The Florida anthropologist

 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 From the editor
 A new kind of shell tool in Florida,...
 Yellow fever epidemics and refuse...
 Front Matter
 The early archaic to middle archaic...
 Florida Public Archaeology Network...
 In memoriam
 Book reviews
 Florida Anthropological Society...
 About the authors
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Material Information

The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Florida Anthropological Society
Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication:


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA9403
oclc - 01569447
issn - 00153893
oclc - 1569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893
sobekcm - UF00027829_00210
System ID:


Material Information

The Florida anthropologist
Abbreviated Title:
Fla. anthropol.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Florida Anthropological Society
Conference on Historic Site Archaeology
Florida Anthropological Society
Florida Anthropological Society.
Place of Publication:


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )


Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
v. 1- May 1948-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA9403
oclc - 01569447
issn - 00153893
oclc - 1569447
lccn - 56028409
issn - 0015-3893
sobekcm - UF00027829_00210
System ID:

This item has the following downloads:

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    From the editor
        Page 117
        Page 118
    A new kind of shell tool in Florida, with notes on the Cedar Point Shell heap and Cortez Midden
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Yellow fever epidemics and refuse disposal patterns at the mid-19th century Pensacola Naval Hospital
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    The early archaic to middle archaic transition in Florida: An argument for discontinuity
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Florida Public Archaeology Network (FPAN)
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    In memoriam
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Book reviews
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Florida Anthropological Society 2012 award recipients
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
    About the authors
        Page 202
    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text











S 0

Volume 65 Number 3
September 2012 Nce 19A'1












Cover: Reprint of September 1985 cover of "Fort Walton ceramic vessels after Willey (1949: Figures 57 and 60).
Illustrations courtesy of Louis D. Tesar."


Published by the
ISSN 0015-3893


An Endowment to Support production of The Florida Anthropologist,
the scholarly journal published quarterly by
the Florida Anthropological Society since 1948

Donations are being accepted from individuals, corporations, and foundations.
Inquiries and gifts can be directed to:

Keith H. Ashley, Editor
The Florida Anthropologist
Archaeology Laboratory, Building 51
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
University of North Florida, 1 UNF Drive
Jacksonville, FL 32224-2659

The Florida Anthropological Society is a non-profit organization under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal
Revenue Code. Contributions are tax-deductible as provided by section 170 of the code.


This is the first issue since our annual meeting in
Tallahassee. I would like to take a moment and thank the
Panhandle Archaeological Society at Tallahassee for hosting
a wonderful conference. San Luis is a historic treasure that
the residents of Florida should be proud of. The weekend
was chock full of interesting and informative papers and
posters that covered a broad range of subjects on Florida
archaeology. I hope the authors of these papers will consider
publishing final versions of their scholarly research in the The
Florida Anthropologist. As for next year, the St. Augustine
Archaeological Association has agreed to host the 2013 annual
This issue contains three articles that report on an
interesting mix of topics that include a new whelk shell tool
type from the Manasota region, Paleoindian and Archaic
period occupation of Florida, and nineteenth-century historic
archaeology in Pensacola. These are followed by Florida Public
Archaeology Network (FPAN) regional center summaries, an
In Memoriam, two books reviews, and recognition of FAS and
FAC 2012 award winners. There should be something inside
for everyone to enjoy.
The issue opens with an article by George Luer, a long-
time and frequent contributor to the journal. George defines
a previously undefined type of whelk shell adz. Rather than
being constructed from a whole shell, this tool is fashioned
from the lower body whorl of a left-handed whelk that
itself previously served as tool. In addition to describing the
morphological characteristics of this new tool type, George
relates tool production to broader issues such as social and
technological change and craft specialization. Finally, his
discussion of two now-destroyed sites, Cedar Point Shell Heap
and Cortez Midden, ensures that while these sites are gone
they have not been forgotten.
The next article, by Greg Mikell, shifts focus to nineteenth-
century Pensacola. Greg reports on CRM excavations at the
naval hospital associated with the Pensacola Navy Yard.
After discussing aspects of the architectural foundations
uncovered during testing, Greg summarizes the results of the
partial excavation of a large refuse pit that contained a diverse
assemblage of nineteenth century artifacts and animal bones.
Greg makes a strong case linking the pit's contents, including
a large number of still usable items, to materials discarded
from the hospital during yellow fever epidemics in an effort to
halt the spread of the disease.
The third article, by Michael Faught and Jamie Waggoner,
is sure to spark discussion and perhaps debate. These authors
challenge the long-standing belief of occupational continuity
in Florida from Paleoindian/Early Archaic to Middle Archaic
times. The authors rely on artifact distributions, select

stratigraphic evidence, and radiometric dates to emphasize
what they see as a lacuna or gap in the occupation of early
Florida between approximately 10,200 and 9000 calibrated
B.P. (-8250-7050 B.C.). Moreover, they argue that differences
in stone tool technology and mortuary practices indicate
different cultural groups: one represented by Paleoindian/
Early Archaic sites and the other represented by Middle
Archaic sites.
Next is our first installment of FPAN regional center
summaries, a section modeled after the very popular Florida
Archaeological Field School summaries published in the
December issue of the journal. Each of the eight regional
centers provides a little glimpse into what they are currently
up to. The mission of FPAN is "To promote and facilitate
the stewardship, public appreciation and value of Florida's
archaeological heritage through regional centers, partnerships,
and community engagement." After reading these summaries,
I think you will agree that the Florida Public Archaeology
Network is fulfilling their mission and offering a great service
to the citizens of Florida and beyond.
We are saddened to include an In Memoriam for Harold
D. Cardwell, Sr., a long-standing member and past president
of FAS. Dot Moore chronicles many of Harold's contributions
to the history and archaeology of Volusia County. Next are
book reviews by Chris Hunt and Toni Wallace. With the
assistance of George Luer, the journal concludes with a series
of individual and chapter awards presented at the annual
meeting in Tallahassee. Congratulations to Steve Martin,
Emerald Coast Archaeological Society, Pat Balanzategui,
Melissa Timo, Christopher Hunt, and Crystal Gieger on their
respective awards. We are pleased to present the latest issue
of The Florida Anthropologist. Enjoy!

Keith H. Ashley
Vicki L. Rolland





2012 VOL.65 (3)


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The Archaeology Foundation, Inc., 3222 Old Oak Drive, Sarasota, FL 34239
Email: geoluer@gmail .com

In this article, I describe and analyze six shell tools
made by pre-Columbian Florida Indians. The specimens
represent a previously undescribed kind of shell adz having
several unusual attributes, including a perforation. Three of
.the specimens may date to the Terminal Archaic/Florida
Transitional period (ca. 1000 to 500 B.C.) or to the Manasota
period (500 B.C. to A.D. 500), while the other three probably
date to the Manasota period. These estimated ages are based
on attributes they share with whelk shell Type E' and Type
H2 cutting-edged tools (two shell tool types that I describe,
below, which date to those periods). I discuss these shell tools
and their place in a scenario of increasing craft specialization
along the central and southwestern Florida Gulf coast.
The six specimens reported here came from two large
coastal shell middens that suffered tragic destruction in
the twentieth century. They were the Cedar Point Shell
Heap (8CH8), in Charlotte County, and the Cortez Midden
(8MA140) in Manatee County (Figure 1). These two sites
were approximately 72 km (45 mi) apart (by straight line).
I present information about both sites so they can be better
known and appreciated, especially the Cortez Midden, about
which very little has been published.

Whelk Shell Tools

Florida Indians intentionally shaped and modified marine
shells to make tools, especially shells of the left-handed whelk
(Busycon contrarium) (Figure 2). They did so by reducing
shells and using their parts, which was not haphazard, simple,
or easy work. It involved steps learned and passed down for
many generations, and it required forethought and planning
for each shell and intended tool. The Indians obtained a
desired piece of shell through careful processes of reduction,
methodically hammering away unwanted portions and then
chipping and shaping them further, often grinding smooth their
reduced edges. Numerous kinds of whelk shell tools could be
made, ranging from relatively whole shells (e.g., whelk shell
tool blanks and Type 2A vessels) to portions of shells, such
as reduced shell scrapers (fashioned from the lower portion
of a shell) and various kinds of hammers and columella tools
(the latter extracted from a shell's central column and then
modified) (e.g., Luer 1992a, 1992b, 2008; Luer et al. 1986;
Luer and Hughes 2005; Marquardt 1992; Torrence 1999). Such
shell-working activity generated reduction debris, reduced
shell portions, unfinished tools, and rejects (e.g., shells that

broke in unintended ways or that contained a flaw).
Here, I introduce a few kinds of left-handed whelk shell
tools that are important to this article, namely body whorl
adzes and Type E and Type H cutting-edged tools (the two
types signifying different positions of hafting perforations).
The Indians used mostly whole shells to make Type E and H
cutting-edged tools. In contrast, they used only a portion of a
shell's outer whorl to make a body whorl adz.
To make a whole-shell cutting-edged tool, an artisan
reduced a whole shell in limited ways, first by chipping
back the outer lip, next by hammering off the base of the
columella, then perforating the shell in the top and/or side (to
prepare it for hafting), and then grinding bevels on its base to
make a cutting edge. It was essential for an artisan to make
perforations and bevels in proper locations in order to insert
a wooden handle correctly and to produce a successful tool.
Even slightly incorrect placements of perforations and bevels
could result in a faulty tool (e.g., unbalanced or misaligned).
For whole-shell cutting-edged tools, styles of perforation
(and presumably modes of hafting) changed through time.
Archaeologists view Type E tools (and a closely related form
called Type X) as representing an early stage in the evolution
and use of whole-shell cutting-edged tools. On the Gulf coast
of central and southwestern Florida, a gradual progression
through time appears to go from Type E (ca. 1000 to 500 B.C.)
to Types E, H, and I (ca. 500 B.C. to A.D. 500) and then to
Types A and B (ca. A.D. 300 to 1600) (e.g., Dietler 2008:Table
2.2; Luer 1992a:247-251, 2008; Luer et al. 2008). Why this
shift in forms occurred is not known, though it might have led
to more efficient tools (Types A and B). Studies replicating
the use of whole-shell tools, yet to be conducted, may indicate
why they changed.
In contrast to essentially whole-shell tools (such as Types
E and H), the Indians took different steps to make body whorl
adzes. First, a tool-maker had to extract a piece of outer body
whorl by hammering away extraneous portions of a whelk
shell (removing the columella, inner whorls, and spire). Next,
the artisan had to peck out the portion of the whorl that was
desired (which varied depending on the type of adz being
made) and then grind it to make a symmetrical blade-like
form. These steps created a body whorl adz preform. Finally,
one or two bevels were ground on a preform's working end
to make a cutting edge, thereby readying it for lashing to a
wooden handle in order to make a finished adz. A bevel was
typically on the inner side of the blade (toward the tool user),


VOL. 65(3)




Figure 1. Florida's lower Gulf coast and some sites
mentioned in text. Note the Cedar Point Shell Heap and
Cortez Midden.

and sometimes a second bevel was on the opposite side.
Most whelk shell body whorl adzes made by Indians of
the peninsular Florida Gulf coast were unperforated. In these
unperforated forms, it appears that a handle was attached by
simply wrapping binding around the haft and the tool blade.
The hafting arrangement presumably consisted of a wooden
handle with an angled end for lashing, typically an inverted

branch or fork oriented at approximately a 45-degree angle to
the handle. Such a haft situating the cutting edge perpendicular
to the handle axis made an adz, while a different haft that
oriented the edge parallel with the handle axis made an ax.
This distinction between adz and ax is clear among American
Indian, Eskimo, and European-derived early American tools
(Arbor 1994:65, 117, 118; Miles 1963:70-71, 80-85; Sloane
1964:10-21, 26-29, 49, 51).
On the Gulf coast of central and southwestern Florida,
an early type of left-handed whelk body whorl adz was the
"shouldered adze."3 Specimens from Useppa Island (8LL51,
west of Fort Myers) and Horr's Island (8CR208, 8CR209,
south of Marco) come from contexts radiocarbon dated to
the late Archaic period (ca. 2800 to 1800 B.C.) (Marquardt
1992:208; Russo 1991, 2002:94; Torrence 1999:27, 43).
Shouldered adzes were made primarily from a portion of
the upper whorl (often including nodules on the edge of the
shoulder). Their bit (bevel and cutting edge) was ground on a
portion of the lower whorl. Figure 3a shows the part of a shell
used to create a shouldered adz. Images of shouldered adzes
can be seen in Marquardt (1992:Figure 21A) and Torrence
(1999:Figures 20-22).
Other forms of whelk body whorl adzes, also from the late
Archaic period, consist of rectangular, oval, and trapezoidal
adzes (Torrence 1999:44-45, Table 6). Figure 3b shows the
portion of a shell used to create an oval adz. The oval and
trapezoidal adzes pictured by Torrence (1999:Figures 23, 24)
have the bit ground on the lower portion of the whorl (at or
below the interior ridge), as do other apparent late Archaic
period specimens. Examples include one from the Palmer
site's Hill Cottage Midden (8S02, south of Sarasota) (Bullen
and Bullen 1976:Plate IVa) as well as a complete specimen
and a fragment I recovered from 8CH64 (Shovel Test #3)
on Cedar Point Ridge, near Lemon Bay in Charlotte County

Figure 2. Two views of a left-handed whelk shell. Parts important to this article are identified.

TnF Fl.Onrna ANrHnoPnr~ocrsT

2012 VniOL. 65(3


(Luer 1994:18-19, 1999a:53).
Like shouldered and oval body whorl adzes, the perforated
adz specimens from Cortez Midden and Cedar Point Shell
Heap (described below) also have a bit that was ground on
a portion of the lower body whorl. This is shown in Figure
3c, and it may represent a hold-over from late Archaic times.
Figure 3c also shows locations where a perforation can occur
in perforated adzes (above the shoulder's edge, and in or below
the shoulder's edge).
In contrast, many left-handed whelk body whorl adzes
from sites dating to the Woodland and Mississippian periods
in central and southwestern Florida are "turned around. "
That is, their bit end is on the upper whorl rather than the
lower whorl.4 This change can be seen in Figure 3d. In such
adzes, a portion of the lower whorl became the blunt pole end
of the adz blade (Figure 4). This change may not apply to all
specimens, so that body whorl adzes with a bit on the lower
whorl still might have been made in later times.
A bit on the upper whorl may represent a functional
refinement in adz technology, allowing a thicker, sturdier
pole end as well as greater retooling and reduction of the bit
end as use-wear progressed. This view is supported by these
adzes having long and short blade forms, with long blades
incorporating more of the upper whorl (sometimes almost
as far as the shoulder's edge), and short blades extending
slightly above the arc of constriction (on the whorl's exterior
surface) and slightly above the interior ridge (on the whorl's
corresponding inner surface). This view of functional
advantage is supported also by specimens showing greater
variability in the form and orientation of the cutting edge with
respect to the blade's long axis, including straight, angled, and
curved cutting edges (the latter ranging from slightly excurvate
to spatulate).
Examples of post-Archaic whelk body whorl adzes with
a bit on the upper whorl, and showing a variety of forms,
come from Cockroach Key (8HI2) near Tampa Bay (Willey
1949:Plate 16c), Abel Midden (8MA83A) north of Bradenton
(Bullen 1951 :Plate IIIn), Roberts Bay site (8S056) in Sarasota
(Luer 1977:Figure 4d), Cash Mound (8CH38) near Cape Haze
(Bullen and Bullen 1956:Plate V:C, D; Marquardt 1992:209,
Figure 21B, C), and Mound Key (8LL2) south of Fort Myers
(Wheeler 2000:Figure 4.11). Others from farther north
along the Florida Gulf coast are pictured by Hoff and Hoff
(2007:Figures 5.20, 5.23, 7.9C). Figure 4 shows a specimen
with a short blade and a slightly excurvate cutting edge on the
upper whorl that came from the surface of Sarasota's Palmetto
Lane Midden (8SO96), which dates to the Manasota period
(Luer 1992a; Luer et al. 2005).

Shell Tool Descriptions

The six shell artifacts described below (Figures 5 and 6)
were each made from the outer body whorl of a large, robust,
left-handed whelk shell. By grinding, the Indians fashioned
bevels and a cutting edge on the lower portion of each body
whorl. This position of the bit on the lower body whorl is
shared by the region's Archaic-period adzes (see above). For

Figure 3. Adzes made from different portions of whelk
body whorl, a: shouldered adz; b: oval adz; c: perfo-
rated adz; d: trapezoidal adz (short blade). The bit was
ground on the lower whorl (a, b, c) or on the upper whorl
(d). In (c), two alternate locations are shown for its
single perforation. In (d), longer forms extend upward to
include more of the upper whorl. General age ranges are
the late Archaic (a, b), Terminal Archaic and Manasota
(c), and Woodland and Mississippian periods (d).

the six specimens described below, the bit's position on the
lower whorl appears to reflect fabrication history in which the
body whorl was extracted and reused from a prior whole shell
tool. Presumably, the bit end was used for gouging or hewing
material (such as burned and unburned wood) in an adz-like
manner, with the cutting edge oriented perpendicular to the
handle. In technical jargon, these six artifacts can be called
"perforated body whorl adzes."
All six specimens are unusual adzes because they retain
a portion of the outer body whorl that extends above the
shoulder. This can be seen in Figures 3c, 5, and 6. Indeed, on
five of the specimens, this upper extension of the shell even
retains a portion of the adjacent inner whorl, which forms a
"shelf' at the blunt end of the blade (only one of them lacks
such a shelf because it is damaged and broken off). This
interior shelf might have aided in hating, and it apparently




Toward upper/apical/posterior portion of shell:
toward shoulder and spire

distal portion
of blade

natural arc of

shell ridges

proximal portion
of blade

Outer S
of S

bit end of blade
with cutting edge -

blunt or
pole end
of blade

surface I In
hell 3 cm


body whorl

interior ridge

body whorl

ner Surface
of Shell

toward lower/basalanterior portion of shell:
toward siphonal canal '

Figure 4. Some terms for a body whorl adz. This specimen has a short blade with a slightly excurvate cutting
edge on the upper whorl.

was a consistent attribute of this adz form.
Figures 5 and 6 also show that these six tools are unusual
for having a perforation, which varies in its vertical placement.
It is above the shoulder's edge on Cedar Point specimens
(Figure 5) and just in or below the shoulder's edge on Cortez
specimens (Figure 6). In all cases, however, the perforation is
located in the upper portion of the adz blade, along the midline
of the tool's long axis. This probably is related to hating,
so that the upper portion of the whorl could be attached to
the handle in a symmetrical, evenly-balanced way, while
the whorl's lower portion and its cutting edge could project
freely. Nonetheless, how a handle was attached is unclear, and
experiments at hafting facsimile tools could shed light on this

Cedar Point Specimens

In 1993, I found the three Cedar Point artifacts (Specimens
#1, #2, #3) in the tidal zone along the water's edge at the western
tip of Cedar Point. There, they were among disturbed midden
shells bulldozed outward from the site by the Army Corps of
Engineers in 1965 during dredging of the Gulf Intracoastal
Waterway in Lemon Bay. These shells had lain in the tidal
zone for a number of years since that time, and Specimens
#1 and #2 had barnacles adhering. The three artifacts did not
conform to any shell tool type that was known in the 1990s, so
I called them "miscellaneous" and placed them at the end of a

list of shell artifacts I recovered from the remains of the Cedar
Point Shell Heap. In that list, I described them as "3 specimens
consisting of a large piece of left-handed whelk outer body
whorl with a single [hole]... immediately above the shoulder"
(Luer 1999a:Table 2).
In my 1999 list, I also briefly described each specimen. The
first had "two shallow hafting notches" in its sides (Specimen
#1, Figure 5a). The second had a "cutting edge snapped off
and [an] accessory hafting hole broken open" (Specimen #2,
Figure 5b). The third had a "cutting edge intact on [its] basal
end," which suggested that it had been "removed from [an]
original whole shell cutting-edged tool" (Specimen #3, Figure
All three Cedar Point specimens display a similar-size
perforation along the midline of the blade, above the shoulder's
nodules (Figure 5, Table 1). Their bit ends vary, being straight
or slightly incurvate on Specimen #1 and excurvate on
Specimen #3. The bit end on Specimen #3 is identical to a bit
on a "whole shell" cutting-edged tool (such as on a Type E
tool) and appears to be an inheritance owing to Specimen #3
having been derived from part of a Type E cutting-edged tool
(see below).
Each of these three specimens functioned as an
independent body whorl adz. Specimen #1's shallow lateral
notches are intentional modifications that apparently aided
hafting, and its bit end was fashioned after reduction of the
lower body whorl and removal of the columella, supporting its


2012 VOL. 65(3)


Figure 5. Perforated body whorl adzes from Cedar Point Shell Heap. a: Specimen #1;
b: Specimen #2; c: Specimen #3.

function as a discrete body whorl tool. Specimen #2's lateral
edges are straight and fairly smooth (from grinding), except
where broken at its base, indicating that it was shaped and used
as an independent tool. While not ground smooth, Specimen
#3's lateral edges are relatively straight and on the same plane,
which indicates intentional shaping and retouching as an
independent tool.

Cortez Specimens

Figure 6 shows the artifacts from Cortez Midden
(Specimens #4, #5, #6). At least two of them were found in
the early 1970s by John Ness, of Manatee County, and were
acquired later by Mark Burnett, also of Manatee County.5

Color photographs of these three specimens are presented by
Hoff and Hoff (2007:64, Figure 7.23), who call them "hoe or
adze blades."
Specimen #4 is very slightly eroded, suggesting that it
came from the site's sandy beach. The condition of the other
two specimens indicates that they still were buried in the
midden when found. The surface of Specimen #6 has adhering
brownish patches of calcium phosphate (a precipitate derived
from dissolved midden food bone that was deposited during
the time it was buried). Specimens #5 and #6 might have
come from the banks of a finger canal dug through the Cortez
Midden in the late 1950s or early 1960s (see site description,
The Cortez specimens are similar in form to each other.



Table 1. Measurements of perforated body whorl adzes. Length is from the blunt end to the basal bit end,
along the axis of the missing columella. Width is perpendicular to the length. The width of the cutting edge is
measured across the ground edge of the bit end and approximately parallel with blade width. The
perforation's width was parallel with the blade width, and the perforation's height was perpendicular to its

Speci- Site Origin Body Whorl Body Whorl Cutting Edge Perforation Height x
men Length (mm) Width (mm) Width (mm) Width (mm)
#1 8CH8 138 95 40 15 x 20
#2 8CH8 143* 128 not present* 15?* x 20
#3 8CH8 158 135 30 15 x 18
#4 8MA140 172 113** 25 20x 18
#5 8MA140 175 133** 70*** 31 x33
#6 8MA140 170 120 70 23 x 22
*Specimen #2 is damaged but its size is similar to Specimen #3; Specimen #2's original length was several
millimeters longer than the measurement here, its cutting edge is broken off, and its perforation is estimated because
it is broken open.
**Specimens #4 and #5 are damaged; each has an intact modified outer lip whereas the opposite lateral edge of
reduced body whorl is rough where some has broken away, more on Specimen #5 than on Specimen #4.
***Specimen #5's cutting edge was slightly longer than 70 mm, but it is now partly broken away at its damaged
lateral edge.

They vary slightly, however, in the placement and size of the
perforation as well as in the size and shape of the cutting edge.
The perforation is directly in the shoulder on Specimen #4
(Figure 6a), and it migrates progressively lower on Specimens
#5 and #6, with its upper edge touching the shoulder on
Specimen #5 (Figure 6b) and being entirely below the shoulder
on Specimen #6 (Figure 6c). The perforation is largest on
Specimen #5, smallest on Specimen #4, and intermediate size
on Specimen #6.
Variation also is displayed by the cutting edge, which is
relatively narrow and excurvate on Specimen #4, long and
mostly straight on Specimen #5, and long and excurvate on
Specimen #6. These edges and their ground bevels are shown
in Figure 7. Such differences reflect variability in hand-made
tools, their intended uses, and their varied use-lives (use-wear
and repair). Despite such differences, Specimens #4, #5, and
#6 are all adzes.
These Cortez specimens also could have been extracted
from prior whole-shell tools, and they (like the Cedar Point
specimens) show evidence of having been independent body
whorl tools. For example, both lateral edges on Specimen #4 are
ground smooth (except toward the shoulder on one side, where
there is recent damage), which indicate they were intentionally
shaped. Likewise, Specimen #6's lateral edges are on the same
plane and show some smoothing, and its perforation is on its
midline, which imply intentional shaping to make a discrete
tool. In the case of Specimen #5, its perforation is off-center
and one lateral edge is rough (both a consequence of recent
breakage), but other shaped features (such as its internal whorl
shelf) are consistent with a tool in its own right. Finally, the bit
ends on Specimens #4 and #6 were ground symmetrically after
removal of the columella and some of the lower body whorl,
thereby tailoring each cutting edge to a discrete body whorl
tool (Figure 7a, c).

Discussion of Specimens

Table 1 presents measurements of the six perforated adz
specimens described above. Table 1 shows that the Cedar
Point artifacts are all slightly smaller than those from Cortez
Midden. The Cortez specimens are all very similar in length.
Although the six specimens lack tight provenience, their
age and cultural affiliation can be suggested based on attribute
analysis. That is, some of their attributes of fabrication can
be compared to other known types of shell tools to suggest
relationships and age. Some shell tool attributes are distinctive
enough, and well-dated enough, to allow general dating in
this way. In this case, the six perforated adz specimens can
be compared with whelk shell Type E and Type H cutting-
edged tools from dated contexts and with which they share
some attributes. Through this process of comparison, I suggest
that the Cedar Point specimens date to the Terminal Archaic/
Florida Transitional period (ca. 1000 to 500 B.C.) and/or the
Manasota period (500 B.C. to A.D. 500), and that the Cortez
specimens date to the Manasota period.
First (as noted above), the bit end of Specimen #3 from
Cedar Point resembles the bit end of a whole-shell cutting-
edged tool, which strongly suggests that it was extracted from
such a pre-existing tool. Second, the perforation on each Cedar
Point specimen (above the shoulder's edge) is similar in form,
size, and placement to one of the perforations found in whelk
shell Type E shell cutting-edged tools (the perforation located
near 260 to 295 degrees in the top of the shell see Luer
2008:Figure 2, Table 1). Third, the removal of most of the
inner body whorls from the Cedar Point specimens suggests
a relationship with some Type E cutting-edged tools, which
have their inner whorls and spire removed (Luer 2008:74-75).
Thus, these shared attributes suggest that each Cedar
Point specimen might have been fashioned by extraction from
a whelk shell Type E cutting-edged tool, thereby reusing or


2012 VOL. 65(3)


Figure 6. Perforated body whorl adzes from Cortez Midden. a: Specimen #4; b: Specimen #5; c: Specimen #6.

recycling a portion of the Type E tool. If so, the Cedar Point
specimens could date to as early as the Florida Transitional/
Terminal Archaic period or to the Manasota Period. The earlier
portion of this possible age range is based on whelk shell Type
E tools (called "Type X") from the Canton Street site (8PI55)
(Bullen et al. 1978) and two whelk shell Type E cutting-edged
tools that I found in the top of the Hill Cottage Midden at
the Palmer Site (8S02) (Luer 1984; Luer et al. 1986:121).
The latter portion of this possible age range is supported
by research at the Palmetto Lane Midden and Hooker Key
(8LL30, in Pine Island Sound), where Type E cutting-edged

tools (called "Type X") came from deposits radiocarbon-dated
to ca. 500 B.C. to A.D. 500 (Luer 1992a:247-249; Luer et al.
2008:21-22; Luer et al. 2005).
A similar case can be made for the Cortez specimens.
However, each of their perforations is in or below the
shoulder's edge, which suggests a relationship with whelk
shell Type H cutting-edged tools. Figure 8 (upper) shows six
Type H cutting-edged tools, each with their hallmark: a neat,
well-ground perforation in or below the shoulder's edge and
near the reduced outer lip. Figure 8 (lower) shows that four of
these six specimens also have a rough hole in the outer whorl



T L A R O2 O 5

Figure 7. Bit ends of perforated body whorl adzes from Cortez Midden. Note the inner and outer bevels ground on
the lower portion of the body whorl, a: Specimen #4; b: Specimen #5; c: Specimen #6. Images by Mark Burnett.

that is adjacent to the inner lip and aperture. This rough hole
may represent a crude extraction hole that also might have
helped in lashing a handle to the shell (a fifth of these six Type
H specimens has a typical extraction hole in the shell's top,
above the shoulder's edge).
Table 2 presents measurements of these Type H cutting-
edged tools (the method for taking radial measurements is
shown in Luer 2008:Figure 2). In these Type H tools, it is
noteworthy that each well-made perforation (near the reduced
outer lip) is in a location similar to a perforation in a Cortez
adz specimen. Indeed, Cortez Specimen #5 retains the end
of its suture, which allows estimates of the radial locations
of its reduced outer lip (330 degrees) and nearby perforation
(260 to 285 degrees). These locations are similar to those of
Type H tools in Table 2. In other words, they are consistent

with the hypothesis that Cortez Specimen #5 could have been
fashioned by extraction from a whelk shell Type H tool. The
Type H tools in Table 2 were made from smaller shells than
were the perforated adzes from Cortez, but they represent
a small sample and larger Type H tools probably existed. If
extracted from such tools, the Cortez perforated adzes should
date to the Manasota period. Such an age for whelk shell Type
H cutting-edged tools is supported by radiocarbon dates from
the Palmetto Lane Midden (Luer 1992a:247-249; Luer et al.
In sum, the implication that both Type E and H cutting-
edged tools could have been source materials for perforated
body whorl adzes argues for their fabrication during times
when Type E and Type H tools were in use (ca. 1000 B.C. to
A.D. 500 for Type E, and ca. 500 B.C. to A.D. 500 for Type H).

2012 VOL. 65(3)


Table 2. Measurements of seven whelk shell Type H cutting-edged tools. Width is measured at the shoulder,
below the nodules. The location of the perforation (in the upper side of the shell, below the shoulder's edge) is
measured in degrees (0) counterclockwise from the end of the suture, as is the location of the reduced outer lip
(following the method shown in Luer 2008:Figure 2). The perforation's inside edge is used in measuring its
distance below the shoulder's edge. The angle of the major bevel is the angle in degrees between the face of
the bevel and the long axis of the columella (the latter extending ideally from the apex of the spire to the base
of the columella).

SRadial o Radial
Distance of
Location and Perforation Location of Angle
Tool Site Origin* Mass Length Width Size of Below Reduced of
Site Origin* Below
Type (g) (mm) (mm) Perforation Shoulder Outer Lip at Major
(height x Shoulder Bevel
Edge (mm)
width, mm) ( Edge
H 8MA140 325 120 90 230250' 10 to 25 3100 350
15 x 20
H 8MA7 300 125 90 240'-260' 9 to 24 315 350
15 x 20
H 8MA-- 670 161 118 2400255' 10 to 28 3000 250
18 x 23
H 8MA-- 525 150 118 2600 280' 3 to 24 3250 350
21 x26
H 8MA-- 330 120 95 250-280' 8 to 29 3200 250
21 x 28
H 8MA-- 330 120 95 240'260, 9 to 24 3000 300
15 x 17
240-280, 10 to O,**
H 8MA-- 225 102 75 240280 10 to 3350 300
20 x 25 0 to 12
*These artifacts, from top to bottom in the table, are from Cortez Midden (Figure 8a), Shaw's Point (Figure 8b), and
undetermined sites in western Manatee County. The table's fourth entry is shown in Figure 8c, the fifth in Figure
8d, the sixth in Figure 8e, and the seventh in Figure 8f. The table's third entry is not pictured.
**This perforation extends 10 mm above the shoulder's edge and 12 mm below it, when measured along the angle
of the shoulder.

By recognizing this new form of body whorl adz, additional
specimens may be identified in the future. For example, a
possible seventh specimen from Shaw's Point (8MA7), at the
mouth of the Manatee River, is in the South Florida Museum
(A7085/34-99) in Bradenton. It has shallow lateral notches,
like Specimen #1 (above), but its upper portion is broken off
so that its possible perforation is missing. In recent decades,
its collector modified its damaged edge by grinding it smooth
(Luer 2000:14).

Wider Perspectives

By applying theoretical approaches of cultural materialism
and evolution to cultural development along Florida's lower
Gulf coast, archaeologists have hypothesized that the centuries
from 1000 B.C. to A.D. 500 (the Terminal Archaic/Florida
Transitional period through the Glades I and middle Woodland
periods) were a time of greater sedentism, population growth,
and increasing population density, resource circumscription,
and sociopolitical complexity (e.g., Widmer 1988:215-223).
Archaeological evidence for the Manasota period presents a
picture of growing and varied social complexity, with burial
mounds appearing (as early as 185 to 60 cal B.C. at Yellow

Bluffs, 8S04) and cemeteries and midden burials persisting
(e.g., dating to cal A.D. 410 to 660 at Cedar Point's Dunwody
site, 8CH61) (Gold 2006; Luer 2011:22-23). These were
important centuries that need more research to understand
them in their own terms. Perforated body whorl adzes are an
important addition to our picture of these times, as is the shift
from whelk shell Type E to Type H cutting-edged tools

Shell Tools and Social Development

The Cedar Point and Cortez perforated adzes can be
viewed in wider terms of shell tool fabrication along Florida's
lower Gulf coast. They fit into a tradition of shell tool
production and use that changed through time. These changes
appear to reflect technological improvements as well as social
change, such as growing craft specialization and increasing
social complexity.
The shift in the bit end of whelk shell body whorl adzes
(from lower to upper whorl) may represent a technological
improvement that allowed bits to have more varied shapes and
that provided a stronger pole end (see above). Similarly, the
shift in whelk shell cutting-edged tools from Type E to Type
H and then to Type A may reflect technological improvements




Figure 8. Left-handed whelk shell Type H cutting-edged tools. a: Cortez Midden; b: Shaw's Point; c-f: from western
Manatee County. All specimens are in the Burnett collection.

in hafting. Another shift took place when fighting conch
(Strombus alatus) shell hammers were replaced by Type C
and D whelk shell hammers after ca. A.D. 500 to 700 in this
region (Luer 1992a:250; Luer et al. 1986:121; Luer and Almy
1982:44, Figure 4). I have hypothesized that these changes and
growing emphasis on tools made from reduced, robust left-

handed whelk shells, especially from ca. A.D. 800 onward,
reflect increased specialization in shell tool production,
including the fabrication and hoarding of whelk shell tool
blanks (Luer 1986:154, 1992a:250, 2008:80, Note 2; Luer
et al. 1986:120-121). These centuries, ca. A.D. 800 to 1000,
correlate to late Weeden Island times and the transition to


2012 VOL. 65(3)


Mississippian-influenced cultures, including the establishment
of large, ranked, chiefdom societies (Luer 2002a:104-106,
2002b:157; Widmer 1988:222-223).
Recently, my hypothesis of increased craft specialization
for whelk shell tools after ca. A.D. 800 was explored by Dietler
(2008), with a focus on the Caloosahatchee region. However, I
want to emphasize that such technological and social changes
had wider geographic and ethnic scope, and that they included
Florida's central Gulf coast. That is, these changes figured
in the evolution of a number of American Indian groups,
including the Tocobaga and their neighbors, and they were
not limited to the Caloosahatchee region, the Calusa, and the
largest of sites.
How do the Cedar Point and Cortez specimens fit into
this picture of technological and social change? If derived
from Type E and Type H cutting-edged tools, as argued above,
the Cedar Point and Cortez specimens would predate the
intensification of whelk shell tool production beginning ca.
A.D. 700 or 800. In such a view, the Cedar Point and Cortez
specimens may represent an earlier expedient recycling of
useable shell by shell tool users. By reusing a portion of a
shell extracted from a Type E or Type H tool (in order to make
a perforated body whorl adz), a tool user would be extending
the use-life of part of a robust shell tool. Such intentional
conservation and recycling points to the value placed on
useable, robust shell, and such value helped lead to the
specialization in whelk shell tool production that developed
along the peninsular Gulf coast as American Indian societies
became more complex.

Shell Tools and Communication

Sites from Tampa Bay to Pine Island Sound have yielded
whelk shell Type E cutting-edged tools. They include Canton
Street, Shaw's Point, Cortez Midden, Eagle Nest (8MA1820),
Braden River #3, Palmetto Lane Midden, Hill Cottage
Midden, Cedar Point Shell Heap, Cash Mound, Turtle Bay
2 (8CH37), Calusa Island (8LL45), Patricio Island (8LL49),
Josslyn Island (8LL32), and Hooker Key (Luer 2008:76).
Type H cutting-edged tools are known from some of these
same sites, such as Shaw's Point, Cortez Midden (see below),
Palmetto Lane Midden, Calusa Island, and Josslyn Island.
This wide distribution of Type E and H tools along the central
and southwestern Florida Gulf coast implies contact among
inhabitants of these sites or, at the least, movements of people
among them.
Moreover, the similarities among the six perforated body
whorl adzes described above imply contact among inhabitants
of the sites where they were found. They are not simple tools
that resemble each other merely because they consist of
similar pieces of shell. Indeed, they share many fabrication
attributes adhering to a clear norm so that it is very unlikely
they were invented independently. As discussed above, a shell
adz can be made in many possible ways. The perforated body
whorl adzes described here (with their unusual raised, shelf-
like inner whorl) are probably the most contrived of all. They
appear to be have been invented, and subsequently copied and

used by people who were in contact with each other.
In the case of the two sites yielding the perforated adzes
reported here, the Cedar Point Shell Heap and Cortez Midden
were approximately 72 km (45 mi) apart, by straight line.
Considering actual travel distance using a canoe and hugging
protected waters along lee shores, they would have been
several kilometers farther apart, once islands, points, and
curved shorelines were included. Experiments with modem
canoes suggest that the Cedar Point Shell Heap and Cortez
Midden might have been approximately three days apart by
canoe, given good weather, a travel speed of 4 km per hour,
and a travel distance of 32 km (20 mi) in an 8-hour day
(Blanchard 1999:40-41). In practice, a variety of challenges
can lengthen travel time along this route, such as changing
wind and weather as well as the necessity of making a Gulf
passage between portages at Venice and the north end of
Lemon Bay, where a barrier island and a protected estuary did
not exist (Blanchard 1999:28-29). Such assumed contact via
dugout canoe in aboriginal times can help explain the close
similarities in the six perforated adzes reported here.

Site Descriptions

The Cedar Point Shell Heap and the Cortez Midden were
significant Gulf coast shell middens. Both suffered greatly
from twentieth-century land use, first by "shell mining" and
later by dredging and filling. They are tragic examples of site
Mining shell from "Indian middens" was once widely
practiced in Florida. During early decades of the 1900s,
midden shells and their surrounding matrix (e.g., sand, broken
and crushed shells) were dug by hand and animal power,
hauled off in wagons or trucks, and shoveled into sandy ruts
of unpaved roads. A rare description of a "shelled road" in the
dispersed rural community of Palma Sola, only 3 to 4 mi (5 to
6.5 km) northeast of the Cortez Midden, was written by old-
timer Fred Hall, based on his first-hand observations, ca. 1915
to 1920:

[Manatee] County shelled the two outside wheel
ruts on the road, leaving the center rut nice soft sand
where the horse or mule traveled. This meant that
automobiles must select an area where sod or firm dirt
existed for turning out of the shell ruts; where there
was no sod meant "stuck-in-the-sand." Therefore,
the accommodating wagon or buggy driver would
usually pull completely off of the road and stop,
allowing the automobile to proceed without leaving
the two shelled ruts. [Hall 1986:14]

An early source for shelling sandy roads in Manatee
County was the Palma Sola area's large shell mound at
Shaw's Point, which was hauled off ca. 1902 to 1912
(Schwadron 2002:57-58, Figure 13). Even closer to the
Cortez Midden (only 1 mi [1.7 km] to its north) was the large,
multi-component Perico Island site (8MA6, containing shell



THE~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ FLRD NHOOOIS 02VL 5

middens and burial areas), which was partially excavated by
archaeologists and suffered repeated shell mining during the
first half of the 1900s (Bullen 1950:40; Hutchinson 2004:92-
93; Willey 1949:174-175). Further dramatic impacts occurred
in 1957, when Manatee Avenue (State Road 64) was extended
westward across remnants of the Perico Island site, where
a bridge was built to Anna Maria Island (Antonini et al.
1999:29; Norwood 2010:184-186; United States Department
of Agriculture 1983:Sheet 10). Destruction of important sites
by shell mining also took place in Charlotte and Lee counties
(Luer 1989:250-251).
In the 1960s, mechanized dredging and filling caused
further destruction. At Cortez Midden, a dragline was used to
dig a finger canal through the site and to place spoil around it in
anticipation of residential development. At Cedar Point Shell
Heap, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers bulldozed the midden
and pumped spoil over the midden's remnants, showing no
regard for cultural and environmental resources in a time when
government was actively expanding waterfront real estate and
"improving" it for future private land development.
Besides these tragic fates, the Cedar Point Shell Heap and
the Cortez Midden had other aspects in common. Both were
at the tip of points jutting prominently into bay waters, where
they offered good vantage points and could be reached easily
by Indians using dugout canoes. Both sites had a nearby sand
mound in an easterly or landward location.6 And, both sites
have yielded evidence of habitation during many time periods,
showing their recurring importance in Gulf coast culture
From an environmental perspective, both sites had tidal
wetlands on their landward sides (so each was an island at
high tide), and each apparently had basal midden deposits in
the tidal zone. These two conditions, combined with site ages
of at least 2,000 years at Cortez Midden and 3,000 years at
Cedar Point, are consistent with a rise in sea level since the
sites began to accumulate. The location of each site at the tip
of a headland may reflect recession of adjacent shorelines
since their shell middens began to form, which left the sites
in seaward positions. In the following paragraphs, I provide
information about each site, focusing primarily on the Cortez

Cedar Point

The Cedar Point Shell Heap was a large shell midden
located west of Port Charlotte and Punta Gorda. It was
between Englewood and Grove City, on the mainland shore
of Lemon Bay and east of a migrating tidal inlet, Stump Pass.
In 1949, archaeologist Ripley Bullen visited the Cedar Point
Shell Heap and noted that it was approximately "300 by 150
ft and 7 to 8 ft high" and that "considerable shell [had been]
removed for road work" (Bullen 1953). In 1965, the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers bulldozed remaining portions of
the midden to make retention berms for holding spoil they
dredged from Lemon Bay while making the Gulf Intracoastal
Waterway.7 They used the spoil to cover the western tip of
Cedar Point, where the Cedar Point Shell Heap had stood

(Luer 1999a:Figures 4 and 5).
During the 1965 bulldozing, Bullen revisited remnants of
the Cedar Point Shell Heap and found fiber-tempered pottery
apparently dating to the late Archaic period (ca. 2000 to 500
B.C.). He also found Pinellas Plain sherds, some with notched
lips, which date to the middle and late Safety Harbor period
(ca. A.D. 1250 to 1600) (Luer 1999a:46, 49). In 1965, Bullen
also visited an adjacent midden burial area, the Dunwody
Site (8CH61), where he salvaged human skeletal remains
subsequently dated to the Manasota period, ca. A.D. 410 to
660 (Gold 2006).
In 1993 and 1994, I did an archaeological assessment
of Cedar Point for the Lemon Bay Conservancy, prior to
acquisition by Charlotte County and creation of Cedar Point
Park (Luer 1994). During field work, I collected artifacts along
the water's edge at the point's western tip, including shell tool
Specimens #1, #2, and #3, described above. That research
identified evidence of a long span of habitation at Cedar
Point, beginning in the late Archaic period (ca. 2000 B.C.)
and continuing through the Manasota, Weeden Island, and
Safety Harbor periods. The latter period included the Bayview
phase (Spanish mission-influenced) during the A.D. 1600s,
evidenced by a "roughened" body sherd and an Aucilla Incised
rim sherd, which I interpreted as reflecting coastal contacts via
canoe with the Tampa Bay, Suwannee River, and St. Marks/
Apalachee regions. Lip-notched Pinellas Plain rim sherds also
pointed to contacts with the Tampa Bay area during the Safety
Harbor period (Luer 1999a:49-55).
In 1999, Charles Blanchard called attention to the Cedar
Point Shell Heap in a study featuring his canoe research. He
described Cedar Point's strategic location, jutting "halfway
across Lemon Bay," where the midden was "perched on its
westernmost extremity." For canoes, Blanchard stressed
the importance of Cedar Point's "variously oriented shores
providing a leeward landing to put in to, or to launch from,
wherever the wind blows" (Blanchard 1999:39-40).

Cortez Midden

The Cortez Midden has received little attention in the
archaeological literature. Some portions may still be intact
(e.g., deeply buried deposits), but a great deal of the Cortez
Midden has been destroyed and its appearance altered and
essentially erased. Thus, I use the past tense in referring to the
The Cortez Midden, also known as Cortez Point, was
west of Bradenton, near the fishing village of Cortez. The site
bordered Sarasota Pass, also called Anna Maria Sound, and the
mouth of Palma Sola Bay. The Cortez Midden was just south
Perico Island and a short distance east of Bradenton Beach,
Anna Maria Island, and the Gulf of Mexico (Figure 9).
In the 1930s, the Cortez Midden was identified as site
Number 2 ("No. 2") by Montague Tallant. Tallant was a
collector of American Indian artifacts who lived in Manatee
County and who maintained a numbered list of sites in the
county (Tallant ca. 1940). Tallant also kept a map of site
locations, and site "2" is clearly labeled to the northwest of the


2012 VOL. 65(3)


Figure 9. Cortez Midden, northwest of the town of Cortez, Manatee County, Florida. Note finger
canal draglined through the site (Land Boundary Information Systems [LABINS 1982]).

fishing village of Cortez, at the precise location of the Cortez
Midden. In Tallant's list, the site was described as a:

Large kitchen midden, average width 75 ft, length
350 ft, height 5 ft to 1[0] ft. Some bone needles,
pendants, flint blades, shell celts, etc. Permanent
camp site, shell. Important village. Much has been
used for building roads. [Tallant ca. 1940]

In the 1930s and early 1940s, Wyman Coarsey8 grew up
on the Cortez Midden, where he lived with his family (Green
1985:241). Coarsey, born in 1924, served as Cortez postmaster
for many years. He recounted that, when he was a boy in 1931:

... we moved right out on top of the old shell mound
off Cortez Road. It was right in the middle of the
swamp. The last people to live there were the...
Indians, and I've got the relics to prove it. ... We
lived and slept in an old boat [and in a house] on
top of the shell mound. It [the shell mound] was
surrounded by water every day at high tide and we
had to wade in and wade out. We'd park our old '27
Dodge truck at the end of the road and my dad would
roll up his pants, wade ashore, put his shoes back on
and go to work. [Coarsey in Green 1985:241].

An oral history interview with Wyman Coarsey in 1977
provides further information. Coarsey recounted that a sizeable

portion ("two-thirds") of the Cortez Midden already had been
hauled away for road material before they arrived. Treasure
hunters were digging holes in the site when he and his family
arrived in 1931. His father disliked it and made them stop
because they "were digging holes right down the middle of the
shell mound; we had to fill'em up." The treasure hunters were
motivated by stories of buried treasure and an "old Spanish
mission" (King and Green 1977).9
Coarsey explained that, when they first arrived, his family
slept in a 36-foot boat with a 12-foot beam and did their
cooking ashore, "on the beach." They built a road across the
tidal swamp to reach the shell midden by digging a ditch and
piling up its mud to drive on, after "letting it lay for weeks
until it dried." Eventually, they built a house on the remaining
high portion of the shell midden, using old lumber salvaged
elsewhere from demolished houses. Around the house, they
grew "papayas, grapefruit, oranges, tangerines, bananas" and
other tropical fruit. While living on the Cortez Midden, Coarsey
reported finding a number of lithic bifaces ("arrowheads"),
shell tools, and "a total of nine skeletons." They uncovered
four human skeletons "right down in the saltwater swamp"
when they built the road to their "old homeplace" (King and
Green 1977).
In the 1940s, the Florida Park Service (FPS) identified
the Cortez Midden as "Mn-2" in its list of Manatee County
sites, based on Tallant's list. In 1953, the Cortez Midden
was recorded as "Ma22" by the University of Florida
Archaeological Site Survey. The original site form identifies




the site as "No. 2 (Tallant)" and "Mn-2 (FPS)" and notes that
it had suffered shell removal, but the original site form did not
locate the site precisely (Plowden 1953).
The Cortez Midden and its surrounding tidal swamp can
be seen in a 1951 aerial photograph (Figure 10). The straight
dirt road built by the Coarsey family (on a ridge of spoil dug
from a ditch) can be seen running across the tidal swamp to the
shell midden. The photograph also shows an older trail running
along a natural sandy beach berm that formed a narrow isthmus
joining the midden with the mainland to the southwest. Both
trail and road reached the midden at its southwestern end.
By 1964, a finger canal was draglined through the Cortez
Midden and spoil was spread over remaining portions of the
site (United States Geological Survey 1964). This canal is
visible in Figure 9, which also shows other finger canals and
a marina basin to the west and south of the site. Figure 11
(top), shows these features in greater detail, overlain on the
1951 aerial photograph. Figure 11 also shows that the natural
shoreline was expanded outward (to the west and north) by the
addition of fill. This artificial change of "water to land" was
overlooked by Antonini et al. (1999:22, Map 6, Part 1) in their
study of land and water changes along the Gulf Intracoastal
Waterway in the Manatee-Sarasota region.
In 1974, proposed land development on Perico Island,
a short distance north of the Cortez Midden, led to an
archaeological survey on Perico Island. At that time, the
original site form's ambiguous location for the Cortez Midden
led to the number "8MA22" being shifted to another nearby
shell midden on Perico Island (Williams 1974). That shift left
the Cortez Midden without a site number.
In 1978, I visited the Cortez Midden and nearby sites with
archaeologist Marion Almy as part of our research leading to a
definition of the Manasota culture (Luer and Almy 1978, 1979,
1982). We filed a new site form with the Florida Master Site
File (FMSF) in Tallahassee, resulting in the FMSF assigning
the number 8MA140 to the Cortez Midden (Almy and Luer
1978). At that time, most of the site was buried under spoil
that supported a shady stand of invasive Australian pine trees.
A few gumbo limbo trees and royal palms still grew on a patch
of ground that was a remnant of the midden. We observed
midden shells exposed in the bank of the finger canal, and we
reported one limestone-tempered sherd and 62 sand-tempered
plain sherds, which suggested an age in the Manasota period
(ca. 500 B.C. to ca. A.D. 500).
In 1982 and 1983, Mariners' Cove condominium was
built on remnants of the Cortez Midden (Figure 11). It is a
series of two-story condominium buildings, each with parking
underneath (Green 1985:250), approached via two streets,
Mariners' Way and Mariners' Walk. In 1986, I included the
Cortez Midden in a "lament" calling attention to the "sad state"
of Florida Gulf coast archaeological sites (many destroyed
or threatened by land development), and I characterized
the Cortez Midden as "mostly destroyed by 1970" (Luer
1986:Appendix, site #8). Since the mid-1980s, this tragic
trend of site destruction has continued largely unabated.

Figure 10. Cortez Midden. Top: interpretation of features
in a 1951 aerial image. Bottom: 1951 aerial image used
as source for interpretation of features (Publication of
Archival Library and Museum Materials [PALMM]

Burnett Collection from the Cortez Midden

Besides Specimens #4, #5, and #6, reported above, Mark
Burnett has artifacts that he collected in the 1960s from the
"beach" along the Cortez Midden's northwestern shore, where
winds and waves were causing erosion. He also saw twentieth-
century debris in the banks of the finger canal dug through
the site, such as glass bottles dating to the 1930s and 1940s.
According to Burnett, the bottles originated from a dump
located on the southwestern portion of the Cortez Midden
(Figure 10) that was later sliced by the finger canal and buried
under spoil.
In 1966, Burnett found a robust left-handed whelk shell
Type H cutting-edged tool at the Cortez Midden (Figure 8a).
Such Type H cutting-edged tools date to the Manasota period
(see above). On Burnett's specimen, oyster and barnacle
attachments are visible (it was found on the surface in the tidal
zone) and the tip of its spire is missing, perhaps from wave
damage. The tool has a large, irregular hole in the outer body
whorl, adjacent to the inner lip (perhaps a crude extraction
hole). The bit and cutting edge are curved, with bevels

2012 VOL. 65(3)



Figure 11. Land changes and the Cortez Midden. Top:
Footprint of condominiums and finger canals (based on
overlay of LABINS 2004 on PALMM 1951). Bottom:
image showing roads, canals, and condominiums (LABINS

Figure 12. Two surface finds from Cortez Midden. a:
Lake Jackson Plain rim sherd with loop handle, side and
exterior; b: nineteenth-century ceramic smoking pipe,
stem end and side.

polished smooth on both sides. There is a single, well-ground,
intentional perforation in the outer body whorl, just below the
shoulder's edge and near the modified outer lip, which was
intentionally reduced and ground smooth. This artifact is the
first entry in Table 2.
Burnett also found a Lake Jackson Plain rim sherd with
a loop handle (Figure 12a). The sherd appears whitish grey,

presumably from oxidation in a fire. It has no obvious sand
temper, but it does contain lumpy inclusions, probably grog.
Such pottery is uncommon in shell middens in the Sarasota
Bay area,'1 and it dates to the Safety Harbor period (ca. A.D.
1000 to 1600). Further evidence of Safety Harbor period
habitation consists of many Pinellas Plain rim sherds with
notched lips (dating to ca. A.D. 1250 to 1600), which were
found at the Cortez Midden in the 1960s by Robert Atwood of
Bradenton (Luer 1990).
Three other Indian artifacts in the Burett collection from
the Cortez Midden are of uncertain age. One is a celt fashioned
from a thick outer lip of a queen conch (Strombus gigas) shell.
It reaches a maximum thickness of 20 mm along its middle
portion. One side exhibits several ridges and furrows, part of
the natural outer surface of the shell lip. The artifact's length
is approximately 100 mm. Its width is 25 mm at the pole end
and a maximum of 50 mm near the bit end. This length and
width are typical of queen conch celts in southeastern Florida
(Masson 1988:Figures 3 and 4). The bit end is ground on both
sides, forming a slightly excurvate cutting edge. In the Manatee
region, queen conch shell was trade material probably obtained
from the Florida Keys or extreme southeastern Florida.
A second artifact of undetermined age is a "waste" piece
consisting of the upper central portion of a robust left-handed
whelk shell with a "score and snap scar." It was produced as
follows: first, the Indians reduced the shell by hammering away
the outer body whorl to expose its thick columella; then, they
ground an encircling groove and snapped off the desired lower
portion of the columella. This left the shell's upper central
portion as waste. Two similarly reduced pieces are pictured by
Hoff and Hoff (2007:Figure 6.30). The missing, desired chunk
of thick columella might have served as a bead blank. This is
the same process that the Indians applied to thick pieces of
imported queen conch shell (Luer 1992b:273-274, Figure 5).
A third artifact is a stemmed, chipped-stone biface with
excurvate edges, probably a Marion type. It consists of whitish
and grey silicified fossil coral. Its length is 50 mm, its width is
40 mm, and its maximum thickness is 5 to 6 mm.
Finally, Burnett found a small ceramic smoking pipe
(Figure 12b). It is a reddish pink color, with a smooth stem
and bowl, except for a slightly protruding seam running
lengthwise along its top and bottom (showing it was made in
a two-piece mold). It has two prominent ribs around the stem
end, and its bowl is broken open at the front. It appears to be a
kind of red clay Shaker pipe manufactured in New York State,
ca. A.D. 1809 to 1853 (Murphy 1978). An almost identical
pipe (even in the form of its breakage) was found at the Safety
Harbor site on Old Tampa Bay (Willey 1949:139-140, Plate
57x). The Safety Harbor specimen came from the same area
reportedly inhabited by Odet Phillippi, ca. A.D. 1835 to 1869,
which produced historic-period artifacts dating back to ca.
A.D. 1825 (Griffin and Bullen 1950:7-8, 22)." Closer to the
Cortez Midden, intensive habitation during this 1800s period
took place at Shaw's Point (e.g., Schwadron 2002:51-52,
105-112). Perhaps Burnett's pipe represents an item lost by a
nineteenth-century visitor or inhabitant on the Cortez Midden,
such as a fisherman or hunter.



Tm~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ FLRDNHOOOIS 02VL 53


This article reports a newly-recognized form of whelk
shell adz. Six specimens are described and analyzed, which
are unusual among Florida's body whorl adzes because they
are perforated. They share some attributes with whelk shell
Type E and Type H cutting-edged tools, yielding clues to their
fabrication and age. Perforated body whorl adzes appear to
date to the Terminal Archaic/Florida Transitional period (1000
to 500 B.C.) and Manasota period (500 B.C. to A.D. 500).
The six specimens came from two large shell middens,
the Cedar Point Shell Heap and the Cortez Midden. Tragically,
these significant sites suffered shell mining in the first half
of the 1900s, and they were heavily impacted or destroyed
by draglining, bulldozing, and filling in the 1960s. The sites
have yielded artifacts that support American Indian habitation
beginning at least ca. 2,000 years ago at Cortez Midden, and
at least ca. 3,000 years ago at Cedar Point Shell Heap, and
continuing at both sites into the Safety Harbor period.
This article also discusses whelk shell body whorl adzes
of peninsular Florida's Gulf coast. They have received little
prior attention as a focus of research (Torrence [1999] being
an exception). An intriguing aspect in their evolution is a shift
in the placement of the bit end. Early adz forms (dating to the
late Archaic period) have a cutting edge on the lower whorl,
whereas many later adzes (in the Woodland and Mississippian
periods) have a cutting edge on the upper whorl. Whelk shell
body whorl adzes comprise an important artifact class that
deserves further study. Information presented here adds to
our growing knowledge of the maritime cultures that once
flourished along the peninsular Florida Gulf coast.


Mark Burnett, of Oneco, kindly made his collection from
Cortez Midden available for study, and he generously took
close-up photographs of the bevels on his adz specimens.
Anthropologist Mike Jepson provided a copy of Carl King's
taped oral history interview with Wyman Coarsey. The late
Robert Atwood, of Bradenton, kindly showed me artifacts
in his collection. Rich Dorken of the Charlotte Harbor
Environmental Center curated the specimens from Cedar
Point Shell Heap. Kim Kyle helped take digital images.
Tesa Norman's graphics expertise was essential in preparing
figures, which provided helpful insights on adz production. I
am indebted to her for her careful work. Finally, this article
benefited from comments by reviewers and the editor as part
of the review process of The Florida Anthropologist.

1. Whelk shell Type E cutting-edged tools also have been
called "Type X" cutting-edged tools (e.g., Luer 2008).
These essentially whole-shell tools have one or two
perforations in the top of the shell. Goggin (1952:115),
Bullen and Bullen (1961:Figure 7f-h), Wheeler and
McGee (1994:365, Figures 20-22), and others have
applied the term "Type X" to late Archaic period

specimens from northeastern Florida that were fashioned
from the knobbed whelk (Busycon carica). Bullen
identified Type X hammers and cutting-edged tools (the
latter called "picks") made from shells of left-handed
whelks (B. contrarium) at the Canton Street site (8PI55, in
St. Petersburg), dating to the Florida Transitional period
(ca. 1000 to 500 B.C.) (Bullen et al. 1978:Table 2). I used
the terms "Type X (also called 'Type E')" for similar left-
handed whelk shell specimens at the Manasota-period
Palmetto Lane Midden (8S096, in Sarasota) and at the
Caloosahatchee I-period Hooker Key (8LL30, in Pine
Island Sound) dating to ca. 500 B.C. to ca. A.D. 500
(Luer 1992a:247, 2008:74; Luer et al. 2008:22; Luer et
al. 2005). Marquardt (1992:197-198, 200-201) used the
term "Type E" for left-handed whelk shell cutting-edged
tools and hammers with perforations like those typifying
Type X, which was followed by Dietler (2008), and I also
use "Type E" in this article.
2. The term "Type AX" was applied by Ripley Bullen to
a whelk shell cutting-edged tool from the Canton Street
site that had a perforation in the top of the shell as well
as another perforation below the shoulder's edge (Bullen
et al. 1978:12). At the Palmetto Lane Midden, dating to
the Manasota period (500 B.C. to A.D. 500), I used the
terms "modified Type E" and "Type H" for specimens
with one or no hafting perforations in the shell's top and
with a hafting perforation below the shoulder's edge, near
the modified outer lip (Luer and Archibald 1990:22, 26,
27), and I later called the same artifacts "Type AX" and
"modified Type E" (Luer 1992a:247). Marquardt used
the term "Type H" for specimens lacking a perforation
in the shell's top and having a perforation below the
shoulder's edge, close to the modified outer lip (Marquardt
1992:198), which was followed by Dietler (2008:188,
Figure 4.6). This latter form, Type H, is a valid category
(logically following a progression from Types E and AX),
and I use the term "Type H" in this article.
3. Shouldered adzes are rare or uncommon. Very similar
forms lacking the shoulder's edge ("rectangular" adzes)
are known from Manatee County (Hoff and Hoff
2007:Figure 5.25), including Perico Island (Willey 1949:
Plate 15c, d). In Sarasota County, I found two shouldered
adzes on the southeastern portion of the Roberts Bay site
(8S056) (Archaeological Consultants, Inc. 1977). In
Charlotte County, three specimens came from the surface
of Cedar Point Ridge (8CH62) (Luer 1994, 1999a:52-53,
Table 3), one each came from the surface of Cayo Pelau
#7 (8CH2195) and Cape Haze Mound (8CH347) (Luer
and Loger 2011), and there are reports of shouldered
adzes and their reformss in-production" eroding from
the Narrows Site (8CH505) (Luer 1999b). In Lee County,
three specimens were excavated from Useppa Island and,
in Collier County, 37 specimens were found on Horr's
Island, including 18 reforms (Russo 1991; Torrence
4. These post-Archaic body whorl adzes of the peninsular
Gulf coast should not be confused with Archaic-period


2012 VOL. 65(3)


"Busycon gouges" of northeastern Florida. Such gouges
do have a cutting edge on the upper whorl, but they were
fashioned from a larger portion of a shell that typically
retained part of the columella and siphonal canal and was
wider toward the bit end (e.g., Goggin 1952:116, Plate
6A-D; Wheeler and McGee 1994:Figure 18a).
5. Mark Burnett is of an old Manatee County family.
His grandparents helped operate the Albion Inn on the
waterfront in Cortez, a portion of which (the Bratton
Store) has been preserved at the Florida Maritime
Museum at Cortez. Burnett is a successful nurseryman
and a long-time member of the Florida Anthropological
6. In each case, the sand mound is now destroyed and of
undetermined age. Approximately 0.6 mi (1 km) to
the east of the Cedar Point Shell Heap was the Lemon
Bay School Mound (8CH7). It measured 60 m by 23
m (200 ft by 75 ft), with a height of 3 m (10 ft), and
was destroyed in 1962. It contained remains of at least
two individuals (Bullen and Bullen 1963; Luer 1999a:43-
44, Figures 2, 3, and 4). Approximately 0.8 mi (1.3 km)
to the east-southeast of the Cortez Midden, the Plaisted
Mound (8MA1821) was reportedly 30 m by 24 m (100 ft
by 80 ft), with a height of 1.4 m (4.5 ft) and was impacted
in 1926 for road fill. The Plaisted Mound contained a
central burial with a "beautiful ceremonial stone along
with a knobbed hammer," the former "in the collection
of M. Tallant" (Luer 2012; Tallant ca. 1940). In his
artifact catalog, Tallant (n.d.) lists "A6305 ceremonial,
sandstone, Plaisted Farm Fla." A 1931 newspaper article
mentions "an Indian mound on the Plaisted place near
Cortez" (Anonymous 1931).
7. Besides destroying the Cedar Point Shell Heap while
dredging the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway through Lemon
Bay, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dredged through
and placed spoil on the Gory site (8SO24), at the bay's
northern end, and the Narrows Site (8CH505) at its
southern end. They also placed spoil around the Paulson
Point midden (8SO23) on the bay's mid-stretch (Antonini
et al. 1999:41-43; Hoffacker 1990; Luer 1999a:5-10,
8. In the 1970s and 1980s,Wyman Coarsey became well-
known in Manatee County as an advocate for preserving
the town of Cortez. His views are presented in Ben
Green's 1985 book titled Finest Kind: A Celebration of
a Florida Fishing Village. Issues facing Cortez also are
discussed by Antonini et al. (1999:70-73).
9. Stories of buried pirate treasure and Spanish missions
were common local lore in the early and mid-twentieth
century. Besides the Cortez Midden, varied versions
of such stories have been applied to a number of shell
middens along the Florida Gulf coast, such as the Old
Oak Site (8SO51) in Sarasota and the Coral Creek Site
(8CH15) in Charlotte County. In some cases, traces of
nineteenth-century habitation were interpreted as "pirate"
or "mission" remains.
10. In 1989, I saw a loop-handled Lake Jackson Plain rim

sherd, similar to the one from Cortez Midden, from the
western tip of the Shell Ridge Midden (8SO2) at Historic
Spanish Point. A western portion of the Shell Ridge
Midden is known to date to the early Safety Harbor period
(e.g., Newsom 1998:210). Additional Lake Jackson
Plain rim sherds with loop handles occur locally in sand
burial mounds dating to the Safety Harbor period (Luer
11. Willey's (1949:140, 599) identification of the pipe as a
European trade item dating to the Safety Harbor period is
in error. Likewise, identifications by Neill and Ferguson
(1976) of nineteenth-century American-made ceramic
pipes as "Spanish" are in error.

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Tallant, Montague
ca. 1940 Mounds of Manatee County. Typescript, 8 pp.
Copied from notebook of Montague Tallant by J.
Clarence Simpson. On file, Florida Park Service file,
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.
n.d. Untitled artifact catalog of the Montague Tallant
collection. On file, South Florida Museum and
Bishop Planetarium, Bradenton, Florida.

Torrence, Corbett McP.
1999 The Archaic Period on Useppa Island: Excavations
on Calusa Ridge. In The Archaeology of Useppa
Island, edited by William H. Marquardt, pp. 23-76.
Monograph Number 3, Institute of Archaeology and
Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida,

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
1983 Soil Survey of Manatee County, Florida. United
States Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.

United States Geological Survey (USGS)
1964 Bradenton Beach, Fla. 7.5 minute topographic sheet,
photo-revised 1969. Washington, D.C.

Wheeler, Ryan J.
2000 Treasure of the Calusa: The Johnson/Willcox
Collection from Mound Key, Florida. Monographs
in Florida Archaeology 1, Tallahassee.

Wheeler, Ryan J., and Ray M. McGee
1994 Technology of Mount Taylor Period Occupation,
Grove's Orange Midden (8V02601), Volusia
County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 47:350-

Widmer, Randolph J.
1988 The Evolution of the Calusa: A Nonagricultural
Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast. The
University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949 Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collection 113, Washington, D.C.

Williams, J. Raymond
1974 Florida Master Site File form for 8-Ma-22. On file,
Florida Master Site File, Tallahassee


2012 VOL. 65(3)



Panamerican Consultants, Inc., 4430 Yarmouth Place, Pensacola, Florida 32514
email: gmikelll@earthlink.net

What constitutes normal refuse disposal in a mid-
nineteenth century naval hospital setting? Could what appears
to be unusually high refuse volume and an array of usable
items in a naval hospital refuse pit used over a short period of
time be indicative of more than apparently excessive refuse
disposal associated with a government facility? In this paper,
an attempt is made to answer these questions. Regardless of
whether conclusive evidence can be demonstrated, the findings
presented here are unique in nineteenth-century Northwest
Florida archaeology and of interest to Southeastern and U.S.
military historic archaeology in general.
In the spring of 2005, Panamerican Consultants, Inc.
(PCI) documented the first conclusive evidence of the remains
of the nineteenth-century (1834) naval hospital (Marine
Hospital Service) associated with the Pensacola Navy Yard.
Although site 8ES1434 was known to be the location of
the "old Navy hospital," no remains of the structure or its
associated features had been documented prior to PCI's Phase
II testing and evaluation of the "old hospital" Navy family
housing on Naval Air Station Pensacola (NASP). In addition
to documentation of the hospital building itself, a portion of
an associated refuse disposal pit yielding a large amount of
interesting and informative materials was excavated. Groups
of artifacts recovered from this feature allow pit usage to be
dated specifically to the 1830s and 1840s, a period when the
Pensacola Navy Yard was periodically ravaged by yellow fever
epidemics. Patients filled the Pensacola Naval Hospital during
these epidemics. It appears that the refuse disposal pattern
exhibited by the pit feature may have been influenced by the
prevailing belief that yellow fever was spread by exposure
to infected persons and items that had been in contact with
infected persons.

History of the 1834 Pensacola Naval Hospital

Prior to establishment of the 1834 naval hospital, the
medical needs of the Pensacola Navy Yard were served by a
small military hospital adjacent to Fort Barrancas, which later
(1840s) would be the site of Army Post Barrancas (HPA1986).
By the mid-1820s, this facility became untenable and was in
need of major repairs. Until funds could be appropriated for
construction of a new hospital, a two-story house north of
Barrancas was rented to serve as a temporary medical facility
(Pearce 1980). The Navy authorized construction of the naval
hospital in 1829, but Congress did not appropriate funds
until 1832. Meanwhile, in the early 1830s, the hospital at

Cantonment Clinch, located nearly five miles north on Bayou
Chico in Pensacola, served as the naval hospital (Pearce 1980).
The new naval hospital was completed in 1834 and underwent
renovations between 1838 and at least 1846 (HHM 2004a;
Office of Naval Records 1846).
The main facility was a large, two-story brick or wood
frame and brick facade structure with a central cupola built on
brick foundations along a bluff overlooking Pensacola Bay. The
building consisted of a gallery and offices facing south toward
the staircase, a main block consisting of east and west wings
that housed the main hospital wards, and a rear section facing
north. The building is discernible in Figure 1, which includes
a drawing of the front of the building. Pearce (1980:31) cites
a report by a visitor to the Navy Yard and hospital in 1836 in
which the hospital is described as a "beautiful brick edifice with
several ionic columns in front." The hospital was constructed
within a 15-acre (6 ha) compound surrounded by a 12-ft (4-m)
high brick wall that still stands today (Figure 2). The 1834
Pensacola Naval Hospital was regarded as one of the finest
in the country during its time (Hospital Welfare Department
1946), but its time was limited, as it was destroyed in 1862
by the evacuating Confederate Army. During the remainder of
the Civil War, Union troops camped on the hospital grounds
and even with the hospital building in ruins, the grounds were
regarded as a place of beauty (Pearce 2000:187-188)

Other Navy Hospitals on the "Old Hospital" Grounds

Pearce (1980:90) indicates that "an octagonal building
left standing in the [Navy] yard served as the 'second naval
hospital' at Pensacola" between 1863 and 1873. With the
1873 yellow fever epidemic, which claimed the lives of
prominent figures such as Commodore Woolsey and two
Navy surgeons, a new hospital was constructed. In 1874 funds
were allocated to complete the removal of the demolished
1834 hospital building and build a wood-frame structure on
the site, thereby "removing the ill" from inside the Navy Yard
(Pearce 1980:96). Pensacola's third naval hospital (1875), the
second at the old hospital site, consisted of a single pavilion,
a surgeon's quarters, and outbuildings such as a gallery and
laundry and described as containing "five wards in a row, each
holding five patients [and] any sudden increase in patients
required erecting tents on the grounds" (Pearce 1980:96). This
facility, with additions added between 1903 and 1905, served
until it was deemed unfit in 1911 and was dismantled by
1916. The fourth naval hospital, and third hospital compound


VOL. 65(3)




Figure 1. Detail of the 1860s Weiss map illustrating the plan of the naval hospital in the early nineteenth Century (Source:
Weiss 186-). Inset is detail of the naval hospital in the background of a line engraving published in Harper's Weekly (1861)
entitled "USS Wyandot firing a salute on George Washington's birthday, 22 February 1861, while in Pensacola Harbor,
Florida" (U.S. Naval Historical Center 2007).

built on the old hospital grounds, opened in 1917 (Pearce
1980:121, 150). The 1917 hospital was a "well equipped one-
story frame building ... [with] approximately 40 beds, living
accommodations for eight hospital corpsmen, a dressing
room, sterilizing room, dining room, kitchen, and storeroom"
(Pearce 1980:150). The 1917 hospital remained in service
until 1941, when the fifth naval hospital on NAS Pensacola
was constructed immediately west of the old hospital site. The
old hospital officer's housing was established in the 1940s and
1950s as residences for medical personnel.

Yellow Fever and the 1834 Naval Hospital

The historic record is clear on the point that yellow fever
epidemics had quite an effect on the Pensacola Navy Yard
and the surrounding area (Pearce 1978; 1980). Documented
epidemics occurred in the years 1822, 1826, 1828, 1834, 1839,
1841, 1846, 1847, 1853, 1863, 1867, 1870, 1873, 1874, 1875,
1882, 1883, 1897, 1900, and 1905 (Pearce 1978; 1980). In
its 28 years of existence (1834-1862), the naval hospital at
Pensacola was involved in six epidemics, and outbreaks were

considered almost annual events that commonly involved the
Navy Yard and naval hospital (Pearce 1978). The following
accounts of epidemics that occurred while the 1834 naval
hospital was in service are taken from Pearce's (1978:454-455)
article in the Florida Historical Quarterly entitled Torment of
Pestilence: Yellow Fever Epidemics in Pensacola.

Pensacola experienced only sporadic fever cases
the following seven years, but in 1846 an epidemic
occurred at the naval hospital. Surgeon Hulse wrote
that "Scarcely an individual residing at the Hospital
escaped an attack." About ten or twelve cases proved
fatal.... He believed the epidemic had "its origin in
local causes"-that is, from stagnant ponds located
near the hospital grounds which emanated poisonous
effluvia or germs infecting the atmosphere. The
following summer the naval hospital was again filled
with fever patients. When rumors appeared that the
epidemic was spreading city officials appointed a
health officer and imposed a quarantine against all


2 102 Vot. 65(3)



Following the fever's presence in 1847, Pensacola
enjoyed a period of relative freedom from the
pestilence. But in 1853 it struck again with increased
fury. The steamer Vixen had arrived at the Navy
Yard in late July from the West Indies with many
cases of yellow fever among the crew. Before long
an epidemic reigned, taking a heavy toll of officers
and men. John F. Hammond, assistant surgeon at
neighboring Fort Barrancas, claimed that while the
Vixen was moored at the navy yard the daily sea
breeze spread her effluvia through the community. To
support his position, he described how a youngster
who had fished from the decks of the Vixen "Took the
fever," and shortly afterwards his sister contracted the
same disease. Although "they were carried into the
country, both of them died with black vomit." With
an epidemic raging, the yard was again the scene of a
work stoppage as most workers fled.
Prior to the rise of bacteriology after 1880 and the 1900
discovery that yellow fever was a mosquito-born illness by
a commission led by U.S Army Surgeon Walter Reed, the
miasma (filth and bad odors) theory of disease causation was
prevalent (Leavitt and Numbers 1985; Melosi 2000). During
the nineteenth-century yellow fever epidemics it was believed
that gases emitted from rapidly decaying vegetation or other
materials and/or "bad air" from unsanitary situations involving
water (stagnant ponds, swamps, ship bilges and cargo holds)
resulted in what was commonly referred to as a "noxious or
pestilential effluvia" that caused the disease (Pearce 1978).
Although they predate knowledge of bacteriology, alternate
ideas concerning the spread of yellow fever via contact
also are found in various historic documents (Leavitt and
Numbers 1985; Pearce 1978). Pearce (1978:459) states that
James S. Herron, surgeon-in-charge of the Pensacola Naval
Hospital, in reporting on the 1874 and 1875 epidemics, did
not rule out the wind-borne theory of the transmission of the
disease, but he leaned more heavily toward "transmission by

infected articles." Civilian public health officials shared this
view point, as reflected in a report by the Pensacola Board
of Health that stated fevervr from the vessel spread ashore
... when a Mrs. Rosario laundered the clothes of the captain
and crew of the vessel" (Pearce 1978:460). In relation to the
1882 Pensacola area epidemic, Pearce (1978:459) recounts
that "Surgeon H. N. Beaumont at the naval hospital said: "[w]
e are reduced to the necessity of supposing that the yellow
fever germs were sown broadcast by the wind which flew from
the Von Moltke in the direction of Fort Barrancas." The only
other explanation, he believed, was that they "floated ashore
by infected articles thrown overboard from the vessel." Other
accounts also indicate that there was widespread belief prior
to 1900 that yellow fever was an air-born disease, which also
could be transmitted through contact with infected items
(Crosby 2006; Humphreys 1992).

Official Navy policy on the containment and treatment
of yellow fever was established by the U.S. Marine (Naval)
Hospital Service. In his Marine Hospital Report to Congress,
Chief Surgeon R.D. Murray wrote that "[t]he elimination of
yellow fever from our nomenclature will follow when there
is a proper conception of the influence of clothing, bedding,
and unclean bedrooms as transmitters" (Murray 1876). In
1897, Chief Surgeon Walter Wyman set a policy for the use
of disinfection (and quarantine) to check the spread of the
disease. Wyman (1897:246) wrote "[i]t is recommended that
the removal of all refuse, garbage, and other deleterious matter
be included in the work of disinfection [with formaldehyde
generators or lamps], and that all articles of little value, such
as old rags and other accumulations of worthless material, be

Archaeology of the 1834 Pensacola Naval Hospital

Site 8ES 1434 was initially recorded by the University of
West Florida in 1988 based on an informant's knowledge of

Figure 2. Photo of "old hospital Wall" (in background) during shovel testing.




Figure 3. Map of the "old hospital site (8ES1434) showing shovel test and test unit locations, the standing
1834 naval hospital wall, and the hypothetical foot print of the main hospital building,

the old hospital site and the history of the 1834 naval hospital
(UWF 1988). The term "old hospital" refers to the tract of land
encompassed by the 1834 naval hospital brick wall. In 2002,
areas within the old hospital housing area were the subject of
Phase I archaeological survey conducted in advance ofproposed
geothermal unit installation (Olvey 2003). In 2004 and 2005,
PCI performed a comprehensive Phase I archaeological survey
(HHM 2004) and Phase II testing and evaluation (Mikell et
al. 2005). The latter included the excavation of four 1-x-2-m
and two 2m2 test units. These investigations indicate that site
8ES1434 contains a wide variety of archaeological materials;
prehistoric (Weeden Island and Pensacola), Spanish Colonial,
Early American, American Civil War, Reconstruction, late
nineteenth century, and early twentieth century components
have been identified (HHM 2004; Mikell et al. 2005; Olvey
2003). This paper focuses only on the test units (Test Units
4 and 6) and documented materials associated with the 1834
naval hospital (Figure 3). The primary focus is on a single
large refuse pit (Feature 7) found in Test Unit 6.

Architectural Remains of the 1834 Pensacola
Naval Hospital

A portion of the foundation of the front of the south wing
of the 1834 naval hospital, as depicted on the 1860s Weiss map
(see Figure 1) was located in Test Unit 4 (Mikell et al. 2005:65-
69). Test Unit 4 was placed adjacent to the southern edge of
the bluff in a location that appeared to be the best candidate for
locating foundations associated with the front of the hospital

building. The foundation was composed of a thick, four-course
high segment sitting atop five tiers of brick that extended
outward from both sides at its base. The brick foundation
segment was 70 cm (28 in) wide at its top and 102 cm (40 in)
wide at its base at approximately 90 cm below datum (bd).
The uppermost course of brick and the upper tier were header
bond, while the rest of the structure used a stretcher common
bond (Figures 4 and 5). This type of foundation was designed
to support a substantial structure or heavy objects such as
columns (Morrison 1952). Bricks used in the foundation are
hand-made and identical in size and color to those used in
the hospital compound wall. A brick located on the header
portion of the foundation was stamped "SLAYBACK FIRE
PROOF." This brick was manufactured by Slayback Brick
Company of Pensacola, which was in business from 1827 to
1852 (Lazarus 1965:78). The presence of Slayback and hand-
made bricks is evidence that the foundation was part of the
1834 naval hospital, and the foundation location is central to
the compound, matching the location depicted in the Weiss
map. Additionally, the foundation segment is located in the
area where the south wing (front) of the 1834 hospital would
have been located and where a substantial foundation would
have been required for a two-story brick building with "ionic"
columns (Mikell et al2005:67; Pearce 1980:31). Ahypothetical
layout of the 1834 hospital building, based on the Weiss map
and Test Unit 4 foundation, is included in Figure 3.
Several additional artifacts recovered in Test Unit 4,
along with the Slayback bricks, corroborate the age of the
foundation. These artifacts include transfer-printed pearlware,


2012 VOL. 65(3)


hunic layer brown (10YR 513) sandy humus
I: strong brown (7.5YR 4) sand NAB Pensacola
II: black (10YR 2/1) sand Old Hospital
III: yellowish brown (10YR 5) sand 10 20 cmHos
Feature 5: brick rubble with brown (10YR 413) sand 8ES1434
[ back Test Unit4
Sbrick and mortar rubble East profile

Figure 4. Test Unit 4, east wall profile drawing.

dark olive green bottle glass (including a neck fragment with
string-applied finish), soda-lime window glass, machine-cut
nails, and clay tobacco pipe stem fragments. A builder's trench
was located adjacent to the foundation segment along with
rubble materials likely related to the initial destruction and

Figure 5. Photograph of brick foundation, view to the
north toward the "front" of foundation.

final demolition of the 1834 hospital (Mikell et al. 2005:69).

The 1834 Pensacola Naval Hospital Refuse Pit

With the location of the 1834 naval hospital building
established, the discovery of an associated refuse pit in Test
Unit 6 situated "behind" the building made sense. A portion
of a large, partially disturbed refuse disposal pit (Feature 7)
was excavated in Test Unit 6 (Mikell et al. 2005:74-95). The
feature is an outstanding example of an antebellum refuse
pit containing a very dense deposit of domestic, medical,
architectural, and personal artifacts.
The stratigraphic contexts of Feature 7 were both
complex and quite revealing (Figures 6-8). The stratigraphic
complexity resulted, in part, from disturbance that occurred
with the construction of the 1917 hospital foundation (Feature
6; see Figures 6 and 7) and later activities. Except for the
1917 foundation and builder's trench intrusion, Feature 7 was
intact from approximately 70 to 190 cm bd. Although Stratum
IV and V (70-125 cm bd) consist of different deposition
events that appear to represent combined refuse disposal and
pit capping, they are considered an intact portion of the pit
feature. Indications of soil lamination within the feature fill
are suggestive of periodic fill episodes probably resulting
from intentional covering of refuse; Stratum IV and V contain
the most obvious pit capping events. A dense sheet midden
(Stratum III), containing mid-nineteenth century materials,
Civil War-era diagnostic artifacts (.54 caliber Burnside carbine
cartridges and a brass Civil War-era insignia), and building
debris, was situated above Feature 7. Stratum III appears to




be associated with the destruction of the facility in 1862, the
Union Army occupation of the site, and the final demolition
of the 1834 hospital remnants in the mid-1870s. The upper
strata in the unit (Stratum I and II and Lens 1-3) represent
fill and debris associated with and post-dating the construction
of the 1917 hospital facility and other nineteenth-century
disturbances. Curiously, an iron flat shovel head was found in
situ at the base of Feature 7 (Figure 7) as if the pit excavator
had discarded it when finishing the job of excavating the pit.
As described in detail by Mikell et al. (2005:82-109,
Appendix A), the materials recovered from Feature 7 include
a wide variety and large number of early- to middle-nineteenth
century artifacts, faunal bones, and residual materials such
as coal slag. So many artifacts (n=5298) and pieces of bone
(n=>5000) were recovered from Feature 7 that a detailed
description or listing is not feasible in the context of this

paper, but Appendiz A presents a brief summary. Ceramic
and glass Kitchen group artifacts dominate the assemblage,
but Activities, Architectural, Arms, Clothing, Furniture,
Personal, and Tobacco Pipe group artifacts were recovered
as well. The most numerous class of material recovered from
the pit, however, was bone, much of which was sawed or
had butchering marks. Notable characteristics of the Feature
7 artifact assemblage include the presence of military-
and medical-related materials such as a military insignia
fragment, military uniform buttons, ammunition, a large
pewter hypodermic or pump case, apothecary or medicine
bottles, metal stirrers and spatulate utensils, and a possible
tooth extraction key. Several ferrous metal utensils with wood
and bone handles were recovered from the refuse pit; some
of these may have been related to apothecary use, but many
represent tableware. The ceramic artifacts from the feature

ImWi lay. very derk brown (10YR 22) mnoted end
I: drk rgraywlh tmm (10YR 42) sndM mowed wilh dark elow
brown (10YR 44)
Lem 1: reddh brown (SYR 44) day
Lan 2: motled dark gray (O1YR 41) and brown (10YR 43) and
I: grayih brown (10YR S) snd mold wit light gay (10YR 7,l)
I: datk grayish brown (10YR 412) sand maoltd wh (dark ylowrsh
brown (10YR 4/4) and black (10YR 2/1)
M grayish brown (t1YR 2) sand
V dark yeftNih brown (10YR 40) and
Feature 0 budlde trench: nmted dark yedowle brown (10YR 44)
ind brown (10YR &e) sand
Feture 7: dak bro (10YR 33) sand
VI: ydowish brown (10YR rS)aend

0 10 20cm
alm c-I

NAB Pensacola
Old Hopital
Tht Unit
North Profile

Figure 6. Test Unit 6, north wall profile drawing.


2 102 Vot. 65(3)


include numerous fragments of polychrome banded annular
pearlware and blue shell-edged pearlware, representing broken
basins, ewers, plates, serving platters, bowls, and cups. Yellow
ware, mochaware, porcelain, and stoneware, including salt-
glazed and alkaline-glazed varieties, were present as well, but
no whiteware was recovered from the pit fill. The ceramics,
including the large quantity of basin and ewer fragments,
appear very different from a typical kitchen assemblage but
are certainly consistent with hospital refuse. Small personal
items that may have been made by patients or workers at
the hospital, including a hand-carved lead or pewter pendant
and two hand-made copper wire rings, were also recovered
from pit fill. The mixture of medical-related artifacts, military
uniform buttons, and domestic refuse links Feature 7 with the
naval hospital.
Temporally diagnostic artifacts with narrow or specific
manufacture dates from Feature 7 include several pearlware
vessel base fragments with maker's marks ranging between
1780 and 1820; military uniformbuttons manufacturedbetween
1830 and 1852; and an eight-sided "Dr. Wistars Balsam of
Wild Cherry" medicine bottle manufactured in Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania in the 1840s (Fike 1987:28). Four of the six U.S.
Navy officer's uniform buttons recovered from Stratum III and
Feature 7 are of identical manufacture, each bearing the same
backstamp. These are flat brass buttons depicting an eagle on
an upright anchor design, a style manufactured between 1828
and 1852 (Tice 1997:156). The button backstamp, which reads
"Warranted Rich Orange," does not contain the manufacturer's
name, but they were probably made by the R and W Robinson
Company prior to their bankruptcy in 1848 (McGuinn and
Bazelon 2001; Tice 1997). The "Rich Orange" stamp indicates
officer's buttons and the "orange finish was considered very

desirable" (Tice 1997:156). The other two military uniform
buttons recovered from Test Unit 6 are contemporaneous and
consist of a button backstamped "Imperial 534" from the early
1800s and an officer's cuff button stamped with "Robinsons
Extra Rich" made by the Robinson Company between 1828
and 1848.
Decorated clay tobacco pipes recovered from the pit fill
are dated to the early to mid-nineteenth century (Mikell et
al 2005:109). One nearly complete example of a fluted pipe
is likely of Dutch manufacture and fits exactly Alexander's
(1983:213-214) Type II fluted pipe description. This type
has a probable date range of 1800-1850. Two of the pipe
bowl fragments from the assemblage have the initials "T D"
encircled by thirteen stars and a leaf design running down
either one or both mold seams. Pipes marked "TD" are
ubiquitous in nineteenth century historic sites in the eastern
United States and, although the origins of the initials remain
unclear, such pipes were manufactured in several countries for
over 200 years (Alexander 1983:197-198). The examples from
Feature 7 are very similar to Alexander's (1983:199-200) Type
I of TD-marked pipes, with a suggested date range of 1800-
1850. Two other unique pipe bowls are molded in the shape of
a man's face with a narrow beard and wearing a fluted crown.
Although an exact correlate was not found in the literature, the
style is similar to other effigy head pipes produced in the first
half of the nineteenth century. Taken together, the buttons and
smoking pipe artifacts indicate that the pit was in use during
the late 1830s and 1840s, with 1850 as a terminus post quem
A moderate amount of oyster shell and a few scallop
shells were present throughout Feature 7, but vertebrate faunal
material was quite abundant. Vertebrate remains consisted

.Feature 7 ..

1917 Foundatior

Figure 7. Photograph of Test Unit 6 and Features 6 and 7, view to the north.



Tv F........A..HROP... OG. ST 20T2 VOL. LOGI

Figure 8. TU 6, east wall profile drawing.

primarily of cow (Bos taurus), chicken (Gallus gallus), and
turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), although other species such
as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), turtle and
various kinds of fish were also recovered. A sample of the
vertebrate faunal remains, which was subjected to limited
zooarchaeological analysis by the author, was sorted by class,
identified as to genus and species whenever possible, examined
for evidence of butchering, and weighed. While only cursory
zooarchaeological analysis was conducted, it is certain that
cow, turkey, and chicken bone make up the bulk of the faunal
materials, both numerically and by weight. Many vertebrate
faunal specimens (n=258), particularly cow and other large
mammal ribs, vertebrae, and long bones, exhibited evidence of
having been sawed, cut, or otherwise butchered. Many of these
cut and sawed specimens may represent "soup" bones, and in
the hospital setting, beef and poultry broth preparation were
likely a common occurrence. In treating yellow fever during
the 1839 epidemic, Naval Surgeon Isaac Hulse relied chiefly
on bloodletting and the use of such purgatives as calomel,
castor oil, enemas, and blistering. These "remedies" were
followed by rest and frequent light meals consisting primarily
of "clear soups and broth" (Hulse 1842). Consumption of beef

and chicken broth was regarded as essential in the recuperation
process, particularly to prevent dehydration.

The Archaeology of Yellow Fever Epidemics?

The partial excavation of Feature 7 indicates that a
tremendous number of items, including many that could have
had continued usefulness, such as chipped, but unbroken
ceramic vessels, nearly whole tobacco pipes, uniform buttons,
unbroken bottles, and medical and personal items were
disposed of in a large, formally prepared (straight-sided and
flat-floored) pit on hospital grounds. This occurred during the
late 1830s and 1840s. There is evidence that the refuse was
covered periodically with sand, perhaps for normal sanitation
reasons, and it is apparent that the pit was intentionally capped
at a point when it may or may not have been full. The presence
of Feature 7 raises several questions:
was Feature 7 the main (only) hospital disposal
facility during the period it was in use?
was Feature 7 originally a privy or latrine trench later
used for refuse disposal?
are there other similar refuse disposal features on the


2012 VOL. 65(3)


hospital grounds?
why were so many usable items disposed of in the
why were the users of this refuse pit apparently so
persistent in keeping it covered?
Only the last two questions can be addressed without further
archaeological investigation of site 8ES 1434. In the remainder
of this paper, I attempt to answer these questions.
The explanation as to why so many usable items were
disposed of in the pit may simply reflect the relative material
"wealth" of a government facility. The answer as to why the
pit was so often covered may simply be that normal sanitation
required periodic covering with sand. Alternatively, however,
these two questions could be related to disposal behaviors
conducted in response to epidemic disease? Given the
attitudes and beliefs surrounding the causes and transmission
of yellow fever, the disposal patterns evident in Feature 7 may
be related to the well-documented yellow fever epidemics at
the Pensacola Navy Yard in the nineteenth century. Rather
than representing wasteful refuse disposal and normal sanitary
behaviors, specific characteristics of the refuse pit materials
suggests a response to one or more yellow fever outbreaks that
filled the hospital with the infected victims.
Pensacola was a busy nineteenth-century port city and the
Navy Yard also served as a port for the Navy. The Navy had
access to goods, both in terms of quantity and "quality" not
commonly associated with majority of the civilian population
of the area, but this alone does not explain the density of
materials in the hospital refuse pit. Investigations at the nearby
Pensacola Navy Ship Yard worker's town of Woolsey did not
document any comparable refuse disposal features (Curren et
al. 1998). On the other hand, Carley (1979, 1981) documented
clear evidence of similar refuse disposal patterns associated
with malaria epidemics at the Fort Vancouver hospital during
the 1824-1835 period. Carley (1981: 33) states that:
A large number of bedridden people with intermittent fever
would necessitate a nearby place for those attending them to
dispose of such waste. Large pits, near the hospital, would

serve this purpose. Such an explanation would account
for the number of small personal items such as beads and
buttons and the fragmented glass and ceramic. The deposits
of bone and ash could be explained as debris resulting from
cooking for large numbers of people at the hospital. ....
Based upon what is known of the state of the medical art in
the early 19th century, the beliefs and practices of the times,
and those materials available to the physicians and their
patients, it is suggested that the artifacts and features of the
site presented herein may be interpreted as archaeological
reflections of 19th century medicine and responses to fever
The density of materials (artifacts and faunal remains)
likely reflects (and is proportional to) the number of patients
and the amount of activity that occurred at the hospital when
the pit was being filled. There was apparently no other cause
for an increased patient load at the hospital that out-ranked
yellow fever, as none is mentioned in documentary texts
(Pearce 1978, 1980). An increased patient load resulting from
yellow fever is reflected by the following statement: "On
September 13, 1834, Commandant Wolcott Chauncey wrote
the navy commissioners saying the naval hospital was too
small to accommodate fever patients, and that he had "put
up huts on the beach in front of the hospital to take care of
the sick" (Pearce 1978:553). There are other references to the
hospital being "full of patients" as a result of the 1847 yellow
fever epidemic (Pearce 1978:455).
Among the dense tangle of items dumped in the pit are
Navy officer's uniform buttons and one non-military button
with either preserved fabric attached or fabric impressions
preserved in the copper sulfate resulting from degradation
of these "brass" buttons (Figure 9). The presence of fabric
or fabric impressions on these buttons implies that they were
disposed of while still attached to the clothing they were
part of or in a bundle of clothing or cloth. The disposal of
uniforms belonging to yellow fever patients may have been
a standard procedure considering the stated belief of Navy
Surgeons stationed at Pensacola that the disease could be

clothing impressions

Figure 9. Buttons from Feature 7 with clothing impressions; left: Federal Navy Officer's cuff, "Warranted Rich Orange"
backstamp (1830-1852), right: Navy Officer's cuff, "Robinsons Extra Rich" backstamp (1828-1848).




Figure 10. Apparently usable clay smoking pipes from
Feature 7; upper: molded bowl with "T D", stars, and
floral design, lower: ribbed design.

Figure 12. Examples of complete bottles recovered from
Feature 7.

Figure 11. Usable brown-glazed stoneware jar
recovered from Feature 7.
spread by contact with infected items and clothing (Pearce
1978:459-460). This pattern of disposal behavior could also be
extended to the discard of other items recovered from Feature
7, including usable clay smoking pipes (Figure 10), ceramic
vessels (Figure 11), and glass bottles (Figures 12-13).
While filling episodes evident in the pit may have been
related to normal sanitation procedures, they may have
occurred with increased frequency during epidemics. With the
belief that yellow fever was an air-borne disease emanating
from decomposing matter, filling or covering the pit may
have been an effort to bury decomposing food waste items
(animal bone) as well as "infected" items. The strata that form
the upper portion of Feature 7 (Stratum IV and V), with their

Figure 13. Complete soda-lime glass ink well from
Feature 7.
sandy matrix and slightly lower artifact density relative to the
basal component of the pit, appear to represent repeated refuse
disposal and filling events. Hypothetically, these strata could
represent disposal and pit capping during the 1846 and 1847
epidemics, with the base of the feature associated with the
1839 and 1841 epidemics, as well as other outbreaks.

Summary and Conclusions

In the 28 year "lifespan" of the 1834 Pensacola Naval
Hospital, there are no other events recorded that account for the
patient load that the six documented yellow fever epidemics
resulted in. Epidemics in 1839, 1846, and 1847 are recorded


2012 VOL. 65(3)


as being particularly virulent. Archaeological investigations at
the site resulted in the documentation of architectural remains
of the hospital as well as a unique refuse pit associated with
it during the late 1830s and 1840s. The architectural remains
include a segment of the foundation associated with the
columned front facade of the hospital, which provides an aid
in confirming the footprint of the structure. The refuse pit
appears to have been a formally constructed pit used for the
disposal of refuse and items from the hospital. The density
of materials in the pit, which includes domestic items such as
ceramic vessels, glass bottle and containers, faunal remains,
personal items, architectural materials, medical items, and
military artifacts, is quite impressive, and many of the items
appear to have been usable when disposed of.
Perhaps the dense deposit of refuse simply represents
consumption and waste associated with a military hospital,
but the density of artifacts and food waste remains is certainly
indicative of a great deal of activity at the hospital when the
trash pit was being filled. Furthermore, it is suggested that these
materials may have been discarded from the hospital during
yellow fever epidemics in an attempt to contain the spread of
the disease. When the pit was being filled, it was not yet known
that mosquitoes were responsible for the spread of yellow
fever, and there is evidence that the hospital commanders
and naval surgeons believed that "infected items" must be
disinfected or destroyed and disposed of. As previously noted
and expanded on here, almost 30 years after the pit was filled,
Surgeon General R. D. Murray stated concerning the treatment
of yellow fever

The elimination of yellow fever from our
nomenclature will follow when there is a proper
conception of the influence of clothing, bedding, and
unclean bedrooms as transmitters. The disease is air
borne for some distance; the infection is stronger
at times and places than at others; whether it is
intensity or quantity I do no know; it may be diluted,
and is transmitted by clothing, bedding, and related
articles. Hair from the dead has transmitted it; corn
sacks; blankets and old newspapers have carried
it; mountains of filth will not produce it; they may
give it a new nidus or garden from which it goes out
"seeking whom it may devour." The cleanest town in
the South may have a severe prevalence if the people
insist on disobeying the advice of the health officials
(Murray 1876).

The evidence from the refuse pit suggests that its contents
may represent, in large part, the byproduct of activities related
to the treatment of yellow fever during one or more of the
documented epidemics known to have dramatically increased
the patient load of the hospital. While conclusive evidence
for this specific action cannot be demonstrated, it is certainly
plausible that refuse disposal patterns at the Pensacola hospital
were influenced by beliefs related to yellow fever and that this
is evident in the materials discarded in at least one deep refuse
pit or privy located there.


I would like to thank the U.S Navy for their support of this
project, especially Len Winter at CIV NAVFAC SE, JAX for
his review. I would also like to acknowledge Hardy, Heck, and
Moore, Inc. for their support. I would like to thank the field
crew, particularly Steve RabbySmith and Brian Shoemaker
for their efforts at Old Hospital. Last, but not least, I would
like to thank the reviewers and the editors of The Florida
Anthropologist for their efforts in getting this paper into print.

References Cited
Alexander, Lawrence T.
1983 Clay Tobacco Smoking Pipes from the Caleb Pusey
House. In The Archaeology of the Clay Tobacco
Pipe. VIII. America. Edited by Peter Davey, pp. 195-
234. BAR International Series 175.

Caroline D. Carley
1979 Historical andArchaeological Evidence ofNineteenth
Century Fever Epidemics and Medicine at Hudson's
Bay Company's Fort Vancouver. Unpublished
Master's Thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow.
1981 Historical and Archaeological Evidence of 19th
Century Fever Epidemics and Medicine at
Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Vancouver 1824-
1836. Historical Archaeology (15): 19-35.

Crosby, Molly C.
2006 The American Plague: The Untold Story of Yellow
Fever, The Epidemics that Shaped Our History.
Berkley Publishing Group, New York.

Curren, Caleb, Steve Newby, and Steven Smith
1998 Woolsey Archeology: Construction Monitoring at an
Early American Navy Town Site. Naval Air Station,
Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida. A Publication
of the Pensacola Archaeology Lab.

Hardy, Heck, and Moore (HHM)
2004 Cultural Resources Survey of Navy Family Housing
for Public/Private Venture (PPV) for Selected
Installations in Naval Facilities Engineering
Command Engineering Field Division South, Naval
Air Station, Pensacola, Florida. Submitted to Naval
Facilities Engineering Command, Engineering Field
Division South, North Charleston, South Carolina.
Hardy.Heck-Moore, Inc., Austin, Texas.

Historic Properties Associates (HPA)
1986 Architectural and Historical Survey of the Naval Air
Station, Pensacola, Florida. Manuscript No. 2360
on file, Florida Division of Historical Resources,




Hospital Welfare Department
1946 The US naval hospital, Pensacola, Florid, and
its Historical Significance. Hospital Welfare
Department, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Florida.

Hulse, Isaac
1842 Monograph on the Yellow Fever. Maryland Medical
and Surgical Journal, Volume II.

Humphreys, Margaret
1992 Yellow Fever and The South. John Hopkins University
Press, Baltimore.

Lazarus, William C.
1965 A Study of Dated Bricks in the Vicinity of
Pensacola, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist

Leavitt, John W., and Robert L. Numbers (editors)
1985 Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the
History of Medicine and Public Health. University
of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

McGuinn, William F., and Bruce S. Bazelon
2001 American Military Button Makers andDealers; Their
Backmarks and Dates. A Comprehensive Listing and
Discussion of Makers and Suppliers of American
Military and Related Uniform Buttons Covering the
period from ca. 1790 to ca. 1945. Bookcrafters, Inc.,
Fredericksburg, Virginia.

Melosi, Martin V.
2000 The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America
from Colonial Times to the Present. Johns Hopkins
University Press, Baltimore.

Mikell, Gregory A., James N. Ambrosino, Thomas J. Carty
2005 Phase II Archaeological Testing of 8ES1434 within
the old hospital Family Housing Area, Naval Air
Station Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida.
Prepared for the Department of the Navy, Naval
Facilities Engineering Command, Engineering
Field Division South, Charleston, South Carolina.

Morrison, Hugh
1952 Early American Architecture: From the first Colonial
Settlements to the National Period. Oxford University
Press, New York.

Murray, R.D.
1876 Treatment of Yellow Fever. Marine Hospital
Service Report, Office of the Supervising Surgeon-
General, Marine-Hospital Service, Washington, D.C.
Electronic document,http://yellowfever.lib.virginia.

edu/reed/collection.html. Accessed August 2007.

Office of Naval Records
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records Collection of theOffice of Naval records and
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Olvey, Whitney
2003 Cultural Resources Monitoring at Cabaniss
Crescent, Phase I Survey at Billingsley and
old hospital Tracts, and Phase II Testing at North
Avenue for Geothermal Exchange Unit
Installation, Naval Air Station Pensacola, Escambia
County, Florida. Prepared for Hardy.Heck-Moore,
Inc., Austin, Tx. Brockington and Associates, Inc.,

Pearce, George F.
1978 The Torment of Pestilence: Yellow Fever Epidemics
in Pensacola. Florida Historical Quarterly 56:448-
1980 The U.S. Navy in Pensacola: From Sailing Ships to
Naval Aviation (1825-1930). University of
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2000 Pensacola During the Civil War, A Thorn in the Side
of the Confederacy. University of Florida Press,

Tice, K. Warren
1997 Uniform Buttons of the United States 1776-1865.
Thomas Publications, Gettysburg, Pa.

U.S. Naval Historical Center
2007 U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph, photograph
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wyandott.htm. Accessed August 2007.

Wyman, Walter
1897 Post-Epidemic Disinfection, Circulating Letter
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Hardy.Heck-Moore, Inc., Austin, Texas.


2012 VOL. 65(3)


Appendix A. Summary of Artifacts and Materials Recovered from Feature 7.

Artifact Description Count
Kitchen Group 2078
coarse earthenware (El Morro, lead glazed, olive jar) 1
pearlware (plain, molded, blue shell edged, annular, transfer print, sponge-decorated, 512
hand-painted, yellow and white glazed)
porcelain (plain, molded) 7
stoneware (Bristol, brown slipped, alkaline glazed, salt glazed, other glazed) 8
yellowware (plain, annular) 31
mochaware, annular 3
indeterminate refined earthenware 17
amber bottle/container glass 2
aquamarine bottle/container glass 241
clear bottle/container glass 276
dark olive green bottle/container glass 258
light olive green bottle/container glass 107
medium olive green bottle/container glass 236
soda-lime bottle/container glass 343
clear glass bottle/decanter stopper 4
wire bottle stopper/cork holder 11
cupreous metal bottle cap 1
metal utensil fragment 16
bone utensil handle 4
Architecture Group 2847
brass cut nail/nail fragment 1
ron cut nail/nail fragment 708
ron wrought nail 1
ron indeterminate nail fragment 17
roofing tack (brass, cupreous metal, iron) 8
ron cut/wrought spike 2
miscellaneous iron hardware (screw, staple, nut, hinge pin) 2
pipe/pipe fitting (iron, copper) 2
glass door knob, clear 1
soda-lime window glass 1,939
miscellaneous metal fragments 166
Activities Group 271
cast iron kettle leg 1
coal 7
coffee bean 1
apothecary spoon/stirrer/pestle 7
apothecary/medicine bottle 46
soda-lime glass ink well 1
oiletry bottle 2
amp chimney 103
barrel hoop 11
ron, possible equestrian hardware 1
iron garden tool fragment (hoe, shovel) 1



Activities Group continued 271
possible tooth extraction key 1
pewter hypodermic/injector casing 1
indeterminate circular glass object 1
miscellaneous metal object (spring, disk, tabular object) 87
Arms, Clothing, Furniture, Personal, and Tobacco Pipe Groups 101
lead shot 2
cupreous ordnance insignia 1
brass military button (early 1800s) 4
non-military button (bone, ferrous metal, non-ferrous metal, porcelain, white 23
glass, shell)
brass grommet 2
cupreous metal clothing link/clasp 1
ron buckle 1
weather shoe sole 2
cupreous metal finial 1
ring (brass, wound copper wire, iron) 3
ead/pewter pendant 1
jewelry clasp 1
straight razor fragment 1
kaolin pipe bowl fragment 24
kaolin pipe stem fragment 34
Artifact Total (excluding bone) 5298
bone (estimate) >5000


2012 VOL. 65(3)

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'703 Truett Dr., Tallahassee, FL 32303
2 1971-September, 2009

In Florida, "Kirk" points, in particular "Kirk Serrated,"
have become the key component of an archaeological narrative
that alleges unbroken human occupational and cultural
continuity from late Pleistocene (Clovis-related) Paleoindians
(PI) to middle Holocene Middle Archaic people along a
simplified series of diagnostic points that include (from oldest
to most recent): Clovis Suwannee/Simpson Bolen (Side
and Corner Notched) Kirk Serrated Florida Archaic
Stemmed Florida Archaic Stemmed Newnan. This
sequence of changing projectile points was first outlined by
Bullen (1975:6; Farr 2006:26), and it is presented as narrative
in the two textbooks on Florida archaeology (Milanich
1994:63-64; Milanich and Fairbanks 1980:48-51; 54), as well
as in the culture history background section of most research
reports (e.g., Austin 2006:9; Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987:151;
Tesar and Jones 2004:28-30).
As we expand below, the Clovis Suwannee/Simpson
- Bolen (Side and Corner Notched) part of the narrative
can be buttressed with abundant artifact similarities, several
stratigraphic occurrences, and some radiocarbon ages.
Likewise, the Kirk Serrated Florida Archaic Stemmed
(Levy/Alachua/Putnam /Marion) Newnan part of the
narrative can be shown to have stratigraphic examples with
radiocarbon ages and abundant associated artifacts of bone,
wood, and fabric; the early part of this sequence is characterized
by peat/pond cemeteries, while the latter is marked by burials
in sand/shell. What we are calling into question is the presence
of people in Florida between the Early Archaic (EA) and
Middle Archaic (MA) culture histories, between roughly 9000
and 8000 B.P. (-10,200 and -9000 cal B.P.) as well as the
corollary that there is an ancestor/descendant relationship
between the two culture histories that is linked by Florida's
"Kirk Serrated" points.
We are not the first to notice a possible paucity ofpost-9000
B.P. "Kirk" sites in Florida. Thirty years ago paleontologist S.
David Webb (1981:116) proposed that these early Holocene
populations were seeking resources to replace the megafauna
that had died off at the end of the Pleistocene, and that they were
probably at the coastlines of those times, on paleolandscapes
that are now underwater on the continental shelf. Widmer
(1988:64-6), noting the lack of "Kirks" in southern Florida,
offered that there were no people farther south during this time
because of environmental deterioration. Milanich (1994:63-
64) related that "...stone tools believed to be early Archaic
have been surface collected with early Archaic projectile

points rather than excavated from good contexts..., and
Austin (2001:35-36) concluded that the lack of Kirk sites with
radiocarbon ages in the Hillsborough drainage is partly due
to the paucity of excavations and archaeological unfamiliarity
with the chronozone. These opinions are necessary because
there is no good continuous record of deposition in Florida
that would confirm a cultural historical connection between
the two culture historical groups, as we will show.
This "Kirk" problem has interwoven themes, including
population dynamics, variable artifact morphologies, inferred
cultural-historical relationships, a cacophony of typological
nomenclatures, and, not to mention, entrenched doctrines.
We tackle the problem by outlining evidence for both culture
histories, showing with a robust sample of radiocarbon assays
that there are no sites indicating the presence of people in
Florida between, roughly 9000 B.P. (- 10,200 cal B.P.), or
a little later, and ca. 8,000 B.P. (- 9000 cal B.P.), or a little
earlier, a period of more than 1200 calibrated years. We offer
two stratigraphic situations with lacunae between PI-EA and
MA chipped stone assemblages, and we note a weak record
of overlap in Florida Master Site File (FMSF) data that is
consistent with our thesis. We discuss the facts that corner-
notched "Kirk" points overlap in time and morphology with
Bolen notched points, and that stemmed "Kirk Serrated"
points in Florida are of many diverse shapes not always
consistent with the definitions of "Kirk Serrated" intended by
either Joffre Coe (1964:71-72) or Ripley Bullen (1975:37).
Furthermore, the specimens of interest are few, and mostly
known from later MA contexts, not earlier PI-EA ones where
they are expected.
We infer from all of this that there is a lack of evidence
from "good contexts" because there is a lack of "good contexts"
with evidence for occupational and cultural continuity, and that
in this case the absence of evidence is evidence of the absence
people. We also argue that the two different culture groups
were not culturally related based on different characteristics
of chipped stone industries and burial traditions, regardless of
whether or not there was a temporal hiatus between the two.

Evidence from Florida for Paleoindians and Early
Archaic People: Clovis Suwannee/Simpson -
Bolen (Side and Corner Notched)

In Florida the sequence for late Pleistocene and early
Holocene human population continuity is buttressed with


VOL. 65 (3)




relatively abundant evidence from isolated finds of diagnostic
points, including fluted points, unfluted lanceolate points,
and both side- and corer-notched points, stratigraphic
occurrences, and some associated radiocarbon ages (Dunbar
1991, 2006; Dunbar and Hemmings 2004; Thulman 2007; see
Table 1). In addition, we have compiled and illustrated a list
of radiocarbon ages that include those recently published by
Dasovich and Doran (2011), as well as some others that allow
illumination of the sequence of radiocarbon dated PI-EA sites
and their associated point types.
Even though the tortoise shell and stick-like stake at
Little Salt Springs (Clausen et al. 1979) are often referred to
as pre-Clovis in Florida, unequivocal pre-Clovis ages come
from Page/Ladson (site numbers are given in Table 1 and
Appendix I, site locations in Figure la, all radiocarbon ages
listed in Appendix I). At Page/Ladson a few chipped stone
artifacts and a possible cut marked mastodon tusk were found
in a securely dated geologic bed with ages averaging 12,415
+ 37 B.P. (roughly 14,400 cal B.P.'; Dunbar 2006; Kendrick
2006; Webb and Dunbar 2006). A younger estimate consistent
with ages expected for Clovis of 11,050 + 50 B.P. (13,090 -
12,860 cal B.P.) came from an ivory foreshaft found in Sloth
Hole (Hemmings 2004; Waters and Stafford 2007). Diagnostic
fluted points were found there by early diver collectors as well.
Unfortunately, there are no radiometric ages for Suwannee
and Simpson unfluted lanceolates in Florida, but stratigraphic
examples consistent with the presumed sequence include
fluted and unfluted lanceolates associated at Paradise Park
(a.k.a Silver Spring), Simpson unfluted lanceolates at Ryan
Harley, and Suwannee and Simpson unfluted lanceolates along
with Bolen Side and Corer Notched points together at Lake
Helen Blazes, Darby Springs; Wakulla Springs, and Harey
Flats (Balsillie et al. 2006; Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987, 1989;
Dolan and Allen 1961; Dunbar et al. 2005; Hemmings 1975;
Neil 1958; 1964; Purdy 2008:64).
Two sites in Florida have produced the earliest Holocene
ages for notched points. The "Bolen surface" (stratigraphic
Unit 5) at Page/Ladson produced 3 contemporaneous ages
that averaged 9958 + 36 B.P. (11,500 11,250 cal B.P.) with
notched points, antler components, and chipped stone tools for
working wood (Carter and Dunbar 2006; Dunbar et al. 1988;
Peres 1997). Site 8LE2105 also produced notched points and a
number of formal chipped stone tools with 2 contemporaneous
ages averaging 9870 + 38 B.P. (11,360 11,200 cal B.P.)
(Carter and Dunbar 2006; Faught et al. 2003; Horum et al.
1996). The Cutler Fossil site (a distinct outlier at the most
southern portions of the peninsula) produced fragments of
notched points and a single estimated age of 9670 + 130
(11,350 10,550 cal B.P.; Carr 1986). An age consistent with
these two was calculated by Dunbar (2006:498) by averaging
organic samples associated with Burial 1 at the 13-m ledge
at Warm Mineral Springs. In addition to these sites with
radiocarbon ages, excavations at other sites have produced
notched points as the only early diagnostics. These include
Bolen Bluff, Jeannie's Better Back, and Ross Bay (Austin and
Mitchell 1999; Bullen 1958; Carr 1986; Gramly 1994).
Somewhat later radiocarbon ages indicating people in

Florida include two worked stakes on the edge of the basin that
drops into the sinkhole at Little Salt Springs, averaging 9550 +
95 B.P. (11,200 10,550 cal B.P.; Clausen et al. 1979). To date,
no diagnostic chipped stone artifacts, especially projectile
points, have been reported from there, but wood, antler, and
bone artifacts are known. Gifford and Koski (2011) recently
published an age estimate on wood associated with a worked
antler artifact from the basin at Little Salt Springs of 9240 +
60 (10,570 10,250 cal B.P.). Another age estimate on an oak
mortar at Little Salt Springs of 9080 + 250 B.P. (10,600 9800
cal B.P.) is intriguing, but it has a large standard deviation that
reduces its usefulness. At the Wakulla Springs Lodge Site,
the Bolen occupation is secure by a two age average of 9300
+ 28 B.P. (10,570 10,430 cal B.P.; Tesar and Jones 2004).
These ages came from charcoal from levels 10 and 11 in the
2004 excavations. Three other estimates made on charcoal
from these levels were rejected by Tesar and Jones (2004:155-
156), including two of approximately 4000 B.P., which are
egregiously young. The other, on charcoal and dated to 8710
+ 40 (9700 9560 cal B.P.), was associated with red ochre that
may be indicative of late Bolen presence, but it is the certainly
most recent among the radiometric assays in this sample.
In addition to the diagnostic projectile points referenced
here, associated tools include a plethora of unifacial and
bifacial chipped stone tools with regular shapes, as well as
bone and ivory components (Daniel et al. 1986; Dunbar et al.
1989; Hemmings 2004; Purdy 1981; Thulman 2006a). There
is little disagreement that these data support the received
narrative. Finally, a cremation burial was found at Wakulla
Springs Lodge that included a capping of red ochre (Tesar
and Jones 2004:81-82). This is the only such example from
Florida associated with Bolen, or earlier artifacts. This method
of disposing of the dead by fire, also known from Kirk Corer
Notched contexts at Ice House Bottom (Chapman 1977:112-
115), contrasts with burials in water as revealed at Windover
more than a thousand calibrated years later, as describe below.

Evidence in Florida for the Middle Archaic:
Kirk Serrated Florida Archaic Stemmed (Levy/Alachua/
Putnam Marion) Newnan

In Florida, the sequence of diagnostic MA points
associated with radiocarbon ages that indicate human
population continuity and evolution is somewhat problematic
because point shapes do not change much over millennia and
because there was less emphasis, in general, among Florida's
MA people on chipped stone items, a clear difference with
their PI-EA predecessors. Nevertheless, and in addition to Kirk
Serrated points (discussed below), the diagnostic stemmed
points are Levy and Alachua (rectangular based) and Putnam
and Marion (round based), projectile points also referred to
by the catch-all "Florida Archaic Stemmed" or FAS points.
These diagnostics occur throughout the MA sequence and into
the Late Archaic (LA) as well as the later ceramic times (Neil
1958; Tesar 1980). Well-made Newnan points occur after the
earliest examples of the FAS, and they also continue into the
Late Archaic (LA).

2012 VOL. 65(3)


A sequence of radiocarbon-dated MA sites is presented in
Figure 2 and Table 1, and with this, we can better discuss their
associated point types (Figures lb and 2). The age estimate
at Windover on human bone of 8120 + 70 B.P. (9250 8990
cal B.P.) is the next earliest age, after the last of the Bolen
ages, representing clear evidence for the presence of people
and what we consider the earliest of MA sites2. Figure 2 shows
that the Windover radiocarbon samples range over more than
a thousand years without other sites being represented. The
youngest age at Windover, again on human bone, is 6990 +
70 B.P. (7930 7740 cal B.P.). A stake associated with one of
the burials from the slough at Little Salt Springs, the Hazeltine
site, returned a slightly later age of 6830 + 155 B.P. (7840
- 7520 cal B.P.), and West Williams produced a single age
below a zone of MA artifacts of 6810 + 40 B.P (7675 7610
cal B.P.) (Austin et al. 2004; Clausen et al. 1979). At Bay West
three stakes average 6675 + 40 (7585 7505 cal B.P.), and
at Republic Groves ages range from 6520 + 65 to 5745 + 65
B.P. (7510 7330 and 6640 6480 cal B.P.) (Beriault et al.
1981; Wharton et al. 1981). Windover, Hazeltine, Bay West,
and Republic Groves are each pond/peat burial cemeteries
that have produced impressive numbers of preserved human
remains associated with artifacts of antler, bone, wood, fabric,
atlatl parts, and, occasionally, stone projectile points (Beriault
1981; Byrd 2011; Carr and Jones 1981; Doran 2002 Wharton
et al. 1981).
Projectile points from Windover include three thick,
rectangular based "Kirk Serrated" specimens (Dickel
2002:117-118), two of which were associated with burials.
Bay West burials also produced three points designated as
FAS (Levy rectangular based) by Beriault et al. (1981), along
with a round-based Newnan (not associated with any burials).
All three points at Bay West were wide with respect to length
(i.e., stubby), in contrast to the longer examples at Windover.
Beriault et al. (1981) reported that some of the points were heat
treated. At West Williams, two small rectangular-based points,
found below the radiocarbon age of 6810 +40 B.P. (7675 -7610
cal B.P.) mentioned above, were designated "Kirk Serrated"
(Austin et al. 2004). Similar points were designated Wacissa
by Tesar (1994) at the Johnson Sand Pit, but no radiocarbon
or stratigraphic information exists for this site. The burials
from Republic Groves produced a large inventory of chipped
stone items including round-based Putman FAS points, but
none from radiometrically-dated contexts. At Jeannie's Better
Back, a single Kirk Serrated point was designated in the MA
assemblage, but, again, no radiocarbon date (Austin and
Mitchell 1999). Likewise, one specimen was designated as
Kirk Serrated from the upper MA levels at Wakulla Springs
(Tesar and Jones 2004), and two were culled from the Johnson
Sand Pit collection (Tesar 1994). We discuss these specimens
again below.
Table 1 and Figure 2 show that sites producing
radiocarbon ages later than 6500 B.P. (~ 7430 cal B.P.) are
more frequent, including Hontoon Dead Creek, Horr's Island,
Live Oak Mound, Lake Monroe, Salt Springs, and Ussepa
Island (Austin et al. 2004; Deming 2000; Marquardt 1992;
O'Donoughue et al. 2011; Randall and Sassaman 2005; Russo

et al. 1991; Sassaman 2003). There are several MA sites with
ages around 6000 B.P. (- 6840 cal B.P.); these are the result of
work along the middle St Johns River by the National Parks
Service and the Laboratory of Southeastern Archaeology at
the University of Florida. Newnan projectile points occur with
these later sites, as do other FAS types.
Gauthier, Diamond Dairy, and Johnson Lake are sites
with FAS points from excavated contexts. Unfortunately,
they are without radiocarbon control or stratigraphic evidence
for PI or EA presence that would contribute to the sense of
cultural continuity between earlier and later times. Johnson
Sand Pit also is without stratigraphic or radiocarbon control.
Paradise Park and Harney Flats produced FAS and Newnan
points in upper stratigraphic levels, including both round- and
rectangular-based Putnam and Levy varieties, and both sites
produced evidence for a lacuna between earlier PI-EA artifacts
and later MA assemblages, as described in more detail below
(Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987; Neil 1958:38). Unfortunately,
there are no radiocarbon controls for either of these important
archaeological sites.

Radiocarbon Data Gap

In addition to chronological control for the sites and
artifacts already discussed, frequency distributions of the
number of radiocarbon ages can be and have been used as
proxies for population dynamics over the Holocene epoch.
Based on the theory that more people produce more sites
from which archaeologists take more radiocarbon samples; or,
likewise, that fewer people, produce fewer sites, and therefore
fewer samples are taken by archaeologists (e.g., Breschini et
al. 1988; Berry and Berry 1986; Faught 2008; Steele 2010).
Of course there are preservation and sampling biases involved,
and other data need to be taken into account for theorizing, but
we consider the current sample to be at the least sufficient for
preliminary analysis.
The Dasovich and Doran (2011) compilation includes
1254 radiocarbon ages, ranging from late Pleistocene to historic
time (Dasovich 1996). From this sample we culled 143 ages
older than 5000 B.P. from 27 sites. We added 78 radiocarbon
ages from 12 sites not included in their sample. This results in
a collection of 221 radiocarbon ages older than 5000 B.P. from
39 Florida sites. These ages, and their standard deviations,, are
presented in Appendix I and illustrated in Figure 2 (frequency
distribution of the ages to the left, calibrated probability curves
to the upper right, and sites discussed in the text are indicated).
Radiocarbon ages indicating human behavior, human
presence, or those made on skeletal remains are bolded
(n=124), while ages with a standard deviation of more than
200 years, or those downgraded for other reasons, particularly
environmental samples such as peat or wood not indicating
human presence, are shown in gray (n=97)3. Most sites are
represented by single ages, but Page/Ladson (n=43), Warm
Mineral Springs (n=30), Little Salt Springs (n=20), Windover
(n=13), J&J Hunt (n=10), Lake Monroe (n=8), Salt Springs
(n=8), Tick Island (n=8), Bay West (n=7), Groves Orange
Midden (n=7), Hontoon Dead Creek (n=7), Mouth of Silver




2 102 VOL. 65(3)

Table 1. Sites and diagnostic artifacts discussed in the text, including site numbers, age if known, and references to
the data. PI is for Paleoindian, EA for Early Archaic, and MA for Middle Archaic, S&C refers to side- and corner-
notched examples produced; additional age information available in Appendix A.
Site Site Name PI EA MA Chronology Citation
Number Diagnostics Diagnostics diagnostic (B.P)
8JE591 Page-Ladson Pre-Clovis age Bolen Unit 5 12,400 Unit 3 Webb and Dunbar 2006;
Units 3 and 5 Unit 3 9958 Unit 5 Dunbar 2006

8JE121 Sloth Hole Clovis age ivory 11,040 Hemmings 2004
8MR92 Paradise Park Fluted points with FAS with ceramics no '4C Neil 1958
8JE1004 Ryan-Harley Suwannee / no 14 Dunbar et al.. 2005
E100 Ry-arley Simpson
Kirk, FAS, and 14C Daniel and Wisenbaker
8HI507 Harney Flats Suwannee Bolen (S&C) Kirk,Newnan nDaniel and1987Wisenbaker

8AL301 Darby Springs Suwannee Bolen no '4C Dolan and Allan 1961

8BR27 Lake Helen Suwannee Bolen no 14C Edwards 1952
8AL439 Bolen Bluff Suwannee isolated Bolen (S&C) no 14C Bullen 1968
Warm Mineral Clause et al. 1975;
8S019 Sarinel Greenbriar 10000 9900? Cockrell and Murphy
Springs 1978; Dunbar 2006

8WA329 Wakulla Suwannee Bolen (S&C) "Kirk" and FAS 9200 -8700? Tesar and Jones 2004
Springs Lodge Cremation
"Kirk Serrated", no '4C, no
-8LE73 Joinson Sand Greenbiar, Dalton Boln (S&C) Hamilton, Savannah stratigraphic Tesar 1994
Pit and Simpson River, Wacissa control
8LE2105 LE 2105 Bolen (S&C) 9880 Hornum et al. 1996
T8A143 Ross Bay Bolen (S&C) no 14C Gramly 1994

8DA2001 Cutler Fossil possible CN 9800 Carr 1986
Little Salt Bolen ages -
8S018 no 9500 Clausen et al. 1979
Springs diagnostics

8LF54 Jeanie's Better Bolen (S&C) "Kirk", FAS no 14C Austin and Mitchell 1999
45 Y- :. .". ? -. ' "" .. ...

Windover "Kirk Serrated"
8BR246 er"Kirk Serrated" 8100 6990 Doran 2002; Dickel 2002
Peat Cemetery
8CR200 Bay West FAS 7550 Beriault 1981
Peat cemetery
8SO79 e e NA 6800 -5200 Clausen et al. 1979
Peat cemetery
8HI509 West Williams "Kirk Serrated" and 6800 Austin et al 2004
8HR4 Groves FAS 6520 Wharton et al. 1981
Peat cemetery
8 4 Hontoon Dead F N n 6 0 Randall and Sassaman
8VO214 Creek FAS, Newnan 6400-5600 2005

8CR209 Horr's Island NA 6300 6000 Russo et al. 1991
Live Oak
8VO41 Le Ok NA 6200 -6100 Sassaman 2003
8BR193 Gauther FAS no 14C Carr and Jones 1981
Peat cemetery
8HI476 Diamond Greenbar "Kirk Stemmed", no 14C Austin 2006
Dairy Newnan
8MR63 Johnson Lake FAS no 14C Bullen and Dolan 1959
Lake Monroe
8VO53 Outlet Midden FAS, Newnan 5000 Deming 2000

8MR1 Rn Mdden NA 5700 5100 O'Donoughue et al. 2011

8LL51 Useppa Island NA 5600- 5100 Marquardt 1992


Figure 1. Distribution of sites discussed in the text and from the Florida Master Site File (FMSF), including
bathymetric contours indicating the extents of the peninsula at the different periods of time.



i + Page/Ladson Unit 3
'*i i

SAucilla Bison
Sloth Hole h4, ?4ge/Ladson Unit 5
loooo L L215 1 Mineral Springs

l 'a Springs
Little Salt Springs
9nn 'l ---

k i'i'l

SWakulla Springs ?


Bay West
i" t iif i ,.,

WA329 93304OBP ' i
WA29 9270 BP Wa- Wkull-aSprings-

8S019 9220l80BP

8S018 9089250BP
8B.2M46 7930tt80SP' I "-- -j
8BR246 89908llBP
8S018 i9Sr 45BP t
8S019o8920A90BP 4W
8JE591 8905*65BP

tr:J4 871UrJ0BP _. Wakulla Springs ?
88018 8570k820BP .
8BR246 8430I0OBP
MR 23228360M4BP
8so18 814115i5BP
8BR246 8s2070Bp W I- ndover
8S019i830t260Bi -
8BR24679540tBP -- - -
85R246 790*8051 -P
8BR246 783040BP I -------
X1600CalBP 14000CaBP 12000CalBP 10000CaBP 8000CaBP 6000CaIBP
Calbratd date

West Willi'i t i+lj a fltine (LSS)

Republic Grove Grove's Orange Midden
S T*4_ff+ i.. Horr's Island
Salt Spring i
.+ i Tick Island
4 Uis#+t+oliJ

Figure 2. Distribution and frequency of radiocarbon ages from Appendix A. with calibrated probabilities for the timeframe between 9500 and 7800 B.P.

8000 +

7000 +

6000 -




1. _________________________________

. ... .. ........ ... .I.w




Glen Run (n=7), and Mitchell River (n=6) each have produced
more than five samples.
The ages graph as continuous with lower slope indicating
more ages in that frame and increased slope indicated less
ages (Figure 2). There are gaps in the bolded sample between
pre-Clovis ages in Unit 3 at Page/Ladson, the single Clovis
age on the ivory foreshaft at Sloth Hole, and ages associated
with notched points at Page/Ladson and 8LE 2105 after 9,900
B.P. (- 11,300 cal B.P.). We assume the gap between Clovis
ages and Bolen point ages represents Suwannee time, based on
typological inference from an abundance of known specimens
(Dunbar 1991; Thulman 2006b), as well as stratigraphic
examples that indicate antiquity as presented above. We
understand that this has some resonance with the argument we
are making for an occupational gap later on, but we consider
the abundance of Suwannee lanceolates to be stronger
supporting data in this age frame than in the later one where
examples of "Kirk Serrated" points are expected but actually
occur in very few numbers (and often doubtful as legitimate
As the frequency distribution in the lower left corer of
Figure 2 demonstrates, there are fewer ages (n=14) in the age
frame between 9000 and 8000 B.P. (- 10,200 and 9000 cal
B.P.); only two of which are potentially indicative of human
presence (the Wakulla Springs estimate of 8710 B.P. described
above and the Windover skeleton unequivocally at 8120 B.P.).
It is difficult to assess accurately, or precisely, how much time
actually may have accrued between occupations, but at least
several hundred calibrated years at minimum and more than
1200 at maximum. The Windover skeleton with a radiocarbon
age of 8120 B.P is an unequivocal terminus post quem, but
whether the estimates at Wakulla and Little Salt Springs
around 9200 B.P. ( 10,400 10,280 cal B.P.) or the 8700 B.P.
(9680 9600 cal B.P.) estimate at Wakulla Springs Lodge is
the best potential estimate of terminus ante quem is unclear
at this time. Except for the Wakulla 8710 B.P. age and the
Windover skeleton 8100 B.P. age, the few samples in the 9000
to 8000 B.P. age frame are from Little Salt Springs and Warm
Mineral Springs, and each was rejected by the original authors
as contaminated or determined as not indicative of human
association because they relate to environmental variables
(Figure 2 upper right, and Appendix I)4. As stated, other
data need to be taken into account for theorizing population
dynamics, and we would expect that as more radiometric ages
are made available, this apparent gap will remain. But there
are other data consistent with the notion of a timeframe when
humans are gone or in low numbers in Florida discussed next,
and there is the argument we make after that that there is a
lack of convincing evidence for cultural historical continuity
between PI-EA and MA culture groups.

Stratigraphic and Site File Data

The inference of population decline based on a lack
of associated radiocarbon ages can be buttressed with
geoarchaeological examples of stratigraphic gaps between
archaeological assemblages, like at Harey Flats and Silver

Springs (Paradise Park). Both sites produced PI-EA artifacts
in lower levels and MA artifacts in upper levels, with sterile
stratigraphic zones between the two at both sites. At Harney
Flats, the dark brown, organic, hardpan (Zone 3) essentially
sealed PI-EA artifacts (below) from MA artifacts above
(Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987:33). This sterile hardpan
indicates an interval of environmental change without human
activity between the earlier and later occupations. If the PI-EA
occupation is no younger than 9000 B.P. (10,200 cal B.P.),
based on the data presented above, and the MA assemblage
can be estimated between 6000 and 5,000 B.P. (6880 -
5660 cal B.P.) based on the presence of diagnostic Newnan
projectile points (Austin 2006:170; Daniel and Wisenbaker
1987:28), then there were 3,000 or more years between the
two occupations and a clear difference in artifact assemblage.
At Silver Spring both Neil and Hemmings noted a
significant stratigraphic lacuna between PI and MA artifact
occurrences. Deposits there produced fluted and unfluted
lanceolates, tools, and debitage in the lower portions of
the profile (Faught and Thulman 2009; Hemmings 1975;
Neill 1958). While no EA notched points were produced
stratigraphically in Neil's or Hemmings's excavations, they
occur locally as isolated finds. Above the levels producing
fluted and unfluted lanceolates there was a foot or more of
sterile fine sand sediments. Above this sterile zone, artifacts
(and coloration indicating soil development) increased, first
chipped-stone artifacts without ceramics, and then heat-
treated chipped-stone artifacts with fiber-tempered and sand-
tempered ceramics in succession (Neil 1958:42). As noted
previously, round- based Putnam or Marion FAS projectile
points also were found higher up in the profile, associated with
sand tempered ceramics.
Certainly, these are two select examples, but if Florida's
PI-EA people evolved into Florida's MA people, one might
expect sites with PI-EA designations in the Florida Master Site
File (FMSF) also to include MA components. Of the 31,575
recorded sites in the 2012 FMSF database, 725 contained one
or more of six PI-EA categories (Figure la) and 887 contained
MA cultural components (Figure lb)4. Of the PI-EA sites only
about one quarter (188 of 725) also included MA components.
Similarly, one quarter (224 of the 887) of the MA sites
contained PI-EA components. We interpret this as meaning
that MA people mostly were not active at sites where PI-EA
people had been. Certainly this can be because of changing
environmental conditions affecting settlement and subsistence
procurement patterns, but it can also indicate different cultural
choices where sites are located because there are different
modes of survival.
It is also interesting to note that the FMSF database
includes ten (n=10) sites with Early Archaic Kirk (Corner
Notched, or Stemmed) as a culture group category, as expected
by the received view. Of the PI-EA sites in the FMSF, a little
more than 1 percent (n=9) also contained an Early Archaic
Kirk component, whereas less than one percent (n=6) of the
MA sites had this component. In other words, these are rare
examples. We note that in the 2010 FMSF database there was
only one site with this designation, and in 2005 the category



T~~~~~~lE~~~ ~ FLRD NHOOOIS 02VL 53

had not been introduced to the database. Of the Early Archaic
Kirk sites, all but one (West Williams), are located in northern
portions of the state.
Regardless of these few examples, to us the radiocarbon,
stratigraphic, and FMSF data show two culture histories on
each side of an occupational hiatus. Because the projectile
points that allegedly bridge these two culture histories in
Florida are "Kirk" (in particular "Kirk Serrated"), the question
might be asked, what do these "Kirks" look like and where are
they found?

Florida's Typological Cacophony

We are going to switch argument genres now and focus on
a typological cacophony that has developed in Florida (indeed,
the Eastern U.S. in general) that we would like to shed some
light on. As is well known by most researchers "Kirk projectile
points include two basic kinds, corer-notched and stemmed;
and they belong in a series of point types that begins with fluted
and lanceolate points, transitions to side- and corer-notched
points, and then, sometime after 9000 B.P. (~ 10,200 cal B.P.),
several different kinds of notched, bifurcated- and stemmed-
based points converge on the landscape with concentrations
that we think indicate social-cultural boundaries (sensu
Sassaman 2010). These diversities of shape befuddle artifact
assemblage interpretations, which in lower strata seem easy to
affiliate with a fluted point technological ancestry as described
As it turns out, not only are there multiple kinds of points
being made at these times to confuse simple seriation models,
but regional differences of nomenclature by collectors and
archaeologists cloud the understanding of these evolving
patches. On the one hand many projectile points have similar
shapes and similar stratigraphic positions, but different names,
depending on which state they were found. On the other
hand, points of different shapes, especially different basal
shapes for hafting are referred to with the same name, even
though they may have different stratigraphic occurrences or
positions. Florida's side- and comer- notched "Bolen" points
are excellent examples of the first kind of problem as they also
can be designated as "Big Sandy," "Pine Tree," "Plevna,"
"Taylor," "Palmer," or, especially, "Kirk" Comer Notched
points in other States in the eastern U.S. (Anderson and
Hanson 1988; Bullen 1975:51-52; Farr 2006; Justice 1987:82;
Kimball 1986:157-159; Oliver 1985:202). The opposite
phenomenon also exists in Florida because points of different
shapes are referred to with the same name; for instance, "Kirk
Serrated," is often applied to a specimen because the point
may have a serrated blade, regardless of its overall shape or
basal attributes. So how did so many different kinds of points
end up being called "Kirk?"
It is a matter of archaeological historiography that "Kirk"
points (both corer-notched and stemmed varieties) were
found in, and named for, one geologic unit, the Kirk Bed at the
Hardaway site in North Carolina, in the late 1950s by Joffre
Coe (1959; 1964:57; Daniel 1998). The Kirk family owned
the land. The corner-notched specimens were deeper, and

the stemmed specimens, some of which were serrated, were
shallower, but both were in the one geologic bed. Occupational
and cultural-historical continuity (of the tool makers) were
indicated by continuous deposition of sediment and aspects of
the artifact production indicating descent with modification of
the chipped stone industry (i.e., affinity).
The Hardaway typological sequence and its cultural-
historical inferences were quickly appealed to as an example,
first by Gordon Willey in his Introduction to North American
Archaeology (1966) and later by Betty Broyles (1966, 1971) in
her work at St. Albans. In fact, it now seems that all researchers
east of the Mississippi have somehow incorporated either Kirk
Corner Notched or Kirk Stemmed/Serrated, or both, into their
own area of study (Brookes 1985; Fagan 2000; Justice 1987,
Kimball 1986; Oliver 1985). Ripley Bullen (1975:32) included
it as "Kirk Serrated" in his 1975 booklet. Apparently Bullen
ignored the similarities of the Bolen notched series with Coe's
Kirk Corner Notched type at that time.
Comparison of Coe's (1964:71, Figure 60, rows A and
B) photographs of Kirk Corer Notched points with Bullen's
(1975:51-52) silhouette shapes for Bolen Comer Notched
shows morphological similarities, although Coe's Kirks
tend to be larger. It is understandable, morphologically and
chronologically, that Bolen Comer Notched and Kirk Comer
Notched designations can be used interchangeably on many
specimens. As shown above, side- and corner-notched points
in Florida range from 10,000 B.P. (Page/Ladson and 8LE2105)
to perhaps 9200 B.P., if not 8700 B.P. (at the Wakulla Lodge
Site), and Kirk Corner Notched points are supposed to range
from 9500 to 8900 B.P., depending on which authority one
uses. Thus, the two types overlap in time and morphology
(Justice 1987:71). In fact, some corner-notched points in
Florida that could have been called Bolen have been designated
"Kirk Comer Notched" (Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987:34-35;
Carter and Dunbar 2006:498; Latvis and Quitmeyer 2006:27).
Grayal Farr (2006:66-68) goes as far as to recommend that all
corner-notched points in Florida be referred to as "Kirk." to
distinguish them from side-notched Bolens. While this may
be a useful strategy for the future, our compilation shows
that side- and corer-notched points are found together in the
earliest cases discussed above (Page/Ladson and 8LE2105),
thus confusing a sense of "sequence" (Faught et al. 2003).
Bullen's (1975:37) "Kirk Serrated" silhouettes, on the
other hand, are not similar to Coe's (1964:71-72, Figures
60, row C and Figure 61A-H) "Kirk stemmed/serrated"
photographs. Coe's stemmed specimens have rectangular-
shaped stems with straight to concave, intentionally thinned
bases, including some with flute-like flake scars clearly
indicating a concern with the morphology of the biface for
hating. As with all the projectile points in the sequence, the
haftable areas were treated with multiple blows to thin the base
so that it could be attached, theoretically, by lashing a split
stick shaft (or a composite shaft) and smaller piece to bind the
biface between them with sinew or other cordage (Lahren and
Bonnichsen 1974).
Bullen's emphasis was on thickness in his point
description of Kirk Serrated along with rectangular bases and,


2012 VOL. 65(3)


of course, serrated blades, but he does not focus on evidence
of basal thinning, or any basal concavity as did Coe. These
attributes are emphasized in his descriptions of Hamilton
and Arredondo points, which, by the way, he equates in time
with Kirk Serrated. Review of Dickel's Figure 4.19 (2002:91)
shows the points from Windover are easily consistent with
Bullen's "Kirk Serrated" or Purdy's (1981:34) similar "Kirk
Serrated" because they are thick stemmed points, with mastic
for hafting in socketed shaft, not a split stick. Certainly, none
of these examples are arguably similar to Coe's type specimens
(Bullen 1975:37; Dickel 2002:117-118). Another discrepancy
is that the radiocarbon record at Windover puts these points,
and subsequent potential "Kirk Serrated" specimens, at
8100 B.P. or younger (terminus post quem), at the very end
of Justice's (1987) estimate of time range for Kirk Stemmed
from 8900 to 8000 B.P. Tesar and Jones (2004) and Austin
(2001:37; 2006) have proposed that there is a longer Kirk
chronozone in Florida, first in the 9000 to 8000 B.P. (10,200
- 8900 cal B.P.) frame, as expected in the greater Southeast,
and then another Floridian form that occurs from 8000 to 7000
B.P. (8900 7850 cal B.P.) where Florida's "Kirk Serrated"
specimens seem to occur (Table 1). This post-Kirk "Kirk"
zone serves to retain the type name, and its assumed cultural
historical meaning, over two millennia of calibrated time.
Unlike the earliest examples at Windover, the stemmed
points found at two other early MA pond burial sites, Bay West
and Republic Groves, were short, stubby broad-bladed points,
with round bases like Putnam or Marion FAS, only shorter, but
certainly having more potential for hafting into a socket than
split-stick hafting (Bullen 1975:32; Beriault 1981:52; Wharton
et al. 1981:67). At Wakulla Springs, points designated "Kirk
Serrated" from MA levels are like these specimens and not
consistent with either Bullen or Coe definitions except for
the serrations (Tesar and Jones 2004). At West Williams, two
short (stubby), rectangular-based, serrated projectile points
designated "Kirk Serrated" were found below other MA
artifacts, as expected, and also below the radiocarbon age
estimate of 6810 + 40 B.P.. However, neither are consistent
with Bullen's or Coe's type descriptions (Austin 2004:169;
2006:101-102), and no PI-EA occupation is indicated below
them to confirm a culturally-related evolution (descent with
modification) of the chipped stone traditions. Similar points in
the collections at Johnson Sand Pit were designated Wacissa
by Tesar (1994).
One site in Florida often associated with "Kirk" that
substantiates the notion of continuity between PI-EA and
MA culture groups is Hamey Flats, because Daniel and
Wisenbaker (1987:34; Figure 11, E & F) called two specimens
there "Kirks." Both are roughly rectangular-based stemmed
points, one apparently corer notched (Daniel and Wisenbaker
1987:35). Both were serrated and refitted with fragments that
came from upper MA sediments on the one hand and from
displaced contexts on the other (Daniel and Wisenbaker
1987:34-35). Johnson Lake (Bullen and Dolan 1959) and
Johnson Sand Pitt have produced select points with attributes
consistent with Coe's stemmed Kirks considering both basal
treatment and possibly the associated tool kits (Bullen and

Dolan 1959:92, Figure 4; Tesar 1994). Regrettably, there are
no radiocarbon ages for either site, and Johnson Sand Pit is
lacking stratigraphic control. It is of interest in the cacophony
of types that points from both of these sites could also be
designated Savannah River, Hamilton, or other large bladed,
basally-thinned, but stemmed varieties. Same shapes, same
basal treatments, but different names.
In fact, the range of forms considered through the years
to be "Kirk Serrated" by different researchers in Florida can
be understood by study of specimens curated in the Florida
Division of Historical Resources (FDHR). In December of
2011 Faught observed more than one-hundred "Kirk Serrated"
specimens, and the collection (n=109) could easily be sorted
into four groups. The majority (n=48, or 43.6 percent) were
broadly consistent with Coe's basally-thinned, rectangular-
based Kirk points or Bullen's "squarish to rectangular tang"
Points. Of course, several of these examples also could
have been designated Hamilton, Savannah River, Wacissa,
or other large-bladed, stemmed point varieties depending
on where they were found or who designated them. Twenty
(18.1 percent) of the specimens were corer-notched points
that also could have also been designated "Bolen." Of course,
there were "others" (n=14, or 13 percent) that did not have
bases or possessed other problems that inhibited classification.
Finally, a little more than a quarter (n=29, or 26.3 percent)
of the collection consisted of thicker, round-based stemmed
points, not retouched at the base for thinness, that possessed
large blades with a single characteristic of serrations, but
not consistent with either Coe or Bullen types. In fact, the
common denominator in the collections, and clearly the focus
of researcher attention, was blade serration, as only seven
specimens (6 percent) were not serrated.


The problems we have with this typological cacophony
are not that the similarities in points are not convincing
or important, or that point types cannot indicate temporal
position or cultural historical relatedness when there is no
other evidence, such as is the case with fluted points, or even
that blade treatments are important indicators of shared tool
use, which they are. Rather, it is the particular narrative in
Florida that PI-EA people became MA people on the basis of
the presence of Kirk points in the state. In particular, we take
exception to the related assumption that Windover people are
"Kirk" people. Remember Milanich's (1994:63-64) inference:
Early Archaic peoples might be viewed as a population
changing from the nomadic paleoindian subsistence pattern to
the more settled coastal and riverine associated regimes of the
Middle Archaic period.
Under the old theory that continuity existed between
PI-EA and MA peoples, and given that aspects of the MA
in Florida can be followed into the LA and later ceramic
times, and because those assemblages can be associated with
people known at European contact, people known at contact
would ultimately have been related to fluted point-making PI
people. Given the evidence presented here to the contrary, we




emphatically disagree with this equivocal chain of inference,
especially given that the best evidence for EA-MA continuity
has rested on "Kirk Serrated" points, which we have shown to
be dubious index fossils bridging the two culture groups.
We argue that MA people in Florida probably did not learn
how to chip stone from their PI-EA predecessors based on
notable differences in the two assemblages, even though MA
people surely found examples to re-use or try to imitate, just
as we do today. Those familiar with chipped stone reduction
strategies and tool types of the two archaeological assemblages
recognize fundamental differences between PI-EA artifacts
(sometimes referred to as "formal") and MA artifacts
(sometimes referred to as "expedient") (Austin 2006:169;
Daniel and Wisenbaker 1983:144; Purdy 1981:38-39). Austin
(2006) has reported finding more unifacial tools in the earlier
assemblages and more emphasis on biface production in the
later assemblages. Heat treating is considered diagnostic of
MA assemblage, and it is indicative of distinct differences in
the kinds of tool stone known and utilized by MA knappers
compared with those stone resources known and utilized by
PI-EA knappers (Austin 2006; Purdy 1981; Tesar 2004).
It is true that MA sites and isolated finds collections
have produced abundant numbers of MA projectile points
(or knives) that were made with knapping skills as practiced
as any PI-EA artifact. These include shaping and thinning
biface performs, or flake blanks, into haftable tools, having
symmetry and low edge sinuosity. Newnan's, in particular, are
usually made with care, even by definition (Bullen 1975:31;
Clausen 1964:8-11). On the other hand, and as introduced
already, we interpret the bases of most Florida MA stemmed
points as prepared for hafting in a socket, rather than hafting
by lashing the point with a split shaft, as we assume was done
with PI-EA points. Alan Bryan (1980) has presented an in-
depth discussion of these fundamental hafting differences:
lashing split shafts versus socketed and cemented hafting
(which, of course, can also be lashed outside the socket).
The edges of socket-based projectile points do not need to
be ground to protect the lashing from cutting, but they need
to be thick to add to the surface area contacting and holding
the biface. The Windover specimens clearly demonstrate that
MA knappers hafted their thick, stemmed-based bifaces using
mastic, and we infer this to imply their concomitant use of
socketed shafts. This markedly differs from PI-EA knappers
who hafted by lashing basally thinned bifaces between a split
stick shaft or possibly as a composite with a small piece lashed
to a longer shaft (Lahren and Bonnichsen 1974:149, Figure
3). We are not aware of any mastic remaining on any earlier
lanceolate or notched points, but mastic could be involved in
split stick hafting as well.
Another possible indicator of differences in the ancestries
of the two culture groups is treatment of the dead. We argue
that the burial practices of the two groups indicate different
cultural traditions, and although there is only one example
of a PI-EA burial in Florida, the Wakulla Springs Lodge Site
cremation (Tesar and Jones 2004:81-82), other cremations
associated with notched-point archaeological assemblages
are known in the eastern U.S., such as at Ice House Bottom

in Tennessee (Chapman 1977:112-113). Preservation of the
skeletal remains in pond burials earlier, and in middens and
mounds later, rather than cremating, is certainly typical of MA
people in Florida.
The question of whether these are significant indications
of culture groups with different ancestries or transformations
of one culture group into the other is left open for additional
research and debate. We consider these differences to indicate
different culture groups regardless of the possible gap in time
between occupations that also supports our interpretation
here. We consider replacement as a legitimate and perhaps
more accurate alternative explanation for the data we see in
Florida. As Milanich and Fairbanks (1980:51) have noted:
differences between artifact assemblages can be "ethnic or...
functional." Our opinion is that we (archaeologists) need to
address such topics with questions about what attributes of
which artifacts actually identify learned behaviors and their
material outcomes.


Florida has produced multiple lines of evidence for
population persistence and cultural continuity from the makers
of PI fluted and unfluted lanceolates through the makers of
EA side- and corer-notched points to some time after 9000
B.P. (10,200 cal B.P.). On the other hand, there are just two
sites with ages between 9000 B.P. (10,200 cal B.P.) and 8000
B.P. (8990 cal B.P.) in Florida that indicate human presence,
Wakulla Springs and the earliest Windover skeleton. To twist
the usual phrase the absence of evidence can be evidence
of absence, and we interpret these data to indicate a lacuna
of human presence in Florida during the 9000-8000 B.P.
timeframe. Whether this lacuna was due to population decline
by attrition or retreat, or whether by environmental or social
factors is not addressed here5.
In addition to, or because of, this possible lacuna, there
is no convincing evidence for direct historical continuity
from the makers of PI-EA-related assemblages containing
early Holocene-aged notched points through to the makers
of MA lithic assemblages containing large bladed, sometimes
serrated, round- and square-based stemmed points of middle
Holocene age after 8000 B.P. (8990 cal B.P.). The parsimonious
inference is replacement.
For archaeologists this means we should give greater
consideration to parsing out details of population dynamics
and social group identity and diversity in Florida via chipped
stone and other assemblages (e.g., Byrd 2011; Sassaman 2010)
rather than reinforcing long-established chronologies stacked
in neat and tidy sets that may not have supporting data. It also
means that Native Floridians encountered at Contact were
arguably not descendants of fluted point-making PI-EA people
of Florida (Bolnick and Smith 2003; Granberry 1991).
Our "received view" of the early cultural chronology
of eastern North America evolved with Coe's stratigraphic
excavations way up north in the Carolina Piedmont in the 1960s,
where stratigraphic and technological continuity of social
groups from PI-EA to MA continues to be more demonstrable


2012 VOL. 65(3)


to this day. Blanket application of this prehistoric framework
down here in Florida may have been appropriate in the past
to fill in gaps of knowledge, but it is certainly inappropriate
for modem prehistoric reconstructions if the data are not in
support. This is especially true given the accumulation of so
much more regional data since the 1960s. We know so much
more about chronology, assemblages, and distributions today,
why would we choose authorities of the 1950s and 60s to
appeal to about culture historical complexities?
Finally, the argument made here that MA people in Florida
are potentially foreign groups migrating to the peninsula
reflects similar ideas from data in other areas of the lower
Southeast (Elliot and Sassaman 1995) and contributes to the
growing awareness of evidence for the cultural identity and
cohesion of the Archaic Cultures of the Southeast and their
evolution to more complex social groups later in time (Gibson
and Carr 2004, Kidder and Sassaman 2009; Sassaman 2010).


1. Averaging methods used here include pooled mean
averaging of Chi Square-proven contemporaneous
ages. All ages are presented with la range including
the calibrated ages. Calibrations and probability curves
illustrated were done with INTCal09 curve data in OxCal
2. Others have designated Windover as an Early Archaic site
based on age frames (i.e., EA = 10,000 to 7000 B.P.), but
certainly its artifact assemblage is more similar to later
MA sites than earlier PI-EA sites, as are burial types.
3. Ages with a standard deviation of more than + 200 years
are too imprecise to be useful in this context (as discussed
in Faught 2008). We also downgraded ages without lab
numbers and environmentally- related ages on materials
such as peat, bark, gytta, and tufa, mainly from Warm
Mineral Springs and Little Salt Springs. These are listed
in Appendix I, column 7, labeled "opinion"
4. The FMSF allows for 6 site type categories and 8 cultural
historical categories for any particular site. Terms used for
the queries used in this publication include: Paleoindian,
10,000 B.C. 8500 B.C., Possible Paleoindian or Late
Paleoindian/Early Archaic, Early Archaic, Early Archaic
Kirk (Corner or Stemmed), Dalton, Archaic, and Early
Big Sandy for what we are calling "PI-EA" sites. There
was only one referent for MA and that was Middle
Archaic. Note that 2563 sites were designated in one of
the eight categories as Archaic 8500 B.C. 1000 B.C.,
which we considered too inclusive for usefulness in this
5. Watts and Hansen (1988) and Faught and Carter (1998)
have compiled evidence for depositional lacunae before
8500 B.P. in stratigraphic columns of several cores taken
for pollen analysis in Florida and in other archaeological
contexts. Evidence also includes decreased Pinus pollens
and increased Quercus pollens indicating dryer conditions
at Camel Lake, Shellar Lake, Mud Lake and Lake Louise
(Grimm et al. 1993; Watts and Hansen 1988; Watts

et al. 1992). Other published stratigraphic sequences
with environmental data relevant to the timeframe of
this discussion come from Warm Mineral Springs,
Page Ladson, Windover, Silver Springs, Hamey Flats,
and Little Salt Springs (Faught and Carter 1998). After
8500 B.P. lakes filled and conditions ameliorated toward
present conditions.


The ideas presented here about an occupational gap and
doubts "Kirk" points in Florida was to a good extent the
basis of our relationship (Waggoner and Faught 2006). This
manuscript has been in progress over several years and my
good friend and former student Jamie Waggoner crossed
over before it was finished- to his frustration. May this
product honor his memory, his drive to be productive, and
his enthusiasm for archaeology. To those colleagues and
friends who had to endure the endless commentary of "how
the 'Jamie paper' was going" I appreciate your forbearance
and help. Robert Austin, Jim Dunbar, Ken Sassaman, Michael
Russo, Louis Tesar, and David Thulman offered opinions,
commentary, radiocarbon ages, and other helpful leads. In the
end, only Faught is responsible for errors and omissions.

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2012 VOL. 65(3)

appendix A. Radiocarbon ages compiled from Dasovich and Doran 2011 and other sources as referenced.

Date One Site # Lab # Site Name Material Quality Context and Notes Reference
(B.P.) Sigma
17340 310 8S018 Beta-25430 Little Salt Springs Bone Poor-sigma Tortoise, associated with possible stake, collagen date See Tx- Gifford 1993; Dasovich and Doran 2012
2636 for stake

13450 190 8S018 TX-2335 Little Salt Springs Bone, tortoise Poor Carbonate fraction of tortoise, 20.9m below mean sea level, pit Clausen et al. 1979, Dasovich and Doran 2012
B75, test See Tx-2636 for stake
13130 200 8JE591 1-13591 Page/Ladson Wood Ok Unit 3 83-A rejected by Webb and Dunbar table 4.3 Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12570 200 8JE591 1-13590 Page/Ladson Peat Ok Unit 3 83-A straw mat rejected by Webb and Dunbar table 4.3 Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12570 100 8JE591 AA-8759 Page/Ladson Plant seed Ok Unit 3, 91-F, level 26b curcurbita on Mammut skull fragment Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12545 80 8JE591 AA-7452 Page/Ladson Plant seed Poor Unit 3 88-CS diver head in Latvis collection rejected by Webb Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1
and Dunbar 2006
12480 100 8JE591 Beta-116493 Page/Ladson Acorn Ok Unit 3 97-F-I-ES; from lower part of unit 3b near a Paleolama Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1
12460~~_____~~~____________ ____ 8 -U___~ jugal _________________
12460 100 8JE591 Beta-116499 Page/Ladson Wood Ok Unit 3 97-F-I-ES; from lower digest level Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12420 130 8JE591 Beta- 116500 Page/Ladson Wood Ok Unit 3 97-F-I-ES; from north wall of end 97-1-sc Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12400 110 8JE591 Beta-I 16497 Page/Ladson Acorn Ok Unit 3 97-F-I-UPPER; Acorn collected from Mammut pelevelis Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12390 50 8JE591 Beta-112236 Page/Ladson Bone Paleolama Ok Unit 3 9"lower digesta" Bone collagen Palaeolama jugal Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12375 75 8JE591 AA-7453 Page/Ladson Plant material Poor Unit 3 88-C S diver head in; rejected by Webb and Dunbar 2006 Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12370 90 8JE591 AA-11048 Page/Ladson Plant seed Ok Unit 3 97 F level 20b Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12330 110 8JE591 Beta-15088 Page/Ladson Organics Poor Unit 5-6 84-B peat; recalculated to 12297 + 15 = plant material Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006 Table 14.1
in Webb and Dunbar 2006
12310 50 8JE591 Beta- 116280 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4L test '91-F Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12290 50 8JE591 Beta-116494 Page/Ladson Plant material Poor Unit 4L test '97-C' Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12260 60 8JE591 Beta-116281 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4L test '91-F' Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12240 90 8JE591 Beta-22268 Page/Ladson Plant material Poor Unit 3 87-6 core rejected by Webb and Dunbar 2006 Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12200 124 8JE591 Beta-015090 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4L 4U test '84-B' Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12160 50 8JE591 Beta-116495 Page/Ladson Plant material Poor Unit 4L 4U test '97-C' Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

12120 120 8JE591 Beta-15090 Page/Ladson Wood Ok Unit 3 84-B 4L 4 U; recalculated to 12,200 + 124 in Webb and Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1
Dunbar 2006
12030 200 8S018 TX-2636 Little Salt Springs Wood Poor Reentrant at 20.9 below mean sea level, pit B75, test 1, in Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
tortoise shell
12030 60 8JE591 Beta-093654 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4L 4U test '95-C' Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

11790 90 8JE591 Beta-22267 Page/Ladson Plant material Poor Unit 4 87-6 core Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

11790 50 8JE591 Beta-118907 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4 U below level 5- test'91-F Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

11770 90 8JE591 Beta-8365 Page/Ladson Organics Ok Unit 3 83 A digest sample; rejected by Webb and Dunbar Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1
2006:Table 4.3
11730 90 8JE591 Beta-129550 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4 U level 5'91-F Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

11630 70 8JE591 Beta-116496 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4 U below level 5 test '97-C' Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

11570 210 8JE591 Beta-26722 Page/Ladson Wood Poor-sigma Unit 4 88-C S diver head in; rejected by Webb and Dunbar Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1
2007:Table 4.3
11460 50 8JE591 Beta-118906 Page/Ladson Plant material Poor Unit 4 U level 5 test '91-F Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

11300 90 8JE591 Beta-129554 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4 level 4 test '91-F Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

11240 90 8JE591 Beta-129553 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4 level 4 test '91-F' Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

Date One Site # Lab # Site Name Material Quality Context and Notes Reference
(B.P.) Sigma
11170 130 NA Beta-5942 Bison Kill Bone, bison Poor Distal end of Bison humerus Webb 1983

11050 50 8JE121 SL 2850 Sloth Hole Ivory fore-shaft Very good Age on artifact Hemmings 2004

10980 40 8S019 no number reject Warm Mineral Bone, human Rejected Mandible from zone 3 area of ledge Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10980 210 8S018 1-6459 Little Salt Springs Peat Poor-sigma Spring basin below burial, from pedestal of skull #14322, 2.3 m Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
below mean sea level; called C-72-2, tag#14336 by Jim Wallace
10980 210 8S018 C-72-2 Little Salt Springs Algal gel, brown Poor-sigma Same as LABNUMBER 1-6459, not used in this analysis Cockrell 1990; Dasovich and Doran 2012

10970 100 8JE591 Beta-129552 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4U upper test '91-F' Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

10800 130 8JE591 Beta-22268 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 3 88-C-S; rejected by Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.3 Webb and Dunbar 2006 Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006: Table 14.1

10750 190 8BR246 Beta-13907 Windover Peat Poor Peat base of water lily Doran 2002

10630 210 8S019 Gak-3997 Warm Mineral Wood Poor-sigma Zone 3, level 3 Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
Springs ______ ____ _____________________
10600 70 8JE591 Beta-23753 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4U upper 88-C (log) Webb and Dunbar 2006 Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006 Table 14.1

10600 70 8JE591 Beta-023753 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 4U upper test'88-C' Webb and Dunbar 2006 Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006 Table 14.1

10550 80 8S019 no number reject Warm Mineral Tooth, shark Rejected 13-m ledge worked, split fossil shark tooth Cockrell 1990; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10520 130 8JE591 Beta-8360 Page/Ladson Bone, Proboscidean Poor Unit 3? Test A in digest; rejected by Webb and Dunbar Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1
2006:Ttable 4.3
10340 70 8S019 no number reject Warm Mineral Bone artifact Rejected 13-m ledge finely worked bone pin Cockrell 1990; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10300 120 8JE591 Beta 103889 Page/Ladson Organic sediment Ok Unit 5-6 surface, 95-C below Bolen point Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

10285 145 8S019 1-7207 Warm Mineral Leaf mold Poor Beside Burial I and to the west Radiocarbon files, FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10280 110 8JE591 Beta-21752 Page/Ladson Wood Very good Unit 5 -687-C, 2b desiccated wood; recalculated to 10360 + 115 Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1
in Webb and Dunbar 2006
10260 70 8S019 no number reject Warm Mineral Bone, human Rejected Calcaneum on 13-m ledge Cockrell 1990; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10260 190 8SO19 Gak-3998 Warm Mineral Wood Poor Zone 3, level 4 level of human vertebra Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10255 145 8SO19 1-7206 Warm Mineral Leaf mold Poor Found with skull, but beneath at 45' level Radiocarbon files, FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10240 80 8S019 no number reject Warm Mineral Bone, human Rejected Burial I Cockrell 1990; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10225 145 8S019 1-7208 Warm Mineral Leaf mold Poor Beside Burial 1 to the south Radiocarbon files, FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10190 1450 8S018 TX-2595 Little Salt Springs Charcoal Poor-sigma Basin on gray sand, from informal hearths 6.1m below mean sea Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10160 120 8BR246 Beta-11382 Windover Peat Poor Peat base of water lily Doran 2002

10090 70 LE2105 Beta 81469 LE2105 Charcoal Good Component III Bolen Homum et al. 1996; Faught et al. 2003

10085 145 8S019 1-7218 Warm Mineral Wood Ok Burial 1 FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10080 470 8SO19 1-7209 Warm Mineral Humic debris Poor-sigma Under ledge, over skull and stalactite near Burial I FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
Springs _
10025 145 8S019 1-7217 Warm Mineral Wood Ok Burial 1 FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
10020 180 8SO19 Gak-3996 Warm Mineral Wood Poor Zone 3, level 2 Clausen et al. 1975
10000 200 8S019 U-120 Warm Mineral Wood Poor 11.6 m under water, 2 m of cave deposit, 1.83m back from the Hubbs et al.
Springs outermost stalactites Scripps Lab date, human bone in close
10000 120 8JE591 Beta-21750 Page/Ladson Wood Very good Unit 5 test 87-C la-2b charcoal; burned recalculated to 10,016 + Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1
S124 in Webb and Dunbar 2006
10000 80 8JE591 Beta 58857 Page/Ladson Wood Very good Unit 5-6 92-C surface stake with cut marks Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

Date One Site # Lab # Site Name Material Quality Context and Notes Reference
(B.P.) Sigma
9990 200 8JE-NA Beta-5941 Bison Kill Bone, bison Poor 3 pieces of skull Webb 1983

9950 100 8S019 UM-112 Warm Mineral Wood Ok C-73-22, 19302B; wood from under rock 4 (stalactite), Bureau of Archaeological Research 'C inventory Sept. 2002
____ Springs associated with human burial 1. excluded previously collected dates; Dasovich and Doran 2012
9950 70 8JE591 Beta 103888 Page/Ladson Plant seed Very good Unit 5-6 surface, 95C hickory nut on contact of Unit 5 an 6 Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

9945 145 8S019 1-7216 Warm Mineral Wood Ok Burial 1 FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
9930 60 8JE591 Beta 58858 Page/Ladson Wood Very good Unit 5-6 surface 92-C cypress log with cut marks? Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1

9900 60 LE2105 Beta 81468 LE2105 Charcoal Good Component III Bolen Hornum et al. 1996; Faught et al. 2003

9880 230 85019 Gak-3999 Warm Mineral Wood Poor-sigma Zone 3, level 5 Clausen et al. 1975: Dasovich and Doran 2012
9870 370 88019 W-1153 Warm Mineral Charcoal Poor-sigma Zone 3 Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
9860 140 8S019 1-7205 Warm Mineral Leaf mold Poor East of skull in Burial 1 FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
9850 50 LE2105 Beta 81467 LE2105 Charcoal Good Component III Bolen Hornum et al. 1996; Faught et al. 2003

9840 190 8MR130 Gak-4512 Guest Mammoth Bone, mammoth Poor Bone collagen of mammoth Hoffnan 1983
kill site
9760 120 8DA2001 Beta 16750 Cutler Fossil Charcoal Ok Hearth Carr 1986

9730 120 8JE591 Beta-11905 Page/Ladson Peat Ok Unit 6L test 84 B Peat around Bolen Point; recalculated to 9697 Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1
+ 130
9645 160 8S018 1-6460 Little Salt Springs Wood, stake Very good Basin drop-off, 12 m below mean sea level, pointed peeled Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
Ssapling, called C-72-3 #14183
9565 160 8S019 1-7214 Warm Mineral Wood Ok Same strata as burial 1 at 45' level under rock #3 FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
9530 110 8BR246 Beta-14649 Windover Peat Poor Peat red Brown in contact with burial 57A (6990) Doran 2002

9500 120 8S018 TX-2460 Little Salt Springs Wood, stake Very good Basin drop-off, 12.4 m below mean sea level, pointed split pine Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
slide #768-18-12,
9500 400 8S019 W-1212 Warm Mineral Charcoal Poor-sigma Zone 3 Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
9450 100 8JE591 Beta-15089 Page/Ladson Charcoal Ok Unit 6U test 85-B burned wood; recalculated to 9466 105 in Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006:Table 14.1
Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2
9420 150 8S019 Gak-3995 Warm Mineral Wood, charred Poor Zone 3, level 1 Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
9370 400 8S019 W-1245 Warm Mineral Charcoal Poor-sigma Zone 3 Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
9350 190 88019 Gak-3993 Warm Mineral Wood Poor Zone 3, .37m below top of deposit; date not in direct association Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
Springs Iwith human material
9330 40 WA329 UGA 10439 Wakulla Springs Charcoal Ok T71/L10 material TBA Tesar and Jones 2004

9270 40 WA329 UGA 10442 Wakulla Springs Charcoal Ok T70/LI I sand w flecks of charcoal Tesar and Jones 2004

9240 60 85018 Beta-195380 Little Salt Springs Oak Ok Oak wood found near cut antler Gifford and Koski 2011

9220 180 85019 Gak-3991 Warm Mineral Wood Poor Zone 3, .70 m below top of deposit date not in direct association Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
Springs with human material
9125 235 8S019 1-7203 Warm Mineral Wood Poor-sigma Near skull on north side of spring at 45' level FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
Springs _________ ______________________
9080 250 8S018 TX-2594 Little Salt Springs Wood Poor-sigma Spring basin on gray sand associated with informal hearth 4.8m Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
below mean sea level; carved oak mortar, basal portion
8990 90 8BR246 Beta-13908 Windover Peat Poor Peat base ofrubber Doran 2002

8960 110 8BR246 Beta-14650 Windover Peat Poor Peat fibrous water lily at edge of pond Doran 2002

8955 145 8S018 1-06512 Little Salt Springs Wood Poor C-72-06; wood (bark), in association with human skeletal Bureau of Archaeological Research 4C inventory Sept. 2002
______ remains from the Florida Archaic excluded previously collected dates; Dasovich and Doran 2012
8920 190 85019 Gak-3992 Warm Mineral Wood Poor Zone 3, .10 m below top ofdeposit; date not directly associated Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
Springs with human material

Date One Site # Lab # Site Name Material Quality Context and Notes Reference
(B.P.) Sigma
8905 65 8JE591 AA-7454 Page/Ladson Wood Poor Unit 6L 88-C; rejected by Webb and Dunbar 2006 Webb and Dunbar 2006:Table 4.2; Dunbar 2006 Table 14.1

8715 590 8S019 1-7204 Warm Mineral Wood and Leaf Poor-sigma Beneath skull of Burial 1 at 45' level FMSF; Dasovich and Doran 2012
8710 40 WA329 UGA 10441 Wakulla Springs Charcoal Ok Red ochre with charcoal Tesar and Jones 2004

8570 820 8S018 UM-2213 Little Salt Springs Charcoal Poor-sigma Evidence of soil acid contamination; biased bone dates from this Crabtree 1981; Dasovich and Doran 2012
midden area
8455 140 8S018 1-06458 Little Salt Springs Wood, bark Poor C-72-01; wood (bark), in association with human skeletal Bureau of Archaeological Research "C inventory Sept. 2002
remains from the Florida Archaic excluded previously collected dates; Dasovich and Doran 2012
8430 100 8BR246 Beta-13909 Windover Peat Poor Peat base of lower red brown Doran 2002

8360 40 MR 2322 Beta 279610 Salt Springs Core 1-VI Wood Poor Core i-IV wood ODonoughue et al. 2011

8145 115 8SO18 UM-1100 Little Salt Springs Wood and Peat-like Poor Below burial above mud (within portion of Burial 2, next to Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
femur along Back ofthigh, 3.9 m above mean sea level)
8120 70 8BR246 TO-241 Windover Bone, human Very good Peat, lower red-brown, Burial 66; from cache of many subadult Doran 2002
rib fragments
8030 120 80S19 UM-111 Warm Mineral Wood Poor C-73-10, 19304; wood, bits and pieces with tuffa growth; under Bureau of Archaeological Research "C inventory Sept. 2002
_____Springs _rock 4, west of burial excluded previously collected dates; Dasovich and Doran 2012
7950 40 8BR246 Beta-10855 Windover Peat Poor Peat top of the rubber peat Doran 2002

7930 80 8BR246 Beta-18295 Windover Wood Very good Peat, lower red-brown, associated with Burial 83; wooden stake Doran 2002

7830 80 8BR246 TO-518 Windover Bone, human Very good peat, lower red-brown Burial 73; metacarpal and cranial Doran 2002
fragments, subadult
7750 290 8S018 UM-2211 Little Salt Springs Shell Poor-sigma Evidence of soil acid contamination; biased bone dates from this Crabtree 1981
midden area
7550 125 8CR200 UM-2227 Bay West Peat Poor Basal peat, 253 cm deep, NW quadrant of site, core #1 Beriault et al.1981; Dasovich and Doran 2012

7465 100 8S018 UM-1099 Little Salt Springs Wood, myrtle Ok Directly associated with Burial 1, test 2 Dasovich and Doran 2012

7410 80 8BR246 Beta-11383 Windover Peat Poor Peat Red brown inside cranium of Burial 36F Doran 2002

7410 80 8BR246 Beta-11383 Windover Peat Poor Peat, lower red-brown, inside crania Doran 2002

7360 70 8BR246 Beta-11381 Windover Peat Poor Peat red brown in contact with burial 36F Doran 2002

7360 70 8BR246 Beta-11381 Windover Peat Poor Peat, lower red-brown outside crania Doran 2002

7330 100 8BR246 Beta-5803 Windover Bone, human Very good Unprovenienced femur and pelevelis of adult male Doran 2002

7300 70 8BR246 Beta-19722 Windover Wood Very good Peat, lower red-brown associated with Burial 129, wooden stake, Doran 2002

7290 120 8BR246 Beta-20450 Windover Gourd Very good Peat, lower red-brown Burial 150, almost intact bottle gourd, Doran 2002
Lagerania siceraria
7240 100 8JE740 A-6714 JandJ Hunt Wood Poor Quercus stump, Area C, stump is in place not secondary deposit; Faught and Donoghue 1997
4.3 m below mean sea level
7210 80 8BR246 Beta-7186 Windover Bone, human Very good Unprovenienced cranium and post cranial elements, 5 year old Doran 2002
7160 95 8JE740 AA-10511 JandJ Hunt Wood Poor Wood in gray fine sand clay, Locus L, Test Pit 1; 7 m below Faught and Donoghue 1997
mean sea level
7130 75 8JE740 AA-8872 JandJ Hunt Wood Poor Wood in gray fine sandy clay, Locus L, bottom of Core 91-3 21 Faught and Donoghue 1997
/__6.4 m below mean sea level
7100 90 8BR246 Beta-19315 Windover Wood Very good Peat, lower red-brown top of stake; lower = 6980+ 90 (Beta- Doran 2002
7050 80 8BR246 Beta-14132 Windover Peat Poor Peat red brown Doran 2002

7050 190 8BR246 TO-1323 Windover Bone, human Very good peat, lower red-brown Burial 63; subadult, collagen, 5 year old Doran 2002

7045 185 8LEVEL4 GX-638 Devil's Den Bone Poor Lower zone of bone concentration in second highest strata, Clausen et aL 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
4 deer/bear (?)
7010 80 8JE740 AA-11047 JandJ Hunt Wood Poor Wood in gray fine sandy clay, Locus L, bottom of Test Pit I; 7.3 Faught and Donoghue 1997
m below mean sea level
6990 70 8BR246 TO-207 Windover Bone, human Very good peat, lower red-brown, Burial 57a, facial bone, 27 year old male Doran 2002

Date One Site # Lab # Site Name Material Quality Context and Notes Reference
(B.P.) Sigma
6980 90 8BR246 Beta-19316 Windover Wood Very good Peat, lower red-brown bottom of stake; top = 7100 + 90 (Beta- Doran 2002
6975 180 8LEVEL4 GX-637 Devil's Den Bone Poor Upper zone of bone concentration in highest strata; deer/bear (?) Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012
6830 155 85018 UM-1157 Little Salt Springs Wood Good Slough, 4.1 m above mean sea level; digging stick, portion of Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
wood tool found with Archaic period extended burials
6825 120 8JE740 AA-10510 JandJ Hunt Wood Poor From dark gray silty clay marl, Locus L, Test Pit 1; 6.7 m below Faught and Donoghue 1997
mean sea level
6810 40 H1509 Beta-168962 West Williams Charcoal Ok Stratum 7/8, operation A, below Kirks at 6/7 Austin et at 2004

6785 80 8JE740 AA-8859 JandJ Hunt Wood Poor Wood from dark gray silty clay marl; Core 91-3 18 5 m below Faught and Donoghue 1997
mean sea level
6780 135 8CR200 UM-2169 Bay West Peat Poor FS#515 from within human bone Beriault et al.1981

6755 60 8JE740 AA-10513 JandJ Hunt Wood Poor Wood in gray fine sandy clay, Locus L, bottom of Test Pit 1; Faught and Donoghue 1997
Depth of 7.6 m below mean sea level
6675 85 8CR200 UM-2087 Bay West Wood Good Wooden post, FS#578 (bag 14 of 14); associated with human Beriault et al.1981
6630 80 8CR200 UM-2088 Bay West Wood Good Associated with human burials wooden post FS#578 (bag 11 of Beriault et al.1981
14); same as Um-2087
6520 135 8CR200 UM-2085 Bay West Wood Good Associated with human burials wood post, FS#577 (bag 18 of Wharton et al.1981
6520 65 8HR4 UF museum Republic Grove Wood Very good Wooden tapered stake, R.G. 420D Beriault et al.1981

6490 290 8LE44 1-06606 Velda Mound NA Poor-sigma C-72-15; material from irregular oval feature of Lamar "pre- Bureau of Archaeological Research 4C inventory Sept. 2002
SSpanish" Apalachee context FS 87 excluded previously collected dates; Dasovich and Doran 2012
6460 50 8VO214 Beta-274192 Hontoon Dead Charcoal Ok CORE 2-IV Kenneth Sassaman, personal communication, 2011
6430 80 8HR4 UF museum Republic Grove Wood Very good Wooden tapered stake, R.G. 418B Wharton et al. 1981; Dasovich and Doran 2012

6375 80 8JE740 AA- 1045 JandJ Hunt Shell Ok Shell 30 Cm below surface, Area C 15 ft/4.6 m below mean sea Faught and Donoghue 1997; Dasovich and Doran 2012
6330 85 8CR206 UM-1920 Horrs Island Shell, oyster Ok Mound B, stratum C Russo et al. 1991

6280 40 8VO214 Beta-219933 Hontoon Dead Charcoal Ok 8VO215-TU3-BLOCK Kenneth Sassaman, personal communication, 2011
6260 50 8V041 Beta-164961 Live Oak Mound Charcoal Ok LPIA, stratum XIII Sassaman 2003

6260 40 8WL1278 Beta-139264 Mitchell River Site Soot on steatite Very good TU 3/ Feature T-7/level 7 Saunders 2010:106; Dasovich and Doran 2012
621~________ 5~_________ __ _a____________ra __ _m1_____________________ __I
6210 50 8V041 Beta-270208 Live Oak Mound Charcoal Ok LP71-stratum X Kenneth Sassaman, personal communication, 2011

6210 50 8V041 Beta-270209 Live Oak Mound Charcoal Ok LP71 -stratum XVII Kenneth Sassaman, personal communication, 2011

6210 60 8V02601 Beta-65861 Groves' Orange Hickory nut Good Zone V, level 22, sand McGee and Wheeler 1994
6200 70 8VO2601 Beta-65863 Groves' Orange Hickorynut Good Zone V, level 20, sand McGee and Wheeler 1994
6180 95 8S018 UM-1102 Little Salt Springs Bone, human Very good Slough, burial, 4 m above mean seal level; carbonate fraction, Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
fragmentary, both radii, both ulnas, one humerus, skull fragment
and femur
6140 60 8VO214 Beta-255906 Hontoon Dead Charcoal Ok BULK3-1 Kenneth Sassaman, personal communication, 2011
6135 80 8JE740 AA-10508 JandJ Hunt Shell Ok Shell at surface of Area C; 4.6 m below mean sea level Faught and Donoghue 1997

6125 83 8VO24 X9110 Tick Island Human Bone Very good X9110 Tucker 2009

6110 40 8VO214 Beta-244051 Hontoon Dead Nut Shell Ok Kenneth Sassaman, personal communication, 2011
6110 50 8V041 Beta-274191 Live Oak Mound Charcoal Ok LP71-stratum IV Kenneth Sassaman, personal communication, 2011

6100 60 8JE740 AA-11048 JandJ Hunt Wood Poor Marine sand deposit 12 ft, 3.7 M below MSL Faught and Donoghue 1997

6070 90 8BR246 Beta-13910 Windover Peat Poor Peat base of black Doran 2002

Date One Site # Lab # Site Name Material Quality Context and Notes Reference
(B.P.) Sigma
6070 90 8CR206 Beta-40276 Horr's Island Charcoal Ok Stratum C, Mound B Russo et al. 1991

6060 105 8SE18 UM-1155 Palmer Shell, Conch Good Palmer-Taylor site, shell midden; 43 cm used for verification of Dasovich and Doran 2012
Taylor/Shapfield projectile point, possibly Culbreath
6053 65 8V024 X9112RA Tick Island Human Bone Very good X9112RA Tucker 2009

6040 70 8VO214 Beta-202281 Hontoon Dead Hickory nut Shell Ok Randall and Sassaman 2005
6010 150 AL356 GAK 2930 Newnan Lake NA Ok Newnans Lake type site Clausen etal. 1975

5950 70 8WL1278 Beta-143030 Mitchell River Site Charcoal Good TU 3 level 7 stratum IV Saunders 2010; Dasovich and Doran 2012
5930 80 8V02601 Beta-59804 Groves' Orange Hickory nut Good Zone IV, level 21, Lower Shell Midden McGee and Wheeler 1994; Dasovich and Doran 2012
5910 50 8VO214 Beta-255907 Hontoon Dead Charcoal Ok BULK8-1 Kenneth Sassaman, personal communication, 2011
5904 62 8VO24 X9109A Tick Island Human Bone Very good X9109A Tucker 2009

5900 130 AL356 GAK 2931 Newnan Lake NA Ok Newnans Lake type site Clausen et al. 1975; Dasovich and Doran 2012

5860 110 8VOXX Beta-59805- Groves' Orange Charcoal Good Auger 6, 1.10-1.32m below shell midden McGee and Wheeler 1994; Dasovich and Doran 2012
Midden Lake
5856 120 8CR200 UM-2226 Bay West Peat Poor Basal peat, 121-131 cm deep, east side of pond, core #2 Beriault et al. 1981; Dasovich and Doran 2012

5850 70 8S018 UM-1103 Little Salt Springs Bone, human Verygood Slough, burial, 4m above mean sea level, carbonate fraction, Clausen et aLl979; Dasovich and Doran 2012
fragmentary, both radii, both ulnas, one humerus, skull
fragments and femur
5830 120 8S018 UM-2215 Little Salt Springs Shell, Pomocca Ok Midden evidence of soil acid contamination Crabtree 1981

5825 62 8VO24 X9111A Tick Island Human Bone Very good X9111A Tucker 2009

5800 80 8BR246 Beta-10764 Windover Peat Poor Peat within the upper part of the lower red brown Doran 2002

5760 60 8JE878 Beta-79843 P110-1/2/3: P109- Charcoal Good 20 pieces of charcoal, 17 pine, 3 oak from Feature 36-1, Unit 36, Berkin et al. 1995
1 /2/3:X169F-2 Block B
5745 105 8HR4 UM-2260 Republic Grove Wood Very good 26-39 1/4 inches, driven into the Pleistocene clay layer, lowest Wharton et aL 1981; Dasovich and Doran 2012
stake wooden tapered stake, R.G. 409,
5730 50 MR 2322 Beta 264449 Salt Springs Nut Shell Very good TUI-II nutshell O'Donoughue et al. 2011

5660 50 MR 2322 Beta 264452 Salt Springs Nut Shell Very good TU5-II nutshell O'Donoughue et al. 2011

5625 100 8LL51 UM-1835 Useppa Island Shell Good Test 2, midden Useppa Island, backhoe test Marquardt 1992; Dasovich and Doran 2012

5620 260 8MR123 Beta-38182 Sileveler Glen Carbon Poor-sigma FS137, U#2, level 7 Dasovich and Doran 2012

5580 80 8VO2601 Beta-59803 Groves' Orange Hickory nut Good Zone IV, level 19, Lower Shell Midden Purdy 1993; Dasovich and Doran 2012
5570 60 8VO214 Beta-217769 Hontoon Dead Marine Shell Ok TU2-level-B Kenneth Sassaman, personal communication, 2011
5500 50 8WL1278 WK-9652 Mitchell River Site Shell Good EU 6, level 7, stratum V Saunders 2010
5500 80 8CR200 UM-2170 Bay West Peat Poor Sample # 2 from around human bone Beriault et at 1981; Dasovich and Doran 2012

5470 50 MR 2322 Beta 264447 Salt Springs Nut Shell Very good TU3-IB nutshell O'Donoughue et al 2011

5460 510 8TA32 FSU-146 South of Williams Wood Poor-sigma Level 6, sq. OR65, top level of preceramic occupation, from Dasovich and Doran 2012
Fish C firepit
5450 300 8VO24 M-1264 Harris Creek Charcoal Poor-sigma Charcoal lens at base ofburial-sand zone, Sq. la-2b, 4,65ft bs Dasovich and Doran 2012
5450 50 8WL1278 WK9649 Mitchell River Site Shell Good EU 1 / Level 9 stratum 1IIb Saunders 2010; Dasovich and Doran 2012
5450 180 8V024 M-1268 Harris Creek Charcoal Ok Pit containing burial 12, 6' below surface Dasovich and Doran 2012

Date One Site # Lab # Site Name Material Quality Context and Notes Reference
(B.P.) Sigma
5420 40 8VO58 Beta-231051 Thornhill Lake Charcoal Good 8VO58-60-uid-5 Endonino 2009
5400 40 8LAI Beta-248527 Mouth of Sileveler Charcoal Good 8LAl-West TUIOA C14-3 Sassaman et al. 201 l:Appendix B
Glen Run
5320 30 8LAI Beta-298847 Mouth of Sileveler Charcoal Good 8LAl-West TUS stratum VI Sassaman et al. 2011:Appendix B
Glen Run
5320 200 8VO24 M-1265 Harris Creek Charcoal Good Horizontal charcoal layer above burial zone, Sq. 2a-3b, 1 to 1.5ft Dasovich and Doran 2012
Midden/Tick below surface
5300 40 MR 2322 Beta 279611 Salt Springs Charcoal Poor Core lb wood charcoal O'Donoughue et al 2011

5290 40 8LAI Beta-299734 Mouth of Sileveler Charcoal Good 8LAl-West Feature 6 Sassaman et al 201 l:Appendix B
Glen Run
5290 40 8LAI Beta-236137 Mouth of Sileveler Charcoal Good 8LAlWest-TU5E-stratum XXII-BAG 137 Sassaman et al 201 :Appendix B
Glen Run
5280 40 8LAI Beta-298848 Mouth of Sileveler Charcoal Good 8LAI-West TU8 stratum 9 Sassaman et al 201 :Appendix B
Glen Run
5270 50 8WL1278 WK 9646 Mitchell River Site Shell Good EU 5 Level 7, stratum IV Saunders 2010; Dasovich and Doran 2012
5230 50 MR 2322 Beta 264451 Salt Springs Nut Shell Very good TUS-IB nutshell O'Donoughue et al 2011

5220 90 8SO18 Gak-3548 Little Salt Springs Bone, human Very good Spring basin, burial, 2-3 m below mean sea level, collagen Clausen et al. 1979; Dasovich and Doran 2012

5210 80 8DU5623 Beta-50153 Spencer's Midden Shell, oyster Good EUl/levell8 Dasovich and Doran 2012

5190 40 8VO58 Beta-231052 Thornhill Lake Charcoal Good 8VO58-60_uid-6 Endonino 2009
5190 80 8LL51 Beta-39854 Useppa Island Shell Good OP C trench, locus 1 Useppa Island, Calusa Ridge Marquardt 1992; Dasovich and Doran 2012

5170 40 8VO58 Beta-231050 Thornhill Lake Charcoal Good 8VO58-60_uid-4 Endonino 2009
5160 100 8TA531 A-4696 Econfina Channel Wood, Cypress Poor Wood in brackish context age indicates possible inundation age Faught 1988; Dasovich and Doran 2012

5160 80 8V02601 Beta-59802 Groves' Orange Hickory nut Good Zone IV, level 14, Lower Shell Midden McGee and Wheeler 1994; Dasovich and Doran 2012
5151 50 8LAI Beta-248528 Mouth of Sileveler Charcoal Good 8LAl-West TUOA C14-4 Sassaman et al. 2011:Appendix B
Glen Run
5150 50 MR 2322 Beta 264450 Salt Springs Nut Shell Very good TUS-IA nutshell O'Donoughue et al. 2011

5140 100 8VO30 NA DeLeon Springs Wood Very good Canoe Dasovich and Doran 2012

5130 40 8LA1 Beta-298849 Mouth of Sileveler Charcoal Good 8LAI-West TUIOA-C14-5 Sassaman et al. 201 :Appendix B
Glen Run
5130 50 MR 2322 Beta 264448 Salt Springs Nut Shell Very good TU7-1A nutshell O'Donoughue et al. 2011

5120 160 8DA1058 Beta-NA Cheetum Charcoal Ok Bottom of concretion level Newman 1993; Dasovich and Doran 2012

5100 70 8VO2601 Beta-59801 Groves' Orange Hickory nut Good Zone IV, level II, Lower Shell Midden McGee and Wheeler 1994
5090 80 8VO53 Beta-146749 Lake Monroe Charred material Good Test Unit A Level 13 FS#340 Deming 2000; Dasovich and Doran 2012
Outlet Midden
5080 110 8SL17 I-12764 Douglas Bch. Wood Ok No bar number, 1982; wood, Zone 3, Fs 729. sample will help Bureau of Archaeological Research C inventory Sept. 2002
Wreck determine inundation ofprehistoric shoreline excluded previously collected dates; Dasovich and Doran 2012
5050 100 8BR246 Beta-14021 Windover Peat Poor Peat red brown Doran 2002

5040 60 8V02601 Beta-65862 Groves' Orange Hickory nut Good Zone IV, level 16, Lower Shell Midden McGee and Wheeler 1994
5030 50 8WL1278 WK9650 Mitchell River Site Shell Good EU 7 /Fea 13 / level 9 Saunders 2010; Dasovich and Doran 2012
5030 200 8V024 M-1270 Harris Creek Shell, Busycon Ok Shell tool in Sq. 2a-3b, 3-4below surface Dasovich and Doran 2012
___ Midden/Tick__



The Florida Public Archaeology Network is a program of
the University of West Florida, dedicated to promoting and
facilitating the stewardship, public appreciation, and value
of Florida's archaeological heritage through regional centers,
partnerships, and community engagement. Established in
2005, FPAN serves Florida's citizens and visitors through
eight Regional Centers, managed by a Coordinating Center
at UWF in Pensacola. Executive Director Dr. William Lees,
Associate Director Dr. Della Scott-Ireton, Office Manager
Cheryl Phelps, Web Architect Jason Kent, and Destination
Archaeology! Manager Michael Thomin are based in the
Coordinating Center, housed in the restored historic L&N
Marine Terminal. The Coordinating Center includes the
Northwest Regional Center office and staff, an archaeology
lab where volunteers help sort and analyze artifacts from local
projects, classroom and meeting space, and the Destination
Archaeology Resource Center.
State-wide programs delivered by the Regional Centers
include the Cemetery Resources Training Program (CRPT),
the Submerged Sites Education & Archaeological Stewardship
program (SSEAS), the Heritage Awareness Diving Seminar
(HADS), Teacher Workshops, Boy Scout Archaeology Merit
Badge Clinics, and Human Remains and the Law Workshops.
Below, the Regional Centers present highlights of their

programs and accomplishments over the last year. FPAN
invites you to learn more at www.flpublicarchaeology.org, or
stop by any Regional Center!

Destination Archaeology Resource Center, Pensacola
(University of West Florida)

The Destination Archaeology Resource Center (DARC) is
the exhibit space atthe FPAN Coordinating Center in Pensacola.
Manager Mike Thomin is responsible for management, exhibit
design and development, tour scheduling, and daily operations.

Unearthing Florida

This year we successfully launched the Unearthing
Florida radio program. Unearthing Florida is a project of
FPAN, WUWF Public Media, and Dr. Judy Bense. This
project is designed to enhance the public's understanding
of Florida's archaeological heritage by highlighting the
activities of FPAN's eight regional centers. Each episode
lasts approximately one minute and thirty seconds long. All
episodes can be accessed at Unearthing Florida's official
website at www.unearthingflorida.org. So far, 65 original
episodes of Unearthing Florida have aired on WUWF Public

Figure 1. The FPAN Coordinating Center in the historic L&N Marine Terminal in downtown Pensacola

VOL. 65 (3)



THE ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ __ FLRIA NHRPOOIS 212Vt.653

DARC Geotrail

The Destination Archaeology! Resource Center Geo-Trail
officially went live on Labor Day weekend of 2011. Currently,
15 active geocaches are hidden across Northwest Florida at
sites of historic and/or archaeological significance. These sites
are predominantly located at state parks and near museums.
Forty-five FPAN geocoins have been awarded to players who
found the minimum of 12 geocaches in this geotrail and who
submitted their passports for validation. So far 1,358 visitors
were brought to these sites as a direct result of this geotrail.
Based on this success, the Scenic Highway Foundation Board
and the Quina House Museum recently submitted requests for
their sites to be listed as official participants.

Rebel Guns Exhibit

Ournew exhibit"Rebel Guns: Defense oftheApalachicola"
is now on display through the end of August. This exhibit is
based on archaeological investigations conducted by FPAN
and UWF graduate student Brian Mabelitini at a Confederate
battery built in 1863 located along the Apalachicola River in
Torreya State Park. Brian was involved in the planning and
production of the exhibit. The exhibit features interpretation
of this site through graphic text panels, free-standing banners,

Figure 2. Rebel Guns exhibit poster

original artwork by Dave Edwards, and some artifacts collected
from the site currently on loan from Torreya State Park. It
explains the significance of the site during the American Civil
War and what archaeological excavations revealed. Additional
artifacts on loan from the T.T. Wentworth, Jr. Florida State
Museum Collection highlight Pensacola's role during the
Civil War. The exhibit was designed to be easily portable and
plans to have it travel to other sites are currently underway.
The information and graphics used in this exhibit will also be
utilized to create wayside interpretative signage at the site of
the battery.

NOVA ScienceNow and Archaeology Cafi

This past year we have partnered with WGBH Science
Unit and NovaScience Now to create a local program titled
Archaeology Caf6. This program mirrors the format of
Science Cafes and is featured as an official participant on
www.sciencecafes.org. Archaeology Caf6 is an informal talk
about archaeology delivered by an expert and is held inside
local restaurants. Our first attempt at Archaeology Caf6 went
well, but we found the venue we chose for the night was not
quite suited for the format and we had some technical issues
with video equipment. After redeveloping the program and
finding a new venue we definitely improved the quality of
this program. Our most recent Archaeology Caf6, presented
by University of West Florida's Dr. Ramie Gougeon, was
titled "Archaeology of the Taco." Over 50 people packed
the restaurant for this event, which sold quite a bit of food
and drinks to the attendees. Raffle prizes were provided by
WGBH, Nova ScienceNow, and FPAN. Programs like this
help to bring the topic of archaeology to a different audience
and help promote it to the public as a science. Also, it has a
positive economic impact for the host venue.

Gallery Night/Pop-Up Exhibit

Earlier this year DARC began participating in downtown
Pensacola's city-sponsored event called Gallery Night. Our
most successful program by far during Gallery Night was a
program geared towards public participation called a "pop-
up exhibit." A pop-up exhibit is a temporary display created
entirely by the public. People are asked to bring in an object
based on a theme for the evening and write a label describing
what the object is and why they chose it. Participants stay
throughout the exhibit and talk to visitors or other participants
about the theme and their objects. The theme for the night we
chose was based on the city of Pensacola and we titled it "A
People's Pensacola: Your Story in Your Hands." Participants
brought in a wide variety of objects related to Pensacola's
history, including letters, artwork, and some artifacts they
found on private property. It was a wonderful opportunity
to inform the public about the importance of protecting our
cultural resources and educating them on what to do if they
find an artifact in the future. We also received some great
press for the event. Two different newspaper articles and a
video report on local television station WEAR featured stories


2 102 YOL. 66(3)


about this program before the event. This program doubled
the attendance we typically have during Gallery Night and we
plan on holding more participatory programs like this in the

The FPAN Web presence is managed by Web Architect
Jason Kent from his office in the Coordinating Center in
Pensacola. From there he manages the FPAN home and
regional pages, as well as social media and smart phone

Florida Archaeology Month Poster and Website

Web Architect Jason Kent partnered with Destination
Archaeology! Manager Mike Thomin and FPAN graduate
student intern Nichole Bucchino to design the Florida
Archaeology Month 2012 poster and accompanying bookmark.
In addition, Mr. Kent developed the interactive website (http.//
flpublicarchaeology.org/FAM/) for FAM 2012 with included
an events calendar and links to educational materials related to
Civil War archaeology.

On-Line Reporting Tool

Web Architect Jason Kent was tasked with developing
an on-line reporting tool to collect statistics about events
conducted by the Regional Centers. This will replace the
quarterly statistical reporting currently in use. The goal was to
make an event-based report that will capture more information
in a more systematic and consistent manner that will allow
more precise analysis of trends in programming. Standardized
reports will be prepared quarterly for distribution to the Board
of Directors and to the Regions, and Regions will have access
to their Region's data to conduct their own analyses. The
Coordinating Center will be able to generate custom reports
as needed to stay well informed about FPAN programming
activities. This on-line reporting system began on July 1.

iPhone Apps

Mr. Kent developed two iPhone Apps, both of which are
now available via iTunes. The first is FPAN Mobile, which
is designed to provide a brief introduction to FPAN and then
allow users to access a region to find information on events,
contact information, and to access the regional website
(search the App Store for: fpan mobile). This App has been
well received and has a five-star rating. The second App is
Destination Civil War (search the App Store for: destination
civil war). Although not yet rated, we have received very good
feedback. This App provides location information on Civil
War sites in Florida that are open for public visitation, and
links to FPAN's Destination Civil War web site for detailed
information and photos of each location

Unearthing Florida

Mr. Kent developed a website for WUWF where the
archives of the new radio program "Unearthing Florida"
would reside and can be accessed by the public (http.//
unearthingflorida.org/). Unearthing Florida is produced
jointly with FPAN, which is responsible for selection of state-
wide topics and producing the draft scripts. This website is
maintained by WUWF.

HADS Registration Tool

In addition to the reporting tool, Mr. Kent also developed
a web-based registration and payment system for the Heritage
Awareness Diving Seminar (HADS). This system worked
very smoothly to the benefit of participants and organizers
both, and will be utilized for other FPAN training as we begin
to attempt to recover some of our costs.


The Northwest Regional Center of FPAN is hosted by
the University of West Florida in Pensacola where Director
Dr. Della Scott-Ireton and Outreach Coordinator Irina Sorset,
along with UWF Public Archaeology Interns, serve Escambia,
Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes, Washington, Bay,
Jackson, Calhoun, and Gulf counties.

Partnerships for Summer Camps

Parents look for fun and educational ways to stimulate
their children's minds during the long, hot summer months.
What better way than summer camp! The Northwest Region
of FPAN has established an effective model for delivering
summer camp archaeology programs without taking on the
enormous amount of work involved with organizing a camp
and with the attendant liability concerns. For over six years,
West Florida Historic Preservation. Inc. and FPAN have


Figure 3. Destination Civil War iPhone App




partnered to host summer camps focusing on history and
archaeology for upcoming 4th-9th grades. For the first few
years, two individual week-long camps, one for history and
one for archaeology, were offered. In 2008, we combined
both camps to create two week-long History & Archaeology
Summer Camps. Originally, WFHPI handled the registration
and insurances aspects for each camp but, in 2011, we moved
under the umbrella of UWF's Explore Summer Camp program.
Housed within the Division of Continuing Education, the
Explore Summer Camp program manages all aspects of camps
throughout the year, from maintaining a website, answering
general questions, acquiring insurance, and buying supplies,
to communicating with parents, managing registration, and
arranging background screening for staff. Now, WFHPI and
FPAN solely focus on developing STEM-aligned curricula
and hands-on activities for each camp. This year we created
a multiyear camp schedule rotation to ensure repeat campers
have a new experience each year.
In addition to directing two summer camps, we also
guest lecture at many local camps within our region. Many
of these camps are general day camps and are not specifically
archaeology themed. Visiting a variety of camps is a great
way to introduce Florida archaeology to youth audiences who
may not specifically seek out a history or archaeology-themed
camp. By partnering with other established camps we are able
to effectively use staff time and resources to expose local
youth to history and archaeology and to help instill a sense of
stewardship among our future decision-makers.

Blackwater Pyrates

The Blackwater Pyrates, a fun-loving and dedicated
citizen organization based in Milton/Bagdad, were awarded
the Florida Stewards of Heritage Award by the Florida
Archaeological Council at the FAS meeting in May 2012. This
prestigious award is presented by the Council to individuals
and organizations which have made significant contributions
to aid archaeological preservation, further research, educate,
or otherwise promote public awareness of Florida archaeology.
The Pyrates were nominated by Dr. Della Scott-Ireton of the
Florida Public Archaeology Network for their on-going efforts
to preserve and promote the shipwrecks and other heritage
resources along the Blackwater River near Milton. The
Pyrates are dedicated to continuing their stewardship role for
the historical and archaeological resources of the Blackwater
River. Future projects include placement of a State of Florida
historical marker presenting the heritage of Blackwater
Landing, precursor of the town of Milton, and the many
historic shipwrecks in the river. The Pyrates also are working
with Arcadia Mill Archaeological Site in Milton to design a
marker. In addition to heritage stewardship, the Pyrates host
charity fund raisers, organize river clean ups, promote boating
safety, and organize educational programs. FPAN NW partners
with the Pyrates for their educational programs, including a
very successful annual lecture series and the development of
the historical markers. The Pyrates are an excellent model of
citizen activists for preservation!

Figure 4. The Blackwater Pyrates accepting their FAC Florida Stewards of Heritage Award with FPAN's
Dr. William Lees and Dr. Della Scott-Ireton

2012 VOL. 65(3)


FPAN Diving Policy and Programs

This year the FPAN Archaeology Lab was packed with
volunteers interested in learning about Pensacola's past -
volunteers put in 1,823.55 hours over the past 12 months! Two
days a week, volunteers of all ages come to FPAN's Lab to
rough sort artifacts under the direction of the senior FPAN
Intern, who gains experience in supervising an archaeological
lab. This year, volunteers focused on artifacts from the
excavations at the Barkley House, one of the oldest examples
of a nineteenth-century High House located on Pensacola's
waterfront, and from the Scott Site, an early nineteenth-
century brick manufacturing site researched in partnership
with Milton High School. Dana Jackson, one of our regular
volunteers for over a year, comes to the lab because "...it is a
great way to learn about Pensacola's history, by studying the
artifacts first-hand while having a lot of fun." Several FPAN
Lab volunteers contribute time as part of the Bright Futures
scholarship offered to high school students interested in going
to college. Jessica Koch, a student at Gulf Breeze High School,
volunteers at FPAN for the Bright Futures scholarship. Jessica
chose the FPAN Lab because she saw the ad in the newspaper
and thought it would be an interesting opportunity. Jessica
says, "The lab is a lot of fun; I love learning about the past and
getting my hands dirty!" We will continue to offer volunteer
opportunities through the Lab, which provides people a way
to engage directly with their heritage while helping with a
needed task and showing that archaeology is much more than
just digging!

FPAN Underwater Programs

FPAN's underwater archaeology outreach programs
are growing! The Heritage Awareness Diving Seminar
(HADS) continues to be held twice a year, in spring and fall,
in conjunction with the Florida Bureau of Archaeological
Research and regional partners including the Florida Keys
National Marine Sanctuary, the Florida Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission, and the Florida Aquarium. The
seminars routinely fill up, with participants from not only all
around Florida but also from farther afield such as Trinidad,
Michigan, and New York. Northwest Region Director Dr.
Della Scott-Ireton and West Central Director Jeff Moates had
discussions with the smaller training agencies at the Dive
Equipment Manufacturers Association (DEMA) show last year
and many of them seemed interested in adding the Heritage
Awareness Specialty to their curriculum. We continue to work
with them to make it happen.
The Submerged Sites Education & Archaeological
Stewardship (SSEAS) program is gaining in popularity. Jeff
and Della have taught several classes and more are scheduled
for the next year. In particular, youth diving organizations are
interested in the program. Although several SSEAS classes
have been taught, no reports of investigated sites have been
received from the trained divers. However, the divers have the
information which is the main point of the class.

FPAN diving took a step forward in the last year. With
several FPAN staff getting certified to dive and wanting
to participate in the HADS and SSEAS programs, diving
protocols and safety concerns were becoming an issue. While
FPAN diving staff whose host institutions have a dive safety
program are, and continue to be, covered, those FPAN staff
whose host institutions do not have a dive safety program
needed a program to dive under. Fritz Sharer, Dive Safety
Officer for UWF, stepped in and offered to train and maintain
records for those FPAN staff, in addition to UWF FPAN
staff. The first training class was held in the summer of 2011,
and future FPAN-directed training are anticipated. Further,
Fritz assisted in obtaining diving reciprocity for FPAN with
the National Park Service at Biscayne National Park, paving
the way for future work and partnerships with NPS and other
federal agencies.

North Central Regional Center, Tallahassee
(University of West Florida)

The North Central Regional Center of FPAN is hosted by
the University of West Florida in Tallahassee where Outreach
Coordinator Barbara Hines serves Gadsden, Liberty, Franklin,
Leon, Wakulla, Jefferson, Madison, Taylor, Hamilton,
Suwannee, Lafayette, Dixie, Columbia, Baker, and Union

Suwannee River WMD: Suwannee Springs

FPAN North Central was initially contacted by a group
of citizens who were concerned about the well-being and
preservation of Suwannee Springs. Suwannee Springs is
a historic spring resort located on the Suwannee River in
Suwannee County. The property is currently managed by
the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD).
North Central staff attended a public meeting where the citizens
voiced their concerns to the SRWMD. It was decided that the
concerned citizens could create a Citizen Support Organization
that would work under the guidelines created by the SRWMD
to raise awareness of the issue and work on projects that would
help educate the public about this historic site. FPAN has
provided guidance to both The Friends of Suwannee Springs
(the current name of the Citizen Support Organization) and the
SRWMD regarding preservation issues and grant possibilities
to help fund preservation projects at the site. The Friends of
Suwannee Springs are currently in the process of nominating
the site for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.
FPAN North Central is also working with the SRWMD to
create an interpretive hiking trail that will highlight the various
features of the spring site. This trail will be planned in such
a way that it takes into consideration the risks to the various
features of the site, and all necessary precautions will be taken
to protect all archaeological and historic features and artifacts
that may be located at this site.





Youth Education and Outreach

This year the North Central Region has successfully
increased the number of youth programs and the number of
attendees to these programs. Staff was invited back for the
second year to make monthly program visits to the twenty-first
century Learning Community Programs at both Hosford and
Tolar Schools in Liberty County. This after-school program is
part of a nation-wide initiative to provide academic enrichment
opportunities to students attending low-performing schools or
those located in rural, inner-city or high-poverty communities.
This program assists the students in meeting state and local
standards and offers them a variety of enrichment activities
that complement their regular academic program. FPAN North
Central visits both programs once a month and provides the
students with an hour-long interactive enrichment activity in
archaeology education for 3r through 5t graders. Additionally,
FPAN was invited back to the Primitive Arts Festival at
Ochlockonee River State Park. This year FPAN was asked
to take charge in implementing all the youth activities. We
created a hands-on educational booth with various activity
stations and, for the second year, held a youth atlatl workshop.
This year Barbara Hines, Outreach Coordinator in the North
Central Region, had the opportunity to participate in the Florida
History Fair as a judge as well. The North Central Region
has also continued to visit classrooms and will be offering a
Project Archaeology workshop in August in Tallahassee.

Florida Archaeology Month 2012

This year Florida Archaeology Month (FAM) was busy
in the North Central Region. The North Central Region

had educational booths and displays at various festivals
and events, including two Civil War reenactments. North
Central also visited several schools throughout the month.
Additionally, this year the North Central Region co-hosted a
FAM lecture series with the Tallahassee Community College
Wakulla Service Center. The lecture series consisted of
four weekly lectures. The speakers for this series included
Dr. William Lees, Executive Director of FPAN; Dr. Nancy
White, Archaeology Professor at the University of South
Florida; Franklin Price, Underwater Archaeologist for the
Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research; and James
Dunbar, retired Archaeologist with the Florida Bureau of
Archaeological Research. FPAN North Central also partnered
with the Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation and the
Florida Division of Historical Resources to co-host a lecture
aimed at educating citizens on how archaeology can benefit
historic preservation in the Tallahassee area. Attendees heard
several archaeologists and historians speak during the evening
about various aspects of archaeology and preservation.
Speakers for this event included Barbara Hines, FPAN North
Central Outreach Coordinator; June Finnegan, Historian
at The Grove, Florida Division of Historical Resources;
Daniel Seinfeld, Archaeologist for the Florida Bureau of
Archaeological Research; and Jeffrey Shanks, Archaeologist
at the Southeastern Archaeological Center.

Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society

The 2012 meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society
was held in Tallahassee at Mission San Luis. The Panhandle
Archaeological Society at Tallahassee hosted the event.
Barbara Hines, FPAN North Central Outreach Coordinator,

Figure 5. FPAN North Central Outreach Coordinator Barbara Hines at the education booth
at the Ochlockonee River State Park Primitive Arts Festival


2012 VOL. 65(3)


serves as a member of the board for this organization and also
served as a member of the planning committee for the annual
meeting. In addition to helping with the general planning for
the event, she acted as the Fundraising Chair of the Fundraising
Committee. The Fundraising Committee raised funds to help
offset the cost of the meeting. They were also responsible for
obtaining in-kind donations of food and supplies and helped
with volunteer coordination for the event.

The Munree Cemetery Project

The North Central Regional office was contacted by a
local citizen who was concerned about a historic cemetery
located in Tallahassee. The Munree Cemetery is an African
American cemetery that dates to the mid-1800s and may be
associated with one of the many plantations that existed in
the Tallahassee area. The cemetery had been neglected and
was in need of attention. FPAN North Central has partnered
with the Southeastern Archaeological Center to conduct a
GPR survey of the cemetery to locate unmarked burials. We
are also working with the local citizens to create a cemetery
management plan and to bring awareness of this situation to
local officials. The group of citizens maintains other cemeteries
in their community as well. They have been educated in proper
cemetery cleaning and maintenance methods to help them
more efficiently care for these historic cemeteries. In June we
will be working with a K-9 group to have specially trained
dogs help us identify where some of the unmarked graves are
located, which will help us to better identify the boundaries of
this cemetery. The K-9 group is conducting this service free of
charge as part of their training exercises. We will then possibly

be able to compare the GPR results with the results from the
K-9 survey. All of the various activities and events that will
be taking place at the Munree Cemetery will be open to the
descendants of those known to have been buried there as well
as to the general public. We hope to be able to use these events
to educate the public, provide them with hands on education
about historic cemetery maintenance, and bring awareness
to the local population and elected officials about the issues
affecting these historic cemeteries.


The Northeast Regional Center of FPAN is hosted by
Flagler College in St Augustine where Director Sarah Miller
and Outreach Coordinator Amber Grafft-Weiss, along with
interns and additional staff, serve Nassau, Duval, Clay,
Putnam, St Johns, Flagler, and Volusia counties.

Cemetery Resource Protection Training (CRPT)

Northeast Center staff developed and facilitated eight
CRPT workshops. Workshops took place in each county of
the Northeast region with one additional workshop held in
partnership with the West Central Region. The goal of the
workshop is to promote protection of human burial sites and
to encourage each participant to record a historic cemetery for
the Florida Master Site File. More workshops are planned for
the 2012-2013 fiscal year beginning with partnered offerings
in other regions.


Figure 6. CRPT workshop location within the Northeast Region



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THE ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ __ FLRIA NHRPOOIS 212VL.653

Investigating Shelter: Kingsley Slave Cabin Curriculum

Support for the Investigating Shelter: Kingsley Slave
Cabin Project Archaeology curriculum continued this year
with a facilitator training and two teacher training workshops.
The program reflects the successful and sustained partnership
with both Project Archaeology and the Timucuan Ecological
Preserve (NPS) alike. Staff presented the materials at the
National Council of Social Studies in Washington, DC,
Florida Anthropological Society Annual Meeting, and the first
annual Timucuan Science Symposium. The Center was proud
to share in the Partners in Conservation Award in recognition
of outstanding conservation achievements presented by the
US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar

Timucuan Technology

The Northeast Center applied for and received a
Community Education grant from the Division of Historical
Resources to develop biotechnology lesson plans based on
prehistoric Timucuan lifeways for middle school students.
Kelley Weitzel authored 10 lesson plans that were reviewed by
FPAN staffand other Florida archaeologists. The first workshop
was held at the end of June and included two days of hands-
on activities for teachers. Textbook and teacher handbook are
available for free in both printed and electronic formats. The
goal of the program is to better prepare teachers and educators
for the Viva Florida and City's 450th commemoration by
providing authentic data on the culture first encountered by
the Spanish.

Advocacy Beyond Indiana Jones

In response to the storm of metal detector reality shows,
looting featured on the front page of the local newspaper, and
multiple media articles on archaeological ethics, the Center
worked in partnership with area heritage organizations to offer
an advocacy workshop for the public. The first workshop took
place at City Hall in St. Augustine during Florida Archaeology
Month with presenters from the Center, St. Johns County, St.
Augustine City, St. Augustine Archaeological Association,
Society for Historical Archaeology Ethics Committee, Florida
Museum of Natural History, and Lighthouse Archaeology
Maritime Program. The goal of the workshop was to help the
public craft personal, ethical, and legal responses to support
archaeological study and conservation. Staff repeated the
workshop at the Florida Trust annual meeting in May and are
scheduling follow-up workshops region wide.

Site Identification Team

Toni Wallace continues to head up the Northeast Center's
Site ID team. This year she recorded multiple cemeteries post-
CRPT workshops, exposed prehistoric canoes in Putnam and
Clay County, an underwater shipwreck in the St. Johns River,
and Spanish Plantation near Mayport for the Florida Master
Site File (FMSF). Volunteers are encouraged to join and assist

in recording sites. Next year in addition to responding to calls
from the community we hope the Site ID team can add 75
sixteenth-century sites recorded in the city but not currently
listed on the FMSF.


The Central Regional Center of FPAN is hosted by the
University of South Florida in Crystal River where Director
Dr. Rich Estabrook and Outreach Coordinator Dr. Jason
Moser serve Bradford, Alachua, Gilchrist, Levy, Marion,
Lake, Sumter, Citrus, and Hemando counties.

Kirkland Family Cemetery GPR Outreach Program at the
Rookery Bay Reserve

Steve Bertone, the Resource Biologist at the Rookery
Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, contacted Annette
Snapp with the Southwest Regional Center about conducting
a GPR investigation of the historic Kirkland Family Cemetery
within the Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve
in Naples, Florida. The CRC provided the technical support for
this outreach project. The Kirkland Family Cemetery provides
a final resting place for several generations of the family who
once lived on Shell Island and in the nearby communities.
While some of the modem graves are easily identified, several
of the headstones in the older portion of this small cemetery
have become lost or broken. A GPR investigation and public
outreach day was held to assist Preserve personnel to better
manage this resource and to provide the Kirkland descendants
a better indication of who was buried in their cemetery. A
second investigation at the Kirkland Family Cemetery was
conducted to investigate several "anomalies" or undefined
subsurface features that were identified during the first
investigation. This second study showed that the cemetery
was larger than previously believed. A paper presented at the
Florida Anthropological Society in May 2012 described the
data collection process and preliminary interpretation of the
data collected thus far.

Siftingfor Technology Program

The Crystal River Archaeological State Park Sifting for
Technology outreach program continues to attract students
from both Citrus County and the surrounding area to the
Crystal River Site. With some FPAN assistance, the program
has successfully transitioned from the direction of Rangers
Leroy Smith and Mike Petellat over to two new park rangers,
Catherine Wunderlich and Ronnie Hartley. Over 20 individual
programs were offered to various public and charter school
groups, Boy Scout troops, and even a group of Miss America
contestants during the year. This year, two classes from
Beacon College participated in the Siftingfor Technology data
recovery program at the Crystal River Archaeological Site.
The visits were led by Dr. Terri Ross, Anthropology Professor
at Beacon College. Beacon College is a liberal arts institution


2 102 YOL. 66(3)


in Leesburg, Florida, that specializes in providing quality
courses for students with specific learning challenges. Beacon
students have been assisting with the data recovery program
at Crystal River for many years as part of the Anthropology
focus of their Liberal Studies major.

Hernando Preservation Society's Artifact ID Day

CRC staff and volunteers from the Crystal River Boat
Builders (CRBB) provided technical support for the 3rd
Annual Hernando Preservation Society's Artifact ID day.
People from around Hernando County came out to have their
"finds" identified and recorded. People brought in artifacts
and heirlooms including projectile points, pot sherds, bottles,
and metal hoe fragments. Information collected from the
event provided leads on several new sites in the area. We also
recovered several eighteenth-century British hoes and axe
heads that had been recovered in the 1970s by a local metal
detector enthusiast. The artifacts were originally recovered
from a historic sugar plantation in Volusia County and will be
returned to the site.

Silver River Knap-in at the Silver River State Park

The 2nd Annual Silver River Knap-In was held at the
beautiful Silver River State Park near Ocala in March
for Florida Archaeology Month. Expert flint knappers,
archaeologists, potters, hide tanners, bow makers, and other
specialists in prehistoric skills gathered from across the eastern
U.S. to demonstrate their crafts. This unique event included
archery, tomahawk and atlatl dart throwing demonstrations.
Presentations by Dr. Barbara Purdy, Dr. Andrew Hemmings,
and Dr. Bob Knight explored both stone tool use and the
prehistoric peoples of Florida. A flint knapping competition

and on-going prehistoric skills demonstrations took place
all weekend long. Attendance was high as the weather was

Crystal River Boat Builders/Earth Day Event

In April, The Crystal River Boat Builders (CRBB), the
Central Regional Center, and the Crystal River Preserve State
Park (CRPSP) hosted the 3nd annual Boat Bash. The event drew
seasoned boat builders, sailing enthusiasts, and the general
public to the event. The evening of the public day included
a presentation on the Civil War along the Nature Coast by
Humberto "Chief" Alvarez and Dave Ekardt of the USS Fort
Henry living history unit. Despite the warm temperature, this
year's Boat Bash event was well-attended with 870 visitors
at the public day event held at the Preserve headquarters.
Traditional boat builders from around the region were able to
display, discuss, and sail (or paddle) the various hand-crafted
boats at the event. This year's event had approximately 20
traditional wooden boat exhibitors. The exhibitor participants
included several historical exhibitors such as re-enactors from
the USS FortHenry living history unit, the GulfArchaeological
Research Institute (GARI), and the Confederate home guard.
Living history re-enactors demonstrated weapons, equipment,
and camp life of the Civil War history of the region. Maritime
exhibitors showed a variety of historic watercraft and tools,
and demonstrated the techniques used to construct historic
wooden watercraft, a prehistoric canoe, and handmade nets.
The public was also offered the opportunity to try some of the
"lost" woodworking skills. The event highlighted the progress
by the CRBB in the construction of the 36-ft Civil War-era
sailing scow. The scow is the most ambitious project that
has been attempted by the CRBB. The scow project is being
undertaken through a partnership between CRBB, FPAN

Figure 7. Central Region Director Rich Estabrook examining artifacts brought in by a local resident for consideration




CRC, and the friends of CRPSP. The construction project will
figure prominently in the FPAN CRC outreach activities for
the next several years.


The West Central Regional Center of FPAN is hosted
by the University of South Florida in Tampa where Director
Jeff Moates and other office staff serve Pasco, Pinellas,
Hillsborough, Manatee, Sarasota, Polk, Hardee, Desoto, and
Highlands counties.

Tommy the Tortoise, Junior Archaeologist

Staff at the West Central Regional Center put together a
new educational outreach program to coincide with efforts that
started, and have continued, with the on-going development
of ARCHAEOCART. The "Tommy the Tortoise, Junior
Archaeologist" program offers a fun way for kids to learn about
archaeology in Florida. Through Tommy's Facebook page,
participants of any age can learn about specific archaeological
sites or bits of information related to Florida archaeology. The
program also provides a curriculum framework for offering
interpretive presentations and activities, enabling kids ages
9-12 to become Junior Archaeologists. A Junior Archaeologist
Activity Booklet has also been created to give to participants
when a program is offered.

Local Government Assistance and Updates

West Central Regional Center Staff continue to assist in the
updating and development of historic preservation ordinances,
specifically related to Manatee County and two municipalities

within the county: the cities of Anna Maria Island and Holmes
Beach. WCRC staff is working in conjunction with Manatee
County Historical Resources Department staff in support
of passing a new historic preservation ordinance. Staff also
continue to support and assist preservation commissions and
staff for Sarasota and Hillsborough counties.

Explore Sarasota Past Visitor Map

WCRC staff put the finishing touches on another county-
wide map showcasing interpreted and open-to-the-public
archaeology and history sites. Staff developed and financed the
printing of 15,000 copies of the map that have been distributed
to all the sites included on the map, as well as to tourist
information centers and other visitor locations. The map has
also been picked up by the local tourism development board
and the County's History Center. The new map is included in
a special exhibit in the Southgate Mall that highlights a large
printed version of the map and is enhanced by interpretive
panels of their own highlighting four of Sarasota's sites.

CRPT Training and Major Adams Cemetery Mapping Project

WCRC staff conducted three Cemetery Resource and
Protection Training (CRPT) workshops this year in Manatee,
Hillsborough, and Sarasota counties. CRPT is a training
program developed by FPAN Northeast staff. In particular,
the workshop in Manatee was expanded to include a cemetery
mapping project involving high school students from Dr.
Steven Marshall's Florida History class at Manatee School of
the Arts. Dr. Marshall, students, and staff from the West Central
Regional Center mapped the Major Adams Cemetery located
in Bradenton and have transcribed over half or the cemetery's
grave markers. The project is ongoing and will involve new

Figure 8. Summer 2012 Junior Archaeologists at the Weedon Island site currently under investigation by archaeologists.


2012 VOL. 65(3)


Figure 9. Panel discussion at the Windover 30th Anniversary Celebration
(1 to r: Dr. Ben Brotemarkle, Dr. Rachel Wentz, Dr. Glen Doran, Jim Swann, and Steve Vanderjagt)

students from the same class during the upcoming school year.
Students are learning about the issues involved in historic
cemetery preservation, skills in mapping and surveying, and
proper documentation techniques.

Submerged Sites Education & Archaeological Stewardship

SSEAS is a new FPAN hands-on underwater archaeology
training designed for sport divers. WCRC Staff, with help from
Dr. Della Scott-Ireton from the Northwest Regional Center,
conducted a SSEAS training for SCUBAnauts International
(SNI), the Tarpon Springs and St. Petersburg chapters. SNI
is an outfit dedicated to providing opportunities for young
men and women, ages 12 to 18, for personal development by
involving them in the marine sciences through underwater
research activities. Staff continues to work with SNI and hopes
to develop more collaboration in the future.


The East Central Regional Center of FPAN is hosted by
the Florida Historical Society in Cocoa where Director Dr.
Rachel Wentz and Outreach Coordinator Kevin Gidusko serve
Seminole, Orange, Osceola, Okeechobee, Brevard, Indian
River, St. Lucie, and Martin counties

"In the Dirt" Lecture Series

As our most successful program, the "Dirt" series
continues to draw crowds from a large segment of our region.
However, we have felt the need to enhance the series to keep
the audience engaged and informed. Over the last year we
have increased outside participation from members of our
archaeological community, including some our more prolific
professionals, by inviting them to present their research within
the series. This has not only brought fresh perspectives to the

series, it has also highlighted the multidisciplinary nature of
archaeology and exposed our audience to some of the new and
exciting research taking place within our state. We continue
this trend by holding a summer mini-series that will highlight
geology and its relationship to archaeology.

Florida Frontiers Radio Program

One of the most exciting aspects of being hosted by
the Florida Historical Society is the ability to expand our
programming through some of the Society's initiatives.
One of the most expansive is Dr. Ben Brotemarkle's radio
program, Florida Frontiers. Although Dr. Brotemarkle has
regularly included FPAN in presentations concerning Florida
archaeology, he now interviews each of our guest lecturers for
our "In the Dirt" series. This has provided a much broader
range of archaeological topics to the program and also serves as
means for participants to get the word out about new fieldwork
projects and research conducted throughout the state.

Site Stewardship Program

The East Central Region has been working on an exciting
new program: a Site Stewardship program for the state that will
serve as a joint partnership with the Florida Anthropological
Society, who will promote the program throughout their
chapters to interested volunteers. The program will involve
training FPAN personnel in the fundamentals of the program,
who will in turn train FAS members within their regions and
oversee maintenance of the program. We have been developing
a training course, which will be informed by successful
programs from other areas of the country, and hope to have
this program in place by year's end.

Windover Event

Archaeology Month was not only a successful recognition
of archaeology throughout the state, it also served as the



2012 VOL. 653---

backdrop for celebrating the 30-year anniversary of the
discovery of the Windover site. The East Central Region
marked the anniversary, along with the publication of Central
Region Director Rachel Wentz's new book, Life and Death at
Windover: Excavations of a 7,000-year-old Pond Cemetery,
by bringing together participants from the dig and hosting
a private fundraising reception. The reception was a huge
success. This sold-out event not only provided an opportunity
for the public to hear first-hand from some of the main
participants in the dig, it also raised money for the Florida
Historical Society and FPAN. We will be using our half of the
funds to host up-coming CRPT courses throughout our region.
The funds will pay for print materials, as well as any costs
associated with renting space for the courses.

Fort Lane Project

In the summer of 2010, members of the Central Florida
Anthropological Society were approached by the Geneva
Historical and Genealogical Society to conduct a Phase I
survey of a property owned by the society, Fort Lane Park.
Fort Lane is on the southwest shores of Lake Harney, a part
of the St. Johns River, in Seminole county. The park was in
regular usage and the location of two registered sites on the
Florida Master Site File; a historic Second Seminole War day-
march fort, Fort Lane, and a sand burial mound on the north
end of the property which was not a part of the project. GHGS
members sought to preserve cultural resources at the park as
they feared destruction due to continued park usage and future
construction. In March 2011 the north half of the park was
surveyed in a joint effort with volunteers from CFAS, GHGS,
and FPAN's East Central office. Returning again in March of
2012, the southern half of the park was surveyed in the same
collaborative manner. Little evidence was found that points to
the site's usage as a fort. However, evidence of native peoples'
usage of the site was found with a timeframe of a probable Late
Archaic component to Post-Contact. Artifacts are currently in
the process of being catalogued with a report to follow for
state records. The artifacts will then be interpreted at the local
history museum in Geneva with assistance from FPAN's East
Central office.


The Southwest Regional Center of FPAN is hosted by
Florida Gulf Coast University in Fort Myers where Director
Dr. Annette Snapp and Outreach Coordinator Melissa Timo
serve Charlotte, Lee, Collier, Glades, and Hendry counties.

Collaborative partnerships with THPO

During the final week of FPAN's 2011-2012 fiscal year,
the Southwest Regional Center (SWRC) planned to co-host a
ground-penetrating radar workshop with the Seminole Tribe
of Florida's Tribal Historical Preservation Office (THPO).
Tropical Storm Debby, though, had different ideas. Torrential

rains led to the re-scheduling of this workshop for August.
This workshop is intended to provide training opportunities
for both FPAN and THPO staff to raise awareness about the
variety of ways in which this technology can be utilized in
archaeological research. Throughout the year, the SWRC has
worked to collaborate with the THPO to the benefit of both
organizations. In November, the SWRC helped deliver and
man the Archaeo-Cart at the American Indian Arts Celebration
(AIAC). Additionally, meetings about the Archaeo-Cart and
collaborating on Seminole content were initiated, as well as
discussions about Project Archaeology and the development
of curriculum based on Seminole chickees as shelters. The
THPO partnership with FPAN is an important one as they
conduct Indigenous Archaeology while serving the Seminole
Tribe of Florida within the Southwest Region.

Public Outreach Event: GPR

A ground-penetrating radar event co-hosted by FPAN's
SWRC and the Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research
Reserve at the Kirkland Family Cemetery successfully
brought together descendant family members, the public, and
the media in gathering data at the cemetery (approximately
20 participants). The demonstration during data collection
allowed family members and the public to actively engage
with the ground-penetrating radar equipment, collect data,
and see the results on the monitor in real-time. This seminal
SWRC event with new director, Dr. Annette Snapp, garnered
much publicity in multiple newspaper articles, radio coverage,
a radio show spot, and television coverage due to the efforts
of Renee Wilson, Research Translator for Rookery Bay, who
laid the groundwork for this event. A follow-up collaborative
event with Rookery Bay to collect more data at the Kirkland
Family Cemetery was undertaken in November (7 attendees).

Public Outreach Event: Mound Key Paddle!

As a wrap-up event to Florida Archaeology Month 2012,
the SWRC co-hosted with Koreshan State Historic Site a kayak
paddle public event from Lovers Key State Park to Mound Key
Archaeological State Park (managed by the Koreshan State
Historic Site). Koreshan Park Rangers met participants (6) at
the Lovers Key kayak rental and from that location, guided
them to the southern landing at Mound Key, the island which
is believed to have been the capital of the Calusa chiefdom
during early Spanish contact in the 1500s. From the landing,
Koreshan Park Rangers provided a guided interpretation of the
island from early Calusa inhabitants through early pioneer use
of the island. Annette provided support interpretation about
shell tools and how the Calusa utilized the resources in their
environment to thrive. The SWRC has already scheduled future
paddle events to continue developing a strong collaborative
relationship with the Koreshan State Historic Site and Mound
Key Archaeological State Park and build public excitement
about archaeological sites open to the public in our region.


2 102 VOL. 65(3)


Figure 10. Mound Key Paddle participants get ready touring early Spanish contact in the 1500s. From the landing,
Koreshan Park Rangers provided a guided interpretation of the island from early Calusa inhabitants through early pioneer
use of the island. Annette provided support interpretation about shell tools and how the Calusa utilized the resources in their
environment to thrive. The SWRC has already scheduled future paddle events to continue developing a strong collaborative
relationship with the Koreshan State Historic Site and Mound Key Archaeological State Park and build public excitement
about archaeological sites open to the public in our region.

Involvement with Local Governments

The SWRC is becoming more involved with assisting
local governments, including assistance with the Lee County
Historic Preservation Element Evaluation and Appraisal
Report (EAR), the Conservation 20/20 land conservation
program, and the City of Fort Myers' major downtown
projects. As comprehensive plans cycle through their regular
review, the EAR process allows an opportunity to consider
revisions to historic preservation policies. The SWRC will be
contacting additional local governments regarding their EARs
to offer assistance in reviewing their historic preservation
policies. Lee County's Conservation 20/20 program purchases
environmentally sensitive lands for conservation. The SWRC
has begun to assist Lee County in determining whether or not
nominated properties have known archaeological resources by
checking the Florida Master Site File. Additionally, the SWRC
has attended a community meeting and a Conservation 20/20
sub-committee meeting to explain the potential for the only
known natural sinkhole in Lee County to have archaeological
resources similar to Little Salt Spring and Warm Mineral
Springs. And finally, two downtown Fort Myers projects
impacting archaeological resources have been investigated by
the SWRC. Through our involvement, we discovered that the
early fort sites at Fort Myers have never been recorded on the
FMSF and are working to correct that oversight. Additionally,
the SWRC is working to complete a FMSF form for an early
seawall in the downtown area that represents the development
of downtown in the early twentieth century. We are working
to assist the City of Fort Myers so that the review process
acknowledges archaeological resources throughout the city.

FPAN Intern Projects

FGCU undergraduates have been very active in FPAN
internships at FPAN's Southwest Regional Office. Jeffrey
Sepanski created an ethnobotanical tour of the FGCU campus
that highlights native plants and indigenous uses of them. He
used QR (Quick Response) codes in his tour pamphlet link
to narrated slide presentations on each highlighted plant and
launched his tour as an event with 8 attendees. Jeffrey also
conducted anArchaeology Stewardship workshop (8 attendees)
which culminated in the backfilling of 2 excavation units that
had been open for 10 years at a site located on the FGCU
campus. This project not only presented information about
archaeological law, but also integrated a hands-on opportunity
to actively protect an archaeological site. Currently, Jeffrey is
writing up the process of site protection undertaken so that
it may be submitted to the FMSF. Caitlin McGirr, another
FGCU undergraduate, coordinated a GPR demonstration and
data collection event at the Koreshan State Historic Site (114
total attendees). The public visited throughout the 2 mornings
scheduled for the event near the original location of early
pioneer Gustav Damkohler's cabin where it was believed
he buried his first wife and a child. While the results did not
confirm grave locations, this collaborative event gave the park
additional information about that area. During the Fall 2011
semester, FGCU undergraduate Shannon Mandell worked to
broaden our social media efforts and was able to detect an
increasing trend in "Likes" for our Facebook page. Brandon
Henry furthered her efforts during the Spring 2012 semester,
crafting images for a Blog and other uses. Currently, FGCU
undergraduate James Beth is preparing an atlatl workshop to



Tm ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ __ FLRIA NHRPOOIS 212VL.653

be held in July 2012 that will take place at Caloosahatchee
Regional Park. We hope for a large public turnout and the
development of a strong relationship with the park for future
events and activities.


The Southeast Regional Center of FPAN is hosted by
Florida Atlantic University in Ft. Lauderdale where Director
Dr. Michele Williams and Outreach Coordinator Sarah Nohe,
along with FAU interns, serve Palm Beach, Broward, Miami-
Dade, and Monroe counties.

"Then and Now: Life Along the New River" Exhibit

A major achievement in this year was our "Then and
Now: Life Along the New River" exhibit, "Dash Through
the Past" scavenger race, and other associated activities. The
exhibit was conceptualized over a year and a half ago as an
effort to add an archaeological perspective to the Centennial
celebrations for the City of Ft. Lauderdale. Our proudest
achievement, however, is the broad group of nearly 30 partners
with whom we worked. We worked with Dr. Arlene Fradkin
(FAU Department of Anthropology) to secure a Florida
Humanities Mini-Grant to pay the printing costs associated
with the exhibit. The Ft. Lauderdale Centennial Committee
donated funds to help defray the costs of our scavenger race.
Prizes for the "Dash Through the Past" scavenger race were
donated, over $1000 worth in total, by area heritage-minded
organizations. Our ability to have such a professional exhibit
on such a limited budget is a testament to the extraordinary

talent and hard work of our office. Almost 500 people
participated in some portion of this exhibit and its associated
activities. We had a very well-attended opening as seen in this
video: www.youtube.com/watch?v=piVuDH6Wyqo.
The exhibit was attended by a SE staff person for over
60 hours during the November and December for a total of
20 gallery days and 337 attendees. Meetings of the Greater
Ft. Lauderdale Alliance Governor Council, Ft. Lauderdale
Chamber of Commerce, and Florida Public Archaeology
Network Board of Directors all occurred within the gallery;
these were excellent opportunities for the exhibit to be seen by
a broad range of visitors. Additionally, four lectures were held
in conjunction with the exhibit with a total of 72 attendees.
The exhibit was on loan to the Broward County Historical
Commission in early 2012. We received the "2012 Judge L.
Clayton Nance Award" from the Broward County Historical
Commission for the exhibit and other reservations efforts in
Broward County.

Working with Lawrence E. Will Museum of the Glades

Our office was asked in the summer of 2011 to help
with the rehabilitation of the Lawrence E. Will Museum
of the Glades. This small museum in Belle Glade had been
managed through a cooperative effort between the Belle Glade
Historical Society and Palm Beach County Libraries, and it
was overseen by Dr. Joseph Orsenigo. Dr. Orsenigo passed
away recently, and it came to attention of the Palm Beach
County Archeologist, Chris Davenport, that the archaeological,
historical, and ethnographic collections at the Museum were in
need of some reorganization and care. Mr. Davenport asked
if SE could assist with this rehabilitation project. To this end,

Figure 11. Visitors enjoy "Then and Now: Life Along the New River" exhibit


2 102 YOL. 65(3)


we helped coordinate a big "move day" in January. On this
day over 20 volunteers gathered at the Museum and moved
all of the collections which had been in storage out into the
cleared main exhibit area. We checked every box to ensure no
human remains from the Belle Glade Mound excavations had
been missed during initial attempts to comply with NAGPRA
regulations. Since that initial day, SE staff has returned to the
Museum approximately five times to sort through collections
and meet with Belle Glade Historical Society board members.
Our efforts with the Museum will continue on into the new
fiscal year with a long-term goal of assisting with securing
funding, developing exhibits, and making the collections
accessible and relevant to area residents.

Board Membership with Florida Archaeological Council and
BrowardHistorical Trust

Service to our professional community is an important
component our work at SE. To this end, Southeast Region
Director Michele Williams has served on the Board of
Directors for the Florida Archaeological Council. At the
Board of Directors meeting in May, Michele was elected
as the Membership Secretary for FAC. Similarly, Outreach
Coordinator Sarah Nohe joined the Broward Trust for Historic
Preservation as an Executive Board member, and she was
elected as Secretary in December 2011. The Broward Trust
serves primarily to implement the areas historic preservation
regulations and to preserve and protect historically or
architecturally significant properties. Current projects include
restoring and maintaining the Annie Beck House which
was built in 1916 and home to one of the first citizens of
Fort Lauderdale. Additional projects include protecting the
historically and architecturally significant Coca-Cola Bottling
Plant and Plantation Community Center from demolition
through historic designations and planning-related education
events for the public.

Fort Jefferson Graffiti Project

Although much of the military and architectural history
of Fort Jefferson has been well-documented, graffiti left by
individuals on the walls of a small magazine provide new
information about past visitors to the Dry Tortugas. These
inscriptions, many written in chalk, were recorded in 2011 by
Sarah Nohe, assisted by Outreach Coordinator Gregg Harding
of the East Central region, in partnership with the National
Park Service. The project served as a long-term preservation
solution to a fragile resource. Significant damage to the
fort, natural elements, and much-needed development plans
that would stabilize the overall architectural integrity of the
fort, put these details at a heightened risk of loss. The Dry
Tortugas National Park now has a Past Perfect database of
each inscription which is accessible to the public. Sarah Nohe
and Gregg Harding presented the details of their partnership
with The National Park Service during both the Southeastern
Archaeological Conference and the Society for American
Archaeology Public Archaeology Interest Group Symposium.

Sarah presented a poster at the Florida Anthropological
Society meeting focused on the content and context of the
inscriptions, some dating back to the 1890s, which reveal
nationalist sentiments of Cuban visitors to the island.

Broward County's Emergency Management Technical
Advisory Historic Preservation Subcommittee

Michele and Sarah participated in several meetings of
Broward County's Emergency Technical Advisory Historic
Preservation Subcommittee. This subcommittee was designed
to advise the overall TAC committee on the potential issues
faced by historical and prehistoric cultural resources in the
aftermath of a natural disaster or other wide-scale emergency.
Historic structures and archaeology sites had not been
considered in previous emergency planning discussions within
the County. By adding cultural resources to the list of potential
impacts, the Subcommittee hopes to lessen the unintended
impacts to these places in post-disaster cleanup process. An
offshoot of these meeting has been the realization that Broward
County has not had a recent cultural resources survey, and the
Broward County Historical Commission has submitted a grant
to pay for a much-needed update.



Back Issues
of The Florida Anthropologist

are available from the
Palm Beach Museum of
Natural History



(Photo courtesy of Mrs. Priscilla Cardwell)

Volusia County and the State of Florida lost an excellent
historic resource with the death of Harold D. Cardwell, Sr., in
Port Orange on April 13, 2012. Born July 17, 1926, Harold
became blind in 1974. This handicap did not impact his
interest in sharing his knowledge about archaeology, history,
and preservation with the many people and organizations of
which he and his wife, Priscilla, were involved. Although
he had no formal training in archaeology or history, he had
an intense interest in both disciplines. Harold was an active
member of FAS, serving as 2nd Vice President in 1985-86, 1st
Vice President in 1986-1987, and as President in 1987-1989.
He was awarded the FAS William C. Lazarus award in 1988.
Both he and his wife were given Life Memberships with the
The people he knew or met throughout his life can attest
to his passion for archaeology and history. He willingly
shared his memories with others, oftentimes verbally. Many
published articles, papers, and books have been authored with
his wife's assistance. They were instrumental in organizing
the publishing of Charles W. Bockelman's Six Columns and
Fort New Smyrna book after the author passed away prior to
finalization for publication. In the past few years the Cardwells
have written and published more than seven books,primarily
focused on Daytona Beach and Port Orange. At the time of his

death, an additional book was ready for delivery to the printers.
These publications utilized the wide variety of documents,
maps, vintage photographs, and postcards the family has
collected over many years.
He was one of the founding members of the Southeast
Volusia Historical Society, formed in 1982, and later served
as president. A member of Daytona Beach's Halifax Historical
Society, he edited their journal, the Halifax Herald, for many
years and contributed innumerable articles on local history. He
served twice as their president. He was a founding member
of the Daytona Beach Historic Preservation Board, serving as
chair from 1998-2006. He was a founding member of the Port
Orange Historical Trust and president at the time of his death.
In 1997 he received the Lifetime Achievement Award from
the Volusia Anthropological Society, an organization he also
served as President.
At the county level, he was vice chairman of the Volusia
County Historical Commission from 1989-1992. He received
their Historian of the Year Award in 1988. He was chosen as
a member of the Volusia County Historic Preservation Board,
serving from 1992-1994.
At the state level, he served as executive board member
of the Florida Historical Society from 2000 until his death.
He was a member of the Henry Morrison Flagler Centennial



VOL. 65 (3)



Commission in 1986. His FAS involvement is discussed
His professional career was primarily as a senior
rehabilitation specialist for the Florida Department of Labor
and Employment Security, Division of Blind Services. He
became a registered horticulture therapist in 1978, teaching
skills in this field to vision impaired people who attended
instructional classes at the Center. He retired in 1999. His
early interest in horticulture began in 1956 with ownership
of a private practice and then became a registered landscape
architect in 1962.
In earlier days of his life, he was assigned to the Manhattan
(atomic bomb) project in 1945 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Following World War II he returned to Volusia County and
worked in the construction and lumber business.
Harold was a distinguished U.S. citizen listed in Who
Who in America, published by Marquis Who's Who, Berkeley
Heights, NJ. His biography in this publication lists many work
and organizational involvements too numerous to discuss in
this obituary.
Harold was preceded in death by his parents, Arlie and
Hettie Cardwell. Surviving are his wife, Priscilla, son Harold
D. Cardwell, Jr., daughter Ruth Cardwell Landau, seven
grandchildren, and seven great-grandchildren.
My personal assessment of Harold was that he was a
"walking, talking history book," always ready to share his
incredible knowledge of the past with anyone who asked. He
and his memories are greatly missed

Dorothy L. (Dot) Moore
P.O. Box 504
New Smyrna Beach, FL 32170


2012 VOL. 65 (1-2)


TheArchaeology ofClothing andBodilyAdornment in Colonial
America. Diana DiPaolo Loren. With a Foreword by Michael
S. Nassany, series editor. 2010. University Press of Florida.
Gainesville. xvii + 121 pages with 26 figures, bibliographical
references and index. In cloth cover and paperback.

Antoinette B. Wallace,
Florida Public Archaeology Network Northeast Regional
Center, 74 King Street, St. Augustine, FL 32085

Diana DiPaolo Loren is uniquely qualified to write the
next volume in the series, The American Experience in
Archaeological Perspective edited by Michael Nassany. Her
volume on clothing and bodily adornment in colonial America
benefits from her position as associate curator at the Peabody
Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University.
She has access to and knowledge of the oldest and most
complete collection of material artifacts from the American
colonial period. Her dissertation research at Presidio Los Adaes
in northwestern Louisiana and collaboration on the Harvard
Yard Archaeology Project has given her a solid background in
the practice of historical archaeology and provided her with
additional material for the case studies used in this volume.
She also acknowledges her debt to scholars such as Kathleen
Deagan, Mary Beaudry, Martin Hall, and Jean Comaroff, who
all provided inspiration and validation for her work.
In this interesting volume, she considers the clothing and
adornment of people living in seventeenth and eighteenth
century North America through the lens of historical
archaeology supplemented by ethnographic, historical, and
visual resources. Each of these sources provides a slightly
different and often biased view of colonial dress, but it is at
their intersection that an understanding arises of how colonial
people negotiated and communicated identity in an evolving
and somewhat unstable colonial world. This approach puts her
within the mainstream of the currently popular study of the
archaeology of the social body.
Loren explores the active manipulation of the material
culture of clothing and adornment by people in English, Dutch,
French, and Spanish colonies. In colonial North America,
many ethnic groups transformed clothing traditions through
a process of cultural exchange characterized by a mixture of
local and imported, Native and non-Native, handmade and
manufactured items. This strategy of combining created a new
language of appearance that individuals used to communicate
self and identity in an ever changing colonial setting.
Historical and visual accounts are inherently biased toward
an elite male perspective. But historical archaeology is best
suited to provide detailed information on the daily practices
of those who lived on the margins of historical narratives,

the women, children, servants, slaves, Native Americans,
and Africans. Archaeologists study the residue of people's
lives that have been left behind, objects lost or discarded or
deliberately placed in burials. Loren concentrates her focus
on small finds: buttons, buckles, jewelry, beads, fabric, and
remnants of clothing and adornment that can take on multiple
meanings when worn by different colonial peoples.
She challenges us to move beyond the simple identification,
categorization, and dating of artifacts to a social interpretative
approach. Her approach is to stimulate ideas about how small
things of clothing and adornment may provide an entry into
the thoughts and practices of colonial men, women, and
children of varied ethnic backgrounds. She moves beyond
the functional meaning an object may have been given by its
producer to the multiple meanings, uses, and manipulations an
object may acquire throughout its useful life.
But the body is at the core of her analysis. She investigates
some of the ways colonial peoples chose to express their bodies
and identities through clothing and adornment. Colonial
identities were constituted through the active manipulation
of material culture. Dress as a material expression of self
was subject to change and innovation in relation to specific
colonial contexts. Although she uses the methodology of
historical archaeology in her interpretations, she draws from
ethnographic, written, and pictorial records for the social
After her introductory and theoretical chapter, she
outlines artifacts of clothing and adornment found within the
archaeological record. She describes just a few examples from
the diverse range available to people in colonial America, not
intending to provide a sourcebook for identification but to
illuminate methodological approaches used to interpret items
of clothing and adornment within historical archaeology. She
defines artifacts of clothing as any items used to enclose or
modify the physical body. She includes tattoo in this category
and items worn over clothing as part of adornment strategies.
Chapter 3 discusses clothing artifacts that enclose and
alter the body such as buttons, fasteners, and tattoos. The next
chapter looks at adornment or objects that can be attached to
the body or to clothing such as jewelry, beads, pierced coins,
and crucifixes. Chapter 5 uses case studies to explore two
specific colonial assemblages, Dutch New Netherland and
French Louisiana. Loren's final chapter presents overarching
themes and suggestions for future directions in the study of
clothing and adornment in historical archaeology.
Today many archaeologists are more interested in
embodied practices rather than in a discussion of objects
divorced from the body. The archeological record is a key
component for interpreting the colonial past because colonial
relations were constituted with material culture. But artifacts



VOL. 65 (3)



acquire symbolic value through use, the activities of daily
life. Dress matters! It is the daily practice of constructing
and reconstructing one's identity in a social landscape. Loren
proposes a methodology to understand the colonial world by
using multiple sources and analyzing the intersections. We
can get beyond the single glass bead to the experiences of the
clothed and adorned person living a life in colonial America.
Diana DiPaolo Loren's interesting volume shows us how to do

The Archaeology of Consumer Culture. Paul R. Mullins. With
a Foreword and series edited by Michael S. Nassaney. 2011.
University Press of Florida, Gainesville. xxi + 178 pages, with
12 figures, references cited, and index, $ 69.95 (hard cover).

Christopher N. Hunt
Department of Anthropology
College of Arts and Sciences, University of South Florida
4202 E. Fowler Avenue, SOC107, Tampa, FL 33620-8100

The latest volume in the series, The American Experience
in Archaeological Perspective from the University Press of
Florida, provides a compelling assessment of the distinctive
nature of American consumer culture. Mullins adeptly
synthesizes 159 years of historical archaeology, pulling from a
vast array of professional literature and primary documentation,
to analyze 400 years of American consumption as revealed in
the archaeological record. This book, categorized into five
thematic chapters, appeals to the public and professionals
in archaeology, sociology, and history. The introduction
demonstrates the complexities of material consumption
inherent in selling, buying, making, using, and disposing of
material goods, and then highlights the implications of material
consumption on perceptions of social status, gender, and
ethnicity. However, Mullins cautions against applying patterns
too broadly, as consumption in America is particularistic and
subject to great social mobility. As such, archaeology has
applicable insight on consumer scholarship.
Chapter one discusses how the notion of "status" in both
the archaeological and historical records is subject to great
social mobility and connected with political and economic
conditions that define sociocultural identity. Mullins seems to
build his framework on particularism and cautions historical
archaeologists against broadly defining wealth and affluence.
He then takes the reader through the historical archaeologies of
material status, building on the argument that archaeological
interpretation needs to be based on the assessment of
independent data sources. Historical and archaeological
examples reinforce this idea of independent data assessments.
The chapter ends with an interesting discussion on status
in the seventeenth century, building heavily on the work of
James Deetz and others. This history lesson in culture and
penury shows how status was achieved by numerous means
and influenced by an infinite number of variables, including
evidence of material resistance to established seventeenth-
century society. While this chapter pulls together parallel

theoretical perspectives, Mullins' style of presenting the
material to the reader is disjointed at times and might benefit
from more cohesion when presenting the various topics.
Chapter two discusses the eighteenth-century industrial
model. Originating in England, the increasing industrial
production and dissemination of goods in America allowed
commercial and industrial wealth to be consolidated. This led
to the question of "how consumers developed material desires
and the extent to which their material consumption patterns
are influenced by external markets, economic current and
social context" (43). This was an era of Georgian consumers,
who established the consumer discipline that influenced class
and wealth in eighteenth-century America. The hallmark of
this period was widespread societal sumptuary laws governing
material displays of class, thereby defining individuals by
the material they owned. Such standardized behavior can be
measured in the archaeological record; however, this broad
picture distorts the reality of the period. As much as there
was emulation of class and status, there was also resistance
to the establishment and sometimes a facade of perceived
class, status, and adherence to discipline. Mullins highlights
periods of colonial consumer desire, such as the creamware
revolution and the effects that tea had on the ceramic market,
the beginning of the mass food market, and the changes in food
consumption. His analysis of measurable Georgian consumer
behaviors through material analysis is well-structured and
Chapter three builds on the previous theme that sumptuary
laws and the governing of status through material culture led
to the creation of middle and lower classes in the nineteenth
century. The succeeding Victorian era was characterized by
more clearly defined genteel and middle class refinement,
with a distinction between essential and luxury goods. While
the definition of class was ambiguous, a defined normality of
modeled mass behaviors and their material correlates could
be recognized as a break from the dominant social behaviors
and material patterns. Victorian values dictated all avenues of
consumption: shopping behaviors, material use and status, and
how that status defined class. However, creating distinctive
genteel and middle classes through material belongings also
created poverty. Mullins looks deeper at poverty and inequality
as seen through material culture, but cautiously notes
differences in environment, location, and spatial limitations of
distance in securing commodities. For instance, while country
stores were not always in the backwoods and well-stocked
with a variety of fashionable commodities, wealthy families'
often favored purchasing well-made and more durable material
goods within isolated areas.
Chapter four shows gaps in research and some of the
most controversial and interdisciplinary approaches. It focuses
heavily on race, ethnicity, and economics as indicators of
identity. Artifact assemblages show the dichotomy between
the traditional and the new mainstream. Material culture
was used to negotiate political and social distinctions among
original ethnicities and emerging Creole or other new regional
cultural patterns. Mullins includes the politics of the ever-
changing American culture as it takes shape in the context


2012 VOL. 65(3)


of international commerce and reflects the shared identity of
colonists and the growing revolutionary sentiments toward
the British Empire's material and political dominance. The
chapter finishes with theoretical considerations and biases in
the ethnicity of consumption, specifically material aspects of
African American identity and assimilation, difference, and
distinction among Chinese immigrants and their resistance to
Western acculturation.
The final chapter discusses the materiality of domesticity
and Victorian-period marketing. Family material consumption
decision-making shifted from the male to the female head of the
household. The increasing influence of women upon consumer
spending habits in the late nineteenth-early twentieth century
lead to an increase in marketing that targeted women and the
emergence of one-price shopping that discouraged bargaining.
This behavior shift also included domestic responsibilities
to institute moral lessons for children, which translated to
specialized material goods echoing these teachings (i.e.,
ceramics with moral stories or inscriptions). This chapter
also looks at the archaeology of prostitution and negotiating
the roles of gender and gentility. It ends with a discussion of
market transformation through the emergence of store chains,
brands, and advertising, and the agency of consumer influence
upon manufactured goods and prices and of the manipulation
of the consumer by advertising.
This volume is a great contribution to historical
archaeology, providing a synthesis of American material
cultures, consumption, and shared identity using historical
documentation and interdisciplinary analyses from
anthropological subfields. With an archaeological perspective,
it builds on anthropological theory with functional, systematic,
and agency-based approaches to affluence, race, ethnicity,
identity, and social mobility. It has manageable chapter sizes, a
lack of anthropological jargon (though there is some complex
language), and fascinating explorations of what could be
considered scandalous moments in American history. I highly
recommend this book and commend Mullins for his weaving
of the historical and archaeological into one fabric.

Chapters of the Florida Anthropological Society

10 5 9

1. Ancient Ones Archaeological Society of North Central Florida
2902 NW 104' Court, Unit A, Gainesville, FL 32606

2. Archaeological Society of Southern Florida 15
2495 N.W. 35th Ave., Miami, FL 33142

3. Central Florida Anthropological Society
1902 Florrie Court, N. Fort Myers, 33917

4. Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 1563, Pinellas Park, FL 33780 '

5. Emerald Coast Archaeological Society
c/o Indian Temple Mound Museum 4
139 Miracle Strip Pkwy SE, Fort Walton Beach, 32548

6. Gold Coast Anthropological Society
6720 E. Tropical Way, Plantation, FL 33317
7. Indian River Anthropological Society 14 12
3705 S. Tropical Trail, Merritt Island, FL 32952

8. Kissimmee Valley Archaeological and Historical Conservancy 17
195 Huntley Oaks Blvd., Lake Placid, FL 33852 16

9. Panhandle Archaeological Society at Tallahassee
P.O. Box 20026, Tallahassee, FL 32316
10. Pensacola Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591 13

11. St. Augustine Archaeological Association
P.O. Box 1301, St. Augustine, FL 32085

12. Southeast Florida Archaeological Society
P.O Box 2875, Stuart, FL 34995 ',,

13. Southwest Florida Archaeological Society ^_..
P.O. Box 9965, Naples, FL 34101 ..

14. Time Sifters Archaeology Society 16. Warm Mineral Sprint/Little Salt Spring Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 25642, Sarasota, FL 34277 P.O, Box 7797, North Port, FL 34287

15. Volusia Anthropological Society 17. Palm Beach County Archaeological Society
P.O. Box 1881, Ormond Beach, FL 32175 6421 Old Medinah Circle, Lake Worth, FL 33463



George M. Luer'


Steven W. Martin was honored with the prestigious
William C. Lazarus Memorial Award at the FAS 64th Annual
Meeting in Tallahassee. He was nominated by Patty Flynn,
President of the Gold Coast Anthropological Society (GCAS).
FAS President Patty Flynn presented a plaque to
Mr. Martin "for promoting archaeological and historical
preservation, education, and research in Florida, May 12,
Steve Martin is well-known to FAS members for his years
of service to the Society. He has been an officer on the FAS
Board, including four years as First Vice-President (1998-
2000, 2009-2011) and two years as Second Vice-President
(2007-2009). Steve has written and lobbied successfully for
Office of Policy and Planning. From 1990 to 2007, Steve
continued with the Florida Park Service, serving as Historic

Resources Administrator and Cultural Resources Manager.
Since then, he has worked in the private sector and for the
state Division of Emergency Management.
Steve's passion includes preserving historic structures
and landscapes. While working for the Florida Park Service,
he helped establish procedures for managing nearly 350
historic structures, 1,200 archaeological sites, and 45 cultural
landscapes in 158 state parks. He worked with the State
Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) to ensure compliance
with preservation standards and guidelines. Steve also
initiated many educational programs, such as with the Florida
Trust for Historic Preservation, University of Florida, Florida
State University, and the National Park Service.
During his years with the Florida Park Service, Steve's
management and grant writing skills became legendary. He
conducted assessments and documented historic structures,
developed preservation plans and priorities, and wrote and/or
administered over 5 million dollars in grants from state, federal,
and private sources. He managed numerous preservation
planning and master plan projects, administered dozens of
contracts, and developed scopes of work and contracts for
archaeological research on known and unrecorded sites. In
2006, Steve even wrote a successful Special Category Grant
proposal for archaeological work on vandalized Big Mound

Steve Martin and FAS President Patty Flynn
(photo courtesy of Florida Division of Historical Resources).



VOL. 65 (3)


Tin~ ~ ~~~~~__ FLOID ANHOOLGS 201 VO. 5(1f

Steve's efforts for Florida's cultural heritage have been
extraordinary, and a number of other organizations have
recognized him, too. Besides awards from FAS in 2002 and
2004 (above), Steve was honored by the Florida Park Service
in 1998 and 2000. He was cited for outstanding achievement
by the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation in 2002, and
he received a "Steward of Heritage Award" from the Florida
Archaeological Council, also in 2002. Now, in 2012, FAS is
pleased to honor Steve Martin with the William C. Lazarus
Memorial Award.


The Emerald Coast Archaeological Society (ECAS) was
honored as the eighth recipient of the Arthur R. Lee FAS
Chapter Award. At the Annual Banquet, in Tallahassee, FAS
President Patty Flynn presented a plaque to ECAS members
"for outstanding efforts in public outreach, education, and
support of Florida Archaeology, May 12, 2012."
ECAS is very proud of its panhandle heritage, especially
in the Fort Walton Beach area. ECAS holds regular meetings
at the Indian Temple Mound Museum. The museum opened in
1962, fostered by citizens William and Yulee Lazarus. On the

museum grounds is the imposing Fort Walton Temple Mound,
which was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964
and listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.
ECAS and museum activities complement each other.
ECAS was incorporated a decade ago. It shows its
vigor and enthusiasm through public outreach. The chapter
is busy during Florida Archaeology Month, holding "public
demonstration digs" with the Indian Temple Mound Museum
and the City of Fort Walton Beach's Historic Sites and
Structures Advisory Board. Weekend "digs" have been on
downtown private property at Brooks Street, behind Merlin's
Jewelry Store, in an area rich in historic and precontact
period artifacts. At these events, ECAS members distribute
educational handouts, such as FAM posters and bookmarks.
Also, they have received newspaper and television coverage.
On weekends in 2010 and 2011, ECAS and the public
unearthed pottery and lithics associated with the Indianola
Mound. It was close to a body of water called "The Narrows,"
near the Fort Walton Temple Mound. At these and other
"digs," ECAS demonstrates archaeological techniques to the
public. They show how artifacts are placed in labeled bags,
catalogued in the field, and prepared for laboratory analysis.
Other chapter activities are diverse. They include
excavation behind the Camp Walton Schoolhouse Museum
in Fort Walton Beach; monitoring before construction

ECAS member Pat Balanzategui, on behalf of ECAS, accepts FAS Chapter Award from FAS President Patty Flynn
(photo courtesy of Florida Division of Historical Resources).


2 102 Vot. 65 (1-2)

FAS 2012 AWARDS 201

of an observation platform in the Oak Tree Nature Park
and Archaeological Preserve in the City of Mary Esther;
distributing FAM posters to all public schools and other outlets
in Okaloosa County; and setting up displays in the Fort Walton
Beach Library and at the Intertribal Powwow, an annual event
at the Mullet Festival grounds in Niceville. ECAS members
also attend meetings of the Panhandle Historic Preservation
Alliance, and they have attended hearings in Tallahassee to
support FAM grant applications, which have been successful.
ECAS members have been active in supporting the
mother organization of FAS. Bill Lucas is a former FAS
Director. Tommy Abood has served as Chair of the Chapter
Affiliation Committee. Currently, Pat Balanzategui is serving
as FAS Membership Secretary. Such support is essential to the
health of our statewide Society and to the vitality of Florida


Individual FAS chapters honor members for outstanding
service. This year, FAS President Patty Flynn presented the
following certificate:

Emerald Coast Archaeological Society (ECAS)


ECAS would like to take this opportunity to honor
Pat Balanzategui for her outstanding leadership while serving
two terms as the chapter's President. Pat's dedication to
detail, and her calm professional demeanor, led ECAS into its
tenth year as one of FAS's most successful, well-organized,
and active chapters. Pat was able to accomplish all this while
serving as the FAS Membership Secretary, a very demanding
job itself. ECAS would like to take this opportunity to thank
Pat for a job well done.

Three others also were honored for their work in 2012

Student Paper Award
Melissa Timo

Dorothy Moore Student Grant
Christopher Hunt

Chuck Wilde Archarological Research Award
Crystal Gieger

'" No Bullen Award was presented this year.

Pat Balanzategui accepts her certificate from FAS President Patty Flynn
(photo courtesy of Florida Division of Historical Resources).


About the Authors

Michael Faught is a Senior Maritime Archaeologist with Panamerican Consultants, Inc., Courtesy Assistant Professor at the
University of Florida, and Treasurer of the Archaeological Research Cooperative. Faught has studied Florida Archaeology since
first coming to the state in 1986, and remains an enthusiastic scholar of its history and prehistory.

Christopher N. Hunt is currently a graduate student in applied anthropology at the University of South Florida, where he received
his BA in anthropology with an emphasis in archaeology. His research interests are in archaeology, political economy, and cultural
resource management. He previously worked as a field archaeologist throughout the southeastern United States for a private
consulting firm. Department of Anthropology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue,
SOC107, Tampa, FL 33620-8100

George M. Luer Ph.D., works in archaeology and related fields to help save cultural sites, natural habitats, and valuable information
for the future. He has specialized in native orchids, Spanish and Latin American studies, and research issues in Florida Archaeology,
ranging from ceramics, shell tools, and metal ornaments to canoe canals, radiocarbon dating, and zooarchaeology.

Greg Mikell is an RPA and Senior Archaeologist with Panamerican Consultants, Inc. Having lived and worked in northwest Florida
and the Southeast since the 1980s, Greg has an extensive background in northwest Florida prehistoric and historic archaeology and
regards his work at Pensacola NAS on sites like the 1834 Naval Hospital to be among the most rewarding and interesting.

James C. Waggoner, Jr. (1971-2009) was born and raised in Georgia and lived in Florida during the latter part of his life. He received
degrees from Georgia College in 1997 (BA in History), Florida State University in 2002 (MS in Anthropology), and University of
Florida in 2009 (PhD in Anthropology). Jamie was an active archaeologist, working and volunteering on many research projects
across Florida, Georgia, Central America and Europe. His most significant contributions, however, were his studies of Archaic-
period sites in southwest Georgia, where he recorded over 300 previously unknown archaeological sites and published several
works. Tragically, Jamie's life and bright future were cut short when he lost a hard fought battle with brain cancer in September
Antoinette (Toni) Wallace is a Site Specialist at the Florida Public Archaeology Network Northeast Regional Center at Flagler
College. She received her B.A. at Florida State University and her MA at Harvard University in Anthropology with a specialization
in Archaeology and Museum Studies. Her masters research focused on Southeastern American Indian body decoration. She has
worked in Massachusetts, Belize and Florida. She is currently the President of the St. Augustine Archaeological Association.

2012 VOL. 65 (1-2)


Keith H. Ashley, Dept of Anthropology, UNF
Bldg 51, 1 UNF Drive
Jacksonville, FL 32224-2659



Volume 65 Number 3
September 2012

From the Editors


A New Kind of Shell Tool in Florida, With Notes on the Cedar Point Shell Heap and Cortez Midden
George M. Luer

Yellow Fever Epidemics and Refuse Disposal Patterns at the Mid-19th Century Pensacola Naval Hospital
Gregory A. Mikell

The Early Archaic to Middle Archaic Transition in Florida:An Argument for Discontinuity
Michael K. Faught and James C. Waggoner, Jr.

Florida Public Archaeology Network
By Individual Regional Directors

In Memoriam Harold D. Cardwell, Sr.
Dot Moore

Book Reviews
Loren: The Archaeology of Clothing and Bodily Adornment in Colonial America. Toni Wallace
Mullins: The Archaeology of Consumer Culture. Chris Hunt

Florida Anthropological Society 2012 Award Recipients
George M. Luer

About the Authors

Copyright 20121 by the
ISSN 0015-3893