa Locka Incised, Miami Incised, and Key pioneering homestead settlement of the Rookery Bay area is Largo Incised mark the beginning of Glades Iha (about A.D. represented by nine known sites identified in the survey, most 750). Glades III opens with the introduction of Surfside of which are marked by the deteriorated remnants of simple Incised at about A.D. 1200. The final Glades III occupation is post-and-beam cabins and associated domestic refuse such as indicated by the presence of Glades Tooled pottery and historic bottles, broken ceramic plates, dishes, and cups, and objects of Spanish or European ceramics, which indicate occupation after rusted iron. A rusted iron plow found at one homestead site the period of European contact ca. A.D. 1513. Only limited on Henderson Creek indicates the farming focus of at least occupation is presently known for Rookery Bay during this some of the early settlers, and local informants tell of period, and the recent misstatement by McGoun (1993:109) in vegetable crops such as watermelon and potato planted in which Chinese porcelain sherds originally reported by John hammocks both along the creek and on the outlying islands. Goggin (1950:230) from the Rookery Mound in Everglades Typically associated with these sites are the badly deteriorated National Park were mistakenly attributed to Rookery Bay in

. 579
58 A -- *
Mi5l4si I I.IIIII .
o < ,. A 747*5T514
0 -754
582 716
Rookery BO1 768 l
CARL Project s81.
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M a ll s l..... I I ... I i I I! ..
0Z 1500I~ 3000ZIZ 4500IZ 6000ZIZ
Figure 1. Recorded archaeological site locations in Rookery Bay.

Collier County should be disregarded. from the predicted ideal of course is of great interest and
The ceramic basis for dividing the Everglades Area should be considered in future research.
(including the Ten Thousand Island District) from the One might also reasonably wonder what correlation, if
Caloosahatchee Area is clear. The incised types found in the any, might exist between the archaeological areas and their former area are lacking in the latter, where plain pottery (sand- associated ceramic sequences and tribal or ethnic divisions. tempered plain and Belle Glade Plain) predominates throughout Can the Calusa and Tequesta polities, known from historical the sequence. Distinguishing the Ten Thousand Islands documents to have existed in South Florida at the time of first
District as a subdivision of the larger Everglades Area (which European contact, be defined or recognized on the basis of includes the area from the Shark River through the Florida prehistoric ceramic distributions? At one point, Goggin Keys and north to the vicinity of Palm Beach) on ceramic answered unequivocally "yes"; the Calusa area was grounds rests on the observation that Gordon's Pass Incised characterized by Glades Gritty plain ceramics, while the and Sanibel Incised are infrequently present in South Florida Tequesta area (confined to the east coast no further inland than outside of the Ten Thousand Islands (Carr and Beriault central Dade County) had both Glades Gritty and Biscayne (St.
1984:3). Conversely, it is possible (although not yet Johns) Check Stamped pottery (Goggin 1940:29-30). demonstrated with confidence) that Key Largo Incised, present This of course meant that the historic Calusa, the in some abundance in the Everglades Area and elsewhere politically dominant tribe in South Florida and a key player in
within the Ten Thousand Islands District, is rarely present in the attempted Spanish conquest and colonization of South Rookery Bay. The type has not been found at Gordon Pass Florida, was rather narrowly defined in ceramic terms to and is very rare at Goodland Point, at the northern and include only an area from Charlotte Harbor to Estero Bay southern borders of Rookery Bay, respectively, where the most where plain pottery is present in the majority throughout the extensive, controlled archaeological collecting has taken place. sequence. Goggin also used the term Calusa to refer to one of
Indeed, the ceramic sequences of these two sites may his three divisions of the Glades area, specifically the area serve by interpolation to derive a reasonable expectation of the from the Caloosahatchee River to Cape Sable, and later revised specific sequence present in Rookery Bay, particularly as this by placing all of the Everglades and the lower Ten stratigraphic excavations or controlled collecting have yet to Thousand Islands into the adjacent Tequesta division (Goggin take place in the area. John Goggin's salvage activities at the 1940:25, Goggin n.d.; Griffin 1988:113). Unfortunately this large Gordon Pass shell midden in 1936 resulted in the implied that the Calusa archaeological subdivision of the
recognition that the type Gordon's Pass Incised (defined by Glades area equaled the political boundaries of the Calusa Goggin from this site) represented a distinct time period (but heartland, which is not the case. indefinite in terms of calendar years) that followed a period Simply put, the prehistoric aboriginal pottery of the represented by Glades Gritty plain pottery (Goggin 1939, Glades series which characterizes the Ten Thousand Island 1940:28-29, 1949:85; Griffin 1988:120-123). The initial District (including Rookery Bay) is not Calusa, at least as the period of plain pottery Goggin called Glades I; the subsequent Calusa can be defined archaeologically in their heartland period marked by Gordon's Pass Incised then followed as around Charlotte Harbor and Estero Bay. The ceramic
Glades II. Glades III, defined and refined by Goggin on the trajectory in the two areas is quite different, and to the degree basis of collections from Goodland Point and elsewhere in that fundamental differences in ceramic traditions reflect South Florida, saw an overall decrease in types and frequencies differences in archaeological cultures it must be concluded that of incised ceramics, but the types Surfside Incised (found by prehistorically the two areas were somewhat culturally distinct. Goggin at Goodland but not at Gordon Pass) and Biscayne This means that the Calusa political expansion of the late
Check Stampedl (now known as St. Johns Check Stamped) prehistoric and early historic periods has material correlates
make their first appearance. other than those easily measuredl by the changes in frequency
Recent evaluations and reappraisals of the ceramic and distribution of pottery. The ceremonial tablets of wood, situation by Griffin (1988:138) and others suggest that the stone, and metal might be one such correlate (particularly the advent of incised pottery said by Goggin to mark Glades II metal tablets) although they might be more indicative of a may actually mark a period known as Glades I Late. In these religious cult than of political conquest. In any event, the revisions, however, Surfside Incised retains its place as a Calusa influence in Rookery Bay may be difficult to easily marker for the beginning of Glades III. Thus, in the most detect archaeologically (in ceramic terms) except as it might general terms, we can propose an idealizedl sequence for relate to the disappearance of Gordon's Pass Incised and the Rookery Bay in which lower levels are marked exclusively by decline in frequency of incised pottery in the Glades III period. plain pottery, intermediate levels by Gordon's Pass Incised and
the minority types Sanibel Incised and Matecumbe Incised, and Summary of Prehistory in the Rookery Bay Area a final level marked by Surfside Incised and St. Johns Check
Stamped. The degree to which the Rookery sequence varies The previous discussion focused on the ceramic sequences

for Rookery Bay and the Ten Thousand Islands from the known documentary sources specifically indicate such locations
Glades I though Glades III periods, roughly the span of time in the Rookery Bay area during the early historic period. from the first through seventeenth centuries A.D. However, to
judge from the finds of fiber-tempered pottery just to the south Previous Archaeology in the Rookery Bay Area on Marco Island (Widmer 1988; Griffin 1988:131), potteryproducing peoples may have occupied Rookery Bay in the late Despite the proximity of Rookery Bay to the famous
Archaic period (ca. 4,000-2,500 B.P. [before present]). Year- "Court of the Pile Dwellers" in the Key Marco muck, little round occupation on Horr's Island, south of Marco, has been serious attention was paid to its archaeological remains. well demonstrated to date to at least 2,800 B.C., during the Ironically, the first archaeology of record in Rookery Bay was late preceramic Archaic period, at a time when the local intertwined with the discovery of the Key Marco site, as both population not only subsisted through the seasonal exploitation involved one C.B. Durnford, who was led to the Sand Hill Bay of scallops, quahogs, and fish but also built a 20-foot-tall cone- site in Rookery Bay and then on to the Marco finds in 1895 shaped mound from layers of sand and shell (Russo 1991). while tarpon fishing in the area. His report of the wood
Although Late Archaic period occupation has not been implements and preserved fish netting from Marco stimulated confirmed for Rookery Bay, it has been suggested that the further interest in the site and was directly responsible for single human burial unearthed from the Sand Hill Bay site Frank Hamilton Cushing's later involvement there. His (8CR54) in 1893 dates to the Archaic period because no description of the curious Sand Hill site contained in the same
pottery was found with the burial or in the associated burial publication (Durnford 1895) is lesser known and remains the area, something not likely to have occurred if pottery had been only published account of investigations at this enigmatic site. available for use as grave goods. Although this reasoning is According to Durnford, a single skeleton had been unearthed questionable, it is reasonable to expect some use of the two years previous by local fishing guides, buried about four Rookery Bay area during the preceramic Late Archaic, as at feet below a one-foot-thick hard cap of marl (or "cement Horr's Island, and during the ceramic portion of the Late dome," in Durnford words). Archaic beginning about 2,000 B.C. as was the case at Key Durnford cut a second trench across the summit of the
Marco. hill, essentially confirming the guides' description, and further
The prehistoric habitation of Rookery Bay prior to the observed that the base of the cement dome rested on a ring of Late Archaic, during the Early (ca. 9,000-7,000 B.P.) and oyster shell, approximately 60 feet in circumference (Durford Middle Archaic periods, is much more speculative. Although 1895:1039). No additional burials or artifacts were found by sites of Early and Middle Archaic age are known in South Durnford, nor had artifacts been found in the guides' Florida, and some sparse occupation is evident even in late excavations. In summary, the site on Sand Hill consisted of a Paleoindian times (about 10,000 to 13,000 years ago), the single human burial entombed four-feet deep in fine sand generally drier conditions of the time seem to have favored below a mantle or cap of hardened marl, which rested on a ring occupation around deep springs and solution holes. Along of oyster shell buried about six inches below the surface. with the dry climate, the water table was considerably lower Dating of the humans remains is problematic due to the lack of than now and the formation of the mangroves and coastal artifacts or known comparable sites; several human bone
estuaries had not yet occurred. Thus, the actual configuration fragments found on the surface during our 1994 survey could of the landscape in Rookery Bay and its potential for human relate to the 1893 excavation and are now curated in the habitation is somewhat in doubt before about 5,000 years ago, Bureau of Archaeological Research collections in the event toward the end of the Middle Archaic. further analysis is possible.
At the other end of the time chart is the period of historic The Durnford episode did little to advance archaeological European contact, or the period from about 1513 onward knowledge about the region and his findings largely were
through the eighteenth century, by which time all or most of negative. Nonetheless, the site became known as a place the native Florida Indians had met their demise. The Calusa where buried treasure might be found. Durnford related that chiefdom and its relationship with the conquering Spaniards the guides in fact had been digging in the hope of finding and with neighboring tribes draws most attention here; but treasure. Over the years this folklore became entrenched to the what, if any, the archaeology of Rookery Bay can offer in this point that a controlled investigation took place on Sand Hill in regard is still undetermined. A former burial location on a low the early 1980s, with the Audubon Society and several state sand ridge on private property just east of the RBNERR agencies cooperating. The object of the search was Spanish
boundary contained sixteenth- or early seventeenth-century gold and other treasure trove salvagedl from shipwrecks and trade artifacts in association with aboriginal burials, indicating allegedly stashed away in the location by Carlos, chief of the some occupation of Rookery Bay during the early period of Calusa. Metal detecting and soil cores, some 23 feet deep, Spanish contact. Associated village or domestic remains failed to disclose either salvaged Spanish treasure or any relating to this time period have not been recognized, and no indication of aboriginal occupation of the area, and the hunt

was chalked up as a failure, types of remains present, the chronological placement and
Why the once-monumental shell mound at Shell Island cultural affiliation of the Rookery Bay sites still was poorly (8CR55) failed to attract archaeologists over the years is not understood, and many research questions concerning past known, especially given the size and complexity of the site and relationships between human cultures and the dynamic coastal its relative accessibility. The noted Smithsonian physical environment of Rookery Bay remained unaddressed. Further, anthropologist Ales Hrdlicka visited the mound in 1918 but the potential of the historical sites to increase our knowledge of gave it only very brief comment in his 1922 publication. John early homestead and pioneer settlement activity had not been Goggin, whose important work at Gordon Pass in 1936 and evaluated. Clearly, there is much to be done. Goodland Point in 1949 has already been mentioned, knew the
area well but apparently never visited Shell Island, relying on
Hrdlicka's description for inclusion in his unpublished Archaeological Sites in the Rookery Bay National Estuarine synthesis of Glades archaeology. Clarence B. Moore, Research Reserve
indefatigable as always in his efforts to collect archaeological
specimens, obtained shell artifacts from the Goodland Point Summary descriptions of known archaeological sites on and the now-destroyed shell mound on McIlvane Key (8CR53) the Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve are (1907:465-66) but mentions only in passing a "shell settlement provided below. with the usual ridges and mounds of moderate size" on the
eastern side of Little Marco Island (Moore 1900:369) On a Prehistoric Sites subsequent visit Moore (1907:468) mentions two unusual shell
implements from Little Marco and Crawford Place but, like the CR54 Sandhill Bay Mound site alleged to be on the east side of Little Marco, no known Type of Site: Burial mound or burial area in dune. location corresponds to Moore's general description. Culture Periods Represented: Prehistoric, no diagnostic
With one exception, the archaeology of Rookery Bay in artifacts found associated with site.
recent years has been limited to weekend site reconnaissances, Main Site Features: This site is on a natural dune ridge and is mostly by members of the Southwest Florida Archaeological marked by a surface scatter of oyster, whelk, and conch shells Society (SWFAS), although the area of Shell Island was given and patches or chunks of hardened marl. cursory attention during the Phase I archaeological survey of Artifacts (summary): A human burial was recovered from Collier County conducted by the Archaeological and Historical the site in 1893. No artifacts have been recorded from the site. Conservancy (AHC) (Dickel 1991). During this latter work, One possible sherd was found on an adjacent dune. the Shell Island mound complex was examined and, owing to Probable Site Function: Burial mound or burial area. confusion in the Florida Site File records for the site, was Condition: Disturbance, in the form of excavation a assigned two new site numbers, each designating what perhaps vandalism, can be found at the site, but most of the
appeared to be fairly intact portions of the heavily disturbed site and adjacent property appear to be undamaged. site area. We retain the two new numbers in our subsequent
discussion of Shell Island (see below) but subsume them under CR55 Shell Island what we believe to be the original number assigned to the site, Type of Site: Shell midden and mound. Shell complex. 8CR55. (CR714 and CR715 are included within CR55.)
The only systematic investigation of a Rookery Bay site Culture Periods Represented: Artifacts that date to Glades i occurred in 1988 when the AHC was contracted to survey Late, Glades IIA, and Glades IIIA periods have been recorded.
North Keeywadin Island (the bulk of which is now under state It is likely that additional culture periods are represented at the ownership) prior to proposed development of the area. site.
Subsurface testing took place at 8CR578, a black dirt midden Main Site Features: This large oyster shell mound complex with elevated "house mounds," linear shell features, and shows areas of heavy disturbance, particularly in the central associated ditches. An occupation range of A.D. 1000-1400 portion where dredging has created a shallow boat basin. was suggested on the basis of pottery found (Carr and Allerton Intact mound ridges or ridge areas occur, especially in the 1988:18). Preservation of archaeological materials and site wooded area north of Shell Island Road and east of the access integrity were judgedl to be excellent, and further research at road leading to the Conservancy building. The site extends the site was recommended. Fauna identified in 1988 included south of Shell Island Road into a dune ridge area and is visible garfish, drum, catfish, and various inverterbrates, and as a surface scatter of shellfish remains and pottery sherds. subsistence was tied to the former estuary to the west of the Artifacts (summary): A Gordon's Pass Incised sherd, site. Surfside Incised sherd, sand-tempered plain sherds, worked,
Although the activities of SWFAS and the more detailed shell, unworked shell, and faunal remains have been noted at study of North Keeywadin by the AHC provided an outline of the site. archaeological site distribution and some indication of the Probable Site Function: Prehistoric village.

Condition: The site has been seriously disturbed, but intact Probable Site Function: Prehistorically, the site may have portions remain. been a campsite. It is also possible that a historical homestead
The following two sites are properly part of CR55 and was located here. should not be counted as additional sites. Condition: Good.
CR714 Shell Island 1 CR549 Shell Bay Mounds
Type of Site: Shell midden and mound. (Northern portion of Type of Site: Shell midden and mounds. Shell complex. CR55.) Culture Periods Represented: Glades I Late and Glades IA
Culture Periods Represented: Prehistoric. although other periods may be present.
Main Site Features: This site number was used by Dickel Main Site Features: Low parallel shell ridges terminate in a (1992) to designate the cultural deposits north of Shell Island low court or muck pond area flanked by three prominent shell Road. Two mound areas within this broad area are noted, mounds, each about 2 m tall and up to 30 m in diameter. A separated by a central depression which may be of prehistoric fourth shell mound, previously recorded as CR577, rises origin. The southern locus is the mounded area in the woods abruptly from the mangroves to a height of about 2.5 m a short immediately north of Shell Island Road; the northern locus, distance north of the ridge/mound complex. which may contain more of a black dirt matrix than the Artifacts (summary): Several Gordon's Pass Incised sherds
southern area, is seen in exposures around the rim of the boat and unidentified incised sherds have been found at the site. basin and extending through a field to the east. Numerous sand-tempered plain sherds and shell tools have
Artifacts (summary): Sand-tempered plain ceramics, been found. Some have been accessioned into the Florida
unworked and possibly worked shell, faunal material. Bureau of Archaeological Research collections, Tallahassee.
Probable Site Function: Prehistoric village. Probable Site Function: Prehistoric village, ceremonial
Condition: The site has been significantly disturbed, but center (?). portions of the site remain intact. Condition: Good. A small portion of the site apparently has
been mined for shell, but the majority of the site appears to be
CR715 Shell Island 2 intact.
Type of Site: Shell midden and mound. (Southern portion of
CR55.) CR578 John's Pass Hammock
Culture Periods Represented: Glades I Late, Glades IIA, and Type of Site: Black dirt midden. Glades IIIA. Culture Periods Represented: Glades IIIA although other
Main Site Features: This, the portion of CR55 south of Shell periods may be represented. Island Road, has been heavily impacted by clearing and Main Site Features: This site consists of low black dirt and
grading activities and the construction of several snook ponds, shell ridges or mounds and limited surface exposures of shell but abundant physical evidence of the site remains. The site is in a tropical hardwood hammock south of a small freshwater on a sand flat or old dune ridge and may have been mounded pond prior to its disturbance. Artifacts (summary): St. Johns Check Stamped and Surfside
Artifacts (summary): Surfside Incised, Gordon Pass Incised, Incised pottery found at the site provide the Glades IIA worked and unworked shell, and faunal material. designation. Sand-tempered plain sherds, Glades Plain sherds,
Probable Site Function: Prehistoric village, shell tools, and faunal material also have been recovered.
Condition: The site has been significantly disturbed, but it is Probable Site Function: The site represents a prehistoric likely that intact portions of the site remain, habitation area, possibly with house mounds present.
Condition: The site is in very good condition.
CR298 Garden Patch
Type of Site: Shell midden, shell scatter, historic CR579 -Hand Hammock homestead(?). Type of Site: Shell midden, historical homestead.
Culture Periods Represented: Prehistoric and historic Culture Periods Represented: Prehistoric and nineteenth and artifacts have been found at the site. Further designation is not twentieth centuries. possible without additional investigation. Main Site Features: The main site area consists of an eroding
Main Site Features: A fairly dense but small (30 m by 15 m) berm at the water's edge. shell scatter occurs on a low rise surrounded by mangroves. Artifacts (summary): Sand-tempered plain sherd, historic Artifacts (summary): Two worked columella and one whelk bottle glass. shell with an extraction hole have been noted at the site. A Probable Site Function: Prehistoric campsite and historical sand-tempered plain sherd and hand-wrought hoe head have homestead or fishing camp. also been found. Condition: Good.

CR580 Dale's Digging CR716 Hall Bay Cabin
Type of Site: Shell midden. Type of Site: Cistern, homestead(?), cabin(?), fishing
Culture Periods Represented: Glades II. camp(?).
Main Site Features: This site and CR581 and 582 occur on or Culture Periods Represented: Nineteenth and twentieth below an old dune ridge or beach area in a natural shell matrix, centuries. and are difficult to distinguish or identify on the basis of Main Site Features: A cistern and a surface scatter of surface features. Cultural deposits may be identifiable as historical artifacts mark the site. exposed, eroding lenses at the water line. Artifacts (summary): Cistern, white-glaz ceramics,
Artifacts (summary): Sand-tempered plain and umdentified crockery, and glass. rim-ticked sherds. Probable Site Function: Homestead, cabin, or fishing camp.
Probable Site Function: Prehistoric campsite. Condition: No standing structures; artifacts are scattered on
Condition: Good. the surface.
CR581 Palm Grove CR717 Henderson Creek Cabin
Type of Site: Shell midden, artifact scatter. Type of Site: Homestead.
Culture Periods Represented: Prehistoric. Culture Periods Represented: Nineteenth and twentieth
Artifacts (summary): Sand-tempered plain sherds. centuries.
Probable Site Function: Prehistoric campsite. Main Site Features: Dock pilings can be seen at the water's
Condition: Good (not visited by C.A.R.L.). edge; a scatter of historical refuse indicates the site area.
Artifacts (summary): Glass, whiteware, galvanized roofing CR582 North Point material, window screen, crockery, cement pad (found in
Type of Site: Shell midden. 1991, not found in 1994).
Culture Periods Represented: Prehistoric. Probable Site Function: Homestead (Bolger Place).
Artifacts (summary): Sand-tempered plain sherds. Condition: No standing structures. Artifacts scattered on
Probable Site Function: Prehistoric campsite. surface.
Condition: Good (not visited by C.A.R.L.).
CR728 Kirkland Homestead
Historical Sites Type of Site: Homestead (Kirkland family).
Culture Periods Represented: Nineteenth and twentieth CR51 Johnson Place centuries.
Type of Site: Homestead. Main Site Features: Agricultural (?) ditches mark the
Culture Periods Represented: Nineteenth and twentieth perimeter of the site, which includes a poured cement and century. oyster-shell cistern, one or more structures marked by cut
Main Site Features: Cleared areas and formerly cleared areas timbers, posts, and bricks. An old dock is present on invaded by exotics mark the site location. Five palm posts Henderson Creek. mark a former building location, and form a right angle Artifacts (summary): Whiteware, window and bottle glass,
measuring 13 feet on a side. To the south is a circular bottle fragments, brick, cut timbers, and farming machinery. depression, possibly a well. Probable Site Function: Homestead. The farming machinery
Artifacts (summary): Historical artifacts such as glass, and extensive ditching at the site suggest agricultural activities ceramics, and iron and metal fragments are scattered on the occurred here. surface. Several inscriptions have been carved on a tree. Condition: The only standing structure is the cistern, but it is Probable Site Function: Early homestead. likely that archaeological deposits are intact.
Condition: No standing structures can be found at the site, but it is likely that archaeological deposits are intact. CR754 Kirkland Cemetery Type of Site: Historical cemetery adjacent to, possibly on, CR52 T.E. Williams Place prehistoric site (CR55).
Type of Site: Reported homestead. Culture Periods Represented: Marker death dates range from
Culture Periods Represented: Possibly twentieth century. 1901 to 1982.
Main Site Features: None identified. Main Site Features: At least seven variably marked graves
Artifacts (summary): Unknown. can be seen in this densely overgrown area adjacent to site
Probable Site Function: Early homestead. CR55.
Condition: Condition of site is unknown. Site information is Artifacts (summary): Burial markers. based on a 1951 site form in the Florida Site File. Probable Site Function: Cemetery.

Condition: Fair. locations of former dunes and beach ridges. This pattern
probably holds for much of Florida's southwest coast, and is
CR567 Bartell Place locally seen on Marco Island and Hoff's Island. These upland
Type of Site: Homestead and possible historical burial in sand isolates are for the most part surrounded by or adjacent to vicinity, mangrove mucks of the Durbin and Wulfert type. The dating
Culture Periods Represented: Twentieth century. of specific dune ridges or old beach formations has not been
Main Site Features: A structure apparently once existed on worked out in detail for the Rookery area, but for the most an open natural dune ridge now populated by gopher tortoises. part it can be said that suitable upland areas would have been The remains of the structure have been pushed into a hole and available for the earliest prehistoric settlement of the area. It covered over. also seems likely (but unconfirmed) that much of the barrier
Artifacts (summary): Historical material such as bottle and beach from Keeywadin Island south through Little Marco has window glass, brick, transfer-printed stoneware, metal accreted in relatively recent times and may postdate the fragments, charred wood, and an iron stove top were noted on terminal aboriginal presence in the Bay. the surface. Specific locations of the larger sites seem to be related to
Probable Site Function: Homestead. Informant reports areas of quiet water on small bays where creeks or passes possible historical burial in area. facilitated both access to the Gulf and passage through the
Condition: No standing structures. One or more structures estuary. This is seen at the destroyed McIlvane Key site, at appear to have been burned, pushed into a pile, and covered Shell Point, and at Gordon Pass. Other sites such as the Shell with sand. Some archaeological deposits may be intact. Bay Mounds (CR549) and John's Pass Hammock (CR578) may
have been located adjacent to creeks or passes, although recent
CR768 Old Shack changes resulting from dredging of the Intracoastal Water Way
Type of Site: Building remains; homestead. may have altered the direction of the previous current flow.
Culture Periods Represented: Late nineteenth and twentieth In terms of settlement types, as discussed by Widmer
centuries. (1988) and Griffin (1988:259-61), Shell Island probably was a
Main Site Features: Eleven wooden posts connected by small nucleated village, Shell Bay a small village or hamlet,
notched, hewn wooden (joist or sill) beams mark a structure with the rest of the sites, including John's Pass, considered as measuring about 9.3 m square. East of this is a standing small fishing hamlets or collecting stations. These
board-and-batten structure, with a possible well behind, designations must be considered tentative at this time, as
Artifacts (summary): Artifacts include bottle and window reliable surface measurements (on the basis of which the types glass, stoneware, and modem trash. are designated) have not been ascertained for all sites.
Probable Site Function: Possible homestead. However, the overall picture is of a relatively large nucleated
Condition: The standing structure shows evidence of recent settlement at Shell Island with at least one smaller subsidiary modification (i.e. electricity, tin roof over shake shingles, village or hamlet at Shell Bay and smaller resource aluminum windows). Wooden posts and in-place hand-hewn procurement sites located throughout the estuary. Shell Island
beams are all that remain of the second structure. must be considered the key settlement in the area, as it far Archaeological deposits are likely intact. surpasses in size the sites at Shell Bay and Gordon Pass (the
latter estimated to be about 1.5 ha [less than 4 acres] in size
CR769 Munlin Creek based on Goggin's description). Unfortunately a size estimate
Type of Site: Homestead. for Mcllvane Key is not possible. Looking at the broader
Culture Periods Represented: Twentieth century. picture, we can surmise that the key site in the vicinity was
Main Site Features: A former (burned) structure is indicated Goodland Point (CR45) on the eastern tip of Marco, with an by 11 wooden posts and notched joist beams marking an area estimated surface area of 30 ha [about 74 acres]. This is much about 8m by 3.5 m. larger than Shell Island, covering in its present form an
Artifacts (summary): Tin roofing, screening, and stoneware estimated 5.25 ha [about 13 acres]. are scattered on the surface. In light of the previous discussion an open question
Probable Site Function: Homestead, hunt camp. remains as to whether or not Rookery Bay was a discrete
Condition: Building has been burned, but archaeological settlement area, that is, if it comprised a distinct territory in deposits may be intact. the social or cultural sense. Given the large size of the
Goodland site relative to known cultural deposits in Rookery
Bay, it seems certainly feasible that the Rookery sites were
Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in Rookery Bay acutally part of a larger settlement system that included
Goodland as its hub. Whether or not Goodland was
Archaeological and historical sites in Rookery Bay tend to geographically central in the hub is not known, but if so, then be located in limited upland areas marked by fine sands in the southern portion of its territory may have extended to Faka

Union Bay or Fakahatchee Bay, beyond which sites would Historical Overview of Rookery Bay
have been organized around the Chokoloskee hub. In any
event, with reference to Rookery Bay, a site hierarchy is
present, but Goodland, the largest site in the vicinity, is The exact timing and circumstances of the aboriginal
located about 7 miles south of the Reserve boundaries. If the demise in Rookery Bay are not known. The existing Rookery sites can be grouped with Goodland into the same documents and the archaeological record are insufficiently settlement system, then all site types from large nucleated precise other than to indicate some occupation in the area villages to small collecting stations are archaeologically following the time of European contact in the sixteenth represented in the section of coast from Goodland north century. How far into the historic period the aboriginal through Marco to Gordon Pass. presence lasted is a question to be answered, perhaps, by
The settlement pattern also may have extended inland to further archaeology. The Seminole Indians, known to have include the black dirt middens of the Fakahatchee Strand and been active in the general vicinity from the 1850s through the Big Cypress, perhaps occupied by small groups on a recent years, particularly in the Fakahatchee and Big Cypress
seasonal basis to exploit abundantly available aquatic species. areas, are not in evidence in Rookery Bay either from Our present knowledge of the material culture in coastal versus documentary sources or archaeology. interior areas suggests basic similarities, and the presence of Likewise, the settlement of the area by the early white marine species such as sea turtle in the interior middens pioneers is not well documented. Oral histories preserved in indicates that, by some means, interior human populations and newspaper interviews and notes in the Copeland papers, in the coastal species were introduced to one another. The collections of the Collier County Museum and Archives,
mechanism driving coastal populations inland, if one existed, provide the most accessible sources of information about this has not been conclusively identified, although the wet season- period. By the 1890s several families are known to have dry season cycle is one obvious possibility, settled plots along Henderson Creek or in the vicinity,
The largest burial mounds in the area were found on including Victor Mcllvane and his wife who settled on a shell Horr's Island south of Marco. The famous Blue Hill mound at mound which later bore their name. The Copeland notes tell the east end of the island was 35 feet in diameter, 7 feet tall, us that Henderson Creek was mapped as the Malco Hatchee or and contained Surfside Incised, plain pottery, and European Malco River in 1856 and 1857 and may have received its glass beads as burial objects (Stirling 1931). Nearby at present name after a government surveyor named Henderson Goodland Point (CR46) an undetermined number of secondary who recorded the area in the 1870s. By the 1880s the name burials were unearthed from a series of low mounds or ridges Rookery Bay appears, and we know from the Durford (Moore 1900:372; Goggin n.d.:245). Other than the curious account of 1895 that the large rookery was even then a notable situation described previously at Sand Hill, no burial mounds landmark. or other locations of intentional burial are known within the Following the death of Mrs. Mcllvane and the boundary of RBNERR. The sand burial mound (CR227 or abandonment of the mound homestead by Mr. Mcllvane, the
CR57) on the low sand ridge just east of the reserve boundary shell mound was inhabited by the Carrolls, who had moved to and its importance regarding contact-period populations in the Henderson Creek from the Bartow-Fort Meade area in 1896. area has been previously discussed. No burial mounds or In 1898, their son Ernie Carroll was born on Mcllvane Island,
discrete burial components are known to be associated with the although one source placed his birth as late as 1907 (Martin Shell Island, Shell Bay, or John's Pass sites, leaving open the 1980). Over his lifetime Ernie Carroll amassedl a great deal of possibility that such features will be discovered in future work information about the Rookery Bay area, some of which, in those areas. fortunately, he passed on to his son J.E. "Ernie" Carroll.
Recent archaeological surveys of Collier County done for It is from Mr. J.E. Carroll that we learn something of the planning purposes consider the marine zone in which Rookery existence of what was called "The Little Marco settlement" by Bay occurs to be a high probability location for archaeological the first decade of the twentieth century. C.B. Moore also sites (Dickel 1992; ACI 1992). A comparison of referred specifically to the Little Marco settlement during his
archaeological site densities between Rookery Bay and excursions among the Ten Thousand Islands in 1907 but
surveyed inland tracts suggests densities perhaps not mentions only a Little Marco Island in his 1900 account, significantly different: In Rookery Bay we can expect one site thereby adding independent evidence for the founding dates of per 1,675 acres, in the Save Our Everglades-Fakahatchee the settlement between 1900-1907. The Little Marco Strand projects (including the Fakahatchee and Picayune settlement was not a nucleated village but rather a dispersed
strands) about one site per 1,738 acres, and in the Big Cypress but associated group of homesteads from Cannon Island on the one site per 1,500 acres. However, in terms of site volume or south through Henderson Creek and Rookery Bay proper on site area, the coastal middens undoubtedly account for most of the north. By 1907 the Little Marco settlement consisted of a the archaeological deposits in Collier County, as was the case house on the east side of Little Marco Island near its northern in Everglades National Park (Griffin 1988:178-179). tip (site CR768), a house on nearby Munlin Island (site

CR769), three houses on Hall Bay (CR716,) a schoolhouse at boat. J.E. Carroll, Ernie's son, places an "old school" on Shell Island, and the nearby Jones Place (historical components property north of Henderson Creek just west of C.R. 951 near associated with CR55 at Shell Island). Mr. Carroll also related the radio tower, although his surface searches of the area that the settlements of Johnson Island (CR51) and the Sam produced no physical remains of the structure. Another school Williams point area (CR52) on the southeast margin of once may have been located at the Williams Place (CR52).
Johnson Bay (now bordered on the south by the Isles of Capri Archaeologically the pioneer settlements are evidenced by development) were considered part of the Marco Island sphere the remains of dock pilings (often barely perceptible), cleared of influence and not part of the Little Marco settlement. areas or areas invaded by exotic plant species (especially Several homesteads to the north of the Little Marco area also Sansevieria or mother-in-law tongue) on old dune ridges, were not considered part of its sphere, including the Bartell round wooden posts or hewn logs marking the foundations of Place (CR767) on the east side of Bartell Bay where the former structures (Figure 2), depressions and occasionally remains of the hermit Bartell are said to be buried in an cisterns (as at CR728), and scattered surface debris including unmarked grave. glass bottles, crockery, ironstone and whiteware ceramics, iron
In 1891, A.R. Kirkland and family also settled in the cans and other rusted objects, rusted sheets of tin and remnants Henderson Creek-Shell Island area (Martin 1980) and had at of galvanized roofing material, and other household objects. least one homestead (CR728) located well up Henderson Creek Carvings in a tree on Johnson Island (site CR51) may mark near present-day Belle Meade. The Kirkland cemetery at Shell individual property boundaries. A basic construction pattern Island (CR754) contains the grave of George Washington seems to have been notched wooden joists supported by buried
Kirkland, born July 10, 1882, and deceased February 18, circular posts made from palm logs. Later structures may have 1901, presumed to be of the original Kirkland family. Other used board and batten construction, such as the eastern Kirklands in the cemetery include Harrison B. (b. July 10, building at CR768 (Figure 3). In many cases there seems to 1882, d. Feb. 18, 1901), Chester Arthur (b. Jan. 18, 1889, d. have been later, even modem, reuse of the pioneer locations Nov. 20, 1982), Daniel (b. 1884, d. 1964), and Vera Mae (b. for hunting and fishing camps. One point for further 1897, d. 1965). archaeological research would be to try to determine more
Subsistence for the Rookery Bay pioneers seems to have precisely the construction techniques and appearance of the relied on a mixed economy of fishing and farming, with the first pioneer houses, as a point of comparison with the latter consisting of small plots of watermelon, potato, citrus, palmetto-thatched shacks of the Charlotte Harbor fisherfolk. and other fruits and vegetables. Papaya, mango, and avocado
were planted by later settlers. The intent was to grow market Important Research Questions
crops for export, which was done both by water and overland
transport primarily to Naples and Fort Myers. The interest in Future archaeological research can be framed around farming, however limited in actual importance, is seen important questions concerning both the prehistoric and
throughout the Ten Thousand Islands in the pioneer era, and historic period occupations of Rookery Bay. As was just sets this area apart from the barrier island pioneers of the indicated, historical archaeology can be productively directed Charlotte Harbor vicinity where commercial fishing was the toward better defining the characteristics of early pioneer dominant legal economic activity. Inasmuch as the Charlotte settlement in the area which began toward the end of the Harbor settlers were largely of Spanish or Cuban ancestry and nineteenth century. Changing settlement patterns and the the Rookery Bay pioneers largely Anglo-American lacking a variable economic importance of farming versus fishing can be maritime tradition, the economic differences between the two addressed through the study of material culture. A detailed coastal areas probably reflect cultural differences of some time study of artifacts present at any one individual site (preferably depth with origins beyond the southwest Florida coast. This is one that can be confidently dated) may yield insights into not to say that fishing did not achieve some importance in family-level participation in the larger consumer society. Rookery Bay, at least in the lives of certain individuals. John Comparisons can be made with other pioneer communities of Archie "Barefoot" Williams, after whom Barefoot Williams the southwest coast, particularly those of the Charlotte Harbor Road is named, achieved some degree of local notoriety for his area, and thus greater understanding may be reached of the full fish camp and oyster market located on Henderson Creek. spectrum of early modern cultural adaptations to coastal
Others in the area took up netting mullet. environments.
Schooling for the children of the Rookery Bay pioneers In the realm of prehistoric archaeology, a number of
took place "wherever there were most kids, that's where school questions are worthy of further investigation. Good was," in the words of Ernie Carroll (as reported by Jackie stratigraphic testing with controlled collection of ceramics and Callero, Naples Star, July 22, 1971). Forrest Walker, a samples for radiocarbon dating would go a long way toward prominent Naples developer and community leader, completed resolving basic questions of chronology. Such testing would seventh grade at a school on Henderson Creek, possibly the also result in a better picture of the cultural placement of same location Ernie Carroll recalled rowing to in a homemade Rookery Bay within the Ten Thousand Islands archaeological

Figure nlog tce wooden asoited wipoted hitoilo pstuta reman.

area. Significant research also may be directed toward Nevertheless, three historic sites in Rookery Bay can be understanding the dynamic relationship between human considered to be locally significant. These sites are CR51 cultures and the coastal environment through time. (Johnson Place), CR728 (formerly known as the Junk Pile site,
The potential applications of environmental archaeology renamed the Kirkland site), and CR768 (Old Shack site). to the study of Rookery Bay prehistory are many. The effects Possible wells are present at CR51 and CR768, and a cistern is of changing sea levels on settlement patterns and subsistence present at CR728. All three sites have architectural elements strategies has been studied with positive results in the Charlotte remaining with some degree of integrity and may contain Harbor area (Walker 1992; Walker et al. 1994) and the evidence of functionally distinct occupation or use areas. All
Everglades (Griffin 1988) and certainly merits attention in contain artifacts in sufficient quantity and variety to yield new Rookery Bay, particularly as regards the formation of passes to interpretations of pioneer life in Rookery Bay. the Gulf and the closing of such passes by active beach It is unfortunate that Rookery Bay largely has been
deposition. Likewise, the biological productivity of the ignored archaeologically, given its geographical and cultural mangrove ecosystem as a catalyst for cultural evolution has position as a boundary between the Caloosahatchee (and been evaluated for the Calusa heartland area of Charlotte Calusa) area to the north and the circum-Everglades region of Harbor (Widmer 1988) and a similar model can be proposed the Ten Thousand Islands to the south. Beyond the questions and tested for Rookery Bay. Standing profiles of dredge cuts of culture history and the many possibilities of the in the deposits at Shell Island (CR55 [particularly of the environmental approach modeled after and in conjuction with portion Dickel labelled CR714]) and the Shell Bay mounds Walker's work in Charlotte Harbor, the challenges of an (CR549) might be cleaned, sampled, and mapped as an integrated approach wherein prehistoric and historic period
excellent first step in a program of environmental adaptive strategies are considered under a single research
archaeological research. Mapping and stratigraphic testing at a design would seem to offer tremendous potential for future third site (CR578) also would be a valuable component of this investigations in Rookery Bay, and would likely kindle a great first-phase research because the black dirt midden at this site deal of public interest. Our purpose in presenting this brief might show a somewhat different picture of development than descriptive report is to provide some stimulation for hither the larger shell mound complexes at Shell Bay and Shell work to occur.
Summary of Significance
The cooperation of Steve Bertone and Gary Lytton of the
Three prehistoric archaeological sites are considered Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Rookery Bay potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of National Estuarine Research Reserve, was integral in the Historic Places based on information currently available, completion of our study. Local citizens J.E. "Emie" Carroll These are CR578 (John's Pass Hammock), CR549 (the Shell and Lonnie Martin shared their considerable knowledge of the
Bay complex), and CR55 (Shell Island, which includes CR714 pioneer history of the Rookery Bay-Henderson Creek area, and and CR715). Additional stratigraphic testing, profile permitted video taping of an interview conducted on April 11,
mapping, and mapping of site contours and boundaries at all 1994. Mr. Bolton Drackett, founder of the Keeywadin sites will have to be accomplished to support a formal Institute, assisted in our reconnaissance of Keeywadin Island
nomination proposal. and is to be thanked for his gracious hospitality. John Beriault
The significance of the historical sites is more difficult to shared his great knowledge of the area and provided much evaluate. Factors contributing to this difficulty include the useful information. short-term occupation which typifies the sites, relatively high
degree of existing disturbance in most cases, and the References Cited
questionable or undemonstrated potential of the remains to
substantially increase our knowledge of the pioneer settlement ACI (Archaeological Consultants Inc.) of the Little Marco and Henderson Creek areas. On the other 1992 Mapping of Areas of Historical/Archaeological hand, one might wonder if better-preserved archaeological Probability in Collier County, Florida: The Report. On
remains of the pioneer period exist elsewhere in the southwest file, Florida Site File, Division of Historical Resources, Florida coast. This question cannot be answered definitively at Tallahassee. this time, but it must be acknowledged, from a broader
perspective, that a number of areas in the Ten Thousand Callero, Jackie
Islands have their own stories to tell. Here, Chokoloskee and 1971 An Indian Shell Mound Was His Birthplace.. .Today the vicinity of Fakahatchee Bay come readily to mind. Captain Ernie Carroll Lives in Naples. The Naples Star,
July 22, 1971, pg. 33.

Carr, Robert S., and David Allerton Moore, Clarence B.
1988 An Archaeological Survey of North Keywadin Island, 1900 Certain Antiquities of the Florida West Coast.
Collier County, Florida. Report on file, Florida Site Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences Journal
File, Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee. 11:349-394.
Carr, Robert S., and John G. Beriault 1907 Notes on the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida.
1984 Prehistoric Man in South Florida. In Environments of Philadelphia Academy of Sciences Journal 13:458470.
South Florida: Present and Past, edited by P.J. Gleason,
pp. 1-14. Miami Geological Society Memoir 2. Russo, Michael
1991 Archaic Sedentism on the Florida Gulf Coast: A Case Dickel, David N. Study From Horr's Island. Ph.D. dissertation,
1992 An Archaeological Survey of Collier County, Florida: Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,
Phase I. Archaeological and Historical Conservancy Gainesville.
Technical Report #38. On file, Florida Site File,
Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee. Stirling, Matthew W.
1931 Mounds of the Vanished Calusa Indians of Florida. Durnford, C.D. Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian
1895 The Discovery of Aboriginal Netting Rope and Wood Institution 1930:167-172.
Implements in a Mud Deposit in Western Florida. The
American Naturalist November: 1032-1039. Walker, Karen Jo
1992 The Zooarchaeology of Charlotte Harbor's Prehistoric Griffin, John W. Maritime Adaptation: Spatial and Temporal Perspectives.
1988 The Archeology of Everglades National Park: A In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa,
Synthesis. National Park Service, Southeast edited by William H. Marquardt, pp. 265-366. Institute
Archeological Center, Tallahassee. of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies
Monograph 1, University of Florida, Gainesville. Goggin, John M.
1939 A Ceramic Sequence in South Florida. New Mexico Walker, Karen Jo, Frank W. Stapor, Jr., and William H.
Anthropologist 3:36-40. Marquardt
1994 Episodic Sea Levels and Human Occupation at 1940 The Distribution of Pottery Ware in the Glades Southwest Florida's Wightman Site. The Florida
Archaeological Area of South Florida. New Mexico Anthropologist 47:161-179.
Anthropologist 4:22-33.
Widmer, Randolph J.
1949 Cultural Occupation at Goodland Point, Florida. The 1988 The Evolution of the Calusa: A Nonagricultural
Florida Anthropologist 2:65-91. Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast. The
University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
1950 Stratigraphic Tests in the Everglades National Park.
American Antiquity 15:228-246. Location of Other Source Materials
n.d. The Archeology of the Glades Area, Southern Florida. Interview Conducted with Mr. J.E. Carroll and Mr. Lonnie
Manuscript on file, P.K. Yonge Library of Florida Martin, April 11, 1994, by Brent R. Weisman. Video
History, University of Florida, Gainesville. copies on file, Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research
Reserve, Naples, and Florida Bureau of Archaeological Hrdlicka, Ales Research, Tallahassee.
1922 The Anthropology of Florida. Publication 1, Florida
State Historical Society, Deland.
Brent R. Weisman and Christine L. Newman Martin, Steven Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research,
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500 South Bronough Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250

Johnson Sand Pit (8LE73): An Analysis and Comparative much more than a descriptive account of Johnson Sand Pit
Review of a Paleoindian through Early Deptford Base Camp in lithics. Leon County, Florida. Louis D. Tesar. (Florida Tesar uses the artifact assemblage to present a variety of
Archaeological Reports 32, Bureau of Archaeological views on regional prehistory and paleoenvironmental changes, Research, Division of Historical Resources, Florida including a discussion of why the base camp was repeatedly Department of State, 1994. ix + 179 pp., 73 illus., tables). occupied through time in regard to the physiographic setting the site occupies. He suggests how the Johnson Sand Pit site
Reviewed by Dana Ste.Claire, The Museum of Arts and was used in response to changing environmental conditions and
Sciences. cultural interactions.
Tesar also uses the Johnson Sand Pit collection to present
It is unfortunate that some of the most important views on typological problems in diagnostic lithic assemblages.
archaeological sites in Florida have been destroyed by Maintenance reduction sequences and reworked broken
development, mining, and land clearing operations. In many artifacts are discussed in the context of typological assignment. cases, cultural materials from such sites have been salvaged by To assist in resolving some of these typological issues, Tesar artifact collectors prior to, during, and following site has provided the reader with an abundance of illustrations and destruction. Fortunately, some of these collections have been related narratives. Also, the argument is well made that brought to the attention of professional archaeologists or variable degrees of maintenance, scavenging, and reworking of donated to appropriate agencies and institutions. lithic materials suggest differing access to stone resources at
Such collections, however, are often quickly dismissed as different periods throughout site occupation.
out-of-context artifact assemblages with little research Tesar's eclectic approach to reporting the Johnson Sand
potential. In fact, these materials, despite their method of Pit site data is a refreshing departure from the standard fare collection, can contribute invaluable data to the archaeological technical report with its canned chapters and abundance of record. confusing statistical tables. The report is highly readable and,
While acknowledging the selective nature of his sample, most importantly, interesting. This is due, in part, to the Tesar demonstrates the research potential of such collections work's targeted audience. Tesar states in his preface that the through an exhaustive analysis of lithic materials recovered report is written for both professional and avocational from the Johnson Sand Pit, a multicomponent site in Leon archaeologists and, as such, contains more extensive
County, Florida. The subject artifacts were surface collected background discussion and explanation than is customary in at the sand pit mine by avocational archaeologist Lynn McCord reports designed just for a professional audience. Tesar and subsequently donated by him to the Division of Historical succeeds well in his goals to reach a broad range of readers and Resources, Tallahassee. to produce a teaching document as well as a site report.
The Johnson Sand Pit materials are important because The Johnson Sand Pit report is a product of a lengthy
they include some of the oldest artifacts collected in the Leon review process which involved both professional and and eastern Gadsden County area. Moreover, the collection avocational archaeologists, as well as other interested parties. represents a lengthy cultural/temporal continuum beginning Through many rewrites, Tesar responded to reviewer with the Paleoindian period and ending with the early Deptford comments and suggestions regarding report clarity, quality, period, with a large percentage of the materials attributed to an and content. It is evident in the report that Tesar took the time Early to Middle Archaic period component. to address individual concerns.
Tesar is perhaps the most thorough author in Florida Readers will be pleased with the final result. It is an
archaeology (see, for example, his voluminous Leon County outstanding addition to an enlightening report series produced Bicentennial Survey Report, 1980 and numerous past editorials by the Bureau of Archaeological Research, Division of in The Florida Anthropologist), and this style is reflected in his Historical Resources. Most notable of the many features of detailed explanations of individual artifacts. But the report is Tesar's work are: 1) a comprehensive and up-to-date

overview of prehistory and paleoenvironmental settings in the intrusive into Pleistocene deposits. Another much ballyhooed northwest Florida region and the Southeast; 2) an example of site McGoun covers here is Warm Mineral Springs. Reports the highly successful results of professional/amateur interaction of human skeletons allegedly associated with organic material in archaeological research; 3) the demonstrated research were radiocarbon dated at 10,000 years old. The few potential of private and salvage artifact collections, particularly diagnostic artifacts (e.g., Greenbrier or Bolen points) found those with good provenience. Continued efforts to inventory there, however, are not true Florida lanceolates, such as avocational collections in Florida will result in a viable body Suwannees and Simpsons, but side-notched points that serve as of data such as that produced during the South -Carolina markers for Early Archaic Period. Further, archaeologists Collectors Survey conducted by the South Carolina Institute of who have worked at Warm Mineral Springs have reached no Archaeology and Anthropology (see Sassaman, Hanson, and accord whether human remains from the site were intentionally Charles 1988). buried when parts of the sinkhole were dry or if they were
merely floaters who had fallen or been thrown into the water.
References Cited McGoun also discusses nearby Little Salt Spring, which
probably represents the most solid evidence to date for a
Tesar, Louis D. Paleoindian presence in South Florida.
1980 The Leon County Bicentennial Survey Report: An McGoun suggests that the Archaic Period (7,000-1,500
Archaeological Survey of Selected Portions of Leon B.C.), covered in Chapter Three, is characterized by a
County, Florida. Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties, remarkable diversity of environments. Native Americans had Division of Archives, History and Records Management, made technological strides that allowed them to exploit a Miscellaneous Project Report Series 49, Tallahassee. variety of ecosystems. He also offers that the climate was becoming drier at this time. (This suggestions seems at odds
Sassaman, Kenneth E., Glen T. Hanson, and Tommy Charles with most available environmental reconstructions.) He 1988 Raw Material Procurement and the Reduction of correctly concludes that chronologies and taxonomic schemes
Hunter-Gatherer Range in the Savannah River Valley, applied to North Florida and the Southeast are inappropriate Southeastern'Archaeology 7:79-94. for South Florida. He notes that the Archaic Period peoples
focused on a nonagricultural lifestyle based on hunting,
collecting, and fishing that persisted until contact in much of
South Florida. Few Middle and Early Archaic sites are
Prehistoric Peoples of South Florida, 1993, by William E. recorded in this region. Just as in the earlier Paleoindian McGoun, University of Alabama Press, 140 pp., softbound, Period, this may be a reflection of the dearth of sources for indexed, many illustrations, ISBN:0-8173-0686-2. nonperishable materials such as chert, rather than reality. For
example, an Archaic component at Little Salt Springs, which
Reviewed by Michael Wisenbaker, Florida Division of dates to about 6,000 years ago, presumably contained 1,000
Historical Resources burials. Bay West in Collier County and Republic Groves in
Hardee County also held human graves dating to the Middle
McGoun defines an area lying south of a line running Archaic Period. Artifacts found at these well-preserved wet from Cocoa near the Atlantic Ocean, to Bradenton on the Gulf sites included some wooden and bone tools. of Mexico as South Florida. His first chapter covers the Later Archaic sites he mentions upon include Useppa
"Menendez Period," which began in 1566 when the Spanish Island, Marco Island and Horr's Island on the Gulf Coast. regularly encountered South Florida Indians and lasted until Similarly, Cheetum, Santa Maria, and Taylor's Head were the English takeover in 1763. He recounts some skirmishes discovered in southeast Florida. The Palmer Site in Sarasota between the Calusa, who lived along the southwest coast, and County--dating to 1,500 B.C.--is one of the oldest pottery the Spanish interlopers and presents a short synopsis of Calusa bearing sites found in the region. McGoun states (pg. 69) that religion. McGoun touches on other groups such as the Ais, "Whatever its origin, the appearance of the first pottery would Jeaga and Tequesta who lived along the opposite coast of be the most significant change in South Florida culture in Florida. millennia. Coincident with its arrival were major cultural
The second chapter delves into the Paleoindian Period. changes on the southwest coast and in the Lake Okeechobee Despite 30 years of research suggesting that Paleoindians in Basin..." eastern North America engaged in a more mundane subsistence The fourth chapter addresses the so-called Transitional
pattern, he titles the chapter "On the Trail of Big Game." Period (1,500-500 B.C.). Fort Center, just west of Lake McGoun touches on the Vero and Melbourne finds, once Okeechobee, was occupied perhaps as early as 1,000 B.C.,
thought to prove that early humans coexisted with extinct represents a major site from this period. McGoun describes megafauna, made earlier this century. Most archaeologists various large earthworks including three overlapping ditches now believe that human remains at Vero and Melbourne were completed about 450 B.C. Sears claimed that Fort Center's

culture had originated from South America based on the literature on the Mississippian chiefdoms, where the emphasis appearance of fiber-tempered pottery. It was during this is placed on demography, subsistence, and the environment as period that the general hunting and gathering way of life began the factors that most influenced the evolution of the late to give way to more regional specializations. A good example prehistoric societies of the Southeast. of this is the Glades I culture, marked by gritty, sand-tempered In the introduction, Pauketat presents the problem of the pottery. Hopewellian influenced--denoted by large rise of centralized societies and a brief but well-constructed earthworks, burial mounds, artistic and well-crafted objects description of the Cahokia polity. The book begins with quote fashioned from exotic material for adornment or ceremonial from Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan regarding the rise of use--became evident at this time. Hopewellian traits at Fort common (centralized) power. Pauketat asks two questions: Center included platform pipes and trade pots. how was a 'Common Power' erected among the ungoverned,
The fifth chapter deals with later Glades occupations. By and why did people who lived free of ascribed hierarchy A.D. 800 (Glades II), the natives of southwest Florida submit themselves to "that great Leviathan"? Pauketat,
developed a chiefdom form of political hierarchy. Fish, correctly I believe, identifies these questions as lying at the primarily from the sea and coastal estuaries, represented the heart of the social sciences. He notes that archaeology is main food source. Shellfish and sea mammals, perhaps with ideally positioned to provide empirical evidence needed to intensive plant collecting in the fall, supplemented their meals. address these questions and to "comprehend the generation of Bone and shell artifacts reveal an increase in trade between the the Leviathan." Lake Okeechobee Basin and areas to the south. By A.D. 1,200 In the second chapter, Pauketat introduces the theoretical
(Glades III), the chalky temperless ware known as St. Johns, approach that forms the basis of his study. The book is a common in northeast Florida, became more prevalent in South political study, and it takes an explicitly political approach. He Florida. Check-stamped pottery also came into the region, brings people into his analysis by adopting a theory of while the use of incised pottery fell into disfavor, practice, by focusing on the productive and communicative
The final chapter, "The Road to Extinction," returns to actions of individuals that served to reproduce cultural the protohistoric or Menendez Period. Intruders from the meanings and symbols. He also addresses several topics that north, including some ancestors of today's Seminoles, had have attracted much interest among archaeologists investigating reached as far south as Ais territory by 1703 and the Keys by the Mississippian societies (e.g., factional competition in 1708. They attacked mainland aborigines and forced the simple chiefdoms, political cycling, and the emergence of Spanish to take many of them away. When England took complex chiefdoms).
possession of Florida in 1763, marking the end of the First In the third chapter, Pauketat provides the reader with the
Spanish Period, the last of the Calusa went to Havana with the sociohistorical background for the study. He includes a brief departing Spanish. discussion of the environmental setting and a more detailed
In sum, McGoun should be complimented for tackling the account of the societies that preceded the Mississippian arduous task of synthesizing the massive data on South Florida chiefdoms. archaeology. He presents his finding in a highly readable style In the fourth chapter, Pauketat compares the cultural befitting a professional journalist. His extensive footnotes, patterns he sees among Mississippian communities in the however, detract from the flow of the book. Still, American Bottom. He begins by looking at rural settlement
archaeologists and lay readers interested in the prehistory and patterns and the secondary political-administrative centers. He early history of South Florida will find this a valuable then gives an excellent description of Cahokia and the central reference book. political-administrative complex of the regional polity. His
description addresses the arrangement of mounds and plazas,
elite mortuaries, central residential subcommunities,
monumental architecture, palisades and compounds, and the
The Ascent of Chiefs: Cahokia and Mississippian Politics in distribution of exotic raw materials, craft manufacturing debris Native North America. Timothy R. Pauketat. 1994, and finished craft items.
University of Alabama Press. xviii + 235 pp., bibliography, In the fifth and sixth chapters, Pauketat looks at
index, figures, tables. $28.95 (paper) chronological change in community patterning, architecture
and material culture during the period of emergence of Cahokia
Reviewed by John F. Scarry, Research Laboratories of as a paramount center. In particular, he focuses on
Anthropology, University of North Carolina architectural evidence from Tract 15A and the Dunham Tract
at Cahokia. In his examination of material culture change, he
The Ascent of Chiefs is a bold and provocative study of focuses on the refuse from the manufacture of special goods the emergence of the complex chiefdom that was centered on and the distribution of non-local raw materials such as the Cahokia site in the American Bottom near St. Louis, microlithic artifacts and shell beads, copper, and exotic
Missouri. It stands in marked contrast to much of the igneous rock and axeheads.

In the final chapter, Pauketat summarizes his thoughts on theoretical constructs to patterns in the archaeological data. He the generation of the Cahokian leviathan. He argues that makes effective use of the wonderful database on American competition among the high-ranking individuals in the pre- Bottom Mississippian derived from work at Cahokia, itself, Cahokia American Bottom would have provided the basis for and along the Interstate 270 right-of-way. the disconnection of high- and low-ranking groups from their Tim Pauketat has addressed a topic that particularly traditional communities. He suggests that competition, whose interests me: the emergence of chiefly political formations short-term goal would have been the maintenance of the status marked by institutionalized inequality and the centralization of quo, involved political strategies that led to the establishment political power. It is a mark of his success that this book has and maintenance of regional alliances through the stimulated my thinking and made me go back to my own data subordination of rivals (and ultimately the formation of a and reevaluate my interpretations of those data. I recommend single political entity in the American Bottom). He further it to all archaeologists interested in the late prehistoric societies suggests that the tempo of these political events can be seen in of the southeastern United States and to all who wonder about the archaeological record. If the subordination and the "generation of the Leviathan." consolidation occurred as a limited number of large-scale events, we should see archaeological evidence of qualitative shifts in all aspects of social life and in the residues of elitecontrolled exchange networks. The structure of the postconsolidation hegemony should be visible in the kinds of centralized and subsidized production activities seen at Cahokia and in the material symbols of the newly elevated chiefship.
He begins his summary with an account of the political consolidation of the Lohmann phase complex chiefdom through expansion of the political economy. He continues the story with the products and symbols of the new political order. He then moves on to his arguments for class struggle at Cahokia, with particular emphasis on the alienation of Lohmann phase households from the products of their own labor. He links the efforts of the American Bottom elite to those of other elites in the Southeast and suggests that the result of those efforts was the generalized Mississippian political culture. Following the emergence of the Lohmann phase polity, Pauketat sees the ascent of divine chiefs in the Stirling phase as a rapid process resulting from the efforts of the Cahokian elite to lay claim to cosmic power. The successful claiming of that authority produced the complex, spectacular entity we think of when Cahokia is mentioned.
The book does not address Florida data, but the theoretical approach and methods of analysis are relevant to investigations of the Mississippian chiefdoms of northwestern Florida, especially the Lake Jackson chiefdom and the Fort Walton polities of the Apalachicola Valley. It also has much to offer researchers working on the late prehistoric Timucuan and Calusa chiefdoms.
The Ascent of Chiefs is well-written and quite readable. The book is a reworking of Pauketat's dissertation, but it lacks the "dissertationese" that renders so many dissertations opaque and heavy-going. It does not go overboard with theoretical discussion or jargon, and the complex model is quite wellpresented. The figures are clear and easily read. There are several, relatively short tables that provide important data.
The Ascent of Chiefs is theoretically sophisticated, ambitious, and provocative. It pushes the envelope of thinking on the Mississippian chiefdoms. However, it is not theory divorced from data. Pauketat clearly and explicitly links his

Florida Anthropological Society
Every year the Florda Anthropological Society has the opportunity to present special awards in recognition of outstanding accomplishment in the areas of professional involvement in public and avocational activities (the Ripley P. Bullen Award), avocational contributions to Florida anthropology and the FAS (the William C. Lazarus Award), and efforts in support of chapter activities (the chapter awards). The following individuals were honored by FAS President Betty Riggan at the 1994 annual meeting held in Sebring, April 7-9.
J. Raymond Williams
In recognition of outstanding contributions in the areas of leadership, encouragement, inspiration, and guidance to avocational archaeologists as well as contributions to the improvement of working relations between professional and avocational archaeologists.
John Beriault
In recognition of outstanding contributions to Florida anthropology and accomplishments in the areas of site .
reporting, education, assistance to professionals, and preservation efforts. Mr. Beriault continues to play a leading role in the Southwest Florida Archaeological Society and has been involved in many important activities in that region of Florida.
Walter H. Askew
In recognition of outstanding contributions to Florida anthropology and accomplishments in the areas of site reporting, education, assistance to professionals, and preservation efforts. Mr. Askew has been influential in the development of the Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society and has assisted Ripley Bullen and other archaeologists in /
significant work in the central Gulf coast area.

To recognize special service to the FAS in advancing its Archaeology Week 1995 Steering Committee, Bonnie McEwan goals of public education and archaeological preservation and for her service in writing the successful FAW grant and in stewardship, the President presents annual awards to members facilitating publication of the "mission issue" of the journal who showed exemplary service to the society during the past (Vol.44, 2-4) by the University Press of Florida, and to Dot year. At the 1995 annual awards banquet, FAS President Moore for her service as Chapter Liaison (Volusia Betty Riggan was please to present Distinguished Service Anthropological Society) and her FAW activities. awards to Marion Smith for his efforts as Chair of the Florida
Individual chapters of the Florida Anthropological of St. Augustine archaeology program. His public service Society annually honor chapter members for distinguished accomplishments include leading tours of archaeological sites service in chapter activities, for students of the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind.
Archaeological Society of Southern Florida. For their Southwest Florida Archaeological Society. Chapter
energy, enthusiasm, and assistance with FAW 1995 activities, linchpins Charlie Strader and Lynn G. Lee are recognized for the society wishes to honor Grant Hammersberg and Marlene their dedication, dependability, and many years of service to Adams for their distinguished service. the chapter.
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society. For their Time Sifters Archaeology Society. Sue Safford and
work in site preservation, public archaeology, and for their Lucia Taylor are recognized for their many contributions to the long commitment to the CGCAS chapter, Stan Babicz and Time Sifters chapter.
Terry Simpson are recognized for their distinguished service.
To all the dedicated FAS members honored with awards Pensacola Archaeological Society. Chapter members in 1995, congratulations for your many wonderful Nancy Van Epps and Mary Ann Fabro are recognized for their achievements! distinguished service in underwater, terrestrial, and laboratory activities in the Pensacola area.
Indian River Anthropological Society
St. Augustine Archaeological Association. George 3705 S. Tropical Terrace, Merritt Island, FL 32952
Allen is recognized for his long service to SAAA and for his Kissimnmee Valley Arch. & Hist. Cons. work with the St. Augustine Preservation Board and the City P0. Box 970, Sebring, FL 33871
Northeast Florida Anthropological Society
FAS Chapters 10415 Skycrest Dr., Jacksonville, FL 32216
Write your area's chapter for membership informa- Pensacola Archaeological Society
hion today! P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591
Archaeological Society of Southern Florida St. Augustine Archaeological Association
2495 NW 35th Avenue, Miami, FL 33142 P.O. Box 1987, St. Augustine, FL 32085
Broward County Archaeological Society Southwest Florida Archaeological Society
481 5. Federal Hwy., Dania, FL 33004 P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 33941
Central Florida Anthropological Society Time Sifters Archaeology Society
810 East Rollins Street, Orlando, FL 32803 P.O. Box 25642, Sarasota, FL 34277
Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society Volusia Anthropological Society
P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, FL 33682 P.O. Box 504, New Smymna, FL 32170

On March 16, 1995, Colonel William Robert Royal was 90 years old. The first to find and identify human brain presredi a Florida burial, Bill Royal is best remembered for his early attempts to interest archaeologists in Warm Mineral Springs adLtl Salt Spring. The photos below, from his collection of black and white slides (all from 1959 except for #6), show (1) a skul nst in Warm Mineral Springs, (2) Bill Royal holding the skull recovered from the spring, (3) the opened skull, (4) the skll en opened while Eugenie Clark and Bill Royal look on, (5) closeup of the brain, and (6) William Royal at age 90.
2 N

Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
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Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informative journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.
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the major tribes a
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* FAS Membership, c/o Terry Simpson, CGCAS, P.O. Box 82255, I Tampa, FL 33682
Join the Florida Anthropological Society (FAS)!
A non-profit organization founded in 1947, with chapters throughout Florida
Anthropology is the study of people and their cultures. Join FAS and help
-? save and enjoy Florida's heritage! FAS holds an annual meeting and banquet
featuring renowned speakers. FAS members receive a newsletter and informa. .tive journal four times a year. The journal features interesting articles on Florida archaeology, history, folklore, and preservation.
Florida Indian I] YES! I want to join FAS!
Poster I I Membership is only $25 per year (individual) and is tax-deductible.
Danris the-ma Other rates: $25 institutional, $35 family, $35 or more, sustaining,
main illustration[ patron $100, and life $500. ofn attorative I [] YES, I would like to donate an additional $6.50, also tax-deductible,
p or eitings II and receive a poster by mail (allow 3-5 weeks).
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About the Authors
Gregory A. Mikell is a professional archaeologist from Shalinmar (Fort Walton Beach), and has published articles in The Flida Anthropologist on the archaeology of Choctawhatchee Bay.
,Christine L. Newman is the proj ect archaeologist for the Conservation and Recreation Lands (C. A.R. L.) Archaeological Sutey administered by the Florida Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research.
John C. Phillips is Assistant Director of the Archaeology Institute at the University of West Florida. His interests include prehistoric and historic land use, late Paleoindian and early Archaic occupations in the northwest Florida highlands, and the archaeology of water-powered mills.
Brent R. Weisman is an archaeologist for the Florida Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research, hr he directs the Conservation and Recreation Lands (C. A.R. L.) Archaeological Survey. He has served as the editor of Thze FId Anthropologist since 1992.
The Florida Anthropologist is the quarterly journal of the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc., and is published in
March, June, September, and December. The journal is
owned and managed by the Officers and Executive Committee
of the society (see inside front cover).

NonProfit Org.
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 32602 Permit No. 458
Gainesville, FL
Volume 48 Number 2
June 1995
Editor's Page. Brent R. Weisman 71
Hickory Ridge: A Mississippian Period Cemetery in Northwestern Florida. John C. Phillips 72
Bell and Brooks Street: Two Fort Walton Village Sites on Choctawhatchee Bay. Gregory A. Mikell 97
Choctawhatchee Bay Fort Walton, The West Side Story. Gregory A. Mikell 120
An Introduction to the Archaeology of Rookery Bay, Gateway to Florida's Ten Thousand Islands. Brent R. Weisman and Christine L. Newman 133
Tesar, Johnson Sand Pit. Reviewed by Dana Ste. Claire. 146
McGoun, Prehistoric Peoples of South Florida. Reviewed by Michael Wisenbaker. 147
Pauketat, The Ascent of Chiefs. Reviewed by John F. Scarry. 148
Florida Anthropological Society 1995 Presidential Award Recipients. 150
FAS 1995 Chapter Awards for Distinguished Service. 151
William Royal's 90th Birthday Celebrated: A Photomontage by Robin C. Brown. 152
Join the Florida Anthropological Society 153
Cover: Ceramic motifs from the Hickory Ridge site (8ES1280), from the article by John C. Phillips, this issue.
Copyright 1995 by the
ISSN 0015-3893