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SPECIAL ISSUE IN MEMORY OF B. CALVIN JONES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Editor's Page. Robert J. Austin
B. Calvin Jones. Louis D. Tesar
Calvin Jones: A Man of Al Seasons (Part One). Michael Wisenbaker
Calvin Jones: A Man of Al Seasons (Part Two). I. Randolph Daniel, Jr.
Calvin Jones, A Legend in Florida Archaeology. Nancy Marie White
B. Calvin Jones: Comments and Commentary, Video-taped Interview Excerpts.
A Ceremonial Tablet from Osceola County. Robert J. Austin and Scott E. Mitchell
B. Calvin Jones, Louis D. Tesar, and
Price and Gebauer: Adventures in Fugawiland: A Computer Simulation in Archaeology. Richard W. Estabrook
Deagan and MacMahon: Fort Mose: ColonialAmerica's Black Fortress of Freedom. Betty M. Riggan
About the Authors
Cover: Ancient Contract by Jeanie Fitzpatrick
'-, TY OF FLORIDA LIBRARY
Copyright 1998 by the
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.
This issue of The Florida Anthropologist pays tribute to one
of Florida's best-loved archaeologists, Calvin Jones, who
passed away in February of this year. Calvin personified the
popular conception of an archaeologist a larger-than-life,
home-spun version of Indiana Jones, making so many important
discoveries that his site-finding abilities have become part of
archaeology folk-lore. Calvin was an exceptional field archaeol-
ogist who applied a common-sense approach to a discipline that
often struggles with its self-identity, unsure if it wants to be
science, history, or art. Calvin seemed to be unconcerned with
such philosophical musings. He was more interested in under-
standing how and why prehistoric people lived and behaved the
way they did. He possessed a special gift for conveying to the
public the sense of excitement that every archaeologist, be they
scientist or humanist, experiences when making a new discov-
ery. Florida has lost many brilliant and committed archae-
ologists, but few have been loved by colleagues and the public
as much as Calvin Jones.
Louis Tesar is responsible for bringing together the papers
that make up the bulk of this issue. Instead of the standard
group of formal papers that are offered as a tribute to a re-
spected teacher or colleague, Louis chose to ask a few of the
archaeologists who knew Calvin (Mike Wisenbaker, Randy
Daniel, and Nancy White) to reminisce about their experiences
with him, thus bringing a much more personal touch to these
Louis also conducted a series of interviews with Calvin
before his death. He and Jonathan Lammers have transcribed
and edited these for inclusion in this issue of the journal. The
result is a fascinating and entertaining look at Calvin's career
told in his own words, complete with anecdotes, opinions, and
insights. Fittingly, Louis directs Calvin toward the topics of site
location and site settings, questioning him about how he was so
successful in finding sites. What comes through in the interview
is the logic behind that well-known ability, illustrating that
Calvin's knowledge and understanding of the relationship
between the environment and site location was formidable.
This issue also includes a brief report on a ceremonial tablet
from Osceola County and reviews by Rich Estabrook and Betty
On another note, I want to inform our readers of a new
publication on archaeology that is available. American Archae-
ology is published by the Archaeological Conservancy, Inc. It
is a glossy, colorful, and informative magazine that is devoted
exclusively to the archaeology of the Americas. Recent issues
have included articles on the Hopewell, archaeoastronomy,
glass trade beads in the Pacific Northwest, and Mayan ball
courts. There are also articles on recent acquisitions of endan-
gered site by the Conservancy, as well as opportunities for field
work and suggestions on interesting and accessible archaeo-
logical sites to visit around the country. This is a fine magazine
that readers of The Florida Anthropologist will find enjoyable
reading. You can receive the magazine by sending a tax-
deductible donation of $25 to the Conservancy at 5301 Central
Avenue NE, Suite 1218, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108-
ROBERT J. AUSTIN
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
In the last issue of the journal (Vol. 51, No. 1), the lower illustration of a winged rattlesnake in Figure 4 of Donald Peck's
article entitled "The Case for Prehistoric Cultural Contact Between the Maya on the Yucatin and the Indians of Florida" was
misidentified as originating in the Yucatfin. The caption should have indicated that both illustrations in this figure are from the
Southeastern U.S. The editor regrets any confusion or misunderstanding that may have occurred as a result of this error.
VOL. 51 No. 2
B. CALVIN JONES
On February 15, 1998, Florida lost one of its most well-
known and liked professional archaeologists B. Calvin
Jones, a lone Texan, who had become a larger-than-life Florida
legend over the past 30 years. Calvin succumbed to cancer, for
which he had been diagnosed and had begun treatment in July,
1997. Calvin had been looking forward to his planned retire-
ment as a State archaeologist in May, 1998.
Buddy Calvin Jones was born in Longview', Texas on
October 31, 1938. His parents, both Oklahoma natives, had
moved to Texas, where his father worked in the oil fields.
Calvin's mother, one-quarter Cherokee, and his father, one-
eighth Creek, nurtured their son's interest in the outdoors and
his Native American heritage. Calvin found his first arrowhead
in 1945 at a newly drilled oil well site, thus beginning his
lifelong quest to learn how life really was in the past. Indeed,
Calvin said, "My parents, who were the most supportive a
person may have, allowed me to pursue my own interests. They
were the type who had no preconceived designs on my life.
Indians tend to be like that; they are not so uptight about how
others should live."
In 1956, he helped establish the East Texas Archaeological
Society in Tyler, Texas. The society began with about 100
members and Calvin was its chairman of field activities. He
directed excavations at Carey Lake Cave, where he and other
members of the society found a mineralized burial with a cache
of Plainview points. In 1957, he wrote his first archaeological
publication, "The Grace Sites, Greeg, Texas," which was
published in the Bulletin of the Texas Archaeological Society
Calvin went on to study anthropology at the University of
Oklahoma, where he continued his interest in East Texas
archaeology, particularly those questions involving Caddoan
culture and its chronological placement in the Mississippian
cultural framework. Calvin received his B.A. in anthropology in
1961. He subsequently served in the U.S. Army and worked
briefly for the National Park Service before beginning graduate
studies in anthropology at the University of Oklahoma. In 1965,
Calvin married Patsy A. Olive, a gifted author and artist, who
survives him. To the end, Calvin repeatedly claimed his
marriage to Pat was one of the wisest decisions of his life.
In 1968, Calvin received his M.A. in anthropology from the
University of Oklahoma. His thesis, The Kinsloe Focus: A
Study of Seven Historic Caddoan Sites in Northeast Texas
(including sites believed to have been visited by the de Soto
expedition), continues to be an important reference work for the
area (Jones 1968).
On May 1, 1968, Calvin began his employment as an archae-
ologist for the State of Florida. From that date on, he became the
"Paladin of Florida Archaeology." His business card could have
read, "Have shovel, will travel. No site too elusive to find!" His
most oft-repeated saying became, "The dirt don't lie." However,
he liked Randy Daniel's qualifier that while the dirt may not lie,
it speaks in a language that many people do not understand.
Indeed, awe of his ability to make major discoveries seemingly
without effort resulted in his being called a "psychic archaeolo-
gist" by both professional archaeologists and the public. Others
called him an "artifact dowser," suggesting that all he did was
simply walk along holding his shovel handle until the blade
dipped groundward, whereupon he proceeded to dig up exciting
new discoveries of our prehistoric and historic past.
Calvin denied being a psychic, although he admitted having
an intuitive sense of where to look based on years of experience.
He explained that what he did was assess the land forms, soils,
water, and other natural resources as they are now and as they
likely were during the past under different environmental
conditions. He then went to the locations best suited for the
types of subsistence and settlement practiced by prehistoric and
historic peoples during different time periods. Through practice
and experience he refined his discovery technique to an art
form. Indeed, in conversation, Calvin often referred to himself
as more of an artist than a scientist. His more scientific associ-
'VV T- VDA ANmmu'n I 1S VOL.L 51(
ates have tried to replicate his technique using mathematics, but
lacking his experience they often find it difficult to achieve the
same results in the field. As Calvin laughingly pointed out,
"even a chimpanzee can dig by the numbers, but it only
randomly results in success."
Calvin attributed his success to a determination to find
cultural resources and to understand "why" those resources are
located where they are found; in other words, what cultural
factors were involved. He stressed the human element and
approached his profession holistically, noting that too much
emphasis has been placed on eliminating the personal biases of
the surveyor by laying out survey grids and digging at fixed
intervals, resulting in "unbiased" surveyors walking by or over
cultural resources that are not located at the grid intersections.
He proved his point time after time by driving to properties that
had been "surveyed" in such a manner, stopping at locations
meeting his site expectations, and discovering missed sites,
usually with only a single test unit. He noted that if the Lord had
intended people to live in square units, He would have made the
world that way, with elevated and depressed square units for
residential platforms and garden plots. And He would have had
people dig trash pits or place their cached artifacts at the grid
comers to make it easy for archaeologists and artifact collectors.
Calvin concluded, "it doesn't work that way. Those people need
to get real if they ever hope to find anything and to learn more
about our cultural heritage."
Calvin used his knowledge of past site occurrences to identify
similar settings on a property to be investigated. He noted that
roughly 80% of all sites will occur on about 20% of the property
to be investigated. He would identify likely site locations on a
topographic or soils map, and then focus his field investigation
on those locations, with a strong proviso that it was necessary
to be flexible in order to adjust to the actual conditions on the
ground, since maps do not always reflect these. Furthermore, he
did not eschew looking in areas he considered to have a low
probability for containing sites, so that he could determine the
accuracy of his assessments.
Unit sizes, spacing, and placement were based on Calvin's
understanding of the expected site characteristics, cultural
evidence, and dimensions. However, he preferred to use what
has come to be known in Florida as a "CJ hole" a test pit
measuring roughly 50 x 100 cm dug to a depth of at least 100
cm. He noted that the angle of the standard shovel handle makes
it difficult to dig a 50 x 50 cm test pit to a depth of over 80 cm
without having it taper to a smaller size at the bottom. Further-
more, by combining two 50 x 50 cm units, and by placing them
judgmentally on the landscape, it was possible to increase the
probability of encountering cultural material and accurately
assess those findings. His excavation technique was very
efficient and effective. His results speak for themselves.
Those who accompanied Calvin on his surveys, or who
assisted him on his excavation projects, were treated to an
educational experience. Calvin was first and foremost a teacher.
He freely shared his knowledge and understanding of cultural
resources, as well as the reasons why he had selected each area
for investigation and what he expected to find. Field work with
Calvin was also entertaining. His garb usually included rain-
Figure 1. Calvin in his business suit posing for his State ID
photograph (ca. 1977).
bow-colored suspenders, a fedora hat, and a smoking pipe. He
was a consummate conversationalist. Interspersed with descrip-
tions of cultural resources and their expected settings were tales
and witticisms. These often included outrageous statements on
events and circumstances intended to elicit a startled reaction
from the listener. Calvin generally started with mildly outra-
geous statements and, depending on the listener, progressed
from there. The gullible were treated to statements designed to
see just how gullible they really were and to determine how long
it took them to realize that they were being teased. The more
staid individuals were treated to increasingly outrageous
statements until a reaction was elicited and then, having
determined their sensitive points, Calvin pushed their "reaction
buttons." Calvin was a student of human nature, both past and
present he enjoyed his studies.
Before Calvin went into the field to look for sites, he read as
much as possible about what was known of the archaeological
resources in the area he was assigned to investigate. He
expressed a low opinion of those "professional" archaeologists
who conducted their surveys first without any background
studies and then read what is known about an area to interpret
their findings or, more often, their lack of findings. He often
stated that "such people don't get it, they have it backwards, and
most times miss stuff that any local artifact collector could have
found." He also felt that a very common problem with some
THE FLORIDA ANTHR T
10 VOL. 51(2)
B. CALVIN JONES 61
Figure 2. Calvin in his trademark fedora, photographing a profile in an excavation unit among buried
pipes that crossed a new sewer-line trench at the Wakulla Springs Lodge site.
archaeological investigators was that they judged properties
only in terms of today's environmental conditions and not as the
land would have appeared at different times in the past. For
example, he noted that today's saturated marsh-edge soils were
often dry prairie edges during Paleoindian and Early and Middle
Archaic times. Calvin constantly tried to correct these over-
sights by freely sharing his knowledge on cultural resources and
appropriate discovery techniques.
Calvin also was a very strong proponent of public archae-
ology, and was often referred to as the "people's archaeologist."
Something that gained him fans throughout Florida was his
willingness to take the time to explain what he was looking for
and why, how a site's artifacts were made and used, and
something about the people who used them. He did so in
commonly used words, not in technical and bureaucratic jargon.
Unfortunately, that characteristic gained him the criticism of
being "unprofessional" and "amateurish," a charge usually
offered by those who masked their own ignorance in technical
He had the story-telling ability attributed to Texans and he
brought a larger-than-life enthusiasm gained during his youth in
that state. Yet, it was understated. He usually down-played his
own role and maximized the role of the volunteers, property
owners, developers, and others who worked with him. And
work with him they did, as Calvin honestly conveyed his
appreciation for their cooperation and captured their imagina-
tion with his quest to understand and share our cultural heritage.
Calvin was hired by the State of Florida to locate and assess
archaeological sites affected by highway construction, particu-
larly Interstate Highway construction (e.g., Jones and Tesar
1982). He began by looking in the same settings and areas in
which those who had gone before him had declared that few
sites could be found. To their surprise and occasional embar-
rassment, Calvin found large numbers of sites and launched his
Florida career. Ultimately, Calvin surveyed some 965 km (600
mi) of highway rights-of-way and roughly 2400 hectares (6000
acres) of associated borrow pits in advance of construction.
These efforts resulted in the location of about 1000 archaeologi-
cal sites, over 40 of which were excavated, many under Calvin's
direct supervision. The Paleoindian-Early Archaic Period
Haney Flats site in Hillsborough County, excavated under the
direction of Randy Daniel and Mike Wisenbaker, is perhaps the
best known of these sites.
Former Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT)
archaeologist Bill Browning used to entertain people by
recounting the time that he and FDOT engineers met Calvin at
a location west of Ft. Lauderdale. The purpose of the meeting
was to discuss the location of a proposed interchange ramp
system with respect to its archaeological impacts. Calvin
reportedly advised that the interchange be moved about .4 km
(one-quarter mile) from the selected location. When questioned
why, he is reported to have stated that the selected location
would destroy portions of a significant prehistoric village site
and the area in which he expected the village cemetery to be
located. The engineers challenged Calvin's unverified state-
ments. Calvin reportedly went to his vehicle, took out his
shovel, and, followed by the FDOT representatives, went to a
nearby spot where he began excavating a "CJ hole." He soon
exposed human skeletal remains, which he left in place, and
then refilled the excavation unit after recording his observations.
Tu FLi OLRfIDfA ANTImnPnIO iOGIS 1998 V 51(2TI
There they remain today, along with portions of the village area,
in land acquired by FDOT as interchange buffer. The inter-
change location, by the way, was relocated .4 km away, in the
location suggested by Calvin.
From Florida's highway surveys, Calvin turned his attention
to locating Spanish mission sites. Others had indicated that the
various historic documents must have been in error in their
reported locations of mission sites, since few had been found.
Calvin read the translated Spanish documents, converted
leagues to miles (roughly 2.6 mi per league), and, working from
the few known sites, took a compass and drew arcing lines from
those points. He then went to locations preferred by the Spanish
hill-crest vantage points overlooking water and cultivable
land and used a shovel to excavate soils in search of diagnos-
tic artifacts. The technique worked and was repeated until a
series of sites, including most of the recorded missions in
present-day Leon and Jefferson counties, were located like
"beads on a string." Calvin also excavated a number of those
sites, contributing substantially to our understanding of Flor-
ida's Spanish mission system, particularly the internal organiza-
tion of such mission sites. These findings are reported in a
number of publications (e.g., Jones 1970a, 1970b, 1972a,
1972b, 1973; Jones et al. 1991; Jones and Carr 1980; Jones and
Shapiro 1990; Mitchell and Jones 1988; Morrell and Jones
1970; Tesar and Jones 1989).
Florida residents and visitors alike, benefited from Calvin's
willingness to work on projects that depended on volunteer
labor for their accomplishment. Calvin steadfastly insisted that
it would be professionally unethical to permit the destruction of
significant cultural resources, even if it required donated time
and effort to investigate and salvage these resources. He
welcomed volunteer assistance as a way of expanding public
awareness of Florida's archaeological resources and archaeo-
In 1975, Calvin turned his attention in other directions.
Following the trail that began with the finding of a copper ax
and human skull fragments in fill dirt at a homesite northeast of
Tallahassee, Calvin contacted the property owner from which
the fill dirt was obtained and negotiated terms for archaeologi-
cally investigating the then privately owned Mound 3 of the
Lake Jackson Mound Complex (8LE1). This somewhat
clandestine project, conducted in advance of contractor fill dirt
needs and out of the light of public awareness (conditions
demanded by the property owner) resulted in the recovery of
archaeological data leading to the revision of our interpretation
of the role of Fort Walton cultures in the Mississippian
interaction network. Calvin gave a number of public presenta-
tions and published two articles on these findings (Jones 1982,
1994; see also Jones and Carr 1980); others have also pub-
lished aspects of this work.
In 1977-78, with volunteer assistance from the Indian River
Anthropological Society, Calvin excavated the prehistoric
cemetery at the Gauthier site (8BR193) near Cocoa in Brevard
County (Jones and Carr 1981). The data recovered from this
excavation changed our understanding of the culture of the
people who lived in the Florida east coast area during the
Middle Archaic Period.
In 1983, Calvin received the Ripley P. Bullen Award from the
Florida Anthropological Society for his contribution to non-
professional archaeological understanding and participation in
Florida's archaeological heritage projects.
Beginning in 1983, and resuming in 1994 and 1995, Calvin
conducted archaeological investigations in the village area of
the Mount Royal site (8PU35), identifying the remains of a
Spanish mission and British plantation site, as well as studying
the Native American component. The property owner, Dr.
Wilcox, donated the mound to the State of Florida and contrib-
uted funding to assist Calvin's investigations at the site. Calvin
was working on that and other reports at the time he became ill,
and they will be brought to completion in his name (Jones n.d. 1,
n.d.2; Jones and Tesar n.d. 1, n.d.2).
March 11, 1987 marks another landmark day in Florida
archaeology. On that day, during his lunch hour, and noticing
the beginning of construction activities in an area he long
suspected to contain Spanish mission remains, Calvin discov-
ered the 1539-1540 de Soto expedition winter encampment.
With volunteer assistance and owner cooperation, Calvin
excavated the portion of the site that would be impacted by
construction (Jones 1988; Jones and Ewan 1988; Tesar and
Jones 1989). This is the first definitely identified site for the
expedition that changed the course of history in the southeastern
United States. Portions of this site have been acquired by the
State of Florida for public interpretation. On May 5, 1987, the
Governor and the Cabinet commended and thanked Calvin by
resolution for these efforts.
On May 17, 1990, by Florida Senate Resolution 3088, Calvin
was recognized again for many of his previous achievements,
including the discovery and excavation of nine Spanish mission
sites in Leon and Jefferson Counties, the discovery and excava-
tion of the de Soto winter encampment in Tallahassee, and his
continuing work and cooperation with property owners and
amateur archaeologists. In 1990, Calvin also received the
SpecialAchievementAwardfor Historic Preservation from the
Florida Heritage Foundation and the Historic Tallahassee
In 1992, Calvin was appointed to the National de Soto Trail
Expedition Commission by U.S. Secretary of the Interior, the
Honorable Manuel Lujan. Also in 1992, following another
lunch-hour discovery, Calvin led volunteers in the salvage
excavation of the Ross-Hannon site (8LE164) in southern
Tallahassee (Tesar and Jones 1992). The results of this project
furthered our understanding of early Weeden Island Period (ca.
A.D. 450-700) peoples in the Leon County area.
In 1994, Calvin conducted archaeological salvage excava-
tions in advance of middle-school construction in the Swift
Creek cultural area (ca. 1 B.C.-A.D. 450) at the Block-Stems
site (8LE148) in eastern Leon County (Jones and Tesar 1995;
Jones et al. n.d.; Tesar and Jones 1995). In addition to contrib-
uting significantly to our understanding of Swift Creek culture,
all four mounds and significant portions of the site's village area
are now publicly owned.
In 1994-95, Calvin conducted archaeological salvage
excavations at the Wakulla Springs Lodge site (8WA329) in
advance of sewer-line replacement construction (Jones and
TiUr ww nomA AANTUDnPnPs efr lT
1998 VOL. 51(2)
B. CALVIN JONES 63
Tesar 1997a, 1997b). These activities resulted in the discovery
and testing of an in situ Paleoindian to Early Archaic compo-
nent, and produced unique 10,000-year-old artifacts that drew
national attention to the site. Calvin was working on popular
and technical reports for this project when he became ill; they
will be completed with Calvin as the lead author.
In 1996-97, planning for his May, 1998, retirement as a state
archaeologist and looking forward to private consulting, Calvin
began focusing efforts to bring to completion reports on a
number of projects, although he was still routinely called upon
to conduct small-scale emergency projects. These activities
were ongoing in July, 1997, when Calvin unexpectedly began
experiencing health problems that slowed the pace of his
archaeological endeavors. I worked on editing several draft
manuscripts that Calvin had prepared and consulted with him
on what was necessary to bring them to completion. I plan to
finish editing and complete those reports with Calvin retaining
Any one of these projects would make the reputation of any
professional archaeologist. Calvin's participation in all of them
represents an overwhelming achievement, especially when
added to his many other survey and excavation discoveries, as
well as the findings of others who credit their accomplishments
to what they learned from Calvin. However, Calvin's ability to
discover archaeological sites and to work with property owners
in a non-adversarial manner had its professional disadvantages.
The State's Bureau of Archaeological Research routinely called
on Calvin to respond to emergency projects to the extent that he
had little time for analysis and report preparation for his major
discoveries especially since such efforts generally lacked the
assistance enjoyed by those conducting funded projects.
Despite these handicaps, Calvin persevered in his love of
seeking to understand the past. He was the consummate
detective in the investigation of Florida's prehistoric and
historic cultural heritage, approaching each site as a multi-
dimensional crime scene investigation. Yet, in conversations
with him, his most frequently mentioned and most memorable
discovery was a several-year-old honey bun still in its
original wrapper and appearing edible that he uncovered on
a rare occasion when he cleaned the back of his field vehicle.
(Pat Jones permitted me to keep that artifact for use in presenta-
Calvin's folksy approach in discussing his archaeological
studies contrasted with the truly professional manner in which
he conducted that work keeping field records, making
photographs of findings, and so forth. He consistently involved
the public in his efforts and it was that spirit of sharing that
contributed to Calvin's many significant contributions. Indeed,
the State of Florida and its people have benefited immeasurably
from Calvin's efforts over the past quarter-century. During that
period, Calvin cumulatively donated an estimated 3500 work
hours and his volunteers donated an estimated 35,000 work
hours. The Block-Stems project alone resulted in some 6700
donated hours. In addition, nearly all of Calvin's volunteers
provided their own transportation and tools, as well as donated
incidental items needed by the projects. Had these projects
been funded at the usual rates, together they would have cost
well in excess of $1,000,000, and many have stated that the
value of what we learned from those projects is worth several
million dollars. That is a public benefit far beyond what most
will ever give. But his contribution goes beyond mere dollar
amounts. Calvin authored or co-authored over 125 reports,
ranging from short technical reports and popular articles to
book-length monographs (e.g., Jones 1974, 1985, 1989, 1990;
Jones, Mattick, and Poe 1992; Jones and Penman 1973; Jones,
Williams, and Lozowski 1992). He recorded over 1000 archae-
ological sites, roughly 5% of the nearly 21,000 archaeological
sites recorded in the Florida Master Site File. In addition to his
many popular lectures given to service organizations, school
groups, archaeological societies, and others, he also identified
artifacts for legions of individuals who came to his office
seeking his assistance. He also was routinely sought out by
professional archaeologists seeking his advice on the types of
resources they might expect to find on a given tract and the
survey methods most suitable for such properties. He was
always willing to share his knowledge.
Those who worked with Calvin as volunteers, as well as many
of the hundreds of people who visited his ongoing excavations,
listened to his descriptions of what was being done and found,
and experienced the privilege of handling the artifacts being
excavated, treasure that experience beyond measure, recounting
it to others years later. The information recorded by Calvin's
projects and the artifacts excavated by Calvin and his volunteers
Figure 3. Calvin at a surprise birthday party at which all
attendees had Calvin masks.
9P. V. -nm. A n 1002 VOs L- 4t17
have resulted in publications, public presentations, and museum
exhibits that have greatly improved the public's understanding
and appreciation of Florida's archaeological heritage by
reaching thousands of people.
Calvin was a human resource valued by many. In November,
1997, Calvin was the recipient of a certificate from Florida's
Governor, Lawton Chiles, commending him on his 30 years of
archaeological achievement in the State of Florida. Calvin and
Pat Jones were also treated to a private luncheon with the
Governor and his wife at the Governor's mansion. And In
December, 1997, in advance of the May, 1998 annual meeting,
Calvin was presented with the Florida Archaeological Council's
Lifetime Achievement Award.
After several months of illness, Calvin agreed to undertake a
series of video-taped interviews as a means of documenting his
knowledge for future generations. Unfortunately, we waited too
late to begin that series, completing only three sessions for a
total of some 10 /2 hours of taped discussions covering over 30
years of experience. Jonathan Lammers helped transcribe those
tapes, producing 150 single-spaced pages of text (see Jones et
al., this issue). We have assembled other video tapes of Calvin
in the field, for which we are also making transcripts. These will
serve as a final legacy of Calvin's archaeological knowledge.
As many, many others have said, "Calvin was my friend and
I will miss him." It was fun and it was a challenge to ride with
Calvin. During such trips, while continuing archaeology-related
dialog, we competed to see who could spot a likely site location
first and, having stopped at that locale, to see who could find the
first artifact. Calvin was a one-of-a-kind person. While his
position may be filled, he cannot be replaced.
Calvin's remains have gone back to Texas where he was
buried in a family grave plot. Fittingly, he was interred with his
cowboy field boots, fedora hat, knife, trowel, shovel, and
personal items including projectile points made by flint-knap-
ping friends and a replica of the large Paleoindian biface he
excavated at the Wakulla Springs Lodge site all items that he
can use in his next adventure. Indeed, it is not hard to envision
Calvin at the Pearly Gates with St. Peter reviewing his resume,
at which point Calvin likely would interrupt with a "Hey Pete,
I just noticed that rise, that little knoll, over there at the edge of
the Elysium Fields, near the creek. If you don't mind, I'd like to
dig a couple of shovel holes over there, as it looks like a good
place to find a site." St. Peter would respond, "But, we have to
finish reviewing your entrance paperwork." Undeterred, Calvin
would pick up his shovel and call back over his shoulder,
"That's just bureaucratic bull. It can wait." As Calvin proceeds
across the fields and passes a group of angels, they would ask
him what he was doing. Calvin would chuckle and explain what
he planned to do and what he expected to find. He would then,
followed by his new cadre of volunteers, proceed to the selected
location where, of course, he would begin finding artifacts in the
first "CJ hole" that he digs. St. Peter would just shake his head
and decide that he needed a reality check things were not
going to be the same.
In Bob Carr's interview (Jones and Carr 1980:161), Calvin indicated that his
birthplace was Gladewater, Texas. According to Pat Jones, Gladewater was
once a small suburb ofLongview, but since it has been consumed by the growth
of the larger town, few people now refer to Gladewater by name.
Jones, B. Calvin
1957 The Grace Creek Sites, Gregg County, Texas. Bulletin ofthe Texas
Archaeological Society 28.
1968 The Kinsloe Focus: A Study of Seven Historic Caddoan Sites in
Northeast Texas. M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Univer-
sity of Oklahoma, Tulsa.
1970a Missions Reveal State's Spanish-Indian Heritage. Archives and
History News 1(2):1, 3.
1970b 17th Century Spanish Mission Cemetery is Discovered near Tallahas-
see. Archives andHistory News 1(4):1-2.
1971 State Archaeologists Unearth Spanish Mission Ruins. Archives and
History News 2(4): 1.
1972a Spanish Mission Sites Located and Test Excavated. Archives and
History News 3(6):1-2.
1972b Colonel James Moore and the Destruction of the Apalachee Missions.
Bureau ofHistonc Sites and Properties Bulletin 2:25-33.
1973 A Semi-Subterranean Structure at Mission San Joseph de Ocuya,
Jefferson County, Florida. Bureau ofHistoric Sites and Properties
1974 Archaeological Resources within the Capitol Center Survey Area. In
Tallahassee Center Survey: A Report Submitted to the Capitol
Center Planning Commission, pp. 11-18. Miscellaneous Project
Report Series 30, Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties, Florida
Division of Archives, History and Records Management, Tallahassee.
1982 Southern Cult Manifestations at the Lake Jackson Site (8Lel), Leon
County, Florida: Salvage and Excavation of Mound 3. Mid-Continen-
tal Journal ofArchaeology 7:3-44.
1985 Nineteenth Century Burials Discovered at Porter's Bar, Franklin
County, Florida. Florida Preservation News 1(2):7-.
1988 The Dreamer and the de Soto Site. The Florida Anthropologist
1989 ArchaeologicalEvaluation ofLions Club Lot in Cedar Key, Florida:
Salvage of Historic Burials and Preservation of Weeden Island
(Pasco) Burial Area. Florida Archaeological Reports 9, Bureau of
Archaeological Research, Florida Division of Historical Resources,
1990 A Late Mississippian Collector. The Soto States Anthropologist 2:83-
1994 The Lake Jackson Mound Complex (8LE1): Stability and Change in
Ft. Walton Culture. The Florida Anthropologist 47:120-146.
n.d.1 Bureau of Archaeological Research at Mount Royal (8PU35), Putnam
County, Florida. Draft manuscript on file, Bureau of Archaeological
Research, Florida Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee..
n.d.2 Test Excavation of San Pedro de Potohiriva: A 17th Century Spanish-
Yustaga Indian Mission Site (MD30) in Madison County, Florida.
Draft manuscript on file, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Florida
Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
Jones, B. Calvin, and Robert S. Carr.
1980 Florida Anthropologist Interview with Calvin Jones, Part I. The
Florida Anthropologist 33:161-171.
1981 FloridaAnthropologist Interview with Calvin Jones, Part II: Excava-
tion of an Archaic Cemetery in Cocoa Beach, Florida. The Florida
Jones, B. Calvin, and Charles R. Ewen
1988 De Soto Winter Encampment. The Florida Anthropologist 41:191-
Jones, B. Calvin, John Hann, and John F. Scarry
1991 San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale: A Seventeenth-Century Spanish
Mission in Leon County, Florida. Florida Archaeology No. 5. Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.
Jones, B. Calvin, Barbara E. Mattick, and Charles B. Poe
1992 An Archaeological and Historical Study of the Leon County
Courthouse Site (8LE854, Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Archaeo-
logical Reports 12, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Florida
Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
r a hu A mrnw, ,'Vw'
B. CALVIN JONEs 65
Jones, B. Calvin, and John Pennman
1973 Winewood: An Inland Fort Walton Site in Tallahassee, Florida.
Bureau ofHistoric Sites and Properties Bulletin 3:65-90.
Jones, B. Calvin, Daniel Penton, and Louis D. Tesar
n.d. 1973 and 1994 Excavations at the Block-Stems Site Leon County,
Florida. In A World Engraved: Archaeology of the Swift Creek
Culture, University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa (in press).
Jones, B. Calvin, and Gary Shapiro
1990 Nine Mission Sites in Apalachee. In Columbian Consequences,
Volume 2: Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands East, edited by
David Hurst Thomas, pp. 491-509. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Jones, B. Calvin, and Louis D. Tesar
1982 An Update on the Interstate 75 Highway Salvage Program in Hills-
borough County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 35:59-62.
1995 Public Participation and a Functional Assessment of the Block-Stems
Site (8LE148) Emergency Archaeological Salvage Project, Leon
County, Florida. Paper presented at the 47th annual meeting of the
Florida Anthropological Society, Sebring.
1997a From Paleoindian to Present: The Wakulla Springs Lodge Public
Archaeology Project, Wakulla County, Florida. Paper presented at the
49th annual meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society, Miami.
1997b The Wakulla Springs Lodge Site: A Stratified Paleoindian Through
Archaic Site, Wakulla County, Florida. Paper presented at the 54th
annual meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Baton
n.d.1 Subsurface Testing and Excavation of Cultural Resources Along
Proposed Sewer Line Location in the Vicinity of Wakulla Springs
Lodge (8WA329) in 1994 and 1995, Wakulla County, Florida. Draft
manuscript on file, Bureau of Archaeological Research, Florida
Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
n.d.2 Survey for the Panfilo de Narvaez 1528 Campsite on the Bay of
Horses, Wakulla County, Florida. Draft manuscript on file, Bureau of
Archaeological Research, Florida Division of Historical Resources,
Jones, B. Calvin, Mark Williams, and Jennifer Lozowski
1992 Archaeological Excavations at the Olive Jar Site (8LE112), Leon
County, Florida. Florida Archaeological Reports 17, Bureau of
Archaeological Research, Florida Division of Historical Resources,
Mitchell, Mary L., and B. Calvin Jones
1988 Hemando de Soto en la Florida. Revista de Arqueologia 9(91):36-51.
Morrell, L. Ross, and B. Calvin Jones
1970 San Juan de Aspalaga (A Preliminary Architectural Study). Bureau of
Historic Sites and Properties Bulletin 1:23-43.
Tesar, Louis D., and B. Calvin Jones
1989 In Search ofthe 1539-40 De Soto Expedition Wintering Site in Apala-
chee. The Florida Anthropologist 42:340-360.
1992 The Ross-Hannon Site at Orange Avenue: A Public Archaeology
Project. Paper presented at the 44th Annual Meeting of the Florida
Anthropological Society, St. Augustine.
1995 A Report on the Results of Preliminary Analysis of Artifacts Recov-
ered During Emergency Archaeological Salvage Excavation at the
Block-Stems Site (8LE148), Leon County, Florida. Paper presented at
the 47th annual meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society,
Louis D. TESAR
... yes, but what was the
The exact, full wording of that reference is as close
as your phone:
Back issues of The Florida Antrhvpologst -- going
back close to a half century are available at the
Graves Museum of Archaeology
and Natural History
481 South Federal Highway
Dania, FL 33004
Sole agents for back issues of The Florida Anthropologist
CALVIN JONES: A MAN OF ALL SEASONS (PART ONE)
Florida Bureau ofArchaeological Research, 500 South Bronough Street, Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250
I first met Calvin Jones in 1971 when I was a graduate
student in anthropology at Florida State University. He had
moved to Tallahassee several years earlier in 1968 to work for
the Florida Division of Archives, History, and Records Manage-
ment (FDAHRM; now the Florida Division of Historical
Resources), surveying the corridors of proposed interstate
highways for archaeological sites. I got to know him somewhat
better that summer when I worked on a field crew that exca-
vated the Hutto Pond site (8MD18) in north Florida (Penton
1972). This site fell within the I-10 corridor between Tallahas-
see and Jacksonville in Madison County. Calvin had discovered
it and determined that Phase II testing was needed to mitigate
the destruction of the site by highway construction. During our
excavation at Hutto Pond, he visited our crew occasionally to
see how we were doing and to offer suggestions about accom-
plishing the tasks at hand. Although I did not get to know him
very well then, I liked Calvin immediately and began to appreci-
ate his common sense approach to the discipline and his
unending supply of homespun aphorisms.
It was not until near the end of 1978 that I worked with
Calvin again. At that time Randy Daniel had been hired to do an
archaeological survey of the Southwest Florida Water Manage-
ment District's (SWFWMD) Lower Hillsborough River Flood
Detention Area (Daniel et al. 1979). Randy employed me to
assist him with the survey, the first of many projects that the two
of us worked on together as a team. In doing the preliminary
background research for this project, we consulted with Calvin
in order to develop a predictive model (for lack of a better term)
to help us narrow down the areas we were going to investigate
in the field. By this stage of his career, Calvin had gained a
stellar reputation for his ability to predict the locations of
potentially significant archaeological sites based on various
environmental indicators, such as elevation and water sources
as well as an enigmatic intuitive sense. I believe that he filled
some major gaps in our schooling, since we had no formal
academic training on how to do surveys. In other words, a wide
gulf existed between what we had learned in our classes as
opposed to what needed to be done to conduct meaningful
archaeological surveys. After we completed our field work,
Calvin offered to help us with artifact identification and site
interpretations. He was always open to anyone, professional or
amateur, who was willing to sit down and talk with him.
After completing the SWFWMD project, I moved on to work
for the U.S. Forest Service, primarily doing archaeological
surveys in the Apalachicola, Ocala, and Osceola national
forests. Although I had only worked with Calvin briefly, my
contacts with him had helped to hone my surveying skills. It
made no difference that much of my work for the Forest Service
took place in highly disturbed areas within some of the poorest
environments for human occupation in the state; I never went
more than a day or so without finding some sort of cultural
remains. I attribute much of that success to my brief tutelage
under Calvin Jones.
In 1980, after a year or so with the Forest Service, I returned
to work for FDAHRM. Randy Daniel needed an assistant to
help him run a small-scale excavation at 8HI450D (the Fletcher
Avenue site) near Tampa (Daniel and Wisenbaker 1981). This
Archaic Period site was one of 31 sites that Calvin had discov-
ered during his survey of the 66.3 km (41.2 mi) of the 1-75
bypass corridor through eastern Hillsborough County. Most of
these sites contained primarily stone tools and debris, and much
of the area had been ignored or downplayed by earlier investiga-
tors. In fact, some professionals who had conducted surveys in
the region had failed to recognize the significance of the cultural
resources there. They apparently did not realize that most
Paleoindian and Archaic sites in the area were deeply buried
and often covered by a meter or more of quartz sands. This lack
of understanding of the regional site formation processes usually
resulted in a failure to find a large percentage of the sites, while
at the same time misinterpreting others because their test pits
either stopped at the hardpan or did not reach deep enough
below the surface to uncover the major components of these
Calvin's surveys served notice to all of his uncanny ability to
find sites. How this ability was developed should come as no
mystery, since he had studied geography as well as archaeology.
In other words, he had been trained to perceive things about
various ecological settings that were not obvious to casual
observers or untrained eyes. For example, he realized that in
places like Florida, where most areas of the state currently
manifest high water tables, even minor changes in elevation
would have had major influences on the locations of archaeolog-
ical sites. In this vein, he recognized that oscillations in sea level
and water tables during the past 12,000 years would have
affected the settlement patterns of every group that inhabited the
state during that span of time. He also possessed some unfath-
omable instincts that go far beyond anything he was taught in
Another amazing thing to me was Calvin's ability to key in
on major activity areas within a site. For example, in 1984
Randy Daniel and I had been awarded a contract to reevaluate
some sites that had been recorded in a pipeline easement that
ran from Louisiana to south Florida. We had located a Weeden
Island site in Gadsden County, Florida, in an area where the gas
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
VOL. 51 No. 2
THE FLRD NHOOOIS 98VL 12
company wanted to construct a pumping station. After working
there several days, we quickly documented a historic cemetery
but were somewhat perplexed by the scattered nature of a
prehistoric site that we had discovered. Since the proposed
pumping station was generating a great deal of controversy from
environmentalists and local residents, and facing the prospect
that we might be summoned to court as "expert witnesses," we
knew that we could not afford to make any mistakes in evaluat-
ing the resources on this property. So we called Calvin and
asked if he would mind coming out to the project area. As
always, he was happy to oblige us. He showed up and walked
into a highly unlikely looking spot in the thick brush where he
dug one of his famous "CJ holes" and uncovered a potsherd
much larger than any of those we had found after three or four
days in the field. This sort of thing happened time after time
with Calvin. A few years earlier, Randy and I had been system-
atically testing an area for a proposed power plant southeast of
Orlando. After spending several weeks placing test holes at
fixed intervals throughout the tract with nothing to show for it,
we decided to talk to Calvin who suggested that we spend a
week doing some judgmental investigations of this 1327 hectare
(3,280 acre) property. We took his advice and found more sites
in a week using this method than we had during the previous
four weeks adhering to the "scientific" approach of systematic
testing. This is not to suggest that archaeologists should
abandon systematic sampling, but rather that we should always
allow room for our own judgment and experience to come into
play when conducting field surveys.
Any archaeologist who did sloppy surveying hoped that
Calvin never followed up on them. I recall one trip where I was
traveling with Calvin and Fred Gaske to Gainesville to attend an
annual meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society. On the
way, Calvin was asked by someone to check an area along the
Santa Fe River that contained a flowing spring where a park
was scheduled to be opened. This tract allegedly had been
surveyed and deemed not to contain any significant cultural
resources. The first thing Calvin noticed when we got out of his
Jimmy [a GM truck] was a large outcrop of chert that had been
used to quarry stone. He looked around for a minute or two and
quickly dug a test pit that contained a Bolen point along with
other tools and tool fragments that appeared to belong to an
Early Archaic assemblage. None of these things had been noted
by the firm that had surveyed the parcel. Calvin quipped that
"the surveyors must have been born under a tub."
On another trip with him to central Florida, Calvin pointed
out all the sites that he knew about every few miles along our
route. Sometimes, he would diverge from major roads just to
show us something he had found during his previous travels. He
would then proceed to give a running discourse on each of these
sites in vivid detail. I often thought it would be worthwhile to do
a Vulcan melding of the minds with Calvin (with selective
filters in places at both ends, of course) so that others might
share in the vast storehouse of information contained within the
confines of his cranial cavity.
Probably Calvin's greatest contribution to my and Randy's
professional careers was to find the Haney Flats site (8HI507)
located just east of Temple Terrace, Florida. It was one of two
sites he found in the 1-75 corridor that he felt might hold a
significant Paleoindian component. The discovery of this site
ultimately resulted in numerous articles and manuscripts,
including a monograph published by Baywood Publishing
Company (Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987). The project also
provided us with more than three years of steady employment.
In those days, many of us worked from one short-term archaeo-
logical project to the next. Nearly two decades after its discov-
ery, Harney Flats remains perhaps the most significant Paleo-
indian base camp yet found in the Deep South.
However, this was not a site that Calvin just happened upon
and casually picked up lanceolate points from the surface of the
ground. While part of his survey approach was to do back-
ground research in the Florida Master Site File and to pour
through other traditional sources of information, he also
contacted amateurs in the region to find out what kinds of
artifacts they had in their collections and where they had found
them. By contacting the collectors who worked the area east of
Tampa Bay, he discovered that quite of few of them had
Suwannee points that they picked up along the adjacent Tampa
Bypass Canal, just to the east of the site. While some profes-
sionals quickly grow bored of talking with collectors, Calvin
could talk to them for hours. In doing so, he more often than not
gained their trust and respect, and garnered much priceless
information from them. This often resulted in saving a lot of
time once he began his actual walkabouts.
One amusing and ironic twist to his finding Harey Flats was
that two avid artifact collectors had lived in homes directly
adjacent to the site. Although Calvin's belief that this site might
be one of the few with a significant Paleoindian component had
stemmed from talking with amateurs, these particular individu-
als insisted that he was wrong in thinking that there was
anything significant there. In fact, they had dug several potholes
over the site and found some ceramics and middle-to-late
Archaic artifacts. Most of their holes, however, ended when
they reached the organic hardpan that ranged from about 60 to
80 cm below the surface. While he could have belittled them for
this later, he took the high road and chose not to do so.
Later, Calvin easily convinced the Division, the Florida
Department of Transportation, and the Federal Highway
Administration that Haney Flats should receive funding as a
Phase II project. Consequently, Randy Daniel and I went to
work with a small crew and began ten weeks of fieldwork at the
site in the late summer of 1981. With Calvin's input, we initially
placed 50 x 50 cm test pits at fixed intervals across the site.
Later we put in larger 1 x 1 and 1 x 2 meter units to depths that
sometimes exceeded two meters. Harey Flats turned out to be
a stratified site that contained a major Paleoindian component
that occurred well below the more recent occupations.
It should be noted that we were about four weeks into the
project before we found any diagnostic Paleoindian artifacts.
We had found a tremendous number of unifacial tools prior to
that, but everybody knew the only way the site would be
embraced as a bona fide early site was to produce some
Paleoindian projectile points. Finally, we found several Suwan-
nee points and reforms that left no doubt of the age of this
component. We were very excited at these discoveries and
called our office in Tallahassee to spread the good news. I
believe that Calvin was about as thrilled over the findings as
Tm FLoRIDA ANTHROPOLOGIS
1998 VOL. 51(2)
WISENUAKK MAN OlF ALL, SEA flNS (PART (bNwI
Randy and I were.
Although we were only about halfway through the project,
we got him to come down to Tampa to help plan our strategy for
doing a Phase III mitigative salvage excavation of the site. After
many long, difficult hours of working on a proposal, we put
together a $250,000 budget and a plan that called for a field
supervisor and two assistants with a crew of 23 for four months
of fieldwork, followed by more than two years of analysis and
report write-up. This was not an easy sale, but with Calvin
pitching the project, Randy and I found ourselves back at
Harney Flats with a big crew by mid-fall.
One technique in particular that we employed, at the behest
of Calvin, was the use of heavy machinery to remove about 80
cm of topsoil across the site before getting started with the
excavation. Although the site had later components, our goal
was to learn about the earliest occupants. And while we had a
large crew, there was no way we would have been able to
excavate 967 m2 and recover 79,000 pieces of debitage and
more than 1,000 stone tools from 100 to 130 cm within such a
brief time without using the heavy machinery. Moreover, Calvin
Jones is the person responsible for finding the Harney Flats site,
which has yielded more information on Paleoindian lithic tools
and technology and on intrasite patterning than any other early
site yet excavated in Florida.
While Calvin may have had his detractors, in the 30 years I
have been involved in archaeology, I cannot think of anyone that
has contributed more, directly or indirectly, than he has toward
our understanding of the Paleoindian and Archaic periods in
Florida. Beyond that, he was a mentor and steadfast friend to
many of us who were fortunate enough to have worked with him
during his storied career as a state archaeologist. Calvin is
someone who helped bridge the gap between the hallowed halls
of academia and the common people, those who simply desire
to know more about history. His legacy of contributions to
Florida archaeology and history will continue to grow in stature
with each passing day.
Daniel, I. Randolph, Jr., and Michael Wisenbaker
1987 HarneyFlats:AFloridaPaleo-Indian Site. Baywood Publishing Co.,
Farmingdale, New York.
Daniel, Randy, and Michael Wisenbaker
1981 Test Excavations at 8HI450D: An Inland Archaic Occupation in
Hillsborough County, Florida. Interstate 75 Highway Phase II
Archaeological Reports Number 1, Bureau of Historic Sites and
Properties, Division of Archives, History, and Records Management,
Daniel, Randy, Michael Wisenbaker, and Mildred L. Fryman
1979 An Archaeological and Historical Survey of Seven Proposed
Recreation Resource Sites in the Lower Hillsborough River Flood
Detention Areas, Hillsborough County, Florida. Report prepared for
the Southwest Florida Water Management District by the Florida
Division ofArchives, History, and Records Management, Tallahassee.
Penton, Daniel T.
1972 Hutto Pond Site Excavations Show 10,000 Years of Habitation.
Archives and History News 3(3):3.
MAN OF ALL SEASONs )
SUPPORT THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
Donate a minimum of $100 to The 0.
Florida Anthropologist Endowment and
receive a signed, limited edition print
by renowned artist, Dean Quigley,
Choose from one of the following
prints in Quigley's Lost Florida series.
HOLOPAW depicts a middle Archaic campsite in north
Florida. Hunters are returning frol cessful bear hunt; a
woman grinds tubers to a r cAl ; a small child is in awe
of a giant alligator;r, Fd. anan converses with traders from a
Distant place. r foreground, a flintknapper works on
finishing his finely made projectile point.
THE HUNTERS illustrates a Paleoindian hunting party in
combat with a juvenile mastodon.
THE KILL depicts two Archaic period hunters preparing to
spear a large alligator in the depths of a southern cypress
The Kill CLOSING IN depicts a group of Paleoindian hunters closing
in on a mastodon and her calf.
CALUSA depicts the large village site at Pineland, Florida ca.
A.D. 900-1100. Featured on the cover of Florida's First
TATAMAHO depicts an Indian gigging a garfish while his son
playfully loads the catch in a basket. Nearby, a panther waits
for a free meal and a raccoon eagerly awaits leftovers.
THE RETURN depicts two tattooed Indians returning from a
day of fishing. Their canoe is loaded with fish and shellfish.
In the distance, smoke rises from a campsite hidden amidst
the mangroves and shaded by cedar trees.
BOSKITA depicts the Green Corn Ceremony, one of the most
important rituals of many southeastern Indian cultures. Boskita
SOLITUDE is based on t l -as of early European Also available: Florida Indian Artifacts, a 16 x 20 inch poster
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CALVIN JONES: A MAN OF ALL SEASONS (PART Two)
I. RANDOLPH DANIEL, JR.
Department ofAnthropology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858
I can think of no other professional in the history of Florida
archaeology who has been responsible for locating or salvaging
so many important archaeological sites in the state than Calvin
Jones. If one discusses Mississippian mounds or Spanish
missions, the earliest Floridians or the de Soto site, Calvin's
name usually is a part of the conversation. I am therefore
pleased to be among those who are celebrating his life and
career in this issue of The Florida Anthropologist. In particular,
I am pleased to be able to say a few words about my associa-
tions with Calvin, the unique influence he had on my career, and
his contributions to our knowledge about the Paleoindian and
Archaic periods in Florida.
I can't remember the first time I met Calvin, but it must have
been sometime in the mid-1 970s while I was an undergraduate
at Florida State University (FSU). While in school I worked
part-time in the Conservation Lab of the Florida Division of
Archives, History, and Records Management (now the Division
of Historical Resources), primarily processing artifacts uncov-
ered from the state's many historic shipwrecks. Although I
enjoyed this work, I was more interested in prehistoric sites and
would often spend time talking with Calvin about whatever
project he was involved with as part of his archaeological duties
with the Division. Sometimes these conversations took place in
the lab when Calvin would bring in some artifacts to wash that
he had just collected on one of the many surveys he had
completed. Our discussions often took place by the big metal
sink that occupied one corer of the lab. As Calvin washed
artifacts and laid them in drying racks, I would ask him about
where he had been surveying and quiz him about artifact
typology. In addition to cleaning artifacts, Calvin always had to
wash his coffee pot, which he invariably left half full while he
was out doing field work. During some of his longer absences
from the office, this left-over coffee would develop some very
ugly-looking mold. But the mold never deterred Calvin from
using the pot to make some more coffee.
Other than talking around the lab sink, our conversations
often would take place in Calvin's office just down the hall from
the swinging doors of the lab's entrance. Calvin's office door
was almost always open and I took that as an invitation to step
in for a minute. Calvin never seemed to mind these interrup-
tions, or he never let on if he did. Calvin's office was a mixture
of sights and smells. Paper stacks and artifact bags cluttered his
desk; pipe tobacco and percolating coffee permeated the air (for
whatever reasons, Calvin eschewed the office coffee). He was
forever brushing sand off his desk too, undoubtedly brought in
with the artifacts. These sights and smells never changed, even
when his office moved from the old county jail in downtown
Tallahassee, which served as the Division's makeshift quarters
for many years, to the more modem facilities that house the
Division today. One significant change to Calvin's office,
however, did take place in recent years: the addition of a
desktop computer. I can't explain why, but it always seemed
out of place on Calvin's desk.
After I graduated from FSU and started working for the
Bureau doing various archaeological projects, our ritual
conversations continued, with me quizzing Calvin about
potential site locations related to some survey I was involved in.
Many of these sessions took place with my colleague Mike
Wisenbaker, with whom I worked on numerous projects
throughout the state. Typically, we would conduct some
background research on the proposed survey area, and this
would always include a consultation with Calvin. Usually this
session would involve careful inspection of our project maps as
they lay spread out on his desk. Calvin would stare intently at
the maps for a few moments and then start circling potential site
locations on it. These markings would be accompanied by a
few comments on the type of site likely to be present and the
likelihood that it would be significant. Mike and I were always
fascinated with how Calvin did this predicting and we were
forever asking him why he chose some areas over others. While
we understood Calvin's appreciation for landscape features,
such as elevation change and access to water, as they related to
finding sites, there also was some other "sixth sense" that
figured into his site-predicting abilities that we understood less
well. I believe Calvin had a hard time articulating the mental
processes he went through when finding sites (see Jones 1988).
In any case, since neither Mike nor I had any formal survey
training to speak of, we greatly appreciated Calvin's advice.
More often than not, his predictions were accurate.
While this instruction was always beneficial, it was nothing
like being in the field with him. In the field, Calvin was a
whirlwind of energy. With shovel in hand, he walked briskly
and with determination. He had an uncanny sense of direction;
I never saw him use a compass even in thickly wooded areas.
Not content with ordinary shovel tests, which he viewed as too
small, Calvin dug what has come to be known as "CJ holes."
These are pits just large enough to stand in and deep enough to
sample deeply buried components. But while the utility of CJ
holes in the surveying process is well established, the fact that
a particular method exists for digging CJ holes is probably less
well known. In particular, there is no wasted movement in the
shoveling technique. For example, flat-shoveling dirt and
tossing it out of the hole is done with one movement. In other
words, there is no backswing at the end of the shoveling stroke
prior to tossing out the soil. According to Calvin, a backswing
takes too much time and effort which, over the course of a day,
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
VOL. 51 No. 2
THE__ FLRD NHOOOIS 98VL 12
decreases how much one can dig. A proper shovel grip is
important as well. Commenting once at the end of the day that
I wished I had used gloves to prevent some annoying blisters,
Calvin retorted that blisters were a sign of a weak grip. Just grip
the handle more firmly, he said, and it won't rub blisters on your
Aside from learning how to grip a shovel, I had several
opportunities while working at the Division to witness Calvin's
ability to find sites. Late in 1983, Calvin and I visited the
underwater archaeological project recently begun at Half-Mile
Rise along the Aucilla River in Jefferson County (Dunbar et al.
1988). When we arrived, the area was a flurry of activity, with
divers getting in and out of the water. We were shown around
for a few minutes and then Calvin inquired if it would be all
right if he dug a few holes. We walked along the river for a
short while whereupon Calvin decided to start digging. It wasn't
long before he was in a CJ hole up to his knees shoveling out
potsherds and flakes. In particular I remember a large Kirk
Stemmed point he excavated that caught everyone's attention.
After he finished, Calvin allowed as to how some archaeology
might be profitably done on the river bank as well as in the
An important lesson I learned from Calvin is that it is just as
important to find the small, insignificant sites as it is the large,
important ones. With Calvin, I believe, the challenge of finding
any site was its own reward. In fact, Calvin could not drive
anywhere without stopping to find a site. This point was
illustrated to me on a trip we took to attend the Southeastern
Archaeological Conference in Columbia, South Carolina in
1983. I don't recall exactly how the topic came up but as we left
Tallahassee the morning before the meetings started, Calvin
decided it would be instructive to see if we could find some sites
on our way to Columbia. In retrospect, I wonder if Calvin made
the trip more because he wanted to look for sites in Georgia and
South Carolina than he did because he wanted to attend the
meetings. In any case, his plan required frequent departures
from the interstate as we headed for Columbia. Traveling down
some side road, Calvin would peer out the window scanning the
countryside. Once he spotted a potential location usually
near a water crossing we would pull off the road and hop out
of the Jimmy. We would then hike a short distance off the road
inspecting the ground for artifacts. For the purposes of this
exercise, all it took was a single prehistoric potsherd, projectile
point, stone flake, or the like to demonstrate that a site was
there. Having found such evidence, we would quickly return to
the vehicle and take off. I can't recall how often we stopped that
day it must have been five or six times but I do remember
finding a site at every location except one. As we reluctantly left
that one spot I remember Calvin saying that he was sure a site
was there, but that too much vegetation prevented us from
seeing the ground surface adequately. If we had more time, he
said, he would have dug a CJ hole and proved it. Since he had
been right all day in his site predictions, I saw no reason to
While Calvin is best known for locating Spanish missions
and the de Soto camp site in Tallahassee (Ewen and Hann 1998;
Jones 1988; Jones et al. 1991; Jones and Ewen 1988; Jones and
Shapiro 1989; Tesar and Jones 1989), his contribution to the
Paleoindian and Archaic archaeology of the state should not be
overlooked. My particular interests in those periods are due
largely to Calvin's influence. Indeed, one of my earliest field
experiences with Calvin was in 1977 at the Gauthier site, an
Archaic cemetery in Cocoa Beach (Carr and Jones 1981).
Although Calvin did not find the site, it was salvaged as a result
of his efforts. At the time I was a graduate student at Florida
State University and still working in the Conservation Lab. I am
not sure how I got to make the trip other than it was summer, I
had no classes, and I was a cheap source of labor. I was not,
however, the only source of cheap labor as Calvin also enlisted
the aid of several volunteers of the Indian River Chapter of the
Florida Anthropological Society. At any rate, I had never
excavated burials and was enthusiastic about the opportunity.
As I recall, we spent the better part of two weeks at the site, and
I loved every minute of it. Despite what Calvin said was a
tentative beginning on my part, I excavated my first burial. It
was a tightly flexed, male adult with one tubular shell bead
around his neck. Artifacts were rare in the burials but when
present they were made of materials such as shell, bone, and
antler which, of course, are not usually preserved at inland sites.
I think the unusual nature of the Gauthier site got Calvin
thinking more than he had previously about the Archaic in
Florida, particularly with respect to interpreting site function in
the absence of good organic preservation (see Carr and Jones
1981:88-89). At least this was a problem that occupied several
meal conversations we had during our stay.
I also got acquainted with Calvin's work schedule that
summer. No one could accuse him of being an early riser. We
would start with a slow breakfast at the pancake house near the
motel where we stayed. Calvin usually caught up on some field
notes while waiting for our food to be served. After eating the
requisite number of eggs and pancakes, we would finally get to
the site. Despite what might be viewed as a late start, we put in
long hours. Since it was summer and it stayed daylight until late
in the evening, we worked each day until dark. Unfortunately,
by the time we got back to the motel and cleaned up, about the
only restaurant that was open was the pancake house. I think we
ate every breakfast and dinner at that one restaurant during our
stay. To this day, I can't look at a pancake house without
thinking of that summer at the Gauthier site.
Calvin returned to Gauthier the following summer and
finished the excavations. However, between those two summers
- in the early part of 1978 Calvin did an archaeological
survey of the proposed 1-75 right-of-way in Hillsborough
County and located 31 sites. Most of these were deep sand
Archaic sites, thirteen of which were eventually the subject of
further archaeological work, which provided several years of
employment for myself and several other archaeologists (see
Jones and Tesar 1982). Clearly, Gauthier as well as similar
Archaic cemeteries such as Little Salt Spring (Clausen et al.
1979) and Republic Groves (Wharton et al. 1981) were on his
mind during that survey (Carr and Jones 1981:88-89). "We are
going to... rethink our investigations and interpretative strate-
gies of Archaic sites in Florida" (Car and Jones 1981:89). As
Mike Wisenbaker has pointed out (Wisenbaker, this issue),
upland lithic sites were largely under appreciated prior to
Calvin's work. Frankly, at that time, I doubt that any one else in
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
1998 VOL. 51(2)
DANIEL A MAN OF ALL SEASONS. PART Two
the state but Calvin could have identified those sites in Hills-
borough County much less recognize their archaeological
potential. In particular, Calvin recognized the potential for
Paleoindian remains in the area. Prior to that time, little effort
had been spent looking for such sites in the state. In large part,
I think this was because most researchers believed Paleoindian
remains in the state to be ephemeral or at best inundated by
rising Holocene sea levels. Certainly few believed that a
Paleoindian site with the size and integrity of Harney Flats
(Daniel and Wisenbaker 1987) was present in Hillsborough
County. As Mike also notes, even the local amateurs, who
arguably were more familiar with the archaeological record of
the area than most professionals, doubted the existence of such
a site in the survey area. I can distinctly remember a local
collector telling Calvin and me that the construction of the
Tampa Bypass Canal had destroyed the only Paleoindian site
near the proposed right-of-way. But as Mike relates, Calvin
thought otherwise and under his direction we managed to prove
In retrospect, my early association with Calvin acted to focus
my eventual research interests; there is nothing like digging up
a handful of Suwannee points to turn the head of a young
archaeologist. And while his work on the aboriginal cultures
associated with the Spanish Mission Period and his discovery
of the de Soto site are hallmarks of his career, this work should
not overshadow his contributions to our knowledge of the
state's Paleoindian and Archaic cultures. Indeed, Calvin's most
recent discovery at Wakulla Springs (Jones and Tesar 1997)
reminds us that his ability to locate significant sites knew no
temporal boundaries. Calvin's guardianship of Florida's
archaeological resources will not soon be matched.
Carr, Robert S., and B. Calvin Jones
1981 Florida Anthropologist Interview with Calvin Jones, Part II: Excava-
tions of an Archaic Cemetery in Cocoa Beach, Florida. The Florida
Clausen, Carl J., A.D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J.A. Holman, and J.J. Stipp
1979 Little Salt Spring, Florida: A Unique Underwater Site. Science
Daniel, I. Randolph, Jr., and Michael Wisenbaker
1987 Harney Flats: A Florida Paleo-Indian Site. Baywood Publishing
Company, Farmingdale, New York.
Dunbar, James S., Michael K. Faught, and S. David Webb
1988 Page/Ladson (8Je591): An Underwater Paleo-Indian Site in North-
western Florida. TheFloridaAnthropologist 41:442-452.
Ewen, Charles R., and John Hann
1998 Hernando de SotoAmong theApalachee. University Press of Florida,
Jones, B. Calvin
1988 The Dreamer and the De Soto Site. The Florida Anthropologist
Jones, B. Calvin, and Charles R. Ewen
1988 De Soto Winter Encampment. The Florida Anthropologist 41:191-
Jones, B. Calvin, John Hann, and John F. Scarry
1991 San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale: A Seventeenth-Century Spanish
Mission in Leon County, Florida. Florida Archaeology 5. Florida
Bureau of Archaeological Research, Tallahassee.
Jones, B. Calvin, and Gary Shapiro
1989 Nine Mission Sites in Apalachee. Paper presented at the annual
meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Savannah.
Jones, B. Calvin, and Louis Tesar
1982 An Update on the Highway Salvage Program in Florida. The Florida
1997 Wakulla Springs Lodge Site: A Stratified Paleoindian through Archaic
Site. Paper presented at the 54th annual meeting of the Southeastern
Archaeological Conference, Baton Rouge.
Tesar, Louis D. and B. Calvin Jones
1989 In Search of the 1539-40 de Soto Expedition Wintering Site in
Apalachee. The Florida Anthropologist 42:340-360.
Wharton, Barry R., George R. Ballo, and Mitchell Hope
1981 The Republic Groves Site. The Florida Anthropologist 34:59-80.
A MAN OF ALL SEASONS. PART TwoO
TH IIA AmRp 199 VL 51
and recognized its strengths and weaker areas. We have realized
that a survey involving random or systematic shovel tests along
a transect is not going to locate the sites within a project area as
fast or as efficiently as one that takes into account the important
variables that influence where people lived and camped. The
well-experienced brain is after all a computer program that
processes all these variables. Calvin always knew this, and even
in the '70s he had logged more site discoveries than anyone else
in Florida. When I asked him way back then what were the best
ways to locate sites and how did he structure his survey strategy
to gain such success, he said his method was to "go to where the
sites are and record them" (!).
Among the sites logged by Calvin are many with colorful
names. I remember talking with him right after he had recorded
one called the Hurt Foot site. At the time I was engaged in a
silly battle with federal archaeologists who wanted me to
include in my survey report only numbers for some 300+ sites,
arguing that names were too frivolous and unscientific. Of
course, Calvin knew the folly of this. Serving as mnemonic
devices, names help us to know at once what is being referred
to and enables us to associate various kinds of information
without necessarily having to look things up.
The most fun I had doing archaeology with Calvin Jones, and
one of the most fascinating research quests I have had the good
fortune to be able to carry out, was the investigation of the
Jones-Daniel mounds (8GU14 and GU94). While the project is
still in progress (and is now in the report-writing stage), most
of the original mystery has been solved after years of effort. It all
started in 1985 when local residents of Gulf County, around
Port St. Joe, told me of an Indian mound deep in the wetland
forest they wanted to take me to. On the USGS quadrangle map
it seemed to a site that had already been logged in the Florida
Site File as GUI4, the Jones-Daniel mound. Long, arduous
trudging through the heavy swamps of the Chipola Cutoff Island
Figure 1. Calvin Jones, October 1990, excavating a "CJ tesi
around the Jones-Daniel Mounds, 8PU14 and 8PU94, looking for
was required to reach the site. This "island" is a 16 km (10 mi)
long stretch of bottomland between the Apalachicola and
Chipola Rivers, isolated from the rest of the world by river on
all sides, since at the north end there is a "cutoff" channel
between the two big rivers. The mound was about 9 m (30 ft)
high, very long and skinny, on the bank of a large creek along
a sharp meander. It had little sign of recent pothunter activity or
even any sign of prehistoric occupation in our few shovel tests.
Calvin later told me that he and Randy Daniel had recorded it in
the 1970s, and though they had found nothing either, informants
had mentioned some artifacts. I returned to the site a couple of
times and still obtained absolutely no evidence of any human
activity. Meanwhile, it was published with an interpretation that
it was the center of a late prehistoric Fort Walton polity (e.g.,
Scarry 1990). Neither Calvin nor I liked that idea since there
was no real evidence for it, and we were determined to go in
there again and investigate further.
In the fall of 1990, the two of us and several students and
helpers took the boat down from the landing near Wewahitchka
(world center for tupelo honey) and hiked in over the huge
loose, dry, sandy piles of dredging spoils on the bank, into the
deep, shaded, autumn swamp. The creek, Virginia Cut, whose
mouth was obscured recently by the spoils, was dry in that
season and Calvin suggested that walking in the wet ooze of its
bed would be far easier than the way I was doing it (crashing
through the wall-to-wall greenery, carpeted and canopied with
poison ivy, thorns ripping the flesh, lots of creatures scurrying
away ahead of us [laughing I am sure]). There was never a
shortage of things to learn from this man.
Anyway, we did a thorough investigation, a test unit, several
shovel tests, and some characteristic "Calvin Jones tests" or "CJ
holes" in both the mound and the surrounding flatland where a
village should be (Figure 1). On this expedition, finally, a
couple of plain sand-tempered ceramic sherds were recovered.
They were really more of the "red
herring" type, but we did not real-
ize this at the time, and were spur-
red on to more searching. I revis-
ited the site a few more times, then
got Calvin to come back with me
in 1994 along with Susan Harp
and other volunteers and students.
We again made it to the mound,
but the mound looked slightly dif-
ferent. Though I was clueless, he
knew the answer immediately:
there were two mounds. This was
confirmed by an old timer whom
we encountered fishing along the
creek. By this time I was near
death from exhaustion but Calvin
was still cruising along, putting a
small unit into the lower slope of
the second mound and finding
clear evidence of something his-
toric (nails, bits of what may have
the" intolage that diswamland not been a wooden plank), but more
ambiguous than diagnostic in na-
THE FLORIDA ANTHR r
8 991 Voo 51(2)
A L F A OLOGY
WHrm EGEND IN LORI A
ture. We were even more puzzled than before and Calvin was
holding out for some contact-period cultural affiliation. The
second mound was almost a kilometer (half-mile) deeper in, on
the other side of the meander neck, requiring us to cross the
creek twice again.
After a couple more arduous journeys with no new evidence
except a good photo of the high yellow water in Virginia Cut at
a wetter time of year, I called Calvin to talk it over. He said
maybe we just had not found the village yet. In 1995-96 I
dragged into the place (through flesh- ripping thorns, etc.) some
geomorphologists who assured me that the two earthen struc-
tures were not of natural origin and pointed out the ramp-like
shapes of depressions on their sides (which Calvin had already
perfectly sketched so many years previous). A local outdoors-
man who accompanied us said perhaps it was just so low and
wet that someone had built a platform for a cabin some time
back to keep things dry. Determined to pursue historic possibili-
ties, we went to the Gulf County courthouse where a local old-
timer/historian said the mounds were Confederate gun emplace-
ments. Both Calvin and I thought it a possibility, but why over
a kilometer from the riverbanks if the goal was to shoot Union
boats on the river? Tallahassee historian Joe Knetsch later found
for us an account of the construction of two gun batteries in
exactly these locations. The explanation was that Virginia Cut
had been the main river channel in 1862-63, when the mounds
were built to elevate the big guns up out of the wet bottomlands.
I couldn't wait to call Calvin with the news, which of course he
had already heard. His priceless response was that I needed to
make sure there were not any aboriginal mounds underneath
them! I could hear the twinkle in his eye as he said it!
Such an ageless, timeless figure in Florida archaeology as
Calvin Jones could not help but become legend. For years his
office door was adorned with cute cartoons and drawings
showing him in characteristic suspenders, Western shirt, and
pipe, finding sites by sniffing them out. Unlike most busy
researchers, he welcomed any interruption, especially if you had
some new artifact to examine, and he would gladly haul out any
and all specimens he had that might resemble it, or any others
you might want to see. His knowledge was so encyclopedic that
he could tell you not only what other artifact yours resembled,
but also the specific site and provenience of that other artifact,
right off the top of his head.
I might say that the greatest thing about Calvin Jones was his
easygoing yet professional manner with all those interested in
archaeology, whether amateur, student, or professional, and how
that never changed, even if your own status changed categories.
I could mention his always professional manner and reluctance
to criticize anyone, even those who criticized his work or whose
theories were generally assumed to be ridiculous. Or I could say
that the legendary research sites and accomplishments he is
credited and associated with are among the most magnificent
and significant in the Southeast (such as Lake Jackson, Wad-
dle's Mill Pond, so many mission sites, the deSoto winter
campsite). I am tempted to say, in this time when public
archaeology is the most crucial area demanding recognition in
our profession (Jamison 1997; Sabloff 1996), that Calvin's
greatest accomplishments were in this area. His public archae-
ology was far earlier and was so much more sustained and
profound than anyone else's in the state. Calvin extracted
archaeological data from reluctant amateurs, collectors, and
landowners no other archaeologist could communicate with. He
shared both the quest and the knowledge with all sorts of people
and the public in general. And his high regard for the public
enabled him to recruit volunteer teams when they were most
desperately necessary, such as in the excavation of the Block-
Steams site in Tallahassee (Jones and Tesar 1996).
Long ago Calvin advised me, and I am sure many others, that
a professional can only dig maybe 30 sites in a lifetime (in later
years he upped this to maybe 40 sites!), and therefore we must
depend on amateurs, avocationals, and collectors who know and
understand the land and the artifacts and can teach us. I still
firmly believe this and try to pass it on to students; we have
learned that avocational archaeologists are the "secret weapon"
in protecting what few sites we have left (Davis 1991).
All of these and so many more are reasons to admire Calvin
Jones and understand his status as a legend in the field and the
enormous importance of his many contributions. But the
greatest reason goes beyond even these many and noble
accomplishments. The greatest reason any archaeologist has to
have loved Calvin was his own love of archaeology. The
adventure, the research, and the detective story; these constitute
the lure for all of us, of course. But we get tired and fed up with
paperwork and bureaucracy, with rules and tedious lab work.
We get tired and older and less in shape or less willing to live
in a tent or rough it in the woods. We get promoted, we get
assistants to do the fieldwork and the lab processing, and we
just come in near the end of the project. We get together and
talk about the ridiculousities of the office, the bureaucracy, the
salary or whatever, but seldom the questions about the anthro-
pology of the past or what this unusual artifact might resemble
or signify. We even forget those real people whose past we are
trying to illuminate with just one quick slice of the shovel as a
flashlight. Now that postprocessual theory is so fashionable in
archaeology, the search for the individual in prehistory, the
actors behind the culture process, is paramount (e.g., Preucel
and Hodder 1996). But Calvin remembered the people in
prehistory and history decades before it was so fashionable. He
never forgot the individuals behind the material culture; he also
never lost the hunger and the delight in the fieldwork, the
puzzling over an artifact, the piecing together of the human past
in Florida. He would talk of a particularly important site and
mention how "you can hear a thousand voices" of the people
who once lived there. Calvin Jones played a major part in
bringing those voices a little closer to being heard by the rest of
Brose, David S.
1980 Coe's Landing (8Ja137), Jackson County, Florida. A Fort Walton
Campsite on the Apalachicola River. Bureau of Hstoric Sites and
Properties Bulletin 6:1-31.
Davis, Hester A
1991 Avocational Archaeology Groups: A Secret Weapon for Site Protec-
tion. In Protecting the Past, edited by G.S.Smith and J. E. Ehrenhard,
pp. 175-180. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Gardner, William M.
1966 The Waddells Mill Pond Site. The Florida Anthropologist 19:43-64.
78 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1998 VOL 51(2)
Jameson, John H., Jr. (Editor)
1997 Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths. Alta
Mira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Jones, B. Calvin, and Louis D. Tesar
1996 Emergency Archaeological Salvage Excavation within the Swift
Creek Subarea of the Block-Steams Site (8LE148), Leon County,
Florida: A Public Archaeology Project. Bureau of Archaeological
Research, Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee.
Krieger, Alex D.
1945 An Inquiry into Supposed Mexican Influence on a Prehistoric Cult in
the Southern United States. American Anthropologist 47:483-515.
Milanich, Jerald T.
1994 Archaeology ofPrecolumbian Florida. University Press of Florida,
Moore, Clarence B.
1903 Certain Aboriginal Mounds of the Apalachicola River. Journal of the
Academy ofNatural Sciences ofPhiladelphia 13:298-325.
Newell, H. Perry, and Alex D. Krieger
1949 The George C. Davis Site, Cherokee County, Texas. Memoir of the
Society for American Archaeology No. 5.
Preucel, Robert W., and lan Hodder.
1996 Contemporary Archaeology in Theory. Blackwell Publishers,
Sabloff, Jeremy A.
1996 The Past and Future of American Archaeology. Distinguished Lecture,
presented for the Archaeology Division, American Anthropological
Association annual meeting, San Francisco.
Scarry, John F.
1990 Mississippian Emergence in the Fort Walton Area: The Evolution of
the Cayson and Lake Jackson Phases. In The Mississippian Emer-
gence, edited by Bruce D. Smith, pp. 227-250. Smithsonian Institu-
tion Press, Washington, D.C.
White, Nancy Marie
1982 The Curlee Site (81a7) and Fort Walton Development in the Upper
Apalachicola-Lower Chattahoochee Valley. Ph.D. dissertation,
Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University,
Cleveland. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.
B. CALVIN JONES: COMMENTS AND COMMENTARY, VIDEO-TAPED
B. CALVIN JONES AND LOUIS D. TESAR', DISCUSSANTS
TRANSCRIPTION BY LOUIS D. TESAR AND JONATHAN LAMMERS2
Florida Bureau ofArchaeological Research, 500 South Bronough Street, Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250
E-mail: 'ltesar(amail.dos.state.fl.us; 2ilammers(amail.dos.state.fl.us
After some four months of undergoing cancer treatment,
Calvin Jones agreed to be interviewed on the various projects
that he had conducted over the past 30 years and to discuss what
he learned during that period. This was done as one means of
preserving a record of Calvin's knowledge.
The interview topics were organized in roughly chrono-
logical order to discuss project activities beginning with the
interstate highway survey program, then the bicentennial
missions project, and so forth. For each of these, we discussed
how Calvin became involved in them, what was done, what was
learned, and what he recommended for the future. Once this set
of interviews was completed, it was planned to do a region-by-
region discussion of site types and settings, characteristics by
which these are recognized, and the discovery techniques
deemed most appropriate for those cultural resources. tUnfortu-
nately, Calvin's passing on February 15, 1998 brought an
untimely end to the interviews after only 10 V2 hours of discus-
The interviews were organized and conducted by Louis
Tesar. The first two interviews were held on November 21 and
25, 1997, and the third (and unexpectedly last) interview
occurred on December 17, 1997. The tapes of these interview
sessions were transcribed by Tesar and Jonathan Lammers,
resulting in some 150 single-spaced pages of transcript.
Selected excerpts from those sessions are presented here. The
first excerpted segments were selected to provide a feeling of
events and what it was like when Calvin conducted his projects.
The remaining excerpts share his understanding of site types,
settings, and characteristics, as well as discovery and evaluation
methods the what, where, how, and why of archaeology.
Interstate Highway Survey
LDT: You did Alligator Alley also, didn't you?
BCJ: Yes. Alligator Alley is really part of 1-75 once you get to
Naples and turn east. They actually only added a 50-foot strip
for about three-quarters of that 100 miles from Naples to Fort
Lauderdale. But within that 50-foot strip were little hammocks,
natural tree hammocks. I think that I got nine sites they were
black-earth middens, one or two which probably contained
burials along the southeast edges of the hammocks in just a
50-foot-wide strip! You could look out across there and see
scattered hammocks as far as you could see. So what I found
ought to be close to what was found by the National Park
Service staff from FSU [Florida State University] for the
Everglades/Big Cypress tracts. It was in the middle 1970s -
1975-76 that I surveyed Alligator Alley.
LDT: I seem to recall that some years ago you told me that you
had some utility company pass keys, and that you had gone
through a whole series of gates and stopped for lunch about a
quarter-mile from the last gate when someone came up and
denied you permission to pass through the last gate.
BCJ: Yes, on a number of occasions the right-of-way went
along side a number ofberms and dykes that had been raised so
that the electric people could follow their lines in high water;
that's about the only route you could have used to reach the
right-of-way by driving.
One day I had traveled all day and I had a set of master keys
that Florida Power Company had loaned me to use where their
gates were, as a good bit of the Interstate went within sight of
their right-of-way for the electric company. Anyhow, I got
within sight of this one gate down there after traveling all day,
20 to 30 miles driving down this dirt embankment, and there
was a guy standing by this gate and in sight of a paved road near
Punta Gorda, I believe it was. He said, "you can't go through
this gate," and I said, "What do you mean, I've been traveling
all day." He said, "DOT and I am having a little bit of an
opinion over this property, and I'm not letting anybody that
represents them on my property." I said, "well I don't exactly
represent them, I represent our agency under contract." He said,
"well that don't make no difference; you ain't going through this
gate." I said, "come on, the only person your hurting is me, just
an employee." He was adamant about it, so I had to turn around
and go all the way back and it was around 8:00 or 9:00 at night
before I even got to where I had started from a paved road.
All you could do when confronted was tell people the truth
- that you were there to try to save something if possible, and
even move the road if the cultural resources were that signifi-
cant. We did move it for one site along 1-75, the Peace Camp
site, which the Dade County Archaeological Society had been
actively testing. It's a large midden-mound complex, a black-
earth midden on a high elevation, six feet high; about an acre of
midden cleared of most trees, while most of the others were
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
VOL. 51 No. 2
80 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1998 VOL. 51(2)
Figure 1. Calvin excavating a prehistoric Indian skeleton at the Buzzard Roost site in Broward
County. This burial, which was left in place and reburied, resulted in the relocation of interstate
off-ramps to avoid the site. Photograph by Emil Deaton, Florida Department of Transportation,
March 8, 1977.
not. They had found some fiber-tempered pottery occupations
there, one of the earliest occupations known in that area at that
time that far south. However, since then Bob Carr has found
Early Archaic, if not Paleo, and Bolen Period stuff. Anyhow,
this was a fiber-tempered site and through some negotiations we
got that [road] moved.
LDT: Was that the one that Bill Browning used to talk about
where you were asking the DOT people to move a planned
interchange because there were burials there, or was that
BCJ: Well, no that was Buzzard's Roost, which is located
about ten miles west of Fort Lauderdale on Alligator Alley.
That's another black-earth midden which is only about a half-
acre in size. Its got large ficus trees on it and black-earth
midden. I dug a test pit there even though the site had been
somewhat damaged by the roadway already. About 30 feet off
the present right-of-way prior to the planned Interstate construc-
tion, I dug a test hole there and hit a burial, about three feet deep
(Figure 1). It was lying face down and a rock about six inches
in diameter had been placed at the back of the head, just as if
you had someone lay face down and you hit them in the back of
JONES El AL. N A.L.V n ---a *fa a
the head with a rock Anyhow, you don't know whether the rock
was placed there after the fact or whether for some religious
reason. Some of the amateurs report similar burials from other
LDT: When Bill Browning told the story, he said that the DOT
people didn't believe you when you told them that there was
something out there.
BCJ: No, they didn't and that was why I dug that test hole. The
Fort Lauderdale DOT people at that time were just being made
aware of archaeological resources. They weren't infatuated
about having to handle another environmental problem, which
LDT: Reviewing your state and interstate highway-related
construction survey and excavation projects, including the
borrow pits, how would you summarize your contribution to our
understanding of Florida's prehistoric and historic heritage?
What did we learn from those surveys that we didn't know?
BCJ: Mostly what we learned from them was what kinds of
sites were in certain areas, particularly interior sites. You know,
most of our recorded sites are located along the rivers and
coastal areas, because that is where archaeologists have looked
.. So surveying the interior areas, where most of the interstate
highways were built, gave us a sort of transect across a then
little-known area. So we at least know what kinds of sites to
expect in interior areas. And in certain areas, through our
excavation projects, we learned even more. But you have to
remember that most of 1-75 north of Tampa-St. Petersburg, 1-4,
and a good bit of 1-95 were already built without any archaeo-
logical survey. We probably did about three-fourths of the
interstate highway routes in Florida. We learned some detailed
information from Phase III excavation at sites like Harney Flats
near Tampa and we learned a good bit about Fort Walton in the
northern interior of the State.
I will add that at that time the average interstate calculations
were based on about ten acres of borrow pits being used for
every mile. The borrow pits tended to take up more geography
than the average interstate which was 300 feet wide. The [San
Damian de] Escambe mission was found in a borrow pit
Another thing was that the system for borrow pits changed.
Prior to 1970, during my first two years, borrow pits continued
to be used all across I-10 and most of those locations were not
known. There were 40-50 borrow pit locations that were never
put on maps. Actually, the Escambe mission site brought about
the need to look at borrow pits as part of highway construction
LDT: So at Escambe, you protected the cemetery and ...
BCJ: Yes, the cemetery and what remains of the mission itself.
We saved a good bit of the San Damian de Escambe mission
site. [LDT NOTE: The site was subsequently acquired by the
LDT: It seems to me that you told me about an incident in
Holmes County involving the removal of tombstones from a
hill-crest historic cemetery.
BCJ: Yes, that was in Holmes County, just west of the Chocta-
whatchee River. That was actually after Escambe when we were
checking borrow pits. The way the borrow pit system generally
worked was people that owned property near where the
interstate was going would learn that they could sell fill dirt
from their property. Naturally a lot of people who lived out in
the rural areas just wanted to make some money off selling their
In the case you mentioned, it was a man related to the
contractor who I heard had requested permission to use this area
for a borrow pit. So, I went over there and looked at it. It was up
on the highest ridge across the Choctawhatchee River west of
Carryville. It was a pretty nice pasture with a little sandy hill
rise on it. It was about a 10-acre field, with some cedar trees up
around the high part of the crest.
So I got out and walked up there and it looked like an old
house place, but I couldn't see any evidence of brick or anything
like that. So I got in the truck and went down to the local
general store and I said, "if you don't mind, what used to be on
that hill down by that pasture on the right?" I was told, "Oh,
there was a cemetery up there on that hill." And I said, "well I
wondered. I saw them old cedar trees, but I didn't see any
tombstones or anything." The response was, "Oh yeah, Mr. So-
and-So owns that. He's some friend or relative of the contractor
on that job. We saw him last year on the back of his tractor and
he was hauling these tombstones away. There must have been
a dozen up there. We saw him haul 'em all back down behind
the hill. We don't know what he did with them." So anyhow, I
came back and reported that; so that hill was not used at all. I'm
sure some of that went on that we don't even know about.
At any rate, apparently a number of sites were lost due to the
fact that borrow pits were not originally considered important
enough to be part of the interstate, even though they wouldn't
have happened without the interstate.
Bicentennial Mission Survey
LDT: During the bicentennial planning, you were involved in
investigations to locate and assess Spanish mission sites.
BCJ: The celebration for 1776 to 1976 was a well-planned
thing in the United States. Of course, some states pulled it off
better than others. Florida had great ideas, particularly the state
park system. Of course, we saw that as an opportunity to do
some of our historic sites. The one I really wanted was one of
the missions and so we discussed that. We had some discussion
about what to do about a mission site, and it was agreed that one
of the ways to get additional information about seventeenth-
century missions in Apalachee would be to ask for some
funding to survey for mission sites that had not been found -
of the 18 or 20 missions in this area. We proposed that we go
out and look for four missions, and that we find them and test
them, and based on the priority of their preservation meaning
their architecture, whether they had clay floors that were intact
D ~r~u r\uno~rrrnnnmr
W ..... .
TW IV F A-rr, nn
or ... other features of significance that were better preserved -
we'd rank them 1 through 4.
I did that in '72, and we spent four months locating and
excavating. Actually, we might have only excavated three of the
four missions. One we had to go back to due to the lack of time.
That was the Acuya mission. We tested it, so we tested four
missions and made recommendation on that basis.
Well, that was in 1972, and the plan was that we recommend
these missions based on degree of preservation highest
quality would come first. Within that four-year period which
is ambitious, of course, we now know the state park service
would purchase one of these sites and we would begin excava-
tion and have excavation and restoration done by 1976. They
were not able to acquire any sites. They worked pretty hard on
the first recommended site, I believe, which was San Miguel de
Asile in Lamont. San Miguel was the number one priority. It
never got beyond that because they claimed some heirs in the
family couldn't agree. I kept calling the representatives at state
lands, and... anyhow, in 1973 I finally got so disgusted that I
went over and I asked the man, "how come you guys aren't
working on priorities 2, 3, and 4?" He said, "Well, to be honest
with you Calvin ...we don't have time to deal with 40 acres.
We're buying thousands of acres of environmentally sensitive
land." I said, "that's fine, but what about the bicentennial
project?" He said, "well, we'll do the best we can." And so
nothing ever happened and that was the end of the chance to buy
and develop and excavate one of the Spanish missions.
LDT: Even though the sites weren't acquired, with the excep-
tion of Escambe, from the nine mission sites that you were
involved in, what have we learned about mission sites? For the
record, those sites include San Pedro de Patale I and II, San
Damian de Escambe, San Lorenzo de Ibitachuca, San Miguel
de Asile, San Pedro de Potohiriva, San Juan de Guacara, San
Antonio de Enacapi...
BCJ: I know what they are! Well, Gary Shapiro and I, of
course, summarized them together, he helped me and encour-
aged me to do a paper on the missions and their architectural
remains in Apalachee and what they meant, what we think
we've learned. I think that we have learned quite a bit, or at
least Calvin Jones has.
What I tried to do, and Gary worked with me on that, was to
summarize the similarities in the number of buildings ... [at] the
nine mission sites, how they were laid out orientation-wise and
so forth. It winds up that they were oriented in just about every
direction. It appears [that] when you look at what you consider
the facade of the church where they were facing mostly south
and southwest to begin with and then through time, as I've
written, around 1700, they seem to have rotated to facing
southeast in later missions. There is something to this and I
don't have any problems with it; in fact, I can locate the
missions on that basis.
With more excavation that has been done by Rochelle
Marrinan, and by Gary Shapiro and Bonnie McEwan at San
Luis, they think now that most of my churches are conventos,
that the heaviest-built structures of daub were conventos and
that the churches were all made out of wood and quite large and
not as well made.
I disagree with that ... I would like to see the questionable
churches completely excavated, because they may be working
in a low-walled daub cemetery that's in a courtyard, or they may
not. Its one problem that faces all of us, of course, which I found
at Escambe too. Of course, I found the first church burial site,
which is Patale, and recognized it as such.
LDT: Was that the one that I worked with you on in 1971?
BCJ: Yes, the Patale site. I recognized the first cemetery that
contained the church in the Southeast. And, of course, I go to
another mission and I don't see it that way. One of the problems
is, at Escambe for example, a large cemetery of 143 burials, we
mapped all of those burials and excavated 43, but left them in
place, although we took out the few burial goods that were with
the 43 excavated ones. We just mapped the outlines of the 100
burials that we didn't excavate, which are all still there on the
now state-owned tract, which includes the one-acre cemetery
that was given to us. There are a series of subdivisions within
these cemeteries that have wooden structural remains associated
with them. [On] about a 2.5-to-3-meter grid inside these so-
called buildings whether it be a church or convento, or
something else like a courtyard are these post holes, these
five-to-six-inch-diameter post holes. They are like family plots.
These don't occur in the Southwest; you don't have any
subdivisions like that recorded with churches in the Southwest.
You only have some main beams going across with whatever it
took to keep the roof from caving in through time. So, if they
had a series of posts every eight feet on a grid system inside the
so-called church, well what does that mean and how are you
even going to see the priest? In other words, where you have a
sanctuary and subdivisions within a church, this does away with
It would make the Southeast churches much cruder, unless
they were very short posts that represent the family plots for
each family, of which some of them don't have anything in
them. The posts are there but I guess enough people hadn't died
to fill them up. So, there is a big problem there to address. As
to what Calvin Jones interprets at sites like Escambe as a
courtyard cemetery, if they are churches, then how do you
explain all of these posts that are inside this building? You
couldn't even see what was going on [unless the posts were
short, say waist high or lower], because you have a 30-meter-
long church or cemetery area and you have at least ten posts in
one row between you as you enter the door and where the
chapel is. In other words, it would be like being in a forest
trying to see what was going on [if the posts go up to the roof].
The openness of a church is very important. That would be
the reason for fully excavating some of these church-burial sites.
I might see an evolution in that process, just as you see an
evolution in anything in archaeology. I see the shifting in the
directions from the Southwest to a more regionally tailored
situation that could be Apalachee, perhaps interest in the rising
sun above. In the Patale report we sort of summarized that at
the end about the architecture.
LDT: Out of those that you found, do you think that any of the
us HE LORIDA NTHROP )
8 991 VOL 51 2
S.. CA.VIN .ONES INTERVIEW
Bicentennial sites or others should be acquired and developed
BCJ: Yes, I do. We need one more in Apalachee, at least, and
that would probably be one in Jefferson County. And I would
like to see us go ahead and augment at least something associ-
ated with San Luis, one that's within a cannon-shot distance,
like San Damian [de Escambe] since we already have that [in
State ownership]. I think that we can do some minimal interpre-
tation there, which is more than we've got now, plus build a
road in to it and with a kiosk, if nothing else, as part of a
proposed tourist trail. I think that it would be monetarily
feasible and useful to Tallahassee and some of the other towns.
And at least one in Jefferson County along the trail, enough to
keep the connection, to show the mission trail. And at least one
of the Timucuan missions ... Or perhaps the one at Fig Springs,
once the controversy gets straightened out there regarding
what's the church and what's the cemetery, which is still not
clear. A similar situation to Escambe. At least three.
LDT: That would be on the St. Augustine to Apalachee trail to
BCJ: Yes, that's right San Luis through Tallahassee to St.
Augustine. That would be at a minimum, and eventually maybe
a couple more. What you want to do is have a trail that has
continuity. So here it would be something like, you only have to
drive another 50 miles to reach the next site to visit, something
like 20 or 30 miles might be all right, but enough to keep the
continuity from place to place. With that idea in mind, that is a
mission trail, which of course that idea has been floating around
since Mark Boyd in the 1950s. Of course, we've done a lot of
work since then and found the sites that had been lost and done
a lot of excavation. The time is right for Florida to capitalize on
this because it will bring in some money depending upon what
degree and what level it's done.
The Californians love their mission sites, many of which
were rebuilt a hundred years ago, a lot of them 125 years ago.
Built all after 1800. In fact, there were stones still standing,
that's why they kept a lot of them. East Texas gets some money
out of its missions. There is a chain of them all the way up into
east Texas, of which a few even there have not been found.
LDT: The next topic will be the Block-Sters site. Describe
your early investigations of the Block-Sters site. That would be
where you were dealing with Al Block, Byron's father, your first
BCJ: The Block-Sters site is located along the north side of
Lake Lafayette [east of Tallahassee]. I went there first in '69 and
I was really trying to look around the lake to get the general
layout. At that time the Block-Sters site was mostly plowed.
The area where we excavated four years ago in '94 was plowed,
the main part of the central area ... Tung Hill Drive was not
there then, it was a drive along a lake road that went along the
rim of Lake Lafayette about a half-mile to the west. At that point
you hit the plowed fields. So I drove around there and located
the site. It's a very amazing site just from the size of it and also
Figure 2. Calvin at the Block-Sterns site (ca. 1994) commenting on project activities and findings while
completing excavation bag records and notes.
JONES ET Al-
BCALVIN JONES INT W
........TH FL. RA ANTHROPO.LOIST.. 99 VO (
because of the various kinds of artifacts from Archaic to Apala-
chee. So, I went back about once a year to look at it and got to
know Mr. Al Block, a prominent man in Tallahassee, at least he
was, he passed away about ten years ago. Anyhow, I got to
know Mr. Block and found him to be a very kind man and I was
interested in getting our agency to do something out there. In
fact, if we could not have gotten permission to dig in '71 at the
nearby Patale site, Bud Dickinson's site, the plan was to go
there and do some excavations at Block-Stems. It was a last
minute toss-up as to whether we were going to do Patale or
Later, Mr. Block ... said, "Calvin, y'all's agency can do
anything you want out there. Just go ahead and do it. I'm a
business man and one day I'm going to have to sell that property
because of taxes and also to make a profit. All I want to know
is that you don't come screaming to me when I go to develop it
because I'm giving you carte blanch to do anything there that
you want to do regarding research." So I reported that to my
director and so forth, and I guess that's one of those deals where
if you don't put somebody under pressure, they never do
So we didn't do anything, except in '73, when I located a
small burial mound in the woods there that was part of the
complex. Dan Penton ended up being the main investigator. So,
about 25% of Mound 1 was investigated from which Deptford-
Swift Creek ceramics and other artifacts with flexed burials
were uncovered. But since then, we've had pot-hunter trouble.
But that's all our agency ever did except surface collecting, until
... we later excavated in 1994 (Figures 2 and 3), as you know,
in the middle area where the main part of a school [is], now
named the Swift Creek Middle School after the main culture at
We excavated there [for] four months and uncovered 80
some-odd features, which were mainly trash pits and so forth,
and which gave us in our initial report a lot of basic information
about who was there in that central area, mainly covering the
Swift Creek to Weeden Island periods. We feel like we have
only scratched the surface of the data that [are] available for the
study of the faunal remains and the botanical remains and so
forth along with the big picture of what these things represent.
We think that they normally represent a high-status occupation
of chiefly peoples or high-class folks around a ceremonial
complex for that period ...
So, Mr. Block's son Byron, he had more than one son,
Byron has worked with us just like his father and has taken up
just where his father left off. He has continued the same thing
regarding his attitude toward development. He called me in
1992 saying that they were going to develop the property, and
asking what would he have to do. I talked to him about the
mounds and also encouraged him to go further with that and
give us some leeway to do something in the village area which
contained important information ... [This] ultimately resulted in
our 1994 project which he didn't have to do at that point... That
project turned out to be a good one under the circumstances,
particularly using volunteer help...
LDT: What kinds of future activities would you recommend at
the Block-Sterns site?
Figure 3. Calvin taking a break at the Block-Sterns site to
read The Florida Anthropologist issue dedicated to John
Griffin (June 1994). Tommy Abood is in the foreground
excavating a feature.
BCJ: We just excavated a small part of the site, got a good
sample of the central area and the kind of features that are there,
but we've obviously got a lot more things going on, or we got
so much more site area that needs to be looked at to determine
if... the same thing is going on or something different. We know
something different was going on at different locations. For
example, Mound 2 we don't know what Mound 2 was. We
assume it's a ceremonial mound that perhaps contains burials,
but nobody has found any yet. We know it's about a meter or a
meter-and-a-half high with several clay floors. And we know
that based upon the FSU research, which they put in a couple of
2-m squares up near the top of the mound.
Mound 2 is in a preservation area now as part of the
agreement with the work done in '94, with the school to keep a
certain section of the site intact and preserved. And we under-
stand that except for the pot-hunting that's been going on since
'94 that needs to be checked and curtailed, Mound 2 and most
of its area is still intact. The school has an obligation, too, under
our agreement to protect that area of the site, which is several
acres [in size]. And again, it contains a continuation of these
large trash pits and whatever else.
We found two structures there, for example a rare chance
to look at a total little village community that are covered
totally, even if the school decides it has to expand into those
areas. It's protected now, except for the dadgum pot hunters.
We have a rare opportunity there to piece it [together] along
through time, and the way money and circumstances are today,
THE FLORIDA ANTHR y
1998 VotL 51(2)
JONES ET AL. B. CAI.VTN .ION1'S INTKRVIFW
that's about as good as we can expect. Also, the east area,
Mound 1, which contains a burial mound and perhaps some
village area right around the mound, or at least some activity... I
mean, it's just a whole large site we've got a central piece of.
LDT: I believe Byron [Block] sold the Mound 1 area to the
City [of Tallahassee], and through the Dansby acquisition they
got the other two mounds.
BCJ: Is that right? That's good, really good. I'm glad of
that... [LDT NOTE: It places a major portion of the site,
including all of the mounds, in public ownership.]
Wadell's Mill Pond
LDT: Going to another site you did some years ago, Wadell's
Mill Pond, when and why did you excavate at the Wadell's Mill
BCJ: Well, I really excavated it due to political reasons.
Wadell's Mill Pond is a big multi-component site, one of the
biggest with mounds west of the Apalachicola River. I went
there because during my mission-period interest days, a local
politician wanted us to find one of the three Chacatos missions
built over in that area, which none of the three had ever been
pinpointed. The idea was that one of the major ones was in or
near the vicinity of Caverns State Park, because of the large
caves that were alluded to have gotten into in San Carlos.
Though Wadell's Mill Pond is six or seven miles west of the
caverns, I told the politician that my calculations were that while
Wadell's Mill Pond had been researched at the University of
Florida by Dr. John Goggin and one of his students who wrote
a master's thesis on the site...
LDT: Is that Bill Gardner's?
BCJ: Bill Gardner's thesis. I said they'd confirmed it's a large
site and so forth, but ... they didn't fmd anything Spanish, and
mainly by its distance location from what meager records we've
got, I said, "I don't think that's the site of San Carlos, it's too
far west. I would place it back further towards the caverns."
And he said, "well it's an interesting site?" And I said, "yes sir,
it is." And he said, "well, I'll talk y'alls people into doing work
over here. You never have done anything over here anyhow."
I saw a fascinating opportunity to go over there, and they
agreed to get me volunteer prisoners, work-release prisoners.
And so I went over there in June; in fact, I began work in June
of '73. The first thing, of course, to do was to re-look at the site,
and it soon became clear that it's a very interesting site. You
have a cave and a pond which has dammed up some natural
springs and backs up into some small caves where some Indians
lived, and on the top of which is a plateau of about a half acre
which was enclosed by a palisade.
Well, Bill Gardner had recognized that ... the late Fort
Walton occupation was in the cave. And up on top there was a
palisaded plateau where the Chatot are even talked about in the
documents as taking refuge from their enemies to the north -
the Yuchi, which are a small tribe of the Creek ...There wound
up being two mounds there, one just off the property we were
on, but in sight of the cave. One of which appears to be a
Deptford-Swift Creek burial mound, and the one they drove
over is definitely an oval platform mound that's about 10 feet
high. So after excavating Wadell's, they did not find these
earlier materials in terms of the Deptford-Swift Creek ... The
bone preservation, the faunal remains, are well preserved there,
so they got a real good faunal collection.
We excavated off-and-on most of '73 because the site kept
getting more interesting. We changed from prisoners in the fall
of '73 to hire a few graduate students to continue on with that
work. Wadell's Mill being a massive site, unless you just spend
all your time in one area, you're not gonna know much about
the others. So our idea was to sample the various areas more
than Bill did, to see if perhaps the mission was there. Of course,
it also gave us a chance to see what was there, which still
wound up being only a scratching of the surface, in the sense
that we excavated a meter-and-a-half-wide trench from the
northwest, the shortest way into the mound I recognized as the
We uncovered two Ft. Walton burials within the upper three
feet of the mound that were intrusive. The top three feet of the
10-foot-high mound was a Ft. Walton recap of a Deptford-Swift
Creek mound. The Deptford-Swift Creek mound was definitely
platform it had limestone rocks bordering the oval perimeter
of where each temple was. We don't know the nature of that
because we excavated a three- meter test block in the center of
the mound, and in front of that led a meter-and-a-half-wide
trench out to the northwest, which was the shortest way into the
mound and that's what I chose. We excavated all the way to
mound base, about a 30-meter-long trench. We found Deptford,
what appeared to be as I recall true Deptford, trash pits below
the mound. Then we got into early to middle, I guess you'd say
- spanned the Swift-Creek time period, almost like Block-
LDT: Do you have any recommendations concerning the site
and its surroundings?
BCJ: Yes, I certainly do. Several groups since we excavated
there in '73 have expressed interest in seeing the state acquire
Wadell's Mill Pond and the mound complex. Every time they
write us or call us, we try and encourage them to put it on the
CARL committee for consideration for purchase. An entourage
of us from different agencies went over there about 10 years ago
to look at it, and for some reason or another it never got bought.
The ranking got pretty close to it being purchased I believe, and
perhaps would have been but I believe we couldn't fmd a
manager for it at that time. I heard that was the main reason it
was not purchased.
It is a piece of property that needs to be looked after. I heard
of some recent pot-hunting going on there. I don't know
whether that's true or not; no one's been over there to check in
the last several months. Supposedly there's been serious looting
in the cave. I don't know if the looter knows about the mounds
or not, because we covered all that back up. You wouldn't
know the trench unless somebody pointed it out to you.
JONES ET AL.
R. fAI.VIN JInNFS INTRVIII
86 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1998 VOL. 51(2)
LDT: Turning to Mount Royal, how did you become involved
with the Mount Royal site investigations?
BCJ: Well, I really became involved due to [FDHR] Compli-
ance and Review. They received from Dr. Wilcox in late 1982,
a request that a low area on the east side of the Mount Royal
site, a swampy-like area, be filled in with a lot of cubic yards
from the St. Johns River. Dr. Wilcox would pump the sand up
there to fill in this wetlands area. That's really the way our
agency got involved. That was, I guess, a [U.S. Army] Corps [of
So we saw an opportunity to go over and look at the Mount
Royal site. We hadn't looked at it in a long time [since Dan
Penton's visit in 1973 which resulted in the National Register
of Historic Places nomination and subsequent listing], except a
couple of years prior to that when the Northeast Florida
Anthropological Society, a chapter of FAS out of Jacksonville,
had worked with our agency and Dr. Wilcox to restore the
mound there, the main mound, the Mount Royal Mound.
LDT: They had a historic preservation grant from our agency
to map the mound and the causeway and to restore the appear-
ance of the main mound.
BCJ: Yes, that's right, from our agency. And so there was one
acre that Dr. Wilcox had donated ... the mound covers about an
acre, along with a little more area for parking and a kiosk. He
had donated the mound to our agency or the State for develop-
ment. So he appeared to be a cooperative individual who was
interested in the resources at the site, which he later turned out
to be. So, I went over there, and this [Corps wetlands] permit
was also part of a plan to develop the riverfront part of the
village there, about 15 acres. He owns several hundred acres,
which the second phase is now being considered. I'll talk about
that in a little bit. The '83 work, about 15 acres, he was going
to divide that up into 15 or 20 hundred-foot-wide riverfront lots
along the bluff there, which forms the main part of the village
I will say that Mount Royal is one of the most fascinating
places of all the sites I've ever worked. It has to do with the
aura that it gives off to me. While a lot of sites up and down the
St. Johns are on bluffs, some of which had mounds which are
gone now ... representing the St. Johns Period from about the
time of Christ, actually fiber-tempered [ceramics] 4000 years
ago to the present ... Mount Royal is one of the most unique
ones that I've seen. And to me the aura that it gives off from
people having lived there is absolutely marvelous. Once you go
to Mount Royal ... it's something that gets in your blood that
never quite leaves you. It could have been at the time that I just
went there feeling good, so that the atmosphere and the environ-
ment affected me in such a way that I remain impressed ... But,
every time that I go there I have the same feeling. I don't know
whether its just been reinforced or what.
The feeling of a wonderful place, which William Bartram
visited about 1780 and called it Mount Royal [LDT NOTE:
Actually his father John Bartram in 1766 named the site Mount
Royal; in his later revisit to the site, William Bartram continued
the name]. It was a royal mount of course, and at that time it had
a fifty-foot-wide causeway that was dug down with the dirt
thrown out of a shallow roadway that was a third-of-a-mile long
that led to a pond that was probably to the north of the mound.
The mound faces north and south (well, the causeway went
north and south) of the sand burial mound that was twenty-
something-feet high, [and] which was restored back to about 19
to 20 feet. [C.B.] Moore dug it around the turn of the century,
and dug up exotic Mississippian Period artifacts, copper plates
and worked shell and so forth, similar to the Lake Jackson type
Southern Cult stuff, hand-eye motifs. But nothing really on
whether he actually found any of the Spanish-type artifacts. He
didn't talk about them at that time. The trade beads compared
to copper breast plates were not considered very important. But,
while Moore did uncover some beads that might have been with
burials, historic Timucuan burials, not much is known about
But the permit in '83 gave us a chance to look at the site and
meet Dr. Wilcox, which I did, and found him to be a great fan
of history ... I got a set of the plans, the 15-acre plans, which
included a few new roads across the village site. So the idea was
that we would just work with him, since we had no real control,
our agency didn't feel like it did, over the permitting situation
other than to say that "If you'll work with us, we'll work with
you. We'll try to recover anything that might be important that
you're going to destroy by your road building through the
midden." The mound sits back about 900 feet from the river.
Between the mound and the river was going to be developed
and some new roads put in, two new roads all the way around
the bluff, about 200 feet back from the bluff, which you might
think would go through the village area, which it did.
I spent about three weeks in all, twenty-some days, in the
summer, June and July, 1983. I used volunteer help from the
Northeast [Florida Anthropological Society FAS] chapter. We
took a tractor and did some scraping. Dr. Wilcox furnished that
[and] a front-end loader too, and we found two semi-subterra-
nean houses in the village area. But all of this, except all the
aboriginal [remains] in the known midden there, related to the
Spanish occupation that was there.
We got John Goggin's report on the site where he identified
Mount Royal Polychrome, one of the majolica ceramic types of
the early seventeenth century, based on that site. So, John never,
from what we could find in print, never calculated as to what the
nature of the site was, as far as whether it was a mission, or fort,
or whatever, or its identity. He just talks about this pottery
scattered over this 40-acre orange grove. And by the way, it was
an orange grove in '83. They had a great freeze right after that
and a lot of the oranges died and they quit keeping them up.
Plus he [Dr. Wilcox] divided up the property, except his own
home property, about a 15-acre property, on which he takes
care of his own oranges in case he wants some of them.
Anyway, we excavated those two semi-subterranean houses
which were really well preserved. They were about a meter
deep or less; fairly small size. One was real small, about 12 feet
in diameter, and the other was about 18 feet, I believe, in
diameter. And, [they] were made out of thatched material and
bark, tree bark, and they had an inch or two of roof lining of
.iANE Alt xIn, RInmr V -rr r1n-r.
dirt. And then that was capped with a thin layer or veneer, like
Plaster of Paris, made out of limestone. So we got some good
data there on semi-subterranean houses.
Apparently there must have been a number of those that
were occupied by the historic Timucuans or associated tribes
that were there, including the Amacoli who invaded that site and
burned the Spanish in 1670 after their revolt. At any rate, we
determined there that we've got a fairly major Spanish historic
occupation. That's what we learned in '83, although we didn't
find any Spanish buildings even though I expected to. We found
a lot of Middle Period olive-jar sherds and maybe one or two
pieces of Mount Royal Polychrome; not much of what you
would call real early stuff until we did the work there in '95.
We went back in [1994 and] '95 for a second phase of
development which included all the uplands around the mound
and to the west away from the village. He [Dr. Wilcox] only had
a couple, three or four, lots left along the river to develop. So
the idea was then to really focus in on the Spanish component
at Mount Royal, since we know about the main mound, and see
if we had aboriginal village remains that were significant. Well
what's interesting is that again this required additional roads
attached to the ones that he had already built. These extended
into this new area, which was between the mound and the river,
which was primarily the village area. So we scraped some of
those again looking for features in the roadways. We also used
a metal detector. So we located four Spanish building areas all
made out of perishable materials like at [San Damian de]
Escambe [in Leon County], for example. Hardly no wattle and
daub ... We located those four areas, one of which we exca-
vated, that was close to the river, near his [Dr. Wilcox's] home.
The roadway was going right through this area.
We excavated ... a small Spanish building that was very
crude [and] from which we found a great variety of Spanish
trade beads, a number of silver beads, a hodgepodge of materi-
als that were Spanish. We found some very early beads. We
found five-layer chevron beads, [but] found no new Nueva
Cadiz beads; so these things we found appear to date from the
late 1500s to the early 1600s, mid-1600s. But, across the whole
site, looking at that, putting [it] together this was sort of in
the west end of the site [which was] where most of the work ...
was done in '95, and ... a quarter-mile to the east was where
most of the work ... was done in '83 and so Spanish material,
olive jar, Middle Period, is scattered all the way across there.
We got a little bit of early olive jar on the west side where this
building is. So we have...a building which I'm interpreting
as a small convento, where they left lay brothers in the late
1560s and '70s, which is when I think the origin of this one
little building began [from] which they gave trade goods out
of for the local area or just gave to this village's people. But
again, reoccupation also indicates that they gave the next
century's beads too. We excavated ... about 400 square meters,
a pretty good sized area, and we found a perishable building and
we found the [roof eves] drip lines of the building on two sides.
LDT: Was all of this within the roadway?
BCJ: Three-quarters was within the roadway. The rest of it
was going to be on the lot next to it, so nearly all of it was
within this roadway. We got some good information there,
which I'm in the process of writing up, as you know. But, the
greatest variety of beads I mean nearly every find we made
would be a different kind of trade bead of which most we can
identify from other sites, like the Patale mission site [in
Apalachee, Leon County] of the early seventeenth century. But
there are at least two bead types that I had never seen before,
which must be mid-to-late sixteenth century. One inlaid bead is
certainly very unusual and could be even earlier than Nueva
Cadiz beads. If so, it was obviously a hand-me-down.
But finding documentation in Spanish records, of which I
reviewed all of the records which have been translated, it's not
clear as to what went on there after Menendez followed Rene
Laudonnier up the St. Johns River exploring ....
The problem in using the documents over there is you've got
several three or four criteria to base your calculations on.
You've got St. Augustine, you've got a reference to how far this
Atlantos village was from St Augustine, and you've also got the
river mileage the river leagues they were upriver. When
you take these three different measurements, any way you play
with 'em you can't find a point of agreement. You can find
fairly close points of agreement, like within a league or so. Well,
you ask yourself a question: that may be a little too far ... So
obviously in the translations, no matter which way you use 'em,
somebody has provided a miscalculation.
LDT: Was there any suggestion that the current Corps of
Engineers-maintained channel has less meanders than the river
channel might have been?
BCJ: Ah no, I tried to figure that that's one of the problems.
How [do] you figure river leagues and all? How [did] they take
into account the curvature of each channel? The channel of the
St. Johns has many, many curves in it, many bends. So that
plays a large effect in it too. I would tend to think [that] river
mileage, in terms of leagues, is off more than the distance from
this village to St. Augustine, because they went over land to it.
I tend to think the way they calculated river leagues is what's off
compared to the way we would do it today, 'cause do you
measure from the middle of the river? Do you measure from
bend to bend? I guess so when you're going 50 to 60 leagues of
river a long ways 150 or 200 miles from St. Augustine,
I mean from Ft. Caroline at the mouth of the St. Johns. You
know, you're talking' about a lot of room for error there. You
add 10 leagues or 20 leagues look, it depends on how you
wanna measure it you make it jimmy, you make it fit. [They
say,] "I know they did this 'cause it's the only way that works.
You measure from the outside river bends not the inside"
[*laughs*]. You see what I'm talking' about ... and the river's a
mile wide in places...
But at any rate, it appears as though we're within the
ballpark. The only question is, we can't find that there were any
Jesuits we got a Jesuit medal, for example, a religious
medallion. We got another one we haven't identified. So a Jesuit
person, or a person representing the Jesuits wearing a medal,
was there on this site at Mount Royal. And if they were there,
they were there before the 1580's, 'cause the Jesuits left in
1572 unless somebody just kept wearing' a Jesuit medal,
K *'AIWrmr InIAMrCl rrPOinmr r
THE FLORID ANTHOPOLGIS lm oL51
which is always very possible, of course. I mean, they wore 'em
for a lifetime, so maybe an old Jesuit stayed there. We can't find
any reference to the fact [that] there were Jesuits there on that
site. It just says he [Menendez] went up the river with these
priests and some lay priests. And so maybe he set up a little -
maybe he set up a trading post there? Or maybe that's a
convento; these guys had a lot of they were stamping out,
even cutting out, sheet roll copper and silver, cutting out disc
beads to give these Indians.
So I've never excavated a small, compact structural area,
anywhere, that had such a great variety of European trade
goods. I really haven't. It had a number of features with it,
nothing on the inside of the building, some shell-fill pits, but
LDT: Is that the site you found the projectile points and stuff?
BCJ: Yeah. It also appears as though it was burned based on
the Ichtucknee points and Pinellas points. There were over 30
of these in this 400-meter excavation, in and right around the
building. Other places we scraped and sampled along the same
ridge produced very few, if any, projectile points. Also, of
course, underneath all this is a little fiber-tempered component
which contains a lot of microliths. It's microlith city there, and
we've just done a sample. A lot of well-made microliths] and a
lot of Jaketown square-shaped you call [them] diamond -
square-shaped, needle microliths. In fact, some of the most
beautiful ones I've seen from Florida are from this site. Well,
they equal some you have from a site in Panama City [the Palm
Court site]. If one were just to go there and focus on the late
fiber-tempered and lithic complex that goes with it, that'd be
[LDT NOTE: As a result of the above work, Dr. Wilcox
expressed a willingness to sell to the State for historic preserva-
tion park purposes those lots identified as having culturally
significant material. The Archaeological Conservancy has been
assisting in purchase negotiations.]
Lake Jackson Mounds
LDT: How did you become involved in the excavation of
Mound 3 at the Lake Jackson Mounds site?
BCJ: I learned from a friend of mine who is an attorney and
[who] built a new home out in Killear. I got a call that he'd
found a green object in his front yard since he'd moved in and
[was] doing landscaping. [He said] it could be something, so
would I come out and take a look at it? I said, "well, yeah, I
will, but if you drop it by here that'd be easier."
So the next day he brought it by and it was a small copper
ax. I looked at it and I said, "whoa, this is interesting." I said,
"It could be one of two time periods; it could be Woodland
during the Hopewell time, or it could be during the Mississip-
pian time." And I really expected I felt it was probably
Woodland. And so... I said for him to look around the next day
or so, and I'd be out there as soon as I could, within a day or so
... after work, and take a look at it.
Well, I went out there the next day after he was off of work,
and we looked around his yard, dug a few little test holes, and
it was obvious the dirt was brought in from where the ax
came from. I asked him if he'd find out who brought the dirt and
he did, and [he] called me the next day and said, "well, a
company by the name of Crowder brought the dirt." And I said,
"Sam Crowder? Ohhh ...."
So I had known of Mr. Crowder, and the fact that he and his
brother, Lowell, had owned all the property where the Lake
Jackson Mounds park is today. Herb [Spillan] found out where
he lived at the end of Crowder Road, and I drove out there and
knocked on the door. And Mr. Crowder was a sick man at that
time and he came to the door he was built like I am now
[LDT NOTE: Calvin was referring to his own condition after
losing 65 pounds]; he couldn't get around hardly. And so I told
him who I was, and the fact that a man had found an object in
the dirt that he [Crowder] had delivered to his property, and if
he didn't mind me asking I told him the object was an Indian
ax and once I heard that he's the one that delivered the dirt
I figured it was from one of his mounds.
He looked at me and he says, "well, I found it down by the
lake down there where we're grading." The way he pointed was
away from the mound. I said, "well, Mr. Crowder, if you don't
mind me again, let me ask you I'm gonna ask you one more
time where did the dirt come from?" He's looking' at me ...
[*laughs*] ... you know, I'm saying that I don't believe him. He
said, "Aww hell; it came from the mound right out there yonder
by the shop." I said, "well I figured it came from a mound." I
said, "would you mind me looking' around out there?" He said
no. "Well," I said, "would you mind if I needed to do some work
out there?" to recover anything he might be gradin' away. He
said, "Oh, I've been lettin' the Boy Scouts come dig out there
since the thirties. They come out on weekends and they've dug
... they ain't never told me they found nothing, except a few
pieces of Indian pottery." So we had a pretty good discussion
and all about that and I said, "well, there might be a lot more
important stuff out there." He said, "well it ain't important to
me." So I said, "OK, I'll go out there and take a look, and I'll
come back and talk to you."
So I went out there, and I looked around and I could see all
the strata of the mound that was exposed (Figure 4) a big
hole on the east side and so forth. I went back to him and I said,
"well, Mr. Crowder, there's probably a lot more important
stuff" He told me he was going to grade the whole mound away
to make room for his shop. The shop was right next to the
mound on the west side and he wanted to extend his shop.
Which I guess he did, but he said he also needed a convenient
place to get dirt to haul just single loads five-or-six-yard
loads to people's driveways. So that's where he had gotten,
taken the dirt, all around Tallahassee. I said [to myself], "well
And so the deal was I said, "what I'd like to do is try to
excavate the mound and not hold you up." And he said, "OK, if
you'll excavate that's fine, but [if] I need a load of dirt I'm
gonna get it." He said, "you ain't got to throw it in a big pile or
somewhere, I'll just take it where I have to get it."
I didn't know what this meant at the time how fast he was
going move it. He said, "well, I might get a load or two a week,
1998 VOL. 51(2)
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOIXGIST
JONES El AL. B. CALVIN JONES INTERVIEW
Figure 4. Calvin (left) posing with Herb Spillan (center) and Chad Braley (right) in front of the cleaned profile of Mound
3 at the Lake Jackson site (ca. 1976).
you know." He said, "I'm not moving too fast." And I said,
"well I'd sure like to dig there on behalf of the State. I think
there's a lot more important data to come out of that mound."
He said, "well that's all right. I'll tell you I'll do it, but I don't
want no publicity and I don't want any scientific or college
types there tellin' me what to do, get in the way of my stuff, my
machines." And he did, he had some mechanics out there
working at that time. And he said, "if you do, I'll shut you
down." He made it very emphatic, he made it clear that he'd
tolerate us, but as soon as we got in his way it was gone.
So I made a handshake [agreement] with him. And so the
next day I went back out there (Figure 5) I had virtually free
reign then [and he said], "I don't want no more than two or
three people out here at a time, don't want no publicity. If I get
publicity in the Democrat I'll shut you down." So I said, "OK,
I'll make my best to comply with it." That's why I didn't tell
Ross [Morrell] when I went back where I went. I worked two or
three days before Ross figured out where we were going. We'd
leave every morning I'd leave about 8:00 and Ross
looking' out the window there.
So after the third day he said, "where're you going every
morning, Calvin?" I said, "I'm going for a good cause, Ross."
And he said, "well I want to know what it is you're doing?"
And I said, "I can't tell you that." [Ross said,] "Well, I'm the
boss." [*laughs*]You know, you can imagine Ross ... He sent
somebody to follow me out there and I come back and he
says, "what the hell are you doing out there at Lake Jackson
Mounds?" Then I told him. I said, "I made an agreement with
him [Sam Crowder]..."
LDT: How did what you found in Mound 3 compare with other
contemporary sites in the Southeast?
BCJ: Well, of course, we now know that it was connected
directly and indirectly with commerce and so forth, exotic
materials for trade goods to make the Southeastern Ceremonial
Complex [a.k.a. the Southern Cult]; how it was running in both
directions in terms of Florida materials and inland materials
back this way. Of course, we know about Spiro, Moundville,
Etowah, and some other sites, and Lake Jackson. What's been
interesting to me in Florida is where the pipeline ended. Of
course, apparently it ended at the south end of the state. I say
that based on just the item of the bi-lobed copper-inlaid-eye
bone pins. I refer particularly to the one on the hotel site in
JONES ET AL.
B. CALVIN JONES INTERVIEW
TH D A R.G 1 O (
Figure 5. Calvin sitting on the edge of a backhoe-cut face of Mou
Jackson, precariously thin-slicing the mound face to obtain a
sequence profile (ca. 1976).
Miami, the Granada hotel, a Tequesta site. And also, what's
considered to be the Narvaez site in St. Petersburg the one
that was recently found last year, or the year before last. These
were bone pins with these diamond-shaped copper eyes or
whatever appear to be snake eyes or whatever, I'm not sure.
But anyhow, the three I've seen the one at Lake Jackson
in one of the burials toward the late end of the time period at
Lake Jackson, 1400-1500 A.D., in that range, are identical.
They appear to be [made], I would say, by the same person. The
style of bone hair pin just definitely shows the contact. I
consider them a cult item, what you might consider a minor
item. Of course, we got Mount Royal on the St. Johns near
Palatka. We've got the Grant Mound near the mouth of the St.
Johns, from which Moore excavated copper ore, which perhaps
was funneled right through Lake Jackson. These are just some,
plus there's been a few random fragmentary plates remains
of copper plates at other sites in Florida. So it's pretty
evident that Lake Jackson was the main funnel for these kinds
of items, and I'm sure more research on what's already been
found would show a little more. ...
We know now that Lake Jackson, which is no real surprise
when you think in Monday-morning-quarterback terms, [was]
one of the major mound sites of the Mississippian, [so] why
wouldn't it be the pipeline? Until you do find that evidence,
though, you don't know ....
De Soto Winter Camp
LDT: Thus far, you have located the only confirmed site in
Florida linked to the de Soto expedition of 1539-1540. How did
you come to locate that site?
BCJ: Ah, well, I think it's pretty well-known among my
colleagues at this point, that I was looking for the mission of La
Purificacion de la Tama, one of the seventeenth-century Apala-
chee missions that was destroyed and [was]
believed to be maybe a league east of San
Luis. It was destroyed in the 1670s and
rebuilt in the 1670s, and ... it was called La
Candalera once it was rebuilt when it
was renewed. And so, the location [was]
: along what we believe to be the Spanish
trail in Tallahassee, which at this point
happened to be on the old Lafayette Road,
or St. Augustine Road, which goes right in
front of the site, which is East Lafayette
Street in Tallahassee. That hill there, I'd
looked at for a number of years, but since it
S was a residential area [I never dug there],
and at that time I didn't know it was Gover-
Snor John Martin's former property. But
when I found it during my lunch hour, and I
.- found it because there was an opportunity ...
to go out there and dig a test hole or so in
nd 3 at Lake the front yard of the Martin House, which is
construction- the south side of East Lafayette Street.
I saw that opportunity after several years
because there was a sign on the property, a
big great sign with red letters, that said Chuck Mitchell and
Steve Allen were going to build an office complex on the
property. And I saw some red flags around for survey stakes, so
it became pretty evident this was gonna happen. So I was
actually personally excited when I drove out there and dug my
first test hole because I really expected to find something
Spanish, mainly seventeenth century something to do with
the La Tama mission because it's a nice high ridge equal to
the Capitol in elevation; sits a half-a-mile, a little bit southeast
of the Capitol.
And so I drove out there and I dug a couple of shovel tests,
you know what I call 'em. They were just round shovel test
holes, thin sliced, and I got no more than six inches deep in the
first one and I hit a piece of the early olive jar which was thin.
And then I found, I think, another piece in that hole, and I dug
a couple more holes and found a piece or two and some daub,
red clay daub.
So I was quite excited that I'd found a seventeenth-century
mission site, but I was puzzled about this early pottery, these
couple of pieces that I had. It wasn't standard, middle-period
olive jar that goes with the seventeenth-century missions ... So
I went back to the office and talked to Jim Miller, the Bureau
Chief, about it and I said, "We've got something. I think I've
got a mission site there and it's gonna be developed." And I
happen to know Chuck Mitchell I don't know whether Jim
knew Chuck Mitchell at that time personally or not. But he said,
"yeah, go ahead Calvin. Let's set up a meeting with Chuck
Mitchell and Mr. Allen about the property to see if we can't get
And we did that. The next day we met with Mitchell and
Allen Steve Allen that is. There's two brothers, Jeff Allen
and Steve Allen, and we met with Steve. They explained to us
their plans were to build six office buildings about 10,000
square feet each. They would be brick, [and] they were to
basically fit into the scheme of the Martin House, which is red
1998 VOL. 51(2)
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
JONES ET AL. B. CALVIN JONES INTERVIEW
brick, and so it would look like a nice office park area. [And]
they were gonna refurbish the Martin House into a meeting hall
that could be used for various functions regarding any of the
businesses that had property on it. And also, some of the rooms
they were gonna rent out to civic organizations like some ladies
clubs, and flower clubs, and so forth. The big room in the
Martin House was mainly going to be the meeting room for the
birthdays or whatever celebrations for the businesses.
And so he said, "Well, it's not our schedule is to get this
thing on the road [in] the next few days, and we'll give you
two weeks [because] for the first phase we're taking out some
redbuds and dogwoods around the property which are quite
mature 20 or 30 feet tall, some of 'em and we're gonna
move 'em using a large spoon ..." So he said, we had two
weeks to test, and that they were also going to build a road right
through the middle of the property north and south which will
service these six buildings that go around to the back of the
And so he laid out what was going to be disturbed first, so I
started digging test holes with volunteers. That was about the
14th or 15th. I found the site on the 1 Ith [of March, 1987].
Yeah, within three days we were digging with volunteers
(Figure 6). I called some people I know, of course, that are
interested in archaeology some of 'em consultants that came
out and volunteered without being paid. [*chuckles*] And so I
had a cadre of folk there which we used from March 1 1th
through the end of April, and covered maybe a couple of
hundred square meters, a meter at a time.
Within a week of the excavation, or about a week after we
started, of course we first began to find mostly Ft. Walton
pottery and a little bit of ... maybe a few sherds of mission-
period pottery no Copy-ware at that point. And so it had
begun to look rather bleak regarding a mission, it began to look
more puzzling. So after about a week I went in to talk to Jim
Miller and George [Percy] and they said, "well what kind of a
site is it?" And I said [*laughs*], I really don't know." [They
said,] "Don't know? You're supposed to have excavated all
these missions." And I said, "well, yeah. It's either very early or
very late." They said, "how'd you determine that?" I said, "well,
there's a few pieces of ceramics here, the olive jar looks very
early. I got some yellow honey-comb ware that could be early
or late depends on what you call Maledo Ware or whatever
... It's not clear as to when that material dates from St.
I said, "we've got a mixed bag here, but I can tell you this,
it's not a mission, no matter how old it is." They said, "well,
how do you know that?" And I said, "well, we've got only
evidence of one building and I've tested the surrounding area
and there's just no second or third building that always goes
with a mission; of course, neither have we run into something
like a cemetery." So I said, "And two, the large nails and spikes
are not there like you find at a mission, and there's no middle-
period olive jar that I've seen." So I said, "something strange is
going on, and I'm not willing to make a commitment at this
point. But I'll make a commitment that it's something very
early, or it's very late, but it's not a mission. So that's where I
[LDT NOTE: Calvin subsequently found chain mail frag-
ments and began arguing with his colleagues that the site might
be Anaica, where the de Soto expedition wintered in 1539-
1540. As the evidence mounted he continued to find chain
mail, as well as a cross-bow quarrel, four period coins, period
beads, and so forth, including a pig jaw he finally proved his
case and won his argument. And, the rest is history.]
LDT: The next topic will be the Ross-Hannon site. When did
you first visit the Ross-Hannon site?
BCJ: I first visited and found the Ross-Hannon site in
southwest Tallahassee at the intersection of Orange Avenue and
Springhill Road. At that point, in '73, there was an old filling
station on the corer there of the site we're talking about.
But behind it, within four or five hundred feet, was a large
property that was in the process of being developed trees
were being cleared in '73. And they had scraped like the top
foot of soil off the two or three acres behind the filling station.
And so you have a white sand at that point because the prop-
erty's right at the break between the Cody Scarp and the coastal
plain. The coastal plain being property of a mostly sandy soil,
of old dunes of sand and the terraces that were at sea level at
different times below 50 feet. And then above it, which would
be on the lower side of Orange Avenue, [are] the Red Clay Hills
of Tallahassee, which become more pronounced as you go east
over into Jefferson County where they separate in between the
Cody Scarp, and [are] more dramatic in relief than [they are]
around the Tallahassee area the fairgrounds being along the
Cody Scarp also, behind that last ridge of Red Hills of Tallahas-
So the site became very interesting. I drove out in my truck,
just drove out over there it had been scraped for the clearing.
So ... I began to see these large black spots in pure white sand
- a textbook case of trash pits-cooking pits in white sand. So
I got out, I looked and I could just see ... I actually found three
large clusters of about 50 to 100 feet in diameter these pits,
many of which indicated that pits had been dug and re-dug into
each other overlapping pits. The central area there had pits
dug and re-dug that you couldn't tell what was one pit
Protruding from 'em the scraping had just been done, like
a day before by a road grader I guess [were] beautiful sherds
of Weeden Island Red-filmed classic, according to Gordon
Willey with his textbook ... All the ceremonial types, if you go
by Bill Sears, that you would not expect in an ordinary cooking
area of a village, of a Weeden Island village. And it appeared to
be early Weeden Island ... here was Complicated Stamp Swift
Creek carryover sherds there seemed to be quite a few of
those mixed in these pits. So the assumption was made that it
was [an] early Weeden Island ... occupation just based on what
I could see.
Well, about that time, DePauw University students along
with their professors ... called and wanted to come to Florida
and wanted to know if we had a project they could work on. The
hand and glove doesn't always work, but in this case it did. So,
I handled this call and ....
JONES ET AL.
B. CALVIN JONES INTERVIEW
THE FLORIDA ANTHR t
Figure 6. The 1539-1540 de Soto Winter Encampment excavation, April ,1987. Jean Wilson (left) is bagging artifacts and
keeping records while then Secretary of State Jim Smith (center) assists with the excavation. Calvin (right) offers advice to
the Secretary and explains what has been found.
LDT: I wonder why FSU's [Department of Anthropology]
didn't do it?
BCJ: Yeah, well that's right. Well, they [DePauw University]
didn't call right at the time, you're right. I wanted FSU to
maybe get involved or hoped they would, because it was a little
over a mile away from FSU, to the south is where the site was.
[But there was no interest in conducting the project.]
In the meantime, I dug several trash pits, in one of which I
found almost a complete bear skeleton that had been dumped
into this pit that was over a meter-and-a-half oval in diameter.
It contained beautiful red-filmed pottery, but thickened red-
filmed rim vessels. Certainly not your ordinary utilitarian ware
for the most part.
DePauw came and spent two or three weeks and they
excavated a large number of these pits, in one of which they
found a complete steatite elbow pipe. That's one of the out-
standing objects that I recall that they found in one of these pits.
It was certainly not broken, so it was not a discarded thing. You
wouldn't think that there would be any reason for it being
discarded. So these pits must have had some ceremonial
meaning in the sense of what they contained.
LDT: But most Weeden Island ceremonial sites have mounds
BCJ: That's true. Well ... the first thing I began to ask after
we found this Mr. Ross who had owned the property 30 to
40 years, and deceased here the last couple years, but his sons
own the property now and so one of the first things I began
to ask was "prior to all these buildings around here, the DOT
and the others, was there ever a mound here? There should have
been." You know, this is a significant village area here or
whatever enough that there should be some mounds around
here should have been at least a mound, a burial mound. And
Mr. Hannon said, "no, never heard of one. There was a swamp
back there, and people took dirt back there and filled that in."
But, east of this village area, about 100 yards, there's a big
swamp. What role that played in the village being [there] I don't
know. But no mounds as far as I know.
So what happens is you have this village area the first time in
'73, which was salvage work ... And that's about the 50- foot
elevation, 50-or-60-foot elevation. Then to the north the ground
begins to rise up on the Cody Scarp there, until it rises 20 or 30
feet at that point, up to Orange Avenue up into the ceramic
TH F. D A MOO GM1998 .. 1f7
8 991 Vot 51(2)
JONES ET AL
cache area we worked on in 1990.
So no mound was known there, and so after that work,
nothing more than just observation was made of the area. So I
kept my eyes open for any grading or any other exposure,
[since] the first one was so easily found, I called it a trash pit.
[*laughs*] So in 1990, the fall of 1990, I noticed they had torn
down the old Gulf station on the corner of Orange Avenue and
Springhill, and had bulldozed a pit when I drove by there one
day a holding pond which means they were going to build
something new when they had to have a drainage pond a
water retention pond, a small one, which was about 40 by 50 or
something like that. It took a good part of the lot, at the south-
east corer of the lot. And of course the Hannons still owned all
And so in walking around the edge of this pit, I found [a] fair-
sized portion [of] the diameter of a pot sticking out of the
embankment grading. So I took my knife and started cleaning
that, and I found another one. So I said, "ohhh, we got a pottery
cache here and something went on here either we had a
mound or we got a pottery cache ... there may have well been
a mound here where this filling station was." Of course, we
don't know if there was or wasn't even to this day. But at any
rate, I got some volunteers together, which [was] a lot in this
case, with a lot of agency people ... [who] came during work
and after work if they could get away. And so we worked, really
one month and, I believe it was March, 10-12 hours a day and
even 24 hours a day with guards. And we figured we uncovered
this cache that occupied a 30, 40-foot diameter of pots stacked
in clusters all forming one large cluster. We found a few
fragmentary bones which were probably remains of humans
that had been cremated, appeared to be in between or near
some of these pots. That's the only evidence of humans we
found. We didn't find any skeletons or anything like that. And
these were only like, you know, six inches below the soil down
to a foot or a foot-and-a-half deep. What's ironic about it, is at
this point the Hannon's property a fence on the east side of
the filling station running north and south well, the cache
was straddling both the east side of the fence and the west side
of the fence the east side of the fence having belonged to
another property owner [Mr. Ross] who gave us permission to
uncover their portion of the cache. And what's always ironic
about this is I use it as a sampling thing about, you know, the
fence-post locations being on a one-and-a-half meter interval
and I think there were 3 or 4 posts to fall within the cache area,
just roll of the dice. None of the posts appeared to have hit one
of these pots, or any other archaeological object. Within six
inches ... I think one or two had been dug that close to a pot.
But, there it was, a prime example of how using a 1/2 meter
interval you can miss a cache of pots like 30 or 40 feet in
diameter, or 15 meters in diameter. One of the best examples in
the world of how you can miss something very significant, let's
say, using a 1.5-meter interval.
LDT: Was that because of the unit size? And what was the
unit size for the support holes for the ... what was the post size?
BCJ: They were 15 centimeters, 6 inches.
LDT: So if they had dug 50 by 50s?
BCJ: Ahh, they may have hit the edge of one, but probably
LDT: So even with a 50-by-50-cm unit they could have
BCJ: I believe all those ... [the] three or four that crossed
that area would have missed [the cache]. We'd just have to re-
look at the map, but none of 'em were, you know, right against
the pot. So I believe that ... there's only a fair chance ... that one
of those at 50 cm in size would have hit a pot. Even then, if
they'd hit one pot of course, if an archaeologist had been
doing the digging, they would have known. But nobody else
would have, probably.
But a tremendous amount of labor [was expended], like I say,
during that 30 days of almost non-stop excavation with the
idea in mind of leaving everything in place until we got the
whole cache recovered, so we could see, topography-wise, what
it was doing. You know, see what was going on. And we did
that mostly with our agency volunteers, but some of the local
volunteers, too. I won't say that we had a number of volunteers,
like we did on the de Soto site. But our agency played a pretty
good role in this one ....
LDT: In spite of everything, did we learn anything about the
Weeden Island culture in this area as a result of the work? And
if so, what?
BCJ: Well we did, but I tend to look at what we could have
learned or would like to have learned about ... the Ross-Hannon
site pertaining to Weeden Island that we weren't able to
do. Of course, if you try to look at it from what we did learn,
well, this is the first site that has yielded a pottery cache like that
in Leon County. But, of course, caches like that have been found
in many other mounds across the state that are Weeden Island.
But as far as having a new site with that same nature in Leon
County this establishes that ... it is the first one that we
know of in Leon County. We know there are few Weeden Island
sites of any size in Leon County. We know that there's a couple
of other mound sites that are Weeden Island in the county. And
they probably, of course, contain caches. But this is no big
break. They really had already noted that Moore had found these
things, you know, across the Panhandle particularly. But we had
one here right in Tallahassee, we actually had the cache. Very
few of these caches are available, 'cause Moore took 'em out of
the state. So all we have is Moore's reports, which are good, but
they're insufficient for looking at the big picture of what he
found at each site.
But, of course, the question I have, we all have, is what really
was this cache, what did it really represent? Was there a low
sand burial mound where the filling station stood to the west?
Is our cache an east-side cache? You know, near the toe of the
mound? Or [is it] a mound itself that was bulldozed away in the
early part of this century, which Mr. Hannon didn't know about?
So we'll always be baffled about this cache. And then too, what
makes it more intriguing is what was this big pit underneath the
* ALVIN ONES N TER
8C Jl. T -I_ .
'1998 V.9 51
cache? So really what we know is, [*laughs*] we have a cache
pit that's reminiscent of what you get on east-side mound
ceramic caches, but we can't say that. And we also got
[*laughs*] a big feature there that we don't know the nature of,
that's underneath. And the fact that we have a nearby village
which definitely goes with [the cache] time-wise same
ceramics, same type of ceramics were found in the cache that
were found in the DePauw [University] work and so we
know we had a large type of Weeden Island settlement that
appears to be ceremonial, without doubt, with pits and a pottery
cache. So it looks like we had a significant little Weeden Island
village area, that may have been seasonal, but if so it was
ceremonial in nature in terms of the artifacts found with it.
So, you know, it just kind of leaves us a baffling point about
Weeden Island in this area.
LDT: The next project that I wanted to discuss is the Gauthier
site. How did you become involved in excavating the Middle
Archaic cemetery at the Gauthier site in Brevard County?
BCJ: I became involved because it was a find that was
reported to our agency. And its a good example, one of the
better examples, of [a site] that was reported that resulted in a
project ... Our agency received a call from one of the home
developers in 1977 the spring of 1977, late spring that
human burials had been found, some skulls mainly, in a ditch
they were digging to a pond, palm hammock ... on the St. Johns
River, inland from Cocoa, about eight miles. And so I was sent
down there to take a look at it and evaluate it. It was one of
those sites where the Sheriff had gone out and grubbed up half-
a-dozen burials or cut into 'em and taken them to had already
taken them to the University of Florida when we got the call.
Dr. Maples there identified them as aboriginal; not a recent
mass murder. And so they [the Sheriff's office] were not
interested in the site and I went down, representing our agency,
and looked at it. And Jack Gauthier, the developer of this
mobile-home park, was mainly cutting drainage ditches to drain
the area that he had already developed. The site happened to be
actually a mile west of 1-95 and in the drainage basin of Lake
Poinsett, which is part of the upper slough of the St. Johns
River. And so this was like half-a-mile beyond where he was
actually developing, so there was no real urgency regarding
development in this immediate area, but he was gonna develop
And so the way it happened was a man using a dragline to cut
this ditch through this palm hammock which is about 18 feet
above sea level, the elevation of the palm hammock was -
began to see round things rolling out of his bucket, his large
track backhoe. No rocks being in that area that he had seen, he
decided after a little while several of these rolled out to
get out and examine one. And he did, and it had two eye holes.
He said it didn't take him long to realize these were human
skulls, rather well preserved ....
Anyhow, they had found no artifacts. In other words, this
ditch was about 30 feet wide ... along which they ... were
removing the dirt to make a berm, a road out of, so they could
go back in this low, wet area. And so anyhow I went down and
carefully examined it. They left some of the clusters of bone
fragments along the ditch, you know ... still in place. We
carefully looked at each one, and while I was there we found a
stone atlatl weight a small tubular type with a concave face
- and I think I found a projectile point, a Middle Archaic
projectile point. So what I did was start a map regarding where
these burials were (Figure 7), the ones we could see, and stayed
in contact with our people in Tallahassee. And so the idea was
to examine these and see what kind of problem we were up
And so 6 or 8 burials had already been disturbed by the ditch.
But, of course, when I got there, the quantity of human bones
along the berm, scattered human bones arms and legs and so
forth we later determined [that] forty, at least, I think that it
was something like 40 or 50 were removed -just thrown out
by the dragline.
Anyhow, it soon became evident [that] we had a cemetery
kind of situation with flexed burials, some of 'em in clusters -
four or five bodies. And we found a few more artifacts as we
went along not many artifacts. But, the idea was we would
try to remove all these that were in this area to be disturbed,
which was really most of the cemetery 'cause it widened out and
enveloped the whole property.
And so we began with volunteers, the Indian River chapter
of the FAS, and we worked there two or three weeks. This is
one of those projects that was not planned, just sandwiched in.
And we uncovered 20 or 30 [more] burials, which we mapped
and photographed most of 'em, all of 'em we could ... The
cemetery appeared to be a little wider than where we stopped in
'77. And so we followed up again, the same thing in '78, the
summer of '78, when the owner decided that he was gonna have
to enlarge the area. We went back in '78 and finished up what
would appear to be the cemetery area, by going even beyond
where we found the burials. So from that we had like three to
four clusters that appeared to me to be burials, in the sense that
30-to-40-foot diameter areas of burials were overlapping -
four or five clusters overlapping and [the clusters] appeared
to be represented by the patterning of these graves. And they
contained ... maybe 7 or 8 percent of the burials of the 110 that
we ultimately took out, and maybe 40 or 50 more in the
cemetery. So we're talking' about something around 150 burials
in this cemetery.
They were all flexed. There were clusters, like I say -
repetitive patterns of burials definitely [indicating that] they
continued to use the cemetery over a period of time. Probably
not too long in my opinion. [The clusters were] made up of
individual flexed to group flexed burials, all placed within a
rather tight area, about 100 feet in diameter the way it worked
out if you were to draw a circle around the whole four or five
clusters that overlapped. And it appears to me that the same
thing, like I say, went on over the life of the cemetery no real
changes in patterns or artifacts.
Four or five burials contained projectile points, one of which
I know, a Culbreath, was trapped inside the rib cage of one
burial which Pat [Jones] uncovered herself. And another one
had a couple there were two others that had a couple of
broken off- what we normally call bone pins like found in the
Tan0 V rn A-~u~~ \
B C~.nw Jn Tnr EWfl
rivers points broken off inside of the rib cages. So we
actually had people who were killed, at least three I can think of,
that [had] fairly good proof that [they] were killed by projec-
tiles; two of 'em bone, one of 'em stone.
LDT: Was there anything, any evidence of use of clubs or
BCJ: Well, yes, there were. On the physical part of the
skeletons we had three or four that had broken radii and ulnas,
I believe. I believe it was the right hand in most cases. They
tended to be female, or they all were female, I don't remember
whether a decision was made by sex. But I think they were all
female. Certainly somebody, male or female had several of
'em had one arm tied, as if they were maybe slaves, you know?
And the arm was broken.
Also, there was a couple, maybe one or two that had these
round, inch-diameter depressions in their skulls they'd been
hit with a club very similar to the diameters of... the alleged
bola stones, club heads, which I believe [you] wrote a paper on,
I believe, [in] 1995, regarding these dimple stones [as] they're
called. Which I believe to be club heads or killing heads that
were mounted on the ends of wooden clubs tied on with
leather on wooden clubs just the exact size hole that these
were ... And both of 'em, the two skulls I saw that had these
holes, were in the process of re-healing before the person died,
because the holes had begun to refill in.
So the whole situation looked like the impression one had,
at least using a little bit of imagination [*laughs*] along with
these burials [was that] these people were maybe ambushed
by other groups of Archaic hunters and gatherers, and maybe
killed in groups. When you get three or four [individuals buried
together] you often have two or three adults with one child, so
you had the impression that they were in a cluster. They were all
buried, by the way, at the same time, and the way you tell that is
by careful work and looking at each cluster and how the bones
related to one another ... What happens generally when you
have burials, you know that they're important, sacred spots
when someone is interred as the first person. And then later the
graves may be dug into when someone related to 'em maybe is
buried in the same spot just slightly above. But in those
situations you always find space between bones in terms of dirt.
When people are buried together in clusters, what happens is
you've got a mass of human bodies, and the flesh decays
quicker than dirt can accumulate. And so what happens is you
wind up with all the bones touching, actually physically
When you've got dirt space in-between bones, it usually
indicates [that] you may have had a time interval [between
burials]... Nearly invariably in the multiple burials I uncovered
in a number of different places inside of Florida, they're always
touching. Because see, the meat quickly decays, and doesn't
give the dirt time to add a couple inches between the bones -
I mean for the bones of different people, that were usually all
clustered together. So on that basis, I didn't see any that would
seem to indicate that somebody was buried later, perhaps one of
the children buried on top. The children are always buried on
top of a cluster of adults. You know, it's possible that their
mothers and fathers were killed or died first and the child put on
But any rate, to me it looked like a good case to argue for,
unscientifically other than these attempts of what hap-
pened. These people were in an ambush situation. And perhaps
another Middle Archaic group lived on the west side of the St.
Johns River, and these people were on the east side. You know,
and in dry parts of the river they can wander back and forth
across on each other's territory. Certainly looked to me like
a good case to argue for ambush. They certainly weren't all
brotherly and brotherly in love, and they fought over territory
because of food, and they fought over people because of the
need for wives to perpetuate their clan. But uh ... [pause]
LDT: What type of artifacts did they have?
BCJ: Well, as I say, the three or so that were killed by two
bone points, and one killed by a Culbreath point several of
'em had other projectile points, mainly Putnam and Newnans
points, stemmed Archaic points. There were two or three that
had those with them appeared to be part of their burial
assemblage. There were two Putnam points, I believe, buried
with one we called "the Prince." There was one burial, out-
standing burial out of all this group, that had I think fifty-some-
odd artifacts. And it ran the range of artifacts. This person had
the most artifacts, we called him "the Prince," my volunteers
did, because he had so much.
He had a special tool kit made up of a double-pronged,
probably ivory, harpoon point, right next to which in this same
kit was a stingray barb which had also been made into a point
for gigging probably. And there was another point in there that
was bone. Anyhow, there was a three tool kit thing. He also had
a little tool kit of scrapers plano-convex scrapers a couple
of those, small ones. They were flint and flint's not abundant in
that area you know. We [didn't find] much debitage. They were
having to bring it 50 miles east to that area from Marion
And so he had several of those things. He had one of the
antler-type headdresses made into what I think looked like a
hand symbol, with [a] raccoon penis [bone] through hair locks.
It's kind of an elaborate thing. It looks by our standards hokey,
but no one else had that sort of headdress. I'm not exactly sure
how it was, but it appears to be pretty evident how it was worn.
And he had shell beads around his neck tubular. Yeah,
they really went in for tubular shell beads; generally a little
smaller than the Mississippian ones like came out of Mound 3
[at Lake Jackson]. But they were into shell bead making. To
me it looks like rather big-time, because a number of 'em had
shell beads, tubular shell beads. Some of 'em had some hollow
olivella beads that were just used in the natural form apparently.
But I didn't see any disc beads, there were no disc beads. So
mainly just tubular beads. I don't believe, really, [they had] any
round beads that would go with Mississippian, so the range of
beads seemed to be mostly tubular well made, as well made
as the Southern Cult time-period beads. None of 'em had any
shell dippers. Not much shell work. What shell was there was
Some of 'em had some other antler tools ulna tools one
JONES ET AL. ALVIN ,-
T-Tn r- A T
Figure 7. Calvin's map of the Gauthier site near Cocoa Beach showing the clustered arrangement of burials. Originally published in Carr and Jones (1981).
.B CALVIN .JONE. INTERVIEW
that had a barbed end like a double ... just a narrow, sharp
bevel that appears to be something like a basket-making tool
you see in the Southwest. And so one wonders. All we had
there was the bone preservation due to the calcium level in the
water which preserved those, and also the cup and the shell
beads and so forth. But we had no brain preservation like at the
Windover site, and no wood preservation. So it makes you
wonder what would have been there had the wood and the other
LDT: And the basketry and stuff like that.
BCJ: Yeah, and the cloth.
LDT: You said you had atlatl hooks. Did you have any
BCJ: We didn't have any bannerstones. We had these ... I
call 'em atlatl weights, only because they're like a bannerstone
without the wings they're tubular three of those. And we
found several atlatl hooks and handles that were made out of
antler, which were a special type. The only ones I've seen [that
are] anything like 'em, very similar, are the ones from Tennes-
see and the Eva site, which is a Middle Archaic site, of the
Newnan's Lake-age assemblage.
LDT: So the ones over on the west coast from Bay West and
Republic's Groves are...
BCJ: They're all those are all more knitting-needle types,
to me significantly different. They're approaching, I call it the
knitting-needle type, crocheting needle, where you have, you
know, a hook that's all sort of ... [demonstrates by crooking his
LDT: Did they find anything similar at Windover?
BCJ: Well, Windover the one or two fragments they've
got of hooks there are rather crude. They're similar, but crude.
So I really can't say the Windover ones are exactly like the
Gauthier ones either. It's just that we've got 7 or 8 from
Gauthier, and several handles 4 or 5 handles of antler and
they're all alike. They are a particular style.
Now one thing this does, since the underwater divers have
found a number of atlatl hooks and handles in the bottoms of the
rivers, as well as many other kinds of preserved bone objects -
points and awls and other things that old-time divers bring to
our agency I've not seen one of the hooks like the ones we
got from Gauthier. So, it's given us enough view of the kind of
generally non-perishable objects like the antler antler usually
goes 'cause we only have less than a dozen sites with this ...
preservation of bone ... that directly associate with the Archaic.
Many underwater sites have bones, you know, of all ages, all
churned around in the same layer along with Coke bottle soil.
But you know getting down to the hard data, let's see what
we know is really associated with certain time periods. We
don't have that much control over these objects for the most
part, maybe a half-a-dozen sites. And we know most of those
except for Windover have been sort of blown away. And we
don't have much control over those sites in terms of hard data
showing where things were really found since most of 'em are
discovered by draglining and so forth like the Gauthier site was.
Yeah, we actually found one burial with the antler handle and
the hook [that] appeared to be directly in place. At that point it
had a one-foot-long handle, a short handle; I think it'd be
longer. But the other hooks for the most part ... except the
Prince had one a beautiful hook in his burial, with some -
a little bit of artwork, strait-line and ticking, so the material
looks somewhat like some of the bone work from Tick Island
... We got a couple things with motifs on 'em that are banded -
hatched-circular motifs that are similar to what's from Tick
Island. But not very many of those kind of artifacts.
LDT: That forked antlered piece with the hole in it ... on the
side of the skull at Gauthier seems as if they found one
almost in the same type placement at Windover.
.BCJ: At Windover? Yeah, they did. I only got a brief look at
the Windover artifacts. And again, the Windover artifacts ...
the ones that go to the burial that's all they have [are] not
very impressive. I'm surprised. In other words, the projectile
points there are like Kirks and date 7,700 BP seem to fall
into that range. And so they only got one or two hooks there
too, but they're rather crude. In other words, it's kinda surpris-
So there seems to be a lot of variability from Early Archaic
to the Late Archaic ... even though most of 'em were hunters
and gatherers ... There appears to be a lot of variability in
Florida I expect a lot more variability than we realize at this
point like the hooks, for example. Based on what we know
at this point, you might find a site with any kind of hook style
I personally like the style of the Gauthier hooks just from a
functional viewpoint. To me, they're made such that everything
seems to fit real well. So therefore you can have some predict-
ability about, you know, being able to balance this spear.
LDT: Is there a contemporary village area nearby? Or is the
BCJ: Ah, yeah, there was. At Lake Poinsett there, in this
sand-pond hammock ... about 16 feet in elevation to the east of
this site was a low, swamp pond. Now before I left there in '77-
'78, when I did our last work, we took a large-track backhoe
and reached out there about 100 feet. We found at that pond -
the idea did we have burials going all the way out into this muck
pond? We found that [the] pond was filled with about six foot
of muck, but we found no artifacts. And we had several scoops
out there all the way to the bottom. And we then dumped the
stuff on land to see if we had anything. We didn't. But on the
north side of that, on the highland part where the palm ham-
mock continues to the east, we found a layer of occupation that
is Archaic, down about a foot below the surface, made up of
tremendous faunal remains a range of faunal remains:
alligator, fish, a great deal of snake. And Brenda Levelle who
came later ... she did some work over there and, in fact, not far
BCALVIN JONES INT W
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east of our site was a large, fairly large St. Johns-period
Now within our cemetery area we got 4 or 5 sherds of
Orange fiber-tempered plain. But that appeared to be lost on the
cemetery after the main burial era. Can't say that for sure, but
to the west about 100 yards there was a small occupation of St.
Johns. So this hammock, this long-running hammock, appeared
to have spotty occupation up and down it just helter-skelter
from what we could determine. So we had everything from ...
[the] Gauthier cemetery, which probably ended about with
fiber-tempered I would say.
So, some of the deeper burials there were into an underlying
marl, a gray marl, which seemed to be characteristic of some of
these other burial sites like Bay West particularly, and another
site I recall ... the Republic Groves site. Even though they were
in muck ponds, the base of those where the burials began, at
least at Republic Groves, was a marl base. So anyhow, I'd
assume there's some affinity of starting to bury these people on
a marl base, as opposed to maybe the ones at Windover that
were just buried in a muck pond. But there's no marl base there.
LDT: Is Little Salt Spring Slough just muck, or is that marl?
BCJ: It's got a marl base, that's where it is too. Yeah. I
believe I left that on out, with a similar cemetery and drain that
runs into Little Salt Springs. And a village area next to it very
similar to the Gauthier site the village area not being in the
muck, but up on a little higher ground. Yeah, we excavated that
- Carl Clausen and Marion Almy and I did back in about '79
or '80, after I'd worked on these other sites.
But getting back to the [Gauthier] occupation yeah, we
had occupational areas nearby. Now Brenda wanted to make
the Gautheir burials all fiber-tempered age by association for
which she had no proof all fiber-tempered age or even later.
LDT: Yeah, I was trying the topics that I had heard on
'how did it add to what we know about the Archaic on the
middle Atlantic coast or how's it changed our understanding?'
BCJ: OK. Well, I'd like to say a little more on that subject
matter. But we have, like I say, half-a-dozen to a dozen of these
Archaic burial sites now, mostly associated with muck ponds or
low areas. The ones at Gauthier were not in a muck pond, they
were next to it. Now the fact that the Republic Groves and
Windover and maybe Bay West at least two of those had
wooden stakes and they were driven into the mud, and Dave
Dickel and Glen Doran talked a good bit about what that means.
They actually think they were staked down to keep predators
from coming into the pond. And that may all well be true to
protect the dead.
But anyhow ... of course, '77 was the first one of these that
came to light, even though it was not in a muck pond. We had
no knowledge of Archaic muck burial sites, prior to 1977 with
Gauthier. And it seems like [with] everybody doing so much
building and construction, that this all began to pop out of the
woodwork. Like Windover was found by one of the Eckerd
Company people and so forth.
So they all began to come to light. So the new thing for us to
realize is, "hey, we got these Archaic cemeteries in Florida
now." Mostly Middle Archaic as far as we know. So we now, of
course, are all waiting awaiting the Paleo burial site, you
know, to find out if it's one that will be preserved and intact,
and that will come. Probably already has come and construction
and everybody turned their heads the other way there wasn't
no archaeologist around. But one will come to light.
So it'd be interesting to see if we could find a Paleo[indian]
with, you know, these wonderful preserved things. It definitely
will happen. Like I say, it'll happen in the future, it doesn't
matter if it's happened in the past or not. So I predict that. And,
of course, when this first find was made [Gauthier], everybody
began to realize that we have an unknown kind of new site here.
Everybody, you know, began to jump on the bandwagon and
say, "Ohhh, there's hundreds of 'em in the state of Florida."
Well, now that's not true, because just by the matter of passing
time and reporting information we've got, we've started toward
it. We don't have hundreds of 'em, because we don't have that
many sites left in those unique environments that would have
been conducive for preservation, though we've got probably
several dozen more. Hopefully some or one of those is Paleo.
So ... then, of course, after Gauthier I became interested -
'cause I was working on the Interstate 75 survey around Tampa
- about all the upland Archaic sites, you know, and where are
those people buried? Most of the sites in Florida are lithic sites.
And most sites in Florida certainly more than 50 percent -
have an Archaic component. They may have other components,
too, meaning multiple component they usually [do]. But like
I asked the question when Bob Carr interviewed me in 1981 -
we talked somewhat about Gauthier and the situation about
burials are all these people buried that lived at all of these
sites? Well, obviously if they were put in muck ponds they're
not there today, other than just a few. And so the preservation
conditions for 'em ... has been bad and they're not preserved.
In fact, some of those 100 and more acre sites in Hillsborough
County heavily occupied by Middle Archaic, and some of
'em are Early, Middle, and Late some with a little bit of
Paleo in 'em ... And even the Harney Flats site, for example,
and that was Paleo, we looked for the cemetery there and didn't
find it. Doesn't mean it's not there, but it's like the Paleo sites
in other states in view of burial sites ... all you're gonna find is
a few of the choice lithic artifacts that's all that's preserved.
In fact, I like to say I often argue that someone brings in
a unique, chipped-stone point or a knife that's just absolutely
unique and they found it in a plowed field, and it's so beautiful
you know it's not an ordinary artifact that was lost. In fact,
where they picked that up in many cases a lot of surface finds
that are unique like that, I think did come out of burials that
have all deteriorated away. So, there is no question about it;
most Archaic burial sites have so disintegrated and turned back
to Mother Earth that they're only going to be able to identify
those few that have unique artifacts in them. They're not being
identified because people who do surface collections took [the
artifacts] off. Because size and length of occupation, from 9000
years for Early Archaic to 4000 years ago, 3500 years ago -
that's a long time. Thousands of people lived during that time,
you know, and were buried. If we added up all of the Archaic
burials that we know about throughout the state, we'd have less
A ~mmr\o~ ~~nr
JONES ET AL. B. CALVIN .TONES INTERVIEW
than 500 [people].
So you see, I like to think of the magnitude of scope, to think
about the different scope that allows us to know what it is we
are talking about. And so I talked to him [Bob Carr] about
chemo-archaeology. Since that time I don't think its been
improved, phosphates being supposedly one of those non-
erodible minerals that's put in the ground. You know, they don't
leech out like other minerals. That'll still be the eventual way
[to detect human burial bone residue], short of finding unique
artifacts, that gives us clues that we have a cemetery associated
with a big site, a land site.
Certainly, most people were buried in some manner. It does
appear at this point, largely, most of them were in flexed burial
situations. Either in clusters or by themselves. If there is a
Middle Archaic burial pattern, that's it. It's a flexed burial, or
multiple burial, of such people. That's what we know now in
Florida about the Middle Archaic.
LDT: There's some isolated ones that keep showing up in
Dade County, usually in solution holes.
BCJ: Is that ridges?
LDT: I visited a site that Chris Newman was digging, the
Cheetum site, and under the concreted level you know where
the Glades fires burned the shell and made it sort of a concrete
layer they have the more recent stuff where their post holes
were cut into that stone-like stuff, but underneath it they had
Archaic stuff. They had Archaic burials under that midden. So
there may be some that are masked by more recent ones.
BCJ: Yeah. Well ... I know we have an area where there are
significant quantities of them, that are on land and that are
preserved and they are preserved just like you say because
they're associated with heavy shell occupations that are
conducive for preservation of human bones and that's along
the St. Johns River, you know, the Mt. Taylor-period burials.
And also, of course, fiber-tempered burials Orange Period
over there. There are a lot of those preserved under those shell
middens. And that's because the nature of middens [is] condu-
cive for preservation. For those, that's kind of an exceptional
area. In other words, there you can pretty well predict a ceme-
tery with those sites and it can actually be found once you get
enough of the later occupation off. But elsewhere in the state,
except for the St. Johns where there's much inland Archaic, you
can't do that. You just can't do it.
To me it's a fascinating problem to approach. Of course it's
like everything else, you know. To work on that particular
problem, or try to develop a scheme that will help us some
sort of model that will help us find those upland burial sites ...
I think if the data had been properly taken, even by managers
over a period of years ... we would already be further into
knowing where these things might be ... the locations of Middle
Archaic burial sites and cemeteries associated with these many
large inland Archaic sites. Because most big Archaic sites that
have been collected for any length of time by amateurs, they
have some possible burial stuff within their collections. They
have a lot of, amateurs call them "field-grade" points, "field
grade" objects all beat up, you know. But, then you'll see
this new, nice, wonderful, long blade or something that looks
like it has just freshly come out of the ground. We say, "where'd
you find that?" And they say, "well I found that down at that end
of the site. Yeah, I think it's wonderful isn't it?" And I say,
"yeah, that's a nice piece." And he says, "Well, Mr. Smith came
in here last year and he deep-bottom plowed. We caught a big
rain on that and that's where I found it down there." You know,
deep-bottom plowing, maybe he went down to about 16 inches
now, you know. That's the top of where those burials would
So, you know, realistically going back to we were going
to discuss a little later about protection of burials and NAGPRA
and so forth; it's all right if we don't look for those, right?
Because nobody can prove they were there, and since no
physical bone would be present ... See as far as that goes, even
a lot of the ceramic-period sites uh ... not so much here in
Florida, but in Texas the sites are 500 years old and some of
those contain no evidence of bone whole cemeteries. I've
excavated two of them that contain no trace of bone, not even
teeth caps. And just due to the nature of the soil and lack of
preservation, all the bones are gone, but all their artifacts are
there. And so you know you're digging burials, but you could-
n't prove it as far as human bones. If a novice walked up there
and said, "prove to me that's a burial," all you could do is show
the circumstantial evidence. He'd say, "well, I don't know
that." And you say, "well yeah, but I found 'em like this in other
sites, where the whole body is there and then all this stuff's
Let's face it; most Indian burial sites that are prehistoric in
age are being overlooked and will be overlooked for the next
few years to come. So roads will be put through 'em, they will
be destroyed, unless the Indians can go out there and locate 'em
themselves and prove that they're burial sites.
Wakulla Springs Lodge Site
LDT: What archaeological investigations preceded your work
at the Wakulla Springs Lodge site? How did that work influence
your understanding of the site?
BCJ: The Springs site which is really the wetland part of
[the] Wakulla Springs site, which we're not really gonna talk
about today, as you know interest in that and paleo- botanical
remains, mastodon, and so forth, was begun in the '30s. Of
course, since then projectile points, some of which are Paleo,
like a Suwannee or two and maybe a Clovis, have been reported
from the spring. All that's down in that 300-foot-deep spring
area of which the bones are supposedly still there. No one's
really made sense out of that, other than we've got mastodon
remains in that spring and the mouth of the cave that's underwa-
ter there along with these projectile points.
But of course where the lodge is Ed Ball built it in '37 and
'38, a nice sand ridge about 20 feet above the average water of
the spring it's an elevation [that] was never really explored
to any extent as far as we know, prior to our work there that was
begun when the Park Service took it over what, about 8 or
9 years ago?
JONES ET AL.
R. CALVIN ONESS INTERVIEW
TIn_____ n r V. -cm. Ai ..rn vN --- -9-9 V
Figure 8. Calvin at the Wakulla Springs Lodge site (ca. 1995) discussing the sewer-line excavation project with Park Service
employee Steve Martin who is working the shaker screen.
In 1994, one of the major projects was to put in a new sewer
system 'cause the old one was in bad shape and a whole new
sewer [was] planned ... That called for the excavation of several
hundred feet around the lodge of a meter-wide trench that
needed to be dug [by] a backhoe or digging corporation with
that project. And it was to go to 6 or 7 feet deep in many places
So I thought it was a rare opportunity to try to determine if,
based on reports from the springs, we didn't have an early-man
occupation or Paleo- indian occupation in the vicinity of the
So we first did a standardized thing working with the Park
Service, digging 50 cm test holes using an auger that went down
... 80 cm I believe. And then we hand dug ... four levels of 50-
some-odd test holes along the proposed line around the lodge.
That's basically all the way around the lodge, also extending
about a couple hundred feet to the east, to the bathhouse. Of
course, then I had to survey it, too.
So from that, we went down to the clay wherever that was,
subsurface-wise, which proved to be anywhere from 5 ft or
150 cm to 2 V2 m below topsoil. We found that truly we
weren't surprised by it, you can see it in other places around the
lodge on the ground this cragledy, unlevel, rocky, red clay
LDT: Yeah. [NOTE: The surface being described is a level
of soil at the interface of the underlying limestone, where iron
minerals in the ground water that is being absorbed by the
limestone precipitate out, much in the manner that a rust-
colored spodic horizon forms at the water-table level.]
BCJ: A rugged kind of surface that was there prior to man's
occupation. We later found out there was some sand that was
already on that occupation we covered up some of that a
couple of feet of sand, probably that's sterile, before man got
there. That could'a been from the springs boiling out, we're not
sure. It's hard to believe all that was windblown you know,
up to 10 feet.
So, we began in October of '94, though we had done some
other test work in, I believe, '92 and '93 for water lines. We had
samples there of material which indicated mostly Middle
Archaic, though we did find like one, Paleo-Dalton period point
that may or may not have been reworked, we weren't sure.
That's what we found prior to '94. But in '94 we were actually
able to ... lay out 4 -to-5-meter-long sections of the trench, and
take them out as sections, as units ... a meter at a time... And so
we did a number of those around the lodge, and ... we used
We generally began, however, at 60 to 75 cm below the
surface Level 4 or 5 because we knew the Middle
Archaic, we'd already determined, was in those levels, and we
didn't have the luxury of excavating 4 or 5 hundred feet of a
one-meter-wide trench and screening it. And too, the idea was
199> VoV- AMf)2
T F RIDA ANTHROP T
JONES EF AL. R C~ALVIN JOANES~ INTERVIEW
to locate any areas of artifact concentration that were dealt with
as high activity areas. So we did that, and we excavated
something like 80 or 90 ... square meters during October '94 to
the early part of November of '95. A project using some
volunteers, mostly park rangers (Figures 8 and 9) turned out
to be a good group of people at Wakulla Springs.
But the first phase of the sewer-line project was out in front
of the lodge near the northeast corner, particularly at the portico
as you come out the screened porch. We found an area there
- did a few test pits of calcined bone at about 120 to 140
[centimeters] below the surface in a rather tight vertical zone,
with these small flakes of fingernail-sized calcined bone
fragments in a light-colored, almost cream-colored, sand at that
depth. Prior to that we had several soil types that all appeared
to be basically non-cultural in meaning, though they seemed to
be associated with certain time periods. There were more tannic
acid stains at the Middle Archaic, but by the time you get below
that in the more leached area, you begin to get into what appears
to be a Paleo-type occupation.
We found that the Bolen Period the Early Archaic or
Paleo extends from about 60 cm below the surface to down
to about 80 cm ... though some [Bolen points] continue below
the 80 cm depth. Anyhow, we worked on the levels from 60 to
70 cm below the surface down to wherever ... we felt it was
sterile in each unit, in our trench sections. Like I say, the main
thing from that was a number of Bolen points we found, and we
found no recognizable pre-Bolen point type in that first bit of
work. But the main thing we found was that calcined [bone]
surface over an area of several units.
And so we felt that we were going to have to close it up. But
they decided to come back later and say that ... we were going
to have to move the trench over. So we had to dig a new trench
beside [*chuckles*] the trench that we thought we'd already
taken care of that problem. And so that's where we really
lucked out. We came back and just did the same thing, but
continued the number sequence for pits and just continued on
And so the second phase began in February, and I we uhh,
I think finished in March, one day of which we also used a
nearby area as a training area for the Ranger program we have
to train Rangers.
But prior to that in February and March, we opened up this
new section of trench ... in one area closer to the lodge, right
along the edge of the lodge foundation in front of the building
(Figure 8), and we found that we again crossed this area four
or five one-meter units that had this bone concentration in
the profile. We saved that 'till last [in order] to excavate other
units ... 20, 30 meters to the east ... where I found that large tool
that some people have interpreted to be a pregnant Simpson.
.And, it's, you know, over 7 inches long a large tool. And I
found it I believe it was 105 cm below the surface. In the
same area, or the same pit, we found above it, I think we got a
Bolen point that was [at] about 90 [centimeters], and we found
something else right above that. But anyhow, the sequence
looked pretty good there for something Paleo. That was 20 to 30
meters away from the bone-concentration level, I'll call it that
- sometimes this level being even deeper, between about 120
Oh, I know, the Clovis. A little Clovis point was found at 115
[centimeters], like a couple of units away from where the large
point was found. So again the sequence began to look good
Figure 9. Calvin at the Wakulla Springs Lodge site giving instructions to a park ranger excavating in the
sewer-line trench. Ron Weiss is working the shaker screen.
JONES ET AL-
BCALVIN JONES INT W
Tar Vt fltf A L A Nrr1l l flCV VVIqT 199 Vol. 51(fl
there. So at about 120 ... 140 [centimeters], we began to we
went back to those units where we found that bone concentra-
tion [in order] to begin ... troweling. We ... were thin-scraping
with shovels prior to that.
Well, we began to find a few plano-convex scrapers, but we
went on through this I can't even call it a layer, I would of
said so [and] there's enough scattered bone, calcined bone,
to keep our interest up. [LDT NOTE: From earlier interviews
conducted on-site, at the time, it was then believed to be the
remains of a food preparation area.] And so we went on below
that just to see, you know, what was there, and we didn't find
anything diagnostic in the way of stone tools we hadn't found
before within the area of... the bone concentration, at least
horizontally. But we did, at 150 [centimeters], encounter ahh ...
we had no indication of [it] prior to that level an oval, about
50 to 60 cm [in diameter], an oval-shaped pit in this almost
cream-colored soil [below the bone concentration]....
LDT: On the topographic map that you had with the sewer
line, showing where you had made your notes on where you put
your auger holes, the highest crest of that ridge was toward the
bathhouse area from the lodge, which was toward where we
were doing the [later] tree-planting project [by the kiosk].
BCJ: Right. Which is not far away from where we found the
lithics there, the large biface and so forth.
LDT: So they [the calcined bone] may have been on the edge
of the activity area which was on the higher ground?
BCJ: Yes. In other words, that definitely we found those
cluster areas, it definitely shows spatial integrity in terms of
different things going on in different parts of the site. And it's
still there and can be interpreted, if you carefully take it apart.
Now there's no reason why ... there shouldn't be, you know, a
lack of funding and proper research ideas given to that site,
since we own it, and there's no hurry about it, and there are all
kinds of researchers around. So yeah, ... it needs to be carefully
done and maybe [*laughs*] certainly done in a better fashion -
more time than we've had. That's one that should be done, so
that we can't be criticized by all the profession that's studying
Paleo[indians] in the United States. You know, like "they just
went in there with a backhoe and grubbed it out."
LDT: Aside from the lodge site, are there any other sites of
interest on Wakulla Springs park property that you've dealt
BCJ: Ah, well, yes there is. And of course, Steve Bryne,
who did a survey for us in 1988, I believe it was ...
LDT: And Tom Kempton.
BCJ: And Tom Kempton ... they still didn't find all the sites
that are in the park. They found a significant number. They
didn't find any that were for sure Paleo. But they did find a site
down river, which I later looked at, called "The Bear Site,"
which I believe's the site of Aute, a site where Narvaez visited
in 1528 when he was trying to find the coast to leave Apala-
... It was a tree-planting project about 50 trees they
wanted to dig meter-plus-sized holes for in this field that had
been cleared, apparently by Ed Ball, which was a large site,
mostly identified as a Weeden Island site by Steve and their test
work. So we had a chance there of digging some large test holes
on this site to further explore it, and in the process of doing this
[with State Park Service staff as Calvin's crew] we found a
couple of early olive jar sherds on this site, and also I was able
to expand the components that uh ... recognize more of 'em,
and find more material than Bryne had. And ... [I] determined
there's a major Ft. Walton site occupation about de Soto
age based on the ceramics, at this site. And that also a lot of
other components [are present at the site] that Steve Bryne did
not find -Steve and Tom.
So therefore, in going back and checking the distances from
Anhaica or [the] de Soto site to this site, [I tried] to speculate on
where Narvaez's Aute was near the coast which it's sup-
posed to have been, I think, two leagues from where he actually
built his boats. He built his boats on a low ridge, a low elevation
near the coast, which they had to send out a small boat to keep
the signal in case their mother ship came along, which it never
did. There he spent about 30 days building five barges [and] a
number of his men were killed or died of fever. That site hasn't
been found. We voluntarily looked for it in one location at
Wakulla Beach in 1992, [but] we didn't find the boat-building
site. [LDT NOTE: Because of Osprey nesting, we were not able
to excavate at the location Calvin identified as the most likely
site for the Narvaez encampment.]
But this Bear site is a major site, and the Weeden Island
occupation there is obviously associated with two mound
ceremonial sites, Weeden Island in age, that lie about 1000 feet
to the south back in the woods. But as I say, it contains the
largest one of the largest ... Ft. Walton sites in this area near
the coast that could have been Aute. And it follows the right
distance, I believe it was 6 leagues, using 2.6 miles in a league.
From Anhaica it falls just beautifully.
But that raises the question of where the boat-building site is,
and so prior to finding this early olive jar at the Bear site, which
I'm now speculating as being Aute, we had the Olin Work site,
which is at the [U.S.] 98 bridge crossing on the Wakulla. Also,
early Spanish material has been found there Hale Smith first
recognized that. So we've actually got two sites that could be
Aute, one of which I'm sure is. But again, to find the boat-
building site that would make Aute ... the first identified
early [Spanish] site we would know of if we can identify it as to
one of these sites.
So, yeah, much more work [is needed] in Wakulla Springs
State Park. I think, again, some of it, like this Aute problem,
[should be] directed toward working with historical documents.
And, of course, you later have a Seminole town there, too, you
know, the one they call "Francis Town" ... There are a couple
locations for Seminole artifacts [in addition to the lodge area].
The lodge area contains such a small quantity of Seminole
artifacts [it is] probably associated with Francis Town, but
[it's] not Francis Town.
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LDT: [During an Archaeological Resource Management field
training project for State Parks management staff] when we did
the water trench from the bathhouse to the dock, half the
ceramics we got were brushed ware ...
BCJ: Yeah. The site between the lodge and the Bear site -
Bear site's about a half-a-mile down river a site that's closer
to the lodge, actually [it] just picks up there where you're
talking about, goes down to a little shed a boat-launching
shed they call that, along the causeway where they could put
their glass-bottom boats in and pull 'em out for years, and not
used now that lies immediately east of the site you're talking
about. That does contain significant Seminole artifacts. It's
called the Ways site. I did some test work there for a waterline
trench back in '94 or '93, and I got Seminole pottery and some
transfer ware. But this agrees with what Bryne had already
found. So apparently ... the work y'all did there picked up the
west edge of that Seminole occupation. But, strange that it'd be
slightly down from the lodge and all that, and not right where
the lodge is. But I think that's been the fact [that there wasn't]
more occupation of it [the lodge area] by the later cultures, like
Ft. Walton, Apalachee, and even Weeden Island and some of
the other ... occupations that are there, but they're there in small
... the occupations [are] not indicated to be significant in the
lodge area for those cultures. Instead, everything seems to be
slightly down river.
I think that's due to our biased psychological thinking, based
on the current system of values today. You say, "well what do
you mean?" Well, the Indian wasn't concerned about the
springs themselves, they were concerned about having food and
water. And to them, being downstream [was] just as significant
as being right at the head spring. What were they gonna do in
the head springs anyhow? Except, like, Paleo[indians] probably
[were] there, because [they were] waiting for those animals to
come into that basin. So, therefore, Paleo[indian] appears to
have [had] the major occupation there Bolen and Paleo. So
to me, you know, everybody thinks, well, "the main springs,
that's where the action is. Half-mile down river where you can
get food easier and so forth and it's shallow water, that's not
important to me." Yeah, that's because you go to the lodge
every night and eat.
Unmarked Human Burials Chapter 872.05, Florida
LDT: You've been involved in numerous investigations of
unmarked burial discoveries and/or old historic cemeteries at
which the markers no longer remain. Please discuss projects of
particular note. What is your opinion of Florida's law and its
effectiveness, and what are your recommendations on this
BCJ: Yes, I've been involved in several projects where our
agency was asked to locate unmarked burials unmarked
today that is. There's some controversy ... [about] exactly what
"unmarked burials" means. Does it mean unmarked at the time
they were interred? Or does it mean they're unmarked today,
and therefore the law means applies to those that are
unmarked today. That interpretation has not really been agreed
upon by, I think, professional archaeologists as to what's
marked and what's unmarked based on today. So that's to be
resolved later. We try to accommodate the public regarding the
matter of locating 'em, 'cause we've only been asked to because
of some pressing issue like clearing of a lot in preparation for a
building or home or something like that ....
LDT: If you were looking for historic graves that say ... re-
cent history, that may have been either early settlers or black
folks or Hispanics or whatever basically the Christian
cemeteries and they've been abandoned, what kinds of things
would you look for on the ground that might tell you that you
have a cemetery or graves?
BCJ: Well, not alone, but one of the most common items
would be something like blue mason fruit jars, crockery,
porcelain doll fragments, shells sea shells, particularly in
African, or burials of African origin ... Other kinds of bottles
and glass ... Associated with the caskets themselves ... often
the places that are visited with the idea of locating unmarked
burials are in the process of being disturbed and you might get
casket handles and ... coffin nails.
LDT: Is there any kind of particular physiographic setting that
seems to be preferred, or any setting in relation to where the
occupations are, for burials?
BCJ: Yes, I think so. Now ... some of the one-generation or
low burial mound sites that are along, you know, some of the
major tributaries that run into rivers like the Hillsborough
River, for example, some of the major tributaries were perma-
nent streams and the environmental setting was such that it
provided enough food to survive on using even Weeden Island
or Pasco-period culture ... That's before the time of Christ until
about Mississippian times of 1000 A.D. These were pretty good
habitats to live in, and so these are the ones that generally have
the one-generational burial mounds, [and] often ... no village
can be found. So it's kinda like they served a community, served
a community of maybe two or three miles away; small villages
that ... survived at least up to the point that they had enough
time to construct a one-generation burial mound.
So anyhow, villages were often, say in Manatee and Hills-
borough counties and that region even in the inland Sarasota
region villages have n6t been found with some of those sites.
Of course, a lot of those sites have not been revisited and
therefore checked for villages. The earliest information we have
dates from the early part of this century, sometimes before, in
the nineteenth century. And at that time they were just digging
burial mounds, and no one was really looking for the village
Now, the few that I visited while I was doing the Interstate
Highway Survey 75, the bypass for example, I visited a
couple of sites and relocated I think what was the remnant
portions of this mound dug by [Matthew] Sterling. I just dug a
few test holes away from the mound, a hundred feet or so, and
found no evidence of a village. So ... Gordon Willey, in his
review of the Northwest Gulf Coast, reviewed the same, a lot of
the same, material that I looked at and could not find his
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[Sterling's] test holes. But they were limited, just like mine
were. Of villages that went with these, I call 'em low mounds,
short-lived mounds ... more evaluation of that's gonna have to
Now most mounds where I've looked for village areas, I
usually find part of the village within a reasonable distance or
in singing distance [the distance at which a mourning chanter
could be heard] of the burial mound. So anyhow, these are on
the low plateaus that do not generally flood, next to these
tributaries and usually within 50 to 100 feet of the of the
tributary; the village areas being scattered on the sandy ridges
up and down on both sides of the tributary. But certainly
something like that just is not very evident. In fact, a lot of the
burial mounds are not evident. A lot of 'em out there have not
been discovered because pot hunters are going for, you know,
the big, showy, six-foot-high mounds that are unplundered.
They know because of the size and the magnitude of mounds
that they're gonna get some good stuff out of it.
LDT: OK. Shifting back to probably all of 'em, whether it's
prehistoric or historic, is there any difference in the types of
plants that you would expect to find in a burial area versus a
non-burial area? Are there any plants that are introduced, or are
there any plants that seem to be absent?
BCJ: Well, I suppose since there's been so much change by
modem man that's affected the type of plants that are on burial
mounds, the best one of the best, perhaps environmental
areas that sometimes do still retain vegetation that was here
originally would be the coastal burial mounds. The ones that are
just inland from the coast where you get cedar trees on both
burial mounds and the middens there. And of course ... cedar
trees are [good markers] for village sites on the tree islands just
about anywhere along the coast. I'm trying' to think right off...
LDT: Yeah. If you go to, like, the early settler grave sites or
the slave grave sites, did they put any kinds of plants around
BCJ: Ahh yes. They put ornamental plants that were intro-
duced by our time our culture. Again, cedar trees are very
common [and] other kinds of bushes; sometimes even you'll see
Spanish Bayonet planted by these people. I suppose that's kind
of a way to mark the grave as well as protect it nobody's
gonna monkey around Spanish Bayonet [*laughs*] very much
without getting stuck. But, yeah, I've seen all kinds of ornamen-
tal plants and shrubbery, you know, that's what they are of
a shrubbery type. And, of course, cedars have always been
common. You would expect to find those, for example, inland
where there are no cedars to speak of Eastern Red Cedar -
expect to find those inland in cemeteries, where along the coast
you wouldn't necessarily know [if they had been intentionally
LDT: I noticed earlier, when we first started this discussion,
you'd indicated that for some cemetery locations where the
markers seem to be missing on the recent ones that you
had used some kind of scraper to take off the topsoil. What were
you looking for?
BCJ: Yes. In actually doing the project ... in order to respond
to these people who had a problem with knowing where
unmarked burials were on their property in the process of
building is when it usually comes up some neighbor will call
us or call the Sheriff and report that there's a cemetery there.
Whereas maybe if it had been reported ahead of time to some of
these landowners they'd have done something without having
to get us involved.
But the normal process in locating unmarked graves is to
take some kind of machinery that cuts a smooth trench it
could be a backhoe with a flat blade on it. A "teeth" blade will
just tear up everything. Because you've got to be able to read
the earth, and that's what an archaeologist does. He reads the
earth or stains by its color, by its mixture, by its texture, to
make a determination as to whether or not it's ever been
disturbed. And, where a burial has been dug, or any other
feature of any significance, any size, it leaves an imprint of that
pit that's [been] dug or disturbed part of the soil.
And so you take a grader, backhoe, front-end loader all of
'em have to have a flat blade that can cut down and you
scrape, you know, an inch or two at a time, across an area where
you think the graves are. And especially, of course, always
scrape north and south, because most cemeteries, particularly
the ones that are historic, had their bodies buried in rows east
and west extended burials east and west. And so you
generally cross the foot of one middle of the head with a
piece of machinery. And once you get a fix on where this is -
sometimes the upper level of these sites, particularly where
you're working in deep sand, you know, have been disturbed
even down to a couple of feet. You have to get that deep
sometimes before you can see where the pits of burials are -
and they show up real well. Their edges are not too symmetrical
if they're in deep sand because they tend to have cave-ins once
they get generally no deeper than 5 feet.
While we're on that subject, very few burials, particularly
nineteenth-century burials and before, in cemeteries, reach a
depth of 6 feet. Most of them, they average, I would say, they
average from 3 V' feet below the present surface which
would have been the top of the generally wooden box down
to 5 V2 feet. They're within that vertical zone. And most of 'em
are around, therefore, 4 feet below the present surface.
There's an old cowboy saying, you know, out in the West
about, "just give me a plot 6 by 6." Six feet deep. Well, you get
it on both of those in their logic. [*laughs*] No one thinks about
it, but how in the world would you dig six feet deep in that rock
to bury him, you know? So that explains while you're in Boot
Hill and other places, why you have so many rocked-up graves.
No idiot's gonna dig six feet deep in the rock; it'd take him two
weeks, and then he'd have to go to the hospital but they
didn't have any. [*laughs*] So if he's gonna rock up ...
LDT: He might as well dig two of'em! [*laughs*]
BCJ: [*laughs*] That's right! Dig it double size and then
you can fall in there and then cave the bank off as you go down.
But uh, sandier soils whereas you have more resistant clay
8 991 Vot 51 2)
JoN~W rr AL
soil, if the clay is a foot or two deep below the sandy top soil,
then once you reach the top of that clay you'll definitely see the
outline mottled colors of clay and sand mixed together. And
that would take several thousand years, or more probably, for
that to obliterate. At least in prehistoric burials that are dug in
the same kinds of soil, you can see them several thousand years
or longer. The soil still retains that texture of disturbance,
resulting from disturbance.
Site Settings and Survey Methods, Part I
LDT: The next topic, the topic that you and I usually chat
about, is where do you find sites, and what methods do you use
to find 'em. So, what I thought we might do is northwest
Florida, then central, and just sort of take different areas. I'll let
you choose the areas and then discuss what kinds of site
locations you'd find regionally, and then what kinds of sites,
culturally, you would find like Paleoindian, Early Archaic -
and for each of those what settings would you expect to find 'em
in? Basically, how would you go about finding sites, and where
would you dig, what kind of spacing, what kind of unit size, that
kind of stuff. Just the methods to use in the discovery and the
rest. So, do you want to start with northwest Florida?
BCJ: Northwest Florida, west of the Aucilla River, from
there to Pensacola, which is the Panhandle of Florida, primarily.
Well, there's the ideal and the real. And the ideal is of
course, we'll try to touch on that mostly today regarding the
subject of surveying and locating sites ... and then there's the
real. The differences in saying that or discussing the fact that
there are both kinds, seriously has always affected ... the manner
in which you look for sites. Because it just determines how
much time you have the ideal versus the real, as opposed to
what you maybe would, like to have. And ... also the funding
you may have which would go along [with a] planned project
versus something you had to do in an emergency situation -
look at this 40 or 100 acres or whatever. And unfortunately our
agency has always had to work with the real more than we've
had a chance to handle the ideal.
We've had a few projects, like the Caryville Project [in
northwestern Washington County] in the late '70s and early
'80s that was where a power plant was gonna be built along the
Choctawhatchee River just below the Florida line. It was an
ideal, I'd say, survey of where it's planned [and] funded by the
electric company that was proposing to develop the area for a
plant. As far as our agency's concerned, that's one of the few
that we've had the chance to actually plan out and carry out [a
survey] with a reasonable degree of success, and also I feel like
we accomplished most of the goals we set out to do ....
The ideal, of course, is to assume that you have the funds and
time to do the project, and the area's looked at that's to be
surveyed. And ideally, you take the former knowledge that we
know and that's what I'm gonna discuss about the region -
and plug that into planning how you're gonna do the survey in
the most effective manner to get the maximum results for the
time and effort. And of course, that's the ideal. Even the ideal is
rarely ever accomplished, even though we call it the ideal. But
we do the best we can no matter what.
And, you know, looking at the region, a good surveyor, no
matter which region he goes into in Florida and we have
what, five or six major cultural regions has physiography and
all the other natural zones that have been recognized, as well as
cultural zones that we recognize for those areas. And so the
area is looked at ... to determine what the limitations are, what
the range of potential is for human survival, human living. And
based on that, of course, if you're new to an area, that's what
you would first look at.
But based on what we know about the Panhandle, we know
what to expect based on what's been found before. That is, like
in these river basins like the Perdido and Choctawhatchee and
Apalachicola little difference. But these kind of rivers ... are
old rivers versus young rivers. And older rivers are generally
recognized by fairly wide basins with a series of terraces that go
down and finally reach the bank of the current river. That's the
way old rivers are looked upon, and you have some old oxbows
or cutoffs, like the Mississippi has so many. It's the best
example of what we've got in the United States of [an] old
river, because it's a big basin [with] all the meanders. As
opposed to the young rivers, from a geological standpoint, like
the Chipola, which have steep banks 15-to-20-foot bluffs -
and hardly no wide basins. And these are considered young,
geologically, as opposed to something like the Apalachicola...
But what we're interested in is knowing where sites are along
them, whether they be old rivers or young rivers. And, we have
no problem, generally, with the young rivers because every-
thing's generally exposed. There's still an eroding process of
being formed to become an old river, and therefore they have
rock bottoms, and divers can see what's on the bed of the rivers
... And of course the bluffs right next to it on land are great
places to look because they're not silted over. In fact, the
Chipola's well-farmed. And so collectors, therefore, love to go
to those kind of young river locations and collect nearby,
whereas on the Apalachicola you have to back away a mile and
go on high ground near a little tributary head, and then you may
find a site. But never big sites, as a rule ....
So, if you were gonna survey the Apalachicola, it would be
a much more difficult job than the Chipola, because you have to
... have a way to sample what's at the lowest terraces. You may
have one or two terraces ... between the edge of the current river
as we know it today ... [and] the last terrace, the third terrace,
which is the highest hills half-a-mile or a mile away from the
present river. And so those first and second terraces are the ones
difficult to get at. They usually are formed from levies -
they're usually formed from siltation, and no better example of
that was in one of those two sites that you and Nancy [White]
worked on at Blountstown.
LDT: Oh, below that, Otis Hare? [This was Nancy White's
project. I just volunteered for part of the project on my "bus-
BCJ: Yeah, Otis Hare and then the other one.
LDT: Well, Yon was straight across [the river] that's the
JONES El AL
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THE F~oRIr1A ANTHROPOn-C-I. 19Vo.T)
BCJ: Yeah, but I meant there's a village area that I saw with
you all. [It was the Yon village area; another Nancy White field
LDT: Yeah, but there's Sunstroke that's just upriver. Otis
Hare is a couple miles down river on the Liberty County side.
BCJ: Those are great examples. Now, how did siltation affect
LDT: At Otis Hare there's in excess of a meter of siltation,
and most of that's from the time of King Cotton the last
BCJ: OK, so you see what you're faced with there. You may
have to go a meter or more in depth even to pick up the occupa-
tion. The same thing that happened at a site on the west bank of
the Apalachicola at where Interstate 10 now crosses. That's
one Nancy and John Scarry worked on with Dave Brose of Case
Western. And when I found that site, for example, I had a
difficult time even reaching the river bank when I surveyed that
area. And when I got there, it was a muddy, slimy thing and had
the river not been low, if that was the edge of the first terrace I
call it, I wouldn't have found that Ft. Walton occupation, which
was again, under a meter or so of soil even on the first terrace.
And we know now from surveys along the river like Nancy
[did] several years ago, that many of these sites are only
exposed along the river bank when it's low enough you can see
'em. And these sites are like Mississippian age, you know like,
500 to a 1000 years old they're not that old. So you have a
lot of siltation, and then the question, for example, in the
Apalachicola is Paleo[indians] and did [they] ... ever live in the
basin? Well, based on what we know, it's absolutely certain
[they] lived in the place. How could you have a river that's like
that, no matter what the flow of it, that had great natural re-
sources mussels and other kinds of shells, sea shells as you
get near the coast ... So yes, by prediction, absolutely. Anyone
who would say that the Apalachicola Basin did not contain
Paleo[indian] sites of some degree would just not know much
about the area not have much insight into what's happened
environmentally. It's just that everything's silted up silted
over, shall we say. Therefore, sooner or later some site will be
found by some fisherman. I guess he'll have to hook the back
end of a Suwannee point. [*laughs*] But, in certain places
where the bed has been pumped ... a gravel plant at Chatta-
hoochee, everything back to about 10,000 [years ago] is
represented. [But] for some reason or another, in the one sample
we looked at big sample from Chattahoochee it [Paleo]
doesn't show up.
LDT: So you didn't see any lanceolate points in that sample?
BCJ: Well, we saw some Daltons.
LDT: Some Daltons?
BCJ: Yeah. I believe I did not see anything that appears
earlier than Dalton. But that was just one site. And a full range
of material from Dalton to Mississippian was represented.
Several cultures were represented and the artifacts were
pumped out of the screens, gravel operation screens, at Chatta-
hoochee. So, anyhow, that's enough on the Apalachicola there.
But, Paleo[indian] materials are there. They will be found
sooner or later. It's just that it's not a desirable place to work
when you can go to the Chipola and the water's clear, whereas
it's not in the Apalachicola. So, therefore, that leaves most of
the Apalachicola, if someone were gonna re-survey it, to the
uplands away from the river, away from any present flooding or
any known flooding in the past, except way before human times.
Whereas the Chipola, for example, would be a much more
desirable place ... if you look, you know, right up to the bank
and in the river itself. [*chuckles*] Because we're
faced with this whole problem in Florida about what the sea-
level rises were. It's generally agreed on ... by the oceanogra-
phers who are studying this sort of thing, [that] the seas rose in
the Gulf, for example, 80 to 100 feet in the last 10,000 years. Of
course, that affects how the river flows and whether there was
even a river there or not [or] just an arroyo. A bunch of
Florida must have looked like the Southwest, where ... the
basins had been scoured out long before man, long before
20,000 years ago, and in association ... with the melting of the
ice and other glacial stages that came before the last one, the
Wisconsin. So the basins had already been scoured out, in my
belief, and so you had the settings for these streams. They
became streams when the hydraulic pressure increased as the
water rose [and] they became flowing streams. They originally
formed, I would say, to get rid of the melting water, even though
we had glaciers no further south then Tennessee, I believe, in
The area in general ... [is] made up of, as I say, both young
and old streams. The Perdido seems to be a fairly old stream -
it has old oxbows and Judy Bense, I believe, has done the
most surveying there. And what you have there is ... compared
to the Apalachicola, is like a first terrace and sometimes a
second terrace that I don't think shows up too well. But you
have that third terrace, and the stream is not as wide as the
Apalachicola. And so it's a wonderful stream, I think physio-
graphically, for delineating the locations where sites might be
found. And they're found on the first terrace mostly, second
terrace-which in the Apalachicola would be the third terrace.
I think I'm right. But they're close to the streams, and as you get
away from the streams this applies to the Apalachicola as
well along those highland areas that don't flood when you
get to these little tributaries and spring heads that feed into both
streams, you find right around the heads of those, you find small
encampments. In other words, what I envision based on where
these sites are, are small little encampments, 50 to 100 feet in
diameter the same thing you find on the Yellow River, the
Shoal River, which...
LDT: By the head do you mean where they come together, or
where the spring starts?
BCJ: Well, you find 'em both places. You find 'em where the
1998 VOL. 51(2)
Tur Fr1rnIA ANTHROPOIAnGIST
JONE ET L B.CALVTN To~v TNTRVW
spring starts on the high ground a good example of that is
along the Shoal River and the Yellow River, which form the
north boundary of Eglin. We know from our own research and
Prentice Thomas's that these sites occur at the head springs
right above 'em on the highest ground. In many places you can
look and see on the next hill or way over a mile away. And by
the way, the topography in that region, which is up to 300-plus
feet [above sea level] in the Panhandle ... so it's fairly high.
Whereas in the Tallahassee area [it's] about 250 [feet]. You got
a 50 foot lesser elevation in the east end as you do in the west
We find these small sites, and the Shoal and the Yellow
River, for example, are still basically young rivers, they're
basically not wide, though they happen to be in a sandy soil
area, of which I don't think you could a bluff wouldn't hold
over 24 hours if you washed one out 20 or 30 feet tall because
it would collapse. So it looks a little older than it is, because the
sides keep collapsing and the bottom erodes out. So it's
developing what looks like a wide, flat, old stream basin, but
it's still young. For example, when we went there, we looked to
check on these sites along many of the streams in places that
were along the periphery of what most people ... would think
sites to be located. We did not find, or Prentice did not find, a
definite unless I'm wrong one or two possible low-mound
sites that are equivalent to the one- generational mounds I talked
about in Manatee and Hillsborough counties around Tampa
Bay, except those right on the bay in Tampa that had shell in
em. But ... based on where the sites have been found, we
thought more mounds would be there if you look at the
present river and vegetation and so forth. But [maybe] there
wasn't enough Indians to go around that's a theory I use a lot
of times too on an area [*chuckles*].
No matter what [culture] zone you are in Florida ... you tend
to get cultural "locales" ... and a locale would be equivalent to
a section along a major stream [where sites are located]. And ...
maybe a few miles away, you had another locale, [but there
would not appear to have been ] a lot of human activity ...
between these locales. So some of the better surveys seem to
indicate that. And that's anywhere in the south you get this
locale type of adaptation. And that's really, I suppose, the ...
result of the habitational process of an area where, no matter
what the culture is, [people] tend to come back to [an] area and
[it] gradually enlarges, because [they're] using up the resources.
And people tend to go back to an area, or establish new villages
within contact distance of another [locale] one that'd already
been established there ... I don't know that I've heard too much
about that; it's something that I've thought of largely. I don't
know how many other people have thought of it. I haven't read
any papers on the locale aspects, but I know I'm not the first
one to think of that sort of thing. But you find that's true in
Florida. And then you go just a few miles away to an area [with
no sites] that looks like, based on what we know today, a much
better locale than the one you just looked at and [which] was a
poor locale but it has a lot of occupation. And these you
know, we'll never get a handle on the whole thing about where
you find sites. I think we're at 80 percent predictability for most
areas, those of us that are in the most know about Florida. I
think we can get within 80 percent of that. I don't know how
much we'll ever be able to improve that, because I think we've
about maxed-out all the uses of our data at this time ... And I'm
sure we could do better, but it's gonna take a long time to get
another 10 percent ... even with our previous knowledge of
what's been found within that area, that extra 10 percent's
gonna be hard to come by.
LDT: So in that area you've mentioned, sites tend to occur
around the head springs or the seep springs, and where the
streams cross the lower terrace before entering into another
stream. What other type settings would you...
BCJ: That's correct; that's right. Well, you'll often have a
stream connected to another small stream that's coming a
quarter-of-a-mile down the ridge, on sandy ground where you'll
have two or more come together before they enter into the main
stream. And ... if the ground is high enough, or was high
enough -you can usually predict that by looking at the contour
maps usually there'll be a small site there. That's what we
went to evaluate over in Eglin Air Force Base. That's what we
Again, since the high ground is often overlooking [or] not
that far away from the river, you'd think ... the high sandy land
would be a wonderful place for sites to be located. But a lot of
times not much is there at all; or it's so scattered that it's not a
major occupation on the end of that high ground except right
around the springs.
So yes, in other words, when I surveyed Interstate  ... in
the '60s and '70s ... particularly around that area between the
Escambia River and Caryville, which is the Choctawhatchee
River, [it was] fairly void of sites inland and upland in that area,
because even though, you know, where the rivers cross, there's
no major sites. But ... there were small mounds that we found,
a mound site, that was at Caryville on the west side, on the
second terrace of the Choctawhatchee River. The
Choctawhatchee also has terraces like the Apalachicola. That's
one of the biggest rivers, or oldest, that's had a chance to erode
the highlands more around 'em ... There's a small Weeden
Island burial mound, which had a large pothole in it, that was
virtually gone. And it had a village near it on the second terrace
it's what I call basically "Hillbilly Weeden Island." I got a
large box of potsherds [that] I just dug up in a couple of big test
holes. And we have 'em down there in our archives [the BAR
collections management storage area]. You look through there
[and] there'll be some basic types like Tucker Ridge Pinched
and Weeden Island no Weeden Island Incised, no Red
Filmed or anything like that. And there you are, 100 feet north
of a mound a good village area; ain't no woods, just never
been plowed, never been cleared and plowed. And there's a
case where there was a decent village, probably 60 cm in depth
... a dark earth midden. And so there was a major site there ...
But ... you wouldn't know to look on that second terrace
because it's fairly hard to get to. Everything between the third
terrace and the river there is wooded and subject to flooding,
including the second terrace ... In fact, they had a flood after that
in the '80s that did cover the site. I didn't go out to the site, but
I went along the roadway of the bridge [*laughs*] and I know
it was covered, 'cause I know what elevation it's at. In fact, it's
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108 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1998 VoL 51(2)
about ten feet below the present bridge the height of the
mound [is]. And [it] just flooded within about may have gone
up to the bridge. So [the site] was under several feet of water,
four or five feet of water, when it flooded in the '80s. I was
going by, though, and remember taking a look from the bridge
and I said, "well that mound's underwater and the village is
too." So that brings up the question ... about permanency
versus non-permanency. Is that a semi-permanent burial
mound? It would be about four feet high, 100 feet in diameter.
And another person told me that a local amateur several years
before had dug that large hole, found a cache of pots, but he
wouldn't show 'em to me for which I [*unintelligible*].
The fact [that] the river floods pretty often there that
second terrace where that mound and village are and so we
raise the question, does that indicate burial mounds were built
in semi-permanent locations? It took a while for that village ac-
cumulation to get there. So ... from a cultural standpoint -
discussing the cultural development of Florida did just
permanent village sites erect burial mounds?
[LDT NOTE: Calvin, who generally considers environmen-
tal changes, fails here to consider that sea level was about 50
cm lower during the early Weeden Island occupation suggested
by the ceramics, at the end of a cool cycle when annual rainfall
would have been much less than at present. Thus, the nearby
river level would have been lower and less prone to flooding to
the second terrace elevation than under present conditions.
Furthermore, prior to logging in recent historic times, the
floodplain would have been less cluttered with snags, and the
flooding likely would not have affected the second terrace.
Indeed, modem siltation in the Choctawhatchee River has raised
the level of the main basin such that the channels of many of its
tributaries are deeper, becoming lake-like.]
LDT: What kind of subsistence or resources would Paleo-
indians have had available to them, and how would that have
affected where they located?
BCJ: Well, you know, there's a lot of disagreement about
what the environment was like in the 10-12 thousand-year-ago
range. Everybody agrees it was drier, you know, that 80- to-
100-foot sea rise but [there's] a lot of disagreement on what
the environment was really like, and what the temperature was
like, and ... the water table, and therefore the effect on where
man would have lived and how he would have survived.
To me, from working at Wakulla Springs and so forth, and
looking at the Page-Ladson site and many other river-find sites
that have been pointed out to me, and in this area that more
Paleo materials have come from, my impression is ... that the
potential for survival and living were a lot more limited in terms
of the geographical area than what we've got today. You know,
we've got good running water today at Wakulla Springs, and all
kinds of wild plants, and you max-out pretty good on eating nuts
and berries and white-tail deer and so forth.
Well, as you know, the controversy of the meat supply alone
- were any mastodons still around for 'em to knock-off? Just
a few might have been left all these ideas about man not
depending primarily on mastodons, killing the large megafauna.
I think there's certainly a reason [for the controversy], based on
what we know, since ... the preserved remains of these big
megafauna, as well as smaller game, are primarily in the rivers
because our uplands are not conducive to faunal preservation.
So, it makes it hard for us to evaluate, based on hard facts, as to
what they were eating because they lived on upland sites
overlooking these springs.
It appears as though the area was much more limited because
of the fact that ... the water and the food supply was much more
limited. And that was based on the environment. You know, at
Wakulla Springs, for example, surely it was similar to the other
rivers we talked about in the 10-thousand to 12-thousand-year-
old range in the sense that ... if it flowed, it didn't flow much.
Because the arroyo had already been established had already
been gouged out, eroded out long prior to 20,000 years ago.
And therefore, it was a great place to later become a running
Well, I would predict that Paleo[indians] went to Wakulla
Springs because it was sort of the head of a box canyon that had
water in it at the head whether the water was flowing at this
stage or not I don't know. And so I think that game, primarily
white-tail deer, were the reason they were there because how
many mastodons were around then? At Page-Ladson, I guess
it's not been actually determined that [hu]man[s] killed the
mastodon they got there. That's my impression. But there're cut
marks and so forth and arcs on some of the bone. And we all
would like to see strong, positive evidence of a Paleo point, for
example, found in a mastodon skull or whatever, to give us that
Otherwise, I believe we have Devil's Den down in Citrus
County the one where they have the radiocarbon date of like,
7,000 BP? [LDT NOTE: Devil's Den is actually in Levy
County.] And then some people question that. And it should be
questioned, because one date alone on a deal like this, where
it's the only one [that's] been found, you know, even less than
10,000 years ago, [the] only date we have, needs to be recon-
firmed by hard evidence. And the problem of the underwater
sites, as we all know, is finding integrity. They have no integrity
in the sense that nobody's yet found the layers of an actual
occupational zone down there. [But] yes, I think there was a
less-habitable area, and only the areas like the big springs or big
sinkholes that held water ... were the ones that were used.
By getting to the question, for example, of the Aucilla, where
the Page-Ladson is at the end of the river there not Aucilla;
it's at the end of the Wacissa. The Aucilla comes out again
between there and the Gulf. Uh, [it] raises the question about
the occupation along the Aucilla. I mean, if the Aucilla was also
- since it's really a very young, young stream, geologically,
'cause it's got rock where you go right up to these rock banks,
and the water level is now low, and so...
LDT: Well, how does the Aucilla compare to the Wacissa in
BCJ: Well, young, geologically I'm saying. Which still
places it well within the ball game for humann occupation
'cause we know it's all there. It's certainly younger, geologi-
cally, but of course it was well-established already eroded-
out just like the Wakulla River basin had been eroded out. It's
.~ Er ONES NERVIEW 1 I
just that it may have been toward the end of the "gouge period"
[LDT NOTE: This is Calvin's term for the period of heavy
erosion that formed these entrenched channels] because it never
formed a larger basin, in the sense that it didn't form wide,
eroded-out areas. The stream's fairly narrow at it's eroded
location. It happened to be in the coastal plain, a low area to
begin with. But that may have affected why it didn't erode out
as fast I don't know the answer.
LDT: Well, on the Paleo occupations and the settings ...
BCJ: OK. Well, back to the Aucilla. If I'm right about the
fact [that] it had already been ... established and eroding out of
a dolomite rock which is certainly pre-[hu]man in age -
what is all that occupation meaning along that river, because it's
almost one solid site all the cultural periods are represented
there from Paleo up to ... historic Apalachee and the other tribes
that came in and took over the headwater of the Wacissa. The
Wacissa route from the Tocobaga, who came in the late 1600s,
and, of course, [were] considered to be heathen, and controlled
the river there including the slave canal. Which obviously the
slave canal, it's well established Spanish records talk about
it. It may have been enlarged or altered by the slaves in the
1800s, but it was well-known and already established by the
So what does all that occupation mean, particularly the Paleo
occupation? Paleo points are found the oldest points, a lot of
Suwannees, a few Clovises, have been found along that river.
Are those all kill sites? I mean obviously, it's a wonderful
natural place, whether [it was] large megafauna or white-tail
deer and lesser-sized animals they were killing. They were
killing a lot of something there, and so where were they living?
Again, maybe the river was nothing but a bunch of little
potholes a rock basin you could walk up and down. So
they'd make use of going through those thickets like we have
[to] now. But so were the people actually living in the bed of the
river? ... Page-Ladson itself would be a drop to water all the
way out of it [it would have been] a tremendous cavern there,
or rock shelter type, compared to the Southwest. So were they
all living 20 feet below the present water level when it was dry
down to that point? I can't answer that. That's something to be
decided, and I've talked to [Jim] Dunbar about that. He's, at
least the last time I talked to him about it, he entertained the idea
that, yeah, they could well [have been] ... You had the water
hole, and it's dry the first 30 feet above the present rock ledge.
So that's all very possible. And, of course, since then you've
had most of these sites, since they're in the exact channel that
had already been eroded before man's occupation, and re-
eroded out and churned up, you know, like churning buttermilk,
to the point that you find now a Coke bottle with stuff that'd
been churned and re-churned. And so it's hard to find a site
now with integrity.
And, of course, you have other information that sort of helps
you justify this possible scenario. For example, at the mouth of
the Wacissa the Aucilla, excuse me still the same river,
they run together. But the mouth of it, a mile out in front of the
tree line you have that [Bolen-age] burial site we discussed.
And again, we know it's Archaic the nature of the burial, the
site, where it's located, and the fact there's no ceramics in the
area that have been collected by amateurs. An amateur showed
us this site, because the burials didn't have anything with 'em.
They dug two or three flexed burials, and they're buried now at
uh they would be about a foot underwater at high tide, a
normal high tide, and buried in Juncas grass. In fact, the nearest
trees are about a mile inland from where you are on these
mudflats where this site's located, which is like a mud bar that
runs about a quarter-mile long (Figure 10). [LDT NOTE: Sea
level would have been over ten meters lower than present when
the burials were formed.] So the first thing I did when I got
there was find a Bolen point side-notched, exhausted Bolen
point in the vicinity of the burial site. And north of it along this
mud bar was exposed chert chert blanks and stuff like that.
But we couldn't tell how old they were.
LDT: So there's a quarry someplace?
BCJ: A quarry, right. Right next to it. It's as if they chose a
little mud-lensed calcium carbonate area to bury their dead.
There happened to be a little lens there, a foot or two that
looked like thick, thick, marl-like clay that's not real compact,
that they buried in. It was interesting to me because of the marl
at the Gauthier site.
LDT: Yeah, I was thinking it was consistent with Gauthier.
BCJ: Yeah, it was. And so you look at that and you say, well,
it's close to Paleo. Maybe you say Archaic-Middle Archaic. But
more work needs to be done there for sure. For sure. [LDT
NOTE: Especially if the Bolen points are con temporary with
LDT: I know it's taken us a long time to convince people to
at least say they're digging 50 cm by 50 cm test holes down to
at least a meter, which are still smaller than your standard CJ
hole. But, it seems to me at Wakulla Springs and elsewhere, the
Paleo levels are deeper than a meter.
BCJ: That's correct. I mean, you do good if you get a half-
meter hole to a meter. But certainly you can't control it once
you get a meter deep with a half-meter hole. For example, it
becomes so far away on the angle of the shovel, it becomes so
difficult to be able to have any control over ... what comes out.
Other than you just take an arbitrary zone and just shovel
everything out between a meter and 110 or whatever. Yeah, it's
very difficult to do that.
In the Panhandle, that's been the traditional exploration
technique of subsurface testing. We've just been talking more
about where sites are would be. People have used in fact,
they haven't even used the 50 cm test holes that long. Prior to
uh when did you go into Compliance and Review?
LDT: I went in '77, but 1980 was when we started trying to
BCJ: Well, prior to 1980 there was absolutely worse than no
standards for surveying, and no standards in Florida. Some
JONES ET AL
BCALVIN J I
INSERT MAPs 2 Enlarg6ent of Aucllla
Bar Slte(8 Ta 124) located in the
NE 1/4 of the NN 1/4 of Sec. 1,
Twn 53, Rng 3E, Taylor County, Fla.
(Probably on Irnd of the St. Aarks
National Wildlife Refugc) Schematic-
low tide version by C. Jones, based
on visit on Sept. 17, 1983
l1thics T large embedded rock 10
lithics 0 iO0
V \,, I -
,- 'I", 32.5 ft.
12 noon tide level on 9/17/85
\ ----upper reddish peat zone under marsh grass, expose
cilla 1 k
S---underytng(2nd zone) gra peaty sand zone,exposed
u-ndirlylng(3rd zone) white marl,.not exposed
ver \S li ist undef-le
MARSH GRASS ISLAND
Site Is located in the NE 1/4
of the NW 1/4 of Sec. 1, Tun
58, RnS 3E, Taylor Co., Pla.
- \ I
1-l C. Jones test pits
50 cm by Ion en
Sshawel and water screened
tests by Jones d
Figure 10. Calvin's sketch maps of the Aucilla Bar site (8TA124) showing its location near the mouth of the Aucilla River (left) and the locations of the burial area
and Bolen projectile point (right).
Gulf of Mexico
;I In siza-
U *A.I 7TNM flIC ?NTWITVIDFW
people may disagree with me, but there's no universal there
was no standard agreement about what size test holes would be
and how close they'd be spaced, where they'd be spaced, and so
forth. I know, since 1980, you've had a big impact yourself,
Louis, a major impact on getting these people [to use methods
appropriate for locating the kinds of expected sites] and written
up letters rejecting [survey results because] ... the test holes they
did were not adequate to give you an adequate sample. And
making suggestions that everybody reach the certain size
depending on the kind of site that they had. And that's really
The best work is done where you don't do too much work,
but you adjust the size of your needs to fit the situation the
size of your test hole. Some sites you don't have to dig any more
than a 30 cm round or square test hole, and other sites you have
to do a meter and a half or a meter test hole, particularly
anywhere you're going below a meter and think you have
something significant ... You've got to be able to see what's
under that ground ... You've got to have a window big enough
to see it. So if someone can convince me that they can dig a 50
cm test hole and that'd be a big enough window for me to see
what's a meter-and-a-half deep, more power to 'em. I'm the
most conservative person in the world, at least when ...
LDT: Well, at Wakulla you used power augers to try and get
down so ...
BCJ: Yes, we did. So, that tells us ... [that] in the deep,
upland sands near a spring, most surveys in fact, virtually all
of 'em-have been inadequate to address the potential of
Figure 11. Calvin during the 1-75 Bypass project in
Hillsborough County directing heavy equipment in an
effort to expose deeply buried deposits. Photo by Dana Ste.
Paleo[indians] being in those locations because none of their
windows or test pits were big enough to tell us whether we had
an occupation there or not. And so previous surveys have been
... inadequate on the issue of Paleo[indians], whether [they]
even lived there.
Another thing we found from the [1-75] survey we did ... [in]
Tampa was that the ... Paleo [sites are] in the same deep sands
down there. Had we not used heavy equipment to expose areas
even in our testing, our Phase II testing ... we wouldn't have
picked up the fact that a lot of sites had a small amount of Paleo
occupation like, you know, a couple of seasons of use (Figure
11). We have 50 flakes of debitage, one broken knife, and
maybe the base of one Paleo point. So a small amount of tools,
a small amount of the total artifacts, less than a hundred, are at
the base of a lot of those big Archaic sites. And so in Florida
you just have to take Hillsborough County and what we did
along the Interstate [as an example]. Bob Johnson and some of
the rest of 'em are really convinced of that that you have to
look and all. Every one of these sites [has] got a little bit of
Paleo at the bottom. That proves all I'm saying that's
ammunition for saying that Paleo [indians] did extract, move
around a lot, though [they] had a base camp.
Central Gulf Coast
LDT: So, let's go ahead then and temporarily skip past north
Florida. In the Central Gulf Coast area, focus on Hillsborough
and the rest.
BCJ: Well, here's a case where the water level, as far as
Paleo[indians are concerned], I mean there were a lot more
sites. And based on primarily the work of Albert Goodyear -
who started out as an amateur, purely out of his interest in
where the Indians lived in that area he's done some excellent
work in determining where Paleo sites are to be expected. And
of course, he's described examining and looking at the dredge
material from several locations in Tampa Bay that Paleo sites
LDT: Yeah, he and Dr. Warren did a lot.
BCJ: Yeah, it was him and Warren, who was also an amateur
... We now know that those Paleo sites are under-water. We
also know there're Paleo sites out of water. I've just alluded to
those Archaic sites which are upland in the 80- to-100-foot
zone, in kind of a large accumulation of sand dunes [or] hills
overlooking the Tampa Bay area. These are the ones so heavily
occupied. You have several major streams that run through
these areas, most're young compared to what we talked about
in north Florida. They're young streams, geologically, in the
sense that they're a lot like the Yellow River. They're not big
and they don't have wide basins. We're talking about the Hills-
borough River being the biggest, northeast of Tampa Bay. And,
I'm trying to remember those rivers on the east side of Tampa
Bay. But, you have three or four not very many rivers,
except for the Hillsborough River being probably the oldest one
of these ... But we know from Goodyear's work and then what
we did in the '80s, primarily our agency, for the Interstate
B CA I VIN NES !NTERVIE
~~unn m r
112~~~~ICM TU ? CDn ,rrnn
Highway Salvage Program, that there was significant occupa-
tion in the bay that again, environmentally, the water table was
lower it'd have to be lower, it was lower up here. [LDT
NOTE: In Paleoindian times, what is now Tampa Bay was a
river valley a much richer ecological setting than the then-
drier interior uplands.]
So Paleo[indians], we know from the Harney Flats site, one
of the major Paleo sites, which was excavated by Michael
Wisenbaker and Randy Daniels ... they did an excellent job
excavating this site. And again, it was almost a repeat, based on
a comparison of the small amount of work we did at Wakulla
Springs, of the depth of Paleo materials beginning at about 80
[centimeters] and going down to about 145 [centimeters] max.
Scattered in that zone were both Paleo and Bolen points, and
Suwannee and Simpson points. And activity areas were
indicated by the distribution of these artifacts more tools than
anything else, which you'd expect along the edge of what is
Harney Flats today, which is part of the basin of Tampa Bay, but
it's along the edges, the upper edges 25 foot in elevation.
What's interesting is ... when you compare elevations with
these sites. It doesn't mean we know we have Paleo sites higher
and lower in elevation presently, in terms of comparison to
present sea level, but at Wakulla Springs, for example, it's
about 18 feet the actual occupation is ... where the ford [the
shallow river crossing near today's boat dock] actually would
be. About 16 feet of elevation is where you would think our
major elevation was at the time Paleo[indians] arrived. I'd say
it was at 16 feet above sea level today.
The surface of the rock next to the Page/Ladson site is 18
feet. Of course that would make the Page/Ladson site attractive
to where the mastodon is there, that they've not found associ-
ated directly with human remains. It's about 30 feet below that,
at least 30 feet. So that would place it obviously below present
sea level the mastodon. Then if you go to the Harney Flats
site, it was 25 feet above sea level. So there's a fairly narrow
zone there, except for Page/Ladson, which is still a question
mark as far as the human activity and where it was there in
elevation. It makes it very interesting. So, based on that
and the relationship to present sea level, then you would say,
well, a good elevational zone provided there are other
factors, you know, environmental factors like a sinkhole nearby
or something like that, would be somewhere between the 18 and
25 foot elevation. That would just apply around the Gulf coast.
I'm talking about particularly in those areas that have those
elevations. You get in South Florida ... all the way down to
Naples [there are] ridges, sand ridges, that are that high or
higher. It's just when you get in the interior, in the Everglades
... [that] a lot of that's less than 20 between, I would say, 15
and 20 [feet]. A lot of those tree islands are in that range.
But I think in terms of relationships of elevation. Because to
me that plays a large part in the thing. I think in terms of that
and localized topography where you've got sinkholes, whether
dry or wet it doesn't matter. And those things I think of more
than other environmental factors, because other environmental
factors are so changed. One thing we can say, is if you have a
100-foot-diameter sinkhole, that it's certainly going [to be old]
- unless it formed, you know, last year, and you have some of
these in the state. But it's so easy to tell the ones that were
formed in the last 500 years because they don't have any
vegetation of any age around 'em and so forth, compared to one
of any antiquity. You can surely bet that most any of 'em were
here before man got in most of 'em.
But anyhow, back to the Hillsborough region. A lot of points
there have been found, for example, in the Hillsborough River,
some of which are Suwannees 10-to- 12,000-year-old range.
Again, you have a very similar situation there, I think, as you
have here right in this immediate area. It's just that ... I think
you have a better opportunity there because there's several little
rivers there that come into the bay mainly around the Harney
Basin, which is a semi-wet basin that's the upper edges of a big
sand dune several miles [long] ... We looked at and calculated
square miles of dry land areas that're now being developed by
the city and county. The town has moved out. Temple Terrace
has moved out over that area. They're just building everywhere
they can, even filling in part of the basin demucking and
filling in part of the basin. In fact, they first did the [Tampa]
Bypass Canal in about ... [the] 1970s, late '70s. From that, an
amateur found probably an extension of the Harney Flats site -
a number of Paleo points around the edge of the basin. One site
of which he claimed he apparently had found a bison. And he
couldn't get certain people at a certain university to even come
look at it, but that's what he said.
LDT: Well, do you think it was because of the water, because
of food resources, because of chert outcrops what things
would have affected where they selected?
BCJ: Yes, in this case Harney Flats seemed to have been -
all of 'em seemed to have tried to max out on the number of
resources they could use ... Because first of all ... there had to
have been enough food there. And ... probably you could have
well had some grazing herds of both mastodon and white-tail
deer. You could have had those because of this grassy-like basin
that ... would have been there when they were. It's [would have
been] similar to what it is today ... 'Cause that Harney Flats site,
so far there's still a big area there [that] you can look out and
see the basin undeveloped.
LDT: So how would it have compared in appearance to what
Paynes Prairie looks like today?
BCJ: Uh, very much like that, very much like that. And since
the basin would have looked like that I don't know how
much water Paynes Prairie has in it, but it's more wet and semi-
BCJ: Yeah, I think when the grasses came in, particularly in
the spring, you would have [had] rolling herds and certainly
white-tail deer you would've had. And where deer are possible,
you know, they do develop into herds ....
LDT: You know, bison too.
BCJ: Yeah, well, bison too. We left out bison. Well, we don't
know a lot about bison at this point in Florida. I don't think we
TuIr V l nn AN"rruDoni rwl"-r
1aaRav s K1/\
JONES ET AL
do in the sense of when they were here and how available they
were. Our information is developed more on a negative basis
than positive, since bison remains are not found real often.
Nothing compared to mastodon and deer, of course. But we
know bison were here, because of the bison skull found in the
Aucilla with part of a point in it we don't know what kind of
point that was. But it is strange to me that fossil bison remains
are not near as common as most everything else. So that
definitely means there was some time period here that we just
didn't have very many of 'em. Or at least they haven't been
found yet, and that'd be strange.
Anyhow, getting back to what was in the Tampa Bay area.
You had wonderful Tampa Bay chert exposed along the edges
also of this upland extension of the bay called Harney Flats.
And so you had chert nearby and in walking distance not at
this very site, but I know within a quarter-mile you have chert.
And again, the making of tools played a large part in their lives
as we know from the excavation of that site and others. And, of
course, you also had apparently a sinkhole, a small sinkhole or
two there, [where] they could get water from. And you had a
number of aquatic creatures they probably could've ate ... And
so, yeah, it's just a wonderful place from that perspective to
choose to live, based on what we know now. Which is no big
We know ... though [that] they're other sites [around the
basin]- other camp sites ... [getting] back to the matter of
permanent versus non-permanency ... I know for about a mile
to the south, there's another site that amateurs have found a lot
of Paleo points on Suwannees and Simpsons. Infact, that's
the price we pay in archaeology; the exposure of knowledge
that somebody's going to misuse ... After Harney Flats, some
of these other sites were really plundered have been plun-
dered since then 1981. They've been plundered around the
basin. In fact, one or two I'd already found before they were
plundered. Every chance I got I would go around and look at
some of these other open expanses that stick out in the basin.
And from what I found, there was a small amount of material,
and there was no question about some of them being Paleo.
LDT: So those site settings would have been tree islands
around a prairie?
BCJ: Correct ... I would think so.
LDT: We can do more about Tampa Bay if you want, We're
dealing with the Paleoindian. Do you want to deal with more
recent cultures? Like Archaic or just...
BCJ: I'd like to say a little more about the interior. We
alluded to the Tampa Bay region we talked about Tampa Bay
and what's right around it, Paleo-wise, and the fact [that]
probably bison and other megafauna were around it during
Paleo times. Certainly the locale indicates locations where
several resources, like where Harney Flats is located, could
have been utilized, and were utilized based on the excavation of
that site. But going inland what you have is the sand dunes, the
sand terraces connected to the "central ridge" in Florida it's
called the highest elevations along the central ridge of the
state. Which are primarily old dune ridges. You have rivers like
the Alafia, for example, that run northwest through the Four
Corners of the mining district, which is Hillsborough, Polk,
Hardee, and Manatee counties. And the Alafia, for example,
runs about 20, 25 miles from its origin into Tampa Bay. And I
did a survey, a re-survey of Borden's Big Four mine a brief
survey back in '78 or '79. I think '78; one month's survey.
LDT: Is that one that you had Scott McNutt with you?
BCJ: Scott McNutt was with me on that. And it was one of
those surveys where I had a disagreement with one of my
colleague leaders about the survey and what was found there
from a survey done by a University of Florida person. And I felt
that most of the resources had not been located within this area
of about 20 square miles that was proposed to be mined. This
is high sand ridges southeast of Hillsborough County.
LDT: So it was where you were questioning the accuracy of
the hinterland hypothesis?
BCJ: Ah, yes. Tom Padgett, an individual who had worked
with us, had written a paper on those upland, high areas. And he
considered the fact that much of that area was in a hinterland
and didn't have major sites, and it was a buffer zone between
two areas or more.
And so we went there and we found of course, the
topography there is very similar to the highland areas of West
Florida, and particularly the Eglin Air Force Base where we had
these spring heads ... which Dr. Sellards, the old paleontologist,
calls "steep heads." And again, we found that sites there [in the
Four Corers area] are located at and around the spring heads
at the highest elevation, depending on where the spring heads
are. And then also, the lower terraces down near the stream as
it broadens out. A typical topography, almost parallel, in terms
of the local [northwest Florida] topography. And therefore
cultures or site occupations over there seemed to be in similar
locations, compared to [northwest Florida].
In fact, we found in our re-survey more sites than were found
in the original survey that had been done a year or so earlier,
and these are mostly lithic sites mostly Middle Archaic sites.
However, we did find one that we tested ... in cooperation with
the mining company ... the Borden Company. They furnished a
front-end loader and we found a magnificent Bolen-period site,
that probably also contains 10-or-12,000-year-old material
that's pre-Bolen occupation and which we've never been able
to follow up on. It was, again, a similar parallel stratigraphy to
what we had at Harey Flats and also Wakulla Springs, in the
sense that the depth of Early Archaic began at about 80 cm
below the surface ... down to about 135 [cm]. We found a
number ofBolen points, Bolen tools, scrapers and things, from
that zone, from about 80 cm to 130 [cm] below the surface.
LDT: Do you remember what name or what site number you
gave that one?
BCJ: I'm sorry, I can't remember. I didn't even give it a
name, I just gave it a number. But it's in sight of the plant,
. ALVIN ONES INTE W xxJ
BC F m ruJ r~~
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CALVIN JONES, A LEGEND IN FLORIDA ARCHAEOLOGY
NANCY MARIE WHITE
Department ofAnthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620
The scene is a bit foggy, since it was over 20 years ago, but
I recall some memorable details from the time I first met Calvin
Jones. As one of three green Yankee students from Ohio getting
our first taste of leading a highway salvage project, I was not
really sure of what I was doing. We had first come to Florida
over a year earlier to spend a January between semesters
learning about the area's archaeology, but this was the first long
summer field season. The official project was data recovery
(then called salvage!) of the Coe's Landing site, 8JA 137 (Brose
1980), which was in the path of the planned Interstate 10 bridge
over the Apalachicola River in northwest Florida. We were told
that Calvin had surveyed the entire length of that highway
before its construction by himself He had discovered the
Coe's Landing site as well as hundreds of others. He was
legendary in my mind before I even met him
We had secured lodging in the town of Sneads and soon were
told about the large site that was washing out of the Apalachi-
cola riverbankjust below the U.S. 90 highway bridge. This was
the Curlee site (White 1982), which we tested on our own for
similar reasons of salvaging data before it all washed away. The
project director, our professor, Dave Brose, was unable to be in
the field much of the time, trusting us (!) to run things. My
fellow graduate students, Pat Essenpreis, John Scarry, and I,
were so new to all the prehistoric cultural questions, the soil
colors and textures, the general environmental background of
the area, that we welcomed any professional advice. There was
little of this around in such a remote area as Sneads, Florida,
except from Calvin. He visited the site and helped us interpret
many things in his gentle teaching way, with no trace of
arrogance and with a huge helping of humor.
My most striking memory of those days is of the time he led
us to see the famous Aspalaga Landing mounds site, 8GD I
(Moore 1903:481-88), across the river on the east side, high up
on top of the famous and unusual Torreya Ravines. This area is
hardly the environment one thinks of as Florida: high bluffs and
pine-scented plateaus, steep slopes with springs or seeps
pouring out of them, making for nice little magnolia-shaded
creeks at the bottom that people would have liked to have lived
near. It is said that descending from the top to the bottom of one
of these ravines, you can see vegetation changes that make you
almost imagine you are driving from Tennessee to Florida.
Calvin took a long overland route to the site, explaining various
environmental features as he went along. He strode up one
steep-sided ravine, effortlessly leaving all of us (much younger!)
students behind. As we chugged laboriously up to the top, all
out of breath, he was already exploring a hollow tree with his
shovel handle to see what might be living in it, and explaining
what we could learn from it.
Over the years I stayed in communication with Calvin as I
did various Florida projects, finished my degree, and took
positions at Florida universities. He was always ready to help
when I appeared in Tallahassee with the latest artifact finds that
I could not identify. He often agreed to go trekking through the
swamps and was a master at understanding and appreciating
them. He was sometimes notorious for not immediately writing
up various field expeditions. Two decades ago I heard the line
about how somebody had better follow Calvin around with a
tape recorder to get all the site information in his head before he
got rattlesnake-bit. But I knew he would never suffer a snake
bite; he was far to good in the forest and wetlands to get into
trouble. More than any other Florida archaeologist, he was the
quintessential field researcher.
One of Calvin's best stories was about digging at Waddells
Mill Pond, 8JA65 (Gardner 1966; Milanich 1994:363), the
famous Fort Walton cave site on a huge sinkhole pond in the
Marianna Lowlands area west of the Apalachicola. He and
another worker camped there during the winter (the cold, rainy
season in the Florida panhandle) in a Land Rover. He said, "we
were just never dry, for three weeks." Calvin always had this
adorable cowboy persona, and I knew he was from Texas. He
talked of his training and experience there, especially his
respect for the work of Alex Krieger, famous for exploring
Mesoamerican connections and digging the George C. Davis
site, one of the very earliest pre-Mississippian platform mound
sites known (Krieger 1945; Newell and Krieger 1949). I had
this image of Calvin's origins on the wide open plains full of
buckaroos. So I had to ask how he had ever gotten so good in
the swamps, coming from such a different environment. He
replied, "Have you ever seen east Texas? It looks just like these
There are many who can chronicle Calvin's accomplishments
in Florida archaeology far better than I. (Can anyone count all
the sites he has discovered?) Not only are the numbers and facts
impressive, and the data of crucial significance for our under-
standing of prehistory and history, but also the methods and
philosophies are notable, for both the utilitarian value and in the
chronicling of the history of our discipline in this state. As a
graduate student in the '70s, I was imbued with the New
Archaeology, today called processual archaeology, which
required scientific hypothesis testing and the laying out of
statistically rigorous programs for site location. Now the
discipline has mellowed, allowed some postprocessual critique,
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
VOL. 51 No. 2
8 991 VOL. 51(2)
114 1 Hs r LIUvKuUA 1- l rut I 1
immediately northwest of the Big Four mining plant the
headquarters. And they had proposed to mine that out in four or
five years. Now that's been a while back. I haven't been by
there to see if it's still there, but it would be a great site to, if
nothing else, just mechanically strip by zones that can be
collected at least some of it. 'Cause you're talking about an
excavation there of several hundred thousand dollars to explore
this site like it needs to be explored.
Anyhow, from 80 cm to the surface we had Middle Archaic.
And this was up on a high ridge forgot what the elevation is,
but it's something like nearly 200 feet. It's overlooking several
springs that immediately feed at the base of the hill into the
Alafia River, which you can see from the site standing up on the
high ridge. And so, a wonderful site. And one that should have
been looked at or even should be if it's still there ... Now
this is one that's, as I say, it's in a parallel setting but a higher
elevation than the other 20 or 30 foot elevations we've looked
at. Slightly higher not a lot higher; I said 200 feet [but] it
may not be, you know, a hundred feet.
LDT: Did you ever visit the Bay West site? The one that
Beriault and them.
BCJ: Yes, I visited it. There was not anyone working there.
I visited after [they finished]. Again, it was a larger site; the
sinkhole was larger. It's, of course, near Naples east of
Naples in Lee County. [LDT NOTE: The Bay West site is
actually in Collier County.] And it was found, again, by de-
mucking. The owner found it. And Bob Carr and John Beriault
- John is a very conscientious avocationalist in that area -
and so John at first looked at it, and then invited Bob Carr to
come, and they really wound up just salvaging a lot, by screen-
ing a lot of material that came out of the muck and basing their
assessments on that.
I really asked them how much work they had done on the
uplands right around the pond to see if we had an occupation.
Well, they did go back and do some test pits, and found a small
amount of debitage, I believe, around the pond in the natural
soil profile. I don't know what they made of that, but that tells
us we do, again, have occupation in sight of the burial site. But
I gather they found wooden poles and so forth [in the pond], so
again it appears to be at least a Middle Archaic [burial site]
with Newnan's points.
LDT: There's supposed to be a cemetery in the slough for
BCJ: Ahh, yes there is. Little Salt's a fair-sized sinkhole, of
course, about 2 or 3 hundred feet deep. And certainly Paleo
materials, dating-wise that wood in [the] water and [the]
almost Volkswagen-sized turtle that had a hole in it. [A]
wooden stake had been burned while stuck in the shell of the
turtle. And... one throwing stick appears to be like a rabbit stick
Carl Clausen uncovered that. Again, not much work com-
pared to what we'd like to see has been done in the bottom of
the spring, to determine how that differs from the Archaic that's
in the slough that runs from the north into the springs. But the
slough... is generally of a mucky nature and it contains Archaic
burials flexed, which would be similar to the ones we were
I went down there one time and told Carl it would be easy to
find the village there, and he bet me a hundred dollars
[*laughs*] that we couldn't. And I just took Marion Almy and
Clausen ... we three took his P.V.C. unit grid, which was made
up of one 2-meter unit divided into four, out to the area where
the sand ridge was right next to the muck pond. And we
immediately began to find a fair amount of debitage and several
- 3 or 4 exhausted Newnan's Lake points "nubbins" we
called 'em. So, it was so easy. All you had to do was walk out
there and dig in the right place. [*laughs*] And so that was a
nice experience for all of us in this hole. I don't think he ever
did much more when he excavated more units found the
So there's a village area that goes with that Archaic burial
site. You know, we have just a lot of potential there yet a lot
of good information. So there's another village area that can be
really looked at, in terms of close work. Close work, that's what
we need now on some of these where we already know where
LDT: I know G.D.C. [General Development Corporation]
donated the spring portion to [the University of] Miami ... I
think the rest is still ... in private [ownership].
BCJ: So, yeah, in other words we have throughout the state
about a dozen or less of these muck pond, or preserved, Middle
Archaic-Late Archaic burial sites, excluding fiber-tempered
along the St Johns where a lot of human skeletons are mixed in
the middens along the St. Johns that are Orange Period ....
LDT: When you go over to the Dade County side, they seem
to find them in solution holes and stuff over on that side.
BCJ: As I understand at this point, the earliest documented
finds that we have for Paleo[indians] along that west Gulf coast
down to the Keys would be the Bay West site, which is Middle
Archaic. Most of that's in the 20-to-30-foot range where these
points have been found in the deep sand in Collier County,
along those dunes that built up there where the town of Naples
is sitting. John Beriault was the one who's found most of that
material since he's native there and has a personal interest. And
he is interested in the problem of cultural sequence and what it
means, other than just artifacts. He's interested in trying to
reconstruct how it was.
So by [the time you get] to Naples going south, you're out of
any chert. The last chert is a little bit from Port Charlotte. You
got the Peace River, [with] a major quarry site [that] Marsha
Chance worked on. It is an unusual kind of chert that's found
along the Peace River. And so we should be more on the
lookout as to stone artifacts that are chipped out of this chert in
terms of its distribution in south Florida. I've seen some that are
50 to 100 miles away projectile points [and] debitage that is
JONES l? AL.B. CAL VIN JOANES INTERVIEW
of this "Peace River chert." So I've not seen any this far north,
in Tallahassee, for example.
But going over to the Glades area, Bob Carr, of course, has
contributed to what we know about the earliest cultural materi-
als in the Glades and I guess the Keys. I don't know about the
Keys. We don't know much about the Keys in terms of early
man; we don't know anything. But that Cutler Ridge site, as I
understand it ... he has a Bolen point there but he doesn't have
anything pre-Bolen. And of course, Cutler Ridge would have
been dry then, I guess, [a] rock shelter the way it was to one
side. A small site, from which they found several stone artifacts
in there that would indicate definitely Bolen, but not before.
So that raises the question of what was the environment like
in the Everglades when [humans were] around 10 or 12
thousand years ago. Again, elevation-wise, it was in a reason-
able range in terms of 15 to 25 feet, with the tree islands being
the highest things around. But, of course, [it's] real difficult to
say what the Everglades was like then whether or not it had
already been scoured out during pre-[hu]man times to its oolite
limestone surface. I don't know that anybody can say that it was.
But in looking at the Cutler Ridge site, which falls within this
same zone, it appears at least at some time, [humans] arrived.
Certainly by Bolen times, there were dry enough areas for
[them] to live in. At least that cave was, which I don't know
what the elevation of the occupational level in the cave would
be in terms of modem sea level. But it was not very you
know, 15-20 feet, somewhere in that range.
So again, that raises the question of "well, you got a Cutler
Ridge site, there must be other sites in the region." But, are
there really true Paleo sites in [the] 10-or- 12-thousand-year-old
range? Can't answer the question yet. I suspect there [are] ... If
they were in the same type of setting as Cutler Ridge, are they
on a little higher ground? You know, 3 or 4 feet makes a hell of
a difference down there. And so maybe some of the tree islands
- which are little oolite entrapment areas maybe, where the
rock stuck up trapped the sand and so forth as the Everglades
began to really flow ... Maybe they lived on some of those tree
islands at the base. If so, then you wouldn't find a lot in terms of
stone artifacts, because we already know from the Middle
Archaic that stone's hard to come by [in south Florida]. We
know from Little Salt Springs in Sarasota south that finding
projectile points or stone tools is rare. And when they did use
'em, they used 'em up to nothing to just "nubbage" we call
LDT: So you think that the artifacts, points and stuff like that,
are more likely to be bone?
BCJ: I think they are. Through the years these things may
have been found and [were not] known to be Paleo. Yeah, down
there ... probably bone was ... used as much or more by Paleo
people than was stone.
So that's still the interesting challenge down there, you know,
to think that Paleo[indians] may [have been] there in the Ever-
glades, possibly laying on the oolite itself that's been scoured
away or washed away. Or possibly on the tree islands or
remnants of a foot or two higher in elevation. I don't know, but
I would not be at all surprised if Paleo[indians were] there.
[They] would certainly have been there if [they] had exposed
land. Keys, I can't say about them, but it should apply to the
Keys, too, 'cause the Keys are even higher than a lot of... the
Everglades higher than some of the tree islands.
LDT: Going northward up the East Coast ... I remember
reading about some earlier material found at Lake Helen Blazes.
BCJ: Uh, yes and no. The lake a lake nearby called Blue
Lake supposedly I've never seen photographs of the
artifacts but Blue Lake ... is a site not far under present
water, 4 or 5 feet. The lake dries up in wintertime, I guess.
Amateurs have found a lot of projectile points including,
supposedly, some Suwannees and Simpson points, which
indicate Paleo, in the bed of Blue Lake, which is a lake not far
from Lake Helen Blazes. I don't know what Blue Lake feeds
into, I don't remember. But I think it has a tributary that feeds
into the St. Johns, or into that connector between Helen Blazes
and Lake Okeechobee.
Of course, along the St. Johns River itself and [its] tributar-
ies, particularly [those that] lead in from which nearly all of
'em do from the west, since you don't have a strip of land
10-15 miles wide east of the St. Johns 'till you get to the Gulf,
and you at least reach the barrier islands of the Atlantic. Silver
Springs and so forth [are] major springs and spring heads that
lead several miles distance into the St. Johns from the west,
[and] they've produced a number of Paleo points. The Silver
Springs site's considered to be a Paleo site. And, of course, the
University of Florida folks, the scholars over there have worked
on that area more than anyone else. Jim Dunbar's done some
diving over there.
And then I don't know of too many points actually coming
from just a few points actually having come from the St.
Johns River basin itself. So, at that point in time, you find the
Paleo points in that [Silver Springs] area you're into an area
where you've got a lot of native chert and coral, which you've
got available ... whereas south of there you don't. And so that's
not too surprising comparing the environment. You had a
higher environment higher elevation environment than
you had along the west coast.
But the problem is ... there's some controversy about Paleo
sites along the east side between [the St. Johns River] and the
actual Atlantic, because not many Paleo points have been found.
But you also have uh, I guess they call it a syncline, geologically
- a drop down. But, of course, I don't think that would affect
us finding sites, the drop down having occurred prior to
[hu]man[s], so that should [have] already [been] over. So our
sites predictability should be the same degree of comparison
based on land forms.
For example, the only known Paleo site Paleo points, shall
I say that I've seen from the Atlantic side of Florida has been
a pristine Suwannee point from one of the rocket pads at Cape
Canaveral. Well, no matter what the age of Cape Canaveral is,
it all occurred way before human times. So we don't have to
worry about that situation.
And then to what the water levels were. Well obviously, the
JONES ET AL.
R. CAI.VIN .IONFS INTERVIEW
116 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1998 VOL. 51(2)
water levels were similar to what they were on the west coast,
in terms of elevation, based on what we know today. And so that
doesn't really cause a lot of problems other than us having to
figure out what the potential for Paleo sites would have been.
In other words ... sites would have been located [at] lower
[elevations] because the water table would've been lower just
like it was on the west coast.
But again, not many lithic sites, sites at all in fact, are
recorded or known by amateurs ... along the Atlantic coast as
compared to the Gulf coast. Even immediately inland, because
you've got about a 25-mile-wide zone there between the
Atlantic and Silver Springs into the area of the Ocala region,
where you start getting this nice chert for making points. And
even Gauthier, down at Lake Poinsett, which is east of Orlando
the same region I'm talking' about still, they would have
had to go 25 miles at least in distance, best we could determine,
to find chert resources. So, the stuff we found there virtually
very little debitage at the Gauthier site in the Middle Archaic.
Which is tellin' us that that far away from quarry resources, they
were already [placing] a premium on materials like chert. So,
with Paleo, again, there's only three or four that I can think of
along the Atlantic coast. Archaic sites, even where they used
projectile points, [there are] not really all that many until you get
into Rouse's Indian River area.
LDT: Would they have had access to the shallow-water
estuary resources? You know, where they could have substi-
tuted things like stingray barbs or catfish barbs for points?
BCJ: They would. Yes. We know the Middle Archaic people
at Gauthier did, for example, and even at Windover, which is
Early Archaic, [we know] that they used natural animal remains
like that for points and tools. So that tells us that they were
utilizing other things. Whether they did use 'em inland I don't
know I'm sure they did, they carried 'em with 'em ... in place
of stone tools, no question about that.
Take, for example, the little streams like the Sebastian River.
I did some survey along [it] in various places, as you remember,
a 40-acre tract, that found no resources. Inland a little ways
from that point would be the barrier islands inland just far
enough that you wouldn't wanna have to walk. But they could
have canoed. But anyhow, on this 40-acre tract I did there, fairly
up near the head of this little short river, the Sebastian River at
Sebastian, Florida, I found no resources. And yet the river today
looks good. It's not wide; it looks very canoeable. Well
obviously, that wasn't the way it was during Paleo times.
Now in Florida, Paleo materials would unfortunately proba-
bly be unless we find a site back on the high sand ridges
which were there those down near the water today would be
underwater, just like we have in the Gulf. And so, again, most
of that is sandy soil, silty soil. So the rivers are thataway too,
along the ocean itself, and the barrier islands. So until you go
back inland, you don't get these young streams.
LDT: For which coast?
BCJ: Oh, on the east side. You know, I'm talking' about along
the Silver Springs area. Silver Springs would be considered a
young tributary going undeveloped...
LDT: Into the Ocklawaha or something?
BCJ: No, the Ocklawaha and Silver Glen Springs run and all
those are young, geologically, and therefore ... The only reason
I do like the geologists do [and], in my thoughts, separate young
streams from old streams [is because] there's a number of
attributes that go [with the] young as opposed to the old,
geologically. They're all pre-[hu]man as far as we're concerned.
But the attributes that go with those tell me whether or not they
utilized those. You have to put 'em both together. You get all
the potential attributes of things, characteristics of a river basin,
that are full potential for them to use. And I know if I got a
young river, there's certain [settings] I don't have there; they
don't have the terraces on young rivers that would allow for
them to occupy 'cause they couldn't occupy 'em 'cause they
LDT: So you have a more limited setting in which you could
BCJ: Yes, you do. You actually have a more limited setting
by which you can look with young geological streams or
tributaries, than you have for the old ones like the Apalachicola
where you have a greater variety. But the problem there is, it's
usually so covered over with silt due to the erosion and the
formation of the natural levies, that you can't find 'em without
significant subsurface work because sometimes they're deeply
buried. You know, a meter-plus deep.
LDT: I'm going to shift back over into the North Florida area,
where you have things like the Itchetucknee, the Santa Fe,
running into the Suwannee. Are those in the younger or older
BCJ: The Suwannee looks like a young river; [but] geologi-
cally it's not. Because it's right at that stage, I'd say, in its
development... where it's recutting to a point where all you see
is its steep banks and rock-bottom channel. And based on that
alone if that's all you'd look at within a basin then you
think you've got a young river. But we all know that it's equal
to the Apalachicola in age.
So, if you don't think of it, you think, well hey, it's a young
river. You know, you got high banks that come up to it, just
eroding out it's in the process of widening to becoming
larger. But what's happening is, it already did that, and it's at
the recutting stage again. It reached the limestone level below
the sandy soil, now it's recutting into it [the limestone]. Of
course, it did that originally. Originally it cut a groove down to
where it is now, and then it stayed for a long time and eroded up
to the 50-foot line, which is horizontally, and now it's come
back to the one channel. And so it's an old stream, but [it] looks
like a young stream unless you look at the big picture correctly.
So, again, all that happened before mankind, this cutting and
so forth. You do have to take what you've got now, in terms of
JONES E~ AL B. CALVIN JONES INTERVIEW 117
looking at humann occupation, in the sense that it's [Paleo
material] usually within the you know, on those rock ledges,
which are on the 20-foot-high bluffs ... Though not much has
been found most of it's been found in the river, of course.
The question there is, did that erode off the banks? Or was the
river, again, so low when Paleo [people] got here 10 or 12,000
years ago that [they] just lived in the bottom of the present river
just like the Wakulla it was not running, if running at all -
you know, a sinkhole.
LDT: Well, some researchers say that the Paleoindian focus
in Florida was restricted to the karst areas. Do you find that to
be true, or do you think it's a survey bias that does that?
BCJ: Well, I think it's a survey bias, you know. I don't think
it was intentionally biased. It's just, these people that did the
analysis on that, they found that's where most of the Florida
sites were found, and they've gone out and looked and found
others in those locations. And they've looked in other areas
where they've not found any sites. So, you know, I can see why
that seems to be in vogue. And it's a good place, karst topogra-
phy's a good place to look based on [the fact that] you can
see karst topography where you are sinkholes there and
somewhere down yonder, something right on land around the
But I think that's biased. It's biased because there's a lot
more to the story than just karst. Again, the question what
are we talking about with karst? Are we talking about just
individual sinkholes and them alone? Or are we talking about a
situation where we had the right elevations like a karst [there]
compared to a karst over here at a certain elevation? I mean a
sinkhole that begins at the 20-foot level -the 20-foot limestone
level where you had the eroded-out karst sinkhole like Little
Salt as opposed to a huge basin that we don't really notice
geologically, that's [the] same thing but much larger silted
in. So, in other words, I think karst becomes meaningless in the
sense that yeah, you got those pristine karst locations,
textbook type, [and there's] a good chance for them being
occupied because they indicate water was there at the right time
due to the elevation. But that could be true of a lot of places now
that are dry, you know, silted in completely. And so, yeah, it's
good to say that, but most karst locales obviously were, you
know you had a series, an area of several square miles that
had a lot of karst, I mean actual pits they could've got to [in
order] to get water from the sinkhole. Yeah, I would say you've
got an area of high value potential of finding sites that are Paleo.
As opposed to a highland area where you didn't have any water
during the 10-12,000-year-old stage. But, of course, they were
used also for hunting and collecting. And so, at this point I think
it's a simplified version of where to look for sites. A good place
to begin, but...
But along the various coastlines that were here between
where the water rose, were also good locations. They didn't
have to be along streams, they're just as high a premium. The
question is, most people wouldn't call a 20- foot-high bluff
along the Suwannee River, wouldn't call that a karst setting,
LDT: No, I wouldn't.
BCJ: But they're just as good, along any stream at the right
LDT: Yeah, there have been numbers of lanceolates found
around Choctawhatchee Bay, too, and that's not exactly a karst
BCJ: That's right. So anywhere [there was] water is really a
good place anywhere water was between 10 and 12 thousand
years ago and the presumption that other aquatic and natural
foods were enough to augment what they could get out of the-
bring animals there or get out of the water. Aquatic, be it
marine or fresh water, wouldn't matter. In other words, there's
plenty of room for that, and nobody's really discussed that. They
haven't discussed the big picture even yet.
I know the person that wrote the primary paper thought he
had discussed the main thing about the perched-level pond as
opposed to karst ponds that were young in age and that's
good information, good geological information. He's pulled a
lot of good information together. But there's a lot of places that
Paleo sites, I'm sure, are located, and that really was anywhere
that contained adequate water. Because when you have ade-
quate water at [a] location, no matter what time period, you're
gonna have some degree of occupation by humans some
utilization of the resources.
So, yeah, the Choctawhatchee couldn't be a better example;
no real karst in the area. Like I say, there's all kinds of things,
just because you know a lot more about this, you don't know
anything about that down there. Or if you go down there, you
can't evaluate how it was there compared to here. But I assume
that there's just as many around water sources, and we've got
more water sources than just karst that were available to 'em.
You've got the whole coastline the whole coastline!
So, yeah, the bigger picture still has to be looked at. The
problem is, we just don't really know where all the water was
when Paleo[indians were] here. [It was] a lot more limited, you
know, than what it is now. We have no problem accepting
ceramic-period cultures beginning 4000 years ago, we don't
have any trouble accepting the fact that they are located all
along the streams. Why do we have trouble accepting that
Paleo[indians] didn't live all along the streams? If we think
there was any water there at all, we have to assume that water
was in the sinkhole I don't mean a karst sinkhole in terms of
big sinkhole I mean just small ones. You know, 20 feet in
diameter all along the basin. And streams where they would
hold water, hold it long enough to get by from rain to rain.
And too, you know, this is simplified stuff we're talking'
about, in the sense that we don't know what kind of variable
conditions existed [in the] 10-12-thousand-year-old time period.
Apparently, there was a lot of environmental change based on
weather conditions rain, temperature in the sense that all
this sand over all these sites, how'd it get there? Of course, most
of that, we know, built-up in the Middle Archaic. But there were
chaotic environmental conditions occurring had to be in
that 2000-year time period [from 10 to 12, 000 years ago]. Of
course, there may even be an older time period, we don't know.
H. CALVIN JONES INTERVIEW
110 THE Ii, -DA NTHROPOLO GINST 199R Vol. 5(f
I mean, I know of- I've seen Suwannees along the Aucilla,
for example, that are far back on the hills at 200 feet in eleva-
LDT: Is that the Calico Hills area?
BCJ: No, I mean Aucilla farther up river up near I-10. In
that region I've seen a couple Suwannees from a field up there,
200 feet in elevation, in red clay where a preacher and his son
But, again, all that tells us, like the Harney Flats upland sites,
is [at] the base of every one of 'em [sites] you have evidence of
a little bit of extracting you know, extractive campsite
activity. So we definitely know Paleo[indians were] in the
uplands for a time at least, extracting the resources [they] could
get. Must of been white-tailed deer, where they ran from
wooded hammock to wooded hammock ... The best I under-
stand it ... you really didn't have 200 acres of upland out there,
interspersed with woods, and therefore resources. So that's a
fascinating time to understand, and I don't proclaim to under-
stand much about it. I just tend to look at why they might been
We haven't talked about Middle Archaic and all what
happened with the culture period ... about when they came in
and different locations....
LDT: There's certainly if the length of the times for the
cultures are more or less the same if you're dealing with, you
know, 2-to-3-thousand-year span across Paleo, when you shift
to things like Bolen, you're dealing with less than that, but the
quantities of artifacts certainly seem to be greater. Or they're
either making 'em and throwing 'em away faster or something
or other, but the numbers of Bolens versus the numbers of
BCJ: Uh, correct. Well, there's no doubt about it Dolph
Widmer and I have argued a lot about this. And Dolph's a great
statistician, as you know. And he's tried to argue that well, there
were no more of one than the other. I said [to Dolph], well, just
on your argument, what you just said the fact that Bolen
people were around a lot less [time] would indicate there had to
be a lot more of 'em for them to lose 10 times as much, 20
times as much, or leave that much garbage cultural remains.
And I would argue, yes, there was a population explosion with
Bolen for some reason. I don't know, the rivers really may have
begun to flow, and the environment [may have] improved by
that time. That's what I think. By Bolen times, around 10 or 10
/2 [thousand years ago], that's what they've got at Page/Ladson.
LDT: Maybe they ate better. If they shifted from a hand-
thrown spear to the atalatl, it might have allowed them to
capture so many more animals than they could before...
BCJ: Well, I've certainly argued that, based on the nature
and the way the Bolen point's made.
LDT: ... that they went to a surplus in food, which let 'em
BCJ: I think the population really exploded. [In] a thousand
years, you can have a real population explosion. One thing is,
the environment improved a lot food-wise, or there were a lot
more places to get by. You didn't have to travel as much and
therefore you could become more semi-permanent than you
could before. And the climate just generally improved, and like
you say, they went to using the atlatl [*unintelligible*].
There's no question about it. With 10 to 20 times as many
sites at this point, you'd have to say 20 times, maybe even 30
times as many sites that are Bolen, as compared to pre-Bolen
lanceolate sites in Florida, something really happened that was
amazing, you know, in terms of- there had to be population
[increase] because all of south Georgia has upland Bolen sites.
Too, the sites are higher, they're higher in elevation as a rule.
Of course, they go down low, too, like Page/Ladson. We know
they were at that 20 foot, at least, occupational level ....
So when the changeover occurred, either mid-Bolen or into
Paleo the beginning of Bolen, is a good question. Nothing
happened at the same time all over, but something amazing
happened. Because we find a lot of Bolen sites with no Suwan-
nees I mean no Paleo material on 'em. You really do. You
find some Bolen sites with Paleo material is the way I like to put
it. But you find a lot of Bolen sites with no lanceolate-form
material on 'em at least based on seeing the stuff collected in
the fields of south Georgia, the fields of Jackson County, in that
area, and from the river beds as I understand it. It reflects,
though, a less-controlled deal.
LDT: At Wakulla Springs, there's certainly considerably
more Bolens than earlier [material]. Johnson Sand Pit [8LE73]
had a little bit of Paleo but a lot more Bolen.
BCJ: Right. Well, that's always the case, even where there are
Paleo and Bolen on the same site there's a lot less Paleo. So
something strange is happening there, I don't know what it is.
I would still argue that you had a population explosion, 'cause
you couldn't argue the other way, because the time period's a
lot shorter. No question about that ... But we just don't have
enough information as to how it was. We can speculate a long
time, [but] we just don't have enough information.
But anyhow, all these questions we raise, or [have] talked
about with Paleo, are yet to be answered. And we've actually
had a lot of progress in Florida in the last 30 years since I've
been doing it not necessarily attributed to me. But we made
a lot of progress because of a lot more researchers than there
were 30 years ago. You didn't have the consultants 30 years
ago. There were no consultants except some of the university
professors. And they weren't doing consulting like they are
now, for themselves. So a lot changes in 30 years. There's been
a lot more archaeology done, some of it not necessarily good,
but at least test holes were dug in the ground. At least somebody
took a look, you know, at what was underground. Maybe not
deep enough, in [some] cases.
In fact ... that's my main gripe, [or] would be if I had one ...
the test holes [have] not [been] deep enough, and therefore [not]
TUB Vl F1"1[ ANIm I MNTUTOC^ ntl .lT
I-.C r B. CALVIN JONES INTERIEW
large enough. Because the debitage alone tells you, in the small
quantities you find at Paleo sites-most of 'em which
parallels those in the Southwest. You don't find beaucoup
material on those [early sites]. You might ... get a couple
hundred items ... 40 or 50 identifiable tools, if you're lucky. At
least on average, you usually mostly see scrapers or broken
knives or whatever, something of that nature, not points ... at
sites in the Southwest. So, that tells us a lot fewer people were
involved in the [making of those] sites in each individual site
as compared to Archaic, particularly with Bolen.
This whole thing of evolution of Bolens too, you know, needs
to be further worked out. I think it will be through time. Plain
side-notched, I mean corner-notched, being the latest theory
now, as I understand it, versus the beveled E-notch, or I-notch.
So it's a fascinating, fascinating period of time. And Ben
Waller, of course, was the first one who wrote the lanceolate
thing. Of course, I didn't even know about it, but he did a good
LDT: Certainly, when they shifted by Middle Archaic times,
they were using, for lack of a better word, a lesser-quality chert
to make their stone tools. Whether that's because they mined
out the best quality stuff, or because water levels rose and made
it inaccessible or some combination of that, I don't know. But
they certainly shifted from that high-quality translucent stuffto
that grainy stuff that they had to heat-treat to make work.
BCJ: That is true. That is true. As the modem knappers know,
you go back and visit quarry sites to obtain material, they learn
[that] within a year or two they've gotten everything they can
put their hands on ... that's chipable, you know ... So you ...
take even a Paleo camp 4 or 5 guys that need chert to chip,
to make tools out of or refurbish [worn or broken tools] 4 or
5 guys can eat up what a quarry's got in just a little while.
And years ago, they pulled the usable stuff [from the surface].
Even though there's more down there, they didn't have much
way to quarry it out and dig it out of the ground. So far in
Florida we've not found a quarry that's directly showed [that]
they went to the point of actually digging tunnels to get it out
like they would Minnesota pipestone, where they actually
quarried. I suppose even the copper up in the Great Lakes they
dug out tunnels to quarry it in a crude way. At least they got it
out of the ground. Well here I've not seen a quarry that you can
really say that man, you know, went to the point of digging
down. He took what [he] pried up and what he could find on
the surface. If that was good material, then he took it. If not, he
didn't have a shovel to dig deeper. So that made a lot of
difference, too. I guess if it'd been ... unique... enough they
could have traded it more so, they would've [traded it].
LDT: What's interesting is that by the time that they got to
early Weeden Island and late Swift Creek, they were back to
using that high quality stuff again for a little bit, or at least in
this area [northwest Florida].
BCJ: Yeah, well, like you say that just raises the question that
you've already posed. Is that some impacted locally, based on
LDT: Yeah. There was a sea-level drop [to 50-60 cm below
present from Late Archaic to early Weeden Island], when water-
table levels dropped that may have let them get to deeper stuff.
BCJ: That's right.
LDT: There also could have been that during the thousands of
years [when the chert wasn't accessible because of high water
levels] that more limerock was eaten away making it accessible
BCJ: That's right.
LDT: They certainly liked that caramel-colored stuff that's
BCJ: Right. Yeah. Well in this century since diving, subsur-
face diving's been going on, our underwater people who are
now knappers the...bottoms of all our rivers are about
already ripped off of anything observable, coral or [chert] ... So
unless a new exposure, recent flooding or something, exposes
something like that, it's immediately gotten now [by divers]. I
mean, it's almost like they place their order and wait until a big
rain comes and then dive down where they've already found
some stuff... and see if any more is exposed.
LDT: Yeah. All that stuff they call the "cannonball" chert.
BCJ: Yeah, the big round boulders of it, which are a lot of
those are coral, a lot of 'em are not. But it just doesn't exist
anymore, they tell me, on the [river bottoms]... Shoot, the St.
Marks River was a good one for coral heads and they say you
can't find one now. Every now and then one is eroded up, or [is]
eroded out of the [river] bank. But, they say you used to just go
over there and nobody paid any attention, nobody collected it.
It's only been [in] the last 10 years or so that knappers have
really gotten with it, and a whole knapping thing has developed
in Florida ... But it's the few original knappers [who] started
here, and then of course things spread everybody wants to
learn how to chip stone tools. And as a result, we got all this
resource rip-off. Of course, I don't know [that] anybody's ever
been arrested for pulling out coral heads or chert from the river,
LDT: I know some have been given warnings to put it back, by
Game and Fish.
BCJ: Is that right?
LDT: Yeah, they were upset. And it wasn't because they were
taking the stuff for knapping. It was because they were remov-
ing fish habitat.
BCJ: Oh, I see, I see. But you know they're doing it every
chance they get. And that's not necessarily one of the things ...
that would really be under our jurisdiction.
LDT: Well, they don't let 'em dig the geode sites because
BCALVIN JONES INT W
JONES ET AL
VTn ElnulnA Ammnton.. 19 V 1(
those are registered quarry sites.
Site Settings, Part H
LDT: I know that you usually do the presentations at the
training programs on what settings sites occur in, and how to
recognize 'em and stuff like that.
BCJ: Yeah, well I'll discuss that a little bit, I think we've
touched on that-in that area. But, sort of like I said earlier
about my old geological professor stating that there's always
exceptions to the rule well, that's true in Florida. So as a
result of that, of course, sites can occur just about anywhere.
Now, we've developed these ideas ... about Paleo[indians], and
what the level of the water was, [and how this] would seriously
affect our judgments [about] where sites are [located] today.
That's true. But sometimes our evaluation of ... the data is
incorrect 'cause we don't ... [have] enough data to make a really
good, accurate judgment. And therefore, when something's
found [that is] not [what] we anticipated, in locations we don't
anticipate, we consider that an exception to the rule. Well,
you're always gonna run into that in anything exceptions to
the rule. But nothing's 100 percent reliable, particularly when
it comes to mankind, and where he or she lived, and so forth.
But as we know in Florida ... [sites] can occur just about
anywhere, depending on certain time periods. Really, certain
time-period sites, like we've been talking about one, Paleo
[indian]... [where] we've found all kind of settings, some of
which we've touched upon. Many of 'em are apparently under
our Gulf today, and even the Atlantic, 'cause the water has risen
different amounts probably 80 to 100 feet they say [based
on] geological data we have about sea-level rise ... Like the site
at the mouth of the Aucilla [River] which is certainly Middle
Archaic, 5 or 6 thousand years old, and more likely to be 7500
years before the present. It's a mile out in front of the tree line,
it's under the juncas grass, below high tide today; you look a
mile back to find the present tree line. If ever there was a site to
dramatize the difference in water levels, this site does. As I say,
it's the Middle Archaic, 60 to 75 hundred years ago, and that
just makes you wonder when you look down the shore in both
directions, how many other sites are located along the Gulf, for
example, that are underwater.
We know from Michael Faught and [Jim] Dunbar and some
of the others ... where they took the projected stream of the
Aucilla, for example, and went on out several miles. And in 30
feet of water they found some debitage near what they project to
be the old stream bed ... in fact they found, I think, one projec-
tile point. So that clearly whets your appetite in terms of
knowing what in the way of Paleo may prove to be out there.
The only problem I have with that is ... how much of [those
sites] will have stratigraphic integrity... Unless [they were] on
the backside of some of the ... higher, resistant rock or dunes,
you might not have any stratigraphy that's left, that's meaningful
from a cultural viewpoint. So you'll have the artifacts, but you
won't have near as much integrity, I'm afraid, as you'd like.
But it's obviously out there, and everybody's keyed into that.
Of course, that's for Paleo sites. We know Paleo sites were
[located near] ... springs in Florida in those springs and then
above those springs, usually. So we're faced with the question
of what's a kill site and ... what's an occupational site? Does the
present dry land indicate an upland site, and do the present
underwater ones generally represent a kill site? Well, we don't
know the final answer to that, but at this point I would say that
most of the underwater sites may be kill sites, though it's
possible that some of 'em were dry enough for [people] to have
camped there seasonally before the water or the rains came.
And of course that would be the winter and the spring. Our
driest months would be the winter through June, our driest
months. They could have camped in the beds of these streams.
[LDT NOTE: Nick Fallier told me some years ago about
finding submerged charcoal "hearth" areas near rock ledges in
the St. Marks. While they could have served as camp fires in a
seasonally dry arroyo setting, I have long believed that they, and
others like them, represent fires associated with chert quarrying
- where the heat from a fire built under a tabular chert slab
would cause moisture in the heated area to rapidly turn to steam.
The expanded moisture vapor would crack the chert and detach
it for core and blade manufacture.]
So, we're getting a fix on that, at least we think about it.
We've got some data, but it's not enough data yet hard data,
in terms of controlled data, that's the problem. The river- bed
stuff has no control over [context] you've got a Coke bottle
next to a Paleo point.
So anyhow, we know that these are few in number compared
to later sites, or beginning with Bolen, around 10,000 years ago.
But... things really changed with the population explosion and
apparently that's attributed to these [later] sites. They're located
... at the same level [as Paleo sites] ... and extend higher in
elevation, which indicates that they truly began with or near the
time of Paleo, and then lasted later, [during] which a foot or so
of sand may have built up during their time of occupation across
most sites. [There is] some argument now as to how that sand
got there. Most of us believe that it's windblown sand that came
[inland] from [the] Gulf shores ... These sites are generally
higher, and would be dry land today, though we still have the
same equivalent underwater a large quantity of Bolen
materials [is present] at these underwater sites. There's also a
lot of Middle Archaic stuff in the beds of these rivers with
Bolen, and we don't know, we have no way of saying that they
began generally at a higher elevation because we have no
control of stratigraphy. That's the problem with the underwater
business. One day, a major site will be found on one of the
rivers. Of course, [there is] some question about Warm Mineral
and Little Salt it seems [as] though the occupations may be
Paleo at one and not the other. One of 'ems the Early Archaic.
But, Bolen sites are found above water as well as below water.
Wakulla Springs and a number of other sites in the state, they
seem to extend, like I say, later in time with the sand built up
about a foot on dry land sites. [LDT NOTE: With sea-level rise
and the drowning of river valleys, coastal estuaries and embay-
ments, and associated hammock and marsh habitat of the
Paleoindian and subsequent Early Archaic periods, formerly
dry, marginal interior areas became wetter and evolved into
more desirable ecological conditions that were exploited by
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8 991 VOL 51(2)
L. ALVIN ONES INTE W xxx
coastal populations that were compressed into the smaller land
Rivers, Streams, and Springs
BCJ: Now, sites occur along all the rivers and springs in
Florida that have any antiquity to 'em at all. Which means most
of 'em do have antiquity, most of 'em are pre-[hu]man in age.
We don't have to worry generally about how old the water
source is ... as long as it's older than man ... And so, those sites
today are very numerous, and you pass 'em all the time, drive
over 'em. In the sense that they're along the streams, they're
generally close to the streams, where you don't have to walk
very far for water. Topography and water locations are the two
main variables that I think you want to think about today,
overall, in planning a survey. Because, they're [the] two
variables [that] have changed the least. The soils being number
Water is generally predictable, at least where it was, based
upon what you can physically see today with your eyes. That is,
you can generally see where a stream is or was; certainly a river,
if it's still running. Some of these dry streams were running
1000 years ago, [but they] are dry today. But you could find, you
know, Mississippian Period sites along some of them on
occasion; [those] that are dry today, [but] were running a
thousand years ago. But, they would not be of a great magni-
I have an old rule of thumb that I use, and I think it applies
anywhere across the Southeast, including Florida. And that is,
in regards to water and sites, the bigger or more permanent the
water source, the bigger and more permanent you 'll find
human occupation. Well, what does that really mean? Well,
that means, the bigger stream generally offered a lot more in the
way of natural foods, 'cause of what it attracted. Obviously a
sinkhole like Wakulla Springs could not provide a range of
vegetative foods that you might like to see, as opposed to a river
like the Apalachicola, 'cause you just got a small little basin
there [at Wakulla]. So, the foods you would collect there would
just be the nuts immediately around the area and various seeds
and so forth. A large stream like the Apalachicola would have
an unlimited supply growing along its different terraces, where-
as a spring would not. Instead it would offer all the game that
came to it ... a setting where they would be prone to cluster.
Whereas along the river you don't tend to get that clustering as
much, I would say, as you do along a spring area. Deer would
all come to a certain spot, or where birds came in to feed -
[they] come in at a certain time of day and cluster there at the
spring. Whereas along a river, there might be spring heads or
tributary heads where they would come, and so forth. But the
main thing a river would offer [is] a little more variety, non-
game, than a spring-type setting.
So, the bigger the water, the more permanent the stream,
because... smaller streams, a lot of them are intermittent. And,
what kind of sites therefore should I expect from one to the
other? Well, as I say, the bigger ... and older the river [is]
indicates a time range that was adequate to cover all the cultures
that could've lived in that region. And they would [have]
gravitate[d] to that bigger ... and permanent water because of all
the natural food around it, as opposed to even a spring. The
problem with a spring is, you don't just have a spring as a rule.
You have a spring with an outlet, even to the point of them
being rivers like the Wakulla. Then you have all the added
resources that you'd expect along a river along with a spring. So
you could expect a whole range of environmental foods to be
available, which would be wonderful.
And so ... small little streams ... particularly those in west
Florida, in that high sandy country, like the Shoal River, for
example, [and] the Yellow River ... were a little better than
some I can think of. But they don't go dry. But as you get up
near their heads, a lot of the feeder streams that run into 'em do
[get dry]. And certainly you could find a mound in one of those
areas; [that] would be the exception to the rule. Let's say I'm
talking to you about Deptford, 500 B.C., about 2500 years ago,
I would not expect to find a mound in that area. If I did, it would
have to be a small mound, [a] one-generational type mound.
Because first of all, when we have those people who were
hunting and collecting off the land, I mean there's not enough
food up there for them to survive the whole year. And so I
would question how they would have made it. I wouldn't expect
one. So, you look at the environment to see how rich it is or
was, really, to consider ... what kinds of sites you might find.
Certainly you'll find sites along streams that're not intermittent
if there [are] places [where] the topography is high enough for
it not to flood ... you're likely to find a small site along those
streams. You're not likely to find a city built along one of those.
But I've seen springs that are very unusual, taking the Southeast
as a whole, where you find these kinds of sites you don't expect
near a stream with no outlet. Particularly up in Tennessee they
find those quite often.
But anyhow, that's the way I see sites. You know, they're
everywhere, they're everywhere ...What we're interested in, of
course, are those with the maximum amount of data. We're
getting' where we find we can't even keep up even though we
know where sites are, we can't keep up with the damage that's
being done to 'em, because of the development of Florida.
Other adjacent states are experiencing the same thing, as people
come to the Sunbelt and develop their five acres. Of course, [at]
the same time the state's putting more pressure on [available]
land, because it's restricting [the use of] more land by buying it
up, for one thing. And the other by the environmental laws.
They're trying to protect some of the state from being totally
developed, or poisoned shall we say, by modern toxins ... to the
point that [the land] becomes unusable. And that's a good and
noble goal, no question about that so we'll all be able to stay
here and work on what interests us, [in that part] of the State
that's left, that hasn't been toxified.
Mounds, Middens, and Villages
BCJ: But anyhow, you have surface exposures that tell you
about many sites. Of course a mound is the obvious one, and
they're not always we can't positively identify a mound in
many cases. That's due to the fact I've already earlier talked
about: most mounds are a foot high, and so therefore they
mimic dune tops, natural dune tops. And we can't recognize
'em a lot of times 'till we dig a hole in them and test them to see
jT Fo Wr A*
Tnr 'NE 1 0LN-A N-mL'fllfl G fLCST 1998 VoL 51(f
what the stratigraphy is, so we can determine whether or not its
man-made by its various colors of layering that would be
associated with human activity like a building [the] digging
of burials disturbing the soil underneath or whatever. Burial
mounds and temple mounds are the two basic types, though
you've got a million midden sites too along some of the rivers
like the Apalachicola, where you got mussel shell middens -
dark earth and mussel shell, food residue, and other kinds that's
buried under a meter or so of silt. And so things are not just
simple to say you got, you know, a mound or a burial mound.
'Cause sometimes the functions of mounds change. You don't
see it too often, but in certain parts of the state, particularly the
St. Johns, you see [that] a mound started off as a what we
call, [what] Clarence Moore would call, the man who dug many
mounds for Peabody, would call a "domiciliary" mound.
Meaning just a mound where they lived on top of it, through
their garbage. Well, I suppose that's a pretty good term, but
they also find burials were later intruded into those, and the
function of some of these things changed into burial mounds.
The base of some of these burial mounds, many of 'em along
the St. Johns, I certainly believe have Orange Period occupa-
tions which are made up of mostly midden. The burials were
[*unintelligible*] out of the midden. Apparently the Orange
people, which are Late Archaic, did not think a lot of their dead.
So it appears that they're buried in the garbage heaps. But then
later St. Johns people come along with more formalized burials
[and] erected a true burial mound, a sand mound, where you
had a planned idea in mind. Bodies of tribal leaders were buried
in those things. And so you have, with surface exposure, you
have mounds. In one case, you have the one palisade that I
know of, that's like a hill terrace that rises up about three feet
- like a giant speed bump in cross section. And it contains the
remains of a palisade, out there at Wadell's Mill Pond site, on
a branch of the Chipola River in Jackson County.
LDT: It seemed like at the Lion's Club site, the extension of
LV4, you had the mound that the village midden extended over.
BCJ: Right. I think that there's a lot more of those, and that
was at Cedar Key, Florida. That was a prime example of the
change in the function of the mound. The whole thing was on a
high sand dune overlooking Apalachee Bay. The midden was
the last deposit over this small burial mound area. Its a small
burial mound area that was erected there during Weeden Island
times, about a 1000 to 1500 years ago, on top of a midden. The
Weeden Island mound was placed on a midden slope and then
brought up to 50-75 cm in height, I believe. It was blended back
level with the slope of the midden there, that had previously
been added to this site. And then the whole thing was capped
with a continuing midden ... by I assume the same people, but
we're not sure Weeden Island people.
But, if you had just gone and looked at the site and dug one
test hole, just one test hole, you would have seen nothing but a
midden mound and not known that one side, the south portion
of the site, was really a covered-over Weeden Island burial
mound. I tend to think that that sort of thing occurred in more of
these midden mounds than we realize.
BCJ: About 15% maybe of sites in Florida are non-village
sites or extractive camp sites; whereas another 15% cover the
mounds and other kinds of sites, quarry sites and so forth. So
most of the sites they say we have 19,000 sites recorded now
- most sites in Florida of that 19,000 [about 70%] are village
sites or camp sites. And, they're not particularly recognizable
on the surface at all, unless you have a subsurface exposure,
[like] a ditch or something [where] you can see the natural
ground in the vicinity ... [or] a plowed field, anywhere that you
can see the subsurface. If you find human artifacts, human-made
artifacts, like debitage, pottery sherds, animal bones that appear
to be old, these are the most common things that you expect to
find. Or dark earth, and these particularly are located in the dark
earth, and [the] surrounding earth of nearby fields is of a lighter
color. This always goes with potsherds, nearly all of, ah, most
of the time.
These are the characteristics of most sites. Nothing dramatic,
nothing that is going to jump out at you and say that this is a
wonderful archaeological site that needs to be preserved.
[People] say, "well where is it?", and you say, "you're standing
on it." [They respond] "well, I don't know what you mean, its
a flat field out here." [You say,] "well the river is right up there.
Start looking around, start walking down one of these rows and
see what you can find in this plowed field." They begin to pick
up stuff, and [exclaim] "Oh, I found an arrowhead! I never
found one in my life." Well, this is the way that you're going to
become exposed to most sites in Florida. Or, [they might say]
"I found a beautiful, I guess its Indian pottery, [its] got a
decoration on it."
[You explain about what's found,] "So, its the garbage from
living or artifacts that are lost from living there. You know,
people usually leave things around the house that get covered
over. So, this is what you can expect for the way most sites to
look. Now, just take some of those same sites, that once they
were exposed to an archaeological excavation, it might astound
you what you might see there." [So they ask,] "well, what would
I see there?" [And you answer,] "Well, first of all, you know we
dug this area that you first looked at and we found it wasn't very
deep. It was only two foot deep. At that point we reached a red
clay that's pre-[hu]man in origin. But, we did find some pits that
extended into this clay had some nice things in them." [They
ask,] "Can I see them?" [You answer,] "Yeah, we've got them
exposed now, that's why I'm telling you about them." And so
you go there and you see the round, 30-foot diameter area,
where every two feet apart, three feet apart, or so there's a hole,
a black hole. [They ask,] "what were those?" [You respond,]
"that's where wooden posts were. The Indians had a building
here; a round structure." [They exclaim,] "Ah, that's neat!"
It begins to dawn on them what their seeing, and [they say,]
"Oh, there's another one over there." [You note,] "Yea, we just
passed it. You see those big black spots sticking up out of them,
you know its like half of a pot left in a cooking pit, and so forth.
And in it are several stone projectile points, scraping tools, and
so forth. So, the sites you look at that away may contain those
kinds of things, which are features, we call them. Each house
will have separate features. And, of course you have three main
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features, like you have a double-feature on Saturday night."
BCJ: So, there are wonderful and amazing things that man left
that tell us about what he did when he was here, even though it
may be a flat field site. Unfortunately, what's happened to many
flat field sites and upper islands of Florida, and in the Red Hills
area, even in the Marianna Lowlands, is that all of the top soil's
been washed off.
I've even seen features that have been plowed into, hundreds
of fire pits near a site at Wadell's [Mill Pond], not at Wadell's
the nearby site, but some at Wadell's too. Beautiful. You
can see 'em by the outlines of the dark soil, pot sherds and bone
that come up out of there when they plow deep. There's just
hundreds of them, as far as you could look across there. But,
other than being damaged by plowing in this case about a
foot, because I'd seen this one site that hadn't been deep-
plowed, bottom-plowed, probably ever. As far as I could see
was just pits. This was going into Mississippian, which is 1000
to 1500 years ago. And it made you wonder, you know, it's a
shame. Anyhow, that's what some of those flat sites contain.
Subsurface features, that's the kind of information that we're
after. Of course, we're after knowing how big a site it is,
because that gives you some idea about how long they were
there. You always usually approach one or the other. What I'm
trying to get at here is, when you find a site you have to try to
evaluate whether or not the occupation was left there over a
short period of time or [a] long period of time. Or, it could be
a site that appears to be quite old by its usage [and] may have
been intensely occupied [by a lot of people for a short time], as
opposed to a site that is occupied for a long time by a few
people. Its hard to tell sometimes whether a lot of stuff accumu-
lated over a short time or a lot of stuff accumulated over a long
time. Both [types of] sites contain about equal quantities of
LDT: Yeah. That's where your diagnostic artifacts come into
BCJ: Ah, correct, correct.
LDT: Change is slow enough that if you have a lot of artifacts
with little variability, then it's probably the shorter time.
BCJ: That's right.
LDT: Whereas, if you have a lot of artifacts and the styles
change, then it's probably the longer time.
BCJ: Ah, yes, that's right. But, that's what you have to do.
You can't just walk up to a site and gauge its length of activity
or usage by what size it is. And too, another difference would be
Paleo sites. The same-sized Paleo sites in terms of occupancy
of area would probably indicate a much longer usage than a
ceramic-period site [because of population differences, mobil-
ity, and the duration of occupation at any given location].
BCJ: So sites are all over the State of Florida. I've looked at
the general figures [of sites] by acreage ... and tried to come up
with some averages. We have a good portion surveyed, I think,
ofjust about every county 67 counties we have in Florida. I
have a pretty good feel of what the averages would be for
Florida, in terms of sites; how many archaeological sites we
have. Not historical sites, but archaeological sites that are
prehistoric. And I came up with a figure of-we got about 34
million acres, I believe, in Florida. And based on what we
know, we probably have ... one [site] every 80 acres. Which I
think is not strict enough, I think there are more sites, one for
every 60 acres or so. [That means] we've got somewhere
between half-a-million and 600 thousand sites.
Of course, most of the primo sites, the largest sites, you know,
the ones with mounds, have been reported and recorded. In fact,
they were even dug, most of them, by Moore ... around the turn
of the century. In other words, most of those hard-to-find sites,
or subsurface-buried sites, are the ones we're talking about.
Most of 'em still are out there. So obviously great finds are
[still] to be made. The question is what will be done with 'em.
And our society today is faced with all the needs of keeping this
together. And there's less money, and therefore, the volunteers
might wind up doing most of the actual fieldwork.
Archaeologists are not going to have the funds they're
sometimes used to having. And a lot of 'em are modem, young
archaeologists that have been trained to do it by the state-of-
the-art way, which costs a lot of money. That's the ideal versus
the real. And we've been the only agency in the state [to be] run
on an emergency basis reacted to try and salvage good
information by working with the local folk. Whereas the
university's have their own schedule and they can't you
know, a professor can't just leave in the middle of class and say,
"see you guys next week" Of course, maybe he should take his
students if they were gonna look at the site, or look at a piece of
property where a human skeleton was reported dug into a while
ago. That would be a good kind of experience.
So we're going to have to get practical in our profession to
answer the call of what's needed. Lord knows there's enough
people in Florida that's retired, and they're expertise is in every
field. Usually in an area like South Florida, particularly ... it
wouldn't take long for word to get around to form a helping-
hand group organization. You could get anybody you wanted.
You could get retired doctors, chemists, you name it, you'd get
the whole works. I know, I've been there, from Texas to here,
and those people are willing to come out.
LDT: We have the Archaeological Resource Management
training program, that went from once a year, to twice a year, to
three times a year the one that we're teaching to the state
land managers. And starting with the next Florida Anthropolog-
ical Society annual meeting [May 22, 1998], we're doing 4-
hour sessions for FAS people, so they can assist the [State
BCJ: That's great, that's great. Well, we are gonna have to
depend on them. They will provide the labor and expertise, even
JONES ET AL.
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for the analysis in many cases. In fact, some of 'em will have
their own laboratory-type of resources themselves, to do things
that we don't have at our end to do. Like some of these chemists
will have their own little laboratories. We'll have photographers
who have their own laboratories that can compete with what
we've got and, you know, if necessary, will be there to do it.
But yeah, I mean, that's just gonna have to be the way it is.
And if certain professional archaeologists don't like it, and if
they'd just as soon have nothing done, then that's the way it'll
be. But I can't see that, because [the amateurs are] going to
demand that, you know ...
Survey Methods, Part H
LDT: We were talking about the site distributions and method-
ology ... I know on doing the methodology [presented in the
agency's compliance review manual], I gave examples of unit
sizes, and most people settled on the 50 by 50 [cm] by 1 meter,
and quarter-inch screen as if that was the only thing there is. But
that wasn't my intent when I was going on the models and stuff.
I thought that from my perspective, that the exercise should be
that a person is going to do their background research and find
out what kinds of sites are known or expected to be in an area.
Then, how are they characterized? You know, like what settings
do you find them in? What are their dimensions? What classes
of artifacts represent them, and what size are those artifacts?
What are the dimensions of a site? If the average site in an
area is 10 meters across, and it normally is found from, you
know, a meter to a meter-and-a-half deep, and most of it's little
retouch flakes or microblades, then somebody that's going
through and sampling every 50 meters or every 30 meters,
*digging down to a meter and using half-inch screen, isn't going
to find much. I mean, basically, you try and figure out what
you're going to find, and then say because I know the sites or
site dimensions that I expect to find in this area and in these
settings are within, you know, 10 meters to 20 meters across, or
5 to 10 meters across, then in order to find those, my spacing on
my sampling can't be any bigger than 10 meters in that kind of
setting. And because the class of artifacts that I expect to find
are gonna be of this dimension, then my screen size should be
such and such.
On the other hand, if you're just trying to bound the limits of
a shell midden, you don't need to dig big holes. It's just where
does the shell end. But the sites don't end with the shell. You
know, the shell is one component of the activity area of a site,
so you need to also look beyond the shell, and you need to shift
your methodology to the class of features that you would expect
to find in the non-shell area. So those kinds of things ...
BCJ: That's right. For example, the Bird Hammock sites,
which have a shell ring, they have a whole other site beyond the
shell ring. Yeah, those views, you just get on one aspect and talk
about 3 or 4 hours [*laughs*].
LDT: How do you teach that to people?
BCJ: Well, that's hard to do. Yeah, that's a lot of data within
itself. You know, I mean you [talk about] that for each locale,
which I didn't do. I mean, I would've been talking for another
couple of days. I knew that when we started that this was going
to have to be a gloss-over at best, even though that's not what
we want. We want more detail, I agree ...
LDT: So then the process would be for instance, I know
that you had told me once that in beginning your Spanish
mission research ... you read as much background information
as you could. You had a sense of how far between mission sites
that it was, and that usually ended up being what circuit could
the priests have made of areas, or how long would it have taken
to walk between points A and B. So on relatively level terrain,
the distance could be farther, on relatively rugged terrain they
were closer. And it seemed as if you'd told me that you were
using those settings plus vantage points overlooking seep spring
heads or other stuff. So it's basically, how would you go about,
or how would you recommend somebody else go about, trying
to decide what survey strategy or excavation strategy to use in
an area? What are the standard steps that somebody would use,
or that you would use or recommend?
BCJ: Well, you've pointed out a lot of the steps that I would
employ. [*laughs*] And, of course, first of all would be
LDT: See, it's your fault for talking about it with me for the
last 20-something years. [*laughs*]
BCJ: Well, that's alright. Knowing what's been found in your
area before and where it was located, by previous researchers
- very little of the State of Florida has not been looked at by
somebody, particularly with our current cultural resource
management process, and all the consultants that have done
their surface surveys. All the areas of the state have been looked
at more than ever [during] the last 30 years particularly the
last 20 years, since the consultants started.
But background research is the most critical [for] any area
that you want to look at, whether it be an acre area or it be
500 acres. Of course, background research means reviewing
previous studies in an area, except for the historic aspect where
historical records are available. Those are important to us,
largely because of the Seminole ... [who] didn't leave a lot [or]
sometimes left something where you totally [don't] expect it,
from an archaeological viewpoint. It's just by that time, the
Seminoles had already seen a lot of white man ways, and were
moving around, being pushed around, for survival.
But the homework is always a must. That's why we used to
always argue against the fly-by-nighter professional archaeolo-
gist who began to come into town overnight, you know, and
reinvent the wheel. It takes a lifetime in an area ... it takes 30
years in an area to learn, truly, as much as you can expect to
know about that area. But the main thing is, I've pointed out,..
it still has to be done, no matter what new tools we get to help
us, in terms of the old fashion way of hard work. Just like, you
know, [Dean] Whittier [stock broker] talks about making
money the old-time way. So that's the way it still has to be
IM YOL 510)
THE FLORIDA ANT T
J. Ex Sj N --l--TEV W II
done. You still have to look at the facts of what we know about
each culture, and the settings they occur in [with] in the region
that you're studying. You have to look at the big picture, in
other words, and begin to formulate and you have to look at
what work has been done ... what knowledge we've learned
about those cultures. This takes a little time. Generally, it would
take, you know, a year or two to get familiar with the culture
periods and start looking carefully at the site records for that
area, because a lot of the data we have in the site records if
you assimilate it yourself, take and make graphs and charts of it,
to come to relate stuff that we have there -[there] may be a
hundred sites of this one culture ... Now, a hundred sites is not
too much to handle, however we're recording more than we
used to [with] our improved site forms at R. A. Gray [the
Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological
Research headquarters building]. If they're filled out right,
you'll have a good place to get the information, [so] you can
quickly get familiar with cultures until you get used to them in
The best thing, of course, is to go out and look at some
[sites] like that. This is the ideal again ... you can do that, go out
and look at Swift Creek sites. For example, we have probably
50 Swift Creek sites maximum in Leon County that we know of.
Well, we can look at their settings and find out [that] they're
next to huge lake water sources the ones with mounds, of
which there's not very many, just three or four, at max. So you
could predict ... [that] if you had an area of no big lakes, only
medium-sized streams, you would not expect anything but a
camp site of Weeden Island, which is after Swift Creek, for
example, in Leon County. Then you can go into the reasons to
try to figure out why there are not more.
I use the deductive process, as opposed to environmental
determinism. It sounds like I'm very much an environmental
determinist. Well, I am [*chuckle*], but I sort of use the
approach of doing the physiography of the area and noticing
where sites have been found. And, therefore, you expect them
to occur in those settings again. But, when I look at the previous
knowledge about a site, the culture, and the record of where you
find a culture site, the time period for the area I look primar-
ily at the elevation and the distance to water and the magnitude
of the water, a large stream, a large lake, and so forth. That's
mainly what I look at and [I] base a plan to sample locations
that are like the ones we already know about. And, so I base it
on whether I collected the information or somebody else [did].
That's what I do.
BCJ: Then, of course, I've learned testing methods that ... are
quicker, since we generally have less time than we ... would like
to have to adequately look at an area. The tests have to be
further apart and generally smaller than I would like, in many
cases. So the real is often different than the ideal, but ideally,
the test pits need to be of a size to recover a sample of the
artifacts and their stratigraphic context in any site. Hopefully,
you place them on a site where you can find this site material.
That's what we need. So, the basic size unit [is determined] by
looking at previous excavations, everything ... that's been done
before you. You carefully look at what's been done, the size of
the units that have been excavated, and bring your own self to
the conclusion there. [For example] ... this site A ... they must
not have dug enough pits 'cause the few pits they did dig that
had artifacts in them were quite significant or seemed to indicate
that there is more to the site than what they came up with. So
you begin to develop some specs along those lines. So then after
you look at everything that's been dug, it will generally come
clear to you, if people properly recorded it, about what size
units you need to pick up what's an adequate sample.
I always like to say to a lazy man that ideally you want a total
site with no more than 500 artifacts that you've collected,
because otherwise you keep getting so many repeats of the same
artifacts that it just becomes a mundane process. You want just
enough artifacts to tell you what's going on there. An adequate
sample of the tools, the residue, and so forth. Which very rarely
ever happens you either find too little or too much, too little
or too much. But, of course, some of that is controlled by the
size of the unit. It's very important for you not to overload
yourself by finding too much stuff for the sample. Because you
realize that you've first got to find the site at this point. So, the
idea would be to realize something about [horizontal] size
versus the depth.
Ideally, a unit of no matter what size, the depth of it is usually
equal to the horizontal extent [LDT NOTE: The background
noise in this portion of the tape makes it difficult to hear what
Calvin is saying] ... in other words, a one meter by one meter
sized pit. Now it doesn't have to be a one-meter unit; that's
why I developed the "CJ holes" a half meter by one meter
sized units. You can easily dig a half- meter-wide pit to a meter
in depth, because one length of the pit is one meter horizontally.
That same 50 cm [square] test hole [versus the 50 x 100 cm
unit], to do a really good job of understanding what's going on,
or see it, it's more difficult. The trade-off is almost equally
worth it by going ahead and just digging two 50 cm [square]
test holes end to end. I call them half-meter-sized holes "CJ
holes." It just as easy to go ahead and do that, usually. And also
it gives you a chance of finding more diagnostic artifacts the
bigger holes are always better if your looking for diagnostic
But that's why you always want to excavate the minimum to
start with and then, once you locate where the concentrations
are, then you go to expansion units and that's often called Phase
II. You have a chance to structure your planned excavation, or
survey and excavation. You just follow it up with the idea being
that you're trying to identify National Register-eligible sites. For
that you have justification factors like integrity of sites, cultural
periods usually more than one unless they're unique, like
Paleo. Only Paleo or historic sites are generally unique enough
in nature for a one component site to justify further work in
terms of Phase m excavation to fully recover it. It would take an
unusual one-component site, other than historic, and Paleo too
you would have [to have] more than just one component the
way I think of them today. You'd have to find a unique one-
component site of Middle Archaic, Swift Creek, or something
[to be considered National Register eligible].
LDT: Yeah. The only unique single-component sites that I
JONES ET AL
BCALVIN JONE I
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know of are burials.
BCJ: [*chuckles*] That's true. And, of course, burials are
basically unique in other things.
LDT: I can't think or any decent kill sites. What we call kill
sites usually are butchering locations, and that to me is the same
as somebody's deer stand where every year they come back to
the same place to hunt, because its a good location. So, its
really not just a single event. It's sort of like cumulative same
BCJ: Exactly. But a 50 cm [square] hole [dug] to a meter will
work. It's just that the last foot, from 75 cm, 20 inches, the
lower depth, is hard to get out ... it makes it awkward to
But, [there are some people who] ... would grid the whole
plot, 500 acres or an acre, and within that decide at what
intervals the test pits should be dug, 50 cm or larger. And, again
as we talked about so much at Wakulla Springs [Lodge Site],
it's clear that you've got to go below a meter (Figure 11). At
least, I don't know of any Paleo sites that are less than a meter
in depth where they begin, or by that time your into Bolen, say
at 75 [centimeters below surface]. There's a chance that you
would find a site that does not have any Bolen on it, a Paleo-
indian site, a lanceolate-period site, but usually if there are
Bolens there, there'll be some Paleo. A meter is a good depth,
at minimum, that you would have to go in deep sand. Now, all
of this changes depending on the soil; in other words, if you've
got clay at 60 cm deep, there's no need to dig deeper, if you've
got red clay. First of all, red clay tells you that it is pre-[hu]man
in origin, so there's no need to dig into that. Now, hardpans are
different. Hardpans represent where water stands occurred,
subsurface water stands where it set for a reasonable period of
time, usually on a yearly, annual basis to a point that the surface
of the ground, the water at the surface of the ground at the level
where you've got this usually dark, dark brown or chocolate
brown [cemented sand]. Ah, its hard to chop through some-
times, this layer of compact clay-like material. ... And, yes we
know those can be very young in age, several hundred years old;
however, they form pretty rapidly.
So many, many arrowhead hunters that were digging com-
mercially, traditionally stopped at that level because they were
thinking its something like a clay [level] that you find naturally.
But, since its not ... most Paleo sites occur below those lenses.
Of course, those hardpans, I've seen them down to a meter
deep. I've seen three on top of one another, separated by six
inches to an inch, indicating different episodic stands through
time, particularly in Hillsborough County in that deep sand. But
all of South Florida has some hardpan. We have some in North
Florida. They occur in the central ridge of Florida, and at the
Sunshine Skyway, and so forth. They'll be way down there; in
other words, they'll be way down like 10 or 12 feet deep. Thus,
no water stood in that area any closer to the surface, at least up
until our time.
Now, in north Florida you get the laminae like we had at
Wakulla Springs. We had some very light formative-stage
laminae of red, salmon-colored formative hardpan. We had
those down there near our living surface at four feet ... Several
bands of those running across the site. I assume they represent
... something like a hardpan, where water stood in modem
times, since the occupation. I know they [can] form within 500
years because I've uncovered some Caddoan burials with those
same lenses in them. Often the burial fills of Caddoan burials,
300 or 400 years old, have those and they all formed since the
grave pit was filled in. So, I've studied those geological things.
Yeah, that's one of the biggest gripes too I have about people
that plan poor surveys, in addition to those who don't do their
homework in terms of the size and nature of the material that
*they're trying to uncover, [and that] is the lack of knowledge
about the natural environment. All through the things I've
talked about I've talked a great deal about the natural environ-
ment, about as much as I have about the cultural environment,
because of the way it affected the way [humans] adapted ... to it.
You've got to do that.
In fact, if I have one overall gripe about the institutional
training of entering archaeologists, I don't care how high their
I.Q., its the fact [that] they don't understand what's natural
versus what's man altered. Therefore, they didn't grow up along
a creek and discover their first arrowhead at an oil well site, and
so forth. I'm just using that as degree of field experience that
you can get that they don't generally have. Or, if they have field
experience, its a very controlled field experience, by going to
field school, which is on one site. If they were trained properly,
they will learn as much about the natural environment there as
they do the cultural environment, and try to evaluate and see the
differences between what's natural versus what's man made.
That's due to our cities, kids growing up in our cities today.
What we used to call country-city kids, come out to the country
and know nothing. ...
So gridding the site, I think, basically is where we're at. The
idea would be to be able to grid this 500 acres and to do 100-
meter grid intervals or whatever. But, that's not realistic in
terms of expectations of finding sites, or as many sites as are
probably in the area.
LDT: At Block-Stems what were the dimensions of the
BCJ: They were less than 30 [meters]. One was about ... 15 by
LDT: Yeah. And the spacing of the pit features was such that
you could have laid out a grid at 30-meter intervals and missed
BCJ: That's true.
LDT: I pulled out my montage of pictures from Ross-Hannon
with two concrete fence posts and all those potsherds. Where
that was a two-meter interval or ...
LDT: ... one-and-a-half-meter intervals ...
1998 VOL. 51(2)
THE FLORIDA ANTHR T
D u. IJun' T
JOE Al-I OE TE h
BCJ: Five feet.
LDT: ... and they missed it [*laughs*].
BCJ: All of those were ideal, though they would still fall short
if your grid is not tighter. Thirty meters, which is about 100 feet
- so there your grid would certainly have to be less than 15
meters, which is still 50 feet. Ideally, they need to be 10 meters.
BCJ: You couldn't afford to survey, no founder of a survey will
pay you that much money. That would be a tremendous number
of pits. The best way, and an approach that is a more realistic
way, is to pick out locales based on what we know about
cultures. The elevation of locales to elevations of known water
sources that are on the property and the distance those are from
the water source. For each culture it will vary somewhat. Most
cultures, no matter what they are, will have a representative
portion of the site immediately at the water hole, as long as its
not too swampy particularly after Archaic times. This is the
ceramic period, meaning 4000 years ago up to now. Several
cultures that made ceramics in Florida are likely to be repre-
sented on just about any property, if the water is of any size.
Therefore, what's best is to first pick out those potential locales.
You know I've done a lot with topo maps. Usually, in a 500-
acre tract, you can usually pull 20% of that out andjudg-
mentally test [it]. That's 20%judgmental area ... [where] we
think all of the resources are located. It will usually capture
enough of those [sites] that happen [to] extend beyond your
20% at least you 've picked up the site and can follow that.
And, so the judgmental aspect of [locating] sites, that's judg-
mentally based upon experience other's and yours put
together. If you have no experience, you have to base [it] totally
upon other's [experience]. But if you don't do your careful
background studies, if you just use a textbook approach, the
general textbook approach to surveying, that's a stupid way to
go and a general waste of time and money. Because on a large-
sized tract, you can waste a lot of time and you can waste a lot
of money, and not produce the results. Personally, as a re-
searcher, it doesn't make any difference [to me] what kind of
method you use, just so you use a method and it produces ...
80% of the resources ... within a piece of property; [then] I
will be happy.
So, the areas that are selected to survey ... the judgmental
areas ... are generally a little bigger than you planned, [so]
you'll probably restrict [your testing] to priorities within these
judgmental areas ... I always find I break things into threes so
I, ah, you can break them into however many you want, you
know ... But, you usually break it into high priority within the
priority that you've already selected, that you've got a one, two,
and three process there. And if there's a site in there you will
pick it up. And if you want to use 50 x 50 [centimeters units]
maybe you can do it. It will work, if you do it and do it right.
The only problem is [that] a lot of the 50 x 50 [centimeter] units
we've looked at, that have been done by surveyors, wind up
being 20 to 30 centimeter-sized units at the bottom, certainly by
the time that they get about a meter. [LDT NOTE: Actually,
some of the 50 cm x 50 cm units that Calvin and I have re-
checked are only 30 cm x 30 cm units. Not only do some of the
50 cm x 50 cm tests begin tapering inward after 75 cm depth,
some end at that 75 cm depth. The unit size and depth here
would not be an issue if the reports on those projects accurately
stated that information, rather than asserting that "the units
measured 50 cm x 50 cm and were dug to at least a meter in
depth." The problem with such false data is that it invalidates
comparative deductions, syntheses of site occurrences, artifact
densities, and so forth based on the assumption that the unit
sizes are accurately reported.]
BCJ: There's no excuse when digging a 50 x 100 cm test pit
for it being restricted at the bottom, for everybody can see that
walks up there that it's not going in like this [*uses converging
hand gesture to indicate inverted trapezoid shape*]. So, again,
that's why I argue for CJ holes; [you dig] [fewer] holes because
you've looked at your area closer and you've tightened-up
based on your past knowledge just where these holes should be.
So, rather than dig six 50 [x 50] cm test holes, I'd rather dig
three [CJ holes] in Priority 1 areas. And, then too you may have
to adjust that after you've dug in an initial location or two. The
main thing is to be flexible and adjust them.
Too many people go, even those with knowledge, tend to still
go with this college-directed approach of using a schematic or
grid-system approach hell bent regardless of what the site,
the landform tells you. Like, people I know that dig right next to
a century-old oak trying to dig a 50 [x 50] cm hole, you know.
And, you say, "well, wait a minute, move over there 15 or 20
feet away along the grid line. In other words, its makes the
interval half, but you can't dig one near the tree, its not practi-
cal." [They respond,] "Oh no, I've got to dig one right there as
close as I can, right where its marked here" [pointing at the
project map]. They don't want to deviate the technique, you
know. We're spending too much time thinking about technique
and not [about] the results of our technique.
LDT: It's not exactly college technique. You went all the way
to your masters degree in college. I mean it has to be ...
BCJ: Yeah. So, the main thing about all field work, whether
LDT: It's just digging by the numbers, rather than using
BCJ: Right, right And these transects where ... [it] should be
at ten meters for the best results rarely can you do that due to
[limited] time and money. At 30-meter intervals you can
certainly miss whole sites.
LDT: Basically, they've taken an aerial photo [or more likely
a topographic map], they've laid out a scaled grid, and [in the
field] they've tried to find exactly where those cross-sections are
on the grid ...
BCJ: Right. Exactly...
JONES ET AL
LDT: And then dig a hole whether its in the middle of a tree
stump or not.
BCJ: Yeah, well, some people have enough sense, you know,
surveyors, it doesn't take them long to learn that, ah ...
LDT: That you can off-set your holes [*chuckles*].
BCJ: Yeah, off-set it and learn just as much. Except for the
shade part of the tree, its just as good. You still don't want to
place it out too far where you don't have shade where your
digging the hole. You can findjust as much in the shade as you
can in the sunshine. [*chuckles*]
LDT: Also, as you move out [from next to the tree] the roots
BCJ: True. I didn't talk about that variable. Always keep the
shade variable in mind. After all, the Indians weren't going to
sit around in the sun when they could set there in the shade.
But, the main thing is to be flexible, whether it be at the survey
level or the excavation level. Too many archaeologists I've
seen, well meaning, when they plan out this stuff and they feel
like they're doing what they learned in college to do deduc-
tions, state of the art and they've got their mind mostly on the
technique of doing it right and keeping accurate measurements,
and using plumb bobs as if they had a modem builder there that
wanted to get 'em to hundredths degrees. Well, the scale we
use to even portray our maps are generally a meter wide. And
then a pencil line on a map that we reproduce in ink is usually
a meter wide on the scale developed, so who do we think we
are? Do we think we're modem engineers? And that we are
trying to build to some specialized standards of measurement or
what? People get carried away and spend all of their time with
a plumb bob looking down trying to figure out whether we get
offjust a hundredth there or two hundredths. Well, who cares?
I mean that's ridiculous.
First of all, I mean, in spite of the fact that we might like to
call ourselves scientists, I'm not a scientist and I've never
claimed to be one. Some people look on my work and say
"that's right. You're not." [*laughs*] So, I'm an artist. I'm an
artist, you know. In other words, I'm interested in people and
what their lives meant the better aspects of it. I'm not
interested in my technique. Like they say, Calvin Jones has
invented some wonderful technique, which he hasn't because I
don't care about it. That's not my interest.
Surveying that's what you learn through experience. You
lay out a practical plan. You may get to the site [the survey
tract] and find out on occasions that I'm not going to use my
plan at all its not going to work very well here. Even an
experienced person, like myself, I occasionally come up with
plans that I don't use when I get to the site based on [the fact
that] things are not like they appear on the topo maps in
relationship to what I'm looking at. Anyhow, be ready to
change, not at the drop of a hat, but when you meet a situation
of time and energy. You learn that through experience, if you
learn anything through experience. Some people just don't learn
much and continue to make the same mistakes their whole lives.
[*chuckle*] We've had some in our field that did that. And
that's my criticism about, or caution about, surveying.
Homework first. Plans designed to fit what we really know
about sites and the environments in which they are located in,
and then the ability to be flexible and adjust to that to adjust
those plans to whatever you need to recover the maximum
amount of information. As Martin Luther King said, it was a
good saying, "Keep your eye on the prize. "
When you go out to survey an area, if your interested in
finding sites, your interested in finding 'em with the least
amount of energy and effort. But, you're also interested in
recovering enough data to back up what you find. And, of
course ... each area has to be looked at individually.
We ended the interview here and planned to resume the
following week. However, Calvin's health took a turn for the
worst. We hope that by sharing Calvin's knowledge about sites
and surveying methods, others can learn to better understand
and appreciate Florida's archaeological heritage. It is in that
spirit that we share this information.
However, as Calvin notes, "the price we pay in archaeology
[is] the exposure of knowledge that somebody's going to
misuse." Help us to minimize that misuse of knowledge. The
looting of archaeological sites and the sale of antiquities ranks
second only to illegal drug use. The unauthorized excavation of
archaeological sites on Federal and State lands, including
submerged lands, is a felony. Likewise, the vandalism and
unauthorized excavation of human burial sites, both marked and
unmarked, anywhere, regardless of property ownership, is a
felony. Please report violations to local law enforcement
agencies. You may also notify the office of the State Archaeolo-
gist in the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, Division
of Historical Resources, Department of State at (850) 487-
2299; FAX (850) 414-2207; or, e-mail either miller or
Working together, we can protect Florida's non-renewable
archaeological resources and we can cooperate in their appro-
priate use and study. These resources contribute to our sense of
place, our State's cultural heritage, and provide insights into our
past, our present, and our future. We must all be stewards of our
archaeological resources and vigilant against those who would
be "thieves of time," robbing us of elements of our heritage for
personal gain or, for some, just maliciousness.
Carr, Robert S., and B. Calvin Jones
1981 Florida Anthropologist Interview with Calvin Jones Part II: Excava-
tions of an Archaic Cemetery in Cocoa Beach, Florida. The Florida
THE FLORIDA ANT T
A Ceremonial Tablet from Osceola County
ROBERT J. AUSTIN' AND SCOTT E. MITCHELL2
Southeastern Archaeological Research, Inc., P.O. Box 14776,
Gainesville, Florida 32604
E-mail: 'email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
In this paper we report a newly discovered ceremonial tablet
from Osceola County, Florida and add it to the catalogue of
similar tablets that was begun by Allerton et al. (1984) and has
since been added to by Luer (1985, 1994) and Lee (1998). The
fragmented tablet was recovered during salvage excavation of
a burial mound about 24 km south-southeast of the town of
Kissimmee. The excavation was conducted to mitigate impact
resulting from the planned expansion of a sanitary landfill. At
the time, both authors were employed by Janus Research, which
was contracted by the Osceola County Department of Solid
Waste to conduct the excavation. The site was originally
investigated by Moore (1905:301) and is recorded in the Florida
Site File as Brown' s Landing Mound A (80S21), although it
is known today as the Southport Mound.
The tablet (MT#54) was recovered in three pieces from
disturbed overburden the result of years of illegal vandalism.
Evidently, the fragmented tablet was not recognizable and was
overlooked or tossed aside by those digging the site. It is made
of an unidentified metal, gun-metal gray in color, and bears
incised decorations on both its obverse and reverse surfaces
(Figure 1). The fragments exhibit small bubbles and pits on
their surfaces, suggestive of metal that was cast in a mold.
Careful examination ard comparison with photographs and
drawings of other metal ceremonial tablets in Allerton et al.
(1984) enabled us to reconstruct the probable appearance of the
Southport tablet. Although a precise determination of size is not
possible because of its fragmented condition, a rough estimate
based on the reconstruction is that the tablet was approximately
9.4 cm long, perhaps as much as 4.9 cm wide, and about. 15-.2
cm thick.' The top, or tenoned, half of the obverse surface bears
a variation of the common cross-and-circle motif (Allerton et al.
1984:16). The Southport specimen is like many of the recorded
versions of this motif in that the two superimposed crosses are
situated behind the central circles) rather than overlying it,
giving the impression of radiating arms. Unlike most of these
other tablets, however, there were probably eight of these
radiating arms instead of the usual four. This is a design feature
observed on only one other tablet (MT #46; Allerton et al.
1984:Figure 14f). The tenoned half is unique in that a small
triangular incision is present between two arms of the crosses.
Presumably there was at least one additional incised triangle on
this surface, probably on the opposite side of the central circles.
The lower, or spatulate, half of the obverse surface exhibits a
small portion of a teardrop design that was probably paired with
another teardrop on the opposite side of the tablet. A basal
fragment displays a series of five nested half rectangles (cf.
Allerton et al. 1984:16).
The reverse surface exhibits portions of two crescents which
are located in alternate quadrants of the tablet. These are
accompanied by vertical incised lines which probably filled the
opposing quadrants. The central area connecting the tenoned
and spatulate halves unfortunately was not recovered. However,
based on comparisons with similar tablets, it is likely that this
section was recessed, possessed lateral projections, and
contained two rectangular perforations. Of the known tablets,
those with incised designs most similar to those on the South-
port specimen are MT#1 from the Daugherty site (8HG3) in
Highlands County, MT#27 from Fort Center (8GL 13) in Glades
County, and MT #42 from Horr' s Island 5 (8CR41) in Collier
County (Allerton 1984:Figures 7a, 1 lb, 13h).
Dating of the Southport tablet is possible using the temporal
ranges of artifacts found in association with it in combination
with excavation data. Stratigraphic evidence indicates at least
three episodes of burial interment. The first interments were
made in a natural sand rise. Although no radiocarbon dates were
obtained from the site, St. Johns Check Stamped pottery from
the sand matrix containing the lowermost burials indicates a
post-A.D. 800 date for these first burials. An artificial mound
was then constructed over the top of the rise and additional
interments were made. A second phase of mound building
occurred sometime after Spanish contact. All of the European
artifacts, or artifacts manufactured from European-derived
materials (i.e., glass and silver beads, pieces of a perforated
silver disk, fragments of an engraved iron disk, pieces of
engraved copper or brass, an iron spike, and the fragmented
tablet), were recovered from this upper, or more recent, part of
the mound. The beads provided the best temporal markers. This
assemblage included 923 glass beads, 18 silver beads, a Florida
Cut Crystal bead, and a faceted jet rosary bead. All of the beads
were analyzed by Jeffrey M. Mitchem (Mitchem et al. 1998).
The majority are types commonly found on late seventeenth-
century mission sites in north Florida. This time frame is
consistent with that proposed by Luer (1994:181-182) for other
metal tablets in Florida.
The Southport tablet presently reposes in the Southport
Mound. Native American activists pressured State and County
officials to cease the excavation despite the fact that the
County's actions were consistent with the stipulations of
Florida's burial law, Chapter 872, Florida Statutes. Meetings
between all parties failed to result in a compromise. All of the
artifacts and human remains were subsequently reinterred in the
130 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST 1998 VOL. 51(2)
Figure 1. Artist's reconstruction of a ceremonial tablet from the Southport Mound (80S21): a) obverse, b) reverse. Stippled
areas represent fragments recovered during excavation. Drawing by Scott Mitchell.
mound, which is now being slowly surrounded by piles of
modem garbage over 15 meters deep.
SGeorge Luer (personal communication, 1998) has indicated that many metal
tablets were made from thin, hammered, sheet metal, whereas the slightly
greater thickness of these fragments, along with the observation of bubbling on
their surfaces, suggests that the Southport tablet may have been made by native
peoples from a piece of metal originally cast by the Spanish or other Europeans.
The authors wish to thank George Luer, Jeff Mitchem, and Kathleen
Hoffman for their comments and suggestions regarding this paper. We also wish
to thank Ken Hardin of Janus Research for permitting us to use the data from
the Southport excavation in the preparation of this manuscript.
Allerton, David, George M. Luer, and Robert S. Carr
1984 Ceremonial Tablets and Related Objects from Florida. The Florida
Lee, Arthur R.
1998 Metal Ceremonial Tablet Reported in Naples. The Florida Anthro-
Luer, George M.
1985 An Update on Some Ceremonial Tablets. The Florida Anthropolo-
gist 38:273-274, 281.
1994 A Third Ceremonial Tablet from the Goodnow Mound, Highlands
County, Florida; With Notes on Some Peninsular Tribes and Other
Tablets. The Florida Anthropologist 47:180-188.
Mitchem, Jeffrey M., Robert J. Austin, and Scott E. Mitchell
1998 Investigations at the Southport Mound: A Protohistoric and Historic
Period Burial Mound in East-Central Florida. Paper presented at the
31st annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology,
Moore, Clarence B.
1905 Miscellaneous Investigations in Florida. Journal of the Academy of
Natural Sciences ofPhiladelphia 13:298-325.
Adventures in Fugawiland: A Computer Simulation in Archae-
ology, Second Edition. T. Douglas Price and Anne Birgitte
Gebauer. Mayfield Publishing Company, Mountain View,
California, 1997. Software (Windows version) and workbook,
118 pp., figures, glossary, bibliography, index (paper), $21.95.
RICHARD W. ESTABROOK
Janus Research, P.O. Box 919, St. Petersburg, Florida 33731
Lost your funding for next season's work? Tired of spending
your long, hot summers explaining the basics of archaeology to
students who obviously signed up for the course only to work on
their tans? Looking for a replacement for your next field school?
Then look no further than the latest release of Adventures in
Fugawiland from Mayfield Publishing Company. Fugawiland
is a fictional place nestled along the south bank of Lake Supe-
rior. Fugawiland's ancient inhabitants where kind enough to
abandon their sites with just the right mix of artifacts and
features to make interpretation by modem archaeologists
relatively easy. The basic premise of the program is that
students are asked to select and electronically excavate 10 of
Fugawiland's 25 known sites, analyze and interpret the results,
and provide the answers to 10 multiple-choice questions. They
may also write a one-page summary of their investigations.
Adventures in Fugawiland is available for many different
computer configurations. Software versions are available for
MS/PC-DOS, Apple Macintosh (System 7.x or better), IBM
OS/2 WARP with Win-OS/2, and, of course, Windows 3.x
and/or Windows 95. Computers that use a UNIX or UNIX-like
operating system are the only ones that currently are not
supported. Adventures in Fugawiland requires a minimum
Windows 3.x configuration, an 80286 CPU (AT-class) or better
computer with at least 2MB of memory, and a VGA monitor
capable of displaying 256 colors. The minimum Macintosh
configuration includes at least 4MB of memory and a hard drive
with at least 2.5 MB of disk space available. Site licenses for all
configurations are available.
I investigated the Windows version only. The software
evaluation was conducted on two different computers: a 486-66
machine running Windows 3.11 and a Pentium 133 running
Windows 95. Both systems have SVGA monitors, and the
systems have 24MB and 64MB of memory, respectively. The
minimal system configuration (286/Windows 3.0) was not
available, and conducting the evaluation on a high-end system
was not considered necessary.
The workbook is a 118-page, softbound volume divided into
five parts: An Introduction, Doing Archaeology, Using the
Computer Program, Report of Investigations, and For Further
Study. Each part is further subdivided into chapters and
sections. Keywords appear in the margins adjacent to most
paragraphs, and all words and terms that are listed in the
Glossary are shown in bold print. An Index is also provided.
Photographs, line drawings, and cartoon illustrations help
explain some of the concepts presented in the text and occasion-
ally provide a bit of comic relief.
"An Introduction" is just that, an introduction. How one finds
and excavates sites is the overall theme of "Doing Archaeol-
ogy." This part begins to explain the nuts and bolts of archaeo-
logical inquiry. It includes brief discussions about the discovery
of archaeological sites, excavations, and the analysis and
interpretation of the recovered remains. Although limited in
detail and written for the beginning student, these sections
manage to cover a good deal of useful information in a concise
and thoughtful manner.
"Using the Computer Program" provides a good overview of
the software and some helpful tips. I know it might be tempting
to skip over this section, but a quick review will alleviate many
problems that might later arise. Since I belong to the "manuals
are for the technologically challenged" school, my first action
was to load the software and start my evaluation. This did not
work. Since I failed to review the questions first, I did not pick
the right kinds of sites to excavate. Nor did I analyze the data
from one site before going on to excavate the next, so many of
the patterns present in these data went unnoticed. At first, the
program made some helpful suggestions about my apparent
shortcomings as a digital archaeologist. I just ignored them.
After a while, however, the rains came, my crews got sick, and
my budget ran out. Even in the virtual world, there.are limits to
funding and to how much suffering field crews are willing to
"Report of Investigations" is the faux, spiral-bound portion of
the workbook. This is the part of the workbook that the student
fills out and returns to the instructor along with the 10
"multiple-guess" questions once the program is complete. This
section allows the students to use the various table, histogram,
and plot features of the software to examine different site
characteristics and identify patterns in the data, as well as
similarities and differences between the sites in Fugawiland.
"For Further Study" is a brief section that provides a list of
bibliographic references and a discussion of potential fieldwork
opportunities. It also mentions Archnet on the World Wide Web
and a few list servers and user groups. But, for the most part,
the discussion of Internet resources is fairly minimal.
Adventures in Fugawiland does have several limitations.
Because it is designed to work with minimal hardware and
software configurations, it does not tax the resources of even the
most primitive entry-level home computer now available.
Consequently, there are no multimedia capabilities, no Quick-
Time movie clips, no links to Web pages from current excava-
tions around the globe. Artifacts and faunal resources are often
depicted as "clip-art" drawings. My 13-year-old daughter
helped with the software evaluation and it was difficult to keep
her attention on the program during the review process. She
said the program was "kinda boring" and immediately pulled
132 THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGISr 1998 VOL. 51(2)
out one of her new multimedia CDs. I also experienced more
than what I felt was my fair share of General Protection Faults
(GPFs), especially with the 486-66/Windows 3.11 computer
configuration. This was particularly frustrating because it
tended to happen after I had excavated and analyzed about
seven of the required ten sites. The GPF required me to shut
down the computer and reboot the system, losing all of the work
since my last "save."
Despite these limitations, this combination software program
and workbook makes an excellent addition to any introductory
anthropology or archaeology course. Florida Anthropological
Society chapters could use this simulation to familiarize new
members with the principles of archaeology or to allow sea-
soned members to "brush-up" on their interpretive and analysis
skills. The software is easy to install and use. It follows the
standard Windows menu structure and on-line help system. The
workbook, however, is the shining star of this offering. Well
organized and very informative, the workbook alone is well
worth the $21.95 retail price of the package. The workbook, the
software, and a very attractive price combine to make Adven-
tures in Fugawiland the perfect complement to any Introduction
to Archaeology lesson plan.
Fort Mose: Colonial America's Black Fortress of Freedom.
Kathleen Deagan and Darcie MacMahon. University Press of
Florida, Gainesville, 1995. 64 pp, 125 color and 84 b/w photos,
illustration references, further reading list, index, $27.95
(cloth), $9.95 (paper).
BETTY M. RIGGAN
205 S. Matanzas Boulevard, St. Augustine, Florida 32084
This volume was written to compliment the Fort Mose
traveling exhibit assembled by the Florida Museum of Natural
History. The authors, Kathleen Deagan and Darcie MacMahon,
were involved in the archaeological investigation, research,
analysis, and assembly of the traveling exhibit.
The research program began in 1986 after Florida State
Representative Bill Clark introduced a bill to the Florida
legislature to provide funding for the historical and scientific
study of Fort Mose. Six months of documentary research in the
colonial archives of Spain, Cuba, South Carolina, and Florida
were done by historian Jane Landers. This was followed by two
years of archaeological field and laboratory research by Kath-
leen Deagan. The traveling exhibit opened in 1991 and since
then it has traveled continuously in the United States and
The book tells the story of the ancestors of American people
of African heritage and their relentless pursuit of freedom. The
authors discuss the origins of slavery in the Americas and the
Moorish influence in Spain that made the Spanish attitude
toward slavery different than other European countries. The
Islamic Moors had occupied Spain until 1492 and the people of
Spain were accustomed to Africans, both slave and free.
Because the Spanish viewed slavery as an "unnatural state,"
their slave code allowed slaves to buy their freedom, maintain
the family unit, and sue their masters for mistreatment. When in
1693 King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation on
the status of runaway slaves to Florida "...giving liberty to
all...the men as well as the women...so that by their example and
by my liberality others will do the same..." there began an
increasing number of escapes to Florida.
In 1686, the Spaniards in Florida let it be known that escaped
slaves would be given religious sanctuary in Spanish Florida.
Many Africans in the English colonies took advantage of this
tacit invitation and they were aided by Indians who were hostile
to the English in the Carolinas. Spanish records reveal that in
1687 the first group of fugitives, consisting of eight men, two
women, and a nursing child, arrived in St. Augustine. By 1738,
more than 100 African fugitives had reached St. Augustine.
The book also discusses the geographic areas and the many
cultures of Africa that were represented by the inhabitants of
Fort Mose. Exploits of the Black explorers and conquistadors
are detailed. There are descriptions of African rebellions and
resistance to slavery that occurred regularly in Santo Domingo,
Mexico, South Carolina, and Colombia. We learn of the many
free Africans in the Spanish colonies who were craftspeople,
laborers, soldiers, artisans, and merchants.
In 1738, Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose was estab-
lished a little over 3 km (2 mi) north of St. Augustine with more
than 100 residents. Historic documents reveal that they formed
a free black militia. The Captain of the Mose militia was
Francisco Menendez, an escaped slave. There were 38 house-
holds of men, women, and children. This outpost, manned by a
militia that had no love for the English and knew the region
well, was indispensable to the defense of St. Augustine. When
Oglethorpe attacked St. Augustine in 1740, Fort Mose was
captured. It was retaken in a bloody battle, but Fort Mose was
badly damaged. The community was abandoned for 12 years.
During these 12 years several of the militiamen became "priva-
teers" for the Spanish. Other people were blacksmiths, charcoal
burners, carpenters, musicians, scouts, interpreters, and bakers.
In 1752, the second Fort Mose was built to the north of the first
site. It is this second Fort Mose that is a National Historic
Old maps and documents and drawings of contemporary forts
are interesting and informative. Research has revealed much
about the number of people who occupied Fort Mose and the
inventories of munitions that they had as "the first line of
defense." The book has beautiful color illustrations of the
uniforms of Black militiamen in the Spanish colonies, weap-
onry, musical instruments, contemporary Indian pottery, and
artifacts discovered during the archaeological investigation. The
blending of African religions and Catholicism in other parts of
the new world is discussed along with the possibility that this
was prevalent at Fort Mose as well. Old maps from the colonial
archives of Spain, Florida, Cuba, and South Carolina that were
overlaid on modem maps enabled archaeologists to locate the
small island in the marsh that is the Fort Mose site. There are
detailed color photos of the archaeological investigation,
excavations, soil profiles, and artifacts. Laboratory analysis
revealed clues to the Mose residents' diet, objects used in the
preparation and consumption of food, house construction,
defense, religion, and entertainment.
The rediscovery of the Fort Mose site is a story of cooperation
between NASA, historians, politicians, and the property owner.
The reader comes away from this book with an understanding
of the importance of this cooperation in obtaining the kind of
information that may not be found in written history alone. The
Fort Mose story has been disseminated throughout the United
States and Europe through the traveling exhibit. Although the
book was written for a general audience, the quality of the
scientific and historic information would be of interest to the
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Indian River Anthro. Soc. 3705 S. Tropical Terrace, Merritt Island, FL 32952
Volusia Anthro. Soc. P.O. Box 1881, Ormond Beach, FL 32175
St. Augustine Arch. Assoc. P.O. Box 1987, St Augustine, FL 32085
Northeast FL Anthro. Soc. 10274 Bear Valley Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32257
0 O" ,S ,
S' WALTON "'"G-'o.:---.-.-cAOt r ',
Pensacola Arch. Soc. P.O. Box 13251, Pensacola, FL 32591 "
CiTUII I.. LA.
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/ C" 1i*<1 ,^-.- rY|
Central FL Anthro. Soc. P.O. Box 261, Orlando, FL 32801-0261---- ""
S------ ~ 0 IOLA ;
Central Gulf Coast Arch. Soc. P.O. Box 82255, Tampa, FL 33682" ,OL
Kissimmee Valley Arch. & Hist. Cons.- 13300 U.S. 98, Sebring, FL 33870 a n"
Time Sifters Arch. Soc. P.O. Box 2542, Sarasota, FL 34277 '- ;-
AAksOT 0' ODSOTO
Southeast Florida Arch. Soc. P.O. Box 2875, Stuart, FL 34995 ---- .
Southwest FL Arch. SOC. P.O. Box 9965,Naples, FL 33941
Broward Co. Arch. SC. -481 S. Federal Highway, Dania, FL 33004
Arch. Soc. of Southern FL 2495 NW 35th Avenue, Miami, FL 33142 ,
r orul *0
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST is the quarterly journal of the Florida Anthropological Society, Inc., and
is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December. The journal is owned and managed by
the Officers and Executive Committee of the Society (see inside front cover).
Average Vol. 51 (2)
Total Copies Printed 900 900
Sold, UF Library Exchange 120 120
To Back Issue Dealer 107 116
Mail Subscriptions 630 625
Total Paid Circulation 857 861
Author Reprints 25 24
Free Distribution 8 5
Office Use, Left Over 10 10
Total 900 900
136 THE__ FLRD NHOOOIS 98VL 12
About the Authors:
I. Randolph Daniel, Jr. is an Assistant Professor of Anthropology at East Carolina University in Greenville, North
Carolina. He received his Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Among his research interests
are chipped-stone technologies and the cultural adaptations of late Pleistocene-early Holocene hunters in the
Southeast. He coauthored Hamey Flats: A Florida Paleo-Indian Site with Mike Wisenbaker. His most recent book,
entitled Hardaway Revisited: Early Archaic Settlement in the Southeast, is due to be published soon by University
of Alabama Press.
Michael Wisenbaker is a Historic Preservation Planner at the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research in
Tallahassee. He did extensive fieldwork in the Southeast before he embarked on his present career of excavating
through mounds of paper in the Division of Historical Resources. With Randy Daniel he coauthored Harney Flats:
A Florida Paleo-Indian Site.
Nancy Marie White is an Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of South Florida in Tampa, the only
university in the country to offer a graduate degree in Public Archaeology. She credits Calvin Jones with help during
her graduate training that prepared her to teach in a program such as USF's.
B. Calvin Jones earned his bachelor's and master's degrees in anthropology from the University of Oklahoma, and
subsequently became an archaeologist with the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, beginning his
employment on May 1, 1968 and continuing until his recent death on February 15, 1998. Calvin was a very strong
proponent of public archaeology. His research spanned the State and his contributions include Paleoindian and
Early Archaic site excavations (discovering the Hamey Flats site and excavating the Wakulla Springs Lodge site),
excavating the Middle Archaic cemetery at the Gauthier site, excavating Mound 3 at Lake Jackson, recording and
later excavating the late Deptford-Swift Creek-early Weeden Island portion of the Block-Sters site, discovering
and excavating the de Soto winter encampment site, and discovering and reporting on numerous Spanish mission
sites in Leon and Jefferson counties, as well as at the Mount Royal site.
Louis D. Tesar earned his bachelor's and master's degrees in anthropology from Florida State University. He is
an archaeologist in the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research. His research interests span a wide range of
topics, but since 1971 he has focused on prehistoric and historic archaeological research, primarily in Florida and
Jonathan Lammers earned his bachelor's degree's in history from Florida State University. He is a Historic
Preservation Planner in the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research's Conservation and Recreation Lands
Robert J. Austin is Vice President and Principal Investigator at Southeastern Archaeological Research, Inc. He
received his M.A. in anthropology from the University of South Florida and his Ph.D. in anthropology from the
University of Florida.
Scott E. Mitchell received his M.A. in anthropology from the University of South Florida and is presently Principal
Investigator and Laboratory Supervisor at Southeastern Archaeological Research, Inc.
Richard W. Estabrook received his M.A. in anthropology from the University of South Florida and is presently
Vice President/Principal Investigator at Janus Research.
Betty M. Riggan is a member of the St. Augustine Archaeological Association and past president of the Florida
THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST
1998 VOL. 51(2)