The Florida anthropologist

Material Information

The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Place of Publication:
Florida Anthropological Society.
Publication Date:
Quarterly[<Mar. 1975- >]
Two no. a year[ FORMER 1948-]
v.41 no.3, September, 1988
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Florida Anthropologist Society, Inc. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
01569447 ( OCLC )
56028409 ( LCCN )
0015-3893 ( ISSN )

Full Text
Volume 41 Number 3 September 1988

THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is published quarterly by the Florida Anthropological
Society, Inc., P.O. Box 1013, Tallahassee, Florida 32302. Subscription is by membership in the Society for individuals, families and institutions interested
in the aims of the Society. Annual dues are $12 (Individual), $18 (Family), $15
(Institutional), $25 (Sustaining), $100 (Patron) and $150 (Life). Foreign subscriptions are an additional $5 U.S. currency to cover added postage costs for individual, family or institutional membership categories. Requests for information on the Society and membership application forms, as well as notifications of changes of address, should be addressed to the Membership Secretary. Donations should be sent to the Treasurer. Requests for copies of the Editorial
Policy and Style Guide (re: FA 37(1)), orders for back issues, submissions of manuscripts for publication and notices of non-receipt or damaged issues should be sent to the Editor. Newsletter items should be sent sent to the President. Address changes should be made AT LEAST 30 days prior to the mailing of the next issue. The Post Office will not forward bulk rate mail.
Harold D. Cardwell, Sr. Elizabeth Horvath Jeffrey Mitchem
1343 Woodbine. Street P.O. Box 290876 Florida State Museum
Daytona Beach, FL 32014 Temple Terrace, FL 33687 University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Chris Newman Joan Deming AGENT: Wallace Spears
Historic St. Augustine 308 6th St. NE 422 Brentwood Drive
Preservation Board Largo, FL 34640 Daytona Beach, FL 32017
P.O. Box 1987
St. Augustine, FL 32084
(Three Years): (Two Years): (One Year):
Robert Austin Donna Ruhl Ralph Gozlin
P.O. Box 919 Dept. of Anthropology 7347 Hennessey Road
St. Petersburg, FL Florida State Museum Jacksonville, FL
33731 University of Florida 32210
Gainesville, FL 32611
Louis D. Tesar Joan Deming George Luer Gandy Printers, Inc.
P.O. Box 1013 308 6th St. NE 3222 Old Oak Drive 1800 5 Monroe St.
Tallahassee, FL Largo, FL 34640 Sarasota, FL 34239 Tallahassee, FL
32302 32301
James J. Miller William H. Marquardt Morgan H. Crook
Div. of Historical Resources Florida State Museum Dept. of Anthropology
Department of State University of Florida Georgia State University
The Capitol Gainesville, FL 32611 Atlanta, GA 30303
Tallahassee, FL 32399-0250
John W. Griffin Glen Doran
Route 5 Box 19 Dept. of Anthropology
St. Augustine, FL 32084 G-24 Bellamy
Florida State University
Tallahassee, FL 32306
NOE In addition to the above Editorial Board members, the review comments of others knowledgable in a manuscripts subject matter are solicited as part of our peer review process.

Volume 41 Number 3 September 1988
Editor's Page .......... ........................ 284
De Soto Expedition/First Spanish Period Issue: Call for Papers and Funding Assistance .... ............... 288
De Soto Commemorative Stamp Effort .... ............. 288
Historic Preservation in Virginia Remarks of the Honorable
Gerald L. Baliles, Governor of The Commonwealth of Virginia 289 Archaeological Dig Experiment Report by Tori Dean Chambers 295
Editor's Comments on Archaeological Dig Experiment Report . 303
Could Prehistoric Indians Have Used Gar Oil As An Insect
Repellent? by Lynn McKee and her 4th grade class ... 306
One Small Site by Frank Howard and Susan Sapronetti ... 307
Shell Celt Morphology and Reduction: An Analogy to Lithic
Research by Marilyn A. Masson .... .............. 313
The Taylor's Head Site (8BD74): Sampling a Prehistoric
Midden on an Everglades Tree Island by Marilyn A. Masson,
Robert S. Carr and Debra S. Goldman .... ............ 336
Apalachee Settlement Distribution: The View from the Florida Master Site File by Marion F. Smith, Jr. and John F.
Scarry ........... .......................... 351
Radiometric Chronology of the Archaic Windover Archaeological
Site (8BR246) by Glen H. Doran and David N. Dickel . 365
Piston Corers: Equipment, Technique, and Application to
Archaeology by Barbara A. Purdy ... ............. 381
Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of the Midcontinental and Eastern United States: A Modern Survey Reference (1987) by Noel 0. Justice. Reviewed by Michael Wisenbaker . .. 393
Treasures of the Chipola River Valley (1987) by H. L. Chason.
Reviewed by Louis 0. Tesar............................ 396
Creeks and Seminoles (1987) by Leitch Wright, Jr. Reviewed
by Brent R. Weisman................................... 397
Apalachee= The Land between the Rivers (1988) by John H. Hann
Reviewed by Louis D. Tesar............................ 399
Cur rent Research....................................... 402
Comments.............................................. 402
FAS Brochure: Offenses Concerning Dead Bodies and Graves ..402
The Drevmer -nd the de Soto Site by B. C lvin Jones......... 402
AS.. .. ........ .. ... . . . 0

In Volume 41 Number 1, we pub- sions; although, those with an avlished a 204 page, special 40th ocational and professional interanniversary issue. That issue was est in archaeology/anthropology
followed by one jointly published and history dominate. This issue
with the Florida Journal of is no exception. Anthropology, which was guest Our opening presentation is by
edited by Claudine Payne. Through the Honorable Gerald L. Baliles,
a misunderstanding, or perhaps to Governor of The Commonwealth of
avoid confusion, that issue was Virginia. He has been kind enough
serially numbered from 1-78, to permit the publication of his rather than continuing our number- remarks at the opening session of ing sequence from 205-282. How- the annual conference of the ever, I have begun this issue with Southeast Region State Historic page number 283 to reinstate our Preservation Officers, which met
numbering system, in Richmond, Virginia on July 13As many of you know, the 15, 1988. He also provided a copy
Florida Anthropological Society of his earlier July 21, 1987, rewas founded in 1947 by a small marks to the opening session of
group who saw a need for an orga- the "Governor's Commission to
nization dedicated to the advance- Study Historic Preservation" in meant of anthropological and ar- Virginia. Together, they reflect
chaeological matters in Florida Virginia's commitment to historic and nearby areas. By the end of preservation in balance with other
August, 1947, the Society's first concerns. They also reflect the
Newsletter was published, and by growing awareness of public offiMay, 1948, when the first issue of cials of the importance of preThe Florida Anthropologist (Volume serving historic resources for 1, Numbers 1-2) was published, the both their economic and social Society had grown to over 70 mem- values.
bers, representing every major From the remarks of a political
section of the state. It has leader shaping the future of our
since grown to many times that states' and Nation's prehistoric
number, with individual, family and historic heritage today, we
and institutional members and sub- turn to those whose interests toscribers in nearly every state and day will affect historic preservaCanada, as well as international tion decisions in the future. The
distribution, primarily through "Archaeological Dig Experiment Rethe University of Florida, Gift port" prepared by Tori Dean Chainand Exchange Library. bers as a sixth grade science stuOur purpose is educational, dent is one such example. It is
While our focus remains primarily an edited version of the larger
archaeological/anthropological for report which she submitted with Florida and nearby areas, it has her entry in the State Science and
been broadened over the years to Engineering Fair. At the same
include a broad range of historic time that Ms. Dean entered her
preservation issues covering the project exhibit and report in Marentire Southeastern United Stated ion County, Florida, Lynn McKee's
and surrounding areas. Likewise, fourth grade class entered their our contributors represent a wide project in the Broward County
range of experiences and profes- Science Fair. Ms. McKee' s summary

of that entry, "Could Prehistoric dren can believe that they are a
Indians Have Used Gar Oil As An part of the future, they must feel
Insect Repellent?, follows Tori's that they come from somewhere. report. I am sure that both are They have to believe in themselves
but examples of the many educa- to accomplish the future.
tional benefits resulting from the "Preservation is for our chilinclusion of the study of our pre- dren. But in order to make it so, historic and historic heritage in we need to develop our educational
our school system. program to use the resources we
To quote from Christopher already have, to reach out and Goodwin, whose article "Louisiana nurture those who need it most.
Is Looking Forward To Its Past" The Louisiana Division of Archeol(1987) appeared in Volume 40 Num- ogy's outreach program, with its
ber 4 of the The Florida Anthro- teachers' manuals, is a step in
pologist: the right direction. However, it
needs to target first those who
"The historic districts of our need it most. It needs more
towns and cities, and their old money. And, the Office of Hisbuildings; our historic state toric Preservation, and our
parks, like the Port Hudson bat- preservation groups need to begin
tlefields; our state archaeologi- to emphasize education more sencal commemorative areas, like ously. State Parks can help
Poverty Point and Marksville, to- greatly, as can the Louisiana
gether comprise our most available State Museum. Again, however, all classroom. They are, perhaps, of these offices and agencies need
Louisiana's premier educational greater funding for education, as resource. That is so because they well as all the volunteer support
are not sterile laboratories or they can get." (Goodwin 1987:254boring textbooks. The memories of 255)
our forbearers, their victories,
their spirit and dedication, live Chris' words also speak to
on at these sites. Finally, his- Florida and other states. To this torical resources make young peo- end the Florida Anthropological
ple want to learn. Kids think Society encourages students to
they're "neat," or "cool," or prepare archaeology/anthropology "bad." They make them care about or other historic preservation
Louisiana and our Nation. projects for submission in the an"Historical resources have that nual State Science and Engineering effect because they make children Fair conducted under the auspices
feel a part of something larger of the Florida Foundation for
then themselves; they become a Future Scientists. Our chapters part of their history. Preserva- around the state and prepared to tion, then, provides kids with an work with students and their
identity. A sense of identity teachers to assist such projects. with something larger is critical As an adjunct to that program we
to the educational process, espe- are also starting our own modest
cially among the disenfranchised scholarship program, of which more
of our inner cities, among the will be published in a later issue poor and the housing project of the journal. dwellers. I am reminded of a pro- The next article in this issue,
gram begun a number of years ago "One Small Site" by Frank Howard
in the inner city schools of Wash- and Susan Sapronetti, is an examington, D.C. Beginning in the ple of the contributions which a
preschool, head start classes, the concerned public can make. The
kids were taught to think: "I am bullwork of the Florida Anthroposomebody." But before the chil- logical Society, as well as

Florida's and other states' his- ogy to Lithic Research." Ms.
toric preservation programs, is Masson, who is working on her Masits avocational archaeologists and ter's degree at the Department of other concerned citizens. Mr. Anthropology, Florida State UniHoward (a high school natural sci- versity, has written an excellent ences teacher) and his daughter research paper based on the study
Susan discovered an archaeological of artifacts from two Dade County, site in Wakulla County, Florida. Florida sites.
The site had been previously dam- In "The Taylor's Head Site
aged by dredge-and-fill activities (8BD74): Sampling A Prehistoric
when road, ditch and canal con- Midden on an Everglades Tree
struction occurred. When they re- Island," Marilyn A. Masson ported their find to the state to Robert S. Carr (Dade County
see if anything could be done, Archaeologist) and Debra S.
they interpreted a "lack of juris- Goldman in reporting on an Archaediction" response to mean a lack ological and Historical Conserof interest. Nevertheless, over a vancy project, which resulted in three-year period, they continued an archaeological park. This proto observe and collect eroding ar- ject in Broward County, Florida, tifacts in the canal and ditch was performed for the Arvida Corbanks, and made a record of their poration as part of its Weston deobservations. The result is the velopment project. It is an examreport published in this issue. ple of how archaeological sites
It was submitted for publication can be sensitively incorporated
at the suggestion of Dr. Rochelle into commercial developments as
Marrinan of the Department of An- educational/recreational amenithropology, Florida State Univer- ties.
sity, and Dr. Gary Shapiro, Direc- A question that is often asked
tor of Archaeology at Florida's is what does the state do with all
San Luis Archaeological and His- of the information recorded in the
torical Site until his recent un- Florida Master Site File? In adtimely death from Leukemia. dition to using it in evaluating
In a similar vein, "Treasures environment altering project imof the Chipola River Valley" pacts to historic resources and as (1987) by H.L. Chason, which is a comparative base in evaluating
reviewed in this issue, also pro- site significance, it is also used
vides an example of the contribu- as a research tool and for providtions of our avocational archaeol- ing data used in developing ogists. Mr. Chason views himself Florida's Comprehensive Historic
more as an artifacts collector Preservation Plan, state land manthan an amateur archaeologist. agement plans and local government Whether one considers him to be an comprehensive plans. The article amateur archaeologist or an avid by Marion F. Smith, Jr. and John
artifact collector, the fact is F. Scarry,"AacheStlmn
that his artifact collection, as Distribution: The View From The
depicted in the many photographs Florida Master Site File," proin this publication, represents an vides a good example of the reimportant source of information search potential of the Florida for those who plan to study this, Master Site File and how it can be
as yet, poorly researched area of used to identify aspects of arFlorida. chaeological cultures needing furTurning next to students study- ther research. Dr. Smith adminising to become professional archae- ters the Florida Master Site File ologists/anthropologists, we come and Dr. Scarry administer the
to Marilyn A. Masson's "Shell Celt Archaeological Research Section of Morphology and Reduction: An Anal- the Bureau of Archaeological

Research in the Division of to begin in 1989. Historical Resources, Florida In Volume 41 Number 1 of The
Department of State. Florida Anthropologist, I listed a
An area of growing interest is number of out of print issues of
wet site archaeology. The last our journal which our Society did
two articles, one by Drs. Doran not have. At our annual meeting
and Dickel of the Department of in May, Mr. Arthur Dreeves donated
Anthropology, Florida State Uni- copies of most of the needed
versity, and one by Dr. Purdy of volumes through Volume 18. I wish
the Department of Anthropology, to acknowledge Mr. Dreeves generUniversity of Florida, deal with osity to the Society.
this subject. The first, We still do not have any copies
"Radiometric Chronology of the Ar- of the following issues:
chaic Windover Archaeological Site FA 6(1), FA 6(4), FA 7(1) F
(8BR246)" by Glen H. Doran and (3), FASP No. 4, FASP No. 5, FA 17
David N. Dickell, reports on the (2) FA 18(1), FA 20(1-2), FA
results of efforts to date that (2 ) FA 1(l), FA 21(2-3), F important site, and compares those (4), FA 2(1), FA 21(2) FA 21
dates with those reported from (4), FA 23(4) FA 24(1), FA 25(4), other sites. The second, "Piston 2(1) FA 2() FA 2() F
Corers: Equipment, Techniques, and 29(2 Part 2)/FASP No. 8, and FA 30
Application to Archaeology" by (1) Barbara A. Purdy, describes the We could also use second copies
assembly, use and application to of every issue listed on page 7 of
archaeology of the use of piston FA 41() These issues will be
covers on wetsites. used to copy out of print articles
Finally, we turn to our Book and will serve as a basis for seReport, Current Research and Com- lecting articles to reprint. To
RprCretobtain these issues for the
ments section, Two projectile oban tee iss fr
mens ecion To rojctle Society, if they are not received
point publications, "Stone Age
Spear and Arrow Points of the Mid- as gifts, I am prepared to excontinental and Eastern United change available back issues for States: A Modern Survey Reference" them. The exchange rate would
Justice and at the same value as comparable in (1987) by Noel D. stodissues.
"Treasures of the Chipola River stould iketh
Valley" (1987) by H.L. Chason, Iuon ik e o f this
were reviewed along with two eth- cushion with a note of thank
nohistoric studies, "Creeks and Joan Deming for preparing the galSeminoles" (1987) by J. Leitch leys for Dr. Purdy's article, to
Wright and "Apalachee: The Land Glen Doran for preparing the galbetween the Rivers" (1988) by John leys for his and Dr. Dickel's arH. Hann. There were no current tidle, to John Scarry for preparresearch submissions. In our Coin- in th galy fo hsadDr
ments area, I have provided a Smith's article, to Marilyn Masson
reduced copy of our Chapter 872, and David Allerton for preparing
Florida Statutes brochure which we th galy fo he ariean
prepred s apublc srvic. ~the Masson, Carr and Goldman artihave also provided a presentation cle, and to Mike Wisenbaker for
by B. Calvin Jones, "The Dreamer preparing the galleys for his book
and the de Soto Site." The sub- review. I did the wordprocessing
jec o hs pesnttio i a for the remaining text and pastenarration of the manner in which up for the issue.
the 1539 de Soto winter encampment
was discovered. Finally, I also Louis D. Tesar, Editor
present a discussion of our sub- The Florida Anthropologist
scription dues increase scheduled August 9, 1988

DE SOTO EXPEDITION/FIRST SPANISH responsible for preparing cameraPERIOD ISSUE: CALL FOR PAPERS AND ready graphics. Color plates must
FUNDING ASSISTANCE be discussed with the Editor.
Contributions, abstracts, manuA special book-length issue of scripts and inquiries should be
The Florida Anthropologist is sent to Louis D. Tesar, FAS Editor,
planned for Volume 42 Number 4, P.O. Box 1013, Tallahassee, FL December 1989 to celebrate the 32302.
450th anniversary of the beginning of the de Soto expedition in
Florida, and especially the 1539 winter encampment in Apalache around present day Tallahassee, as
well as the expeditions activities DE SOTO COMMEMORATIVE STAMP EFFORT
to its end in 1543. This issue The de Soto expedition's mar
will feature articles on the de through what is today the SouthSoto expedition and other First eastern United States marks a turnSpanish Period topics. ing point of major historical and
It is planned that this special cultural significance. Following
issue will be around 250-300 pages its passage there were major disruptions of native American culin length, including both color and tures. It was the first major efblack-and-white photographs and fort by Europeans to explore the
other graphics. For these reasons, interior of the Southeast. Fithe cost of this issue will exceed nally, it is believed that the
first Christmas celebration in
funding available from membership North America occurred at the 1539
dues. It is estimated that around winter camp of the de Soto expedi$8,000 in extra funding will need tion at the Apalache village
to be raised to cover publication Anaica.
costs. After years of searching what is
If you want to participate as an believed to be the 1539 winter camp
individual, organization or corpor- of the de Soto expedition has been
scopr located a short distance to the ate sponsor of this special issue, East from Florida's capitol in Talplease send your check or money lahassee. The State of Florida is
order made payable to the Florida in the process of purchasing this
Anthropological Society to the site as an archaeological and histo t toric park. With the 450th anEditor to assure acknowledgement of niversary of the de Soto expedition
receipt and proper credit in the approaching, what better way to
issue acknowledgements. Please re- celebrate than with the issuance of
member to ear-mark your ont-ribu- a commemorative postal stamp by the
membr t earmar yor cotriu- U.s. Postal service.
tion for the FA 42(4) Special Issue Account. Your gift is tax deduc- I urge you all to write to the head
tible and may be for any amount of the U.S. Postal Service and to
which you care to contribute, your congressmen, both in Washington and in your home state, urging
Researchers on the de Soto expe- their support of this idea. You
dition route and other First must act now, because of the time
Spanish Period topics are invi ted required to consider accept and
to submit abstracts of proposed ar- design such commemorative stamps.
A large showing of public support
tidles and subsequent manuscriptsiseenalfa45tanvray for -review. Response to this call commemorative de Soto expedition
for papers must be on or before stamp is to be issued by Christmas ,
December 1988. All1 manuscr ipts 1989.
will be peer reviewed. Authors are

EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION I hope that you find them tob
as interesting as I have., he
Louis D. Tesar reflect a commitment to histoi
preservation in balance with ote On July 13-15, 1988, as a rep- concerns, and are presented ina resentative of the of the Florida enjoyable, to the point, somewa
Department of State, Division of witty manner. They show a cla
Historical Resources, Bureau of understanding of the economic Historic Preservation, I attended social benefits of sav ing th
the annual meeting of the South- past, our heritage and roots,fo
east Region State Historic Preser- the present and the future. Te
vation officers. In addition to serve as an example for histoi
the working sessions, and field preservation minded public ofi
trips to view IVirginia's impres- cials throughout the Southeastan sive historic properties, I at- beyond.
tended the opening Reception at the historic Executive Mansion.
The Honorable Gerald L.
Baliles, Governor of The Common- Wednesday, July 13, 1988
wealth of Virginia, was in attendance. His presentation was Remarks of
noteworthy, and, I believe, could
serve as an example to other chief The Honorable Gerald L. Balile executives, legislators and public Governor
administrators. Afterwards, I had The Commonwealth of Virginia occasion to meet with him as he chatted with reception partici- Reception for
pants. I told him how much I had State Preservation officers
enjoyed his presentation, discus- Southeast Region
sed the kind of work I do in the Office of Florida's State Historic Executive Mansion
Preservation Officer, and my volunteer role as the Editor of The Florida Anthropologist. I discus-

dred yards from my office. We have an especially pressing
responsibility to keep our rapid
Convenience aside, I like to growth balanced with a living rethink of this mansion where we spect for the past.
meet tonight as emblematic of
Virginia. That is why just about a year
ago, I summoned some 20 prominent
Like Virginia, this mansion's citizens from all walks of life to
gracefulness, dignity and history come here to Richmond and begin
inspire both inhabitants and visi- considering what we are doing to tors; nonetheless, it serves an preserve our essential history and
energetic and forward-looking pop- how we can do it better.
The Governor's Commission to
It is also emblematic because Study Historic Preservation has
Virginia is a state filled with been diligently at work ever
historic buildings and sites liv- since.
ing side-by-side with some of the
buildings and sites of our own Several of its members are here
generation. this evening, including our outstanding chairman, David Brown of
As our Secretary of Natural the Virginia Preservation
Resources, John Daniel, and as our Alliance.
state preservation officer, Bryan
Mitchell, have both doubtlessly He can tell you far more elotold you, this building is the quently than I can how much is at
oldest, continuously inhabited ex- stake and how profoundly the efecutive mansion in the nation, fects of change and prosperity depend upon identity and continuity.
This year marks its 175th anniversary. During the commission's yearlong deliberations, its members
John and Bryan have probably have seen very clearly how these
told you as well that we have just issues of change and continuity
celebrated that fact by adding meet on the field of preservation.
this home to the Register of
National Landmarks. On this field, these Virginians
have weighed the elements of our
Even though they have told you identity in order to preserve what
that, I want to reiterate it be- truly marks our common journey
cause this is an audience that can into the future.
particularly appreciate the implications of that fact. As change sweeps across that
field wi th ever accelerating
Virginia has so many historic speed, we want to know what we can
homes, markets, public and private do to make sense of our past and
buildings, shipwrecks, prehistoric see the direction it provides.
and historic archaeological sites,
that preservation has great bear- I like to tell people that as
ing on the future of the state. much as Virginians like to read
about hi story, they would rather
For I am convinced that if make it.
Virginia is to continue to move
confidently into the future, we But it is impossible to make
must be mindful of our history. history without understanding what

our past means. Tuesday, July 21, 1987
While we cannot be enslaved by The Remarks of
that past, we can be identified by it The Honorable Gerald L. Balile
When the Commission to Study The Commonwealth of Virginia
Historic Preservation came to Richmond almost exactly a year Governor's Commission to
ago, I told the members that Study Historic Preservation
preservation is a tool to manage change and growth, which Virginia House Room 1, State Capitol
is experiencing in startling abun- Richmond
And wi th due respect to the
great work that all of you have Against the long pagent o
done in your states, I also told human history, twenty years isbu
those commission members to bring a brief moment.
Virginia back into the forefront of our nation' s historic preserva- Twenty years wouldn't be enoug
tion efforts. time to plan even the basic desig
of a medieval cathedral. I
We have a great responsibility wouldn't be long enough to estab
--to our future, as well as to lish the reputation of mos
our past, artists, writers or musicians.
As all of you go about the And it certainly wouldn't b
meetings, seminars and workshops sufficient time to listen toal
associated with this conference, the interesting ideas of a
and as you tour some of our local Virginia governor.
historic treasures like the White House of the Confederacy and But it was twenty years ao
Westover, let me ask you to share following the lead of somere
with Bryan Mitchell, with John spected efforts such as those o Daniel and with David Brown your the Association for Preservato
reactions towards and ideas for of Virginia Antiquities, whenth Virginia's preservation efforts. Commonwealth embarked on itsef
fort to preserve its uniquean

With so much history within our for monitoring and protecting senCommonwealth, we have an espe- sitive areas and sites.
cially pressing responsibility to
keep our rapid growth balanced Arkansas and South Carolina
witha repectfor he pst.have established substantial arwith a respect for the past. chaeological research institutes.
So Virginia has been actively
committed to the preservation ef- Maryland has taken the 1 E
fort for these twenty years, creating an underwater archaeological survey, research and conserAnd the effort has paid off vation program.
handsomely. Ironically, but encouragingly,
It has paid off in restored we do not have to look beyond VirMain Streets in small towns ginia to note some excellent
throughout the Commonwealth. preservation programs developed by
some of our local governments
And it has paid off in discov- which could be considered for
eries of prehistoric sites that statewide application.
tell us how Virginians adapted to
this beautiful and varied land, Lynchburg has developed clear
even before Virginia existed as a standards and guidelines to let
state; indeed, even before the property owners and architects
distant ancestral land of England know what rehabilitation efforts
was inhabited, are appropriate for historic
And it has paid off in the ever
constant and ever changing archi- Fairfax County and the City of
tectural landmarks of the cities Alexandria have created programs
and the countryside of the Common- for incorporating archaeological
wealth. research into public education.
But these twenty years of pre- Richmond is a good example
servation policy have been a long how to improve heritage to
time to remain unchanged. planning, making tourism and
preservation vitally sensitive to
While our commitment has re- each other for their mutual benemained steadfast, other states and fit.
the federal government, as well as
the private sector, have surpassed Your chairman is well acus in innovative approaches to quainted with the public and pripreservation, vate efforts of Staunton to develop a model historic preservaFlorida, for example, has es- tion plan that would be incorpotablished a Historical Preserva- rated into the local comprehensive
tion Trust Fund, to supplement plan review process.
dwindling federal resources.
These are merely some examples
Connecticut legislatively man- of how states and local governdates state evaluation of its own ments have improved upon the theme
historic buildings. that Virginia espoused initially
twenty years ago.
Kentucky has pioneered the application of advanced computer Ladies and gentlemen, I have
technologies to cultural resource asked you to join the effort to
management, which is indispensable consider our twenty years of expe292

rience in the stewardship of our Can anyone imagine turning over
historic treasures and to help us to our descendants a Virginia
determine what we have really without the Rotunda at the Univerlearned, sity of Virginia?
More importantly, I ask you to or without the Wren Building at
point the direction toward what we the College of William and Mary?
need to do for the future.
or without this Capitol buildThe examples I have touched on ing or the Bell Tower and the
are only starting points. But the Executive Mansion on Capitol
time is now to take a look at Square?
those efforts and consider what we can do better. These are all state-owned
buildings that have been included Our twenty years of experience on the Virginia Landmarks Regisis very valuable, but times are ter.
And they define the character
The role of the federal govern- of Virginia.
ment as the principal source of funds and programs has greatly di- Their preservation is a mark of
minished in the last five years, our sense of identity, an indication of how we see ourselves, an How should we adapt? acknowledgement of our context.
How can Virginia, having reach- But preservation is not revered the age of matur ity in the ence.
preservation program, assume its rightful responsibilities in pre- We do not preserve these and
serving its own historical sites other historical resources to conas well as fostering a healthy trol or delimit the future.
sense of history in its local governments and private citizens? On the contrary, the future
presses on us so vigorously and in What tools are there at our so many tangible ways that mere disposal to make preservation eq- reverence for the past would beuitable, enlivening and educa- come what the early French called
tional? a "dead hand" weighing down and
oppressing the possibilities of How can we lead the private the future.
sector into even greater involvement in preservation and how can Preservation is, rather, a tool
we help make preservation prof- to manage change.
Change has been such a continuFirst and most clearly, preser- ous part of Virginia's history,
vation is necessary if we are to that preservation is an attempt to
hand over to our descendants the capture the overwhelming variety
sense of who they are, of our history and ourselves.
In some ways, William Faulkner But let me tell you a secret:
was correct when he wrote, "The Historic preservation is also ecopast is not dead; it's not even nomic development.

Historic districts, main street In particular, I ask that you
rehabilitations, historic land- submit preliminary findings and a
marks for tourism are just a few work plan to me and Secretary
ways that preservation helps pay Daniel by November 1st -- as the
for itself. Executive Order creating this body
requires -- and that you work exAnd those are also just a few peditiously to provide your final
ways that preservation enlivens recommendations during 1988.
the future.
And let me or any of my staff As you take up your task today know how we can assist you.
and for the coming year, I would like to ask you to consider what I am anxious to hear your evalthose twenty years of preservation uations and recommendations -- and
in Virginia have meant to the pre- grateful for your commitment to
sent. Virginia's heritage.
Then I would ask you to remem- Thank you very much.
ber that twenty years from now, in the year 2007, we will be celebrating the 400th anniversary of the establishment of Jamestown, the first permanent European (sic, English) settlement in America.
During that great celebration, we should all be able to look back and see how much of the work of this Commission contributed to preserving those historical treasures of Virginia that genuinely characterize its rich 400-year history.
Think how meaningful that celebration will be for all of us because of what you could begin accomplishing today.
Then consider how your work to guide our preservation of our past will touch the future.
Yours is an important task and I wish you well.
Your success will1 mean that Virginia is, after twenty short years, back in the forefront of our nation's historic preservation efforts.
I would ask you, Mr. Chairman, to keep me informed of your progress.

Tori Dean Chambers
Abstract 1988, while a barn was being constructed. Records search for
Over the last two years (1986- American Indian activity in Marion
88) two American Indian artifacts County indicates a history of many ("arrowheads") have been found on tribes, including Timucua,
the property of F.W. Chambers, Jr., Seminole, Ocale and Acuera, formerin north Marion County, Florida. ly living in this area (Swanton
The finding of the artifacts has 1946; Ott and Chazal 1986).
raised the questions what tribe and
use was made of the property, and Property potential for American
by dating the artifacts to see what Indian activity: In 1539, deSoto year the Indians may have been reported that the Timucua tribe was
present. An archaeological dig was located along the Oklawaha River, used to obtain additional artifacts and that the Acuera and Ocale to answer these questions and to tribes lived within two days travel
understand the previous uses of the of their location which is thought property. The results are present- to be where the city of Ocala is ed in this report, today (Swanton 1946). About 1695,
Oconee Indians migrated from
Definition: Archaeology Georgia to Florida and located on
the Alachua Prairie. In 1778, a
The scientific study of material second migration of Indians, the remains (such as fossil relics, Muskogees, moved into the Marion
artifacts, and monuments) of past County area. As the tribes merged,
human life and activities they collectively became known as
(Webster's New Collegiate Diction- the Seminole. The Seminole language
ary 1981). "Archaeology in the is based on the Creek Indian lanMaking" (1976) by P.E. Cleator pro- guage (Swanton 1946; Ott and Chazal vided additional reading on this 1986).
subject. Many of the roads we use today
follow the same Indian trails and
Hypothesis military roads shown on the Seat of
War in Florida (1836) map partially
The Seminole tribe used the pro- reproduced in Figure 1. Some of
perty of F.W. Chambers Jr. located these trails and roads pass by the
in north Marion County, Florida for F.W. Chambers property and lead to hunting between 1778-1842. Orange Lake where Indian sites are
known to occur. The Indians would
Background Research have passed by and through the
property while hunting for food.
Previous finds : Two American
Indian arrowheads were found on the Background Research Conclusions
property of F.W. Chambers Jr. in
north Marion County, Florida. The Based on the above information,
first complete arrowhead was found we know that Indians lived in
in the summer of 1986. The second Marion County from 1539 up until arrowhead was found in January of 1842 when the Seminole Indians were

I29~1N si 2 ,7Oldi
~- 1*'~ / ~ OrageLaickLe
FtIJtfI~. 'm. I tflrnAL
evJ7 ' sZ1 c'ap
I (f
N~~ It.*- *
41f. -A -W % Fort
Wnr -3o:c
- IA. Z*V%
Al e 0J025
0 4, JA~
- -p
If* kAt
"loop I -o/.
Flria. Th p h ow tals frsn svilae duighheemnl
locate in presen day Ocla

unjustly relocated to Oklahoma in January of 1988 (Figure 2).
(Walton 1977; Cohen 1964). Two of the famous Indian chiefs were 3) The following materials and
Osceola and Emathala who was killed equipment were collected to use
by Osceola. The portion of the 1836 during the dig:
map reproduced in Figure 1 shows the location of Indian trails and Round point shovel
villages, and military roads and Square point Shovel
forts in the Ocala area. Rake
Wheel barrow
Project Hypothesis Post hole diggers
Gross screen (1" by 1" holes) Between 1778 and 1842, the Amer- Fine screen (1/2" by 1/2" holes)
ican Indian, Seminole tribe hunted Hammer
on what is today the property of Poleroid 600 Camera
F.W. Chambers Jr. in northern 35mm Camera Marion County, Florida. In order Claw
to prove this hypothesis the fol- Hoe
lowing actions are necessary: Trowel
Plastic basin
1) more artifacts will need to be Leather gloves
found and compared to the two 25 ft. measuring tape arrowheads already recovered; and, Nails
Yellow string
2) the two arrowheads and any excavated artifacts will need to be 4) An excavation grid was prepared
identified and dated using a by putting four corner posts to systematic method of finding, com- make a rectangle 10 feet wide by 15
paring and dating artifacts, feet long. Yellow string was tied
on the posts to mark the outside Procedure edge of the dig site. Grid stakes
were placed every five feet around The scientific method was used the outside edge and yellow string
in this project. The scientific was used to connect them. This
method is defined as the principles made six five foot squares (Figures
and procedures for the systematic 3 and 4a-c)
pursuit of knowledge involving the recognition and formulation of a 5) The grid activities included the
problem, the collection of data following excavation of dirt from
through observation and experiment, each of the grid sections to the
and the formulation and testing of depth shown:
a hypothesis (The World Book Encyclopedia 1977) Unit A: 12" wide by 10' long by
12" deep L-shaped trench along the The following steps were follow- West and North sides of the grid
ed in this project: unit (Figure 4d-e) ; and 48" core
hole (Figure 4f) ;
1) The scientific method was used to test my hypothesis through a Unit B: Surface search only;
systematic archaeological dig to search for artifacts to compare to Unit C: 6" deep search of square;
the previous artifact finds.
Unit D" 1" deep rake search of 2) The selected dig site lies half square;
way between the first find in the summer of 1986, and the second find Unit E: 4" deep search of square;

*- --- p L st~
.0 So ET 1 '313.40OSE
A1 .
*t / b
Ci47.*18 ACRE r Eee r n
c s 2 8*27*48" E -7 2- .__ _-___ ._/
/SS 89*0 3556" E
3 2. 71'
N O t2 9 3 2 E
OO0 2 i0. 00
S69*035 5 6 ESET 32 L206o
I~~ 0c0.O 29" 2" E 160 OO"

5 A B 7 E
Figure 3. Archeological dig grid plan, with notes on excavation


Unit F: 2" deep rake search of 2) Flint was utilized in the maksquare. ing of arrowheads. However, flint
does not naturally occur in the 6) The excavated dirt was first site soil.
sifted through a gross screen with l" x i" holes, then sifted through 3) Non-useful finds included
a fine screen with 1/2" x 1/2" asphalt, which was manufactured on
holes. All solid rock like the Chambers property twenty years
material was removed, ago in the construction of U.S.
7) The material removed from the screens was marked with the grid 4) Flint was found at all depths
letter and assigned a number. The of the shallow excavations, includletter and number showed the grid ing the top six inches of the four
location and depth of the foot deep core hole. No flint was excavation, found below the six inch mark in
the core hole. This indicates most 8) The Marion County area soils flint and arrowhead finds will be
survey indicates that a type soil from a six inch depth to the
known as Kendrick (KeB; a sandy, surface.
clay, loam) exists on the Chambers property. This soil is not known 5) No arrowheads or pieces of
for hard minerals, like flint used arrowheads were found in the
in the making of arrowheads. The excavation units. sandy type soil ranges to a depth of 72 inches (United States Comparison of Finds
Department of Agriculture, Soil C
Conservation Service 1979). The previous finds which stimulated this research project were 9) The materials found were compared to the grid excavation
washed, cleaned and examined for finds and to research information.
comparison to the previous finds.
1) The comparison of the previous Artifacts Recovered by Grid Section finds to the grid site finds only shows that the material is flint Grid Excavation Quantity/Material which does not naturally occur on
the property.
A 12 inches 2 Flint;4 Asphalt 2) Comparison of the previous A 48 inches I Flint;3 Asphalt finds of the arrowheads to research
i nformation from Mr. Ripley P. B Surface 2 Flint Bullen's "A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile C 6 inches 2 Flint;2 Asphalt Points" (1975) shows that the previous finds are not arrowheads, but D 1 in. rake 1 Flint;7 Asphalt are spear heads. The length, width,
and thickness are the same as found E 4 inches 2 Flint;7 Asphalt in Florida Archaic Stemmed projectiles. The subtype that appears to F 2 in. rake 2 Flint;2 Asphalt be the same as the previous finds
is the Alachua. The Alachua,
Summary of Findings Florida Archaic Stemmed projectiles
were made over several thousand 1) Flint was found in all grid years, 5000-1000 B.C. Mr. Bullen
sections. says in the introduction that the

projectile may have been used Test Results: The dating of the between A.D. 200-1250 because of spear points from 5000 to 1000
the Indians collecting and reusing B.C., does not support the hypothe old spear points which are the thesis. The research information
most common type projectile points with the previous finds and the dig
found in Florida. finds indicates that American
Indians used the Chambers property
Conclusions for preparing spear points. However, no artifacts were found that
A) The "arrowheads" previously could show that the Seminole
found are not arrowheads, but are Indians used the property between
spear points. The spears were 1778 and 1842. Most likely, the
thrown or propelled by atlatls or Timucua Indians or Indians that
spear throwers. lived in this area prior to the
arrival of the Timucuas made the
B) The previously found spear spear points. A new hypothesis and points were made between 5000 and dig experiment would have to be
1000 B.C. and re-used by collector conducted to try and reach concluIndians between the year 200 and sions on who and when the Chambers
1250 A.D. property was occupied.
C) The flint found on the Chambers Acknowledgements
property did NOT naturally occur
there. I wish to thank Mr. John Westol,
Class 6A Science teacher, at the
D) There is a large amount of St. John Lutheran Scool for being
flint pieces on the Chambers pro- the sponsoring teacher for this
perty as shown by the excavation project. I also wish give special
finds. acknowledgement to Bill and Maureen
Chambers for their help in selecE) The large amount of flint tion of the publications used in pieces and the two spear points this project, interpretation of
show that Indians chipped spear maps, digging, help with the word points on the property and most processor, and proof reading.
likely hunted on the property.
References Cited
F) The American Indians who made
the spear points were not the Bullen, Ripley P.
Seminole Indians, since they did 1975 A Guide to the Identificanot become a tribe until after tion of Florida Projectile
1778. Points. Kendall Books,
Gainesville, Florida.
G) The American Indians who used
the spear points and chipped new Cleator, P. E.
spear points were the Timucua or 1976 Archaeology in the Making.
the Indians that lived in the area St. Martins Press, N.Y.
before the Timucua.
Cohen, M. M.
Test of the Hypothesis 1964 Notices of Florida and the
Campaigns. University of
Hypothesis: The American Indian, Florida, Gainesville.
Seminole tribe, used the property
of F.W. Chambers, Jr. located in Field Enterprises Educational Corp.
north Marion County, Florida for 1977 The World Book Encyclopehunting between 1778-1842. dia. Chicago.

Merriam, G. & C., Company United States Department of Agri1981 Webster's New Collegiate culture, Soil Conservation Service
Dictionary, 150th Anniver- 1979 Soil Survey of Marion
sary Edition. Springfield. County, Florida.
Ott, Eloise Robinson and Louis Walton, George Hickman Chazal 1977 Fearless and Free, The
1986 Ocali County, Kingdom of Seminole Indian War 1835the Sun, Third Edition. 1842. The Bobbs-Merrill
Greene's Printing, Inc., Company, Inc., New York.
Ocala, Florida.
Swanton, John R. Tori Dean Chambers
1946 The Indians of the South- P.O. Box 255
eastern United States. Reddick, FL 32686
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 137. U.S.
Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C.
The preceding report by Tori show evidence of unsupervised exDean Chambers is a slightly re- cavation. Any exhibit involving
vised version of her submission to excavation must be accompanied by:
the Annual Florida State Science a. A certificate attesting that
and Engineering Fair. This revi- the work was conducted under qualsion omits over half of the pho- ified supervision, including the
tographs and some of the figures names and addresses of the superincluded in the original submis- visors, or
sion. Other revisions were simply b. A statement that the excavato make formatting and reference tion was done as salvage in the
citation changes needed to conform face of immediate highway or
to the journal's style. Editing building destruction of the site,
was otherwise intentionally kept or
to a minimum and remains essen- c. Explicit evidence that any
tially true to Ms. Chambers' orig- needed permits were obtained and
inal presentation. Ms. Chambers all necessary records made, or
was in the sixth grade when she d. Evidence that a summary of the
conducted her study and prepared excavation has been submitted to
her report. one or more of the following:
The State Science and Engineer- 1. Florida Anthropological Society
ing Fair (SSEF) is conducted under 2. Florida State Museum, Gainesthe auspices of the Florida Foun- ville
dation for Future Scientists, 111 3. Division of Archives and HisNorman Hall, University of tory, Tallahassee (Note: now known Florida, Gainesville, Florida as the Division of Historical 32611. The General Rules and Reg- Resources)
ulations for SSEF include the fol- 4. Departments of Anthropology at
lowing provisions: State Universities.
Ms. Chambers work satisfied
Research Involving Special Regula- three of the above conditions: btions for Florida Fairs d. Her work was conducted as sal1. Archeological exhibits will not vage in the face of farm structure
be accepted where such exhibits construction on the site. She

contacted the Florida Department and as participant in the Sociof State, Division of Historical ety's annual meeting, the Society
Resources, Bureau of Historic is initiating a scholarship awards
Preservation, Compliance Review program in anthropology and arSection to inquire what permits or chaeology. Notice of this program
other permissions would be needed was provided to Florida's Commisfor a project such as hers. It sioner of Education, Betty Castor,
was determined that 1) since the and her response is included bework was on private property, and low. For further information on
2) since the work did not involve the Society's scholarship awards
property which would be the sub- program, please write to the Sociject of a project involving fed- ety's President whose address aperal funding, loan guarantees, li- pears in Commissioner Castor's
censes, permits or any other in- letter.
volvement be a federal agency, and It is hoped that the publica3) since it was not part of a de- tion of both Ms. Chambers'
velopment of regional impact, did "Archaeological Experiment Dig Renot involve wetlands subject to port" and the "Could Prehistoric
the permitting authority of the Indians Have Used Gar Oil as an
Department of Environmental Regu- Insect Repellent" report (which
lation, nor any project funded or follows) by Lynn McKee's fourth
assisted by a state agency in the grade class will serve as examples
executive branch, and 4) since it for other students and their
was not in any area subject to a teachers. The future of the past
local archaeological ordinance, depends on what our students are
and 5) since it did not involve taught and learn.
any prehistoric or historic human
burial sites, that there were no federal, state or local historic Louis D. Tesar, Editor
preservation laws, regulations or The Florida Anthropologist
ordinances applicable to her dig P.O. Box 1013
project. Finally, copies of Ms. Tallahassee, FL 32302-10-13
Chambers Science Fair report were received by the Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research (and placed in the research report files of the Florida Master Site File) and by the Florida Anthropological Society. Both agencies greatfully
acknowledged receipt, and those who saw it recommended that recommended that it be considered for publication in The Florida Anthropologist.
The Florida Anthropological Society actively encourages the youth of Florida and surrounding states to become more involved in learning about the prehistoric and historic heritage of the areas in which they live. To encourage greater student participation in
the State Science and Engineering Fair, as members of our many chapters around the State of Florida,

Betty Castor February 29, 1988
Commissioner of Education Page Two
Should you wish to di
directly to each of
enclosed for your use.
February 29, 1988
Thank you again for y
high school students.
Mr. Harold D. Cardwell
Florida Anthropological Society
1343 Woodbine Street
Daytona Beach, Florida 32014
Dear Mr. Cardwell:
Thank you for your announcement of the 1989 scholarship awards program in anthropology and archaeology. I am pleased that the Florida Enclosure
Anthropological Society is participating in the Department of Education's
goal to promote a climate of excellence in education by rewarding student achievement. Educational partnerships with foundations like yours establish and strengthen networks of supportive organizations for the benefit of Florida's youth.
Although there is no formal course in anthropology or archaeology in the high school science curriculum, there is a course in the social studies area, 2101300: Anthropology. Mr. Tom Dunthorn, Social Studies Consultant, Knott Building, Tallahassee, Florida 32399, can provide you with further information about the course. His telephone number
is 904/488-1701. In addition, there is a category in the Florida State Science and Engineering Fair in which there are often projects in archaeology and anthropology. Dr. Betty Abbott of the Florida Foundation for Future Scientists suggested that your organization might serve as judges for these projects and present the awards to the winning students. Dr. Abbott's address is 111 Norman Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. Her telephone number is 904/392-2310.

(Lynn McKee is a member of the We baked a garfish and collected Broward County Archaeological the oil. We coated the side of Society, a chapter of the Florida the screen labeled oil with
Anthropological Society. She gar oil. When the mosquitos
teaches fourth grade at Coral hatched, we counted how many Springs Elementary School. Her mosquitos landed on the control
and her class' report, which fol- side and how many on the oil side
lows, was originally published in in 30 second trials. Each team
the chapter's newsletter, The did 10 trials. Voice Of The Turtle. It was rec- WHAT WE FOUND OUT: For all the
ommended for reprinting here to trials, 204 mosquitos landed on
make the results of this study the control side and 70 on the oil
available to our Society's read- side. One team had almost all
ers. It serves as an example of their mosquitos land on the oil
how studying the past can provide side in the first trial. They
useful information for the pre- couldn't do a second trial because
sent.) all of their mosquitos died after
touching the oil. So, our conclusion was that the gar oil could have been used as a mosquito reMy fourth grade class went on a pellent. We also decided that it mini-dig (baggies of soil and should be tested on humans and
spoil). Their observations led against other oils and repellents.
them to do this science project. We won a Superior at the
WHY WE DID THIS EXPERIMENT: We Broward County Science Fair (that did it because we kept finding is the best that you can get) and
some shiny things in our samples. a Special Award.
When we asked about them, Mrs. McKee told us they were garfish scales. We asked about the
garfish and found out that he was hard, oily and not usually a choice to eat. So why were there
so many? After learning about and discussing how the Indians lived, we knew that insects had to be a problem. How did they keep the mosquitos and bugs off? Did they use the oil from the garfish?
HOW WE DID IT: First we built 10 mosquito traps (1 trap for each team of 3) from shoe boxes with screening over the top. We drew a line down the middle of the screening and wrote control on one side and oil on the other. We put mosquito larvae through a trap door in the box and sealed it up.

Frank Howard and Susan Sapronetti
Lifelong interests in both the coastal property. In this layer
discovery and the preservation of of fill a number of potsherds were
things historic has pervaded our discovered as waterpipes were inmany treks into various areas of stalled and other ground work comthe southeastern United States. pleted on the property. Also, at There have been times when the periods of low tide, many large size or significance of a find pottery sherds were recovered from prompts notification of some au- the tidal wash on both the side of
thority. One such find (in 1982) the canal and some 12 meters away
which prompted a call to the along the drainage ditch which
Florida Division of Historical crosses the end of the canal
Resources is described below. (Figure 1).
The call to report this find At various intervals over the
evoked a response indicating a next few months approximately two
lack of interest due to the area cubic feet of potsherds were colhaving been disturbed twice in the lected and sorted. During one of
past by dredging. (Editor's Note: these collecting forays, after a
As the administrator of the Coin- storm had caused damage to the
pliance Review Section of the canal and ditch walls, two feaDivision of Historical Resources, tures were noticed: a large clay
clarification of the preceding deposit and a small distinct layer
statement is in order. Our of coarse silica sand.
agency, under such circumstances, Most of the sherds came from
would not have expressed disinter- two separate small areas only 3-4
est in the find. Rather, we would meters apart along the ditch and
have noted that, given the re- 8-10 meters along the canal. Beported extensive site disturbance tween these two sites a deposit of
and the limited nature of the find clay, the first feature, was exdescribed to us, the find was un- posed some 4.5 meters along the
likely to be determined eligible ditch bank (approximately one mefor listing in the National Regis- ter thick at the thickest part)
ter of Historic Places. Thus, we and one meter by one third meter
would have had no procedural along the canal side. Inspection
grounds for recommending that the of several samples showed the clay
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to contain a high percentage of
and/or the Florida Department of both tiny (<5 mm) pottery fragEnvironmental Regulation order ments and coarse (>0.5 mm) quartz
dredging or other jurisdictional sand grains. Simple washing of
work to stop or be modified to clay samples taken from different
preserve the few remaining site locations within the clay feature
features which had been reported.) yielded an approximate average of
Nevertheless, the material and 20% coarse sand/pottery fragments
features found seemed worthy of and 16% fine (<0.5 mm) sand/
some attempt at preservation and pottery fragments.
notation The second feature was a thin
Spoil dredged from the adjacent band of coarse sand 1.5 meters
canal was used as fill on recently along the canal and a similar band
acquired Wakulla County, Florida along the ditch bank. These sand

Clay-mix feature:
Principal potsherd locations: x
Coarse sand feature:
Figure 1. Representation of the site showing relative locations
of clay-mix and potsherds. Viewed facing North. co

features were observed in posi- varieties) Incised wares incld
tions below and adjacent to the an unusual beaker (Figure 6)
clay feature. Also found were sherds fromthe
Most of the sherds found are different vessels which appeart
grog and coarse sand tempered, and have unfinished surfaces. Th
have a dark core with what appears ceramics are from the EarlyLen
to be a light tan slip the re- Jefferson period, and do not so
sult of a low oxidizing fire, any evidence of Spanish influec
Also found were fine sand tempered in the form of copy ware (Loi
sherds, reddish colored sherds, Tesar 1988 personal communia
orange surfaced and white surfaced tion),
dark cored sherds. Most of the Among the sherds, lumpso
sherds are from plain undecorated charcoal, bone fragments, lumpso
vessels ranging from shallow, wak- partially fired clay-mix for mk
like bowls with thin lips (Figure ing ceramics,, and flakes ofchr
2) to simple, thick lipped bowls. were found. One piece of fosi
others are small Ft. Walton Plain bone, 14 x 5 x 3 cm, wasfon
and Ft. Walton Incised bowls with among the potsherd stacks with h
rim lugs, and a few with loop han- 3 cm face of smoothed open cancl
dles (Figures 3 and 4). Leon bous bone filled with the cerai
Check Stamped and Jefferson Ware clay-mix.
(both diamond (Figure 5) and In 1984, after a storm had e
curvilinear complicated stamped moved much of the clay featue

Figure 3. Pottery shapes found at the site,

iii~ i~ iiiliiiiliiiiiil !....... .......
Figure 5. Jefferson Ware (diamond stamped) vessel.
Figure 6. Beaker, incised punctate (8.5 cm base diameter).

several clusters or "stacks" of Acknowledgements
sherds were exposed. Noting that some of the stacks consisted of This paper was prepared at the
parts of broken individual ves- suggestion and encouragement of
sels, efforts were made to collect Gary Shapiro (former Director of
sherds immediately below the sur- Archaeology, San Luis Archaeologiface to recover the entire stack. cal Site) and Rochelle Marrinan
Four vessels have been assembled (Department of Anthropology,
from the sherds collected at that Florida State University).
time: two plain round bottomed bowls, one Jefferson Ware (diamond stamped, Figure 5), and one in- Frank D. Howard
cised beaker (Figure 6). 101 East Sinclair Drive
A small spring exists some 200 Tallahassee, FL 32312
meters away, where it was cut into by the dredging process which Susan H. Sapronetti
formed the ditch. It is possible 5652 Nature Lane
that this spring fed a stream, the Tallahassee, FL 32303
bed of which is now marked by the thin layer of coarse sand. The
largest number of sherds were exposed on top of the sand layer along the sides of the clay feature. The position and proximity of many of the potsherd stacks
suggests utilizing potsherds for
clay containment (along the sides and bottom) The volume of clay mix seems to indicate a large amount of pottery to be made.
The manner in which the potsherds were collected (most as
they were exposed by tidal action) allows no more than speculation as
to why sherds from different types are found together. For instance, why did the feature near the road contain mostly plain potsherds,
while that on the lot had mostly decorated potsherds? (see Figure 1). From our observations and the sheer volume and consistency of the clay mix exposed, the writers are of the opinion this site is one where pottery was formed and was in use over a period of time.
The significance of the information provided by our observations and the artifacts collected may appear small, but when put in context with the many other findings in this area may be of value in completing an overall picture of the prehistory and history of this area of Florida.

Marilyn A. Masson
Abstract caused an unfortunate lack of reliable vertical provenience for most
A definition of shell celt use- of the shell celts recovered, and
related wear and breakage patterns prohibits diachronic comparisons.
is presented, applying theory and Both sites had occupation and burial
terminology borrowed from lithic components, and spanned a period of
research. Shell celt morphology is time stretching from the Archaic defined, and manufacture and use are through Glades III. The Cheetum
discussed from an experimental pers- site had an earlier burial component pective. Impact breakage and wear with radiocarbon dates of 4020370
parallels between stone and shell B.P. and 5120+160 B.P. (Newman
celts imply use parallels. Impacts 1986). The earliest radiocarbon
observed on the artifacts indicate date from the Flagami site was 1500
intensive use on resistant material, B.C. (Carr 1981). The Cheetum and supporting the assumption that shell Flagami sites yielded shell celts celts were used as woodworking throughout their 5,000 and 2,000
tools. In addition to type of use, year sequences respectively, and
factors which determine the impacts some of these artifacts were found
observed on shell celts are the in proximity of burials.
degree of alteration of asymmetric
properties of the raw material and Previous Research
the duration of tool use. A sample
of 251 shell celts and celt frag- Shell celts from southeast Floriments was used for the analysis. da represent a regional adaptation
to queen conch (Strombus gigas), a
Introduction resource which is abundant on the
southeast coast of Florida and the
Shell celts from the Cheetum site Caribbean (Abbott 1974). Eaton
(8DA1058) and the Flagami site (1974) documents a similar adapta(8DA1053) formed the sample examined tion to milk conch (Strombus in the analysis. These sites were costatus) resources for shell celt
located in two different prehistoric manufacture on the west and north environmental settings in the Ever- coasts of the Yucatan. Mokry (1980)
glades Archaeological Area (Carr and describes Busycon shell adzes from
Beriault 1984). The Cheetum site Texas. Many have explained shell
was located on a former Everglades resource exploitation as an adaptatree island (Newman 1986). The Fla- tion to the lack of lithic resources
gami site was situated on part of (Laxson 1964; Eaton 1974; Rosenthal
the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in an 1977; Mokry 1980; Steele 1988;
ecotone bordering the Everglades Hester and Dreiss 1985 and others).
near the former headwaters of the The use of shell resources is
Miami River (Carr 1981 and 1988). widely documented in the Gulf of
Site locations are shown on Figure Mexico, the Caribbean (Hester and
1. Both sites are now destroyed. Dreiss 1985) and in South America
The stratigraphy of both the Chee- (Anderson 1975). Such widespread
tumn and Flagami sites was disturbed use is best explained as independent prior to salvage excavation and adaptation in regions void of suitasubsequent site destruction by deve- ble lithic raw materials. Specific
lopment. This circumstance has gravity experiments performed on

314Fg Location, I 0 of
8DAI05 and 80D105B (map reproduceD
from Carr and Reiger 190:6n).
x DA1058
Everglades Atlantic Biscayne Atlantic
Coastal Bay Ocean
shell celts determined that they tine, Hatfield and.Hood (1986:119)
have a density comparable to modera- note the absence of whelk hammer tely compacted stone (Eaton 1987). tools where Strombus gigas was avaiThis supports the concept that they lable. Reiger (1979a) suggests that are a useful stone replacement Mercenaria campechiensis tools and material. Busycon contrarium adzes replaced
The use of shell resources is Strombus costatus tools. Increased
complicated by varying availability recycling of tools made from Stromof different shell species due to bus gigas is observed on the Florida
changing coastal econiches, as west coast where this species is not
Steele (1988) documents for the available (Reiger 1979b). A regioTexas coast. Florida archaeologists nal variation in shell celt material have explained substitution of shell in southern Florida is noted by tool types in terms of available Willey (1949), who identifies celts
resources. Luer, Allerton, Hazel- made from both Strombus gigas and

Busycon contrarium from "Belle gical characteristics of the tool. Glade" sites as opposed to only Terminology is borrowed from lithic
Strombus gigas celts found at "Dade- analysis. Figure 2 illustrates the Broward" sites. Except for 7 Strom- areas of the tool defined below. bus costatus specimens and 5 uniden- The ventral surface of the shell
tified specimens, the remaining 239 celt, the former interior surface of celts from the Cheetum and Flagami the conch shell lip, is concave,
sites were identified as Strombus smooth and shiny. The dorsal surgigas, conforming to Willey's obser- face, the former exterior of the vations for Dade County. conch lip, is convex, rough and
ridged. The left and right lateral
Celt Definition edges are the sides of the celt as
viewed on a flat surface, ventral
Previous studies focusing on shell surface up and distal end placed celt technology are few. Some of away from the viewer. The left the Flagami celts examined here were lateral edge is thicker than the described by Allerton (1981). Eaton right, unless otherwise modified. (1974) published a pioneer study on The distal end of the tool is the shell celt technology of the Yucate- wider end, where the cutting edge is can Maya. Laxson (1964) examined located. The cutting edge is termed shell celts from southeast Florida, the bit, which has a ventral and discerning four categories of Strom- dorsal bevel. The proximal end of bus gigas "lip tools"; adzes, axes, the tool is the narrower end, or the blanks, and scrapers. While blanks base of the celt. The longitudinal
were recognized from the Cheetum and direction refers to the direction Flagami collections, adzes, axes and paralleling the long axis of the scrapers were not distinguished. tool, usually from distal to proxiWhere observable, the edges of the mal. The latitudinal direction is artifacts were ground bifacially, a perpendicular to the longitudinal characteristic which distinguishes a direction, from lateral edge toward celt from an adze, which has a uni- lateral edge. facial edge (Eaton 1974). As Carr Measurements were taken at several
and Reiger (1980) and Goggin (1949) locations, described below. Measureobserve, many celts exhibit an adze- ment distributions are displayed in like profile, usually with pronoun- Figures 3-7, and a sample of the ced concavity behind the cutting artifact analysis sheet listing
edge. As Eaton observes, the shell measurements and impacts is given in celt is effective in performing a Figure 8. Length refers to the long
variety of tasks, which include axis of the tool. Width refers to
adzing and scraping, but exclusive the maximum breadth of the tool,
adze or scraper tools were not perpendicular to the length.
functionally defined in his work or Thickness measures the maximum proin this study. By definition a celt files of the left and right lateral is "an axe without grooves or perfo- edges, usually at the point of rations for hafting" (Eaton 1974), greatest width. The edge angle is
and only seven of the Cheetum and formed by the bit, where ventral and
Flagami specimens exhibit such dorsal bevels are intact. grooves. Many of the celts were
hafted, however. This is indicated Post-Depositional Modification
by haft wear observed on the specimens, and by the increased efficien- Forty of the Cheetum and Flagami
cy of hafted tools. celts exhibited a form of postdepositional deterioration termed
Morphology leaching (Allerton 1981), which
occurs in degrees from moderate to
Before describing shell celt manu- severe. Artifacts in this condition facture, breakage and wear patterns, have had their calcium carbonates it is necessary to define morpholo- leached out due to the effect of

Ventr Bit
Left Righ
Dorsal Lat ral L teral Profile of Right Lateral Edge
Edg E ge
Right D Left
Dorsal Axial Profile
Proximal Figure 2. Morphology of Strombus
Plan view ventral side up gigas Shell Celt
DtetrtbutLon of Celt Lengths 12.00
o 6.00
4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 Length (cms.) Figure 3. Distribution of Celt
L lengths. The var bility ma.y be
related to changing availability of large conchs over time.

Distr IbutLon of Colt W.JdthDitbuonoLf.Thces 45.00 50.0040.00 45.0035.00-40.0035.000
3:35.00 30.000
UO 25.000 o 25.00L L
S20.00E E
33 20.00z z
15.0015.0010.0010.005.00- 5.000.00 1 0.002.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 0.00 0.40 08 .0 16 .0 24
W.Jidth of Colts (ems.) etLn ~r
Figj-u r D1 ti ri ~ut ion of CceI Fig urc 5. Ditiuto0f c
th *-wo clustnrsc &arc-- n( -,>, ~t Thi c Corn c to ciue6
5 0 c ms mi .5 isn~ t,0 1o in cr.&e 2h s of te ltf
of- Stomu giJ h
*... -D'- t -Anb

D istr ibutLLon of Right hcns tfrnoo n Th cknesses
60.00 60.0050.00- 50.0040.00- 40.0001
0 0
30.00- 6 30.00L L
20.00- 20.0010.00- 10.000. 00 i0.00
0.00 0.40 0.80 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.40 0.00 0.40 08 .0 16 .0 24
Cen t Line torsCot i.or
Fig ur 0. ci'r>V :~o IY FicU T 7. Dffrns 'tcnL
-he decreas-ni t h i klm 'Q ecn~o a,+;*v :eaoIo
right s i? 1" of 3t ro mb us gi g s she Icol-t s i n i.- h e s irfotn

Figur e 8. Shell Celt Analysis 319
Form. This model was used to tabulate character istics, impacts, a nd m e a s u em e nts o n th. C hetumFlagami sample.
costatus other
petulant rectangular grooved undeterminable spire margin whole
L longitudinal.
L D. impact scar
D. battering dulling P. battering D. nick/edge break L longit. split.
L D. diag. break
L P. diag. break R
I V peeling/pocking
L lat. edge wear
........ ...intact bit
I i ....... ... pow d e ring ... .
I J .. ... .. .. .... ...............c o n c r e t i o n ""J Ii length
I i width ...
! i L thickness

humic acids and groundwater in the Experiments conducted with the
soil. The tool's surface is white assistance of Jim Masson
and has a chalky texture, and wear demonstrated ways to remove the
patterns are eroded and hard to conch lip without imported matediscern. rials. Slamming the shell, aperture
Seventeen celts from the Cheetum down, onto local limerock achieves
site were partially covered in con- removal of the lip. Slamming conch
cretion. Concretion is formed by shells against each other also
the cementing of subsurface soils to accomplishes this task, with a bit a solidified state due to water more practice. Reiger (1979:134)
action. The soil attaches to the suggests that lateral edges of shell celts, encasing them and making celts may have been used in reducaccurate measurements impossible, tion processes of shell tool manuAnother form of non-cultural facture. The Cheetum-Flagami sample impact observed was peeling of the contained several specimens with
ventral surface of 20 of the celts. battered lateral edges, which may
It appeared as the removal of some represent this type of use. Columof the growth layers on this smooth nella hammers could also have served
side of the tool. as percussion instruments for lip
removal. Whatever the choice of lip
Manufacture Replication removal methods, most important is
that the blows concentrate at the
Experiments were conducted to point of strongest binding, where replicate the manufacturing process the spire margin canal attaches the
of Strombus gigas shell celts, using lip to the whorl at the shell's Eaton (1974) as a precedent. The posterior end. process involves two major steps, Debitage produced in celt blank
removing the lip from the shell to removal consists of a few irregular
produce a blank, and subsequent chips, micro-dust debris and the
modification to shape a completed lipless conch. The chip debris is celt. not distinguishable from other shell
debris and therefore, would be
Blank Removal impossible to identify archaeologically unless it was associated with
Detaching lips of conch shells celt blanks or the lipless conchs.
can be accomplished several ways. Shell celt blanks are recognizable
Shell working by percussion, pres- artifacts. Due to the amount of
sure flaking, and cutting are dis- directed force required to achieve
cussed for a variety of shell im- the conch lip removal, it is unlikeplements by Suarez (1974). Litera- ly that natural forces could produce
ture on blank removal from molluscs celt blanks, contrary to MacLaury's
is discussed by Mokry (1980) and (1968) assertion that nature could
Hester and Dreiss (1985) and two produce celts. A celt blank is
methods are summarized: the percus- characterized by its shaped
sion and the sawing method. Eaton appearance, rough edges, and an
(1974) removed the lip of Strombus intact portion of the spire margin costatus shells by percussion canal, located on the right proximal
strokes with a hammerstone to the lateral area of the artifact (Figure
exterior of the shell. Both per- 9). Six blanks were identified from
cussion and sawing methods were used the Cheetum-Flagami sample, of which
to produce celt blanks at the Chee- two were partially filed. A cache
trnm and Flagami sites. Blank remo- of three identical blanks, FS #1525,
val is illustrated in Figure 9. was found at the Cheetum site
Hammerstones which may have been (Figure 10).
used as percussor instruments in the Shaping the blank into a finished
removal of conch lips have been tool involves further light percusfound on sites in southeast Florida sion shaping of the tool followed by
(Carr 1987). They are usually made grinding of the edges and bit into of non-local materials, final form. The spire margin canal

Proximal Location of
Margin Canal
Figure 9. Removal ofI Celt Blank.
Figure 10. Celt Blank Cache from
the Cheetum site (8Dal058).

is difficult to remove, and requires prior to the lateral edges. Eaton's more grinding than other areas of Yucatecan sample revealed the reverthe tool. Finished celts invariably se, that the sides were ground
have this feature removed. Eaton first. As grinding is a
(1974) used percussion flaking to manufacturing process with a low
shape his blanks, describing the risk of failure, there was no
blanks as more "crushed than apparent reason not to grind the
flaked." Flaking of shell has been more time consuming bit first, and tried with some degree of success on the order may have been random. In clams (Cleghorn 1977, Rosenthal lithic technology the bit is 1977). Percussion shaping of Strom- sharpened last due to risks of
bus gigas blanks reduces the amount breakage during the thinning proof grinding needed to complete the cesses. A larger sample of incomtool. Grinding, though time consu- plete tools is needed to analyze
ming, was the method most employed patterns of manufacture.
in the sample.
Cutting was also a popular Use
manufacture technique. This method
for lip removal was more time con- Shell celts are believed to have
suming than percussion, but 47 celts functioned as woodworking tools were made in this labor-intensive (Laxson 1964), particularly in the
fashion. Local cutting materials manufacture of dugout canoes. Caavailable were shark teeth or a noes were essential to the south
combination of string and sand. Florida adaptation (Griffin 1974),
Imported flint was also available known from numerous ethnographic
for cutting purposes. The archaeo- accounts and a prehistoric toy model logical record has not provided recovered from Key Marco (Cushing
direct evidence for the use of flint 1897). An ethnographic reference or shark's teeth in shell working, (Hariot 1893) to shell tool use in
although Armistead (1949) reports dugout canoe manufacture in Virginia
the association of a chert "saw" directly connects the two (Painter
with grooved shell artifact. Hester 1968). and Dreiss (1986) suggest the use of A variety of tasks were probably
flint flakes for shell cutting. performed by shell celts. Eaton
Artifacts that may have been used (1974) discusses their effectiveness
to grind shell celts are found in in chipping, chopping, cleaving, sites in south Florida. A piece of adzing and scraping wood and bone. calcitic sandstone was found in a Laxson (1964) suggests they may have
shell celt cache (Carr and Reiger been used for butchering and hide
1980). Moore (1907) reported the working. Unfortunately, many of frequent occurrence of sandstone these functions do not leave behind
with shell tools in the Ten Thousand much evidence of use on the artiIslands. A local substitute for facts. Intensive and extensive use imported sandstone was limerock, for heavy tasks such as woodworking especially if used with water and left the most visible impacts obsersand. A limestone metate is repor- vable on the celts. ted from the Taylor' s Head site
(Masson and Goldman 1988). Grinding Hafting
is a slow process. It took Eaton
(1974) a day to grind one celt. It is probable that celts were
Pumice and coral abraders are also hafted. Eaton (1974) believes the frequently found on south Florida Yucatecan celts were hand held, but sites, and may have been used in acknowledges the increased effigrinding shell celts. Carr (pers. ciency of hafted models. The excomm. 1988) suggests that shark cessive impacts viewed on the skins could have been used to grind southeast Florida celts are unlikely
shell surfaces. to have occured in a hand held mode.
In the two incomplete celts in the Some suggested ways of hafting are sample the cutting edge was ground reproduced in Figure 11 (Holmes

1881, Eaton 1974, Shafer 1982). durability of the hafted Strombus
Besides impacts noted on the celts, gigas celt. Replication attempts
other evidence exists for hafting in failed to cause impact breakage south Florida. A wedge-type wooden during use to parallel impacts
haft handle was recovered from Key observed on the artifacts. A long Marco (Gilliland 1975:138 term quantified use replication exphotograph). A similar wedge haft periment would be useful for shell handle was recovered with a chert celts, in the manner of Lundberg's
celt in Northern Belize (Shafer and (1985) Strombus columella experiHester 1986). The placement of ments, or Dodd's (1979) work on
shell celt caches in vertical posi- battered lithic tools. Such a study
tions in Dade County suggests that was beyond the scope of work of this
they were once held upright by hafts paper.
that have decayed (Carr and Reiger Except for light nicks in the bit
1980). after chopping and adzing actiSome natural features seen in the vities, breakage was not
axial profile of shell celts (Figure accomplished in the experiments.
3) require that they interface with The celts continued to function with
haft handles in particular ways. A light impacts to the cutting edge. side-lashed haft requires that the The small chips that fell off of the
tool's dorsal surface face the han- celts in these activities would be
dle, as it is flat or slightly con- difficult to distinguish archaeolocave. The ventral surface is con- gically.
cave from this angle and rolls on Splitting and scarring occurred
the handle. Adze hafts such as the only after an intensive effort was "T" or "L" shaped styles (Holmes made to break the shell by applying
1881, Mokry 1980, Shafer 1982) arti- an extreme amount of force. Extreme culate best with the ventral surface force was probably not the way shell of the tool, as the haft appendage celts were used prehistorically,
parallels the longitudinal ridge considering the time invested in
found on this side. Additionally, their manufacture. Eaton peers .
the lateral profile of celts reveals comm. 1986) suggests that steady a convex shape of the dorsal surface tapping with a moderate amount of (Figure 2), which aids in adzing force could effectively accomplish
tasks. Kamminga (1979:141) discus- heavy tasks with little damage to ses the importance of a convex the tool. As splitting and scarring
undersurface in stone adzes. He are common forms of impact which did
also states that an adze should be not result from excessive force,
convex at the working edge in plan another explanation is offered. The
view, a condition met by shell tools probably experience a breakcelts. down of elasticity over time,
The strongest evidence for hafting causing them to become less resiof shell celts are the haft wear and lient and more easily broken. Elasgrooves visible on 43 artifacts in ticity in lithics is defined as "the the sample. Haft wear appears as property of stone to return to its slight indentations or worn areas on former state after being depressed the celt's lateral edges, in two or by application of force" (Crabtree four spots, shown in Figure 12. 1972:60). Prolonged use might cause These artifacts were probably lashed shell celts to lose this property. to the haft handle. The wedge haft While further experiments are of the type found at Key Marco necessary, they will probably con(Gilliland 1975) may have left lit- firm that older tools break more tle evidence of hafting on the celt, easily than newly made tools, as as it holds the implement through a newly made tools were difficult to hole in the handle's center. break in our experiments.
Use Replication Tool Design
Limited experiments tested the Tool design choices made by

prehistoric shell celt manufacturers surfaces and lateral edges to eliare reflected in the degree of alte- minate the natural asymmetry of
ration of crucial areas of the tool. conch lips involves an increased The amount of grinding of the edge time investment in tool manufacture,
angle, the lateral edges and the which results in more durable tools.
dorsal and ventral surfaces reflect A significant contributor to tool design choices. Alteration of these asymmetry is the increased thickness areas correlates with impacts obser- of the left side of the conch lip, ved on the artifacts, suggesting which is visible in the thickness
that increased investment in distributions shown in Figures 5 and manufacture results in increased 6. To examine the effect this
durability of the tool. unbalance had on impacts to the
celts, symmetric (altered) celts
Edge Angle were defined as those with lateral
edges ground to within 2 mm of each
Variation in edge angle does not other. Only 24.5% of 53 of these
reflect different tool functions, as celts exhibited distal impact scars the range of impacts are visible on or diagonal breaks, while 35.4% of the range of edge angles for the 124 asymmetric celts had some form sample (Table 1). Certain edge of impact. Symmetric celts appear to
angles were nonetheless better be less susceptible to impacts. The suited to specific tasks. Shafer difference between left and right
(1983) observes that edge angle thicknesses clustered around 5 mm
limits the tasks a stone tool can (Figure 7), indicating that this
perform, and Eaton's experiments degree of symmetry most frequently (1974) determined that an angle of satisfied shell celt manufacturers
35 degrees was most efficient for and users. Yucatecan celts. The concept of inherent flaws in
Increased or decreased edge angles the alterable structure of Strombus correlate with susceptibility to gigas lips relates to Kleindienst's
different types of impact in the (1979:59-62) application of
Cheetum-Flagami sample (Table 2). engineering theory to stone tool Angles of 40-49 degrees were the wear processes. When raw material
most common found on the celts, is chosen, a trade off is made for
Bits with this angle were less good versus bad properties. Design susceptible to scarring, diagonal is the alteration of the blank to
breakage or snap breaks. Bits with reduce the "bad" or asymmetrical angles of more than 50 degrees properties. A choice is made in the
showed increased susceptibility to degree of alteration. According to scarring but had less snap breaks. Kleindienst, wear processes combine Angles of 30-39 degrees were the energy (human), tool and material.
reverse, least susceptible to In addition to design choices, size scarring and had the most snap of the raw material, the density of breaks. Angles between 20-29 the worked material, use motions,
degrees had increased incidences of and intensity and duration of use scarring and diagonal breaks. An- influence impacts observed on shell gles below 19 degrees were of insig- celts. nificant numbers to be analyzed.
These statistics imply that an edge Impacts
angle of 40-49 degrees was most
suited to the tasks required of Impacts observed on the shell celt
south Florida shell celts, but that artifacts in the sample were classicelts functioned with a range of fied as either wear or breakage edge angles. patterns. Macroscopic wear categories were defined as impacts which
Alteration of Celt Asymmetry did not cause tool fragmentation.
They were classified as impact
Grinding of dorsal and ventral scars, battering, dulling, nicking,

190 20 -290 30-390 40-490 50.
Edge angle distri- .6% 13.2% 23.7% 41.2% 20.9%
bution of 143 total
Cheetum and Flagami
T ble I. Range of Edge Angles in
Cheetum-Flagami Shell Celt Sample.
190 20-29' 30-390 40-490 500
Distal Impact Scars 0% 18.7% 9.4% 40.6% 31.2%
Diagonal Breaks 0% 18.7% 18.7% 37.5% 25.0%
Snap Breaks 2.0% 14.0% 34.0% 36.0% 14.0%
Table 2. Impacts Observed By E 3ge
Angle. Different edge angles demonstrate increased or decreased susceptibility to impact, relative to
pcoL)or ti s o f ady nJI shown in
Table 1.
celt 238 D. impact scar L 26
other 19 C 10
gigas 246 13
costatus 7 haft 32
other species 5 D. battering 30
petaloid 148 dulling 9
rectangular 63 P. battering 9
grooved 11 0. nicking/edge break 37
undeterminable 37 longitudinal split L 19
spire margin 8 R 8
whole 102 D. diagonal break L 17
distal fragment 75 R 25
proximal fragment 60 P. diagonal break L 5
longitudinal fragment L 14 R 3
R 9 peeling/pocking V 15
ground 192 D 5
cut 47 lateral edge weat 7 1
rough 7 R 8
intact bit 54
powdering 39
concretion 16
Table 3. Totals of Characteristics
and apact Fron ? Analysis 3hiets of
Ch0 tul-P !tga!i Sapl_325.
32 5

Distal Impact ScarBatrnNikgreae
Side-lashed J10 Wedge 1Key Marco Wedge
(Eaton 1974) (Eaton (Gilliland 1975) Baft WearDagnlBekSpBrk
1974, Shafer 1982,
& Bester 1986)
Axe Baft
Longitudinal Lniuia
SplitBra Adze Haft
"T hape (Hle "L" shape (Shafer 1982)

,~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ..; i!i i .iii .... .....~i~i
Figure 12. Haft Wear on Shell Celt Figure 14 Distal Impact Scar.
3 4 5
-i/ f 1
Figure 16. Distal Fr agents Resul- 0 Figure 15. Diagonal Breaks. ting From Snap Breaks.

Distal Impact Scar(s):
Left Left & Center Left, Center & Right Left, Right Center Right Right, Center
Cheetum: 11 2 4 2 2 3 0
Flagami : 5 1 1 0 1 3 0
Total: 16 3 5 2 3 6 0
T bl 4. Distal Impact Scars According to Lc ition on Cutting Edge. Higher incidence is noted
for left distal impact scars.
Distal Diagonal Breaks:
Left Left, Right Right
Cheetum: 8 5 14
Flagami : 4 0 7
Total: 12 5 21
Table 5. Distal Diagonal Breaks According to Location on Cutting Edge. Higher incidence is noted
for right diagonal breaks.
haft wear and splitting. Breakage bisected effect of scarring, where
categories defined were diagonal the flake splits the celt between breaks, snap breaks, and longitudi- its growth layers. Tensile stress nal split breaks. Impacts are is seen in the uneven termination of
illustrated in Figure 13 and tabu- the scar, where the flake has been lated in Table 3. ripped off in a direction which does
not parallel the shell's growth Wear structure.
The impact scar is a term borrowed Impact Scars from lithic terminology. Crabtree
(1972) defines it as a scar Distal impact scars were observed "resulting from using a hard percuson 39 celts. They represent the sor to deliver the force to the
removal of a portion of the ventral material." Ahler (1971:52) desbevel in distal-to-proximal dire- cribes it as "longitudinally
ction, shown in Figure 14. They oriented flake scars derived from often have a rectangular outline, the distal end...possibly indicative
and are characterized by two nearly of impact." Lithic impact scars may parallel longitudinally oriented also involve transverse breaks or be
edges connected by a jagged latitu- derived from the basal ends of
dinal connection. tools, as Roemer (1985a) points out.
Impact scars are formed by a com- Shell celts exhibited scars only on bination of shear and tensile stress the distal end. (Hayden 1979:xvii). Shear stress, Impact scars are found on shell
the sliding of one part over another celts in a patterned way that may be occurs in the ventral to dorsal related to the natural asymmetry of

conch lips. They occur only to the Distal Nicking and Bit Breakage ventral half of the bit and more
often to the left side of the tool Distal nicking and bit breakage
(Table 4) Such "kinematic
affected the ventral and dorsal
patterning" is discussed by Ahler bevel of the cutting edge of 37
(1979:316) for lithics. A ventral celts. Nicks and breaks are ovoid or dorsal increase in wear traces is dents in the bevels or crescents termed "facial asymmetry" and a removed from the edge. They are
right or left increase is termed essentially the same impact, with
"bilateral asymmetry." The left breaks being larger than nicks.
side of the tool originally formed These are not formal terms used in the outer, thicker side of the conch lithic terminology. Functionally, lip, and is usually thicker in the the breaks replace hinge and step
finished celt (Figures 5-7). This flaking which do not occur to shell increase of mass on the left side celts. Initial nicks or breaks do
absorbed more of the blow and re- not impair the shell celt's perforceived more impact scars. mance, as experiments demonstrated
the intact cutting edge continues to
Battering serve. Compounded nicks lead to a
battered appearance. Four celts
Battering was observed on the showed nicking and breaking of the
distal edges of 30 celts in the lateral edges.
sample. This form of wear is common
on lithic celts, where multiple Haft Wear
small indentations dull the tool's
working edge. Dodd (1979:239) des- Haft wear was observed on 32
cribes the battering process as the celts. It appeared as indentations
"gradual development of complex or worn areas on the lateral edges overlapping fractures." Some shell of the tool (Figure 12). Variations
celts exhibit extreme battering, in side lashing are represented by
indicating use long after the cut- haft wear occuring in either 2 or 4
ting edge is dulled. areas on the celt's edges.
Nine celts exhibited battering at
the proximal end of the tool. As Grooves
this pattern is infrequent, an
informal use of the tool is sugges- Grooved celts had manufactured
ted, perhaps as a hammer. Proximal indentations designed for hafting or
battering may also represent wood holding. Eight celts exhibited such
splitting activity, with the celt grooves on the tool's proximal half.
used as a wedge. Four celts had Two celts from the Flagami site had
lateral edges exhibiting battered grooves on the distal end, which wear, indicating an informal use of probably represents a hand-held unhafted celts, design.
Dulling Breakage
Dulling of the distal edge was Diagonal Breaks
observed on 9 celts. This type of
wear may represent eroded battering Diagonal breaks were observed on
in celts that have been severely 42 distal ends of celts. They apleached. Dulling may derive from pear as a diagonal or "L"-shaped other activities, perhaps scraping, break on whole celts or distal fragbut evidence for this was not dis- ments, as if a bite had been taken
tinguished macroscopically. Four of out of the tool (Figure 15). The the celts that had dulled edges were break follows the natural cleavage not leached, so eroded battering of Strombus gigas lip structure. does not explain this wear in all They are confined to the distal half cases, of the tool, and probably represent

a quick event rather than a condition "mid-length" break, where the distal that took place in stages. end is snapped off at the haft.
Diagonal breaks occured to 12 left Distal fragments are shown in Figure
sides, 21 right sides, and to both 16.
sides in 5 celts in the sample
(Table 5). Left breaks may occur Longitudinal Splits and Breaks
due to the increased mass behind the
cutting edge on this side of the Twenty-seven celts exhibited lontool, as previously discussed for gitudinal splits or breaks. The
impact scars. Right breaks may difference between splits and breaks
occur due to the weakness of this is a matter of degree. They involve
thinner area of the tool. Left or a splitting of the tool in a distalright breaks leave half of the bit to-proximal direction along the naintact. The fact that breaks occur tural cleavage of the shell structo both the left and right sides of ture. Splits are seen in intact
several tools implies that occa- celts, and breaks represent the
sionally use continued after one completion of splits until the tool
diagonal break had damaged the tool. is fragmented. Unlike diagonal
Five pieces of debitage resulting breaks, they extend beyond the
from diagonal breaks were identi- tool's midsection and are a form of
fied. They are left or right halves impact which can occur in stages.
of distal fragments, and are Twice as many longitudinal splits or obviously the piece removed during breaks were noted on the left side
the breakage. The amount of debi- of celts in the sample, attesting to
tage is low compared to the number the role of greater mass in invoking
of celts exhibiting the break, but this impact. This type of impact
this may be because the locale of does not have a parallel in lithic
tool use and tool breakage was away tools. Brittle material is defined
from the living area of the site. as that which "fails by a wellEight celts exhibit proximal dia- defined crack growth (Hayden 1979),"
gonal breaks, which are not ex- and longitudinal splits clearly deplained by morphological variation monstrate the brittleness of shell
in lip structure. This end of the material.
celt is dense and uniform, without Many of the impacts discussed
asymmetry to facilitate the break, above occur simultaneously on the
These breaks may derive from use of artifacts. The range of impacts
the celt as a wedge to split wood, observed on the artifacts probably
although battering does not occur all derive from the same activities
simultaneously with the proximal rather than representing specific
breaks in the sample. The breaks tasks. The types of impacts obsermay also represent a manufacturing ved on the artifacts suggest that
accident, resulting from percussion shell celt use was limited to seveattempts to remove the spire margin ral basic heavy woodworking activicanal, ties, supplemented by incidental
lighter tasks as needs arose.
Snap Breaks
Snap breaks were a common impact
represented by 74 distal and 62 Evidence for recycling of shell
proximal celt fragments. This is a celt fragments is not observable common break observed on lithic macroscopically, but should be conartifacts (Shafer 1983:225). Shafer sidered possible. Proximal, distal, (1982) feels that the consistent or longitudinal fragments all reprebreakage of distal and proximal sent useful pieces of celt debitage. fragments in the haft area is Recycling is commonly observed in evidence that the tools were hafted. lithic celts through resharpening Of the types of snap breaks he des- processes (Shafer 1982, 1983). Discribes, shell celts exhibit the tal and longitudinal fragments have

intact cutting edges, and may have from shell celt longitudinal break
been useful for lighter hand-held fragments. Three specimens exhibit
tasks. It is obviously more effi- edges ground smooth where the raw
cient to grind a new cutting edge on longitudinal break occured. One
a sizeable proximal fragment than to specimen's lateral edges both appear
manufacture a whole new celt. cut in an intentional effort to
A concentration of interesting shape the tool. One specimen has a
artifacts at the Cheetum site, FS sharpened lateral edge, and may be a
#1532, contains several specialized knife. This cache may be a speciaforms which appear to have been made lized tool kit of recycled shell
Figure 17. A Continuum of Modification for Shell] Celts.

celt fragments. land (1975:41) suggests celts
functioned as ceremonial objects.
Carr and Reiger (1980) suggest that
Continuum of Modification celts included in burials represent
tools possessed by interred
Shell celt use is a process best craftsmen. The association of posdescribed as a "continuum of modifi- sible recycled celt fragments with cation," a term introduced for shell household contexts would help identools by Luer et al. (1986:114, Fig. tify them as lightweight tools. 13). The continuum is a model which Areas of shell celt manufacture
identifies stages of manufacture and should be looked for. Evidence of use that alter the tool to states this would be a number of Strombus
that are recognizable archeological- shells with their lips removed, celt ly. Beriault (1986:162 Fig. 1) blanks in partial stages of manufacdescribes the shell artifact altera- ture, and abrading devices. Luer
tion process on the "modified" half et al. (1986:120) observed areas of
of his "Algorithm and System of whelk shell tool manufacture. Eaton Classification for Shells and Shell (1974:198) discerned a shell celt
Tools." Such systematic schemes are workshop in the Yucatan. The postermed reduction models in lithic sibility that specialization in celt analysis, like the one proposed by manufacture was occuring at zones of
Roemer (1985b:67) for central Texas. conch procurement and that shell Figure 17 is a version borrowing celts were traded as part of a refrom all three, proposing a conti- gional exchange system in south
nuum of modification for shell Florida should be examined.
celts. It is important to note, as A chronological comparison of
Roemer does, that each stage is shell celt attributes is needed.
itself a continuum and tools display Changes in form and quality may be different degrees of modification determined over the 5,000 year time
under each heading, span of shell celt use. Luer
(1986:155) suggests that quahog valFuture Research ve tools reflect an increase in
societal complexity. As more data
Microscopic analysis of wear pat- is assimilated, shell celts will
terns on shell celts should be serve as cultural indicators as
attempted. Hester and Dreiss (1985) well. were unsuccessful in an attempt to
do this on shell tools due to the Summary
obscuring effects of growth rings.
Leached celts are too eroded to In summary, use-related breakage
preserve this type of information, and macroscopically observable wear
However, several celts from the occur in patterned ways in a sample Cheetum-Flagami sample were found in of 251 shell celts from two excellent condition. They and southeast Florida sites. Analogies selected celts from other sites are are possible between shell and stone candidates for microwear analysis, tool impact categories. A range of The feasibility of microwear study capabilities was demonstrated for on shell tools is demonstrated by shell celts through experimentation. Lundberg's (1985) study on Strombus Breakage and wear suggest the articolumella fragments. Future re- facts were commonly used in heavy search on shell celt microwear could woodworking. Impacts occuring on be informative of lighter forms of the celts are influenced by the use of shell celts or recycled frag- degree to which natural asymmetry of ments. conch lips has been modified during
A provenienced analysis of shell manufacture. Recycling is suggested celts and fragments is needed. The as probable for shell celt f ragtypes of celts associated with bu- ments. Shell celt use is best seen rials needs to be clarified. Gilli- as a process termed a "continuum of

modification" (Luer et al. 1986). References Cited
Future research is directed to the
need for microwear analysis to dis- Abbot, R.T.
1974 American Seashells. Van Nostrand
cern lighter forms of shell celt Reinhold. New York.
use. Locales of shell celt manufacture should be looked for, espe- Ahler, Stanley A.
fracture should be looked for, e spe 1971 Projectile Point Form and Function cially near zones of conch procure- at Rodgers Shelter, Missouri. Missouri Archaeological Society Rement. Variations in shell celt form search Series, Number 8. College of
should be distinguished from Arts and Science, University of
Missouri-Columbia, and the Missouri
horizontal and vertical provenien- Archaeological Society.
ces. It is probable that shell
1979 Functional Analysis of Nonobsidian
celts recovered from ceremonial, chipped Stone Artifacts: Terms,
burial, or household contexts will variables, and Quantification. In
exhibit significant differences in ithic Use-Wear Analysis, edited by
Brian Hayden, pp. 301-328. Academic
form. It is equally likely that Press, New York.
shell celt form varies over time. Allerton, David
Changes in shell celt form may 1981 Notes of Shell Celts of DA1053.
Notes on file at Dade County Historeflect the inclusion of shell celts Ntc Preservation Ddivision, Miami.
in tribute or exchange networks and
their role in regional social Anderson, Nain E.
1974 Origin of the St. Johns Archaic.
transformation. Other important M.A. Thesis, Florida Atlantic Univer
aspects of prehistoric behavior may sity, Boca Raton.
be understood from shell celt arti- Armistead, William J.
facts, including subsistence, house- 1949 An Indian Stone Saw. The Florida
house-Anthropologist 2:47-48. hold, and mortuary functions. Conceivably variations in these beha- Beriault, O vions Concerning Shell
viors through time may be Mounds and a System for Classifying
discernable in the 5,000 year time Shell Material. The Florida
span of shell celt use in south Anthropologist 39(3)1:160-163.
Florida. Carr, Robert S.
1981 Salvage Excavations at Two Prehistoric Cemeteries in Dade County,
Notes Florida. Paper presented at the
45th Annual Meeting of the Florida
Academy of Sciences. Winter Park,
Curatorial Note. The shell celt FL.
sample from 8DA1053 and 8DA1058 is Carr, Robert S. and John G. Beriault
part of the collection of the Histo- 1984 Prehistoric Man in Southern Floripart of the collection of the Histo- da. In Environments of South Florical Museum of Southern Florida, rida, Present and Past, edited by
located in Miami. P.J. Gleason, Miami Geological Soi ciety, Coral Gables, FL.
Acknowledgement. Thanks are Carr, Robert S. and John F. Reiger
Ac..knowledgement._ T1980 Strombus Celt Caches in Southeast
extended to Robert Carr, Metropoli- Florida. The Florida Anthropologist
tan Dade County Archaeologist, for 33:66-74.
suggesting that this paper be writ- Cleghorn, Paul L.
ten, and for giving generously of 1980 A Note on Flaked Shell Implements:
ofAn Experimental Study. Asian Perhis time, files and support. Dr spectives XX:241-245.
Thomas Hester, Dr. Harry Shafer and
Crabtree, Don E.
Jack Eaton provided invaluable r efe- 1972 An Introduction to Flintworking.
rences, comments, and reviews of the Occasional Papers of the Idaho State
commntsand evies oftheUniversity Museum Number 28. manuscript. The cooperation of Randy Nimnicht and Willard Steele of Cushing, Frank Hamilton
1897 Exploration of Ancient Key-Dweller
the Historical Museum of Southern Remains on the Gulf Coast of FloriFme access to the da. Proceedings of the American
Florida in allowing mPhilosophical Society 35, No.153.
artifacts is greatly appreciated.
Jim Masson's nights and weekends of Dodd, Walter A., Jr.
1979 The Wear and Use of Battered Tools
babysitting martyrdom allowed me to at Armijo Rockshelter. In Lithic
write, and I thank him for his time Use-Wear Analysis, edited by Brian
wrte nd thn hmfo hstieHayden, pp. 231-242. Academic
spent in helping with the experi- Press, New York.
ments and illustrations for this Eaton, Jack D.
paper. 1974 Shell Celts from Coastal Yucatan,

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Cat Island. M.A. Thesis, Florida
Gilliland, Marion S. Atlantic University, Boca Raton.
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Florida. University Presses of Flo- Masson, Marilyn A. and Debra S. Goldman
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Taylor's Head Site (8Bd74), Broward
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South Florida. Unpublished manu- Florida Anthropological Society,
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Anthropology, University of Texas, 1968 Long Creek Midden, Part 5: A
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In Lithic Use-Wear Analysis, edited Points. In Surveys at Ft. Hood, Teby Brian Hayden, Pp. 59-62. Acade- xas the FY'82 Range Construction
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Ft. Hood Archaeological Resource
Laxson, D. D. Management Series Research Report
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Tequesta Sub-Area. The Florida An- Shawn Bonath Carlson and David L.
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of Texas Press, Austin.
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Assemblage at Colha. Manuscript on file, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.
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from Northern Belize. Working Papers in Archaeology 2. Center for Archaeological Research, University
of Texas at San Antonio.
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Yale University Publications in Anthropology 42, New Haven.
Marilyn A. Masson
Department of Anthropology
Florida State University
Tallahassee, FL 32306

336 The Taylor's Head Site (8BD74): Sampling a Prehistoric Midden
on an Everglades Tree Island
Marilyn A. Masson, Robert S. Carr and Debra S. Goldman
INTRODUCTION Sediment accumulates on the
islands through natural and cultuA 5,000 year occupation sequence ral processes. Much deposition
was determined at the Taylor's der ires from midden refuse
Head site (89D74), a black dirt resulting from human occupation,
midden located on a tree island in including large quantities of fauthe eastern Everglades, Broward nal bone. Carr believes prehistoCounty, Florida (Figure 1). Cultu- ric habitiation may have had a
ral components include remains from significant role in the development
the Late Archaic, Glades II-III, of some Everglades tree islands
and the late 19th century Seminole (Carr et al. 1979). Small islands
period. Radiocarbon dates of like the Taylor's Head site often
4840+/-210 BP confirmed the first exhibit extremely dense midden comdocumented Late Archaic date for a ponents as the area available for
living surface situated on bedrock human activity was spatially
at the base of the site's deposit. constrained. Midden soil is black
A review of artifacts and a cursory and highly organic, and fits well
observation of the faunal material the descriptive term, "black dirt
from the site provide important midden".
clues which provide information on The Taylor's Head midden is an
prehistoric subsistence, interac- elongated oval shape, 70 meters
tion networks and human ecology in long by 45 meters wide, with its
the eastern Everglades. long axis oriented north-south (FiThe Archaeological and Histori- gure 2). Prior to drainage the
cal Conservancy Inc. (AHC) was tree island probably appeared tear
contracted by the Arvida Corpora- drop in format from an aerial view,
tion to help in the design and with the island's "tail" on the
development of an archaeological south end. This format is typical
park in the Weston development, of tree islands in the Everglades.
This excavation was conducted to The highest elevation is 3.4 meters
create an exhibit in the archaeolo- above sea level. The AHC test pits
gical park, to afford a cutaway indicated that 1.3 meters of sediview of the midden as part of the ment rests above oolite caprock.
park's archaeological interpretation. EXCAVATION UNITS
SITE ENVIRONMENT The AHC excavated a 5 meter
trench in i meter adjacent increTree islands like the Taylor's ments (Figure 2). As the AHC excaHead site are formed on elevated nation units were opened for the
areas of politic capr ock in the purpose of exhibition and coneastern Everglades. A stream of servation, only one unit, 98E, was
such islands lines the edge of the excavated to the depth of bedrock
Everglades basin, generally (Figure 3) Various unexcavated
paralleling the Atlantic Coastal levels of occupation are preserved
Ridge to the east. They are termed in the remaining four units. The
tree islands or hammocks due to the site was previously tested in 1973
hardwood vegetation which grows on by the Broward County Archaeologithem, including hackberry, ficus cal Society (BCAS 1973) who obserand gumbo limbo. ved that the site had been disturVol. 41 No. 3 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST Sept., 1988

- Edge of Tree Island
Atlantic Coastal Ridge o
Figure. ACEcvto Uns
Map shows location of the Taylor's Head site (8BD74) relative to the Atlantic Coastal Ridge (modelledFiue2
184'ter P BC8S B
Maploftexcavtionslandddsturbances t 8BD.4.'c"

bed by pot-hunting activity at that Head site is the latest evidence of time. this horizon, but represents the
first Everglades Late Archaic cornPREVIOUS RESEARCH ponent to produce associated
postmolds, artifacts, and faunal
Archaeological investigation of bone that can be attributed to this
prehistoric sites in the eastern early date.
Everglades had its beginnings in
the 1930's when work was conducted STRATIGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION
in Dade and Broward counties on
sites like 8DA46, 8DA47, 8DA48, Five soil horizons are discerned
8BD10 and 8BDll (Willey 1949). in the trench's north profile
John Goggin also conducted impor- (Figure 3). Layer 1 consisted of
tant work in the Everglades which loose to moderately packed black
resulted in his publication of humic soil mixed with dense faunal
"Stratigraphic Tests in the Ever- bone and other midden material from
glades" (1950). Subsequently, do- the surface to a depth of 20 centizens of tree island middens were meters. Layer 2 was a mixture of
subjected to numerous excavations the black humic midden layer and
by avocational archaeologists and concretion nodules from 20-30 cm
societies, often just prior to below the surface. The concretion,
their destruction by development, layer 3, was a grey solidified lens
Most prominent are the works of Dan of cemented soil and matrix which
Laxson (1957, 1959a, 1959b, 1970 included visible midden material.
and others), the Miami-West India, The concretion could only be reBroward County and South Florida moved with a pick. Artifacts were
archaeological societies. These not recovered from the concretion.
pioneer efforts did much to The top elevation of the concretion
establish and publicize the layer was encountered from 20-30 cm
richness of the archaeological re- below the surface, and was 30-40 cm
cord in the Everglades. thick. Beneath the concretion
Of particular note was the was a brown loam, layer 4, from
realization by several investiga- 60-90 cm below the surface. A
tors of the possibility of older, marked decrease in cultural matepre-Glades I horizons on these rial is observed in the loam. This
Everglades sites. Some had non-culturally derived lens seems
mistakenly assumed that the top of to represent a lapse in the occupathe concretion lens, a common cul- tion of the island. Below the loam,
tural-geomorphic feature on south layer 5 is a marly yellow-grey soil
Florida middens, was the top of the with midden material from a depth tree island's bedrock and the base of 90-120 cm which rests directly
of the cultural deposit. on limestone bedrock.
Apparently, Goggin (1950) never
encountered deeper pre-Glades I The black dirt midden levels
horizons on Everglades tree encountered from the surface
islands. The Miami-West India Ar- through the concretion correspond
chaeological Society and the Bro- to the Late Prehistoric components
ward County Archaeological Society of the site. The archaic component
were the first investigators to lies below the brown loam and conbreak through the concretion and cretion layer in the marly soil
discover earlier cultural materials resting on bedrock.
beneath it. Subsequent radiocarbon
date determinations confirmed it HISTORIC PERIOD
(Table 1). Dates at Peace Camp
(8BD52), Beale Smith (8DA1043) and A Seminole component is
Cheetum (8DA1058) all indicated an represented at the site by blue intensive Late Archaic habitation glass faceted tube beads recovered
of the Everglades. The Taylor's in the top strata (Level I) by the

Site Location Context Date
Taylor's Head tree island midden 4840+/-210BP
(this report)
Beale Smith tree island midden 3945+/-90BP
(Carr etal. 1979)
Peace Camp tree island midden 3050+/-140BP
(Mowers &
Williams 1972)
Cheetum tree island burial 5120+/-160BP
(8DA1058) 4020+/-370BP
(Newman 1986a,b)
Santa Maria Atlantic Coastal Ridge,
(8DA2132) coastal interface burial 4890+/-100BP
(Carr etal. 1983)
Atlantis Atlantic Coastal Ridge, 3770+/-75BP
(8DA1082) coastal interface burial 4040+/-170BP
(Carr 1981c)
Flagami Atlantic Coastal Ridge, burial 3690+/-60BP
(8DA1053) Everglades 3640+/-70BP
(Carr 1981b) interface
Table 1. Late Archaic radiocarbon dates from southeast
99E 96E
Layer ZMdden concretion mix
Unexcavated ._s,.y era5y L a *..
: -.*..* Marly Loam ;T ...T .'.-.
: 'Bedrock
Solution hole cm
Figure 3. North profile of exhibition trench. Layers 1-3
correspond to Late Prehistoric component of the site, Layer 4 represents a lapse in occupation, and Layer 5 contained Late Archaic materials. Postmolds are
preserved in Layer 5 of unit 99E.

AHC and the BCAS. The beads are tion to sand-tempered varieties
similar to those that were sold at were Belle Glade Plain and St.
the Stranahan trading post on the Johns Plain. Earlier Glades ceraNew River, which operated from the mics may lie in or below the conmid 1890's-1910 (Carr 1981a) and cretion level beneath the top 30 cm
the Brickell Store at the mouth of of the midden, but artifacts were
the Miami River (Carr 1979). Addi- not recovered from this solidified
tionally, a glazed ceramic pipe matrix.
fragment, recovered by the BCAS, A cord-marked sherd of a nonmay derive from the Seminole use of local paste was recovered at a
the site. depth of 20-30 cm. This sherd has
been modified by grinding into a
LATE PREHISTORIC PERIOD possible pendant. Cord-marked ceramics such as this have been found
Artifacts in limited quantities at other
sites in South Florida (Newman
The Glades II-III periods (Gog- 1986a, Sears 1982), which suggests
gin 1947) are represented by deco- a degree of exchange with north
rated ceramics recovered from the Florida cultures. site. These include Ft. Drum Exchange in the Glades III Late
Punctate, Miami Incised, Surfside Prehistoric period is indicated by
Incised, Glades Tooled and St. the presence of St. Johns pottery,
Johns Check-Stamped (Figure 4). and by the BCAS recovery of a green
These ceramics represent an occu- stone celt made of nonlocal matepation which extends over a 1000 rial at a depth of 10-20 cm below year period, from ca. 500 to 1700 surface. Such artifacts are
AD, and are contained within the evidence of trade networks that
top 30 centimeters of deposit. were well established throughout
Plain ceramics recovered in addi- Florida during this period (Carr
Figure 4. Decorated ceramics from 8BD74. From left to right: top- St. Johns check-stamped, Ft. Drum punctated, Ft. Drum incised, center- Glades tooled, Miami incised, bottom- sur fside incised, cord-marked (cut with drilled hole).

and Beriault 1984). lithic artifacts, shark's teeth,
Variation in ceramic density was altered bone, and shell artifacts
observed horizontally between test are observed horizontally for the
pits for both level 1 and level 2 top 20 centimeters of the midden
(Figures 5 and 6). Units 99, 100, (Figure 9). Interestingly, unit
and 101E exhibited a higher ceramic 98E has some of the highest
density measured both by sherd frequencies of these artifacts, a
counts and by weight than units 95, trend which does not parallel its
97 and 98E. This may be due to relative low frequency of ceramics.
discard patterns related to house A vertical comparison of the nonlocation, or a factor of secondary ceramic artifacts in unit 98E (Fideposit down the west slope of the gure 10) shows that the artifacts
island. are most frequent in Level 1, and a
Shark's teeth were commonly graduated decrease in shell artifound in the upper 30 centimeters facts in the earlier levels is
of deposit. One specimen was not- noted. This is probably a
ched for hafting, and two teeth misrepresentation as shell celts
were drilled (Figure 7). A lack of are often associated with the Late
large shark vertebra were noted Archaic period in southeast Florida
during excavation, indicating that (Carr 1981b, Newman 1986a, Masson
the teeth were not products of 1988, Anderson 1974, Graves 1982).
primary butchering activities con- A larger sample is needed to comducted at the site, but were pare the use of shell and other
brought in from the coast. Two artifacts over time on tree islands
shark's teeth were recovered from like the Taylor's Head site.
the Late Archaic lens, one of which A pit representing a possible
was fossilized. storage feature is seen in the
Socketed and non-socketed bone north profile of unit 99E which
points and awls were recovered penetrates the concretion level
(Figure 8). Some of these points (Figure 11). It was filled with
may have served as midden material of the type that is
fish gorges. found in the levels above it, and
The base of a ground limestone was not fully excavated since it is
celt was found in level I, along located in the exhibit trench wall.
with a possible limestone unifacial No particular use of the pit was
scraper, a couple of flakes, and a suggested during the excavation.
core. As flaking and wear are
difficult to discern on limestone Subsistence
material, the chipped artifacts are
hard to identify conclusively. Faunal remains observed included
Tools like the ground limestone mostly freshwater with a small
celt indicate, however, that number of saltwater species. A
prehistoric inhabitants of south preliminary look at the faunal
Florida were utilizing the local material suggests an increase in
limerock for tool manufacture. The the use of coastal resources over
lithic artifacts observed from the time, based on the increased
Taylor's Head site were burned, and presence of marine shell in the
partially covered in concretion. more recent components of the midSeveral Strombus gigas shell den. Interestingly, more marine
celts were found in the upper mid- shell refuse (especially lucine
den levels. The absence of whole clam) is observed at this inland
Strombus conchs or specimens with tree island than at the Honey Hill
their lips removed suggests that site (8DA411) located to the east
the shell celts were not manufac- on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and
tured at the site (Masson 1988). A much closer to the ocean.
piece of a cut shell pendant was Macrocallista shells were obseralso recovered. ved in the upper midden levels.
Change in the frequencies of As this is a Gulf species, it is

Cermic DLeLrlbuLLon 0-20 cm Ceromto Dtetrtbuton 20-30 cm
600.00 110.00
90.00450.00E L
o .. .. ... ..... .S
S350.00 O
o 300.000"
- 250.00 60.00200.0050.00150.00100.00 40.000. 00- -30.00 -- Z
95E 97E 98E 99E 100E 101E 97E 99E 100E
Test Un i Test Un to
Figure 5. Figure 6.
Ceramic density distribution in top 20 cm of midden Ceramic density distribution varies among test units
varies according to horizontal placement of test between 20-30 cmbelow the surface. Only units
units. without concretion compared at this depth.

...... Art L'fact dtst rlbutton
*9.00 8.00
....7. 00
Figure 7. Drilled and notched shark's teeth from 8BD74. 3.00
AM 1 .000.00- o
4I Ith sokc ~oese
t7Z797E tYX~9E ~ 9 0 0
Figure 9.
Variation in density of lithic, shark tooth, bone, and shell tools in top 20 cm of units is compared. Figure 8. Bone tools from 8BD74.
4.oo-\\ \\ ,, ,,

8.00 Ar ttLfecto Ln Un LL 99E
L 0
z 2.001.00
I tth shock a tbone she
Arttfoote by Level ZZZZZ}ZLe vel 1 0- 20 cm IIIIX Le vel 3 69- G m 2Level 4 G-100 cm 15 Level 100-130 cFigure 10. Distribution of lithic, shark tooth, bone and shell
tools is compared by level in unit 98E.
Figure 11. Storage pit feature in North wall protrudes into
concretion from upper midden level.

Figure 12. Figure 13.
Postmold features from the Late Archaic horizon at Hearth feature and metate/grinding slab from Late 8BD74. Archaic horizon are seen in top half of photo.
Solution hole and possible posthole are seen in bottom half of photo.
SHu 40 x094 16Nor th
xiA ,Elevation
limestone bedroc < ~ )3Metate
~JN Burned limestone!
\ solidified asF \'* Postmold/hole
1.4 '"g 0SH Deplut iohole
Figure 14. Figure 15. Map of Late Archaic features. Postmolds are shown in
Limestone metate/grinding slab from west unit. Hearth area, grinding slab, possible
Late Archaic horizon. Artifact is 21 posthole and solution hole are shown at a lower depth
m long by 14 cm wide. in east unit, in relationship to limeston bedrock.
I! !!! v
iiiiiii7 A MU
! 1....
... .. i ... iii~iii! i
Souti hoI and posibl pothl are 7ke 1,4n

appears that southward canoe routes and a small cylindrical depression
in addition to eastern Atlantic- in the bedrock may represent
borne routes were utilized, another posthole (seen in
Common bony fishes identified photograph, Figure 13, mapped in
were gar, bowfin, bass, and sun- Figure 15). Such posthole type
fish, which parallels Taylor's ob- depressions in bedrock were recorservations for subsistence data ded at the Cheetum site (8DA1058)
from 8DA1057 in the Big Cypress (Goldman, pers. observation 1986),
area of the Everglades (Carr and which is also an Everglades tree
Beriault 1984). Reptiles and am- island midden with a Late Archaic
phibians were also common, component. The solution hole was
including mud, box and softshell excavated separately and floated
turtle, poisonous snakes, alligator for the recovery of plant mateand sirens. Small mammal and deer rials, although none were found.
were also present. Marine species A radiocarbon date based on a
represented are shark and drum. A charcoal sample from the hearth
more precise picture of the subsis- area was 4840+/-210 BP, dating
tence data awaits the analysis of this archaic feature to an age
the faunal samples. range of 2700 to 3200 B.C.. Similar radiocarbon dates from the Late
Human Remains Archaic in southeast Florida are
listed in Table 1.
Burial components from the Tay- Late Archaic midden and burial
lord's Head site were encountered components are found in south Floduring the BCAS excavations (1973). rida from both Everglades tree
The human material was reported to island middens and Atlantic Coastal
be disarticulated, and was concen- Ridge sites. In addition to the
trated on the south side of the Taylor's Head site, midden compoisland. AHC excavations were nents dating to this period in the
intentionally placed on the is- bottom stratigraphic levels of tree
land's north side, in a successful islands were reported at the Peace
effort to avoid human burial mate- Camp site (8BD52) (Mowers and Wilrial. liams 1972) at the Beale Smith
site (8DA1043) (Carr et al. 1979) ,
LATE ARCHAIC PERIOD and possibly at the Rolling Oaks II
site (8BD73) (Graves 1982:44).
The Archaic component was ini- Late archaic burials are reported
tially identified during this exca- from the Cheetum (8DA1058) tree
vation by the absence of ceramics island. From the Atlantic Coastal
beneath the concretion layer. Fur- Ridge, Late Archaic burials were
ther excavation revealed two radiocarbon-dated at the coastal
postmold features at a depth of 1 Santa Maria (8DA2132) and Atlantis
meter below the surface (Level 5, (8DA1082) sites (Carr et al. 1983
unit 99E)) and an associated in- and Carr 1981c respectively). On crease in artifact density, which the Everglades side of the ridge,
included burned bone, altered bone, additional Late Archaic burials and burned limestone in unit were uncovered from the Flagami 99E108N (Figure 12). Excavation in site (8DA1053) (Carr 1981b). Furthe adjacent unit to the east re- ther north, an Archaic midden comvealed a hearth area of burned ponent situated directly on
limestone and solidified ash at a limestone bedrock was observed at
depth below the postmolds directly the Pahokee Ridge site (no site #) on the limestone caprock (Figure in Palm Beach county by Stephen 13). A limestone metate was located Hale (pers. comm. to M. Masson in the hearth area, shown in Fi- 1988).
gures 13 and 14. A solution hole The Late Archaic period in Flowhich may have served as a storage rida is generally distinguished by
pit was associated with the hearth, the appearance of fiber-tempered

Figure 16. The preservation plan for 8BD74 included the creation of an archaeological park, shown above, in the Weston Development, Broward County.
pottery around 3000 B.C. (Milanich and are interpreted with signaei
and Fairbanks 1980, Carr and Be- Interior lights facilitate viein
riault 1984). Although fiber-tem- the lower levels of the unit, whc
pered pottery was not found in the are a meter and a half belowth
Archaic level of the Taylor's Head surface.
site, the small sample size may The trench is protected byon
explain this. An additional arti- of five Seminole style chicke
fact dating to this period is a built by Ray Osceola for thepak
quartz projectile point reported by The other chickees cover exhibt
the BCAS f rom a depth of 120 cm including a dugout canoe, a cookn
below surface (1973) area modelled in a Seminole stye
and two artifact cases wIc
SITE PRESERVATION allows a close up view of artifat
which represent the range ofocu
th .rpose T 4t- ofT ctnVing an ope The site is T protected fro
exhibit to~~~~~~~~ ii~ bepr fa rhaoo eetin trfi yarie
gical...... park......locatedi!i iii in t e W st nw o e wai~iii~ii l kway/i i chiii!! dii i rects traf-! !iii li
residential development i~i~iil i~iii i near State fici throughiil /i! theli ex ! i
R o a d 8 4 .. T h e p l a n f o r t h e s i t e 'siiiii iiiiii~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~l iiiiii iiii !!~l iiil iiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiii~i ii!!!!!iiiiiiiiii!ii!iiii !! ~ii!!!!!!! ! ii!ii!ii i~~iiiiiiiiii ii~~!!~liii iiii~ii ~~ prseva i~iii ii was seti upb teSUMR
AriaCroion and The sraHC on The fr8B7 nlue hceto
Moundf n rhaolgc ark, wasontd toteo iwn aovpehistori aetndhsoi
~~~~~~~eeomnBroward County.Prssse naattin i h vrldso
Decembe 9,19. souuhie-tr-theastwe lorida ovter nthe pasth
Thredeveloerywsnt ofoua n otoo 5,00 amtr Tn ahree geerl arexchbit using af taayof He chralcalprosar.ersn
soteath Fmlorida pesz The trench is prdocr od td Lat Arcoedai byis a Arti- chafie peiolvn surfe ithee
beo ufacanfeatueswer7lbeled assoatmded strctual emains ony a

tree island in the Everglades Ar- (8BD52) (Mowers and Williams 1972)
chaeological Area (Carr and Be- and the Rolling Oaks II site
riault 1984). Ceramics recovered (8BD73) (Graves 1982).
from the site represent a 1200 year Such phenomena may be a product
period of tree island habitation in of seasonal occupation of tree
the Late Prehistoric period. The islands rather than exchange. Seaisland was occupied for a third sonal exploitation of resources in
time in the late 19th century by south Florida has been suggested
Seminoles. from analysis of subsistence data
(Griffin 1984, Scarry 1984) and
CONCLUSIONS would have afforded opportunities
for extracting coastal tool resourComparisons of ceramic and sub- ces such as shell and shark's
sistence data from sites in south teeth. However, it seems probable
Florida are needed to address ques- that if the inhabitants were manutions of regional settlement pat- facturing their own shell and shark
terns over time and the extent to teeth tools, that some evidence of
which settlement and resource ex- this access to raw materials would
ploitation was affected by environ- be found at the tree island sites.
mental or sociopolitical change. Types of such evidence might be
The answers to south Florida's significant amounts of large or
research questions may lie in the drilled shark vertebra, a common
significant variation of midden artifact found at coastal sites, or
composition, for example the cu- a few Strombus conchs with their
rious use of the Gulf genus Macro- lips removed for shell celt manucallista in the late stages of facture. It remains to be deteroccupation at the Taylor's Head mined whether tree island inhabisite. The extent to which access tants were directly procuring and
to subsistence resources was manufacturing their own shell and
geographically or culturally shark teeth tools, and if 100% of
determined is a key question in this activity would take place at
current research in south Florida coastal locations visited seasonal(Widmer 1983; Marquardt 1988). ly. Clearly, a larger data base is
Questions of exchange and craft needed to compare the evidence for
specialization may also be addres- exchange and its implications for
sed in midden composition by the social relations in south Florida.
type and amount of shell tools and Until further research has
shark's teeth found at sites, accomplished goals of understanding
Shell celts were used but probably regional settlement, social change
were not manufactured at the Tay- and relationships with the environlor's Head site. The inhabitants ment in south Florida, midden sites
either made them elsewhere or ob- in this region should be considered
tamned them through exchange, highly significant. As the above
Shark's teeth were found at the discussion demonstrates, it is in
Taylor's Head site and accompanying the variation of midden components
vertebrae were not. The shark's that the answers to social
teeth were primarily extracted at questions of regional dimensions
another location. Wing and Loucks are to be found. Cultural resource
(1984:279) report an underrepresen- practicioners should consider caretation of shark teeth compared to fully the "significance" of middens
vertebrae at the coastal Granada in their mitigation and research
site (8Dall) and suggest that teeth plans submitted to developers in
may have been traded to inland south Florida.
sites. Low proportions of large or
drilled shark vertebra relative to Notes
shark teeth are noted at two tree
island middens near the Taylor's Acknowledgements. This project is
Head site, the Peace Camp site indebted to Roy Rodgers, Vice Pre348

sident of Arvida's Weston development. Roy fully supported this Carr, Robert S. and John G. Beriault
r a1984 Prehistoric man in southern Floriresearch and the park concept. His da. In Environments of South
leadership has provided a model for Florida, Present and Past. Miami
Geological Society, Coral Gables,
other Florida developers to preser- Pp. 1-14.
ve archaeological sites as green Ggi John
space.Goggin, John
space. 1947 A preliminary definition of arWe would also like to thank chaeological areas and periods in
members of the excavation crew, Florida. American Antiquity 13:114specifically Jim Masson and Mark
speifial. im a ssrese ach su ork 1950 Stratigraphic Tests in the EverDuda. Additional research support glades National Park. American An
was provided by Gypsy Graves and tiquity 15:228-246.
the Broward County Archaeological Griffin, John
Society, and by volunteers from the 1984 Conclusions. In Excavations at the
Archaeological Society of Southern Granada Site: Archaeology and History of the Granada Site, by GrifFlorida. fin, J.W., S. B. Richardson, M.
A final acknowledgement to Ted Pohl, C.D. McMurray, C.M. Scarry,
A final acknoled gesgnt adS.K. Fish, E.S. Wing, L.J. Loucks,
Riggs, who helped design and build and M.K. Welch. Florida Division
the excavation exhibit, and to the of Archives, History and Records
Worthington brothers of Museum Qua- Management. Volume 1, 365-391.
lity, Inc. for their two exhibit Laxson, Dan D.
1957 Three Small Dade County sites. The
cases Florida Anthropologist 10:17-22.
1959a Excavations in Dade and Broward
Counties, 1958. The Florida Anthropologist 12: 33-40.
REFERENCES CITED 1959b Excavations in Dade County During
1957. The Florida Anthropologist
Anderson, Nain E.
1974 Origin of the St. Johns Archaic. 1970 Seven Sawgrass Middens in Dade and
M.A. thesis, Florida Atlantic Uni- Broward Counties, Florida. The Floversity, Boca Raton. rida Anthropologist 17:177-181.
Broward County Archaeological Society Marquardt, William
1973 Taylor's Head Site, notes and level 1988 Politics and Production Among the
forms on file, Broward County Ar- Calusa of South Florida. Revised
chaeological Society. version of paper presented at the
4th International Conference on
Carr, Robert S. Hunting and Gathering Societie
1979 The Brickell Store and Seminole London School of Economics ,
Indian Trade. The Florida Anthro- Political Science, London. In
pologist 34(4):180-199. press, History, Evolution and Social Change in Hunting and
1981a Archaeological Investigations at Gathering Societies, edited by D.
the Stranahan House Site. Report Riches, T. Ingold and J. Woodburn.
on file with Archaeological and
Historical Conservancy, Miami. Masson, Marilyn A.
1988 Shell Celt Morphology and Reduc1981b Salvage Excavations at Two Prehis- tion: An Analogy to Lithic Retoric Cemeteries, Dade County, Flo- search. The Florida Anthropologist
rida. Paper presented at the 45th (this issue).
Annual Meeting of the Florida Academy of Sciences, Winter Park. Milanich Jerald T. and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic
1981c Atlantis site, unpublished field Press, New York.
notes on file, Dade County Historic
Preservation Division, Miami. Mowers, Bert and Wilma B. Williams
1972 The Peace Camp Site, Broward
Carr, Robert S., John Beriault, Irving Eyster County, FL. The Florida Anthropoloand Margot Ammidown gist 25:1-20.
1979 An Archaeological and Historical
Survey of the Site 14 Replacement Newman, Christine
Airport and its proposed access 1986a Preliminary Report of ArchaeologiCorridors, Dade County, Florida. cal Investigations Conducted at the
Manuscript on file with Florida Cheetum site, Dade County, Florida.
Division of Historical Resources, On file with Archaeological and
Tallahassee. Historical Conservancy, Miami.
Carr, Robert S., M. Yasar Iscan and Richard 1986b A Preliminary Report of InvestigaA. Johnson tions at the Cheetum site
1982 Excavations of a Late Archaic Pe- (8Dal058), Paper presented at the
niod Cemetery in Dade County, 43rd Southeastern Archaeological
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist Conference, Nashville.

Parker, Gerald
1984 Hydrology of the Pre-Drainage System of the Everglades in Southern Florida. In Environments of South Florida, Present and Past, edited by P.J. Gleason, Miami Geological
Society, Coral Gables, Pp. 28-37.
Scarry, C. Margaret
1984 Paleoethnobotany of the Granada
Site. In Excavations at the Granada Site, Archaeology and History of the Granada Site, by Griffin, J.W., S.B. Richardson, M. Pohl, C.D.
McMurray, C.M. Scarry, S.K. Fish, E.S. Wing, L.J. Loucks, and M.K.
Welch, Florida Division of Archives, History and Records Management, Volume 1, Pp. 259-327.
Widmer, Randoph
1983 The Evolution of the Calusa, a
Nonagricultural Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast. Ph.D.
dissertation, Dept. of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University.
Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms.
Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Excavations in Southeast Florida.
Yale University Publications in
Anthropology 42, New Haven.
Wing, Elizabeth and Jill Loucks
1984 Granada Site Faunal Analysis. In
Excavations at the Granada Site, Archaeology and History of the Granada Site, by Griffin, J.W., S.B. Richardson, M. Pohl, C.D.
McMurray, C.M. Scarry, S.K. Fish, E.S. Wing, L.J. Loucks, and M.K.
Welch. Florida Division of Archives, History and Records Management, Volume 1, Pp. 181-245.
Marylin A. Masson
Robert S. Carr
Debra S. Goldman
Archaeological and Historical Conservancy
PO Box 450283
Miami, Fl 33145

Marion F. Smith, Jr.
John F. Scarry
Introduction dence.
The area is of special interest
Many states maintain large arch- to archaeologists interested in the
aeological databases. These can late prehistory of the Southeast beserve several purposes: to allow cause it includes the heartland of
review of projects that may impact one Fort Walton variant on the Missites, to aid in the management of sissippian theme. It is of interest
sites on public lands, and to facil- to archaeologists concerned with the itate comprehensive planning. But early historic period because the these databases can also be used for Apalachee were one of the first Misresearch. We hope to demonstrate sissippian groups to be contacted by
this in proposing "state-of-the- the Europeans. Fortunately, they knowledge" answers to limited ques- were also one of the best described
tions about the 12th to 17th century (Bandelier 1964; Hann 1988; Smith occupants of northwest Florida (for 1968; Varner and Varner 1951)
an earlier use of the Florida Master Over the past half century, many
Site File data see Payne 1981) important investigations have been
In Florida, the state's database conducted in this area. Only reis the Florida Master Site File. cently, however, have broadly coMaintained by the Florida Bureau of ordinated studies been attempted
Archaeological Research in Tallahas- (e.g, Shapiro's work at San Luis see, the Florida Master Site File [Shapiro 1987] and Marrinan's rehas information on 36,000 historical search on the Patale doctrina [Bryne structures, 13,000 archaeological 1986; Marrinan and Bryne 1986, 1987; sites, and about 1600 field surveys Shapiro and Marrinan 1986]). This
across the state. In a recent paper starts another such study. As
reorganization overseen by Marion a first step in synthesizing what we Smith, a subset of the data in the already know, we focus on only a
site file has been brought online on part of the Apalachee Province and microcomputer. use only some of the information on
Our research interests concern record at the Florida Master Site late prehistoric cultural evolution File.
in the Apalachee Province (Figure 1) In contemporary terms, the Culture History and Background
territory of the Apalachee stretched
approximately from the Gulf of Mex- Telling time is one of the
ico to a li ttle north of the biggest jobs for those who would Florida-Georgia border; it was synthesize a disparate mass of archbounded on the east by the Aucilla aeological records, and one of the
River, and on the west by a line a most essential. We propose a finer
little west of the Ochlockonee subdivision of Apalachee time than River. In this paper we discuss has been attempted before. Based on
field surveys and sites in Leon easily recognized and relatively County, Florida (see Figure 3) the abundant ceramic traits (Table 1) core of the Apalachee's territory in it has the potential for being apprehistoric and early historic plicable in a variety of research
times, and the area for which we settings. Our framework is a modihave the best archaeological evi- fication of an earlier chronology

. .. ...... .. Georgia
$ Gulf of Mexico
0 50 km
Figure 1. Map showing location of Apalachee Province.
(Scarry 1984a, 1987) in which the The Lake Jackson phase represents
late prehistoric and historic a Mississippian system (in the sense Apalachee occupation of the Leon of Peebles and Kus 1977) with a County area was divided into three hierarchically structured sociophases: Lake Jackson, Velda, and political organization and a subsisSan Luis. For the current study, we tence system based on cleared field further divide each of those phases agriculture. In addition to these into early and late sub-phases (Fig- hallmarks of Mississippian cultures, ure 2). The dating of the divisions people of the Lake Jackson phase between sub-phases, and indeed the also constructed pyramidal earthen
dating of the divisions between the mounds, participated in the Southphases themselves, is less than pre- eastern Ceremonial Complex (Jones cise, particularly for the earlier 1982) and manufactured ceramics
portion of the chronology. However, that resembled those of Mississipavailable evidence does allow us to pian systems in other portions of assign relative dates to the various the Southeast (Scarry 1985; Tesar units of our chronology. 1980; Willey 1949).

BRU Brushing Velda phase
Car Carinated Bowl Lake Jackson phase
CBI Cool Branch Incised early Lake Jackson phase
vCB Cool Branch Incised, var. Cool Branch early Lake Jackson phase
CIW Colono-Indian Ware San Luis phase
CoIJ Collared Jar Lake Jackson phase
ELM El Morro San Luis phase
FR Fluted Rim late Lake Jackson phase
FWI Fort Walton Incised Mississippian
vCAY Fort Walton Incised, var. Cayson early Lake Jackson phase
vFW Fort Walton Incised, var. Fort Walton Velda phase
vSH Fort Walton Incised, var. Safety Harbor late Velda phase, early San Luis
vENG Fort Walton Incised, var. Englewood late Velda phase, early San Luis
LBI Lamar Bold Incised San Luis phase
LCS Lamar Complicated Stamped Velda phase, San Luis
vCUR Lamar Complicated Stamped, var. Curlee San Luis phase
yEAR Lamar Complicated Stamped, var. Early late Velda phase, early San Luis
vJEF Lamar Complicated Stamped, var. Jefferson San Luis phase
LJI Lake Jackson Incised Lake Jackson phase
vLL Lake Jackson Incised, var. Lake Lafayette Lake Jackson phase
vW Lake Jackson Incised, var. Winewood Lake Jackson phase
LJP Lake Jackson Plain Mississippian
LPR Lamar Pinched Rim late Velda phase, San Luis
LX Leon Check Stamped Velda phase, San Luis
MAJ Majolica late Velda phase, San Luis
MAJ(BoW) Blue-on-white Majolica San Luis phase
MH Mississippian Handle early Lake Jackson phase
MRF Mission Red Filmed late San Luis phase
N Simple Node early Lake Jackson phase
NSS Notched Shoulder Strip San Luis phase
OFI Ocmulgee Fields Incised late San Luis phase
OJ Olive Jar late Velda phase, San Luis
PL Plain Lug early Lake Jackson phase
PR Punctated Rim early Velda phase
PWI Point Washington Incised late Velda phase, San Luis
SadL Saddle Lug early Lake Jackson phase
SR Scalloped Rim early Lake Jackson phase
TR Ticked Rim Lake Jackson phase
WX Wakulla Check Stamped early Lake Jackson phase
(1) As presented in the computer data base of the Apalachee study.
Table 1. Chronologically diagnostic material culture items used to identify site components in the Apalachee database.

monial Complex artifacts found at DATE PHASE SUBPHASE Lake Jackson, the rarity of Wakulla
Check Stamped pottery on Lake Jackson phase sites, and the absence of 1750 Lamar Complicated Stamped pottery
from Lake Jackson phase assemblages, Scarry (1987) has dated the Lake 1700 Jackson phase to the period A.D.
Late 1100 to A.D. 1500.
San Luis We have divided the Lake Jackson
1650 Early phase into two sub-phases, based on
apparent distinctions in ceramic assemblages. The earlier sub-phase 1600 Late thought to date from A.D. 1100 to
A.D. 1400, is marked by the occa1550Velda sional presence of the ceramic types
55 Cool Branch Incised; Fort Walton InEarly cised, vars. Cayson, Sneads and
1500 Blalock; Wakulla Check Stamped; and
by the attributes of Mississippian loop handles, saddled lug handles, 1450 Late and scalloped rims (B. Calvin Jones,
personal communication) The later sub-phase, which we date from A.D. 1400 1400 to A.D. 1500, is marked by the
absence of handles and the presence of vertically fluted rims. 1350 The Velda phase was a Late Mississippian manifestation that we equate with the Apalachee chiefdom 1300 Lake encountered by the Narvaez and Soto
Jackson expeditions. It is clear from the
Soto accounts that the Velda phase 1250 Early was hierarchically organized, possessed a well-developed settlement hierarchy, and relied on cleared 1200 field agriculture (see Smith 1968;
Varner and Varner 1951). Like the preceding Lake Jackson phase, it 1150 represents a complex chiefdom. The
Velda phase was a time of dramatic changes in Apalachee society. The 1100 old paramount center, Lake Jackson,
was abandoned. Europeans first entered the Apalachee territory and 1050 toward the end of the phase established their dominion over
Apalachee. Radiocarbon dates from Figure 2. Apalachee chronology, the Velda site (Scarry 1984b) and ceramic cross-dating suggest that the Velda phase lasted from ca. A.D. Two radiocarbon dates from Mound 1500 to A.D. 1633.
3 at the Lake Jackson site effec- We have divided the Velda phase
tively bracket the construction of into early and late divisions, again
that mound (Jones 1982). Based on based on the presence or absence of those dates, the Southeastern Cere- ceramic traits. The Early Velda

sub-phase is marked by the presence evaluating our knowledge and its of late forms of Fort Walton Incised gaps, survey methods as well as
(e.g., vars. Fort Walton, Safety findings need attention. Ideas
Harbor, and Englewood) and punctated about site distribution may reflect rims. The Late Velda sub-phase is survey placement rather than past marked by Lamar Complicated Stamped, reality. For example, archvar. Early, and Lamar Pinched Rims. aeologists working in the Apalachee Because we lack precise dates, we area often assume in hallway discushave divided the phase into two sions that late prehistoric-early equal units. Roughly, the Early historic people strongly preferred
Velda sub-phase dates to the period to locate on soils of the DothanA.D. 1500 to A.D. 1562. The Late Orangeburg association, due to its
Velda phase would then date to the high agricultural potential. This
period A.D. 1562 to A.D. 1633. plausible idea has not received any
The San Luis phase is the arch- sort of systematic test. At the
aeological reflection of the 17th outset of this study, we suspected
century Apalachee polity, a subject that survey bias, overrepresentation
people ruled by Spanish officials of Dothan-Orangeburg in surveyed arand clergy. Their culture was eas, had disproportionately magnimarkedly changed from the aboriginal fied the proportion of Apalachee in many respects. They were con- sites found on this soil associaverted to Catholicism. New crops tion.
and domesticated animals were intro- Our goal here is to utilize data
duced. Their economy was changed; from previous surveys, data conSan Luis times saw the introduction tained in the Florida Master Site
of money. The Apalachee were sub- File, to test this assumption and to
ject to repeated epidemics of Euro- evaluate the association of
pean disease. The San Luis phase Apalachee sites and specific soil
dates from the establishment of the associations.
Apalachee missions in 1633 to the Three surveys have been performed
destruction of Apalachee Province by which used consistent methodologies English colonists and their Creek to examine large contiguous areas in
allies in 1704 (Boyd 1951; Hann Leon County (Figure 3). Our current 1988; Jones 1972). paper focuses on these. NecessarWe have divided the San Luis ily, many small surveys that have phase into early and late compon- increased our site inventory are neents, again allotting half of the glected. For example, the U.S. Forphase to each subdivision because of est Service has conducted scores of the absence of absolute dates. studies of small parcels in the Early San Luis phase components, Apalachicola National Forest south nominally A.D. 1633-1669, are marked of Tallahassee (Forney 1985). by Spanish ceramics and Lamar Coin- The first major survey was the
plicated Stamped (particularly vars. Leon County Bicentennial Survey in Cur lee and Jefferson) Late San 1975 and 1976 (Tesar 1980). In the Luis phase components, nominally first phase of this project, Joseph A.D. 1669-1704, are marked by Hutto conducted "a careful walk-over Colono-Indian wares (native copies inspection" on five selected areas of Spanish vessel forms) and Ocmul- in addition to briefly visiting a
gee Fields Incised pottery. sixth area, surveying in all some
13,500 ha. In the second phase,
Soil Association Preferences and Louis Tesar tested six sites. The
Site Distribution main goals of the project were to
locate as many archaeological sites
Field surveys are the in- as possible and to identify candidispensable basis of our knowledge dates for the Soto winter encampment
of the Apalachee in Leon County. In of 1539-40. Areas were selected for

. . .. .. .. . .
Leon Madison
Wakulla Taylor
Liberty G
Liberty Gulf of Mexico
Franklin 0 20 km
Bryne Survey
Kenyon Survey
Tesar Survey
Figure 3. Map of Leon County, Florida, showing major survey areas.
ecological representation, to fill subsurface tests at 100 ft interin gaps between better-known areas, vals. "Special attention" was given and because they seemed likely to to areas deemed likely to contain
contain large late villages that prehistoric sites. Only two preSoto might have encountered. As historic sites of any period were
Tesar noted, gaps in field notes and located, and one of these was an lack of routine testing hamper isolated find. We suspect that interpretation of the survey find- closer transect and excavation spacings, but 150 new sites were re- ing would have located many more
corded (Tesar 1980). sites. For this reason, we have
The second large survey was in discounted the findings of this sur1976, a siting study for a waste- vey in much of the discussion to
water treatment facility. Kenyon follow. and Strassberger (1977) examined The third large survey is the
2500 ha in four discrete areas by Apalachee Mission Archaeological
walking transects 500 ft apart, with Survey of 1985, conducted by Bryne

and Marrinan to examine 6600 ha To test our suspicion that survey
around the Spanish mission of San coverage was unrepresentative, at
Pedro y San Pablo de Patale east of least on one dimension of ecological
Tallahassee. This survey, like the significance, we compared the proothers, was not totally systematic, portion of general soils associabut it did feature careful documen- tions in the survey areas with the
tary research and consultation with county as a whole (Table 2).
local informants, extensive subsur- Dothan-Orangeburg was indeed
face testing for site boundary overrepresented in the survey areas determinations, and reanalysis of by a ratio of 68% to 47%. If the
available collections. Kenyon-Strassberger survey is reThese surveys collectively exam- moved, the overrepresentation
ined approximately 23,000 ha, about increases, with the ratio becoming
12% of Leon County. This is a high 76% to 47%. Another soil associaproportion for Florida, where less tion (Fuqua-Lucy-Troup) 4% of the
than 10% of the area of most coun- county, is not represented in the
ties has seen any survey, surveys at all. Except for the exTable 2. Survey soils compared to county soils
Cropland Kenyon Tesar Bryne Survey Tesar & County Soil Association (1) Potential(2) % % % % Bryne % %
well-drained soils not subject to flooding
Fuqua- Lucy- T roup H 0 0 0 0 0 4
Dothan-Orangeburg H 1 64 100 68 76 47
Facevi L le-Tifton-GreenviL Le H 0 1 0 1 1 2
sandy, droughty soils not subject to flooding
LakeLand-Troup M 99 0 0 11 0 14
moderately well to poorly drained soils not subject to flooding
ChipLey-ALbany-BLanton M 0 16 0 10 11 19
Leon-Plummer-Chipley M 0 3 0 2 2 12
poorly and very poorly drained soils subject to flooding
Plummer- Rut l ege M 0 8 0 5 5 1
Alluvial Land L 0 7 0 4 5 1
TOTAL, % 100 99 100 101 100 100
TOTAL, ha 2490 13,460 6570 22,520 20,030 180,000
(1) Kotb 1974:22-23
(2) H-high under modern management practices; M-moderate; L-very low (Kotb 1974)

Table 3. Survey sites compared to survey soils
Cropland ALL sites Tesar/Bryne Tesar/Bryne Tesar/Bryne +unkn(1) +unkn(2) -unkn(3) soil assoc Soil Association Potential N % N % N % %
well-drained soils not subject to flooding
Fuqua-Lucy-Troup H 3 1 0 0 0 0 0
Dothan-Orangeburg H 349 84 287 85 203 87 76
Faceville-Tifton-Greenville H 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
sandy, droughty soils not subject to flooding
Lakeland-Troup M 4 1 0 0 0 0 0
moderately well to poorly drained soils not subject to flooding
Chipley-Albany-Blanton M 8 2 6 2 5 2 11
Leon-Plummer-Chipley M 3 1 0 0 0 0 2
poorly and very poorly drained soils subject to flooding
Plummer-RutLege M 44 11 40 12 22 9 5
Alluvial Land L 3 1 3 1 3 1 5
TOTAL 415 101 336 100 233 99 100
(1) Count and percent for all sites (Tesar, Bryne, Kenyon, and all others at the Master
File); includes "Unknown Mississippian" category
(2) Count and percent for sites from the Tesar and Bryne surveys only; includes
"Unknown Mississippian"
(3) Count and percent for Tesar and Bryne sites that could be diagnosed to the level
of phase or sub-phase; excludes "Unknown Mississippian"
pected bias toward Dothan- veys. This may indicate that the
Orangeburg, we find surveyed areas latter jointly constitute a reasonsurprisingly representative of able sample of the county as a
county soils. whole--or only that the preponderTo evaluate soil preferences of ance of all sites (336/415, or 81%)
the Apalachee, we compared the per- are derived from those two surveys.
centage of sites found on a specific Also, the similarity of the percentsoil to the percentage of surveyed ages for the Tesar/Bryne surveys inareas represented by that soil cluding sites only identified as
(Table 3). Interestingly, the site Mississippian with those based only
proportions observed were similar, on sites identified to specific
whether all diagnosable Mississip- phases (see Table 3) suggests that
pian sites were counted, or only those 129 sites which could not be
those from Tesar's and Bryne's sur- diagnosed beyond "Very Probable Mis358

sissippian" are distributed over the and ethnohistorians. They should resoils in a manner similar to those flect changing social, economic, and
sites that could be diagnosed. political conditions in the polity.
We can compare site percentages The quality of the data compiled
with soil percentages, focusing on during Bryne's survey allows the
Tesar's and Bryne's surveys. The first attempt to quantify trends in
Dothan-Orangeburg association ap- site size and total population, at pears to underlie 87% of phase-di- least for that part of Leon County
agnosed sites while making up 76% of associated in historic times with the joint survey area, indicating a the Patale mission. Bryne used submild preference for that associ- surface testing to acquire some ation. However, even if real, the knowledge of the spatial extent of degree of preference has been over- sites, as well as their nature and estimated in past intuitive evalua- age. Our site size data were comtions. Note that an even stronger piled directly from Bryne's thesis preference appears to be shown for (1986) .
the Plummer-Rutlege association, one Another variable of critical imof moderate potential under modern portance to understanding social and
agricultural management. Apparent political dynamics is the overall avoidances also appear in Table 3, population of the polity. We used
notably with respect to the Chipley- site size data, together with our Albany-Blanton association. Appar- refinements to the local chronology, ently, even "obvious" patterns of to construct an archaeological index
prehistory should be examined on as of mean total population for the broad a database as possible. More- Bryne survey area for each subover, even simple quantification may phase. The basis for our index is alter our perceptions of which phe- simple. The total area of all sites nomena should be explained, occupied during a given sub-phase
Of course, our current analyses should depend on (1) the number of
are only suggestive because we have people; (2) the length of the subnot allowed for the influence on phase; and (3) the average duration site distribution of factors not re- of a single settlement. For the
lated to past cultural behavior, purpose of this study, we have asOne such factor would be systematic sumed that the duration of Setbiases from survey to survey. For tlements did not change over time.
instance, all Plummer-Rutlege soils Given these assumptions, the total occurred in one small part of the area of all components of a given
county and were represented in only sub-phase can be divided by the the Tesar survey. Another distort- length of the sub-phase (in years) ing factor would be differences in to yield an index (in ha per year)
the visibility of sites that corre- that is proportional to the average late with soils. Considering the population over the length of the
effect of cultivation on the observ- sub-phase (see Hassan 1981:64). Beability of plow zone sites, Dothan- cause our dating of the sub-phases Orangeburg's site representation may is very rough, we would expect that be due as much to its suitability subtle variations in population will
for modern farming as to prehistoric not be reliably depicted in our preferences,. analysis but that dramatic changes
will be.
Changes in Population and Settlement We present our findings graphicSize: ally and do not at this preliminary
Evidence from the Mission Survey stage apply statistical tests to our
interpretations. The rather complex
Chronological trends in Apalachee trends in settlement size and of the site size and population should be population index are summarized as
of great interest to archaeologists Figure 4. Before focusing on the

Mean Site Size
Population Index
I I i I I I I
1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700
Figure 4. Demographic trends in the Bryne survey area.
early and late ends of our sequence, population index, it is of course we want to point to the most obvious tempting to read into our data the feature of the two graphs in Figure effects of European diseases. We
4--the marked declines in both popu- could then attribute the latest rise lation index and site size during in the index to localized aggregathe Velda phase. We have no secure tion around the Patale mission. explanation for these trends. The Clearly more work should be done bechange in mean site size may reflect fore such interpretations can be sethe distribution of larger sites cure. serving as administrative centers. We will comment on changes within
We know that the survey area con- the first and last phases, Lake
tamned minor centers during both the Jackson and San Luis. Figure 5,
Lake Jackson and San Luis phases redisplaying some of the information
(the Lake Lafayette site, 8LE2, and in Figure 4, consists of bar charts the Patale site, 8LE152). The pres- for number of components, site size, ence of these sites or the possible and population index for the Early absence of a Velda phase center and Late Lake Jackson sub-phases. might be sufficient to skew the site There is an increase in mean site size picture. For the changes in size from 2.8 ha for 14 Early sites

to 3.6 ha for 15 Late sites. Also, 20 Components the population index increases quite
.......... sharply, from 0.13 ha per year to
10 0 54 ha per year. At face value,
this change strongly supports expectations for population growth associated with the development of Mean Site Size the large Fort Walton Mississippian
.chiefdom centered at the Lake Jack2 son Mounds site, 8LEl. This is six
km west of the Mission survey area.
1 Trends for the historic San Luis
Xi: phase (see Figure 6) contrast
greatly with those for the prehis0.5 Population Index toric Lake Jackson phase. Recall
0.4 that the Mission Survey results
0.3 should reflect settlement chang in
0.2 the vicinity of an administrative
and religious center. Differences 0.1- between Early San Luis and Late San
_j Luis are apparent in all three diEarly Lake Jackson Late Lake Jackson mansions examined: number of components, mean site size, and populaFigure 5. Trends during the Lake Jackson phase tion index. Bryne's data allowed us
in the Bryne survey area. to identify 21 sites from the early
sub-phase, but only 14 from the late. Second, mean site size increased 35%, from 2.0 to 2.7 ha. Finally, the population index de20 rComponent Creased from 1.19 to 1.08 ha per
year. These findings suggest the 0 combined impacts of European epi1demics and European-mandated nucleation of settlements in Patale mission area, a minor center Mean Site Size of Spanish administration.
2.0 Finally, we would like to return
to a geographically broader perspec1.0 tire. Figure 7 stacks component
counts through time for Bryne survey ~sites, for Tesar survey sites, and for the combined data set. There
Popultion mtexare two points we would like to make
1.0 @from these data. First, the different survey areas show great dif0.5ferences in their demographic hiso. i'iii "i "! "i~i t o ry. The g eo gr ap h ic a nd tem po ral1 scales of systemic change appear smaller than we might have guessed. Early San Luis Late San Luis Future survey work should be as intensive as Bryne' s work and much
Figure 6. Trends during the San Luis phase more comprehensive. Second, it is
interesting that Tesar's six areas in the Bryne survey area. over time show a complementary rela361

Combined Sample
2 10
0 0
U 0
S 20 Bryne Survey
Z z
20 Tesar Survey
1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700
Figure 7. Comparison of demographic trends in the Bryne and Tesar survey areas.
tionship with Bryne's area. Tesar able, soil association, survey covcomponents are relatively many at erage is biased, notably toward the times when Bryne sites are few, Dothan-Orangeburg. Even so, that and vice versa. It is tempting to association accounts for more than suggest that these graphs reflect its share of prehistoric sites. back-and-forth population movements However, late prehistoric preferwithin the Apalachee heartland, but ences and avoidances related to this interpretation cannot be seri- other associations are even ously advanced until comparable sur- stronger--and also plead for exvey evidence is available from the planation. intervening and surrounding areas. Examination of site files in conjunction with our proposed chronoConclusions logical framework has allowed us to
trace changes in three variables-We have examined survey and site number of sites, size of sites, and information for the Leon County inferred population--at six points heartland of Apalachee. In terms of distributed unevenly over six cenone important environmental vari- turies of time. The results are

congruent with our expectations, es- Boyd Mark F.
specially with respect to (1) the 1951 Fort San Luis: Documents Derise of a chiefdom in the Lake Jack- scribing the Tragic End of the
son phase and (2) the biological and Mission Era. In Here They
ltural shocks of the San Luis Once Stood: The Tragic End of
chase hatulturl shcs f the Se the Apalachee Missions, by
ase that ultimately doomed Mark F. Boyd, Hale G. Smith,
Apalachee. The apparent demographic and John W. Griffin, pp. lvariation and the contrasting tra- 106. University of Florida
jectories in population trends for Press, Gainesville.
nearby areas within Apalachee Bryne, Stephen C.
province, are forceful arguments for 1986 Apalachee Settlement Patterns.
better chronological control and for Unpublished M.S. thesis, Department of Anthropology,
ore field work of the high standard Florida State University, Talset by Bryne and Marrinan's recent lahassee.
Our experience has shown that Forney, Sandra Jo
worganpeizense hasrchaolocat 1985 Prehistoric Settlement and Subwell-organized state archaeological sistence System of the
files can be invaluable for archaeo- Apalachicola National Forest,
logical research. Site, field sur- Florida. In Archaeology of
vey, and map information are avail- Northwest Florida and Adjacent
ae and ap inl nation, Computr aBorderlands, edited by Nancy able at a single location. Computer White, pp. 98-103. Florida
manipulations can facilitate every Anthropological Society Publiphase of the work. We have found cations 11. Florida Anthropothat the most serious limitations logical Society, Tallahassee.
for research relate less to inherent Hann, John
limitations of these databases, and 1988 Apalachee: The Land between the
more to the gaps and inconsistencies Rivers. Ripley P. Bullen
typifying basic archaeological data Monographs in Anthropology and
atty igia sHistory 7. University Presses
at the regional scale. of Florida, Gainesville.
Acknowledgements Hassan, Fekri A.
1981 Demographic Archaeology. Academic Press, Orlando.
A preliminary version of this paper was presented in November, 1987, Jones, B. Calvin
at the 44th annual Southeastern 1972 Colonel James Moore and the Dechaeological Conference in struction of the Apalachee
arleston, South Carolina Several Missions in 1704. Bureau of
Cr SHistoric Sites and Properties of our colleagues provided comments Bulletin 2:25-33.
on that earlier version and on dafts of this paper. Their sugges- 1982 Southern Cuit Manifestations at
tons have improved the clarity and the Lake Jackson Site, Leon
conen ofou wok. In aricuarCounty, Florida: Salvage Exnten of ur wrk. In prticlarcavation of Mound 3. Midconwewant to thank Stephen C. Bryne, tinental Journal of ArchaeolWlliam H. Marquardt, James j. o_9y 7:3-44.
Miller, Jeffrey Mi tchem, Claudine andNacy hie.Kenyon, Judith B. and Robin StrassPyne, Loui s Tesar, an ac ht. berger
Weof course remain responsible for 1977 An Archaeological and Historte interpretation and opinions ex- ical survey of Four Alternate
presedaboe.201 Wastewater Management Faessed bovecility Sites in Leon County, Florida. Ms. on file, Florida
Bureau of Archaeological ReReferences Cited search, Tallahassee.
Bandelier, Fanny Kolb, Walter 0. (coordinator)
1964 The Narrative of Alvar Nunez 1974 The Florida General Soils AtCabeza de Vaca. The Rio las with Interpretations for
Grande Press, Chicago. Regional Planning Districts I

and II, second edition. Shapiro, Gary
Florida Department of Adminis- 1987 Archaeology at San Luis:
tration, Division of State Broad-scale Testing, 1984Planning, Bureau of Comprehen- 1985. Florida Archaeology 3.
sive Planning. Tallahassee. Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, TalMarrinan, Rochelle, and Stephen C. lahassee.
1986 Apalachee-Mission Archaeolog- Shapiro, Gary, and Rochelle A. Marical Survey Final Report, Vol- rinan
ume 1. Ms. on file, De- 1986 Two Seventeenth Century Spanish
partment of Anthropology, Missions in Florida's
Florida State University, Tal- Apalachee Province. Paper
lahassee. presented at the 19th annual
meeting of the Society for
1987 San Pedro y San Pablo de American Archaeology, SacraPatale: An Outlying Seven- mento.
teenth Century Apalachee Mission. Paper presented at the Smith, Buckingham
20th annual meeting of the So- 1968 Narratives of de Soto in the
ciety for Historical Archaeol- Conquest of Florida as Told by
ogy, Savannah. a Knight of Elvas and in a Relation by Luys Hernandez de
Payne, Claudine Biedma. Palmetto Books,
1981 A Preliminary Investigation of Gainesville.
Fort Walton Settlement Patterns in the Tallahassee Tesar, Louis D.
Hills. Southeastern Archae- 1980 The Leon County Bicentennial
ological Conference Bulletin Survey Report: An Arch24:29-31. aeological Survey of Selected
Portions of Leon County,
Peebles, Christopher S., and Susan Florida. Miscellaneous ProM. Kus ject Report Series 49.
1977 Some Archaeological Correlates Florida Bureau of Historic
of Ranked Societies. American Sites and Properties, TallaAntiquity 42: 421-448. hassee.
Scarry, John F. Varner, John, and Jeannette Varner
1984a Fort Walton Development: Mis- 1951 The Florida of the Inca. Unisissippian Chiefdoms in the versity of Texas Press,
Lower Southeast. Ph.D. dis- Austin.
sertation, Case Western Reserve University. University Willey, Gordon R.
Microfilms, Ann Arbor. 1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf
Coast. Smithsonian Miscel la1984b The Spatial Organization of a neous Collectiithsonians 113. GovLate Fort Walton Farmstead at eminent Printing Office, Washthe Velda Site, Leon County, i ntn.
Florida. Paper presented at ington.
the 48th annual meeting of the Florida Academy of Sciences,
Boca Raton.
Marion F. Smith, Jr.
1985 A Proposed Typology for the John F. Scarry
Mississippian Period Ceramics Bureau of Archaeological Research
of the Fort Walton Area: A Division of Historical Resources
Type-variety Approach. The Florida Department of State
Florida Anthropologist 38:199- 500 S. Bronough
233. Tallahassee, FL 32399-0250
1987 A Provisional Chronological Sequence for Apalachee Province.
In Lamar Archaeology: Mississippian Chiefdoms in the Deep South, edited by Mark Williams and Gary Shapiro. Ms. submitted to the University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Glen H. Doran and David N. Dickel
ABSTRACT The area is within easy access
to a variety of local resources.
Radiometric dating of the Windover The coastal ridge vegetation would
archaeological site (8BR246) in east have provided cover and forage for central Florida is based on closely deer and other upland game which corresponding radiocarbon dates on were a southeastern dietary staple. human bone, peat, modified wooden The site is near a transition from a
stakes, and rind remains of relatively homogeneous marsh along Laqenaria siceraria. Those dates the periphery of the St. Johns River
indicate that the burial activities four miles west of the site to a
took place between 6,990 and 8,120 much smaller marsh/lake com
years b.p. Chronometric data places (Bird Lake Marsh) just to the east. Windover in the Florida Early The marshlands are home to many
Archaic, though in other areas of vertebrates which were
the eastern United States it could
be pace intheearl potio of prehistorically important (Wing and be placed in the early portion of McKean 1987). The marshland is
the Middle Archaic. Most human broken by discontinuous patches of
skeletal material in North American p a
comes from the last several thousand prairie and flatwoods now useda
come fro th las sevralthouand cattle pasture, hunting and wildlife years and Windover provides an preevs. hent. Jn s i ver
excellent opportunity for studies of preserves. The St. Johns Pie exclet opportunitifonstudieswould have provided freshwater fish, sbcturtaly eadaiepttio. mussels, and similar resources.
substantially earlier period. Four miles to the east the brackish
Indian River would have provided
lagoon/estuary resources such as
SITE LOCATION fish, shark, manatee, and shellfish.
Additional Atlantic marine resources
The Windover pond (8BR246) is a would have been available a few
small (5,400 sq. meter or 1/4 acre), miles further east across Cape isolated body of water fed by Canaveral. This environmental
surface runoff and subsurface diversity would also have extended
groundwater. The site is located in to a plentiful supply of floral
a low lying sale adjacent to a resources discontinuously
small hammock (with a St. Johns distributed across the many
period component) on the western environmental zones of the area. Raw
flank of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. materials of the artifact assemblage
It appears superficially similar to indicate that all environmental thousands of other small central and zones were exploited during the south Florida ponds. During its Acac
developmental history the hydrated
pond/marsh sediments had been used SITE DISCOVERY AND MORPHOLOGY
as a cemetery, and the pond has been
the subject of archaeological The site was discovered in 1982
investigations since 1984. No during construction within the
evidence of a contemporaneous Windover Farms housing development
habitation has been found in the on the southwest edge of Titusville.
immediate vicinity of the pond. Attempts were being made to remove

peat from a small pond prior to road the west, face to north. A variety construction when an observant of artifacts from a broad spectrum
backhoe operator recognized skeletal of materials were recovered with the material in the peat matrix, burials.
Construction was rerouted and Wetsite investigation can be
delayed until archaeologists were more complex and involved than
brought in to evaluate the investigations of typical
materials, terrestrial sites. Modification of
The peat deposit is roughly excavation techniques designed to
lenticular in cross section (thinner cope with excess water is necessary. on the edges and thicker in the Furthermore, the excavator is
middle). In the deepest central obligated to ensure that the
portions of the deposit peat depths materials recovered are conserved approach 4-5 meters. Based on for today as well as the future
radiocarbon dating the oldest peat (Purdy 1974; Stone et al. 1986).
began accumulating approximately Faunal and human bone were
10,750 years b.p. (Beta-13907, Table removed from the field in sealed 1). During the middle epochs of the plastic bags and as rapidly as deposition (between 6,990 and 8,120 possible treated with bulking agents
years b.p. ) bodies were buried which replaced the water. Rhoplex
shortly after death in loosely AC-33, an acrylic emulsion
consolidated peat sediments (Doran (Conservation Materials, Sparks, and Dickel 1987; Dickel 1987). Nv.), proved more satisfactory than
Preservation factors of depth, peat polyethylene glycol (PEG or and water chemistry, etc. are being carbowax) (Stone et al. 1986). studied to better understand Untreated bone samples were also
taphonomic processes (Spackman 1986; removed and frozen for specialized Doran 1986; Nabergall 1986, 1987). chemical and protein analysis.
Floral materials (seeds, leaves,
wooden artifacts, etc.) required a
FIELD INVESTIGATIONS variety of conservation procedures
including treatment with alcohol,
As a result of Windover Farm, Damar, PEG, and refrigeration (Stone
Inc's. and the Florida Legislature0s et al. 1986 ; Gardner 1987). interest and support, the site was Temporary storage under
investigated during three field refrigeration in sealed containers
seasons (from approximately August reduced the possibility of bacterial to January in 1984, 1985 and 1986). or fungal decay and minimized A pumping and "dewatering system" dehydration. Woven fabrics (made
(wellpoints, header pipe, and diesel from a presently unidentified plant pump) leased from Thompson Pump and fiber) underwent a multi-step Manufacturing (Port Orange, Florida) conservation procedure similar to removed the approximately 2 meters that applied to wooden artifacts, of surface water and kept the area which involved removal of mineral encircled by the wellpoint system salts by soaking in deionized water,
sufficiently dry to allow excavation replacement of water with
well below the water table. alcohol/ethulose/PEG solutions,
In the sloping southern area of freezing, freeze drying, and the pond disarticulation is common reimpregnation with similar
as bodies gradually move downslope solutions (Gardner 1987). None of toward the deeper center of the the fabric materials have completed
pond. Bodies interred on the the conservation process as of March
northeast side of the pond remained 1988 even though some have been in
relatively stationary and are often various treatment stages for over a articulated. Burial orientation is year (Gardner 1987; Adovasio and variable but most were flexed on Andrews 1987).
their left side with their head to Over 90 individuals produced

UPPER BLACK SAWGRASS PEAT STRATUM 4,790 + 100 Peat,base of Bl. peat (Beta-10763)
5,290 + 90 Lower black peat (Beta-19542)
6,070 + 90 Peat,base of Bl. peat (Beta-13910)
UPPER RED BROWN PEAT STRATUM 5,800 + 80 Upper red-brown peat (Beta-10764)
7,050 + 80 Peat near highest bone (Beta-14132)
LOWER RED BROWN PEAT STRATUM (and cultural material) 6,990 + 70 Human bone (AMSF (TO-207)
7,210 + 80 Human bone (C14) (Beta-7186)
7,330 + 100 Human bone (C14) (Beta-5803)
7,830 + 80 Human bone (AMS) (TO-518)
8,120 +. 70 Human bone (AMS) (TO-241)
6,980 + 90 Modified wooden stake (Beta-19316) 7,100 + 100 Modified wooden stake (Beta-19315)
7,290 + 120 Bottle gourd fragment (Beta-20450)
7,300 + 70 Modified wooden stake (Beta-19722) 7,360 + 70 Peat beneath crania (Beta-11381)
7,410 + 80 Peat from brain surface (Beta-11383) 7,930 + 80 Wooden stake with burial(Beta-18295) 8,430 + 100 Peat, base of red brown (Beta-13909)
7,550 + 90 Lower red brown/rubber (Beta-19543)
8,770 + 90 Rubber-lily interface (Beta-19544) 8,960 + 110 Peat at southeast margin(Beta-14650)
8,990 + 90 Peat at base of rubber (Beta-13908) 9,530 + 110 Peat from beneath crania(Beta-14649)
WATER LILY PEAT/SAND MATERIALS AT BASE OF PEAT DEPOSIT 9,590 + 110 Water lily/sand strata (Beta-19545)
10,160 + 120 Peat near base of deposit(Beta-11382)
10,750 + 190 Peat at base of deposit (Beta-13907)
Dendrochronological corrections indicate the 7,330 year b.p. date is correctable to 8,110 years b.p. or 6160 B.C. calendrical years (ISOTRACE LAB 1986; Linick, Long, Damon, Ferguson 1986).
samples of preserved saponified Human Bone
brain tissue. Brain tissue was
rapidly removed, placed in plastic Shortly after the initial site
bags, flooded with nitrogen gas, visit by Robert C. Dailey and G.H.
sealed, refrigerated for transport, Doran from Florida State
and frozen at -700 Centigrade to University 's Department of
minimize possible degradation. Anthropology in the late summer of
Biochemical investigations of brain 1982, several hundred grams of
tissue have been reported elsewhere surface collected human bone from a
(Doran et al. 1986). single individual were submitted for
radiocarbon analysis. The resulting
radiocarbon date (Beta-5803) was
RADIOCARBON DATING 7,330 + 100 years b.p. Windover
Farms, Inc., having paid for the
Radiocarbon dates were provided first radiocarbon date, agreed to
by a variety of materials including pay for an additional date on a
human bone, modified and unmodified second individual also collected
wooden stakes, peat samples, and from the spoil banks. The second
macrofloral materials, date, 7, 210 + years b.p. (Beta-

7186) supported the site "s archaeological material) and the antiquity, lower end of the stake was deeply
The Beta Analytic procedure for embedded in the underlying rubber radiocarbon assay of bone employs a peat. It was felt if carbon standard hot acid collagen compounds from the peat were being
extraction procedure designed to absorbed by the archaeol
remove potential humic acid materials it should be obvious from contaminants or other materials an item embedded in several peat
which might affect the accuracy of strata. The bottom portion of the the radiocarbon assay (Tamers 1982; stake provided a date of 6,980 + 90 Wand, Gillespie and Hedges 1984). years b.p. (Beta-19316) and the-top
Approximately 150 grams of bone are portion of the stake provided a date preferred for standard radiocarbon of 7,100 + 100 years b.p. (Betaassay of bone (approximately half an 19315) These two dates are
adult femur). The development and statistically equivalent and support demonstrated reliability and a hypothesis that there is no accuracy of accelerator mass significant contamination from spectrometery (AMS) dating provides surrounding matrices after normal an excellent alternative to standard pretreatment procedures. The mean radiocarbon assay when dates on date of the three wooden stakes
small quantities of material are (using the top section date) is
desirable (Beukens, Gurfinkel, and 7,403 years b.p.
Lee 1986; Gillespie, Hedges, and
Humm 1986; Gillespie, Hedges, and
Wand 1984). With skeletal material Laqenaria siceraria the advantage of AMS dating is clear
(Taylor 1987). Isotrace Laboratory During the 1986 excavation
(University of Toronto) AMS dates on season articulated burials provided three additional individuals a variety of artifactual materials
substantiate the antiquity of the (woven fabrics, shark and Canidae
Windover skeletal material (6,990 + dentary tools, lithics, and bone, 70 b.p.; 7,830 + 80 b.p.; 8,120 + 70 antler, and wooden tools). b.p. respectively TO-207, 518 and Additionally, plant materials were 241). The mean of the AMS dates interred with burials. With one, an
(Table 1) is 7,646 years b.p. and is intact prickly pear pad (Ppni close to the mean of 7,496 b.p. all sE.) was recovered. It may have bone dates (both Beta Analytic and been buried as a food offering, the Isotrace Lab). since Opuntia seeds are common in
the stomach area of some articulated
burials. A second burial contained
Wooden Stakes the intact remains of the fruit, or
gourd portion, of the white flowered
Materials other than human bone bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria. were also dated. Modified and Bottle gourds are a member of the
unmodified wood materials were cucurbitacea family which also
associated with the burialIs includes squash and pumpkins including debarked, fire sharpened, (Whitaker and Bohn 1950; Whitaker wooden stakes. Four radiocarbon and Davis 1 962 ; Heiser 1985 ;
dates were obtained from stake Richardson 1972). La enaria is one
material. Two stakes from different of the few "domesticates", along burials provided dates of 7,300 + 70 with Canis familiaris, that had b.p. (Beta-19722) and 7,930 + 80 worldwide distribution in preb.p. (Beta-18295). Two portions of a Columbian times (King 1985; Cogniaux third wooden stake were also and Harms 1924; Whitaker 1948). No submitted for radiocarbon assay. seeds or peduncle (stem) were
The top portion of the stake was in recovered and the gourd may have the lower red brown peat strata (the been hollowed out and fashioned into
strata containing the bulk of the a container (Newsom 1987). A

portion of the specimen was microscopic, and macroscopic submitted for radiocarbon dating studies. A minimum of five distinct
through the auspices of Bruce Smith peat strata have been identified and (Smithsonian Institution). The are undergoing detailed analysis
resulting date, 7,290 + 120 years (Alexander 1985; Holloway 1985;
b.p. (Beta-20450), is technically Newsom 1986; Spackman 1986; Stout
the earliest for a member of the 1986). These materials provide
squash family north of Mexico, but opportunity to refi e an
is not statistically different from understanding of the evoluti o understanding of the evolution of the dates of cucurbit materials Holocene climates. Peat samples
from Napoleon Hollow and Koster, from strata bracketing the upper and
respectively 7,000 + 250 and 7,100 lower levels containing
+ 300 years b.p. (Conrad et al. archaeological materials were dated.
1984:445; Kay 1986). The upper levels were dated at 7,050
and the lower levels dated to
between 7,950 and 8,430 years b.p.
Peat Dates (see Table 1).
Additional radiometric dates on
peat matrix have been obtained, LITHICS AND OTHER CULTURAL MATERIAL
including one from the surface of a
preserved brain mass, that provided Only five bifacially worked
a radiocarbon date of 7,410 + 80 lithics and three waste flakes were
years b.p. (Beta-11383) Peat recovered. Four bifaces are
directly from underneath this complete and the fifth is a broken
cranium was dated to 7,360 + 80 tip (Figure 1). The complete
(Beta-11381). specimens represent two forms.
The lower portion of the bone Three are broad stemmed, rounded,
bearing strata was sampled from weak shouldered bifaces with
several locations and yielded dates slightly excurvate blades. These of 8,430 + 100 years b.p. (Beta- specimens best fit within Bullen s
13909), 7,950 + 140 (Beta-10855), (1975) Florida Archaic Stemmed
7,550 + 90 years b.p. (Beta-19543). category. The fourth specimen is a A fourth sample, well into the the nondiagnostic ovate biface. There is rubber peat stratum but directly variation in color, fabric, and
beneath a cranium, produced a date texture, but Upchurch (1987) feels of 9,530 + 110 (Beta-14649). This all five specimens could be derived date is felt to represent a from the Panasoffkee quarry cluster.
situation in which bone had Other artifacts, while not
"migrated" downslope toward the diagnostic, provide a much needed
deeper sections of the pond, time depth for their presence,
consequently, it may not be a morphology, and utilization. Hand
reliable indicator of the earliest woven fabrics from 37 burials
burial activities. Based on exhibit seven different twining and
geological interpretations, we feel manufacture techniques. They may be the 7,950 peat date (Beta-10855), or the oldest fabrics in the the 8,120 years b.p. bone collagen southeastern United States, and are
date (TO-241) probably approximate an exceptionally large and complex
the earliest burial activity at sample for this time period in the
Windover. Even so, the mean of the Americas (Adovasio and Andrews
various peat dates bracketing, and 1987).
in contact with bone, have a mean Dentary tools, manufactured from
date of 7,789 years b.p. shark teeth and Canidae canines
Thirteen additional peat samples (some with the pitch adhesive still not in direct association with present on the root) were also
archaeological materials were recovered. One of the eight
submitted for chronometric control nonfossilized sharks teeth has two
of palynological, petrographic, drilled holes, presumably for

Figure 1 Bifacially worked lithics from Windover.
hafting. Widmer (1986) hypothesized variable terminology, and geographic
that during the late prehistoric and chronometric patterning of the
period Florida coastal populations, Archaic (Custer 1984; Starna 1979;
particularly those on the Atlantic Chapman 1985; Smith 1986) Such
shore, engaged in a deep water reviews address the concept of the
fishing industry. We would argue Archaic as well as its precursors
that while such an interpretation is and predecessors, and make it clear
appealing, it remains to be that our understanding and
:i/i 8BR246
cnclusively demonstratlly worked. Many interpretation of the Archaic isver
haftspe ies of sharks can be found in undergoing a period of debate and
thate Indian River lagoon syprehistemoric and chrrevision. Iometric patterningly, (Snelson 1983; Mulligan and Snelscoastal population, interpretations of the Archaic particul1983) and many varieties are stress adaptive models and regional shore, quent visitors or inhabitants in variation raess there than just
fishing industry. We would argue Archaic as well as its preusr
thte shallow waters of the Atlantic typologies ors absolute chronologies
coast (Reitz 1982; Gilmore, (Mason 1962; Griffin 1967; Neusius
appeasing, itHerrema 1983; Rivas and 1986; Adovasio et al. 197ndin8; Chapman
McClellan 1982). 1985) .
Most interpretations suggest an
Early-Middle Archaic transition in
DISCUSSION the eastern United States of between
8,000 and 7,000 years b.p. (Fowler
Placement of Windover in the Archaic 1959; Griff fin 1967; Broyles 1971;
Funk 1977; itchie 1979; Dincauze
There are many useful reviews 1976; Chapman 1985; Wesler 1985;
and critiques of the concepts, Custer 1984). Precise placement, as

Laguna Beach, Ca. 5,100 + 500 1 Bada 1985; Taylor et al. 1985; Bada et al. 1984
San Jacinto, Ca. 5,100 + 2000 1 Bada et al. 1979; Bada 1985; Taylor 1983
Stanford, Ca. 5,130 + 70 1 Bada and Helfean 1975
Indian Knoll, Kentucky. 5,302 + 300 1,234 Winters 1974; Stewart 1962
Conkling Cavern, N. Nex. 5,320 + 120-1,590 4 Protsch 1978
Del Har, Ca. 5,400 4900 2 Bada and Helfean 1975; Bada 1985; Taylor et al. 1985
Lansing, Kansas 5,529 I Bass 1973
Gibson, II. 5,650 36 Buikstra 1981
Leonard Rockshelter, Nv. 5,736 + 400 1 Heizer 1951
Koster, Il. 5,900 4135 4 Buikstra 1981
Little Salt Springs, Fl. 6,180 + 95 20-50 Clausen et al. 1979
Modoc Cave, I1. 6,219 28 Buikstra 1981; Neumann 1967
Russell Cave, Alabama 6,310 + 140 6 Griffin 1974
Sudden Shelter, Utah >6,310 + 240 2 Jennings et al. 1980
La Jolla II, Ca. 6,330 4,820 1 Taylor et al. 1985; Taylor 1983
Kavumkan Springs, Oregon 6,453 + 250 13 Protsch 1978
Republic Groves, Fl. 6,520- 5,745 37 Wharton et al. 1981
Bay West, Fl. 6,630 + 80 30-45 Beriault et al. 1981
Anderson, Tn. 6,720- 4950 73 Juerschke 1983
Carrier Hills, II. 6,750 5650 159 Bassett 1982
Union Lake, Michigan 7,000 + t00 1 Black and Eyean 1963
Seminole Sink, Tx. 7,000 21 Turpin et al. 1985
Eva, Tn., Stratum IV, 7,150 + 500 17 Levis and Levis 1961
Tecolote Point, Ca. 7,230 3,970 79 Berger et al. 1971; Protsch 1978
Glen Annie, Ca. 7,400 6,700 7-8 Oven 1964
Angeles Nesa, Ca. 7,900 4,050 6 Taylor, et al. 1985; Taylor 1983
Modoc Rock Shelter, Co. 7,970 6,219 24 Neumann 1967
Batiquitos Lagoon, Ca. 8,000 + 3000 ? Bada 1985; Bada and Helfean 1975
Scripps Estates. Ca. 8,000 4,820 2 Taylor et al. 1985; Bada 1985
San Diego series, Ca. 8,100 5,000 46 Bada and Helfean 1975; Ike et al. 1979; Protsch 1978
Windover. Fl. 8 120 165 Doran et al. 1986
Sunnyvale, Ca. 8,200 3,600 1 Bada & Helfean 1975; Taylor et al. 1985; Serow 1981; Taylor 1983
San Diego(SDN 16709),Ca. 8,360 + 75 1 Ike et al. 1979
La Brea, Ca. 9,000 4,450 1 Taylor et al. 1985
Renier, Wis. 9,524 6,300 1 Mason and Irvin 1960
Cutler Ridge, Fl. 9,670 + 130 5 Carr 1987
Gordon Creek, Co. 9,700 + 250 1 Breternitz et al. 1971
Arlington Springs, Ca. 10,000 + 200 1 Protsch 1978
Horn Shelter, Tx. 10,310 + 150 2 Young 1985, 1986
Sulphur Springs, Az. 10,420 8,200 1 Waters 1985, 1986
Mostin, Ca. 10,470 4000 1 Kaufman 1985; Young 1986
Warm Mineral Springs, Fl.10,500 !_ 1700 21 Clausen et al. 1975; Lien 1983
Anzik/ Wilsal, Montana 10,600 + 300 1 Taylor 1969
Marines Rockshelter, Wa. 10,750 6,200 28 Shepard et al. 1987
Fishbone Cave, Nv. 11,200 10,900 1 Young 1986
Wilson-Leonard, Tx. 13,000 + 3000-9,470 1 Weir 1985
Midland, Tx. 13,400-7100 + 1000 1 Wendorf et al. 1955
Total 2,136 323 (15.1Z) from Florida
7.7% from Windover
The age range and sample sizes are listed when possible.
* Jennings et al. (1980:59-61) note that the burials are in
Stratum 7 but no pits vere visible. The overlying strata (8)
dates to 6,310 + 240 b.P.
* Date estimate based on under- and overlying strata

372 TABLE 3
Leavenworth, S.D. 150 285 Buikstra and Konigsberg 1985
Mobridge, S. Dakota 200 506 Kelley 1980; Palkovitch 1978
Pecos Glaze V, N. Hex. 350 27 Hobley 1980
Pecos Glaze IV, N. Hex. 400 95 Mobley 1980
Nanjemoy Creek, II, Md. 450 173 Ubelaker 1974
Nanjemoy Creek, I, Md. 450 124 Ubelaker 1974
Boughton Hill, NY 460 147 Bender 1979
Madisonville, Oh. 460 512 Bender 1979
Pecos Glaze III, N. Hex. 475 142 Mobley 1980
Pecos, Glaze II, N. Hex. 525 84 Mobley 1980
Ledford, Tn. 530 452 Buikstra et al. 1986
Toqua, Tn. 530 424 Buikstra and Konigsberg 1985
Averbuch, Tn. 530 1,231 Berryman 1981
Etowah, Ga. 530 301 Buikstra and Konigsberg 1985; Blakely and Mathevs 1975
Fairty, Cn. 550 512 Bender 1979
Hiwassee (Dallas), Tn. 550 188 Levis & Kneberg 1946
Crov Creek, S. Dak. 550 334 Buested 1984
Pecos, Glaze I, New. Hex. 575 157 Mobley 1980
Kane, Il. 650 140 Milner 1982
Arroyo Hondo, N. fex. 650 108 Palkovich 1978
Turner, Hissouri 650 64 Black 1979
Pecos B/W, Nev. Hex. 650 61 Mobley 1980; Howell 1960
Grasshopper, Az. 675 618 Kelley 1980
Tabor Hill, Cn. 700 78 Churcher and Kenyon 1960
Georgia, agricultural 800 342 Larsen 1980
Forked Light, N. Hex. 800 145 Mobley 1980
Moundville, Al. 900 564 Powell 1986
Hivassee, Tn. 950 173 Lewis and Kneberg 1946
Bayshore Homes, Fl. 950 115 Snow 1962; Widmer 1983
Schild, ll.(A/B)(Nissip.) 950 429 Buikstra and Konigsberg 1985
Dickson, II. (Missip.) 950 219 Buikstra and Konigsberg 1985; Blakely 1971
Koster, II. (Late Woodland) 1,000 307 Buikstra and Konigsberg 1985
Schild, II.(L. Woodland) 1,000 286 Buikstra and Konigsberg 1985
Dickson Hound (L. Woodland) 1,000 338 Buikstra and Konigsberg 1985; Blakely 1971
Riviere au Vase, Mich. 1,050 343 Bender 1979
McFayden, N. Car. 1,150 23 Wilson 1986
Libben, Ohio 1,150 1,327 Lovejoy et al. 1977
Larson, S. Dak. 1,200 621 Ovsley and Bass 1979
California, Late Horizon 1,450 344 Doran 1980; Doran 1981
Point of Pines, Az. 1,550 428 Bennett 1973
Seip fnd 1, Hopevell, Oh. 1,600 87 Konigsberg 1985
Gibson/Klunk (N. Woodland) 1,185 528 Blakely 1971; Buikstra 1976
Norton Nound, Mich. 1,787 113 Weiss 1973
McCutchan-lcLaughlin, Ok. 2,250 47 Povell and Rogers 1980
Gauthier, Fl. (intrusive) 2,300 26 Maples 1987
Illinois Archaic (Klunk) 2,858 101 Blakely 1971
California, Middle Horizon 2,950 584 Doran 1980; Doran 1981
Georgia, nonagricult. (3,050 269 Larsen 1980
California, Early Horizon 3,950 292 Doran 1980; Doran 1981
Gauthier, Fl. (sand) 4,340 105 Maples 1987
Carlston Annis (Bt-5) 5,000 354 Mensforth 1986; Lovejoy et al. 1977
Indian Knoll, Ky. 5,302 1,234 Webb 1946; Johnson & Snow 1961; Bender 1979; Kelley 1980
Gibson, II. 5,650 36 Buikstra 1981
Koster, II. 5,900 28 Buikstra 1981
Hodoc, II. 6,219 28 Buikstra 1981; Neusann 1967
Anderson, Tn. 6,720-4,950 73 Juerschke 1983
Carrier Mills, II. 6,752-5,650 159 Bassett 1982
Seminole Sink, Tx.'1 7,000 21 Marks, Rose, and Buie 1985
iyndover, _.L 8,120-6,990 165 Doran and Dickel 1986
Preliminary dat.a cpiation. Dates are the earliest recorded radiocarbon estimate not all individuals necessarily date to the earliest indicated occupation. Samples sizes
vary froe author to author depending upon exclusion/inclusion criteria of the study.
Some samples are composites of chronologically and geographically related sites.
'1 Date estimate based on under- and overlying strata

well as the implied precision, than 10 individuals per site, the
varies from local to local (Smith mean number of individuals per
1986). is only 46. Windover represents 7%
Interpretations of Florida of all the material older than 5,000
radiometric chronologies propose an years. Table 3 summarizes
Early-Middle Archaic boundary of paleodemographic studies focusing on
about 7,000 years b.p. (Milanich large North American samples. Of the
and Fairbanks 1980:54; Clausen et 19,000 individuals represented in
al. 1975; Jahn and Bullen 1978). Table 3, over 80% are less than
Beriault et al. (1981) report dates 2,000 years old, and only 11% are of 6,250-6,675 b.p. from a wooden older than 5,000 years. Based on
stake associated with Middle Archaic these data Windover is the largest burials and stemmed points at the sample of its antiquity in North
Bay West site (Collier Co.). America.
Wharton et al. (1981) report dates
6,430 years b.p. and 6,520 years
b.p. from the Republic Groves site SUMMARY
(Hardee Co.) which also contained
burials, wooden stakes, and stemmed The Windover site (8BR246) in
points. However, none of these east central Florida, accident
sites (including Windover) have discovered during construction, was
continuous Early Archaic through investigated during three field
Middle Archaic occupations. Thus
the dates set a minimum age for the seas Tpimary fous of the
Midle rchicbutdo ot rovde multidisciplinary investigations is Middle Archaic, but do not provideon a s r e of i t t o al bu direct evidence for an Early-Middle in the middle section ofuil boundary date, nor do they clarify approximately four to five meter
distinctions between the Florida thick peat deposit.
Early and Middle Archaic. The mean of nine radiocarbon
dates on human bone, wooden stakes,
and remains of a bottle gourd is
North American Skeletal Samples 7,442 radiocarbon years b.p.
the comparative framework Inclusion of dates from peats in the
archaeological levels does not
Sample sizes and age of other significantly alter the mean. Peat
North American skeletal samples deposition began approximately
are represented in Table 2 and Table 11,000 years ago and
3. Table 2 shows samples sedimentological and petrographic,
unequivocally older than 5,000 years as well as studies of faunal and b.p. Table 3 illustrates samples floral materials, are focused on
which are numerically adequate for environmental change and resource
paleodemographic and epidemiological utilization. The site is tentatively analysis. In both tables the samples associated with the Florida Early may span several archaeological time Archaic tradition according to periods but only the earliest traditional Florida chronologies.
reliable radiocarbon date is The placement is tentative due to A) reported. Some sites contain recognition of older boundary dates
substantial numbers of individuals elsewhere on the Atlantic slope, B)
from more recent periods which are lack of terminal Early Archaic
comingled with earlier materials, radiocarbon dates from Florida
Based on the preliminary (though no lack of Early Archaic
tabulation (Table 2) some 45 tools) and C) lack of clearly
samples representing 2 ,090 diagnostic artifacts from the
individuals are from sites older Windover excavations. While we are
than 5,000 years b.p. Twenty-nine forced to rely on chronology, it is (64%) of the samples produced less recognized that in other contexts

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